Science.gov

Sample records for creosote bush larrea

  1. Contact dermatitis from Larrea (creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Leonforte, J F

    1986-02-01

    Six men suffering from acute dermatitis had positive patch tests to Larrea (creosote bush). The lesions preferentially involved sun-exposed sites, simulating a photodermatitis, but also were on the legs and scrotum. Our findings were more consistent with contact allergy than with a primary irritant or a phototoxic response. The patch tests were also positive to Zuccagnia punctata. In two cases the exposure to the creosote bush occurred as a result of casual occupations, in two because of household remedies (moist compresses and baths), and in the other two as a result of burning the bush and resorting to household remedies. Attention should be drawn to this contact dermatitis because the creosote bush grows abundantly all over the American continent. PMID:3950120

  2. Phytotoxic properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a lignan fromLarrea tridentata (Creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Elakovich, S D; Stevens, K L

    1985-01-01

    The phytotoxic properties of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) isolated from creosote bush,Larrea tridentata (Zygophyllaceae), were examined. NDGA dramatically reduces the seedling root growth of barnyard grass, green foxtail, perennial ryegrass, annual ryegrass, red millet, lambsquarter, lettuce, and alfalfa, and reduces the hypocotyl growth of lettuce and green foxtail. It has no effect on the germination of lettuce seeds. NDGA almost certainly contributes to the observed allelopathic nature of creosote bush. PMID:24311094

  3. Masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid): a new antihyperglycemic agent isolated from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).

    PubMed

    Luo, J; Chuang, T; Cheung, J; Quan, J; Tsai, J; Sullivan, C; Hector, R F; Reed, M J; Meszaros, K; King, S R; Carlson, T J; Reaven, G M

    1998-04-01

    An ethnomedically-driven approach was used to evaluate the ability of a pure compound isolated from the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) to lower plasma glucose concentration in two mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The results indicated that plasma glucose concentration fell approximately 8 mmol/l in male C57BL/ks-db/db or C57BL/6J-ob/ob mice following the oral administration of masoprocol (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), a well known lipoxygenase inhibitor. The decline in plasma glucose concentration following masoprocol treatment in the mice was achieved without any change in plasma insulin concentration. In addition, oral glucose tolerance improved and the ability of insulin to lower plasma glucose concentrations was accentuated in masoprocol-treated db/db mice. These data raise the possibility that masoprocol, or other lipoxygenase inhibitors, represents a new approach to the pharmacological treatment of Type 2 diabetes. PMID:9617755

  4. Absorption of copper(II) by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata): use of atomic and x-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gardea-Torresdey, J L; Arteaga, S; Tiemann, K J; Chianelli, R; Pingitore, N; Mackay, W

    2001-11-01

    Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a common North American native desert shrub, exhibits the ability to take up copper(II) ions rapidly from solution. Following hydroponic studies, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 200.3 was used to digest the plant samples, and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) was used to determine the amount of copper taken up in different parts of the plant. The amount of copper(II) found within the roots, stems, and leaves was 13.8, 1.1, and 0.6 mg/g, respectively, after the creosote bush was exposed to a 63.5-ppm copper(II) solution for 48 h. When the plant was exposed to a 635-ppm copper(II) solution, the roots, stems, and leaves contained 35.0, 10.5, and 3.8 mg/g, respectively. In addition to FAAS analysis, x-ray microfluorescence (XRMF) analysis of the plant samples provided further confirmation of copper absorption by the various plant parts. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) elucidated the oxidation state of the copper absorbed by the plants. The copper(II) absorbed from solution remained as copper(II) bound to oxygen-containing ligands within the plant samples. The results of this study indicate that creosote bush may provide a useful and novel method of removing copper(II) from contaminated soils in an environmentally friendly manner. PMID:11699784

  5. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Larrea tridentate (Creosote bush) during the North American Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K. J.; Kurc, S. A.; Guenther, A. B.; Scott, R. L.; Huxman, T. E.; Abrell, L.

    2009-12-01

    The North American monsoon is experienced as a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (< 5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (> 80 mm) over large areas of the Sonoran desert in southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. While the sudden availability of water, high temperatures and solar insolation is known to stimulate the primary productivity of the Sonoran desert, little is known about the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from this region. Atmospheric VOCs impact climate and air quality by influencing the oxidizing capacity and acidity of the atmosphere and by contributing to aerosol particles. Although it is often a dominant species in North and South American deserts and is known for the production of a rich set of VOCs, few measurements of VOC emissions from creosote bush exist. We present preliminary results from a field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying the exchange rates of VOCs from a creosote bush dominated ecosystem during and after the monsoon season. Ecosystem exchange rates were measured with the technique of virtual disjunct eddy covariance (PTR-MS) and relaxed eddy accumulation (GC-MS). Branch enclosure studies show a diurnal pattern of VOCs emissions typically observed in other forest sites including oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids. However, a large number of additional VOCs mainly derived from the oxidation of fatty acids and the Shikimic Acid Pathway are also released.

  6. Parasitoid pressure and the radiation of a gallforming group (Cecidomyiidae: Asphondylia spp.) on creosote bush (Larrea tridentata).

    PubMed

    Waring, G L; Price, P W

    1989-05-01

    We tested the Enemy Impact Hypothesis, which predicts that communities of one tropic level are organized by the tropic level above. In the case of gallforming insect communities, the hypothesis predicts that gall morphology will diverge, minimizing the number of parasitoids shared among species. We used the monophyletic group of gallforming cecidomyiids (Asphondylia spp.) on creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) to test this hypothesis, predicting that species with thicker gall walls should exclude species of parasitoids with shorter ovipositors and have lower levels of parasitism. Of 17 parasitoid species reared from Asphondylia galls on creosote bush, 9 accounted for over 98% of parasitism. Seven of these 9 species had ovipositors long enough to penetrate 10 of 13 gall morphs measured. There was no significant relationship between gall wall thickness and number of associated parasitoid species (r (2)=0.01, P>0.05, n=13). There was no relationship between gall wall thickness and types of parasitoid species colonizing galls: parasitoids with the shortest ovipositors colonized all types of gall morphs and were dominant members of the parasitoid assemblages in galls with the thickest walls. Ultimately, there were no significant differences in percent parasitism among Asphondylia species, regardless of gall wall thickness. We found no difference in numbers of associated parasitoids or percent parasitism in galls with different textures (e.g. hairy versus smooth), different locations on the plant or different phenologies. Our results suggest that enemy impact has not influenced the diversity of this gall community. Gall wall thickness, phenology, location on the plant and surface structure do not appear to influence the distribution of parasitoid species. Other explanations are offered to account for diversity in gall morphology among these species. PMID:23921393

  7. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Mitigates 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Tumor Promotion Cascade in Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shakilur; Ansari, Rizwan Ahmed; Rehman, Hasibur; Parvez, Suhel; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It has a long history of traditional medicinal use by the Native Americans and Mexicans. The modulatory effects of topically applied NDGA was studied on acute inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in mouse skin induced by stage I tumor promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Double TPA treatment adversely altered many of the marker responses of stage I skin tumor promotion cascade. Pretreatment of NDGA in TPA-treated mice mitigated cutaneous lipid peroxidation and inhibited production of hydrogen peroxide. NDGA treatment also restored reduced glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Elevated activities of myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase and skin edema formation in TPA-treated mice were also lowered by NDGA indicating a restrained inflammatory response. Furthermore, results of histological study demonstrated inhibitory effect of NDGA on cellular inflammatory responses. This study provides a direct evidence of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of NDGA against TPA-induced cutaneous inflammation and oxidative stress corroborating its chemopreventive potential against skin cancer. PMID:19861506

  8. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid from Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Mitigates 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate-Induced Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Responses of Tumor Promotion Cascade in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shakilur; Ansari, Rizwan Ahmed; Rehman, Hasibur; Parvez, Suhel; Raisuddin, Sheikh

    2011-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a phenolic antioxidant found in the leaves and twigs of the evergreen desert shrub, Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC) Coville (creosote bush). It has a long history of traditional medicinal use by the Native Americans and Mexicans. The modulatory effects of topically applied NDGA was studied on acute inflammatory and oxidative stress responses in mouse skin induced by stage I tumor promoting agent, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Double TPA treatment adversely altered many of the marker responses of stage I skin tumor promotion cascade. Pretreatment of NDGA in TPA-treated mice mitigated cutaneous lipid peroxidation and inhibited production of hydrogen peroxide. NDGA treatment also restored reduced glutathione level and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Elevated activities of myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase and skin edema formation in TPA-treated mice were also lowered by NDGA indicating a restrained inflammatory response. Furthermore, results of histological study demonstrated inhibitory effect of NDGA on cellular inflammatory responses. This study provides a direct evidence of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of NDGA against TPA-induced cutaneous inflammation and oxidative stress corroborating its chemopreventive potential against skin cancer. PMID:19861506

  9. Creosote Bush Shrubland in the Sonoran Desert

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Creosote bush shrublands are one of the driest Sonoran Desert plant communities; the creosote bush and white ratany are the dominant plants; a USGS study showed that their coverage is likely to decrease with forecasted climate change because of less winter precipitation and more ...

  10. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): reticulate evolution and the probable time of creosote bush arrival to North America.

    PubMed

    Lia, V V; Confalonieri, V A; Comas, C I; Hunziker, J H

    2001-11-01

    Nucleotide sequences of Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA were obtained for the five species of Larrea and one species each of Bulnesia (ITS only) and Plectrocarpa (rbcL only). Parsimony analyses were conducted, including sequences from seven genera of Zygophyllaceae reported by other authors-Kallstroemia, Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia, Pintoa, Guaiacum, and Porlieria. The main conclusions of the present study are (1) the Argentine endemic Plectrocarpa tetracantha belongs to the subfamily Larreoideae (New World Clade); (2) all three phylogenies obtained from rbcL, ITS, and combined data sets show a close relationship between the tetraploid L. cuneifolia (sect. Bifolium) and the diploid multifoliolate pair L. nitida-L. ameghinoi (sect. Larrea), which could result from a possible intersectional hybrid origin of the tetraploid; (3) L. divaricata (sect. Bifolium) and L. tridentata (sect. Bifolium) form a highly supported monophyletic group, which agrees with previous cytogenetic and molecular evidence; and (4) the rate of nucleotide substitution of rbcL was estimated based on geological and fossil records. Under the molecular clock hypothesis, nucleotide sequence divergence between L. divaricata and L. tridentata suggests a Late Neogene (8.4 to 4.2 mybp) time of arrival of the diploid ancestors of L. tridentata to North American deserts. PMID:11697924

  11. The floral hosts and distribution of a supposed creosote bush specialist, Colletes stepheni Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletes stepheni Timberlake, previously thought to be a narrow oligolege of Larrea (creosote bush) of limited distribution in the Sonoran Desert, is found to be a much more widely distributed psammophile of the Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin Deserts that utilizes two unrelated plant pollen sources...

  12. [Biliary calculi in the golden hamster. XXXVII. The prophylactic action of the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) in pigmented cholelithiasis produced by vitamin A].

    PubMed

    Granados, H; Cárdenas, R

    1994-01-01

    In the present work the results of an experiment performed in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), strain ChCM, are presented, in which the possible preventive action of pigment cholelithiasis by a powdered, desiccated, hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of "gobernadora" (Larrea tridentata) was studied. The extract was added to the lithogenic diet (basic diet + 25,000 I.U. of Vitamin A) at the 4% level; the hamsters were fed with the experimental diets during 70 days. The results showed that the group which received the diet with "gobernadora" did not develop pigment cholelithiasis, whereas the group that received the lithogenic diet alone developed cholelithiasis in 63% of cases. It is suggested that the active principle present in the leaves of "gobernadora", responsible for the prevention of the cholelithiasis is nordihydroguiaretic acid (NDGA), a potent antioxidant. On the other hand, the hamsters that received the diet containing "gobernadora" showed serious signs of toxicity and pathological changes, such as a marked reduction of growth, pronounced irritability and aggressiveness, and a marked hypoplasia both testicular and of the accessory sex glands. PMID:8209150

  13. Creosote bush lignans for human disease treatment and prevention: Perspectives on combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gnabre, John; Bates, Robert; Huang, Ru Chih

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal properties of the most successful plant in the deserts of the western hemisphere, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), are evidenced by the long traditional usage of the plants by the Native Americans Indian tribes in Southwestern North America and the Amerindians from South America. The plant is rich in simple bisphenyl lignans and tricyclic lignans known as cyclolignans. These compounds are responsible for many of the pharmacological activities of extracts of the plants. Some of these activities, namely antiherpes, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, were known a century ago. Only recently have further studies revealed other crucial activities of the same plant molecules as powerful agents against human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and symptoms of aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral and anticancer activities have been elucidated and involve the inhibition of SP1 dependent gene transcription. This review summarizes the recent findings on creosote bush lignans. We introduce the concept of a cocktail of safe well-characterized natural products from the creosote bush that would represent a bridge between oriental herbal medicines and Western drug-based therapies. PMID:26151022

  14. Creosote bush lignans for human disease treatment and prevention: Perspectives on combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Gnabre, John; Bates, Robert; Huang, Ru Chih

    2015-07-01

    The medicinal properties of the most successful plant in the deserts of the western hemisphere, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), are evidenced by the long traditional usage of the plants by the Native Americans Indian tribes in Southwestern North America and the Amerindians from South America. The plant is rich in simple bisphenyl lignans and tricyclic lignans known as cyclolignans. These compounds are responsible for many of the pharmacological activities of extracts of the plants. Some of these activities, namely antiherpes, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, were known a century ago. Only recently have further studies revealed other crucial activities of the same plant molecules as powerful agents against human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and symptoms of aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral and anticancer activities have been elucidated and involve the inhibition of SP1 dependent gene transcription. This review summarizes the recent findings on creosote bush lignans. We introduce the concept of a cocktail of safe well-characterized natural products from the creosote bush that would represent a bridge between oriental herbal medicines and Western drug-based therapies. PMID:26151022

  15. Detoxification in relation to toxin tolerance in desert woodrats eating creosote bush.

    PubMed

    Mangione, A M; Dearing, D; Karasov, W

    2001-12-01

    We studied the relationship between the use of three detoxification pathways and urine pH and the tolerance of desert woodrats from two populations to a mixture of naturally occurring plant secondary metabolites (mostly phenolics) in resin from creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). The two populations of desert woodrats came from the Mojave desert (Mojave woodrats), where woodrats consume creosote bush, and from the Great Basin desert (Great Basin woodrats), where the plant species is absent. We fed woodrats alfalfa pellets containing increasing levels of the phenolic resin and measured three detoxification pathways and urine pH that are related to detoxification of allelochemicals. We found that the excretion rate of two phase II detoxification conjugates, glucuronides and sulfides. increased with increasing resin intake, whereas excretion of hippuric acid was independent of resin intake, although it differed between populations. Urine pH declined with increasing resin ingestion. The molar proportion of glucuronides in urine was three times that of the other conjugates combined. Based on an evaluation of variation in the three detoxification pathways and urine pH in relation to resin intake, we rejected the hypotheses that woodrats' tolerance to resin intake is related to capacity for amination, sulfation, or pH regulation. However, Mojave woodrats had higher maximum glucuronide excretion rates, and we accepted the hypothesis that within and between populations woodrats tolerate more resin because they have a greater capacity for glucuronide excretion. PMID:11789959

  16. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  17. Genes encoding chavicol/eugenol synthase from the creosote bush Larrea tridentata

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Kim, Sung -Jin; Vassao, Daniel Giddings; Patten, Ann M.; Eichinger, Dietmar

    2015-09-15

    Particular aspects provide novel methods for redirecting carbon allocation in plants or cell culture from lignification to inherently more useful and tractable materials, and to facilitate the generation of, e.g., biofuels from the remaining plant ro culture biomass. Particular aspects provided novel methods for converting monolignols into allyl/propenyl phenols, and for chavicol/eugenol formation or production. Additional aspects relate to the discovery of novel chavicol/eugenol synthases that convert p-coumaryl/coniferyl alcohol esters into chavicol/eugenol, and to novel compositions (e.g., novel proteins and nucleic acids encoding same), and novel methods using same for producing or forming chavicol/eugenol and other derivatives in cell culture and/or genetically modified plants, and for re-engineering the composition of plant biomass. Particular aspects provide novel methods for generation in culture or in planta of liquid/combustible allyl/propenyl phenols, and these phenolic products are utilized for (non-ethanol) biofuel/bioenergy purposes, while the remaining plant biomass facilitates the generation of other biofuels.

  18. Holocene Migrations of Creosote Bush and Pinyon Pines in the Western United States: Implications for the Next Century.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, K. L.; Arundel, S.; Cannella, J.; Fisher, J.; Spaulding, W. G.

    2002-12-01

    The biogeographic histories of plant species of the arid western United States are becoming evident as more local paleoecological series are developed and compiled into regional databases. Plant macrofossils from packrat (Neotoma spp.) middens have been especially useful for reconstructing past distributions of arid and semi-arid species such as creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) and one and two-needle pinyon pines (Pinus monophylla, P. edulis). These records document the late Wisconsinan ranges of these species and their subsequent Holocene migrations into their current ranges. Creosote bush grew in the lower Colorado River Valley during the late Wisconsinan (Isotope Stage 2). Starting around 11,000 yr B.P., it migrated northward into its present range. By 6000 yr B.P. it grew at higher elevations than at present in the central Mojave Desert, but did not reach its extreme northern limits until around 4000 yr B.P. Other populations, such as near the shrubs upstream limit along the Colorado River, were not established until the last 2500 years. Its arrival at its most northerly sites lagged well behind other desert thermophiles. Single-needle pinyon (Pinus monophylla) migrated northward from the Mojave Desert into the Great Basin arriving near its current northeastern limit in the eastern Great Basin as early as 7000 yr B.P. It migrated more slowly in the western Great Basin possibly not reaching its northwestern limit until the last 2000 years. Colorado pinyon (Pinus edulis) migrated from near its current southern boundary northward reaching the eastern Grand Canyon as early as 10,600 yr B.P. It is not recorded from central Utah until after 7000 yr B.P. It evidently moved northward slowly, arriving at some northerly and easterly stands only within the last 1000 years. These migrational histories reflect a combination of dispersal limitations and gradual climatic changes. But the long migration times required, coupled with their expansion above their modern elevational limits during the middle Holocene, suggest that the primary factor slowing their response was migrational distance rather than a monotonic trend of warming climates through the Holocene. These results have implications for vegetational effects of the expected climate shifts of the next 100 years. Although this change may be as little as a third as the 6oC warming that occurred near the beginning of the Holocene, the past rates of migration suggest that little equilibration with the new climate can be expected in time spans under 1000 years. Also, mapping of 20 climate variables describing the modern climatic tolerances of these species suggests that they already have significant available potential range, mostly to the north of their current ranges, that should now be suitable for their expansion. These results suggest that either the late Holocene populations had not yet equilibrated with the Pleistocene to Holocene change in climate, or that climate has already warmed so much since the Little Ice Age that many species are no longer in equilibrium with late Twentieth Century climate.

  19. Creosote

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Creosote ; CASRN 8001 - 58 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  20. Estimating Tritium Fluxes from the Shallow Unsaturated Zone to the Atmosphere in an Arid Environment Dominated by Creosote Bush (USGS-ADRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, C. A.; Andraski, B. J.; Wheatcraft, S. W.; Johnson, M. J.; Michel, R. L.; Stonestrom, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding the transport and fate of tritium is essential when evaluating options for low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) isolation. The magnitude and spatio-temporal variability of tritium transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere are being investigated adjacent to a LLRW facility at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in Southern Nevada. Site and community-scale tritium fluxes from the subsurface to the atmosphere were quantified using a simple gas-phase diffusive loading approach combining evaporation and transpiration fluxes with mass fractions of gas-phase tritium concentrations. A Priestly-Taylor model, calibrated with quarterly bare-soil evaporation measurements, was used to estimate continuous bare-soil evaporation from measured continuous eddy-covariance evapotransporation. Continuous transpiration was computed as the difference between measured evapotranspiration and estimated bare-soil evaporation. Tritium concentrations in plant water and soil-water vapor were measured along two transects perpendicular to the LLRW using azeotropic distillation of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) foliage and soil vapor extraction from 0.5 and 1.5 m depths below land surface. A preliminary daily tritium flux estimate at a single plant site was 1.66 × 10-11 gm-2. Spatio- temporal variability over a 75-ha area and 2-yr period will be quantified using a combination of tritium concentration maps and continuous evaporation and transpiration flux estimates. Quantifying tritium fluxes from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere on a site and community-scale will improve knowledge and understanding of vertical contaminant transport in arid environments.

  1. Chemical aspects of host-plant specificity in threeLarrea-feeding grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Chapman, R F; Bernays, E A; Wyatt, T

    1988-02-01

    The host-selection behavior of three species of grasshopper feeding on creosote bush,Larrea tridentata, in southern California was investigated. The species wereBootettix argentatus, which is monophagous;Ligurotettix coquilletti, oligophagous; andCibolacris parviceps, polyphagous. The monophagous species is stimulated to bite by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a compound that is characteristic of the host plant and that may comprise up to 10% of the dry weight of the leaf. Host specificity ofB. argentatus is enhanced by deterrent responses to compounds present in the surface waxes of all non-host-plant species. Both the oligophagous and polyphagous species are deterred by NDGA at naturally occurring concentrations. Their association withLarrea is probably based on tolerance of the plant chemicals rather than on dependence on specific chemicals. Factors other than the chemistry of the plant probably also contribute to the specificity ofB. argentatus andL. coquilletti. PMID:24276002

  2. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, K.L.; Betancourt, J.L.; Riddle, B.R.; Van Devender, T. R.; Cole, K.L.; Geoffrey, Spaulding W.

    2000-01-01

    1 A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26-10 14C kyr BP or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ???4.0 14C kyr BP. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr BP. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr BP in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (???37??N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr BP. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture. ?? 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  3. Gallic acid and tannase accumulation during fungal solid state culture of a tannin-rich desert plant (Larrea tridentata Cov.).

    PubMed

    Treviño-Cueto, B; Luis, M; Contreras-Esquivel, J C; Rodríguez, R; Aguilera, A; Aguilar, C N

    2007-02-01

    Larrea tridentata (Sesse & Mocino ex DC.) Coville, also known as Larrea, gobernadora, chaparral, or creosote bush, is a shrubby plant which dominates some areas of the desert southwest in the United States and Northern Mexico and its use has not been exploited and standardized. In this study, gobernadora was studied to evaluate its potential use for support of solid state culture. Influence of two minimal media added with gobernadora powder as the sole carbon source and inducer of tannin-degrading enzymes was evaluated. Cultures were initially 70% moisture, had a pH of 5.5 and were inoculated with Aspergillus niger Aa-20 at 2 x 10(7) spores per gram of media. Analysis of pH, moisture, tannin uptake, gallic acid accumulation and tannase production were evaluated. Results indicated a high content of condensed (39.4%dm) and hydrolysable (22.8%dm) tannins. Invasion capacity of fungal growth was of 0.15 mmh(-1). Tannase production reached values of 1040 Ul(-1) at 43 h of culture. During the first 48 h of culture, the concentration of gallic acid accumulation was 0.33 gl(-1). Gobernadora is a potential source of gallic acid and tannase production by solid state culture; however, further optimization of the process is needed. PMID:16574410

  4. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  5. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yihang; Hu, Jie; Shen, Wen-Jun; Singh, Madhurima; Hou, Xiaoming; Bittner, Alex; Bittner, Stefanie; Cortez, Yuan; Tabassum, Juveria; Kraemer, Fredric B; Azhar, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity), insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36), and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor) genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors). Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt), AMPK activity (P-AMPK), MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1). These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation. PMID:26394137

  6. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yihang; Hu, Jie; Shen, Wen-Jun; Singh, Madhurima; Hou, Xiaoming; Bittner, Alex; Bittner, Stefanie; Cortez, Yuan; Tabassum, Juveria; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity), insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36), and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor) genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors). Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt), AMPK activity (P-AMPK), MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1). These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation. PMID:26394137

  7. 76 FR 53482 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Revised Recovery Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... slopes dominated by creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) scrub at lower elevations, to rocky slopes in the... feet), with typical habitat characterized as creosote bush scrub below 1,677 meters (5,500...

  8. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Abrell, L.; Kurc, S. A.; Huxman, T.; Ortega, J.; Guenther, A.

    2010-07-01

    The emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from plants impacts both climate and air quality by fueling atmospheric chemistry and by contributing to aerosol particles. While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (<5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (>80 mm) occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009) field study in Southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of VOCs. We observed a strong diurnal pattern with branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids) as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere), as well as a group of compounds considered to be fatty acid oxidation products. These results suggest that one important function of some VOCs in creosotebush is as an antioxidant. We also find that emissions of nitriles from creosotebush represent an unaccounted for loss of nitrogen from arid ecosystems. Our results demonstrate the richness of creosotebush volatile emissions and highlight the need for further research into their atmospheric and ecological impacts.

  9. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Abrell, L.; Kurc, S. A.; Huxman, T.; Ortega, J.; Guenther, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009) field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of volatile organic compounds (VOC). While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (<5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (>80 mm) occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. We observed a strong diurnal pattern of branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids) as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere), as well as a group of compounds considered to be fatty acid oxidation products. These results suggest that one important function of some VOCs in creosotebush is as an antioxidant. We also find that emissions of nitriles from creosotebush could represent a significant but previously unaccounted nitrogen loss from this arid ecosystem. Our results demonstrate the richness of creosotebush volatile emissions and highlight the need for further research into their atmospheric and ecological impacts.

  10. New views on antidiarrheal effect of wood creosote: is wood creosote really a gastrointestinal antiseptic?

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Shibata, Takashi

    2005-12-01

    Wood creosote, the principal ingredient in Seirogan, has a long history as a known gastrointestinal microbicidal agent. When administered orally, the intraluminal concentration of wood creosote is not sufficiently high to achieve this microbicidal effect. Through further animal tests, we have shown that antimotility and antisecretory actions are the principal antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote. Wood creosote inhibits intestinal secretion induced by enterotoxins by blocking the Cl(-) channel on the intestinal epithelium. Wood creosote also decreases intestinal motility accelerated by mechanical, chemical, or electrical stimulus by the inhibition of the Ca(2+) influx into the smooth muscle cells. In this overview, the antimotility and antisecretory effects of wood creosote are compared with those of loperamide. Wood creosote was observed to inhibit stimulated colonic motility, but not normal jejunal motility. Loperamide inhibits normal jejunal motility, but not stimulated colonic motility. Both wood creosote and loperamide inhibit intestinal secretion accelerated by acetylcholine. Wood creosote was found to have greater antisecretory effects in the colon than loperamide. Based upon these findings, we conclude that the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote are due to both antisecretory activity in the intestine and antimotility in the colon, but not due to the microbicidal activity as previously thought. Wood creosote was found to have no effects on normal intestinal activity. These conclusions are supported by the results of a recent clinical study comparing wood creosote and loperamide, which concluded that wood creosote was more efficacious in relieving abdominal pain and comparable to loperamide in relieving diarrhea. PMID:16327239

  11. Two-Site Comparison of Transpiration by Larrea Tridentata 2024

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of landscape changes within the desert southwestern U.S. such as increased grazing, reduced wildfire frequency, and changes in atmospheric conditions, the native creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) has encroached upon historically grass-dominated ecosystems, expanding in range and land cove...

  12. Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia

    2012-10-01

    In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

  13. Remedial options for creosote-contaminated sites

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.J.; Delshad, M.; Oolman, T.; Pope, G.A.

    2000-03-31

    Free-phase DNAPL recovery operations are becoming increasingly prevalent at creosote-contaminated aquifer sites. This paper illustrates the potential of both classical and innovative recovery methods. The UTCHEM multiphase flow and transport numerical simulator was used to predict the migration of creosote DNAPL during a hypothetical spill event, during a long-term redistribution after the spill, and for a variety of subsequent free-phase DNAPL recovery operations. The physical parameters used for the DNAPL and the aquifer in the model are estimates for the DNAPL and the aquifer in the model are estimates for a specific creosote DNAPL site. Other simulations were also conducted using physical parameters that are typical of a trichloroethene (TCE) DNAPL. Dramatic differences in DNAPL migration were observed between these simulations.

  14. Field studies of mineral nutrition of Larrea tridentata: importance of N, pH, and Fe

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, R.B.; Wallace, A.; Romney, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Multivariate analysis of soil and plant data from the northern Mojave Desert was used to investigate aspects of the mineral nutrition of Larrea tridentata (Sesse and Moc. ex DC.) Cov. Larrea tridentata biomass was significantly correlated with soil NO/sub 3//sup -/ and pH and leaf Fe content. Leaf cation accumulation was negatively correlated with leaf Fe concentration.

  15. Community responses to liquid creosote and creosote-impregnated pilings witnessed in outdoor aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, M.L.; Robinson, R.; Shaw, E.A.; Bestari, K.; Solomon, K.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    Freshwater mesocosms were used to simulate the effects of creosote on aquatic ecosystems. Twenty-four ponds, each with a total volume of 12,000 L and a 5 cm layer of riverine sediment, were filled and circulated with pond water for at least three weeks to allow the natural colonization of benthic invertebrates, phytoplankton and zooplankton. Potted macrophytes and caged fish were also introduced prior to treatment with either liquid creosote or introduction of creosote-impregnated wood pilings. Dose-dependent changes in phytoplankton and zooplankton diversity and abundance were observed with both forms of treatment relative to controls. Comparatively, benthic invertebrate abundance was only affected by liquid creosote exposure. Although abundance of plankters recovered to pre-treatment values over two to seven weeks in all mesocosms, most parameter suggested the establishment of communities whose species compositions were proportionally altered form those sampled before dosing. In particular, phytoplankton communities in the ponds containing high concentrations of creosote became dominated by a few species of Chlamydomonas, while the equivalent dosed zooplankton communities were dominated by low diversity assemblages of Rotifera. The ramifications of these results for natural freshwater communities exposed to concentrated pulses or low level continuous inputs of creosote will be discussed. The ability to predict these community responses with several measured sub-organismal endpoints will also be evaluated.

  16. 2. Creosote plant site (NE side) as viewed from passenger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Creosote plant site (NE side) as viewed from passenger deck of Washington State Ferry as it approaches the Winslow landing. Remnants of Milwaukee Bock are visible on far left. Building at left is Office Engine Room Building with sloped roof is at center behind tanks. To the right is Boiler Building with stack. Long building is Machine Shop. Dock on right is West Dock. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  17. HVDC wall bushing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M.; Lux, A.E.; Howes, D.R. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted to determine the performance of HVDC wall bushings in different wetting conditions. The in-service behavior of these wall bushing on HVDC systems at voltages of {plus minus}450 kV and above is first described to establish the conditions under which flashovers have occurred. Laboratory tests made at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center confirm that wall bushings may flash over at rated operation voltage under conditions which are intended to be representative of those experienced on operating transmission systems. Methods for improving performance are discussed, and results of tests with several types of mitigation techniques are described. The major emphasis is placed on the application of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber. Clean fog is used to evaluate the characteristics of this material on post insulators. The encouraging performance of the post insulators coated with RTV is the basis for further evaluation on full scale wall bushings tested in nonuniform rain. In addition to tests on RTV coated wall bushings without pre-doposited contamination, attempts at achieving reasonable contamination layers on RV are described. By means of resistance measurements on horizontal insulators, the critical conditions which may lead to flashover on surfaces with different materials and coatings are investigated 15 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Bush River Bridge drawspan. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bush River Bridge drawspan. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 72.14. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  19. Bush River Bridge. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bush River Bridge. Bush River, Hareford Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 72.14. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  20. Aspects of the Drought Tolerance in Creosotebush (Larrea divaricata) 1

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, R. E.; Hull, H. M.; Ehrenreich, J. H.

    1968-01-01

    In order to understand better the physiological adaption of creosotebush (Larrea divaricata Cav.) to drought conditions, its carbohydrate and nitrogen metabolism after a 7-day desiccation period under controlled conditions were studied. Although fructose was not significantly altered in the leaves of desiccated plants, as compared to those maintained under normal moisture conditions, both glucose and sucrose were significantly reduced. Total amino acids more than doubled under moisture stress, the increase being predominantly due to proline, phenylalanine, and glutamic acid. Significant increases also occurred in alanine, arginine, histidine, isoleucine, and valine. Increases or decreases in other amino acids were not significant. These stress-induced changes in certain amino acids are considered in relationship to protein hydrolysis, to accumulation of nitrogen degradation products translocated from the roots, and to the possible function of specific amino acids (e.g., proline) in NH3+ storage. PMID:16656777

  1. AMERICAN CREOSOTE SITE CASE STUDY: SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION OF DIOXINS, PCP, AND CREOSOTE FOR $64 PER CUBIC YARD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This case study describes the development of solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulas and their application to rededicate the American Creosote site in Jackson, Tennessee. During 1998 and 1999, 45,000 cubic yards of soil contaminated with Creosote, PCP, and Dioxins were treat...

  2. High voltage feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01

    A feedthrough bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  3. Vannevar Bush Award

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Board (NSB) has announced that nominations for the Vannevar Bush Award are now being accepted. The award is given to a scientist who has made outstanding contributions to science and technology through public service activities. Nominations are due January 1, 1985. Information and guidelines are available from the National Science Board, 1800 G St., N.W., Washington, DC 20550.The award was established in 1980 by the Science Board in commemoration of the 30th anniversary of the National Science Foundation (NSF). Vannevar Bush, acting on advice from President Roosevelt, recommended in 1945 that a foundation be established to be a focal point for the federal government's activities in science and technology. NSF was created 5 years later by Congress.

  4. A bouquet for Bush

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J. )

    1993-03-01

    George Bush left office on January 20 with his head held high. He did not brood for long over his devastating defeat on November 3. He refused to be immobilized by self-doubt. After a brief period of grieving over a botched election campaign, the former president returned to his first love, foreign policy, and produced significant accomplishments in his waning days of power.

  5. Effects of petroleum creosote on selected stages of embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The prenatal toxicity of petroleum creosote, a complex mixture of chemicals, was investigated via an in vivo study and an in vitro embryo culture system. Additionally, the prenatal toxicity of naphthalene, one chemical component of petroleum creosote, was determined in the in vitro system. The purpose of the study was to provide specific data on the prenatal toxicity of petroleum creosote and demonstrate the value of the two techniques. In the in vivo study, petroleum creosote was not embryotoxic or teratogenic in ICR mice when administered on gestation days 5-9, at a dose of 4000 mg/kg body weight. In vitro, petroleum creosote becomes embryotoxic to ICR mouse blastocysts at some exposure level between 22 and 33 {mu}g/ml of media. Bioactivation plays a major role in embryotoxicity of naphthalene. Naphthalene without rodent liver microsomal enzymes added to the media was not embryotoxic at levels as high as 100 {mu}g/ml media, whereas naphthalene became embryotoxic at some level between 10 and 50 {mu}g/ml of media in the presence of microsomes. The data indicate that naphthalene is one of the embryotoxic components of petroleum creosote, and that exposure to sufficient levels of petroleum creosote during early pregnancy could result in embryonic loss.

  6. Photosynthetic Acclimation to Temperature in the Desert Shrub, Larrea divaricata

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Harold A.; Bjrkman, Olle; Collatz, G. James

    1978-01-01

    Larrea divaricata, a desert evergreen shrub, has a remarkable ability to adjust its photosynthetic temperature response characteristics to changing temperature conditions. In its native habitat on the floor of Death Valley, California, plants of this C3 species when provided with adequate water are able to maintain a relatively high and constant photosynthetic activity throughout the year even though the mean daily maximum temperature varies by nearly 30 C from winter to summer. The temperature dependence of light-saturated net photosynthesis varies in concert with these seasonal temperature changes whereas the photosynthetic rate at the respective optimum temperatures shows little change. Experiments on plants of the same age, grown at day/night temperatures of 20/15, 35/25, and 45/33 C with the same conditions of day length and other environmental factors, showed a similar photosynthetic acclimation response as observed in nature. An analysis was made of a number of factors that potentially can contribute to the observed changes in the temperature dependence of net CO2 uptake at normal CO2 and O2 levels. These included stomatal conductance, respiration, O2 inhibition of photosynthesis, and nonstomatal limitations of CO2 diffusive transport. None of these factors, separately or taken together, can account for the observed acclimation responses. Measurements under high saturating CO2 concentrations provide additional evidence that the observed adaptive responses are primarily the result of changes in intrinsic characteristics of the photosynthetic machinery at the cellular or subcellular levels. Two apparently separate effects of the growth temperature regime can be distinguished: one involves an increased capacity for photosynthesis at low, rate-limiting temperatures with decreased growth temperature, and the other an increased thermal stability of key components of the photosynthetic apparatus with increased growth temperature. PMID:16660303

  7. Enhanced biodegradation of creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.P.E.; Mesania, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    Bioremediation, a viable option for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil, can be enhanced by the use of surfactant. A study was conducted to investigate the effect of a non-ionic surfactant, Triton X-100, on biodegradation of creosote-contaminated soil. Abiotic soil desorption experiments were performed to determine the kinetics of release of selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. Respirometric experiments were also conducted to evaluate the effect of nonionic surfactant on biodegradation. The N-Con system respirometer was used to monitor the oxygen uptake by the microorganisms. The abiotic experiments results indicated that the addition of surfactant to soil/water systems increased the desorption of PAH compounds. It was also observed that the desorption rate of PAH compounds depended on their molecular weight. The 3- and 4-ring PAH compounds showed higher and faster desorption rates than the 5- and 6-ring PAHs. The respirometric experiments indicated that an increase in soil contamination level from 112.5 to 771.8 mg/kg showed an increase in oxygen uptake. But for a soil contamination level of 1,102.5 mg/kg, the oxygen uptake was similar to the contamination level of 771.8 mg/kg. This might be due to toxicity by the surfactant or the solubilized PAHs at high concentration or interference with contaminant transport into the cell or to reversible physical-chemical interferences with the activity of enzymes involved in the PAH degradation. The increase in PAH availability to the microorganisms in the aqueous phase produced an increase in oxygen consumption that is proportional to the biodegradation of organic compounds.

  8. The Bush Education Budget Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Luebchow, Lindsey; Rieman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Next week, President George W. Bush will submit his eighth and final budget request to the Congress. How has he fared with respect to education budget proposals thus far? Answer: although President Bush made the No Child Left Behind Act, which deals with elementary and secondary education, the hallmark of his education policy, from a federal

  9. Responses of wind erosion to disturbance in a desert scrub grassland: grass vs. bush cover, and a snapshot into recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddock, M.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; van Pelt, S.; Ravi, S.; Over, T. M.; Bhattachan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The mixture of grass and bush vegetation that typifies many desert scrublands is a distinctive feature of the northern Chihuahuan Desert, where it represents a change in land cover driven by shrub encroachment. In such environments, the redistribution of nutrients by aeolian transport has been recognized as an important biophysical process, with a role in sustaining shrub presence. Investigation of disturbances in these landscapes (e.g. fire and grazing) will enable better understanding of their dust emission behavior with changing climate, perturbance regime and management scenarios. Here we use a portable wind tunnel to investigate the impact of fire and animals on soil erodibilty and dust emissions from different vegetation types in the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico. Plots were selected that were a) predominantly creosote bush or b) predominantly grass covered. Dust emission was measured for these surfaces both before and after a prescribed burn was conducted. The grass plots were also clipped and artificially trampled to simulate grazing. PM10 concentrations and emission rates from the test surfaces are shown for initial blow-off experiments as the wind tunnel flow accelerates to a target velocity, plus the steady state emission flux produced under constant wind flow with an added abrader sand. An adjacent area burned 8 months previously also allowed investigation of the change in erodibility of the soil for a known time after fire. Our preliminary results indicate the extent that dust emission is changed by the introduced disturbances, and their differing effect on creosote bush and grass dominated covers.

  10. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  11. TOXICITY OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TO FIELD-AND LABORATORY-COLONIZED ESTUARINE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic animal communities that colonized uncontaminated and creosote-contaminated sand during 8 weeks were compared to assess effects of marine-grade creosote on community structure. Aquaria were colonized in the laboratory by planktonic larvae entrained in continuously sup...

  12. Elevated CO2 alters root N uptake and C turnover in Larrea tridentata L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of elevated CO2 on root N uptake, soil N availability and the feedbacks between them, we quantified the effects of elevated CO2 and N additions on root N uptake and leaf C gain in Larrea tridentata seedlings grown in reconstituted Mojave Desert soils. After six months of growt...

  13. Vannevar Bush Visits Langley, October 21, 1938

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1938-01-01

    Dr. H.J.E. Reid, Langley Director; Vannevar Bush, NACA Chairman; and George Lewis at Langley, 1938. Vannevar Bush, Henry Reid, George W. Lewis: Vannevar Bush (center) visited Langley on October 21, 1938, just months before becoming the NACA chairman. Henry Reid stands to Bush's right; George Lewis is to his left.

  14. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal dipyramidal crystal structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown with Larrea tridentata. Comparison between XRD experimental and simulated data, besides corroborating with our previous results, show that each sample is a combination of different structures.

  15. VARIATION IN CREOSOTEBUSH (LARREA TRIDENTATA) CANOPY MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO HABITAT, SOIL FERTILITY AND ASSOCIATED ANNUAL PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) crown morphology may reflect changes in the relative demand for water vs. nutrient resources, coinciding with shrub growth and development Creosotebushes with inverted cone-shaped crowns were more abundant in water-limited environme...

  16. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. he high sand content and low...

  17. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  18. T. J. Lee Greets President George Bush

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center Director T. J. Lee greets President George Bush upon arrival at the Redstone Arsenal Airfield, June 20, 1990. During his visit Bush toured Marshall facilities and addressed Center employees.

  19. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, Glenn F. (Huntington Station, NY)

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  20. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  1. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  2. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak Bridge... the Bush River Yacht Club no later than noon on the Friday just preceding the day of opening or,...

  3. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  4. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  5. Screening of Phenolic Compounds Reveals Inhibitory Activity of Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Against Three Enzymes Involved in the Regulation of Blood Glucose Level.

    PubMed

    Roškar, Irena; Štrukelj, Borut; Lunder, Mojca

    2016-03-01

    In this work we have focused on the inhibition of three different enzymes with a role in postprandial glucose management: α-amylase, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase 4. The assortment of 29 monomeric phenolic compounds was first screened at a single concentration. Next, the IC50 values of tested compounds were evaluated for compounds that considerably inhibited any of the enzymes. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid, a phenolic compound abundant in Creosote bush Larrea tridentata, possessed inhibitory activity for all tested enzymes. This in vitro mechanism of action supports traditional use of Creosote bush in diabetes treatment. PMID:26860525

  6. Vannevar Bush backs the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, G.P.

    1992-12-01

    This article deals with Vannevar Bush's role in controlling America's secret research on the atomic bomb from 1939 to 1942, concentrating on administrative/political/military aspects. This is one of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  7. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  8. Chlorophyll fluorescence from creosote-exposed plants in mesocosms: Validation of a bioindicator

    SciTech Connect

    Marwood, C.A.; Harris, M.L.; Day, K.E.; Greenberg, B.M.; Solomon, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The chlorophyll fluorescence assay is a rapid, sensitive measure of photosynthetic competence in higher plants and algae that can be used to detect the impact of toxicants at many sites in the plant cell. Chlorophyll fluorescence was examined in plants exposed to PAHs as part of a study to validate chlorophyll fluorescence as a bioindicator by correlating effects on fluorescence with population-level effects in outdoor mesocosms. The wood preservative creosote was used as a mixed PAH source. Two species of aquatic plants, Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sp., were exposed to 0.1--100 uL/L of creosote in 12,000 L artificial ponds. Creosote was introduced into the mesocosms using different dosing schemes to simulate leaching and spill events. The pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence technique was used to measure several parameters from plants in situ during a 60-day exposure. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were compared to creosote effects on population-level growth. Chlorophyll fluorescence was inhibited by creosote at concentrations above 3 uL/L, which also caused a similar inhibition of plant growth in the mesocosms. However, chlorophyll fluorescence was more sensitive than growth endpoints at low creosote concentrations. The chlorophyll fluorescence assay also detected damage to the photosynthetic apparatus in plants after only a few days exposure to creosote. Thus, chlorophyll fluorescence from plants exposed to creosote was well correlated with environmentally relevant endpoints at the population level. The effects of the different dosing schemes on creosote toxicity will also be discussed.

  9. Population, community, and bioindicator responses to creosote in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.; Bestari, K.; Solomon, K.; Lewis, J.; McCann, J.; Marwood, C.; Munro, K.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation discusses the objectives, approach and preliminary results of a three year study focusing on the development and validation of bioindicators that are relevant to responses at the population and community level. The study focuses on creosote, a common wood preservative derived from coal tar distillate and containing approximately 85% mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a model stressor. The first year of the study documented the effects of creosote at the population and community level in aquatic mesocosms, and provided preliminary results for the selection of several bioindicators for use in further studies. Activities during the 1994 field season focused on the establishment of the aquatic ecosystems and a refinement of the methods to be used in the treatment and sampling of experimental mesocosms. Liquid creosote was applied to the mesocosms by subsurface injection at nominal concentrations of 0.3 to 300 ppm, and the effects of creosote on aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish were assessed by sampling during a six-week post-treatment phase. Parameters measured included: survival of caged fish (fathead minnows and goldfish), size-age class of juvenile fathead minnows: diversity and abundance of invertebrates (zooplankton and benthic invertebrates) and phytoplankton, and biomass of macrophytes. Work subsequent to the 1994 field component has focused on the selection of bioindicators based on known effects of PAHs on aquatic organisms and on examination of data generated in the first field season. These bioindicators include: oxidative stress and sex steroid hormones in fish; membrane permeability in plants, invertebrates and fish; stress proteins in invertebrates; and fluorescence induction in algae and macrophytes.

  10. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  11. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.; Sampson, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A. ); Peek, D.C. )

    1994-12-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for sediments of the lower Willamette River near a wood-treatment (creosote) facility. Both surface ad subsurface sediments near the facility are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limited contamination of sediments by dioxins/furans, chlorinated phenols, and arsenic was also observed. Sediment bioassays based on amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and Microtox[reg sign] (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescence showed toxicity within approximately 300 ft of the shoreline, with a highly toxic area (i.e., possible acute lethal effects in sedentary benthic species) near a dock used for creosote off-loading. The relatively low concentrations of contaminants measured in crayfish muscle tissue and the absence of serious lesions in livers of large-scale sucker collected near the site suggest that excess risk to mobile species from chronic contamination is low. Cursory observations indicate that acute toxic effects on crayfish may be associated with creosote seeps. There is no evidence of adverse biological effects throughout most of the main channel of the river. Evaluation of sediment chemistry data for PAHs relative to available sediment-quality criteria proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency supports this conclusion.

  12. Wood creosote inhibits calcium mobilization in Guinea pig colonic smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Morino, Hirofumi; Ataka, Koji; Ito, Masafumi; Kuge, Tomoo

    2004-07-01

    Wood creosote, a mixture of simple phenolic compounds, has long been used as an herbal antidiarrheal medicine. Previous studies have shown that wood creosote has antimotility activity on the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, although its mechanism of action is not completely understood. The in vitro efficacy of wood creosote on calcium mobilization in guinea pig colonic smooth muscle was evaluated using a digital video camera system mounted on an inverted fluorescence microscope. The effects of wood creosote on spontaneous periodic increases in the free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)), acetylcholine (ACh)-enhanced periodic increases in [Ca(2+)](i), and tetrodotoxin- or nifedipine-resistant spontaneous periodic increases in [Ca(2+)](i) were evaluated. Wood creosote decreased the amplitude of spontaneous (IC(50)=21 microg/ml) and ACh-enhanced (IC(50)=40 microg/ml) periodic increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in guinea pig colonic smooth muscle. Wood creosote also decreased the amplitude of both tetrodotoxin- and nifedipine-resistant spontaneous periodic increases in [Ca(2+)](i). These results suggest that antimotility activity through inhibition of Ca(2+) mobilization in the GI tract is at least partially responsible for the antidiarrheal activity of wood creosote. Wood creosote may exert its antimotility effect, at least in part, on network regions of interstitial cells of Cajal, which act as pacemaker cells and mediators of neurotransmission in the GI tract. PMID:15256738

  13. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound the problem, the 1990 Immigration Reform Act resulted in a tripling of job-based visas, with scientists representing nearly one-third of the total. In 1979, two of every three postdoctoral scientists were U.S.-born; in 1992, the ratio was about one to one. Over that period, the cohort of postdoctoral scientists grew from 18,000 to 33,000. Adding to the coincidence of events that have compounded one another is the admission of 20,000 Chinese scientists in a ten-year period, the sudden and unexpected availability of Russian scientists, the elimination of many industrial laboratories as a result of downsizing, changes in the mandatory retirement age for faculty, and the disappearance of the Cold War, which all but eliminated the need for scientists for national security purposes. Is it any wonder that postdoctoral scientists have been called the migrant workers of today's high-tech society? What once was a reservoir of enthusiastic talent is becoming a dumping ground for credentialed and capable scientists exiled from the main stream of their disciplines. From a broader point of view, the problems facing U.S. science are those of our society: an imposing deficit that is shrinking discretionary funding; the end of the Cold War, which has refocused spending for national security; and a robust science work force that can no longer expand. The business world's response to these societal problems is, basically, downsizing, which often means the elimination of large segments of the work force, usually at the middle-management level. The initial academic response to these same problems is either to insist on more resources being made available, usually through federal agencies, in an attempt to maintain the status quo, or to engage in some form of "academic birth control." The former strategy is unrealistic because it just perpetuates the problem; there will never be enough research professorships in the academic world for every aspiring PhD produced in a discipline. The latter strategy will invariably decrease the flow of truly new knowledge in a discipline, a process that will eventually affect the viability of our technology base. Some argue for a third view, namely, expanding the career options for PhD's by altering the details of the training process. If there was a flaw in the Bush plan, it was to be found in the implicit premise that an ever-growing supply of scientists would stimulate new demand for scientific expertise, not just in government and universities, but in industry and the professional venues. Bush probably never expected that, because of federal funding, university scientists would in 50 years produce not just the national reserve of scientists he sought to develop, but a growing number of young PhD's, many of whom wanted nothing more--and nothing less--than to be university scientists themselves. Bush probably never guessed at the efficiency of the process for the education of scientists he set into motion. The absence of a plan to complement supply with demand is one source of the inherent structural problem in American science today. Young PhD's do not receive a sufficiently versatile training to do anything other than academic scientific research. Science as a way of knowing is clearly a sound foundation for a variety of careers. Numerous opportunities exist that can use the skills of the scientist while rewarding creativity, autonomy, problem-solving, industriousness, and the yearning for knowledge--all the characteristics associated with well-trained scientists. The challenge for academe is to refine or adapt Vannevar Bush's original "social contract" into a new one, more appropriate for the 21st century.

  14. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature. PMID:23743701

  15. Survival, reproductive, and growth responses in fish to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Bestari, K.T.; Robinson, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Creosote is a coal tar distillate, consisting mainly of a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Its widespread use as a wood preservative presents a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. The use of mesocosms (precolonized with zooplankton, phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton) enabled evaluation of the total impact of creosote exposure, resulting from both direct toxic effects and indirect community-level interactions. Two methods of creosote addition were used, resulting in two series of mesocosm exposures: sixteen ponds were dosed with liquid creosote (from 0 to 100 ppm), and eight were dosed using creosote impregnated pilings (0 to 6 pilings per pond). In addition to growth and survival in two species of fish, Carassius auratus and Pimephales promelas, a number of reproductive parameters were measured (reproductive hormones, egg production, hatching success, and weight/frequency distribution of juveniles).

  16. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and its derivatives: An update

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Nurko, Jacobo; Weakley, Sarah M.; Jiang, Jun; Kougias, Panagiotis; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, is known as chaparral or greasewood in the United States and as gobernadora or hediondilla in Mexico. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of the creosote bush, has been shown to have promising applications in the treatment of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and cancers. Creosote bush is a promising agent of North American herbal medicine, and it has extensive pharmacological effects and specific mechanisms of actions. This review provides an update of recent in vitro and in vivo research about NDGA and describes experimental studies using NDGA as antioxidant. Also, potential medical uses based on the effects of NDGA on the cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems; cancer; tissue engineering; as well as pharmacokinetics and toxicity are discussed. PMID:20424564

  17. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and its derivatives: an update.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Nurko, Jacobo; Weakley, Sarah M; Jiang, Jun; Kougias, Panagiotis; Lin, Peter H; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-05-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, is known as chaparral or greasewood in the United States and as gobernadora or hediondilla in Mexico. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of the creosote bush, has been shown to have promising applications in the treatment of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and cancers. Creosote bush is a promising agent of North American herbal medicine, and it has extensive pharmacological effects and specific mechanisms of actions. This review provides an update of recent in vitro and in vivo research about NDGA and describes experimental studies using NDGA as antioxidant. Also, potential medical uses based on the effects of NDGA on the cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems; cancer; tissue engineering; as well as pharmacokinetics and toxicity are discussed. PMID:20424564

  18. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and its derivatives: an update.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Lü JM; Nurko J; Weakley SM; Jiang J; Kougias P; Lin PH; Yao Q; Chen C

    2010-05-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, is known as chaparral or greasewood in the United States and as gobernadora or hediondilla in Mexico. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of the creosote bush, has been shown to have promising applications in the treatment of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and cancers. Creosote bush is a promising agent of North American herbal medicine, and it has extensive pharmacological effects and specific mechanisms of actions. This review provides an update of recent in vitro and in vivo research about NDGA and describes experimental studies using NDGA as antioxidant. Also, potential medical uses based on the effects of NDGA on the cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems; cancer; tissue engineering; as well as pharmacokinetics and toxicity are discussed.

  19. Elevated CO2 increases root uptake of organic and inorganic N in the desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We quantified the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on root nitrogen (N) uptake and leaf carbon (C) turnover in the desert shrub, Larrea tridentata. We also examined the impact of elevated CO2 on soil N fluxes and plant-soil feedbacks. Seedlings of L. tridentata were grown in reconstituted Mojave...

  20. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  1. Bush to Obama: Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch-Brioso, Karen; Dervarics, Charles; Powell, Tracie; Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    President Bush's education legacy is inexorably tied to the No Child Left Behind Act, the comprehensive K-12 reform law he signed in January 2002. The law has drawn praise for requiring schools to show specific progress in educating minority and low-income children or face sanctions for failing to do so. But critics say the Bush administration

  2. Fine Line on Schools for Bush, Kerry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    There's no doubt that President George W. Bush and Senator John Kerry, the two major-party candidates in the hard-fought presidential contest, part company on some education issues. President Bush, for instance, backs private school vouchers while Senator Kerry wants to see bigger spending increases for schools. This article discusses how much

  3. Bush Impact on Schools to Outlive Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    George W. Bush entered the White House determined to change federal education policy. In his first year as the president, Bush forged a bipartisan consensus around the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which he signed into law on January 8, 2002. For the first time, states receiving federal K-12 education funding would be required to hold districts

  4. Cadmium in Jamaican Bush Teas

    PubMed Central

    Hoo Fung, LA; Rattray, VR; Lalor, GC

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 ?g/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.041.18 ?g of Cd and would contribute 0.1 0.3 ?g of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 ?g Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  5. Evaluation of fish population effects due to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Bestari, K.T.; Robinson, R.D.; Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    Creosote is a coal tar distillate, consisting primarily of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Its widespread use as a wood preservative presents a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. Studying fish responses in mesocosms enabled evaluation of the total impact of creosote exposure, resulting from both direct toxic effects and indirect community-level interactions. Two methods of creosote application were used: liquid creosote treatment and creosote-impregnated pilings treatment. Survival and egg production of adult Fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were monitored for two successive 30-day periods (0--30 and 35--65 days posttreatment). In addition, juvenile Fatheads produced during these periods were harvested 90 days posttreatment, to determine impacts to population weight/frequency distributions. Results for both field seasons showed that higher creosote concentrations caused strong decreases in both adult and juvenile survival, as well as egg production. Bile fluorescence levels measured at intervals during the exposure period reflected changes in total aqueous PAH concentrations in the mesocosms. Effects of creosote exposure on survival of adult fish were markedly reduced for fish introduced to ponds 35 days posttreatment compared to those exposed in the initial 0--30 day period.

  6. The effect of creosote on growth and membrane integrity of the aquatic macrophyte, Myriophyllum sp.

    SciTech Connect

    McCann, J.; Day, K.; Solomon, K.; Greenberg, B.

    1995-12-31

    Creosote is a coal-tar distillate used as a wood preservative on railway ties and dock pilings. Its use in aquatic systems indicates a possible risk to the aquatic community through leaching of creosote components into the water column or sediment. A study has been initiated at the University of Guelph (Ontario, Canada) to determine bioindicators of exposure and effects of creosote on freshwater systems. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effects of creosote exposure on the rooted, aquatic macrophyte Myriophyllum sp. Using an aseptic culture of Myriophyllum and 3 cm buds grown from single nodes, a growth assay was conducted during which Myriophyllum were exposed for 14 days to concentrations ranging from 0.16 mg/L to 200 mg/L creosote. Growth measurements included: shoot length; number of nodes, buds and roots; total shoot and root length; and growth curves over the exposure period. From the information gathered from the growth assay, 5 creosote concentrations were chosen and used for membrane integrity studies. Myriophyllum were exposed to creosote for either 4 or 12 day periods, after which membrane fluidity was determined by fluorescence depolarization, and electrolyte and K+ leakage were determined by conductivity and atomic absorption spectrophotometry, respectively. The results of both the growth and membrane assays will be discussed.

  7. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation by Larrea nitida on MCF-7 Cell Proliferation and Immature Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Na; Jeong, Si-Yeon; Bae, Gyu-Un; Chang, Minsun; Zhang, Dongwei; Liu, Xiyuan; Pei, Yihua; Chin, Young-Won; Lee, Joongku; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Yun Seon

    2014-01-01

    Larrea nitida is a plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is widely used in South America to treat inflammatory diseases, tumors and menstrual pain. However, its pharmacological activity remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the property of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of Larrea nitida extracts (LNE) as a phytoestrogen that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens, depending on the tissue and relative amount of other SERMs. To investigate the property of SERM of LNE, we performed MCF-7 cell proliferation assays, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, human estrogen receptor (hER) binding assays and in vivo uterotrophic assay. To gain insight into the active principles, we performed a bioassay-guided analysis of LNE employing solvents of various polarities and using classical column chromatography, which yielded 16 fractions (LNs). LNE showed high binding affinities for hERα and hERβ with IC50 values of 1.20 ×10−7 g/ml and 1.00×10−7 g/ml, respectively. LNE induced 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, however, it reduced the proliferation in the presence of E2. Furthermore, LNE had an atrophic effect in the uterus of immature rats through reducing the expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. LN08 and LN10 had more potent affinities for binding on hER α and β than other fractions. Our results indicate that LNE had higher binding affinities for hERβ than hERα, and showed SERM properties in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the rat uterus. LNE may be useful for the treatment of estrogen-related conditions, such as female cancers and menopause. PMID:25143815

  8. Optimization of soil physical and chemical conditions for the bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Atagana, H I; Haynes, R J; Wallis, F M

    2003-08-01

    Mispah type soil (FAO : Lithosol) contaminated with > 250 000 mg kg(-1) creosote was collected from the yard of a creosote treatment plant. The soil's carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus contents were determined. Due to creosote contamination, the carbon content of the soil was found to be 130,000 mg C kg(-1). This concentration was found to greatly affect the nitrogen content (0.08%). The phosphorus content was less affected (4.5%). It was estimated that a nutrient amendment to bring the soil to a C : N 10 : 1 would be adequate to stimulate microbial growth and creosote degradation. The soil was amended with a range of C : N ratios below and above the estimated ratio. In one of the treatments, the phosphorus content was amended. Sterile and natural controls were also set up. The soil was incubated at 30 +/- 2 degrees C on a rotary shaker at 150 rpm in the dark for six weeks. Water content was maintained at 70% field capacity. The lowest nitrogen supplementation (C : N = 25 : 1) was more effective in enhancing microbial growth (3.12E + 05) and creosote removal (68.7%) from the soil. Additional phosphorus was not very effective in enhancing the growth of microorganisms and removal of creosote. The highest nitrogen supplementation (C : N = 5 : 1) did not enhance microbial growth and creosote removal. Phenolics and lower molecular mass polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were observed to be more susceptible to microbial degradation than higher molecular mass compounds. Nutrient concentration, moisture content and pH were thus observed to play very significant roles in the utilization of creosote in soil. These results are being used for the development of a bioremediation technology for the remediation of creosote contaminated soils in a treatment plant in South Africa. PMID:12948059

  9. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin and Coal Tar Creosote Exposure in a Railroad Worker

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Hunt, Stephen Carl; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2005-01-01

    A 50-year-old male railroad worker presented to his primary care physician with an erythematous, tender skin lesion on the right knee; a biopsy of this lesion revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The site of the lesion was sun-protected but had been associated with 30 years of creosote-soaked clothing. In this article, we review dermal and other malignancies associated with creosote, along with creosote occupational exposures and exposure limits. This is a unique case, given the lack of other, potentially confounding, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the sun-protected location of the lesion. PMID:15626654

  10. Analysis of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote-contaminated water and sediments by HPLC-fluorescence detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bestari, K.; Robinson, R.; Solomon, K.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental design, sampling, sample preservation, extraction with a minimum cleanup procedure and subsequent quantification of 15 priority PAHs as a result of an introduction of creosote to mesocosms are presented. Creosote introduction to the mesocosms reflects two major types of creosote contamination in the aquatic environment: (1) leaching from creosote-impregnated pilings, and (2) introduction of pure creosote to aquatic environments in a spill event, and subsequent contamination of sediments by creosote. Doses for the creosote-impregnated pilings study consisted of seven levels with mesocosms containing 1 to 8 piling each, and doses for the liquid creosote study consisted of a logarithmic nominal concentration gradient from 0.3 to 300 ppm creosote. The creosote-impregnated pilings study revealed that the concentration of PAHs in the water column increased steadily with time, reaching maximum levels 7 days post-treatment, and declining thereafter. The liquid creosote study revealed that the high initial post-treatment concentration of PAHs decreased exponentially with time. The sediment data from the creosote-impregnated pilings study showed that the total amount of 15 PAHs ranged from 0.6 to 2 {micro}g/g of dry weight, while the sediment data from the liquid creosote study showed that the total amount of 15 PAHs were much higher than the pilings study, i.e.: ranging from 0.6 to 400 {micro}g/g dry weight at four weeks post-treatment. PAHs with higher molecular weight (5 and 6 aromatic ring structures) were present at very low to nondetectable concentrations in the water column; and significantly higher levels in the sediments.

  11. ON-SITE TREATMENT OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL SLUDGES AND CONTAMINATED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is presented for quantitative evaluation of treatment potential for creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood treating contaminants in soil systems. he study was conducted in three phases: 1) characterization, (2) treatability screening and (3) field evaluation. ata g...

  12. ON-SITE TREATMENT OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL SLUDGES AND CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is presented for quantitative evaluation of treatment potential for creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood treating contaminants in soil systems. The study was conducted in three phases: 1) characterization, (2) treatability screening and (3) field evaluation. Data...

  13. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP, AND CREOSOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's National Risk Management Research Laboratory condcuted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stablization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. For one o...

  14. Coal tar creosote abuse by vapour inhalation presenting with renal impairment and neurotoxicity: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Thomas F; Bellamy, Christopher OC; Hughes, Jeremy H

    2007-01-01

    A 56 year old aromatherapist presented with advanced renal failure following chronic coal tar creosote vapour inhalation, and a chronic tubulo-interstitial nephritis was identified on renal biopsy. Following dialysis dependence occult inhalation continued, resulting in seizures, ataxia, cognitive impairment and marked generalised cerebral atrophy. We describe for the first time a case of creosote abuse by chronic vapour inhalation, resulting in significant morbidity. Use of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-containing wood preservative coal tar creosote is restricted by many countries due to concerns over environmental contamination and carcinogenicity. This case demonstrates additional toxicities not previously reported with coal tar creosote, and emphasizes the health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. PMID:17892538

  15. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. xcept for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated ma...

  16. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  17. LOW COST SOLIDIFICATION/STABILIZATION TREATMENT FOR SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH DIOXIN, PCP AND CREOSOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's NRMRL conducted successful treatability tests of innovative solidification/stabilization (S/S) formulations to treat soils contaminated with dioxins, pentachlorophenol (PCP), and creosote from four wood preserving sites. Formulations developed during these studies wer...

  18. Excerpts from President Bush's Budget Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle of Higher Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Excerpts from George Bush's fiscal 1990 federal budget documents include a summary of principles underlying his education policy and initiatives and statements on alternative certification for teachers and principals and on historically Black colleges and universities. (MSE)

  19. President George Bush and Apollo 11 Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    President George Bush speaks at the National Air and Space Museum's 20th anniversary celebration of the Apollo 11 Moon landing. Here, on July 20, 1989, Bush announced his new Space Exploration Initiative, which was to complete the space station, return man to the moon, and bring man to Mars for the first time. The plan fell apart when NASA offered an estimated budget of 500 billion over the next 20 to 30 years to achieve the President's goal. Congress balked, and NASA returned to its earlier program of primarily robotic space exploration. From left to right are NASA Administrator Admr. Richard Truly, First Lady Mrs. Barbara Bush, Neil Armstrong, President George Bush, Vice President Dan Quayle, Michael Collins, Mrs. Marilyn Quayle, and Buzz Aldrin.

  20. HVDC wall bushing performance in wet weather

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    There is a history of flashovers of wall bushings in rain, even when they are relatively clean. These flashovers appear to be associated generally with a non- uniform rain distribution because of the shielding effect of the valve hall. This paper reports that a study has been made of this problem involving the development of laboratory test techniques to simulate the critical conditions, and also verification that the rapid flashover clean fog test can be used for evaluating a polluted DC bushing. Using these techniques a conventional bushing has been assessed and a method of improving its performance has been found by fitting it with supplementary silicone-rubber sheds, (booster sheds). The effects of various numbers of such sheds on the bushing have been measured, as have the effects of modifications to the booster shed.

  1. Effects of herbal drugs prescribed in wood creosote pills on the dissolution profile of guaiacol.

    PubMed

    Baba, Tatsuya; Nishino, Takao; Tani, Tadato

    2003-02-01

    Wood creosote pills (P4) containing wood creosote and four herbal drugs, Gambir, Phellodendri Cortex, Glycyrrhizae Radix, and Citri Unshiu Pericarpium (CUP), have been used to treat food poisoning and diarrhea through self-medication in Japan. The mean dissolution time (MDT) of guaiacol, one of the active constituents of wood creosote, from P4 (138.3+/-3.3 min) was significantly longer than that (42.6+/-4.3 min) from pills (P0) containing only wood creosote. The MDT of the variant pills prepared from P4 without CUP (54.3+/-12.5 min) was found to be significantly shorter than that of P4. These findings suggest that CUP plays an important role in sustaining the dissolution of guaiacol from P4. The long MDT of guaiacol is considered one of the most important factors affecting the duration of efficacy after oral administration of wood creosote pills. The present findings are considered proof that CUP has been prescribed in traditional as well as new formulations of wood creosote pills. PMID:12576679

  2. Technology Goes Bush: Using Mobile Technologies to Support Learning in a Bush Kinder Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Jennifer; Grogan, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    A "bush kinder" is the Australian equivalent of a European forest kindergarten. Although it is not usual for technology to be used in the type of program, the authors suggest that mobile technologies can be used creatively and sensitively to support learning in the bush kinder context. This paper describes an ethnographical case study…

  3. Evidence for functional convergence in genes upregulated by herbivores ingesting plant secondary compounds

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nearly 40 years ago, Freeland and Janzen predicted that liver biotransformation enzymes dictated diet selection by herbivores. Despite decades of research on model species and humans, little is known about the biotransformation mechanisms used by mammalian herbivores to metabolize plant secondary compounds (PSCs). We investigated the independent evolution of PSC biotransformation mechanisms by capitalizing on a dramatic diet change event—the dietary inclusion of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)—that occurred in the recent evolutionary history of two species of woodrats (Neotoma lepida and N. bryanti). Results By comparing gene expression profiles of two populations of woodrats with evolutionary experience to creosote and one population naïve to creosote, we identified genes either induced by a diet containing creosote PSCs or constitutively higher in populations with evolutionary experience of creosote. Although only one detoxification gene (an aldo-keto reductase) was induced by both experienced populations, these populations converged upon functionally equivalent strategies to biotransform the PSCs of creosote bush by constitutively expressing aldehyde and alcohol dehydrogenases, Cytochromes P450s, methyltransferases, glutathione S-transferases and sulfotransferases. The response of the naïve woodrat population to creosote bush was indicative of extreme physiological stress. Conclusions The hepatic detoxification system of mammals is notoriously complex, with hundreds of known biotransformation enzymes. The comparison herein of woodrat taxa that differ in evolutionary and ecological experience with toxins in creosote bush reveals convergence in the overall strategies used by independent species after a historical shift in diet. In addition, remarkably few genes seemed to be important in this dietary shift. The research lays the requisite groundwork for future studies of specific biotransformation pathways used by woodrats to metabolize the toxins in creosote and the evolution of diet switching in woodrats. On a larger level, this work advances our understanding of the mechanisms used by mammalian herbivores to process toxic diets and illustrates the importance of the selective relationship of PSCs in shaping herbivore diversity. PMID:25123454

  4. Phenolic compound production in relation to differentiation in cell and tissue cultures of Larrea divaricata (Cav.).

    PubMed

    Palacio, Lorena; Cantero, Juan J; Cusid, Rosa M; Goleniowski, Marta E

    2012-09-01

    The lignan nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and its derivatives existing in Larrea divaricata species show a wide range of pharmacological activities which makes this genus an interesting target to consider the plant in vitro cultivation systems as a feasible alternative source for their production. These compounds are potentially useful in treating diseases related to heart condition, asthma, arteriosclerosis, viral and bacterial infections, inflammation and cancer. In the present study, calli, cell suspension cultures, and in vitro and wild plants of L. divaricata were investigated for their potential to synthesize phenolic compounds. Calli, both with and without organogenesis, produced NDGA and quercetin, as did plantlet and wild plants. NDGA was also produced by the cell suspension cultures, together with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and sinapyl alcohol. The capacity of undifferentiated tissues to form phenolic compounds is very limited, but when the calli underwent organogenesis, developing mainly adventitious shoots, the phenolic compound production increased significantly. Plantlets regenerated from adventitious shoots of L. divaricata calli did not show the same phenolic pattern as wild plants, with levels of NDGA and quercetin being 3.6- and 5.9-fold lower, respectively. PMID:22794913

  5. Drought increases freezing tolerance of both leaves and xylem of Larrea tridentata.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Pockman, William T

    2011-01-01

    Drought and freezing are both known to limit desert plant distributions, but the interaction of these stressors is poorly understood. Drought may increase freezing tolerance in leaves while decreasing it in the xylem, potentially creating a mismatch between water supply and demand. To test this hypothesis, we subjected Larrea tridentata juveniles grown in a greenhouse under well-watered or drought conditions to minimum temperatures ranging from -8 to -24 C. We measured survival, leaf retention, gas exchange, cell death, freezing point depression and leaf-specific xylem hydraulic conductance (k?). Drought-exposed plants exhibited smaller decreases in gas exchange after exposure to -8 C compared to well-watered plants. Drought also conferred a significant positive effect on leaf, xylem and whole-plant function following exposure to -15 C; drought-exposed plants exhibited less cell death, greater leaf retention, higher k? and higher rates of gas exchange than well-watered plants. Both drought-exposed and well-watered plants experienced 100% mortality following exposure to -24 C. By documenting the combined effects of drought and freezing stress, our data provide insight into the mechanisms determining plant survival and performance following freezing and the potential for shifts in L. tridentata abundance and range in the face of changing temperature and precipitation regimes. PMID:20825578

  6. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCP- AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: SOLID-PHASE BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. urface s...

  7. Stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function in the rat: reversal by wood creosote.

    PubMed

    Kuge, Tomoo; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-07-24

    Our previous studies demonstrated that wood creosote (Seirogan) inhibits intestinal secretion and normalizes the transport of electrolytes and water in rats subjected to restraint stress. The goal of the present study was to examine whether wood creosote has a protective effect against stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function. F-344 rats were subjected to 90-min water avoidance stress (WAS) with wood creosote (30 mg/kg) or vehicle administered intragastrically 30 min prior to WAS. Sham stressed rats received wood creosote or vehicle treatment but did not experience the WAS. All rats were euthanized at the end of the WAS or sham-stress and the jejunum and colon were isolated. Epithelial transport was studied in modified Ussing chambers. Spontaneous secretion was assessed by electrophysiological measurement of the short circuit current (I(sc)) while electrical conductance (G) was calculated from the potential difference (PD) and I(sc) using Ohm's law. Intestinal permeability was defined by the mucosal-to-serosal flux of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). WAS significantly elevated basal I(sc) and G and increased epithelial permeability to HRP in the jejunum but not in the colon. Wood creosote resulted in a significant reduction of the stress-induced increase in I(sc), G and the mucosal-to-serosal flux of HRP compared to the vehicle-treated group. Wood creosote caused no significant effects in sham-stressed rats. The results suggest that oral administration of wood creosote may prevent stress-induced diarrhea by preventing aversive effects on small intestinal secretion and barrier function. PMID:16643959

  8. Electrical bushing for a superconductor element

    DOEpatents

    Mirebeau, Pierre; Lallouet, Nicolas; Delplace, Sebastien; Lapierre, Regis

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical bushing serving to make a connection at ambient temperature to a superconductor element situated in an enclosure at cryogenic temperature. The electrical bushing passes successively through an enclosure at intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and cryogenic temperature, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, and it comprises a central electrical conductor surrounded by an electrically insulating sheath. According to the invention, an electrically conductive screen connected to ground potential surrounds the insulating sheath over a section that extends from the end of the bushing that is in contact with the enclosure at cryogenic temperature at least as far as the junction between the enclosure at intermediate temperature and the enclosure at ambient temperature. The invention is more particularly applicable to making a connection to a superconductor cable.

  9. Enhanced biodegradation of creosote contaminated soil using a nonionic surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.E.; Mesania, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing concern in the US about the increasing number of industrial sites containing concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their soil and waste sludge above background levels. Low molecular weight PAHs are generally considered as extremely toxic compounds, whereas the higher molecular weight PAHs are carcinogenic in nature. The aqueous solubility and volatility of PAHs decrease with increasing molecular weight. Bioremediation, a viable option for treatment of PAH contaminated soils, can reduce PAH concentration to acceptable levels. It is primarily a water-based process influenced by sorption (absorption/desorption), diffusion and dissolution mechanisms which serve to control the accessibility of the organics to the bacteria that are present in water. In most cases, sorption is the rate limiting step controlling, both the rate and extent of biodegradation. The process of bioremediation can be enhanced by application of surfactant by increasing the availability of the organic compounds to the microorganisms. In previous bioremediation studies, the use of several kinds of surfactant was found to enhance the solubility of hydrophobic compounds. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nonionic surfactant on biodegradation of creosote contaminated soil.

  10. Enhancement of bioremediation of a creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.P.E.; Mesania, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing concern in the US about the increasing number of industrial sites containing concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their soil and waste sludge above background levels. PAHs, neutral and non-polar organic compounds, consist of two or more fused benzene rings which are generated from industrial activities such as creosote wood treating, gas manufacturing, coke making, coal tar refining, petroleum refining, and aluminum smelting. Low molecular weight PAHs are generally considered as extremely toxic compounds, whereas the higher molecular weight PAHs are carcinogenic in nature. Bioremediation, a viable option for treatment of PAHs contaminated soil, can be enhanced by the use of surfactant. In this study a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, was investigated. Abiotic soil desorption experiments were performed to determine the kinetics of release of selected PAH compounds from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Respirometric experiments were also conducted to evaluate the effect of nonionic surfactant on biodegradation. The N-Con system respirometer was used to monitor the oxygen uptake by the microorganisms. The abiotic experiments results indicated that the addition of surfactant to soil/water systems increases the desorption of PAH compounds. The increase in PAHs availability to the microorganisms produced an increase in oxygen uptake.

  11. Identifying multiple time scale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2015-06-01

    The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple time scales. We examine intra-annual to multiyear relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and vegetation growth over 50 years in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Ecohydrological model parameters are conditioned on field and remote sensing data using an ensemble Kalman filter. Although no specific periodicities were detected in the rainfall record, simulated leaf-area-index exhibits multiyear dynamics that are driven by multiyear (˜3 years) rains, but with up to a 1 year delay in peak response. Within a multiyear period, Larrea tridentata is more sensitive to winter rains than summer. In the most active part of the root zone (above ˜80 cm), >1 year average soil moisture drives vegetation growth, but monthly average soil moisture is controlled by root uptake. Moisture inputs reach the lower part of the root zone (below ˜80 cm) infrequently, but once there they can persist over a year to help sustain plant growth. Parameter estimates highlight efficient plant physiological properties facilitating persistent growth and high soil hydraulic conductivity allowing deep soil moisture stores. We show that soil moisture as an ecological indicator is complicated by bidirectional interactions with vegetation that depend on time scale and depth. Under changing climate, Larrea tridentata will likely be relatively resilient to shorter-term moisture variability but will exhibit higher sensitivity to shifts in seasonal to multiyear moisture inputs.

  12. Identifying multiple timescale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple timescales. We examine intra-annual to multi-year relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and vegetation growth over 50 years in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Ecohydrological model parameters are conditioned on field and remote sensing data using an ensemble Kalman filter. Although no specific periodicities were detected in the rainfall record, simulated leaf-area-index exhibits multi-year dynamics that are driven by multi-year (∼3-years) rains, but with up to a 1-year delay in peak response. Within a multi-year period, Larrea tridentata is more sensitive to winter rains than summer. In the most active part of the root zone (above ∼80 cm), >1-year average soil moisture drives vegetation growth, but monthly average soil moisture is controlled by root uptake. Moisture inputs reach the lower part of the root zone (below ∼80 cm) infrequently, but once there they can persist over a year to help sustain plant growth. Parameter estimates highlight efficient plant physiological properties facilitating persistent growth and high soil hydraulic conductivity allowing deep soil moisture stores. We show that soil moisture as an ecological indicator is complicated by bidirectional interactions with vegetation that depend on timescale and depth. Under changing climate, Larrea tridentata will likely be relatively resilient to shorter-term moisture variability but will exhibit higher sensitivity to shifts in seasonal to multi-year moisture inputs.

  13. Volatilization of selected organic compounds from a creosote-waste land-treatment facility. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the emissions of volatile and semi-volatile compounds which are constituents of a complex creosote waste from laboratory simulations of a land treatment system to assess the potential human exposure to hazardous compounds from this source. In addition, the Thibodeaux-Hwang Air Emission Release Rate (AERR) model was evaluated for its use in predicting emission rates of hazardous constituents of creosote wood preservative waste from land treatment facilities. A group of hazardous volatile and semi-volatile constituents present in the creosote waste was selected for evaluation in this study and included a variety of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNA's), phenol, and chlorinated and substituted phenols.

  14. [Relapse of Creosote poisoning: report of a case taking Seirogan tablets].

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, Shintaro; Tanaka, Takaya; Hirakawa, Akihiko; Shinya, Hiroshi; Matsuo, Nobuaki; Nakatani, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    A thirty-eight year old man took about 180 tablets of Seirogan. He was unconscious and had dyspnea with dark brown urine on admission. He recovered gradually after initial treatment. Seirogan contains a phenolic component. Symptoms and signs of poisoning are unconsciousness, convulsion, digestive tract disorder, pulmonary edema, hepatic failure, renal failure, and miosis. Clinical features include dark brown urine. On day 7, he again showed signs of creosote poisoning: relapse of unconsciousness and dark colored urine. Plasma concentration of phenol determined on the day before the relapse was much higher than that expected from the half-life of blood phenol. It is reported that Creosote poisoning results in a decrease in the intestinal peristalsis, or paralytic ileus. We would like to emphasize that a relapse of Creosote poisoning may occur due to possible delayed absorption of the Seirogan tablets. PMID:12415872

  15. Validating bioindicators of PAH effects in fish: Evaluating responsiveness to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Gensemer, R.W.; Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Day, K.E.; Servos, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    While studies involving controlled exposures to PAHs have typically studied the effects of exposure to individual compounds, PAHs are usually present in the environment in complex mixtures. Some of these (eg. creosote) have been widely used and present potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of the current research is to evaluate whether population effects visible in fish at high creosote concentrations would be reflected in biomarker responses at lower concentrations. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to five levels of creosote contamination in microcosms containing a simple community structure (including macroinvertebrates and macrophytes). Preliminary results have shown that changes in P450 induction, bile fluorescence, and levels of reproductive hormones are visible at lower concentrations than population effects such as increased mortality, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and reduced fecundity.

  16. 2005 Budget Drops below Bush Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education will see its smallest budget increase in nearly a decade under the catchall spending plan approved by the Republican-controlled Congress in a lame-duck session. For the first time since President Bush entered office, the budget will fall short of his overall request for education funding. The final fiscal 2005

  17. Obama Echoes Bush on Education Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    President Barack Obama campaigned on a message of change, but when it comes to K-12 education, he appears to be walking in the policy footsteps of his recent predecessors, including George W. Bush. Obama is sounding themes of accountability based on standards and assessments. He is delivering tough talk on teacher quality, including a call for

  18. Bush to Start NCLB Push in Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Making college more affordable, raising the minimum wage, and other domestic items were at the top of Democrats' agenda during their meeting at Capitol Hill. President Bush made clear that reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is one of the priorities. To mark the fifth anniversary of his signing the measure into law on January 8, 2007, the…

  19. Bush Budget Would Boost NCLB Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that President Bush's fiscal 2008 budget request for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is being criticized by two key congressional Democrats as they believe that the plan falls short of what schools need to get on track to meet the measure's ambitious achievement goals. Rep. George Miller, D-Calif., and Sen. Edward…

  20. Bush and Gore Focus on Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2000-01-01

    In the 2000 presidential race, education seems a top priority for Vice-President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush. Although both candidates are promising billions of federal-aid dollars to raise standards, many believe they are ignoring factors such as student motivation and funding inequities. (MLH)

  1. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  2. Efficacious rat model displays non-toxic effect with Korean beechwood creosote: a possible antibiotic substitute

    PubMed Central

    Quynh, Anh Nguyen Thai; Sharma, Neelesh; Cho, Kwang Keun; Yeo, Tae Jong; Kim, Ki Beom; Jeong, Chul Yon; Min, Tae Sun; Young, Kim Jae; Kim, Jin Nam; Jeong, Dong-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Wood creosote, an herbal anti-diarrheal and a mixture of major volatile compounds, was tested for its non-toxicological effects, using a rat model, with the objective to use the creosote as an antibiotic substitute. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to form five groups with 6 rats each. Korea beechwood creosote was supplemented into three test groups with 0.03 g/kg, 0.07 g/kg and 0.1 g/kg body weight/day without antibiotic support, along with a positive control of Apramycin sulphate (at 0.5% of the daily feed) and a negative control. Korean beechwood creosote supplementation showed no negative effect on the body weight gain in comparison to the negative and the positive control groups and the feed conversion ratio was also comparable with that of the control groups. The clinical pathology parameters studied were also under the umbrella of normal range, including liver specific enzymes, blood glucose, total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), which indicated no toxic effect of creosote at the given doses. The non-hepatotoxic effect was also confirmed using hepatic damage specific molecular markers like Tim-p1, Tim-p2 and Tgf-β1. The results suggested that Korean beechwood may be used as antibiotic substitute in weanling pigs feed without any toxic effect on the body. Although the antimicrobial properties of creosote were not absolutely similar to those of apramycin sulphate, they were comparable. PMID:26019530

  3. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in creosote-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Abbady, Ehab A; Baghdadi, Hoda H

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. Coal tar can be utilized as raw materials for various industries. It is also a type of raw material from which phenols, naphthalenes, and anthracene can be extracted. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of coal tar creosote to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in ameliorating its toxic effects. Male Wister Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control; group II treated with rosemary (10 mL of water extract/kg BW for 21 days), group III received coal tar creosote (200 mg/4 mL olive oil/kg BW for 3 days), and group IV treated with both rosemary and coal tar creosote. The administration of coal tar creosote significantly caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly decreased while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Rosemary pretreatment to coal tar creosote-treated rats decreased LPO level and normalized GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST activities, while GSH content was increased. Also, liver AST, ALT, AlP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to rosemary treatment. In conclusion, rosemary has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize coal tar creosote toxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 85-92, 2016. PMID:25044495

  4. Assessing the Extent of Sediment Contamination Around Creosote-treated Pilings Through Chemical and Biological Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefansson, E. S.

    2008-12-01

    Creosote is a common wood preservative used to treat marine structures, such as docks and bulkheads. Treated dock pilings continually leach polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other creosote compounds into the surrounding water and sediment. Over time, these compounds can accumulate in marine sediments, reaching much greater concentrations than those in seawater. The purpose of this study was to assess the extent of creosote contamination in sediments, at a series of distances from treated pilings. Three pilings were randomly selected from a railroad trestle in Fidalgo Bay, WA and sediment samples were collected at four distances from each: 0 meters, 0.5 meters, 1 meter, and 2 meters. Samples were used to conduct two bioassays: an amphipod bioassay (Rhepoxynius abronius) and a sand dollar embryo bioassay. Grain size and PAH content (using a fluorometric method) were also measured. Five samples in the amphipod bioassay showed significantly lower effective survival than the reference sediment. These consisted of samples closest to the piling at 0 and 0.5 meters. One 0 m sample in the sand dollar embryo bioassay also showed a significantly lower percentage of normal embryos than the reference sediment. Overall, results strongly suggest that creosote-contaminated sediments, particularly those closest to treated pilings, can negatively affect both amphipods and echinoderm embryos. Although chemical data were somewhat ambiguous, 0 m samples had the highest levels of PAHs, which corresponded to the lowest average survival in both bioassays. Relatively high levels of PAHs were found as far as 2 meters away from pilings. Therefore, we cannot say how far chemical contamination can spread from creosote-treated pilings, and at what distance this contamination can still affect marine organisms. These results, as well as future research, are essential to the success of proposed piling removal projects. In addition to creosote-treated pilings, contaminated sediments must be removed and disposed of properly, in order to make future piling removals as effective and beneficial to ecosystem health as possible.

  5. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): Lincoln Creosote Site, Bossier City, LA, November 26, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    The Lincoln Creosote Site (Site) is located in Bossier City, Louisiana, and consists of a 20-acre industrial area that includes the former location of a wood treatment plant. Wood products such as railroad ties and utility poles were pressure treated at the plant, using creosote, chromated copper-arsenate (CCA) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) as wood preservatives. The compounds used for wood treatment contained metals, a number of semi-volatile organic base-neutral extractable compounds such as polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs). EPA`s selected removal action called for excavation of residential soils containing concentrations of wood treatment product residuals.

  6. Induction of cytochrome p-450-ia1 in juvenile fish by creosote-contaminated sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Schoor, W.P.; Williams, D.E.; Takahashi, N.

    1991-01-01

    Intact sediment cores, including their surface layers, were used in simulated field exposure tests of juvenile guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to creosote-contaminated sediments. Mixed-function oxygenase activity was induced in the fish after 43 days of exposure to environmentally realistic, sublethal concentrations of creosote-related compounds. An average 50-fold induction in the cytochrome P-450-IA1 was found in the liver in the absence of any histopathological lesions. The possibility that a threshold level for proliferative liver changes was not reached is discussed in the light of the observed biochemical activation.

  7. Mesocosm field season 1995: Quantification of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in creosote-contaminated water and sediments by HPLC-fluorescence detector

    SciTech Connect

    Bestari, K.; Robinson, R.; Solomon, K.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental design, sampling, sample preservation, extraction with a minimum cleanup procedure and subsequent quantification of 15 priority PAHs as a result of an introduction of creosote to mesocosms are presented. Creosote introduction to the mesocosms reflects two major types of creosote contamination in the aquatic environment: (1) leaching from creosote-impregnated pilings, and (2) introduction of pure creosote to aquatic environments in a spill event, and subsequent contamination of sediments by creosote. Dosing for the creosote-impregnated pilings study consisted of six levels with mesocosms containing 0.5 to 6 treated pilings each and two control ponds. The liquid creosote study consisted of logarithmic nominal concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 100 uL/L. The creosote-impregnated pilings study revealed that the concentration of PAHs in the water column increased steadily with time, reaching maximum levels at 7 days post-treatment, and declining thereafter. The liquid creosote study revealed that the high initial post-treatment concentration of PAHs decreased exponentially with time. The sediment data for both creosote studies will also be discussed.

  8. FIELD EVALUATION OF LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. he study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal tr...

  9. Delineation of creosote-based DNAPLs using CPT-deployed laser induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Ruggery, D.A. Jr.; Misquitta, N.J; Coll, F.R.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents a case study of the first commercial use of cone penetrometer testing (CPT)/deployed laser induced fluorescence (LIF) to address the following objectives at a creosote DNAPL site. The objectives of the investigation using CPT/LIF were to: quickly and cost effectively delineate the horizontal and vertical extent of creosote DNAPL in soil/groundwater; delineate/differentiate creosote DNAPL constituents within the extent of DNAPL; delineate dissolved-phase versus free phase DNAPL compounds in the subsurface. The complexity of investigating the extent of creosote DNAPL magnifies the time and cost of the application of conventional investigative techniques. The application of CPT/LIF at the subject site allowed a comparison between CPT/LIF and more conventional investigative techniques. If the objectives were achieved in a shorter time-frame, and at a lesser cost than traditional methods, then the CPT/LIF method would be confirmed as a viable, field-scale technology for investigating appropriate wood-treating sites.

  10. The effect of creosote on vitellogenin production in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherry, J.P.; Whyte, J.J.; Karrow, N.A.; Gamble, A.; Boerman, H.J.; Bol, N.C.; Dixon, D.G.; Solomon, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader investigation into the effects of creosote treatments on the aquatic biota in pond microcosms, we examined the possible implications for vitellogenin (Vtg) production in Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout (RT)]. Vtg is the precursor of egg yolk protein and has emerged as a useful biomarker of exposure to estrogenic substances. Our a priori intent was to assess the ability of the creosote treatments (nominal cresoste concentrations were 0, 3, and 10 ??l/L immediately after the last subsurface addition) to induce estrogenic responses in RT. The data showed no evidence of an estrogenic response in the treated fish. During the course of the experiment, however, the fish matured and began to produce Vtg, probably in response to endogenous estrogen. A posteriori analysis of the Vtg data from the maturing fish showed that after 28 days, the plasma Vtg concentrations were about 15-fold lower in fish from the creosote-treated microcosms compared with fish from the reference microcosm. Although the experiment design does not permit mechanistic insights, our observation suggests that exposure of female fish to PAH mixtures such as creosote can impair the production of Vtg with possible health implications for embryos and larvae. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  11. SITE PROGRAM DEMONSTRATION OF THE SBP TECHNOLOGIES, INC. MEMBRANE FILTRATION SYSTEM ON CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formed-in-place membrane filtration system offered by SBP Technologies, Inc. of Stone Mountain, GA was evaluated by the USEPA SITE Program. he evaluation lasted 6 days; ca. 1000 gallons per day of creosote-contaminated water were treated. he SITE Program Demonstration was acc...

  12. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS IN THE MUMMICHOG (FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS) FROM A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high prevalence of exocrine pancreatic neoplasms occurred in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, from a creosote-contaminated site in the Elizabeth River, Virginia. otal of 20 neoplasms occurred in a group of about 1 100 fish evaluated histologically. f 240 adult fish collected d...

  13. STRATEGY USING BIOREACTORS AND SPECIALLY SELECTED MICROORGANISMS FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. erformance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using ...

  14. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

  15. ACTION OF A FLUORANTHENE-UTILIZING BACTERIAL COMMUNITY OF POLYCYLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPONENTS OF CREOSOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures enriched by serial transfer through a mineral salts medium containing fluoranthene were used to establish a stable, 7-membered bacterial community from a sandy soil highly contaminated with coal-tar creosote. his community exhibited an ability to utilize fluoranthene as ...

  16. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE SORDIDA TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with creosote was performed at a wood-treating facility in south central Mississippi in the autumn of 1991. The effects of solid-phase bioremediation with Phanerochaete sordid...

  17. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  18. President Bush During STS-107 Memorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    President George W. Bush, before the crowd on the mall of the Johnson Space Center during the memorial for the Columbia astronauts, stated, 'Each of these astronauts had the daring and discipline required of their calling. Each of them knew that great endeavors are inseparable from great risks. And each of them accepted those risks willingly, even joyfully, in the cause of discovery.' For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  19. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Creosoting Company, Hilbig Road, Conroe, Texas, September 1986. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-30

    The United Creosoting site, Montgomery County, Texas, operated from 1946 to 1972, treating wood with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP). During the summer of 1980, Montgomery County obtained soils from the United Creosoting site to be used in improving local roads in a nearby subdivision. Samples indicated that soils were contaminated with PCP, chlorinated dioxins (no tetrachlorinated dioxins), and dibenzofurans. EPA ordered Clark Distributing to undertake an Immediate Response Action within the area of the former waste ponds. Remedial actions were recommended and are included in the report.

  20. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10 more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  1. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Fisher, Mark; Muth, Allan

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  2. Electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil: laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Suni, Sonja; Malinen, Essi; Kosonen, Jarmo; Silvennoinen, Hannu; Romantschuk, Martin

    2007-02-15

    Creosote is a toxic and carcinogenic substance used in wood impregnation. Approximately 1,200 sites in Finland are contaminated with creosote. This study examined the possibility of enhancing bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil with a combination of electric heating and infiltration and electrokinetic introduction of oxygenated, nutrient-rich liquid. Preliminary tests were performed in the laboratory, and a pilot test was conducted in situ at a creosote-contaminated former wood impregnation plant in Eastern Finland. Wood preservation practices at the plant were discontinued in 1989, but the soil and the groundwater in the area are still highly contaminated. The laboratory tests were mainly performed as a methodological test aiming for upscaling. The soils used in these tests were a highly polluted soil from a marsh next to the impregnation plant and a less polluted soil near the base of the impregnation building. The laboratory test showed that the relative degradation was significantly higher in high initial contaminant concentrations than with low initial concentrations. During the first 7 weeks, PAH-concentrations decreased by 68% in the marsh soil compared with a 51% reduction in the building soil. The field test was performed to a ca. 100 m3 soil section next to the former impregnation building. Nutrient and oxygen levels in the soils were elevated by hydraulic and electrokinetic pumping of urea and phosphate amended, aerated water into the soil. The DC current introduced into the soil raised the temperature from the ambient ca. 6 degrees C up to between 16 and 50 degrees C. Total PAH concentrations decreased by 50-80% during 3 months of treatment while mineral oil concentrations decreased approximately 30%. Electrokinetically enhanced in situ - bioremediation, which also significantly raised the soil temperature, proved to be a promising method to remediate creosote-contaminated soils. PMID:17365294

  3. Bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by the clam, Rangia cuneata, in the vicinity of a creosote spill

    SciTech Connect

    DeLeon, I.R.; Ferrario, J.B.; Byrne, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    During 1980-81, as part of NOAA/US Coast Guard initiative, the authors participated in an environmental study of a creosote spill into Bayou Bonfouca at the American Creosote Works Plant (ACWP) site at Slidell, Louisiana. The objectives for the study were: (1) to determined the nature and extent of creosote contamination at the site and in the bayou, and (2) to evaluate through biomonitoring the bioavailability and human health implications of creosote derived PAHs in the bayou and the estuarine system into which Bayou Bonfouca flows. So dramatic were their findings that their data was used in part by state and federal agencies to bring about in 1982, the inclusion of the Bayou Bonfouca site on the National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites that pose a threat to public health and the environment. This is a report of their findings on the biomonitoring of their study.

  4. HEPATOBLASTOMAS IN THE MUMMICHOG, FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS (L.), FROM A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENT: A HISTOLOGIC, ULTRASTRUCTURAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed histologic and ultrastructural description of two cases of hepatoblastoma, a primitive liver cell neoplasm, is provided from mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus(L.), inhabiting a creosote-contaminated site in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, USA. Both neoplasms were multifo...

  5. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 OLD SLAVE QUARTERS AND KITCHEN - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SMOKE HOUSE. - Dr. William Hughes House & Outbuildings, Hughes Creek vicinity, Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  7. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE - Colonel John Young Kilpatrick House & Outbuildings, Bridgeport Road (County Road 37), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  8. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Nghikembua, Matti; Maul, Jude E.; Marker, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1935 VIEW SHOWING PLOT - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, 1936 IRON WORK ON FRONT BALCONY (NORTH) - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, 1936 STAGE IN SOUTH END OF AUDITORIUM - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 REAR WALL RAILING (PORCH) SECOND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 31, 1936 NORTH WALL OF AUDITORIUM, SECOND FLOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 4, 1937 REAR (SOUTH) AND EAST ELEVATION (GEN. VIEW) - Arlington Place, 331 Cotton Avenue, Southwest, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 VIEW ON INTERMEDIATE STAIRWAY - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  16. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, 1936 WEST ELEVATION (REAR) - University of Alabama, Observatory, Stadium Drive & Fifth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 8, 1935. VIEW OF LOFT AND GALLERY. - First Presbyterian Church, East Fourth & North Broad Streets, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  18. 46. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 LOOKING DOWN ON WALK AND DRIVE - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1936 DENNY'S TOWER, COMPANY F IN BACKGROUND - University of Alabama, Denny's Tower, University Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  20. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, J. S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, A.; Nghikembua, M.; Maul, J. E.; Marker, L.

    2015-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  1. Vice President Bush with Spacelab Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Pictured from the left are astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Vice President George Bush, and Ulf Merbold of West Germany, inside Spacelab in the Operations and Checkout Building at Kennedy Space Center. This European-built orbital laboratory was formally dedicated on February 5, 1982. Merbold was one of the payload specialists on the first Spacelab flight STS-9, that launched November 28, 1983. Spacelab was a reusable laboratory that allowed scientists to perform various experiments in microgravity while orbiting Earth. Designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and mounted in NASA's Space Shuttle cargo bay, Spacelab flew on missions from 1983 to 1997.

  2. Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattmann, B.O.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate potential for a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida. Surface soil and sediment were contaminated with approximately 1 and 7% (weight basis) organic pollutants, respectively, but the more recalcitrant creosote constituents (i.e., high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) were proportionately higher in the surface soil indicative of creosote weathering. Data suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies may not effectively meet acceptable treatment standards in the time defining these studies.

  3. Utah Is Unlikely Fly in Bush's School Ointment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2005-01-01

    Utah state Representative Margaret Dayton adored President Bush. Her conservative politics lined up with his. One of her favorite memories was being at an intimate gathering and hearing the president echo her top priorities, God, family, and country. However, Dayton had drove one of Bush's biggest education-relation headaches. Dayton led a

  4. Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, and Vannevar Bush's Memex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the concept of the Memex, an imaginary information retrieval machine proposed by Vannevar Bush in 1945. The technological background of the Memex and of other visions of that period are examined with special reference to Emanuel Goldberg, inventor of a microfilm selector using a photoelectric cell. Bush's work is reassessed in this…

  5. Innovation, Pragmaticism, and Technological Continuity: Vannevar Bush's Memex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyce, James M.; Kahn, Paul

    1989-01-01

    Examines published and unpublished writings of Vannevar Bush to better determine why he created the memex and what he hoped to accomplish with such a machine. The discussion covers the extent to which hypertext and modern technology have fulfilled Bush's predictions. (24 references) (CLB)

  6. Bush Keeps Math-Science Plan on Bunsen Burner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    President Bush continued his campaign to get schools to focus more on mathematics and science education with a visit to a middle school in Rockville, Maryland, where students study robotics and work with NASA scientists. President Bush toured the school with Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings as part of his initiative to emphasize math and…

  7. Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, and Vannevar Bush's Memex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the concept of the Memex, an imaginary information retrieval machine proposed by Vannevar Bush in 1945. The technological background of the Memex and of other visions of that period are examined with special reference to Emanuel Goldberg, inventor of a microfilm selector using a photoelectric cell. Bush's work is reassessed in this

  8. Bush's Legacy in Higher Education: A Matter of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul; Field, Kelly; Hebel, Sara

    2008-01-01

    President Bush is leaving the White House with a mixed record on higher education. His administration catapulted conversations about holding colleges more accountable for their performance into the national spotlight, and it pressed for some increases in federal spending on student aid and research. At the same time, Mr. Bush faced criticism from

  9. Bush Has Own View of Promoting Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's own view of promoting civil rights. Mr. Bush has sought to redefine the discussion of civil rights in education. Instead of focusing on racial integration in public schools, for instance, the president has emphasized the achievement gap between minority and white students. He has spoken of school choice as a

  10. Bush Plan Would Heighten NCLB Focus on High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    President Bush's new plan to heighten the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act's focus on high schools is being questioned by policy makers. This article discusses how the Bush administration, with its proposals to reauthorize the current version of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the NCLB, wants to use the law to change the way high

  11. Bush Test Proposal for High Schoolers Joins Wider Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how President's Bush's proposals to expand educational accountability from the elementary and middle grades to high schools would mean more testing for teenagers, individual student plans to promote achievement, and financial incentives for teachers to help students meet their goals. Mr. Bush's campaign proposals, unveiled

  12. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the grazing value of the land and hence the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil at a chronose...

  13. Bush Keeps Math-Science Plan on Bunsen Burner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    President Bush continued his campaign to get schools to focus more on mathematics and science education with a visit to a middle school in Rockville, Maryland, where students study robotics and work with NASA scientists. President Bush toured the school with Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings as part of his initiative to emphasize math and

  14. Bush Has Own View of Promoting Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's own view of promoting civil rights. Mr. Bush has sought to redefine the discussion of civil rights in education. Instead of focusing on racial integration in public schools, for instance, the president has emphasized the achievement gap between minority and white students. He has spoken of school choice as a…

  15. Bush Research Budget again Focuses on Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hebel, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents compelling reasons why President George W. Bush decided to double federal funds for agencies supporting physical-science research. The biggest beneficiaries of Mr. Bush's plan for 2008 would be the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Those agencies, together with the National

  16. Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 1. Overview and plume development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.

    1999-10-01

    A volume of sand containing coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. Coal tar creosote is a mixture of more than 200 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds and phenolic compounds. A representative group of seven compounds was selected for detailed study: phenol, m-xylene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, 1-methylnaphthalene, dibenzofuran and carbazole. Movement of groundwater through the source led to the development of a dissolved organic plume, which was studied over a 4-year period. Qualitative plume observations and mass balance calculations indicated two key conclusions: (1) compounds from the same source can display distinctly different patterns of plume development and (2) mass transformation was a major influence on plume behaviour for all observed compounds.

  17. Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a series of studies of methanogenic processes in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated aquifers indicated that acetoctastic methanogenesis is inhibited near non-aqueous sources. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At that site, acetoclastic methanogens were < 2/g within or near the oil where hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens were 10-100/g. The geochemical effect of this toxic inhibition was the buildup of low molecular weight volatile acids, particularly acetate. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity will result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  18. Analysis of beechwood creosote by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ogata, N; Baba, T

    1989-12-01

    Compounds in beechwood creosote were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and 22 major constituents were identified. Of these, 19 were phenolic compounds, i. e., guaiacol, phenol, two cresol isomers, four methylguaiacol (creosol) isomers, six xylenol isomers, two trimethylphenol isomers, 4-ethylguaiacol, 4-ethyl-5-methylguaiacol, and 4-propylguaiacol. The remaining three were hitherto unpredicted five-membered ring compounds, i. e., 3-methyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3,5-dimethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one, and 3-ethyl-2-hydroxy-2-cyclopenten-1-one. The relative quantities of these compounds were also compared with those obtained by high-resolution high-performance liquid chromatography. This report probably represents the first extensive analysis of beechwood creosote. PMID:2609018

  19. Creosote compounds in snails obtained from Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.

    1987-01-01

    Snails, Thais haemostoma, were collected from two areas offshore in Pensacola Bay, Florida, near an onshore hazardous-waste site. Tissue from the snails was extracted to isolate the lipophilic compounds and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Along with naturally occurring compounds, the snail tissue contained large concentrations of polycyclic aromatic compounds, such as phenanthrene, acridine, dibenzothiophene, dibenzofuran, and benzo[a]pyrene. Many of these compounds were characteristic of creosote contamination associated with the onshore hazardous-waste site.

  20. A nonlinear viscoelastic bushing element in multibody dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledesma, R.; Ma, Z.-D.; Hulbert, G.; Wineman, A.

    1996-09-01

    This paper presents a formulation for incorporating nonlinear viscoelastic bushing elements into multibody systems. The formulation is based on the assumption that the relaxation function can be expressed as a sum of functions which are nonlinear in deformation and exponentially decreasing in time. These forces can represent elastomeric mounts or bushings in automotive suspension systems. The numerical implementation of the nonlinear viscoelastic bushing model into a general purpose rigid multibody dynamics code is described, and an extension of the formulation is also presented wherein component flexibility is included. Model validation was performed by comparing experimental data to simulation results obtained using the nonlinear viscoelastic model and a nonlinear elastic model. The experimental data were obtained at the Center's facilities by testing an automotive lower control arm/bushing system, subjected to a simulated road load event. The comparison demonstrates the better load prediction capability of the viscoelastic bushing model compared to the conventional model.

  1. Action of a fluoranthene-utilizing bacterial community on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components of creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Chapman, P.J.; Pritchard, P.H. )

    1989-12-01

    Cultures enriched by serial transfer through a mineral salts medium containing fluoranthene were used to establish a stable, seven-member bacterial community from a sandy soil highly contaminated with coal tar creosote. This community exhibited an ability to utilize fluoranthene as the sole carbon source for growth, as demonstrated by increases in protein concentration and changes in absorption spectra when grown on fluoranthene in liquid culture. Biotransformation of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was verified by demonstrating their disappearance from an artificial PAH mixture by capillary gas chromatography. When grown on fluoranthene as the sole carbon source and subsequently exposed to fluoranthene plus 16 additional PAHs typical of those found in creosote, this community transformed all PAHs present in this defined mixture. After 3 days of incubation, 13 of the original 17 PAH components were degraded to levels below the limit of detection (10 ng/liter). Continued incubation resulted in extensive degradation of the remaining four compounds. The ability of this community to utilize a high-molecular-weight PAH as the sole carbon source, in conjunction with its ability to transform a diverse array of PAHs, suggests that it may be of value in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with PAHs, such as those impacted by creosote.

  2. Action of a Fluoranthene-Utilizing Bacterial Community on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Components of Creosote

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, J. G.; Chapman, P. J.; Pritchard, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Cultures enriched by serial transfer through a mineral salts medium containing fluoranthene were used to establish a stable, seven-member bacterial community from a sandy soil highly contaminated with coal tar creosote. This community exhibited an ability to utilize fluoranthene as the sole carbon source for growth, as demonstrated by increases in protein concentration and changes in absorption spectra when grown on fluoranthene in liquid culture. Biotransformation of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was verified by demonstrating their disappearance from an artificial PAH mixture by capillary gas chromatography. When grown on fluoranthene as the sole carbon source and subsequently exposed to fluoranthene plus 16 additional PAHs typical of those found in creosote, this community transformed all PAHs present in this defined mixture. After 3 days of incubation, 13 of the original 17 PAH components were degraded to levels below the limit of detection (10 ng/liter). Continued incubation resulted in extensive degradation of the remaining four compounds. The ability of this community to utilize a high-molecular-weight PAH as the sole carbon source, in conjunction with its ability to transform a diverse array of PAHs, suggests that it may be of value in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with PAHs, such as those impacted by creosote. PMID:16348069

  3. Characterizing creosote immunotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: A mesocosm study

    SciTech Connect

    Karrow, N.A.; Dixon, D.G.; Bols, N.C.; Whyte, J.J.; Magdic, S.; Boermans, H.J.; Solomon, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    Immunocompetence was assessed in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed on days 103 to 131 of a mesocosm study using initial liquid creosote concentrations of 0, 5, 9, 17, 31 and 56 ul/l. Oxidative burst, phagocytic activity, and lymphocyte blastogenic response were measured, as indicators of exposure, using pronephros leukocytes. Peripheral blood was used to measure surface immunoglobulin-positive (slg{sup +}) leukocyte count and lysozyme activity. Tissue residue and water concentration were used as dose surrogates. Pronephros leukocyte phagocytic activity and oxidative burst exhibited a significant dose-response relationship, as measured by flow cytometry. Oxidative burst was inhibited, while phagocytic activity was enhanced. A concentration dependent reduction in the number of slg + peripheral blood leukocytes was also observed using flow cytometry. Although no measurable change in lymphocyte proliferation was detected in response to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin-A (ConA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced blastogenesis was significantly inhibited. No change in lysozyme activity was observed at 28 d. The results from this study indicate that sediment bound creosote has the potential to alter immune response. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a major constituent of liquid creosote, are the suspected immunoalterating agents. PAHs are known to predispose fish to disease resulting from their immunosuppressive potentiality.

  4. Severe Bush Fires Near Sydney, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Raging brush fires are threatening the suburbs of Sydney, Australia, in the waning days of 2001. Lightning strikes started some of the fires in mid-December, but arsonists may have started more. So far the flames have damaged Blue Mountain and Royal National Parks, threatening the wildlife there. More than 100 homes in suburban Sydney have also been destroyed. The image above shows the fires on December 25, 2001, when smoke and haze covered the city of Sydney. The scene was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Smoke from fires near Sydney taken by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) December 27, 2001. (Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE) Although bush fires are common in Australia during the summer months, this outbreak is particularly severe. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  5. Shape Optimization of Rubber Bushing Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design rubber bushing at desired level of stiffness characteristics in order to achieve the ride quality of the vehicle. A differential evolution algorithm based approach is developed to optimize the rubber bushing through integrating a finite element code running in batch mode to compute the objective function values for each generation. Two case studies were given to illustrate the application of proposed approach. Optimum shape parameters of 2D bushing model were determined by shape optimization using differential evolution algorithm. PMID:25276848

  6. Shape optimization of rubber bushing using differential evolution algorithm.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Necmettin

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design rubber bushing at desired level of stiffness characteristics in order to achieve the ride quality of the vehicle. A differential evolution algorithm based approach is developed to optimize the rubber bushing through integrating a finite element code running in batch mode to compute the objective function values for each generation. Two case studies were given to illustrate the application of proposed approach. Optimum shape parameters of 2D bushing model were determined by shape optimization using differential evolution algorithm. PMID:25276848

  7. Development of conical silicone rubber bushings to replace porcelain on SF{sub 6} circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.B.; Orbeck, T.; Moal, E.

    1994-12-31

    A unique design of a composite polymer bushing is introduced and evaluated. A comprehensive test program defined the mechanical and electrical performance of a conical silicone polymer composite bushing. This evaluation also included aging and pollution tests to assess the long-term stability of the new design. Results show that the composite bushing offers technical and safety benefits over conventional porcelain bushings.

  8. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL ON WEST WALL OF NORTH WEST BEDROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  9. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 MANTEL IN N. W. ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  10. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, 1937 OLD TIME TOOLS USED IN ANTI-BELLUM TIMES, TUSCUMBIA VICINITY. - Carl Rand House, 501 East Third Street, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, 1937 LOOKING SOUTHWEST IN THE WEST END ROOM, FIRST FLOOR. - Carl Rand House, 501 East Third Street, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  12. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. EAST ENTRANCE GATE TO BURIAL LOT - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN NORTH END OF HALL OR LIVING ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - David Wade House, Bob Wade Lane, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, 1937 INTERIOR OF MAIN ENTRANCE DOOR AND DOOR IN WEST WALL - Governor Robert Lindsay House, U.S. Highway 72, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  15. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 REAR VIEW, SHOWING SMALL OLD-TIME WINDOW OF SLAVE HOUSE - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  16. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, 1935 OLD- TIME KITCHEN, WEST SIDE (NOW GARAGE), SLAVES CABIN No. 3 IN SHEETS, E SIDE OF YARD - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 7, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION (SOUTH) FROM EAST SIDE - Baptist Church, Broad Street (State Road 28), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 6, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF CENTER FRONT SHOWING MAIN ENTRANCE - Old Female Academy, Broad Street (State Route 28), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Alex Bush, Photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Alex Bush, Photographer, March 15, 1935 OLD COLLEGE PAMPHLET. NOT COPYRIGHTED. FRONT AND SIDE VIEW S.E. (BEFORE ALTERATION). - Marion Female Seminary, Monroe & Centreville Streets, Marion, Perry County, AL

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 MANTEL IN N. W. REAR ROOM, FIRST FLOOR (MASTER BEDROOM - 1ST FLOOR) - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1936 SOUTH AND WEST WALLS IN S. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR, SHOWING MANTELS AND WINDOW - Dry Forks Plantation, County Road 12, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  2. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 MANTEL IN S. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR (PARLOR) - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  3. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 INTERIOR VIEW OF N. W. CORNER SMOKE HOUSE - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  4. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE AND WELL AT REAR OF HOME - Samuel M. Peck House, Eighteenth Street & Thirtieth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 LOOKING SOUTH AT PART OF OLD KITCHEN. SERVANT'S HOUSE ON LEFT, SMOKE HOUSE ON RIGHT - C. W. Dunlap House, 237 Wilson Avenue, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  6. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, 1935 FRONT (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE OF SMOKE HOUSE - J. O. Banks House & Smokehouse, Springfield Avenue & Pickens Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST AT SMOKE HOUSE AND COOK'S HOME. - Ingleside, House & Outbuildings, Second Street (State Highway 14), Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  8. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, 1935 OLD SLAVE HOUSE, SMOKE HOUSE IN REAR - Greenlawn, U.S. Highway 431 (Memorial Parkway), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE. WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE - Sellers-Henderson House & Smokehouse, State Route 28, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SLAVE CABIN #1 (WESTERNMOST) IN SHEETS, CABIN AT WEST SIDE OF PLOT, FACES EAST, GIRL'S DORMITORY IN REAR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 VIEW SHOWING BALCONY OF AUDITORIUM (HAS 800 SEATS) - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  12. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 FIREPLACE IN NORTH EAST ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  13. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF EXTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL PORTICO WINDOW - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 DETAIL OF REAR S. E. GROUND FLOOR WINDOW - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  15. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 DETAIL OF COLUMN CAPS ON BALCONY, THIRD FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  16. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 VIEW FROM STAGE TOWARD NORTH, MAIN FLOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  17. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 VIEW SHOWING WALL AT TOP OF HOME, W. SIDE N. FRONT - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 MAIN HALL TOWARDS SOUTH FROM FRONT DOOR - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 CLOSE-UP SHOWING DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE FROM BALCONY - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 8, 1935 RIGHT STAIRS TOWARDS WEST IN EAST END OF HALL EAST OF MAIN HALLWAY - Old Southern University, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  1. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Phorographer, April 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Phorographer, April 24, 1935 FIREPLACE IN PARLOR (S.E. FRONT ROOM) ALSO SHOWING OLD FRENCH FURNITURE - Judge Porter King House, 1001 Washington Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  2. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 LOOKING DOWN ON STAIR LANDING ON NORTH SIDE OF PORTICO - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 27, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF COLUMNS AT N. E. CORNER OF PORTICO - Stone-Young-Baggett House, County Road 54 (Old Selma Road), Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  4. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 STAIR ON NORTH END OF PORTICO - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT PORTICO FROM SOUTH SIDE - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1937 CORNICE TREATMENT ON NORTH SIDE OF PORTICO - Wilcox County Courthouse, Broad, Claiborne, Court & Water Streets, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 BASE OF MAIN STAIR ON W. SIDE OF FRONT HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  8. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF CEILING TREATMENT S.E. CORNER OF PARLOR - Montgomery-Jones-Whitaker House, County Road 4 (Reynolds Mill Road), Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  9. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 MAIN STAIRS ON W. WALL OF REAR HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  10. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF STAIR BASE AND DOOR, FIRST FLOOR FRONT HALL - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  11. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 GENERAL VIEW OF STAIR TREATMENT IN HALL - WEST SIDE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  12. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE - NORTH - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  13. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN UPPER BED ROOM (N.E.) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  14. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN KITCHEN, WEST SIDE OF SLAVE HOUSE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  15. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. W. FRONT ROOM (LIVING ROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  16. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CEILING CENTER IN PARLOR, N.E. ROOM - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  17. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 DOOR DETAIL IN S. WALL OF S. W. ROOM (BEDROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  18. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 HORSE STILE BLOCK + HITCHING POSTS IN FRONT OF HOUSE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  19. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE (NORTH) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  20. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN PARLOR, N. E. ROOM - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  1. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 STAIR BASE AND DOOR TO LIVING ROOM IN W. WALL OF HALL (FRONT) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 VIEW OF STAIRS ON W. SIDE OF HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  3. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 DOOR IN W. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR) LEADING INTO HALL. - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  4. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  5. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 STONE CHIMNEY ON W. END OF OUTHOUSES - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 SLIDING DOORS IN S. WALL BETWEEN N. E. AND S. E. PARLORS, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  7. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 VIEW FROM HALL ON 2nd FLOOR SHOWING SUN PARLOR - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, 1937 ENTRANCE FROM SUN PARLOR IN CROSS HALL, ALSO STAIRWAY - Governor Robert Lindsay House, U.S. Highway 72, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  9. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST IN GIRL'S DORMITORY, FOURTH FLOOR - East Alabama Masonic Female Institute, 205 East South Street, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 WALL AROUND REAR YARD OF BANK (SERPENTINE WALL) - State Bank of Alabama, Decatur Branch, Bank Street & Wilson Avenue, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  11. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 28, 1936 CLOSE-UP DETAIL OF UPPER PART FRONT DOOR - Sturdivant-Moore-Hartley House, Centenary & Main Streets, Summerfield, Dallas County, AL

  12. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 9, 1936 CLOSE-UP SOUTH (FRONT) ENTRANCE - Greene County Courthouse, Main & Boligee Streets, Prairie & Monroe Avenues, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  13. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 8, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE - Eutaw Female Academy, Main Street & Wilson Avenue (moved from original site), Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  14. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 6, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF TYPICAL RIVER SCENERY, SELMA, ALA., TAKEN FROM POINT OPPOSITE ST. JAMES HOTEL - St. James Hotel, 1200 Water Avenue, Selma, Dallas County, AL

  15. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, 1936 PLAQUE (IN CHURCH) TO MEMORY OF WILLIAM C. THOMPSON AND WIFE - Methodist Church, State Highway 25, Dayton, Marengo County, AL

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, 1936 MANTEL IN N. WALL OF N. E. CORNER ROOM - Gayle-Locke House, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  17. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 10, 1935 FRONT (E) AND NORTH SIDE OF SERVANTS HOUSE, SHOWING RIP SAWS - Waldwic House & Outbuildings, State Route 69, Gallion, Hale County, AL

  18. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 1, 1936 MANTEL IN FRONT ROOM (ON LEFT), FIRST FLOOR - Gayle-Locke House, University Avenue (College Street), Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  19. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 8, 1936 VIEW FROM LIVING ROOM, OF SOUTH AND EAST WALL OF DINING ROOM - Derrick House, 603 East Main Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT AND SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT) OF OLD MUSIC BUILDING - Eutaw Female Academy, Main Street & Wilson Avenue (moved from original site), Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  4. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 CORNICE IN CORNER OF REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  5. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 CLOSE UP OF CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR (MUSIC ROOM), N. E. ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  6. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 LOOKING UP AT CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, 1934. BRICK WALL, WAS ONCE USED AS A COW LOT - Jemison-van de Graaf-Burchfield House, 1305 Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, 1935 FIREPLACE IN DINING ROOM, S.E. ROOM DOWN STAIRS - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 CENTRAL FRONT ELEVATION (WEST) - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  10. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 EAST WALL OF COURT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  11. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 COLUMN CAP AT N.W. CORNER - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION SHOWING SIDE ENTRANCE - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  13. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 REAR VIEW IN COURT ROOM (WEST) - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  14. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 ENTRANCE (EAST) - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  15. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 NORTH SIDE OF COURT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  16. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH ENTRANCE DOOR - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  17. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 S. E. ELEVATION (FRONT) Taken from N.W. - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  18. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 LOOKING UP FROM FIRST FLOOR AT SOUTH SIDE ENTRANCE - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  19. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 STAIRWAY ON SOUTH WALL OF SOUTH ENTRANCE, FIRST FLOOR - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  20. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 HALL AND STAIRWAY ON NORTH SIDE - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  1. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 NORTH WEST ELEVATION (REAR) Taken from S.E. - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF REAR ENTRANCE (EAST) - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  3. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 FIREPLACE IN S.W. ROOM ON FIRST FLOOR - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  4. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 IRON RAILING IN COURT ROOM - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  5. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 3, 1936 NORTH VIEW ON FRONT BALCONY - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  6. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 STONE MONUMENT TO NICOLA MARSHALL - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  7. 35. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, 1937 LOOKING WEST IN FRONT END OR SOUTH END OF THE WEST SIDE OF HOME. - Saunders-Goode-Hall House, State Highway 101, Town Creek, Lawrence County, AL

  8. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, 1936 STAIR IN SOUTH END OF CROSS-HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Alfred Battle Home, Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 12, 1936 DETAIL OF COLUMN CAP, S. W. CORNER PORTICO - Dearing-Bagby House, 421 Queen City Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, 1936 CORNICE IN N. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Dr. John H. Drish House, 2300 Seventeenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  11. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF NORTH ELEVATION (FRONT) - Dr. John H. Drish House, 2300 Seventeenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  12. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 6, 1936 DETAIL OF DOOR AND WINDOWS, N. END OF PORTICO - Judge William C. Cochrane House, 3600 Fifteenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 6, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 6, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF COLUMNS ON NORTH END OF BALCONY - Judge William C. Cochrane House, 3600 Fifteenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 VIEW OF STAIR AND HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  15. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 30, 1935 MANTEL N. W. FRONT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Father Robert Donnell House, 601 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  16. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 DOORWAY BETWEEN LIVING ROOM AND DINING ROOM - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 PART OF SOUTH SIDE OF HALL AND COLUMNS - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  18. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 VIEW OF HALL AND FRONT DOOR IN SIDE - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  19. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  20. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 STAIR RAILING ON SECOND FLOOR - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  1. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 30, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF ENTRANCE, SHOWING BALCONY - Father Robert Donnell House, 601 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  2. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 MANTEL IN S. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 31, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 31, 1935 DOOR DETAIL IN DINING ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Governor George S. Houston House, 101 Houston Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF ENTRANCE AND BALCONY, WEST FRONT - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  5. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL AND WINDOWS ON EAST WALL OF N.E. FRONT ROOM - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SOUTH END OF HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT AND WEST ELEVATION FROM N. W. - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  9. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH EAST AT OLD STORE - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON WEST WALL N.W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  12. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, 1936 SOUTH END OF BACK PORCH SHOWING BLINDS AND STAIR RAIL, SECOND FLOOR - Burford House, County Road 33 vicinity, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF NORTH HALF OF EAST (FRONT) ELEV. - Henry Williams Saunders House, Bonner Mill Road & Ferguson Street, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, 1937 CLOSE-UP DETAIL OF NORTH EAST CORNER - Doctor Wilkins House, State Highways 14 & 86 vicinity, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 14, 1937 CLOSE-UP FRONT (EAST) ELEVATION FROM SO. EAST CORNER - Henry Williams Saunders House, Bonner Mill Road & Ferguson Street, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  16. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE PORTICO - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  17. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 CLOSE-UP FRONT PORTICO FROM NORTH WEST CORNER - Pickensville Methodist Church, Ferguson Street & Chopitoolas Avenue, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  18. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, 1936 NORTH WEST CORNER OF ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR SHOWING WINDOW AND MANTEL - Strawberry Hill Plantation, U.S. Route 43, Forkland, Greene County, AL

  19. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW IN FRONT OF MAIN HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH ELEVATION - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW INTO LIVING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 GENERAL VIEW OF REAR OF MAIN HALL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION FROM SOUTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  4. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  5. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING NORTH IN CROSS HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  6. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON SOUTH WALL OF PARLOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 REAR (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  8. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT OF ENTRANCE HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  9. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SERVANT'S HOUSE AND GARAGE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF MAIN ENTRANCE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW THROUGH DOUBLE SLIDING DOORS INTO DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  12. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH WEST AT OLD STABLE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 MANTEL IN S. WALL OF E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  14. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 DETAIL OF DOOR AND MANTEL IN N. WALL OF E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 DOOR IN N. WALL OF HALL, ALSO STAIR BASE - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  16. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 9, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (GENERAL VIEW) VIEW FROM GATE - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  17. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 30, 1936 OLD COOLER (LARGE ROOM UNDERGROUND) WEST SIDE - Pitts' Folly, House & Outbuildings, State Highway 21, Uniontown, Perry County, AL

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 17, 1936 WINDOW TREATMENT IN S. W. CORNER OF S. W. FRONT ROOM - Richardson-Quarles-Comer House, U.S. Highway 431 vicinity, Pittsview, Russell County, AL

  19. Distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within experimental microcosms treated with creosote-impregnated Douglas fir pilings

    SciTech Connect

    Bestari, K.T.J.; Solomon, K.R.; Steele, T.S.; Sibley, P.K.; Robinson, R.D.; Day, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    Temporal changes in the concentration and relative composition of 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, sediment, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) strips were assessed to evaluate the fate of creosote leached from impregnated wood pilings in aquatic environments. The study consisted of single microcosms containing one of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 creosote-impregnated pilings and two microcosms containing untreated pilings. Quantitative analyses of PAHs were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. For each treatment, total PAHs ({Sigma} PAH) in water increased rapidly up to 7 d posttreatment yielding a clear dose-dependant concentration gradient ranging from 7.3 to 97.2 {micro}g/L. Total PAHs declined exponentially after 7 d and was reduced close to background concentrations by the end of the study. No increase in {Sigma} PAH was observed in sediments at any treatment, nor was there any relationship between sediment PAHs and distance from each piling cluster. However, a slight increase in PAHs was observed on PVC liner strips that exhibited a concentration gradient similar to that in water. The PVC-bound {Sigma} PAH ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} and 0.2 to 2.2 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} at 31 and 58 d posttreatment, respectively. Based on these data, the authors estimated a rate loss of creosote from the pilings of approximately 50 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}/d. The low concentration of PAHs on the PVC, along with the absence of accumulation of PAHs in sediments, suggests that creosote was lost primarily from water via degradative pathways such as photolysis and microbial decomposition and adsorption onto PVC. The rapid loss of creosote from water in conjunction with the slow rate of leaching from the pilings suggests that risks associated with the use of creosote-impregnated pilings in aquatic environments may be minimal.

  20. In vitro effects of wood creosote on enterotoxin-induced secretion measured electrophysiologically in the rat jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Kuge, T; Venkova, K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2001-06-01

    Secretory diarrhea occurs when the balance between intestinal absorption and secretion is disturbed by excessive secretion caused by enterotoxins produced by the pathogen. Wood creosote has long been used as a traditional antidiarrheal remedy. The goal of our study was to extend our knowledge about the antisecretory action of wood creosote against Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in the small intestine and colon. Experiments were performed in mucosal sheets of rat jejunum and colon which were stripped of the external muscle layers to eliminate interactions with smooth muscle activity and local blood flow. Mucosal sheets were placed in modified Ussing chambers and hypersecretory conditions were induced by heat-labile (LT) or heat-stable (STa) E. coli enterotoxins added cumulatively (0.01-10 microg/ml) to the mucosal bathing solution. Intestinal secretion was monitored electrophysiologically as transmucosal short circuit current (Isc). LT induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc in the rat jejunum, with no effect in the colon. In contrast, STa induced a significant increase in colonic Isc, without causing any change in Isc across the jejunum. In separate experiments the effects of increasing concentrations of wood creosote (0.1-50 microg/ml), added to the mucosal or serosal bathing solution, were examined against the secretory responses induced by LT or STa. In the small intestine the antisecretory activity of wood creosote against LT-induced secretion was more potent following serosal application, whereas in the colon wood creosote inhibited STa-induced secretion with equal potency following either serosal or mucosal addition. In summary, our findings demonstrate that wood creosote possesses antidiarrheal activity suppressing E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in both the small intestine and colon. PMID:11411548

  1. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate.

    PubMed

    Thomson, N R; Fraser, M J; Lamarche, C; Barker, J F; Forsey, S P

    2008-11-14

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is >10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates <10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated >35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data indicated a highly variable and random spatial distribution of mass within the source zone and provided no insight into the mass removed of any of the monitored species. The down-gradient plume was monitored approximately 1, 2 and 4 years following treatment. The data collected at 1 and 2 years post-treatment showed a decrease in mass discharge (10 to 60%) and/or total plume mass (0 to 55%); however, by 4 years post-treatment there was a rebound in both mass discharge and total plume mass for all monitored compounds to pre-treatment values or higher. The variability of the data collected was too large to resolve subtle changes in plume morphology, particularly near the source zone, that would provide insight into the impact of the formation and deposition of manganese oxides that occurred during treatment on mass transfer and/or flow by-passing. Overall, the results from this pilot-scale investigation indicate that there was a significant but short-term (months) reduction of mass emanating from the source zone as a result of permanganate treatment but there was no long-term (years) impact on the ability of this coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume. PMID:18757111

  2. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjl, Kim

    2014-10-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  3. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjl, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  4. Bush blasts 'filth' on TV, school condom handouts.

    PubMed

    1991-12-18

    President Bush complained yesterday about the "filth and indecent material" that Americans are exposed to through televised trials. Mr. Bush also criticized programs to combat AIDS that give condoms to teenagers and clean needles to drug addicts. He said such efforts undermine traditional values. He expressed hope that Earvin "Magic" Johnson's revelation that he is HIV positive "will teach people that wayward lifestyles or just kind of unsafe sex at random is not the way it ought to work." Mr. Bush made the comments in a series of satellite television interviews with ABC affiliates in major cities. In an apparent reaction to graphic testimony at the recent Palm Beach rape trial of William Kennedy Smith, Mr. Bush said, "I think the American people have a right to be protected against some of these excesses." Mr. Smith, a nephew of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., was acquitted last week. The Cable News Network and Court TV provided virtually gavel-to-gavel coverage. Mr. Bush took a dim view of a plan to distribute condoms to juniors and seniors in Philadelphia city high schools as part of a program to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome. "This is a disease that can be controlled for the most part by individual behavior," Mr. Bush said. "Indeed, I must tell you I'm worried about it. I'm worried about so much filth and indecent material coming in through the airwaves and through these trials into people's homes," he said. PMID:12284862

  5. Multiple myeloma and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and creosote: a case-referent study

    SciTech Connect

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for multiple myeloma was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 131 cases and 431 randomized referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained with questionnaires mailed to the subjects. An analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique resulted in a few rate ratios significantly exceeding unity--namely, occupational exposure to engine exhausts, creosote, and fresh wood. In view of other studies that suggest ionizing radiation as a risk factor, it was somewhat surprising that low-level gamma radiation from background exposure was less common among the cases than the referents.

  6. Exposure to creosote in the impregnation and handling of impregnated wood.

    PubMed

    Heikkil, P R; Hmeil, M; Pyy, L; Raunu, P

    1987-10-01

    The major components of vapors and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in particulate matter were identified and quantified in two creosote impregnation plants and in the handling of treated wood. The vapors were collected on XAD-2 resin (recovery in the range of 82-102%) and analyzed by gas chromatography. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were collected on glass fiber filters and analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The main components of the vapors were naphthalene, methyl naphthalenes, indene, phenol, and its methyl homologues, benzothiophene, diphenyl, acenaphthene and fluorene. The exposure of the workers to vapors varied between 0.1 and 11 mg/m3. The concentrations of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons varied between 0.2 and 46 micrograms/m3. The benzo(a)pyrene concentration was under 0.03 micrograms/m3, except in manual metal-arc welding and in the boring of railroad ties, where it was 0.24-0.89 micrograms/m3. In the measurement of creosote vapors, naphthalene could be used as an indicator agent. PMID:3433045

  7. Surfactant influence on PAH biodegradation in a creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Deschenes, L.; Lafrance, P.; Villeneuve, J.P.; Samson, R.

    1995-12-31

    This study consisted of assessing the biodegradation of 13 of the 16 US Environmental Protection Agency priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a creosote-contaminated soil, using both biological and chemical surfactants. The assumption was that surfactants may enhance the mobilization of the hydrophobic PAHs, and possibly their biodegradation. The rhamnolipid biosurfactants were produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa UG2. The chemical surfactant was sodium dodecyl sulfate. Over a period of 45 weeks, PAHs were periodically extracted from soil and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that, at three studied concentrations, surfactant addition did not enhance PAH biodegradation in the creosote-contaminated soil. Furthermore, for the four-ring PAHs, surfactant presence seemed harmful to the biodegradation process, the residual concentrations of each studied PAH decreasing more slowly than those found in the untreated soil. Moreover, this effect increased as a function of surfactant concentration. The negative effect was less evident with biosurfactants than for the chemical surfactant. The high-molecular-weight PAHs were not degraded by the indigenous microorganisms. For the PAHs in general, the higher the molecular weight, the more recalcitrant was the contaminant. It is suggested that the surfactants were used as a preferential substrate by the indigenous microflora, which may have interfered with the biodegradation of the PAHs.

  8. Strategy using bioreactors and specially selected microorganisms for bioremediation of groundwater contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Ross, D.; Colvin, R.J.; Middaugh, D.P.

    1993-01-01

    A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. Performance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using specially-selected microorganisms was assessed according to chemical analyses of system influent, effluent and bioreactor residues, performing a mass balance evaluation, and comparative biological toxicity and teratogenicity measurements. When specially-selected bacteria capable of utilizing (mineralizing) high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HMW PAHs) as primary growth substrates were used in pilot-sale bioreactors (120 gal), the concentration of creosote constituents was reduced from ca. 1,000 ppm in the ground water feed (flow rate = 30 GPD) to <7 ppm in the system effluent (removal efficiency of >99%). Notably, the cumulative concentration of 8 HMS PAHs (containing 4 or more fused rings) was reduced from 368 ppm in the ground water fed to 5.2 ppm in the system effluent. Moreover, the toxicity and teratogenicity of the bioreactor effluent was significantly reduced. Biodegradation of PCP was limited (ca. 18%) due in large part to poor inoculation and a high degree of abiotic loss (bioaccumulation and adsorption). In general, field data correlated well with those obtained from bench-scale studies.

  9. Diversity of fungi in creosote-treated crosstie wastes and their resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ji; Lee, Hwanhwi; Choi, Yong-Seok; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok; Huh, Na-Yoon; Lee, Sangjoon; Lim, Young Woon; Lee, Sung-Suk; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2010-05-01

    This study was conducted to generate information regarding the diversity of fungi inhabiting creosote-treated wood in a storage yard for crosstie wastes in Gwangmyeong, Korea. Additionally, the resistance to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of indigenous fungi that mainly occupy creosote-treated wood was evaluated. We isolated fungi from the surface and inner area of crosstie wastes and identified them using a combination of traditional methods and molecular techniques. Overall, 179 isolates including 47 different species were isolated from 240 sampling sites. The identified fungal species included 23 ascomycetes, 19 basidiomycetes, and 5 zygomycetes. Three species, Alternaria alternata, Irpex lacteus, and Rhizomucor variabilis, were the most frequently isolated ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and zygomycetes, respectively. The results of this study showed that there was a large difference in the fungal diversity between the surface and the inner area. Additionally, zygomycetes and ascomycetes were found to have a greater tolerance to PAHs than basidiomycetes. However, two basidiomycetes, Heterobasidion annosum and Schizophyllum commune, showed very high resistance to PAHs, even in response to the highest concentration (1,000 ppm), which indicates that these species may play a role in the degradation of PAHs. PMID:20127413

  10. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote contaminants in natural and simulated ground-water ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald; Grbic-Galic, Dunja

    1992-01-01

    Wastes from a wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near-surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. Contamination resulted from the discharge of plant waste waters to and subsequent seepage from unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the ground water. Two distinct phases resulted when the creosote and water mixed: a denser than water hydrocarbon phase that moved vertically downward, and an organic-rich aqueous phase that moved laterally with the ground-water flow. The aqueous phase is enriched in organic acids, phenolic compounds, single- and double-ring nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen containing compounds, and single- and double-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. The ground water is devoid of dissolved O2, is 60-70% saturated with CH4 and contains H2S. Field analyses document a greater decrease in concentration of organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, and 2(1H)-isoquinolinone during downgradient movement in the aquifer than could be explained by dilution and/or dispersion. Laboratory microcosm studies have shown that within the study region, this effect can be attributed to microbial degradation to CH4 and CO2. A small but active methanogenic population was found on sediment materials taken from highly contaminated parts of the aquifer.

  11. DELTA-13C VALUES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) COLLECTED FROM TWO CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater samples were collected from the American Creosote Works (ACW) Superfund site in Pensacola, Florida in June and September 1994. Sampling wells were located along a transect leading away from the most contaminated area. PAHs were extracted from the groundwater samples w...

  12. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a pilot-scale test of a slurry-phase biological reactor for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil. he technology used was a reactor system in which an aqueous slurry of soil was mixed with appropriate nutrients and seeded with microorganisms to enhance the...

  13. Time domain responses of hydraulic bushing with two flow passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-02-01

    Hydraulic bushings are commonly employed in vehicle suspension and body sub-frame systems to control motion, vibration, and structure-borne noise. Since literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled bushing prototype which accommodates a combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements is first designed, constructed and instrumented. Step-up and step-down responses of several typical fluid-filled bushing configurations are measured along with steady harmonic time histories of transmitted force and internal pressures. To analyze the experimental results and gain physical insights into the hydraulic bushing system, lumped system models of bushings with different design features are developed, and analytical expressions of transmitted force and internal pressure responses are derived by using the convolution method. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of hydraulic element parameters. System parameters are successfully estimated for both harmonic and step responses using theory and measurements, and the dynamic force measurements are analyzed using analytical predictions. Finally, some nonlinearities of the system are also observed, and the fluid resistance of flow passage is found to be the most nonlinear element.

  14. Insulation design of cryogenic bushing for superconducting electric power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, J. Y.; Lee, Y. J.; Shin, W. J.; Kim, Y. H.; Kim, J. T.; Lee, B. W.; Lee, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the superconductivity projects to develop commercial superconducting devices for extra high voltage transmission lines have been undergoing in many countries. One of the critical components to be developed for high voltage superconducting devices, including superconducting transformers, cables, and fault current limiters, is a high voltage bushing, to supply high current to devices without insulating difficulties, that is designed for cryogenic environments. Unfortunately, suitable bushings for HTS equipment were not fully developed for some cryogenic insulation issues. Such high voltage bushings would need to provide electrical insulation capabilities from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. First, the dielectric strength of three kinds of metals has been measured with uniform and non-uniform electrodes by withstand voltage of impulse and AC breakdown test in LN2. Second, puncture breakdown voltage of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) plates has been analyzed with non-uniform electrodes. Finally, creepage discharge voltages were measured according to the configuration of non-uniform and uniform electrode on the FRP plate. From the test results, we obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic environment.

  15. Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on the Nitrogen Cycle in the Desert Creosote Scrub Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, J.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires are an ongoing threat to many ecosystems in Southern California. In some ecosystems, evidence suggests that high anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can increase susceptibility to fire by increasing the fuel loads and altering the plant species composition. Desert creosote scrub ecosystems are dominant throughout many low-elevation areas in the Mohave Desert and are among the ecosystems subjected to added deposition of nitrate and ammonium due to emissions from nearby agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. An understanding of how nitrogen flows through the desert creosote scrub ecosystem and of how the additional deposition affects this cycle is critical to determining how these ecosystems will change over time and assessing how the spread of fires can be mitigated. One high deposition and one low deposition desert creosote scrub site in Joshua Tree National Park have been studied for the past year in order to observe the flow of nitrogen through the soil and assess its connection to shifts in the vegetation. Extractable nitrate, extractable ammonium, and total nitrogen and carbon have been measured throughout 100cm soil profiles at each site in order to determine the fate and transport of the deposited nitrogen. Because the flow of water through the soil following the infrequent precipitation events is essential to the flow of nitrogen, dielectric water potential sensors have been installed throughout the top 70cm of soil in order to obtain hourly measurements of water potential. These measurements have been used in conjunction with weather and deposition data to model the flow of water and nitrogen through the soil using the hydrological model HYDRUS-1D. A geochemical model representing basic nitrogen reactions occurring in the soil has been started using PHREEQC coupled with HYDRUS-1D, but further modeling is necessary in order to accurately represent the complexity of the nitrogen cycle. After completion of an additional year of measurements and incorporation of supplemental data into the model, the predictions of this model will be input into biological models to determine how plant biomass and composition are expected to change in the future and into a fuel load model to predict how the fire cycle will be altered.

  16. High-voltage R-F feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, G.F.

    1982-09-03

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for transmitting rf energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  17. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  18. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  19. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F. (Northport, NY); Morgan, Gerry H. (Patchogue, NY); McNerney, Andrew J. (Shoreham, NY); Schauer, Felix (Upton, NY)

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  20. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  1. Ambient temperature influences tolerance to plant secondary compounds in a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kurnath, P; Merz, N D; Dearing, M D

    2016-01-13

    Growing evidence suggests that plant secondary compounds (PSCs) ingested by mammals become more toxic at elevated ambient temperatures, a phenomenon known as temperature-dependent toxicity. We investigated temperature-dependent toxicity in the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), a herbivorous rodent that naturally encounters PSCs in creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), which is a major component of its diet. First, we determined the maximum dose of creosote resin ingested by woodrats at warm (28-29°C) or cool (21-22°C) temperatures. Second, we controlled the daily dose of creosote resin ingested at warm, cool and room (25°C) temperatures, and measured persistence in feeding trials. At the warm temperature, woodrats ingested significantly less creosote resin; their maximum dose was two-thirds that of animals at the cool temperature. Moreover, woodrats at warm and room temperatures could not persist on the same dose of creosote resin as woodrats at the cool temperature. Our findings demonstrate that warmer temperatures reduce PSC intake and tolerance in herbivorous rodents, highlighting the potentially adverse consequences of temperature-dependent toxicity. These results will advance the field of herbivore ecology and may hone predictions of mammalian responses to climate change. PMID:26763703

  2. The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include

  3. Evolutionary spatial modeling of creosote sites on the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blais, J. A. R.; He, Kewen; Larouche, Christian

    1993-03-01

    Environmental studies of the creosote sites on the Bow River, Calgary, Alberta, can greatly benefit from some appropriate evolutionary spatial modeling of those sites to enable correlations with different surface imagery and borehole information. This evolutionary digital terrain modeling consists of integrating terrain models corresponding to different epochs into a sequence of models with the corresponding aerial photography draped over the reconstructed surface. Correlations with other available photography and discrete measurements are also planned to be done to facilitate the surface environmental studies. The presentation will describe the results from the first phase of this research project which has concentrated on the terrain modeling with appropriate visualization of the surface for the environmental scientists and engineers.

  4. One-electron oxidation in the degradation of creosote polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by Phanerochaete chrysoporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, B.W. |; Lamar, R.T.

    1995-07-01

    The abilities of whole cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium and P. chrysosporium manganese peroxidase-mediated lipid peroxidation reactions to degrade the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in creosote were studied. The disappearance of 12 three- to six-ring PAHs occurred in both systems. Both in vivo and in vitro, the disappearance of all PAHs was found to be very strongly correlated with ionization potential. This was true even for compounds beyond the ionization potential thresholds of lignin peroxidase and Mn{sup 3+}. Deviations from this correlation were seen in the cases of PAHs which are susceptible to radical addition reactions. These results thus begin to clarify the mechanisms of non-lignin peroxidase-labile PAH degradation in the manganese peroxidase-lipid peroxidation system and provide further evidence for the ability of this system to explain the in vivo oxidation of these compounds. 35 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Origins and ecological consequences of pollen specialization among desert bees.

    PubMed

    Minckley, R L; Cane, J H; Kervin, L

    2000-02-01

    An understanding of the evolutionary origins of insect foraging specialization is often hindered by a poor biogeographical and palaeoecological record. The historical biogeography (20,000 years before present to the present) of the desert-limited plant, creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), is remarkably complete. This history coupled with the distribution pattern of its bee fauna suggests pollen specialization for creosote bush pollen has evolved repeatedly among bees in the Lower Sonoran and Mojave deserts. In these highly xeric, floristically depauperate environments, species of specialist bees surpass generalist bees in diversity, biomass and abundance. The ability of specialist bees to facultatively remain in diapause through resource-poor years and to emerge synchronously with host plant bloom in resource-rich years probably explains their ecological dominance and persistence in these areas. Repeated origins of pollen specialization to one host plant where bloom occurs least predictably is a counter-example to prevailing theories that postulate such traits originate where the plant grows best and blooms most reliably Host-plant synchronization, a paucity of alternative floral hosts, or flowering attributes of creosote bush alone or in concert may account for the diversity of bee specialists that depend on this plant instead of nutritional factors or chemical coevolution between floral rewards and the pollinators they have evolved to attract. PMID:10714881

  6. Rethinking Education Reform in the Age of George Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    In the current educational reform movement, schools have become the new scapegoat for the American economy's increasing failure to compete in the world market. The Bush Administration needs to articulate a vision linking public education to democratic imperatives, rather than the marketplace's narrow demands. Education for empowerment should be a

  7. The Gore/Bush Records on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Compares the records of presidential candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore on higher education issues and, specifically, those of interest to the Black community. Concludes that Al Gore's record makes him an overall better choice in the 2000 campaign. (DB)

  8. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, 1935 LOOKING SOUTH IN CROSS HALL AT REAR OF MAIN HALL, SHOWING STONE ALTAR AND DOOR TORN OPEN BY THE FED. TROOPS DURING THE WAR - Colonel Goodloe House, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  9. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SMOKE HOUSE AND DAIRY, W SIDE AND S END (SLAVE CABIN No. 2 IN SHEETS, W SIDE OF YARD) - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, 1936 (WEST SIDE) VIEW LOOKING S.E. SHOWING 'DOG RUN' WALL EXPOSED AFTER REMOVAL OF WEST HALF OF HOUSE - Adam Weaver Log House, U.S. Highway 72, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  11. Networking the "Bush"--Is There Anyone out There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Local rural communities and individuals are increasingly disarmed by the socially transforming processes of post modern times including the globalisation of rural production systems and trade. There is a new climate "in the bush" that is imbued with a deep suspicion that globalisation processes will continue to threaten the…

  12. President Bush: A Friend of Higher Education after All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    President Bush's proposals on such topics as toughening accreditation standards and limiting the use of human embryonic stem cells in research may not have made him popular in academe over his two terms. This article reports that the president's willingness to spend federal money on many of colleges' top priorities might improve the perception of…

  13. Bush's 2008 Budget: "Robbing Peter to Pay Pell"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A few days before President Bush officially released his 2008 budget, administration officials announced that it would contain a historic increase in the maximum Pell Grant. The increase in Pell Grants would be paid for by cutting subsidies for student loans, a step that experts predicted could induce lenders to offer fewer benefits to borrowers.

  14. Jeb Bush's Impact Felt on K-12 Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Jeb Bush left the Florida governor's office in 2007 with a legacy of having brought sweeping changes to his state's education system, through hard-edged policies that gave parents and students more choices and demanded more of schools. Today, that legacy seems poised to grow--and well beyond Florida. In state capitals across the country, numerous

  15. President Bush: A Friend of Higher Education after All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    President Bush's proposals on such topics as toughening accreditation standards and limiting the use of human embryonic stem cells in research may not have made him popular in academe over his two terms. This article reports that the president's willingness to spend federal money on many of colleges' top priorities might improve the perception of

  16. Networking the "Bush"--Is There Anyone out There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Local rural communities and individuals are increasingly disarmed by the socially transforming processes of post modern times including the globalisation of rural production systems and trade. There is a new climate "in the bush" that is imbued with a deep suspicion that globalisation processes will continue to threaten the

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 FRONT AND SIDE VIEW S.W. (BUILDING FACES WEST) - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  18. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1935 VIEW OF COURT ROOM ON 2nd FLOOR TOWARD S.E. CORNER - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  19. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE STAIR BASE ON E. WALL, FIRST FLOOR - Perry County Court House, Square bounded by State Highway 5, Main Street, Greensboro Avenue & East Street, Marion, Perry County, AL

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 STAIRS AT THE REAR AND TO THE RIGHT, FACING N., IN A CROSS HALL AT REAR END OF FRONT HALL - Jones-Coman-Westmoreland House, 517 South Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  1. Bush Plan Takes Security Out of Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Social workers understand that assessing the implications of a policy for individual citizens like Veronica, a 51 year-old African American woman whose retirement will be jeopardized by President Bush's plan for social security, is often a good yardstick by which to measure the impact of a change. Moreover, social workers understand that policy

  2. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  3. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 27, 1935 OLD SLAVE KITCHEN N & W SIDE, (ICE HOUSE IN REAR LEFT, OLD WELL HOUSE IN FRONT OF KITCHEN, FACES N.) - Pitts' Folly, House & Outbuildings, State Highway 21, Uniontown, Perry County, AL

  4. The Invasive Shrub, Buddleja davidii (Butterfl y Bush)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name Butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas in temperate locations worldwide. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from c...

  5. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  6. Public health assessment for United Creosoting Company, Conroe, Montgomery County, Texas, Region 6. CERCLIS No. TXD980745574. Addendum. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-17

    The United Creosoting National Priorities (NPL) list site is on Hilbig Road at Second Street, in Conroe, Montgomery County, Texas. The site was used for production of pressure treated creosoted wood products from 1946 until 1972. ATSDR completed a health assessment for the site in January 1986. The addendum to the health assessment evaluates the 1984 and 1985 environmental sampling data in more detail and also evaluates additional environmental sampling data collected in 1990. Contaminated soils and ground water have been detected both in industrial and residential portions of the original site vicinity. The primary contaminants of concern are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol, and chlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/dibenzofurans (CDD/CDFs). The populations at greatest risk of exposure are workers involved with remediation activities and residents of Tanglewood East subdivision. Exposures to contaminated soil through skin contact and ingestion may have occurred in the past.

  7. Comparative study of high voltage bushing designs suitable for apparatus containing cryogenic helium gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, H.; Graber, L.; Kwag, D. S.; Crook, D. G.; Trociewitz, B.

    2013-10-01

    The high voltage bushing forms a critical part of any termination on cables, transformers and other power system devices. Cryogenic entities such as superconducting cables or fault current limiters add more complexity to the design of the bushing. Even more complex are bushings designed for superconducting devices which are cooled by high pressure helium gas. When looking for a bushing suitable for dielectric cable tests in a helium gas cryostat no appropriate device could be found that fulfilled the criterion regarding partial discharge inception voltage level. Therefore we decided to design and manufacture a bushing in-house. In the present work we describe the dielectric tests and operational experience on three types of bushings: One was a modified commercially available ceramics feed through which we adopted for our special need. The second bushing was made of an epoxy resin, with an embedded copper squirrel cage arrangement at the flange, extending down about 30 cm into the cold end of the bushing. This feature reduced the electric field on the surface of the bushing to a negligible value. The third bushing was based on a hollow body consisting of glass fiber reinforced polymer and stainless steel filled with liquid nitrogen. The measurements showed that the dielectric quality of all three bushings exceeded the requirements for the intended purpose. The partial discharge (PD) data from these studies will be used for the design and fabrication of a cable termination for a specialized application on board a US Navy ship.

  8. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels ('washes') on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1??2-1??6 m and 0??5-1??0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (-R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and - R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Transport and biodegradation of creosote compounds in a large, intact, fractured clayey till column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Kim; Hansen, Asger B.; Jrgensen, Peter R.; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Martin

    1999-10-01

    An experiment was conducted using a large, intact column of fractured clayey till to study the transport and biodegradation of 25 organic compounds typical of creosote. The column (0.5 m in height and 0.5 m in diameter) was collected from a depth of 2.5-3 m at an experimental site on the island of Funen, Denmark. For the first 82 days of the experiment, the column was infiltrated with water containing nitrate, but no organic compounds. During this period, significant nitrate removal and nitrite production were observed indicating that denitrification occurred in the clayey till. After 82 days, a mixture of 25 organic compounds with a total concentration of approximately 70 mg l -1 was added to the influent water together with a conservative tracer (92 mg bromide l -1). Most of the organic compounds were transported as rapidly as bromide, and only carbazole, dibenzofuran, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and phenanthrene were significantly retarded. No extensive loss of organic compounds was observed during this period, which was attributed to the high concentration of applicated organic compounds. After 40 days, the influent concentration of organic compounds was lowered by a factor of 5; subsequently, significant biodegradation of phenol, ethylbenzene, toluene, quinoline, indole, p-xylene, and o-cresol was observed. Additionally, o-xylene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 2-methylquinoline, carbazole, acridine, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, pyrrole, 1-methylpyrrole, and benzene were biodegraded to some degree when oxygen was added concomitantly with nitrate (92 days after the addition of organic compounds). Pyrrole, 1-methylpyrrole, and benzene were only slightly biodegraded. The biodegradation of benzene was likely inhibited by the presence of pyrrole and/or 1-methylpyrrole. The study has shown that the transport of low-molecular-weight organic compounds through fractured clayey till may occur as rapid as the transport of bromide. Consequently, there is a high risk of groundwater contamination if aquifers are overlain with fractured clayey till with properties similar to the till used in this column study. The study has also shown that the till provides an environment where biodegradation of some organic compounds may occur when oxygen is provided. However, the concentration of oxygen present in water will often not be sufficient for complete biodegradation of the organic compounds at the concentrations known to be typical for creosote sites.

  10. High voltage insulation of bushing for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    For the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments, it is necessary to develop insulating materials and high voltage (HV) insulation technology at cryogenic temperature of bushing. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is an attractive dielectric liquid. Also, the polymer insulating materials are expected to be used as solid materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), Silicon (Si) rubber, aromatic polyamide (Nomex), EPDM/Silicon alloy compound (EPDM/Si). In this paper, the surface flashover characteristics of various insulating materials in LN2 are studied. These results are studied at both AC and impulse voltage under a non-uniform field. The use of GFRP and Teflon as insulation body for HTS bushing should be much desirable. Especially, GFRP is excellent material not only surface flashover characteristics but also mechanical characteristics at cryogenic temperature. The surface flashover is most serious problem for the shed design in LN2 and operation of superconducting equipments.

  11. Design of tunable bushing system using shape memory alloy wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirone, Giuseppe

    2003-07-01

    The resonance phenomenon often imposes limitations in structural design when loads have variable frequency. Components exhibiting variable stiffness allow enlarging the range of frequencies that the structures can undergo without the risk of resonance. The layout of tunable-stiffness bushing system proposed in this paper consists of a typical rubber silent-block working in parallel to a circular array of Ni-Ti wires which, changing from their martensitic state to the austenitic one, induce significant variations in the load-displacement response of the entire supporting system. The versatility of the configuration is due to the possibility to activate the wires in various combinations, extending the range of stiffness values obtainable with respect to the case of a single Ni-Ti component. Both numerical simulations and experimental tests conducted on a prototype of the support indicated that interesting performances could be achieved with the proposed bushing structure.

  12. Leaf movement of bush bean: a biometeorological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raeini-Sarjaz, M.; Barthakur, N. N.; Arnold, N. P.

    Leaf movements of bush bean plants were studied at the relatively low photon flux density of 0.2 mmol/m2 per s, and air temperatures of 25 and 35 C in a growth chamber. A beta-ray gauge system was used to monitor continuously pulvinus water status and bending. Leaf angles were below the horizontal and were linearly related to the soil water content (R>=-0.91 at 25 C and R>=-0.93 at 35 C). The beta-ray transmission maxima coincided with the stem temperature minima in darkness and vice versa when brightness prevailed as the growth chamber temperature varied with the photoperiod. Leaf angle increased linearly with increased beta-ray transmission. The Q10 temperature coefficient, a measure of the metabolic energy requirement for leaf movement between 25 and 35 C was estimated at 1.8, and the corresponding mean Arrhenius constant at 423 kJ/mol for bush bean.

  13. Bush outlines climate stance in wake of National Academy Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Whether or not one agrees with U.S. President George W. Bush's positions on climate change and his rejection of the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the early handling of these matterswhich foreign policy advisor Condoleezza Rice recently acknowledged could have been better finessed and communicated to other countriesseems to have prompted the Bush administration to take a more thorough and engaged look at the entire issue of climate change.Two widely anticipated products of this review were unveiled in early June: a report by the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) on the science of climate change, and an address by the president in which he outlined the administration's evolving stance on the issue and proposed a series of initiatives to deal with it.

  14. Biosurfactant-enhanced bioremediation of aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in creosote contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Bezza, Fisseha Andualem; Nkhalambayausi Chirwa, Evans M

    2016-02-01

    The potential for biological treatment of an environment contaminated by complex petrochemical contaminants was evaluated using creosote contaminated soil in ex situ bio-slurry reactors. The efficacy of biosurfactant application and stimulation of in situ biosurfactant production was investigated. The biosurfactant produced was purified and characterised using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Biosurfactant enhanced degradation of PAHs was 86.5% (with addition of biosurfactant) and 57% in controls with no biosurfactant and nutrient amendments after incubation for 45 days. A slight decrease in degradation rate observed in the simultaneous biosurfactant and nutrient, NH4NO3 and KH2PO4, supplemented microcosm can be attributed to preferential microbial consumption of the biosurfactant supplemented. The overall removal of PAHs was determined to be mass transport limited since the dissolution rate caused by the biosurfactant enhanced the bioavailability of the PAHs to the microorganisms. The consortium culture was predominated by the aromatic ring-cleaving species Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:26408261

  15. Using polymer solutions to enhance recovery of mobile coal tar and creosote DNAPLs.

    PubMed

    Giese, Steven W; Powers, Susan E

    2002-09-01

    Direct pumping and enhanced recovery of coal tar and creosote dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from the subsurface have had mixed results because these DNAPLs are viscous fluids that can potentially alter aquifer wettability. To improve the inefficiencies associated with waterflooding, the research presented here considered the use of a polymer solution that can be added to the injected flood solution to increase the viscosity and decrease the velocity of the flooding solution. Results from one-dimensional, vertically oriented laboratory column experiments that evaluate the recovery of coal-derived DNAPL with both water and polymer flooding solutions are presented. The final DNAPL saturation remaining in the column was assessed in water and oil-wet systems for three viscous DNAPLs. Adding polymer to increase the aqueous solution viscosity did not have a significant impact in water-wet systems. A final DNAPL saturation of approximately 19% was achieved for both water and polymer floods. In contrast, the addition of polymer significantly improved recovery in oil-wet systems. The final saturation was over 40% in oil-wet systems after waterflooding, but approximately 19% with a polymer flushing solution. Although the final saturation produced with polymer flooding was similar between the oil- and water-wet systems, differences in the relative permeability and distribution of DNAPL in the porous matrix caused the DNAPL recovery to be much slower in the oil-wet system. PMID:12236554

  16. Loading capability of HVDC transformer bushings with restricted oil circulation for use in HVDC valve halls

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, L.; Magnuson, B. ); Riffon, P. )

    1993-07-01

    The loading capability of a 500 kV HVDC transformer bushing is calculated with some unusual conditions: the internal oil circulation in the bushing is blocked at the flange level and the ambient air temperature is raised to 60 C. The theoretical model was verified with a full-scale heat run test on a 7.8 m long bushing. A 220 m[sup 3] insulated test chamber was required to enclose the test set-up.

  17. Seismic isolation technique for extra tall bushing of GIS using a pendulum type counterweight

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Tomisawa, Masao; Murase, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of the authors` investigation here is to adopt the seismic isolation technique by using a pendulum type counterweight as a new approach for seismic qualification of the extra tall bushing of Gas-Insulated-Substations. It has been definitely shown by the results of numerical simulation of this isolation type bushing that the stress of the lower end of bushing can be effectively reduced to about 50% as compared with non-isolated case.

  18. Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles (Coxsackie, NY)

    2002-01-01

    Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

  19. Laboratory tests to evaluate HVDC wall bushing performance in wet weather

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    Two test methods have been developed to simulate the conditions causing flashover of DC wall bushings at working voltage. One is based on the clean fog pollution test. The other is a rain test, with part of the bushing unwetted. The effect of varying test parameters has been measured and five variants of the rain test have been adopted for measuring the performance of a wall bushing. Its performance compared unfavorably with that of an empty porcelain shell. Various numbers of booster sheds, (removable silicone-rubber cones fitted round the bushing) have been found to improve its performance substantially.

  20. Multiple-dose escalation, safety, and tolerability study of wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medication, in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kuge, Tomoo; Shibata, Takashi; Willett, Michael S

    2003-03-01

    Seirogan, an herbal medicine containing wood creosote (CAS 8021-39-4), a mixture of simple phenolic compounds, has been marketed for the past century in Asia for the treatment of acute diarrhea and associated symptoms, such as abdominal discomfort and cramping. The present study was designed to assess the safety and tolerability of an anticipated acute antidiarrheal dosing regimen. Sixty healthy males were randomized into five groups of 12 subjects each (9 wood creosote; 3 placebo) to receive 45-, 90-, 135-, 180-, and 225-mg tablets every 2 hours for five doses. Serial sitting and standing vital signs, ECG rhythm strips, and continuous telemetry monitoring were obtained predose and for 24 hours after the first dose. Clinical laboratory tests and 12-lead resting ECGs were obtained predose and 24 hours postdose. Of the subjects, 27% (12/45) receiving wood creosote and 27% (4/15) receiving placebo reported adverse events. The most common adverse events were altered taste and somnolence, reported more often with 180- and 225-mg doses. Wood creosote had no clinically significant effects on vital signs, ECG intervals or interpretations, or clinical laboratory tests. No clinically significant or serious dysrhythmias were reported on continuous telemetry monitoring. It was concluded that oral doses of wood creosote 45 to 225 mg every 2 hours for up to five doses were safe and well tolerated in 45 healthy subjects. Wood creosote doses ranging from 45 to 135 mg per dose, which are commonly administered antidiarrheal doses in Asia, were associated with minimal side effects. PMID:12638397

  1. Electrochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote solution using ruthenium oxide on titanium expanded mesh anode.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lan-Huong; Drogui, Patrick; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-Franois

    2009-05-30

    In this study, expanded titanium (Ti) covered with ruthenium oxide (RuO(2)) electrode was used to anodically oxidize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in creosote solution. Synthetic creosote-oily solution (COS) was prepared with distilled water and a commercial creosote solution in the presence of an amphoteric surfactant; Cocamidopropylhydroxysultaine (CAS). Electrolysis was carried out using a parallelepipedic electrolytic 1.5-L cell containing five anodes (Ti/RuO(2)) and five cathodes (stainless steel, 316 L) alternated in the electrode pack. The effects of initial pH, temperature, retention time, supporting electrolyte, current density and initial PAH concentration on the process performance were examined. Experimental results revealed that a current density of 9.23 mA cm(-2) was beneficial for PAH oxidation. The sum of PAH concentrations for 16 PAHs could be optimally diminished up to 80-82% while imposing a residence time in the electrolysis cell of 90 min. There was not a significant effect of the electrolyte (Na(2)SO(4)) concentration on oxidation efficiency in the investigated range of 500-4000 mg/L. However, an addition of 500 mg Na(2)SO(4)L(-1) was required to reduce the energy consumption and the treatment cost. Besides, there was no effect of initial PAH concentration on oxidation efficiency in the investigated range of 270-540 mg PAHL(-1). Alkaline media was not favourable for PAH oxidation, whereas high performance of PAH degradation could be recorded without initial pH adjustment (original pH around 6.0). Likewise, under optimal conditions, 84% of petroleum hydrocarbon (C(10)-C(50)) was removed, whereas removal yields of 69% and 62% have been measured for O&G and COD, respectively. Microtox and Daphnia biotests showed that electrochemical oxidation using Ti/RuO(2) could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of the COS toxicity. PMID:18926633

  2. Lack of oncogenicity of wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of Seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medication, in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kuge, T; Shibata, T; Willett, M S; Turck, P; Traul, K A

    2001-01-01

    Seirogan, an herbal medicine containing wood creosote (tablets, 10.0% w/w), has been developed and marketed for almost a century in various countries for the control of acute diarrhea and treatment of associated symptoms, such as abdominal cramping. Wood creosote (CAS no. 8021-39-4) is a mixture of simple phenolic compounds, including guaiacol and creosol and related compounds, and is chemically distinct from, and should not be confused with, coal tar creosote, a known carcinogen. In the current study, the oncogenic potential of wood creosote was assessed in a 96/103-week oral gavage study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of 60 rats/sex received wood creosote at dose levels of 20, 50, or 200 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day. An additional group of rats received the vehicle, 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose in deionized, distilled water, at the same dose volume as the treatment groups (10 ml/kg) and served as the controls. Treatment-related decreases in survival, body weight, and food consumption, as well as increased incidences of clinical signs that included rales, decreased activity, and salivation, were noted at 200 mg/kg bw/day when compared with the control group. There was an increased incidence of reddened and edematous lungs in rats from the 200 mg/kg bw/day group that died during the study. The lung findings were suggestive of test article aspiration during dose administration or agonal aspiration preceding and possibly resulting in death, especially because these observations were not seen in animals that survived to scheduled sacrifice. Additionally, phenols are generally recognized as having corrosive properties. There were no changes in clinical pathology and no increases in neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions, excluding the lung findings, related to treatment with wood creosote at any dose level. Although the results of this study indicate that the maximum tolerated dose of wood creosote was met or exceeded at 200 mg/kg bw/day, there was no evidence of oncogenicity at any dose level. The lack of any evidence of oncogenicity supports the safety profile of the active ingredient in Seirogan, wood creosote. PMID:11766127

  3. Fate and transport potential for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a shallow to a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote works

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Tzhone, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Remedy selected for a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote Works, which have a potential threat of contamination from a nearby contaminated shallow aquifer is presented. The remedy includes monitoring, in consideration of the low permeability of the clay unit separating the two aquifers and the limited transport potential of the dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A computer model was used for predication of the potential fate and transport of contaminants to the deep drinking water supply aquifer. The model results show conservative breakthrough of naphthalene from the source creosote in the shallow water bearing zone at about 150 years.

  4. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote-derived contaminants in natural and simulated ground water ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Godsy, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    Wastes from an abandoned wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. The contaminated ground water is enriched in organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, indole, oxindole, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, 2(1H)-isoquinolinone, benzothiophene, benzofuran, naphthalene, and indene. Evidence is presented that the methanogenic degradation of the compounds listed above and concomitant microbial growth in batch microcosms derived from contaminated aquifer material can be described using Monod kinetics. The K{sub s} values obtained for the biodegradation of the phenolic compounds in this study are much lower than published values, indicating that the aquifer microorganisms may have developed enzyme systems and transport mechanisms that are adapted to low nutrient conditions. The values for k{sub d} are much less than {mu}{sub max}, and can be neglected in the microcosm studies. The low Y values, approximately an order of magnitude lower than theoretical values, and the low numbers of microorganisms in the aquifer derived microcosms suggest that these organisms may use some unique strategies to survive in the subsurface environment. Studies of the degradation pathways of the homocyclic and heterocyclic aromatic compounds on the basis of intermediate compounds have revealed that the process consists of both a major and a minor pathway. The first transformation step of the major pathway consists of oxidation and cleavage of the heterocyclic ring. After cleavage of this ring, the substituent side chains and the remaining homocyclic ring are subjected to various reactions including oxidation, decarboxylation, desulfurylation or ammonification, and O-methylation. These reactions are followed by the reduction of the homocyclic ring, cleavage of this ring, {beta}-oxidation, and mineralization.

  5. Capping widespread creosote contamination in Eagle Harbor, WA: Problems, process, and prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hale, E.; Duncan, P.B.

    1995-12-31

    Eagle Harbor`s marine sediments are contaminated with creosote from a former wood-treatment facility and with mercury from a former shipyard. Under the Superfund remedial investigation process, areas requiring remediation were defined based on comparison to state of Washington sediment management standards for sediment chemistry and biological effects (bioassays for oyster larvae, amphipod). From a variety of cleanup alternatives, capping was selected for a heavily contaminated subtidal area as the most cost-effective way to provide clean benthic habitat, isolate the contamination, and prevent further contaminant migration. Sandy material for the cap was dredged the Snohomish River as part of a routine federal navigation project and, over a six-month period, was placed in Eagle Harbor using two methods. Within ferry navigation lanes, a split hull barge was opened slowly while under tow. In areas with softer bottom sediments, cap material was hosed off a flat-top barge. GPS and real-time mapping of tracklines allowed for even coverage. Monitoring during and after the construction included analysis of suspended sediments (sediment traps on cap periphery), measurements of cap thickness (bathymetry, subbottom profiling, sediment vertical profile photography, settlement plates), and diver observations of nearby eelgrass beds. Final measurements show that the 21.4 hectare cap ranges from 30 to 270 cm thick, but is at least 60 cm thick in more than 60% of the area. Although PAHs were measured in the sediment traps during capping, significant levels have not been found since. Videos indicate the rapid return of epibiota, and the eelgrass surveys indicated no capping impacts on shoot density. Periodic monitoring of the cap is planned, as well as capping of remaining contaminated subtidal areas.

  6. Resilience of the spatial patterning of soil resources in creosote-encroached grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankey, J. B.; Ravi, S.; Collins, S. L.; Webb, R. H.

    2011-12-01

    Rangelands in arid and semi arid regions across the world are undergoing rapid vegetation shifts in response to complex interactions between climate and anthropogenic factors. These regions are also experiencing more frequent and intense disturbances such as fires and droughts. A comprehensive understanding of the changes in spatial patterning of soil resources accompanying these rapid vegetation changes and disturbances are needed to design sustainable management and conservation strategies. We investigated soil changes and vegetation structure along a shrub-grass transition zone at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (NM, USA). We examined the extent to which fire promotes the redistribution of soil resources that might counter desertification induced by shrub encroachment. We specifically used high resolution digital elevation models of soil microtopography derived from terrestrial LiDAR to examine effects for treatments established 4 years previously in the creosote-encroached, blue and black grama grassland. Treatments were: 1) burned with prescribed fire, 2) unburned - vegetation removed, and 3) unburned - control. We additionally examined plots in adjacent grasslands that were not encroached by shrubs. Results suggest that surface roughness at cm-m length scales was lowest on the burned treatments, intermediate on the vegetation removal treatments, and greatest on the control treatments. Moreover, soil surface roughness had substantially differing spatial patterns in the homogeneous grasslands relative to the shrub-encroached grasslands. This work provides insight into the resilience (i.e., over 4 years of vegetation recovery) of the spatial patterning of soil resources in response to prescribed fire in the shrub-encroached grassland.

  7. Black yeast diversity on creosoted railway sleepers changes with ambient climatic conditions.

    PubMed

    Gümral, Ramazan; Tümgör, Ayşegül; Saraçlı, Mehmet Ali; Yıldıran, Şinasi Taner; Ilkit, Macit; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2014-11-01

    The environmental isolation of opportunistic pathogenic black yeasts, which are responsible for a wide spectrum of human infections, is essential to understanding the ecology of clinical fungi. Extreme outdoor environments polluted with aromatic hydrocarbons support the growth of black yeasts in unlikely places, such as railway sleepers. However, there are limited data concerning the diversity of these fungi growing on polluted railway sleepers. In this investigation, we examined 845 railway sleeper samples, obtained from 11 Turkish cities representing altitudes from 25 to 1,893 m, and inoculated the samples onto mycological media for the isolation of black yeasts. Ninety-four samples (11.1 %) yielded positive results for black yeast, with creosoted oak sleepers having a significantly higher number of isolates than concrete sleepers (p < 0.05). Identification based on the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) internal transcribed spacer region revealed the highest prevalence of Exophiala phaeomuriformis, followed by Exophiala dermatitidis, Exophiala heteromorpha, Exophiala xenobiotica, and Exophiala crusticola. This study revealed that railway sleepers harboring black yeasts were predominantly (>75 %) populated with thermophilic species. We observed that altitude might have a significant effect on species diversity. Briefly, E. phaeomuriformis exhibited growth over a wide altitude range, from 30 to 1,893 m. In contrast, E. dermatitidis had a remarkable aversion to low altitudes and exhibited maximum growth at 1,285 m. In conclusion, we speculate that one can predict what species will be found on railway sleepers and their probability and that species diversity primarily depends on sleeper type and altitude height. We believe that this study can contribute new insights into the ecology of black yeasts on railway sleepers and the railway factors that influence their diversity. PMID:25027275

  8. Argentinean Andean propolis associated with the medicinal plant Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae). HPLC-MS and GC-MS characterization and antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Agero, Mara Beln; Svetaz, Laura; Snchez, Marianela; Luna, Lorena; Lima, Beatriz; Lpez, Mara Liza; Zacchino, Susana; Palermo, Jorge; Wunderlin, Daniel; Feresin, Gabriela Egly; Tapia, Alejandro

    2011-09-01

    The chemical profile and botanical origin of Andean Argentinian propolis were studied by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and GC-MS techniques as well as the antifungal activity according to CLSI protocols. Dermatophytes and yeasts tested were strongly inhibited by propolis extracts (MICs between 31.25 and 125 ?g/mL). The main antifungal compounds were: 3'methyl-nordihydroguaiaretic acid (MNDGA) 1, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) 2 and a NDGA derivative 3, showing strong activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. rubrum and Microsporum gypseum (MICs between 15.6 and 31.25 ?g/mL). The lignans 1 and 2 showed activities against clinical isolates of Candidas spp., Cryptococcus spp., T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes (MICs and MFCs between 31.25 and 62.5 ?g/mL). The lignan and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) profiles from propolis matched with those of exudates of Larrea nitida providing strong evidences on its botanical origin. These results support that Argentinian Andean propolis are a valuable natural product with potential to improve human health. Six compounds (1-6) were isolated from propolis for the first time, while compounds 1 and 3-6 were reported for first time as constituents of L. nitida Cav. PMID:21600954

  9. Bush, Clinton, or Perot: Directors Speak Out--Opinions of the Exchange Panel of 200.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey of child care directors. Clinton and Perot were the top vote getters among directors of nonprofit and for-profit centers, respectively. Also includes directors' comments on Bush and Clinton, statements by Bush and Clinton on education, and tables showing the results of the poll. (SM)

  10. Bush Claims about NCLB Questioned: Data on Gains in Achievement Remain Limited, Preliminary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.; Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2007-01-01

    President Bush says that the No Child Left Behind Act is working, pointing to student-achievement results from a single subsection of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) and tentative Reading First data. But the evidence available to support his claim is questionable. The data Mr. Bush cited are from just the "long-term trend"

  11. Explosion-resistant SF/sub 6/-foam-insulated bushings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Reighter, D.H.; Egli, A.W.

    1986-02-01

    Prototype air-entrance bushings insulated with a type of polyurethane foam filled with sulfur hexafluoride gas proved to have inadequate thermal and dielectric-loss properties. Nevertheless, the gas-filled foam showed promise as an insulation concept for bushings that cost less, are more compact, and exhibit greater explosion resistance than the bulk gas insulation systems now in use.

  12. Assessing the Debt: George W. Bush's Legacy and the Future of Public Education under Barack Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex; Taylor, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    This article utilizes Gloria Ladson-Billings' notion of educational debt in order to explore the historical, economic, and cultural politics of education reform under George W. Bush and Barack Obama. It tracks the No Child Left Behind Act across a number of fields in order to claim that Bush's expansion of the educational debt should be understood

  13. President Bush's Pre-War Rhetoric on Iraq: Paranoid Style in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaev, Alexander G.; Porpora, Douglas V.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the war rhetoric of the Bush administration as reflected in the speeches of President Bush. What was explored is how presidential speeches drew on a variety of rhetorical techniques, from role-taking and punctuation to the adoption of the paranoid style. The purpose of these techniques is to nullify voices of

  14. Analyze of elasto-hydro-dynamic friction of a cylindrical bush with elliptical cross-section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verlinski, Sergey; Shekyan, Lavrenti; State Engineering University of Armenia Team

    2014-03-01

    The framework of elasto-hydro-dynamic lubrication theory will be discussed. The theoretical plane contact problem of a liquid friction rotating about a cylindrical axis with a fixed non-deformable elastic cylindrical bush will presented. An elliptical ring cross-sectional shape will considered for the bush. The problem will be solved with a closed system of nonlinear integral equations.

  15. Assessing the Debt: George W. Bush's Legacy and the Future of Public Education under Barack Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex; Taylor, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    This article utilizes Gloria Ladson-Billings' notion of educational debt in order to explore the historical, economic, and cultural politics of education reform under George W. Bush and Barack Obama. It tracks the No Child Left Behind Act across a number of fields in order to claim that Bush's expansion of the educational debt should be understood…

  16. President Bush's Pre-War Rhetoric on Iraq: Paranoid Style in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaev, Alexander G.; Porpora, Douglas V.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the war rhetoric of the Bush administration as reflected in the speeches of President Bush. What was explored is how presidential speeches drew on a variety of rhetorical techniques, from role-taking and punctuation to the adoption of the paranoid style. The purpose of these techniques is to nullify voices of…

  17. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  18. Alternative biological-treatment processes for remediation of creosote- and PCP-contaminated materials: Bench-scale treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattman, B.O.; Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-03-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: solid-phase bioremediation or slurry-phase bioremediation. When indigenous microorganisms were employed as biocatalysts, solid-phase bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics). Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight constituents rather than the more hazardous, higher-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds; PCP and HMW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4 or more fused rings resisted biological attach. Moreover, supplementation with aqueous solution of inorganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effectiveness of the treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-phase bioremediation was much more effective: >50% of targeted organics were biodegraded in 14 days. Again, however, more persistent contaminants, such as PCP and HMW PAHs, were not extensively degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous microorganisms.

  19. Two cases of gastric Anisakiasis for which oral administration of a medicine containing wood creosote (Seirogan) was effective.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Nagano, Hiroaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Taro; Katsu, Kenichi; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a disease characterized by an abrupt onset of sharp epigastric pain, which occurs typically a few hours after eating raw or undercooked seafood. Anisakiasis was a Japanese localized disease in the past, however has become an illness of concern in many countries where eating Japanese style raw or undercooked seafood has become popular. At present, the only effective treatment is an endoscopic removal of the nematode. Development of an effective medicine is expected. We report two cases of Anisakiasis, the symptoms of which were ameliorated after the administration of an over-the-counter (OTC) medicine containing wood creosote (Seirogan). Also, we examined the in vitro effect of the Seirogan on the viability of the nematode. In the two cases, the strong epigastric pain was subdued promptly after oral intake of the Seirogan. The exposure of Seirogan suppressed the viability of Anisakis Larva in vitro dose dependently. The oral administration of medicine containing wood creosote might be effective as a first aid to ameliorate the symptoms of Anisakiasis. PMID:21937389

  20. Field scale testing of a hyperfiltration unit for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, D.P.; Thomas, R.L.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical analyses and biological response data were used to assess the efficacy of a field-scale hyperfiltration unit in the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic compounds from creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water recovered from the former American Creosote Works in Escambia County, Pensacola, Florida. The hyperfiltration unit consisted of 4 modules containing porous stainless steel tubes which were coated with a formed-in-place zirconium hydrous oxide-polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membrane. A 5-fold concentration of the feedwater (80% volume reduction) with up to 97% removal of high molecular weight PAHs was achieved during pre-demonstration and field-demonstration runs of the hyperfiltration unit. Toxicological and teratogenic data for embryonic inland silversides, Menidia beryllina, indicated that 100, 10 and 1% solutions of the ground water sample used in the pre-demonstration run caused statistically significant (p < or - 0.05) biological responses when compared to controls. Permeates from both runs, diluted to 1%, met the pre-condition of non-toxic responses in 48h tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Meeting this requirement allowed for discharge of diluted permeate into the county's sanitary sewerage collector system.

  1. Habitat invasibility and dominance by alien annual plants in the western Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of habitat invasibility and alien dominance, respectively measured as species richness and biomass of alien annual plants, were evaluated in association with four habitat factors at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA) in the western Mojave Desert, USA. Habitat factors varied in levels of disturbance outside (high) and inside (low) the DTNA, and in levels of soil nutrients in washlet (high) and hummock (low) topographic positions, in Larrea-north (high), Larrea-south (medium), and interspace (low) microhabitats near creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata), and during 1995 when rainfall was 207% (high) and 1994 when rainfall was 52% (low) of the long-term average. Dominant alien plants included the annual grasses Bromus rubens, Bromus trinii, and Schismus spp., and the forb Erodium cicutarium. Species richness and dominance of alien annual plants were slightly higher where disturbance was high, and much higher where soil nutrients were high. B. rubens and B. trinii were most dominant in washlets and in the Larrea-north microhabitats during both years. These two species evolved in mesic ecosystems, and appeared to be particularly limited by soil nutrients at this site. Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were also most dominant in washlets, but their dominance varied between interspaces in 1994 and the Larrea-south microhabitat in 1995. Monitoring to detect the invasion of new annual plants should focus on regions of high rainfall and nitrogen deposition and on washes and beneath-canopy microhabitats. The ecological range of each alien species should be evaluated separately, because their evolutionary origins may greatly affect their patterns of invasion and dominance in the Mojave Desert.

  2. Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Slurry-phase bioremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E. ); Blattmann, B.O. ); Chapman, P.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol- (PCP-) and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. Aqueous slurries were prepared from sediment and surface soil freshly obtained from the American Creosote Works Superfund site at Pensacola, FL. Slurries (1.1 L) were incubated for 30 days in separate, 1.5-L bioreactors operated in the batch mode at 28.5C with continuous mixing (300 rpm), DO = 90% and pH = 7.0. Samples removed with time from each reactor were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography for PCP and 42 monitored creosote constituents to delineate the activity of indigenous microorganisms. Changes in microbial biomass were also recorded. Excluding PCP, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, slurry-phase bioremediation of highly contaminated sediment (pH adjusted) resulted in rapid and extensive biodegradation (3-5 days to biodegrade > 50% of targeted compounds) of monitored constituents. Conversely, microbial activity in surface soil slurries was slower and generally confined to the more readily biodegradable, lower molecular weight compounds. These data suggest that slurry-phase bioremediation strategies can be effectively employed to remediate creosote-contaminated materials.

  3. Bench-scale evaluation of alternative biological treatment processes for the remediation of pentachlorophenol- and creosote-contaminated materials: Solid-phase bioremediation. [Pentachlorophenol

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E. ); Blattmann, B.O. ); Chapman, P.J. )

    1991-06-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to evaluate the potential for using a solid-phase bioremediation process to ameliorate pentachlorophenol-(PCP-) and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, FL. The effects of tilling and fertilization on the rate and extent of biodegradation of PCP and 42 targeted creosote constituents by indigenous microflora were monitored by gas chromatographic analysis of organic extracts of soil and sediment; changes in microbial populations were also recorded. Specially designed landfarming chambers allowed for the quantitative analysis of targeted pollutants lost through abiotic processes. In general, solid-phase bioremediation resulted in slow and predictable losses of targeted pollutants (i.e., low molecular weight creosote constituents were more readily biodegraded than higher molecular weight contaminants), and the more recalcitrant pollutants (e.g., PCP) tended to persist. Performance data from these studies suggest that full-scale site remediation employing solid-phase bioremediation strategies in the time defining these studies. (90 days).

  4. FIELD-SCALE TESTING OF A HYPERFILTRATION UNIT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM GROUND WATER: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses and biological response data were used to assess the efficacy of a field-scale hyperfiltration unit in the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) and other organic compounds from creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water recover...

  5. BENCH-SCALE EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR THE REMEDIATION OF PCP- AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: SLURRY-PHASE BIOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance data on slurry-phase bioremediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)- and creosote-contaminated sediment and surface soil were generated at the bench-scale level. queous slurries, containing 0.05% Triton X-100 to facilitate the soil washing process and to help stabilize the...

  6. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 6): United Creosoting Company, Conroe, Montgomery County, Texas (Second remedial action), September 1989. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-09-29

    The 100-acre United Creosoting site is in Conroe, Montgomery County, Texas. The site currently is occupied by a distributing company, a construction company, and a residential subdivision. From 1946 to 1972, the United Creosoting Company operated a wood preserving facility at the site which used PCPs and creosote in the wood preservation process. PCP and creosote wastes were stored in two waste ponds on the property of the distributing company. In 1983, due to the contaminated stormwater runoff from the former waste pond areas, the property owner was directed under terms of an EPA Administrative Order to regrade contaminated soil, divert surface water drainage away from the residential portion of the site, and cap contaminated soil. The Record of Decision (ROD) specifies a final remedy for the contaminated soil and complements a 1986 ROD which determined that no action is necessary to remediate shallow ground water. The primary contaminants of concern affecting the soil are organics including PAHs, PCPs, and dioxins. The selected remedial action for this site are included.

  7. Are Our President Learning? Unpacking the Enthymematic Connections in the Speech Mistakes of President George W. Bush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore public interpretations of President George W. Bush's speaking errors. One interpretation of Bush's speech mistakes offered in the media is that he may have dyslexia. Therefore, we explore how an enthymeme using markers of dyslexia as a sign of bad leadership has been used to frame Bush's speaking errors. We

  8. Are Our President Learning? Unpacking the Enthymematic Connections in the Speech Mistakes of President George W. Bush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore public interpretations of President George W. Bush's speaking errors. One interpretation of Bush's speech mistakes offered in the media is that he may have dyslexia. Therefore, we explore how an enthymeme using markers of dyslexia as a sign of bad leadership has been used to frame Bush's speaking errors. We…

  9. Transport of creosote compounds in a large, intact, macroporous clayey till column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Kim; Jrgensen, Peter R.; Hansen, Asger B.; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Martin

    1999-10-01

    The transport in macroporous clayey till of bromide and 25 organic compounds typical of creosote was studied using a large intact soil column. The organic compounds represented the following groups: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds, monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs), and heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur in the aromatic ring structure (NSO-compounds). The clayey till column (0.5 m in height and 0.5 m in diameter) was obtained from a depth of 1-1.5 m at an experimental site located on the island of Funen, Denmark. Sodium azide was added to the influent water of the column to prevent biodegradation of the studied organic compounds. For the first 24 days of the experiment, the flow rate was 219 ml day -1 corresponding to an infiltration rate of 0.0011 m day -1. At this flow rate, the effluent concentrations of bromide and the organic compounds increased very slowly. The transport of bromide and the organic compounds were successfully increased by increasing the flow rate to 1353 ml day -1 corresponding to 0.0069 m day -1. The experiment showed that the transport of low-molecular-weight organic compounds was not retarded relative to bromide. The high-molecular-weight organic compounds were retarded significantly. The influence of sorption on the transport of the organic compounds through the column was evaluated based on the observed breakthrough curves. The observed order in the column experiment was, with increasing retardation, the following: benzene=pyrrole=toluene= o-xylene= p-xylene=ethylbenzene=phenol=benzothiophene=benzofuran

  10. Committee Issues Report on Bush Administration's Climate Science Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The Bush administration's draft strategic plan for the federal government's Climate Change Science Program (CCSP) represents a good start, but it requires substantial improvements to the science, and to the management aspects of the program, according to a review of the plan issued by the U.S. National Research Council on 26 February. CCSP Director James Mahoney promised an improved final plan-likely in April-which incorporates many of the concerns raised by the NRC and by others who have commented on the draft plan. The draft, released on 11 November 2002, is a first attempt to chart a course for the CCSP. That program incorporates the decade-long, Congressionally-mandated U.S. Global Change Research Program, as well as the administration's Climate Change Research Initiative.

  11. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  12. Low-Cost Production of Composite Bushings for Jet Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this research program were to reduce the manufacturing costs of variable stator vane bushings by 1) eliminating the expensive carbon fiber braiding operation, 2) replacing the batch mode impregnation, B-stage, and cutting operations with a continuous process, and 3) reducing the molding cycle and machining operations with injection molding to achieve near-net shapes. Braided bushings were successfully fabricated with both AMB-17XLD and AMB-TPD resin systems. The composite bushings achieved high glass transition temperature after post-cure (+300 C) and comparable weight loss to the PNM-15 bushings. ANM-17XLD bushings made with "batch-mode" molding compound (at 0.5 in. fiber length) achieved a +300 lb-force flange break strength which was superior to the continuous braided-fiber reinforced bushing. The non-MDA resin technology developed in this contract appears attractive for bushing applications that do not exceed a 300 C use temperature. Two thermoplastic polyimide resins were synthesized in order to generate injection molding compound powders. Excellent processing results were obtained at injection temperatures in excess of 300 C. Micro-tensile specimens were produced from each resin type and the Tg measurements (by TMA) for these samples were equivalent to AURUM(R). Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) conducted at 10 C/min showed that the non-MDA AMB-type polyimide thermoplastics had comparable weight loss to PMR-15 up to 500 C.

  13. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  14. Rain and contamination tests on HVDC wall bushings with and without RTV coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M. ); Hall, J.F. ); Nellis, C.L. ); Low, S.S. ); Lorden, D.J. )

    1991-07-01

    In this paper results of tests made to determine the ability of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coatings to improve the performance of HVDC wall bushings are described. The behavior of uncoated full scale {plus minus} 500 kV wall bushings is first determined in wetting conditions consisting of nonuniform rain and fog with various amounts of pre-deposited surface contamination. Parameters affecting flashover performance, such as polarity, rain conductivity, and contamination severity are discussed. Results of nonuniform rain tests on an RTV coated wall bushing are reported.

  15. A Study on the Body Insulators for the Bushing for HTS Devices at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, S. H.

    A bushing for high temperature superconducting devices (HTS bushing) is important because of applying high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. It is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and is insulated with various insulators. For the development of the HTS bushing, it is necessary to know the fundamental characteristics of various insulators at cryogenic temperature. The electrical characteristics of the breakdown were studied under AC and impulse voltages. Also, the mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength in air and LN2 were studied. It was confirmed that GFRP is excellent not only electrical characteristics but also mechanical characteristics in LN2.

  16. Accumulation and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a nearshore estuarine environment near a Pensacola (Florida) creosote contamination site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Dresler, P.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. One of the species (Thais haemastoma) was native to the study area. Individuals of the other test species (Crassostrea virginica) were placed in cages at the test sites for a 6-week period. Contamination at the nearshore estuarine sites was assessed by comparison to a control site in an uncontaminated area of the bay, as well as a small stream which forms a direct surface-water link between the creosote storage ponds and the bay. The study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the primary components of creosote. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localised release of contaminants to the estuary. Examination of sediment cores and mollusc tissues, which provide a record integrated over time and space, revealed some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. This contrasts with naphthalene, the bioaccumulation of which was no greater at test sites than at the control site. These differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation and capacity for depuration by the organism.Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localized release of contaminants to the estuary. There was some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. Differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation and capacity for depuration by the organism.

  17. Microbial degradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote-contaminated groundwater under nitrate-reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjrn K.; Olsen, Susan K.

    1993-02-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture of toluene, phenol, the cresols ( o-, m- and p-cresol) and the dimethylphenols 2,4-DMP and 3,4-DMP at both 10 and 20C. Benzene, the xylenes, napthalene, 2,3-DMP, 2,5-DMP, 2,6-DMP and 3,5-DMP were resistant to biodegradation during 7-12 months of incubation. It was demonstrated that the degradation of toluene, 2,4-DMP, 3,4-DMP and p-cresol depended on nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptors. 40-80% of the nitrate consumed during degradation of the aromatic compounds was recovered as nitrite, and the consumption of nitrate was accompanied by a production of ATP. Stoichiometric calculations indicated that in addition to the phenols are toluene other carbon sources present in the groundwater contributed to the consumption of nitrate. If the groundwater was incubated under anaerobic conditions without nitrate, sulphate-reducing conditions evolved after 1 month at 20C and 2 months at 10C. In the sulphate-reducing batches disappearance of toluene, phenol, o-cresol and o-cresol was observed, whereas no removal of benzene, the xylenes, naphthalane, 2,3-DMP, 2,4-DMP, 2,5-DMP and 3,5-DMP was detected during 7 months of incubation.

  18. Analysis of nonlinear electric field of hvdc wall bushing with a finite element approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liming; Luo, Longfu

    2005-12-01

    The present research intends to establish a numerical model, on the basis of a theoretical analysis, for describing and analyzing the electric field of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) wall bushing that demonstrates highly nonlinear characteristics. The wall bushing is subjected high voltage with nonlinear electric field and the relationship between the electric field intensity and the resistance of the insulators of the wall bushing is highly nonlinear. With a parameter design language of a Finite Element Analysis software package for carrying out the numerical calculations, the effects of the nonlinearity on the electric field can be well taken into consideration in performing the numerical assessment. A technique utilizing the numerical iteration is developed for quantifying the electric intensity of the electric field. With the model and the iteration technique established, the nonlinear characteristics of the HVDC wall bushing can be investigated with efficiency.

  19. Parasabella Bush, 1905, replacement name for the polychaete genus Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Hernndez, Mara Ana; Harris, Leslie H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parasabella Bush, 1905 is reintroduced as a replacement name for Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellidae) which is a junior homonym of Demonax Thomson, 1860 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). PMID:21594198

  20. Texas Hold'em: Secretary Spellings--the Ace in Bush's Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    President Bush has one ace in his hand when it comes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB): Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. Spellings, who has been working on education issues for Bush since the 1990s and his days as a Texas governor, is the person who from the very beginning has had to make NCLB work. She was a key architect of the…

  1. STS-26 crewmembers pose with VP Bush for post flight portrait at EAFB, CA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 crewmembers pose with Vice President (VP) George H.W. Bush for post flight portrait in front of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, on dry lakebed runway 17 at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB), California. Left to right are Pilot Richard O. Covey, VP Bush, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, holding flag, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, MS John M. Lounge, and MS George D. Nelson.

  2. Texas Hold'em: Secretary Spellings--the Ace in Bush's Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    President Bush has one ace in his hand when it comes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB): Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. Spellings, who has been working on education issues for Bush since the 1990s and his days as a Texas governor, is the person who from the very beginning has had to make NCLB work. She was a key architect of the

  3. Development of Insulation Technology in Compact SF6 Gas-filled Bushings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokunohe, Toshiaki; Kato, Tatsuro; Hirose, Makoto; Ishiguro, Tetsu

    As for gas insulated switchgear (GIS), small space requirement and economical efficiency have been demanded. Circuit breakers (CB), disconnecting switches (DS) and earthing switches (ES) have been designed toward compactness. Compact & light bushings have been also required. As for bushings of GIS, there are roughly three types; capacitor, gas-filled and molding bushings. Since gas-filled bushings have the feature which is both of the lightness and the economical efficiency, it is important to develop compact and light gas-filled bushings by improvement of insulation technology. The main subject for compact design is reduction of electric field strength on the outside hollow insulator around the inside grounded electrode tip. We devised a new inner grounded electrode structure which consists of some column electrodes. This paper describes the effect of reduction of maximum value of electric field strength on the outside hollow insulator by a new inner grounded electrode. Then, improvement of insulation performance for electrodes with insulation coating in SF6 gas is described as composite insulation technology. Finally, the efficacy of these insulation technologies is described by fundamental insulation test results of prototype compact 800kV SF6 gas-filled bushing.

  4. Public health assessment for McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company (Portland), Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon, Region 10. Cerclis No. ORD009020603. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-13

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting site is located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. ATSDR considers the site to have been a public health hazard for former plant workers because of past ingestion exposure to arsenic, creosote, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans at levels of public health concern. The site also poses an ongoing and future public health hazard because people might encounter hazardous chemicals along the shoreline on or near the site at levels that can damage the skin, as was reported to have happened to two boys. Finally, dioxin levels would pose a public health hazard if people subsist on crayfish and suckers contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  5. Bush thoracotomy in the highlands of Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Fingleton, L J

    1987-02-01

    Bush thoracotomy is a procedure performed by traditional medicine men to let out blood and pus from the chest. It has a significant complication rate and 60 cases presenting to the major hospital in Papua New Guinea are analysed over a 2-year period. The complications were empyema (40), osteomyelitis of the rib (2), wound infection (2), pneumothorax (1), neuralgia (1) and chest pain (4). All cases were further complicated by underlying pulmonary infection and often by delay in presentation. Fifteen cases were seen in the first year (1983-84) and forty-five in the second (1984-85). A more aggressive surgical approach was adopted in the second year (21 thoracotomies with 17 decortications compared with 1 thoracoplasty in the first year). However, this course of events was accompanied by an increase in mortality from 0 to 5. Although there were a number of contributory factors, lesser surgical procedures, such as open pleural drainage, are recommended for the sicker patients. PMID:3815030

  6. Retinotopic maps in the pulvinar of bush baby (Otolemur garnettii)

    PubMed Central

    Li, K.; Patel, J.; Purushothaman, G.; Marion, R.T.; Casagrande, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its anatomical prominence, the function of primate pulvinar is poorly understood. A few electrophysiological studies in simian primates have investigated the functional organization of pulvinar by examining visuotopic maps. Multiple visuotopic maps have been found in all studied simians, with differences in organization reported between New and Old World simians. Given that prosimians are considered closer to the common ancestors of New and Old World primates, we investigated the visuotopic organization of pulvinar in the prosimian bush baby (Otolemur garnettii). Single electrode extracellular recording was used to find the retinotopic maps in the lateral (PL) and inferior (PI) pulvinar. Based on recordings across cases a 3D model of the map was constructed. From sections stained for Nissl bodies, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, calbindin or cytochrome oxidase, we identified three PI chemoarchitectonic subdivisions, lateral central (PIcl), medial central (PIcm) and medial (PIm) inferior pulvinar. Two major retinotopic maps were identified that cover PL and PIcl, the dorsal one in dorsal PL and the ventral one in PIcl and ventral PL. Both maps represent the central vision at the posterior end of the border between the maps, the upper visual field in the lateral half and the lower visual field in the medial half. They share many features with the maps reported in the pulvinar of simians, including location in pulvinar and the representation of the upper-lower and central-peripheral visual field axes. The second order representation in the lateral map and a laminar organization are likely features specific to Old World simians. PMID:23640865

  7. Covalent binding of components of coal-tar, creosote and bitumen to the DNA of the skin and lungs of mice following topical application.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1988-07-01

    In order to assess the DNA damaging ability of complex carcinogenic mixtures, male Parkes mice were treated topically with solutions of (i) pharmaceutical coal-tar, (ii) creosote, a blend of coal-tar fractions or (iii) bitumen, a product of oil-refining. DNA was isolated from the treated skin and analysed by 32P-post-labelling. A band of radioactivity was obtained on polyethyleneimine--cellulose TLC indicating the formation of DNA adducts by a large number of different chemical compounds present in these fossil fuel products. The chromatographic properties of the adducts were broadly characteristic of those formed by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The levels of DNA binding were approximately 0.4 fmol total adducts/micrograms DNA 24 h after treatment for coal-tar and creosote and 0.09 fmol/micrograms DNA for bitumen treatment. The persistence of adducts in mouse skin following a single dose of either coal-tar or creosote was found to exhibit a phase of rapid removal, in which one half to two thirds of the initial levels of adducts, detected at 24 h after treatment, were removed by 7 days followed by a second phase in which one half to two thirds of the remainder was removed in the succeeding 25 days. When mice were treated topically with multiple carcinogenic doses of coal-tar, creosote or bitumen for up to 5 weeks, a steady accumulation of adducts was seen in skin DNA during the course of the treatment, approaching a steady-state level towards the end of the treatment period in some instances. A similar accumulation of adducts was also evident in lung DNA, the levels being approximately half those attained in skin. The results demonstrate the application of 32P-post-labelling to the detection of DNA adducts formed in vivo by complex carcinogenic mixtures of the type to which humans are exposed. PMID:3383342

  8. PS300 Tribomaterials Evaluated at 6500C by Bushing Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striebing, Donald R.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A new facility has been developed to test the tribological behavior (friction and wear) of PS300 solid lubricant bushings at high temperatures. PS300 is a commercially available solid lubricant invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It can be prepared as a plasma spray coating or as a free-standing powder metallurgy component, designated PM300. PS300 and PM300 composites are designed to lubricate sliding components at temperatures above the capability of today's best oils, greases, and solid lubricants. One of the primary applications being pursued for PM300 is the development of bushings for use in high-temperature machinery. Examples include inlet guide vane bushings for gas turbines and conveyors, and bearings for industrial furnaces and ovens. Encouraging preliminary field trials indicate that PS300 and PM300 lubricant materials have been commercialized successfully in several industrial applications. However, the lack of laboratory performance data has hindered further commercialization especially for new applications that differ significantly from the established experience base. The purpose of the newly developed bushing test rig will be to determine the performance characteristics of PM300, and other materials, under conditions closely matching intended applications. The data will be used to determine engineering friction and wear rates and to estimate the life expectancy of bushings for new applications. In the new rig, the bushing is loaded against a rotating shaft inside a furnace enclosure (see the preceding photograph). Loads can vary from 5 to 200 N, speeds from 1 to 400 rpm, and temperatures from 25 to 800 C. Furnace temperature, bushing temperature, shaft speed, and torque are monitored during the test, and wear of both the bushing and the shaft is measured after testing is completed. Initially, PM300 bushings will be evaluated and compared with lower temperature, traditional bushing materials like graphite and porous bronze. The baseline PM304 composition is 60 wt% NiCr (a binder), 20 wt% Cr2O3 (a hardener), 10 wt% BaF2/CaF2 (a high-temperature lubricant), and 10 wt% Ag (a low-temperature lubricant). Future research efforts will include determining the effects of load, sliding speed, and temperature on tribological performance and, possibly, tailoring composition for specific applications. We expect that the availability of measured performance data will enhance the market penetration of PM300 technology.

  9. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste-ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, Harold C., Jr.,(Edited By); Franks, Bernard J.

    1986-01-01

    Ground- and surface-water contamination by pesticides used in the wood-preserving industry is widespread in the United States. Pine poles were treated with wood preservatives from 1902 to 1981 at a creosote works near Pensacola, Florida. Diesel fuel, creosote, and pentachlorophenol were discharged to two unlined impoundments that had a direct hydraulic connection to the sand-and-gravel aquifer. Evidence of wood-preserving waste contamination appears to be confined to the upper 30 meters of the aquifer. The waste plume extends downgradient approximately 300 meters south toward Pensacola Bay. In 1983, the creosote works site was selected by the U.S. Geological Survey's Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology as a national research demonstration area to apply the latest techniques for characterizing hazardous waste problems. The multidisciplinary research effort is aimed at studying processes that affect the occurrence, transport, transformations, and fate of the toxic contaminants associated with wood preservatives in the environment. Clusters of two to five wells were constructed at different depths at nine sites to define the depth of contamination. Research studies are investigating sorption, dispersion, dilution, chemical reactions, bacterially mediated transformations, quality assurance, plume hydrodynamics, and the ultimate fate of these complex organic wastes.

  10. Grow tubes change microclimate and bush architecture but have little effect on bush biomass allocation at the end of the establishment year in blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microclimate variables were integrated over a six-month period during which blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Liberty) bushes were grown in 51-cm high, 20-cm diameter round grow tubes (opaque or translucent) on a sawdust mulch-covered raised bed with the mulch incorporated into tilled soil. Grow t...

  11. The lower Colorado River Valley: A Pleistocene desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Kenneth L.

    1986-05-01

    A chronological sequence of plant macrofossil assemblages from twenty-five pack rat middens provides a record of desert scrub vegetation for most of the last 13,380 yr B.P. from a hyperarid portion of the lower Colorado River Valley. At the end of the late Wisconsin, and probably during much of the Quaternary, the Picacho Peak area, Imperial County, California, supported a typical Mohave Desert association of Larrea divaricata (creosote bush), Coleogyne ramosissima (blackbrush), Yucca brevifolia (Joshua tree), and Y. whipplei (Whipple yucca). Recent arrivals of Sonoran Desert plants such as Olneya tesota (ironwood) and Fouquieria splendens (ocotillo) suggest that the area supported relatively modern Sonoran desert scrub species for relatively short periods during interglaciations.

  12. Defrosting Polar Dunes--'They Look Like Bushes!'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'They look like bushes!' That's what almost everyone says when they see the dark features found in pictures taken of sand dunes in the polar regions as they are beginning to defrost after a long, cold winter. It is hard to escape the fact that, at first glance, these images acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over both polar regions during the spring and summer seasons, do indeed resemble aerial photographs of sand dune fields on Earth--complete with vegetation growing on and around them! Of course, this is not what the features are, as we describe below and in related picture captions. Still, don't they look like vegetation to you? Shown here are two views of the same MGS MOC image. On the left is the full scene, on the right is an expanded view of a portion of the scene on the left. The bright, smooth surfaces that are dotted with occasional, nearly triangular dark spots are sand dunes covered by winter frost.

    The MGS MOC has been used over the past several months (April-August 1999) to monitor dark spots as they form and evolve on polar dune surfaces. The dark spots typically appear first along the lower margins of a dune--similar to the position of bushes and tufts of grass that occur in and among some sand dunes on Earth.

    Because the martian air pressure is very low--100 times lower than at Sea Level on Earth--ice on Mars does not melt and become liquid when it warms up. Instead, ice sublimes--that is, it changes directly from solid to gas, just as 'dry ice' does on Earth. As polar dunes emerge from the months-long winter night, and first become exposed to sunlight, the bright winter frost and snow begins to sublime. This process is not uniform everywhere on a dune, but begins in small spots and then over several months it spreads until the entire dune is spotted like a leopard.

    The early stages of the defrosting process--as in the picture shown here--give the impression that something is 'growing' on the dunes. The sand underneath the frost is dark, just like basalt beach sand in Hawaii. Once it is exposed to sunlight, the dark sand probably absorbs sunlight and helps speed the defrosting of each sand dune.

    This picture was taken by MGS MOC on July 21, 1999. The dunes are located in the south polar region and are expected to be completely defrosted by November or December 1999. North is approximately up, and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left. The 500 meter scale bar equals 547 yards; the 300 meter scale is also 328 yards.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  13. Retinotopic maps in the pulvinar of bush baby (Otolemur garnettii).

    PubMed

    Li, K; Patel, J; Purushothaman, G; Marion, R T; Casagrande, V A

    2013-10-15

    Despite its anatomical prominence, the function of the primate pulvinar is poorly understood. A few electrophysiological studies in simian primates have investigated the functional organization of pulvinar by examining visuotopic maps. Multiple visuotopic maps have been found for all studied simians, with differences in organization reported between New and Old World simians. Given that prosimians are considered closer to the common ancestors of New and Old World primates, we investigated the visuotopic organization of pulvinar in the prosimian bush baby (Otolemur garnettii). Single-electrode extracellular recording was used to find the retinotopic maps in the lateral (PL) and inferior (PI) pulvinar. Based on recordings across cases, a 3D model of the map was constructed. From sections stained for Nissl bodies, myelin, acetylcholinesterase, calbindin, or cytochrome oxidase, we identified three PI chemoarchitectonic subdivisions, lateral central (PIcl), medial central (PIcm), and medial (PIm) inferior pulvinar. Two major retinotopic maps were identified that cover PL and PIcl, the dorsal one in dorsal PL and the ventral one in PIcl and ventral PL. Both maps represent central vision at the posterior end of the border between the maps, the upper visual field in the lateral half and the lower visual field in the medial half. They share many features with the maps reported for the pulvinar of simians, including the location in pulvinar and the representation of the upper-lower and central-peripheral visual field axes. The second-order representation in the lateral map and a laminar organization are likely features specific to Old World simians. PMID:23640865

  14. Cryogenic lifetime tests on a commercial epoxy resin high voltage bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenterly, S. W.; Pleva, E. F.; Ha, T. T.

    2012-06-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES), SuperPower (SP), and Southern California Edison (SCE) to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen (LN) needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-rms-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is continuously energized at 25 kVac rms. LN is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  15. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S W; Pleva, Ed; Ha, Tam T

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  16. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  17. In vivo measurement, in vitro estimation and fugacity prediction of PAH bioavailability in post-remediated creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Albert L; Weber, John; Stevenson, Gavin; Slee, Daniel; Gancarz, Dorota; Rofe, Allan; Smith, Euan

    2014-03-01

    In this study, PAH bioavailability was assessed in creosote-contaminated soil following bioremediation in order to determine potential human health exposure to residual PAHs from incidental soil ingestion. Following 1,000 days of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA), a residual PAH concentration of 871 8 mg kg(-1) (?16 USEPA priority PAHs in the <250 ?m soil particle size fraction) was present in the soil. However, when bioavailability was assessed to elucidate potential human exposure using an in vivo mouse model, the upper-bound estimates of PAH absolute bioavailability were in excess of 65% irrespective of the molecular weight of the PAH. These results indicate that a significant proportion of the residual PAH fraction following ENA may be available for absorption following soil ingestion. In contrast, when PAH bioavailability was estimated/predicted using an in vitro surrogate assay (FOREhST assay) and fugacity modelling, PAH bioavailability was up to 2000 times lower compared to measured in vivo values depending on the methodology used. PMID:24368196

  18. Combination of biochar amendment and mycoremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons immobilization and biodegradation in creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Garca-Delgado, Carlos; Alfaro-Barta, Irene; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-21

    Soils impregnated with creosote contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). To bioremediate these soils and avoid PAH spread, different bioremediation strategies were tested, based on natural attenuation, biochar application, wheat straw biostimulation, Pleurotus ostreatus mycoremediation, and the novel sequential application of biochar for 21 days and P. ostreatus 21 days more. Soil was sampled after 21 and 42 days after the remediation application. The efficiency and effectiveness of each remediation treatment were assessed according to PAH degradation and immobilization, fungal and bacterial development, soil eco-toxicity and legal considerations. Natural attenuation and biochar treatments did not achieve adequate PAH removal and soil eco-toxicity reduction. Biostimulation showed the highest bacterial development but low PAH degradation rate. Mycoremediation achieved the best PAH degradation rate and the lowest bioavailable fraction and soil eco-toxicity. This bioremediation strategy achieved PAH concentrations below Spanish legislation for contaminated soils (RD 9/2005). Sequential application of biochar and P. ostreatus was the second treatment most effective for PAH biodegradation and immobilization. However, the activity of P. ostreatus was increased by previous biochar application and PAH degradation efficiency was increased. Therefore, the combined strategy for PAH degradation have high potential to increase remediation efficiency. PMID:25506817

  19. Colloid characterization and colloidal phase partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two creosote-contaminated aquifers in Denmark

    SciTech Connect

    Villholth, K.G.

    1999-03-01

    Colloidal matter inherent in the subsurface may provide a favorable phase for contaminant partitioning and furthermore act as agents for facilitated contaminant transport. The objectives of the present study were to determine the abundance and properties of intrinsically mobile colloids in the anoxic groundwater from two creosote-contaminated aquifers and to determine the in situ distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between the dissolved phase and two colloidal fractions. The experimental procedure comprising field sampling of bulk groundwater and a sequential laboratory fractionation scheme consisting of a centrifugation and an ultrafiltration step was designed and performed to maintain groundwater chemical and physical integrity. The colloids were identified as clay minerals, Fe-oxides, Fe-sulfides, and quartz particles containing significant amounts of organic carbon. The PAH partitioning to the coarse colloid fraction was linearly correlated with the corresponding PAH octanol-water partitioning coefficient, indicating a hydrophobic partitioning. The K{sub oc} values agreed with literature information of PAH sorption to soil organic matter.

  20. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    SciTech Connect

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and microbial community shifts during co-composting of creosote-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Fabianová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena; Čvančarová, Monika; Burianová, Eva; Filipová, Alena; Vořísková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of decontaminating creosote-treated wood (CTW) by co-composting with agricultural wastes was investigated using two bulking agents, grass cuttings (GC) and broiler litter (BL), each employed at a 1:1 ratio with the matrix. The initial concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in CTW (26,500 mg kg(-1)) was reduced to 3 and 19% after 240 d in GC and BL compost, respectively. PAH degradation exceeded the predicted bioaccesible threshold, estimated through sequential supercritical CO2 extraction, together with significant detoxification, assessed by contact tests using Vibrio fisheri and Hordeum vulgare. GC composting was characterized by high microbial biomass growth in the early phases, as suggested by phospholipid fatty acid analyses. Based on the 454-pyrosequencing results, fungi (mostly Saccharomycetales) constituted an important portion of the microbial community, and bacteria were characterized by rapid shifts (from Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Actinobacteria to Proteobacteria). However, during BL composting, larger amounts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic PLFA markers were observed during the cooling and maturation phases, which were dominated by Proteobacteria and fungi belonging to the Ascomycota and those putatively related to the Glomeromycota. This work reports the first in-depth analysis of the chemical and microbiological processes that occur during the co-composting of a PAH-contaminated matrix. PMID:26342147

  2. The Impact of Argumentativeness and Verbal Aggression on Communicator Image: The Exchange between George Bush and Dan Rather.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downs, Valerie Cryer; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seeks to determine the effect of argumentativeness and verbal aggression on the image of participants in the CBS news interview of George Bush by Dan Rather. Finds that both concepts have a significant relationship to communicator image. Reports that verbal aggressiveness negatively affected Bush's image but positively influenced Rather's. (MG)

  3. George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    The appeal of Bush's post-September 11 discourse lies in its similarities with the Puritan rhetoric of covenant renewal by which ministers brought second- and third-generation Puritans into the church. Through this epideictic discourse, Bush implored younger Americans to uphold the national covenant of their "elders," the World War II generation,

  4. 76 FR 30393 - Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 9282). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage, the Department is amending... Employment and Training Administration Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express... Adjustment Assistance on February 10, 2011, applicable to workers of Bush Industries, Inc., including...

  5. The Reclamation of Theological Integrity: L. Russ Bush III and Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1989-1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duesing, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to argue that the life and work of L. Russ Bush III (1944-2008) made a significant contribution in the return of the Southern Baptist Convention to its theologically conservative heritage specifically in the early reformation of Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary from theological liberalism. That is, through Bush's

  6. Fatal aortic aneurysm and rupture in a neotropical bush dog (Speothos venaticus) caused by Spirocerca lupi.

    PubMed

    Rinas, Miguel A; Nesnek, Raquel; Kinsella, John M; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2009-10-14

    This report details the post-mortem discovery of a larva of Spirocerca lupi in the caudal thoracic aorta of a 2-year, male bush dog (Speothos venaticus). This individual presented no clinical symptoms of the parasite's presence prior to its sudden death. The cause of death was determined to be acute bleeding following the rupture of an aneurysm in the caudal thoracic aorta as a result of the parasite located there. This is the first report of S. lupi in a bush dog. PMID:19515493

  7. Frequency domain properties of hydraulic bushing with long and short passages: System identification using theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-05-01

    Fluid-filled bushings with tunable stiffness and damping properties are now employed in vehicles to improve ride characteristics and to reduce vibration and noise. Since scientific literature on this topic is sparse, a bushing prototype which can provide various combinations of long and short flow passages is designed and built. Several common fluid-filled bushing configurations are experimentally examined for their dynamic stiffness and pressure spectra. Linear time-invariant models (with lumped fluid elements) are proposed for a hydraulic bushing with two parallel flow passages. Next, a model with only a long capillary tube passage (an inertia track) is examined. Further, peak magnitude and loss angle frequencies are analytically found. Several methods for the identification of bushing parameters (up to 50 Hz) are suggested. The linear models are validated by comparing predictions with measured stiffness magnitude and loss angle spectra. Finally, the principal features of a practical device are diagnosed using analytical models and measurements for two excitation amplitudes.

  8. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace indigenous culicid species. Therefore, Aedes j. japonicus might both cause public health problems in the future and have a significant impact on the biodiversity of the invaded territories. PMID:24495418

  9. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace indigenous culicid species. Therefore, Aedes j. japonicus might both cause public health problems in the future and have a significant impact on the biodiversity of the invaded territories. PMID:24495418

  10. Effect of the smell of Seirogan, a wood creosote, on dermal and intestinal mucosal immunity and allergic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Miura, Takanori; Sato, Eisuke F; Inoue, Masayasu

    2012-09-01

    Seirogan, a wood creosote, has been used as an antidiarrhetic drug in Asian countries including Japan for many years. This antidiarrhetic has recently been used as a sugar-coated pill because Seirogan has a strong smell. The strong smell of the uncoated form of Seirogan may modulate the defense systems of animals because the sense of smell is important for the detection of toxic metabolites in foods contaminated with pathogens. This study examined the effect of the sugar-coated and uncoated forms of this antidiarrhetic on the immunological response and inflammatory reactions in mice that had been sensitized with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or oxazolone. The sensitization of mice with either FITC or oxazolone markedly increased the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and mucosal IgA and elicited severe inflammation in the colon by a mechanism that could be suppressed by exposure of animals to the smell of uncoated Seirogan as effectively as the oral administration of the agent. Dermal inflammation in the FITC- and oxazolone-sensitized mice was also suppressed effectively either by the exposure to the smell or oral administration of the agent. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealed that the elevated levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor-? and mucosal IgA were significantly decreased by exposure to the smell of uncoated Seirogan as well as by oral administration of the agent. Exposure of mice to the smell of Seirogan but not oral administration of the agent selectively increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, particularly in the sensitized animals. These observations suggest that exposing the animals to the smell of Seirogan per se activated the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and systemically modulated immunological reactions to suppress the allergic reactions. PMID:22962524

  11. Effect of the smell of Seirogan, a wood creosote, on dermal and intestinal mucosal immunity and allergic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Kobayashi, Hiromi; Ishii, Masamitsu; Miura, Takanori; Sato, Eisuke F.; Inoue, Masayasu

    2012-01-01

    Seirogan, a wood creosote, has been used as an antidiarrhetic drug in Asian countries including Japan for many years. This antidiarrhetic has recently been used as a sugar-coated pill because Seirogan has a strong smell. The strong smell of the uncoated form of Seirogan may modulate the defense systems of animals because the sense of smell is important for the detection of toxic metabolites in foods contaminated with pathogens. This study examined the effect of the sugar-coated and uncoated forms of this antidiarrhetic on the immunological response and inflammatory reactions in mice that had been sensitized with either fluorescein isothiocyanate or oxazolone. The sensitization of mice with either FITC or oxazolone markedly increased the plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-? and mucosal IgA and elicited severe inflammation in the colon by a mechanism that could be suppressed by exposure of animals to the smell of uncoated Seirogan as effectively as the oral administration of the agent. Dermal inflammation in the FITC- and oxazolone-sensitized mice was also suppressed effectively either by the exposure to the smell or oral administration of the agent. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealed that the elevated levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor-? and mucosal IgA were significantly decreased by exposure to the smell of uncoated Seirogan as well as by oral administration of the agent. Exposure of mice to the smell of Seirogan but not oral administration of the agent selectively increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol, particularly in the sensitized animals. These observations suggest that exposing the animals to the smell of Seirogan per se activated the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and systemically modulated immunological reactions to suppress the allergic reactions. PMID:22962524

  12. A Rhetorical Analysis of the 1984 Bush-Ferraro Vice-Presidential Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.; Kugler, Drew B.

    A rhetorical analysis of the 1984 vice-presidential debate between George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro was conducted to determine argumentation tactics, argumentation flaws, reasoning strategies, and other rhetorical characteristics. The results indicated that the format of the debate allowed for little actual direct confrontation between

  13. I'm Not Sure What George Bush Has to Do with Hitler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorelskin, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Alexis Pogorelskin, an associate professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth and chair of the History Department, recounts her experience in 2004 after making a controversial comment in her History of the Holocaust and 20th Century Russia class. Her comment was in reference to President Bush making no mention in the 2000 campaign about the

  14. William Bennett and the "Good War" against Drugs: Doublespeak and the Bush Administration's Hidden Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Tom

    This paper contends that former Secretary of Education William Bennett's "war on drugs" (he now directs the government's campaign against drugs) is not being waged against those who sell and use drugs, but against the civil liberties of everyone. The paper maintains that under the guise of ridding society of what President Bush called "the

  15. Learning Processes and Knowledge Transfer in a Native Bush-Oriented Society: Implications for Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larose, Francois

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes elements of bush-oriented Algonquin technology and ideology with regard to relationships of learning to material culture, games, child rearing practices, and legends. Discusses influences of "traditional" educational methods on Native informal learning structures, using aspects of Bandura's social cognitive theory. Contains 22

  16. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  17. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles Cutter's 3…

  18. Timbertop: Forty Years of Innovative Academic and Outdoor Educational Experience in the Australian Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Alistair; Priest, Simon

    1993-01-01

    A residential ninth-grade program in the Australian bush strives to develop initiative, personal integrity, respect for nature, leadership, self-esteem, and sense of community by combining academic study with a strong outdoor education program, replacing competitive sports with cooperative activities, requiring students to be responsible for…

  19. George W. Bush at Goree Island: American Slavery and the Rhetoric of Redemption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, at Goree Island, Senegal, George W. Bush delivered the most important speech on American slavery since Abraham Lincoln. As an example of rhetorical artistry, the speech is a masterpiece, putting the brutality of slavery into historical, political, and theological perspective. Although the speech had deliberative effects--it grew

  20. Broken Promises: How the Bush Administration is Failing America's Children [with] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that President Bush's proposal to shift responsibility for Head Start to the states would allow the federal government to abandon its promise to truly give children a head start, this report, with accompanying executive summary, outlines what is known about children receiving Head Start services and how the program addresses their needs.…

  1. Outdoor Education and Bush Adventure Therapy: A Socio-Ecological Approach to Health and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Anita; Carpenter, Cathryn; Townsend, Mardie

    2005-01-01

    Together, outdoor education and bush adventure therapy can be seen to constitute a population-wide health intervention strategy. Whether in educational or therapeutic settings, the intentional use of contact with nature, small groups, and adventure provides a unique approach in the promotion of health and wellbeing for the general population, and

  2. Vice President Bush visits ESA Astronauts at KSC for Spacelab dedication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    View of Vice President George Bush (center) visiting Astronauts Owen Garriot (left) and Wubbo Ockels of the Netherlands inside the Spacelab after the dedication ceremony in the Kennedy Space Center's Operations and Checkout (O and C) building. The NASA Headquarters alternative photo number is NASA 82-HC-64.

  3. Double Fence Intercomparison Reference (DFIR) vs. Bush Gauge for true snowfall measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Daqing

    2014-02-01

    The Bush Gauge and the DFIR have been used as the references for precipitation gauge intercomparison experiments. This study analyzes and compares the long-term (1991-2010) data collected by these gauges at the Valdai experimental station in Russia. The results show that the Bush Gauge systematically catches more (snow and mixed) precipitation than the DFIR. Wind speed during precipitation is the most important factor related to gauge undercatch. The Bush Gauge measures 20-50% more snow over a 12 h period than the DFIR for wind speeds of 6-7 m/s. Therefore, correction of the DFIR for wind-induced undercatch is necessary in order to best represent true precipitation. This study derives new correction equations for the DFIR measurements of snow and mixed precipitation. In comparison to previous analysis, the new equations suggest lower (by 3-6%) snow undercatch by the DFIR relative to the Bush Gauge, which means better DFIR performance than what we documented before in the past WMO intercomparison. This result will affect the evaluation of national standard precipitation gauges against the DFIR. Our effort is underway to determine the impact of this discrepancy through field data collection in Canada and additional data analysis at selected WMO test sites.

  4. STS-26 crewmembers egressing OV-103 are greeted by VP Bush at EAFB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 crewmembers egress Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, via mobile stairway as Vice President George H. W. Bush applaudes their arrival. Crewmembers from bottom to top are Commander Frederick H. Hauck, carrying a United States (U.S.) flag, Pilot Richard O. Covey, Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, and MS David C. Hilmers.

  5. Southern Methodist's Bush-Library Deal Mollifies Some Critics, but Doubts Persist about Think Tank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Southern Methodist University has released the terms of its agreement with the George W. Bush Presidential Library Foundation to house the president's official library and museum. To some faculty members, the most troubling element of the project is a conservative policy institute that will be affiliated with the library and museum. Unlike similar

  6. Ready To Read, Ready To Learn--First Lady Laura Bush's Education Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents First Lady Laura Bush's "Ready to Read, Ready to Learn Initiative," whose goals are to highlight successful early childhood programs that teach children important pre-reading and vocabulary skills; provide parents and caregivers with information to help their children learn; and help recruit and retain excellent teachers.…

  7. Broken Promises: How the Bush Administration is Failing America's Children [with] Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.

    Asserting that President Bush's proposal to shift responsibility for Head Start to the states would allow the federal government to abandon its promise to truly give children a head start, this report, with accompanying executive summary, outlines what is known about children receiving Head Start services and how the program addresses their needs.

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  9. I'm Not Sure What George Bush Has to Do with Hitler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorelskin, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Alexis Pogorelskin, an associate professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth and chair of the History Department, recounts her experience in 2004 after making a controversial comment in her History of the Holocaust and 20th Century Russia class. Her comment was in reference to President Bush making no mention in the 2000 campaign about the…

  10. George W. Bush at Goree Island: American Slavery and the Rhetoric of Redemption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, at Goree Island, Senegal, George W. Bush delivered the most important speech on American slavery since Abraham Lincoln. As an example of rhetorical artistry, the speech is a masterpiece, putting the brutality of slavery into historical, political, and theological perspective. Although the speech had deliberative effects--it grew…

  11. Bigger Education Department Role Seen in Bush Foreign-Language Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Foreign-language experts are praising the Department of Education for taking a larger role in promoting the teaching of other languages as part of a proposed Bush administration initiative to bolster national security and the economy. The departments of Defense and State have headed up efforts to increase the teaching of much-needed foreign

  12. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.

  13. Lost Opportunities: The Civil Rights Record of the Bush Administration Mid-Term.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Susan M., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed.

    This study of the civil rights policies and practices of the Bush Administration reviews the first 2 years of that administration's actions, presents recommendations for the future, and offers a series of working papers prepared by experts in the civil rights field. Part 1 of two major parts presents the actual report of the Citizen's Commission

  14. President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates

  15. The Bushing Test Facility: A new megavolt-class, meter-scale vacuum insulation test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Butner, J.M.; Smith, J.D.; Honig, E.M.; Ingwersen, P.M.; Umphres, J.D.; Anderson, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    Construction of the Bushing Test Facility (BTF) was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in the fall of 1989. The BTF is a new megavolt-class, meter-scale vacuum insulation test facility built to meet two primary objectives: (1) to qualify high-voltage vacuum feedthrough bushings before their installation in the electron-beam diodes of the Aurora KrF laser amplifiers and (2) to investigate fundamental issues related to surface flashover and electrical breakdown in vacuum, thereby enabling us to improve the performance and reliability of high-voltage components for future laser systems. The BTF voltage source is a low-energy (<4.4-kJ), 1-MV Marx generator whose output pulse width is variable from 100 ns to a few microseconds. The large BTF test chamber (2.1 m in diameter and 1.5 m long) allows full-sized Aurora bushings or other large-scale vacuum insulators to be tested at background pressures down to about 10{sup {minus}7} torr. This paper will further describe the facility, its experimental checkout and first bushing tests, and the plans for future vacuum insulation research. 11 refs., 5 figs.

  16. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Very little is known about the behavior and effects of fire in the Mojave Desert, because fire was historically uncommon. However, fire has become more frequent since the 1970s with increased dominance of the invasive annual grasses Bromus rubens and Schismus spp., and land managers are concerned about its ecological effect. In this paper, I describe patterns of peak fire temperature and their effect on annual plants in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Temperatures were monitored among microhabitats and distances from the soil surface, and between spring and summer. Microhabitats ranged from high amounts of fuel beneath creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) canopies, to intermediate amounts at the canopy drip line, to low amounts in the interspaces between them. Distances from the soil surface were within the vertical range where most annual plant seeds occur (-2, 0, 5, and 10 cm). I also compare temperature patterns with postfire changes in soil properties and annual plant biomass and species richness to infer potential mechanisms by which fires affect annual plants. Peak fire temperatures were most affected by the microhabitat fuel gradient, and the effects of fire on annual plants varied among microhabitats. Beneath creosote bushes, lethal fire temperatures for annual plant seeds occurred above- and belowground, resulting in four postfire years of reduced annual plant biomass and species richness due most likely to seed mortality, especially of Bromus rubens and native forbs. At the canopy drip line, lethal fire temperatures occurred only aboveground, reducing annual plant biomass for 1 yr and species richness for 2 yr, and increasing biomass of Schismus sp., the alien forb Erodium cicutarium, and native annuals after 3 yr. Negligible changes were caused by fire in interspaces or between spring and summer. Fire effects models for creosote bush scrub vegetation must account for patterns of peak fire temperature along the shrub-intershrub gradient. The responses of annual plants to this gradient vary depending on the species composition of the seedling cohort, their microhabitat affinities, and their respective phenologic stages at the time of burning. Fire can temporarily reduce seed densities of Bromus rubens, but dominance of Schismus sp. may quickly increase above prefire levels.

  17. Technology evaluation report: Pilot-scale demonstration of a slurry-phase biological reactor for creosote-contaminated soil. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Donsani, M.

    1993-03-01

    The report documents a pilot-scale test of a slurry-phase biological reactor for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil. The technology used was a reactor system in which an aqueous slurry of soil was mixed with appropriate nutrients and seeded with micro-organisms to enhance the biodegradation process. In the 12-wk study, a creosote-contaminated soil from the Burlington Northern Superfund Site in Brainerd, MN, was used to test the slurry-phase reactors. The results of a previously-performed bench-scale study were used to optimize a pilot-scale reactor system. Each reactor contained 64 l of 30% slurry (soil: water, w/v). The pilot-scale phase utilized an inoculum of indigenous polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) degraders (9.3 x 10 to the 7th power CFU/g of soil), an inorganic nitrogen supplement in the form of NH4(-N), and a media broth containing potassium, phosphate, magnesium, calcium, and iron. The reduction of total PAHs exceeded 87%. The report presents detailed information concerning the operation, sampling and analysis, and results achieved with the pilot-scale slurry-phase bioremediation system.

  18. Public-health assessment for American Creosote Works Inc. , Pensacola, Escambia County, Florida, Region 4. CERCLIS No. FLD008161994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-29

    The American Creosote Works, Inc., National Priorities List (NPL) site, is near Pensacola Bay in Pensacola, Florida. American Creosote operated a wood preserving business from 1902 until 1981. Soils, buried sludge, ground water, sediments, and air are contaminated with numerous of chemicals including; pentachlorophenol, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and benzene. Children trespassing on the site are likely to be exposed to pentachlorophenol, PAHs, and PCDDs/PCDFs in the soil via incidental ingestion and may suffer chloracne, liver damage, and an increased risk of cancer. Incidental ingestion of off-site soil by children may also increase their risk of chloracne and liver damage, but actual health effects depend on the frequency and duration of the exposure. Inhalation of benzene in the on-site air may increase the lifetime risk of cancer for children and other site trespassers. The site is a public health hazard due to the risk of adverse health effects from long term exposure to hazardous chemicals in the air, soil, and ground water.

  19. Field-scale testing of a two-stage bioreactor for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, D.P.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

    1993-11-15

    A two-stage, field-scale bioreactor system was used to determine the efficacy of bioremediation of creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)- contaminated ground water at the abandoned American Creosote Works (ACW) site in Pensacola, Florida. In separate 15-day runs of the field-scale (454L) system, bioreactor performance in the presence of specially-selected microbial inoculants was compared to that observed using non-specific biomass. Results obtained with specialty organisms in the first run of the field-scale bioreactor showed that, on average, 70.6% of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heterocycles were degraded. Only 36.9% of the pentachlorophenol (PCP) present was biodegraded. In the second run, microorganisms from an industrial waste water treatment facility averaged 51.0% biodegradation of PAHs and heterocycles. Degradaton of PCP was 81.0%, a value substantially higher than in the first run. Reductions in toxicity/teratogenicity were also observed for effluent from the second run of the field-scale bioreactor but the magnitude of toxicity reduction was less than in the first run.

  20. Movement and fate of creosote waste in ground water, Pensacola, Florida; U.S. Geological Survey toxic waste--ground-water contamination program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattraw, H. C., Jr.,(Edited By); Franks, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    In 1983, the U.S. Geological Survey, Office of Hazardous Waste Hydrology, selected the former American Creosote Works site near Pensacola, Florida as a national research demonstration area. Seventy-nine years (1902-81) of seepage from unlined discharge impoundments had released creosote, diesel fuel, and pentachlorophenol (since 1950) wastes into the ground-water system. A cluster of from 2 to 5 wells constructed at different depths at 9 sites yielded water which revealed contamination 600 feet downgradient and to a depth of 100 feet below land surface near the site. The best cross-sectional representation of the contaminant plume was obtained from samples collected and analyzed for oxidation-reduction sensitive inorganic chemical constituents. Energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence detected recently formed iron carbonate in soil samples from highly reducing ground-water zones. Approximately eighty specific organic contaminants were isolated from ground-water samples by gas-chromotography/mass spectrometry. Column studies indicate the dimethyl phenols are not sorbed or degraded by the sand-and-gravel aquifer materials. Five of nineteen individual phenolic and related compounds are biodegradable based on anaerobic digestor experiments with ACW site bacterial populations. The potential impacts in the nearby Pensacola Bay biotic community are being evaluated. (USGS)