Science.gov

Sample records for creosote bush larrea

  1. Contact dermatitis from Larrea (creosote bush).

    PubMed

    Leonforte, J F

    1986-02-01

    Six men suffering from acute dermatitis had positive patch tests to Larrea (creosote bush). The lesions preferentially involved sun-exposed sites, simulating a photodermatitis, but also were on the legs and scrotum. Our findings were more consistent with contact allergy than with a primary irritant or a phototoxic response. The patch tests were also positive to Zuccagnia punctata. In two cases the exposure to the creosote bush occurred as a result of casual occupations, in two because of household remedies (moist compresses and baths), and in the other two as a result of burning the bush and resorting to household remedies. Attention should be drawn to this contact dermatitis because the creosote bush grows abundantly all over the American continent. PMID:3950120

  2. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  3. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  4. Effect of manipulation of water and nitrogen supplies on the quantitative phenology of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) in the Sonoran desert in California

    SciTech Connect

    Sharifi, M.R.; Rundel, P.W.; Herman, D.J. ); Meinzer, F.C. ); Nilsen, E.T. ); Virginia, R.A. ); Jarrell, W.M.; Clark, P.C. )

    1988-08-01

    Two years of water and nitrogen augmentation experiments on Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) were carried out in a southern Californian warm desert wash plant community. Treatments consisted of control (C), water (W), water and soil nitrogen (W+SN), and soil nitrogen (SN). Quantitative phenological data and microclimate measurements were collected prior to the onset of and during the growth period and treatments. Predawn and midday water potentials were lower in nonirrigated than irrigated individuals. Leaf conductance was higher in irrigate than in nonirrigated shrubs, with a maximum difference of 1 cm s{sup {minus}1} observed in July 1984 under relatively low vapor pressure deficit conditions. Leaf production rates were significantly high in the irrigated (W and W+SN) treatments than in the nonirrigated (C and SN) treatments in 1984. Addition of soil nitrogen caused no increased in vegetative growth rates in 1984. In 1985, a drier year, there was only minimal growth during the spring and summer growth periods in the nonirrigated treatments, while the W and W+SN treatments resulted in significantly higher leaf and shoot growth rates. Growth rates in 1985 were significantly higher in the W + SN treatment than in the W treatment. Reproductive growth was higher in the nonirrigated than the irrigated treatments, with the lowest reproductive activity noted in the W treatment.

  5. Molecular phylogeny of Larrea and its allies (Zygophyllaceae): reticulate evolution and the probable time of creosote bush arrival to North America.

    PubMed

    Lia, V V; Confalonieri, V A; Comas, C I; Hunziker, J H

    2001-11-01

    Nucleotide sequences of Rubisco Large Subunit (rbcL) and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) of nrDNA were obtained for the five species of Larrea and one species each of Bulnesia (ITS only) and Plectrocarpa (rbcL only). Parsimony analyses were conducted, including sequences from seven genera of Zygophyllaceae reported by other authors-Kallstroemia, Zygophyllum, Augea, Fagonia, Pintoa, Guaiacum, and Porlieria. The main conclusions of the present study are (1) the Argentine endemic Plectrocarpa tetracantha belongs to the subfamily Larreoideae (New World Clade); (2) all three phylogenies obtained from rbcL, ITS, and combined data sets show a close relationship between the tetraploid L. cuneifolia (sect. Bifolium) and the diploid multifoliolate pair L. nitida-L. ameghinoi (sect. Larrea), which could result from a possible intersectional hybrid origin of the tetraploid; (3) L. divaricata (sect. Bifolium) and L. tridentata (sect. Bifolium) form a highly supported monophyletic group, which agrees with previous cytogenetic and molecular evidence; and (4) the rate of nucleotide substitution of rbcL was estimated based on geological and fossil records. Under the molecular clock hypothesis, nucleotide sequence divergence between L. divaricata and L. tridentata suggests a Late Neogene (8.4 to 4.2 mybp) time of arrival of the diploid ancestors of L. tridentata to North American deserts. PMID:11697924

  6. Creosote bush lignans for human disease treatment and prevention: Perspectives on combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gnabre, John; Bates, Robert; Huang, Ru Chih

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal properties of the most successful plant in the deserts of the western hemisphere, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), are evidenced by the long traditional usage of the plants by the Native Americans Indian tribes in Southwestern North America and the Amerindians from South America. The plant is rich in simple bisphenyl lignans and tricyclic lignans known as cyclolignans. These compounds are responsible for many of the pharmacological activities of extracts of the plants. Some of these activities, namely antiherpes, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, were known a century ago. Only recently have further studies revealed other crucial activities of the same plant molecules as powerful agents against human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and symptoms of aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral and anticancer activities have been elucidated and involve the inhibition of SP1 dependent gene transcription. This review summarizes the recent findings on creosote bush lignans. We introduce the concept of a cocktail of safe well-characterized natural products from the creosote bush that would represent a bridge between oriental herbal medicines and Western drug-based therapies. PMID:26151022

  7. Creosote bush lignans for human disease treatment and prevention: Perspectives on combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Gnabre, John; Bates, Robert; Huang, Ru Chih

    2015-07-01

    The medicinal properties of the most successful plant in the deserts of the western hemisphere, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), are evidenced by the long traditional usage of the plants by the Native Americans Indian tribes in Southwestern North America and the Amerindians from South America. The plant is rich in simple bisphenyl lignans and tricyclic lignans known as cyclolignans. These compounds are responsible for many of the pharmacological activities of extracts of the plants. Some of these activities, namely antiherpes, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, were known a century ago. Only recently have further studies revealed other crucial activities of the same plant molecules as powerful agents against human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and symptoms of aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral and anticancer activities have been elucidated and involve the inhibition of SP1 dependent gene transcription. This review summarizes the recent findings on creosote bush lignans. We introduce the concept of a cocktail of safe well-characterized natural products from the creosote bush that would represent a bridge between oriental herbal medicines and Western drug-based therapies. PMID:26151022

  8. "Pharm-ecology" of diet shifting: biotransformation of plant secondary compounds in creosote (Larrea tridentata) by a woodrat herbivore, Neotoma lepida.

    PubMed

    Haley, Shannon L; Lamb, John G; Franklin, Michael R; Constance, Jonathan E; Dearing, M Denise

    2008-01-01

    Diet switching in mammalian herbivores may necessitate a change in the biotransformation enzymes used to process plant secondary compounds (PSCs). We investigated differences in the biotransformation system in the mammalian herbivore, Neotoma lepida, after a radical shift in diet and secondary compound composition. Populations of N. lepida in the Mojave Desert have evolved over the past 10,000 years to feed on creosote (Larrea tridentata) from an ancestral state of consuming juniper (Juniperus osteosperma). This dietary shift represents a marked change in the dietary composition of PSCs in that creosote leaves are coated with phenolic resin, whereas juniper is high in terpenes but lacks phenolic resin. We quantified the enzyme activity of five major groups of biotransformation enzymes (cytochrome P450s, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, glutathione conjugation, sulfation, and glucuronidation) recognized for their importance to mammalian biotransformation for the elimination of foreign compounds. Enzyme activities were compared between populations of Mojave and Great Basin woodrats fed control and creosote diets. In response to creosote, the Mojave population had greater levels of cytochrome P450s (CYP2B, CYP1A) and glutathione conjugation liver enzymes compared with the Great Basin population. Our results suggest that elevated levels of cytochrome P450s and glutathione conjugation enzymes in the Mojave population may be the underlying biotransformation mechanisms that facilitate feeding on creosote. PMID:18752424

  9. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  10. Genes encoding chavicol/eugenol synthase from the creosote bush Larrea tridentata

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Norman G.; Davin, Laurence B.; Kim, Sung -Jin; Vassao, Daniel Giddings; Patten, Ann M.; Eichinger, Dietmar

    2015-09-15

    Particular aspects provide novel methods for redirecting carbon allocation in plants or cell culture from lignification to inherently more useful and tractable materials, and to facilitate the generation of, e.g., biofuels from the remaining plant ro culture biomass. Particular aspects provided novel methods for converting monolignols into allyl/propenyl phenols, and for chavicol/eugenol formation or production. Additional aspects relate to the discovery of novel chavicol/eugenol synthases that convert p-coumaryl/coniferyl alcohol esters into chavicol/eugenol, and to novel compositions (e.g., novel proteins and nucleic acids encoding same), and novel methods using same for producing or forming chavicol/eugenol and other derivatives in cell culture and/or genetically modified plants, and for re-engineering the composition of plant biomass. Particular aspects provide novel methods for generation in culture or in planta of liquid/combustible allyl/propenyl phenols, and these phenolic products are utilized for (non-ethanol) biofuel/bioenergy purposes, while the remaining plant biomass facilitates the generation of other biofuels.

  11. Creosote

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Creosote ; CASRN 8001 - 58 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  12. Determining copper and lead binding in Larrea tridentata through chemical modification and X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Polette, L.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Chianelli, R.; Pickering, I.J.; George, G.N.

    1997-12-31

    Metal contamination in soils has become a widespread problem. Emerging technologies, such as phytoremediation, may offer low cost cleanup methods. The authors have identified a desert plant, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), which naturally grows and uptakes copper and lead from a contaminated area near a smelting operation. They determined, through chemical modification of carboxyl groups with methanol, that these functional groups may be responsible for a portion of copper(II) binding. In contrast, lead binding was minimally affected by modification of carboxyl groups. X-ray absorption spectroscopy studies conducted at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) further support copper binding to oxygen-coordinated ligands and also imply that the binding is not solely due to phytochelatins. The EXAFS data indicate the presence of both Cu-O and Cu-S back scatters, no short Cu-Cu interactions, but with significant Cu-Cu back scattering at 3.7 {angstrom} (unlike phytochelatins with predominantly Cu-S coordination and short Cu-Cu interactions at 2.7 {angstrom}). Cu EXAFS of roots and leaves also vary depending on the level of heavy metal contamination in the environment from which the various creosote samples were obtained. In contrast, Pb XANES data of roots and leaves of creosote collected from different contaminated sites indicate no difference in valence states or ligand coordination.

  13. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, K.L.; Betancourt, J.L.; Riddle, B.R.; Van Devender, T. R.; Cole, K.L.; Geoffrey, Spaulding W.

    2000-01-01

    1 A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26-10 14C kyr BP or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ???4.0 14C kyr BP. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr BP. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr BP in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (???37??N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr BP. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture. ?? 2001 Blackwell Science Ltd.

  14. AmeriFlux US-SRC Santa Rita Creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Kurc, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-SRC Santa Rita Creosote. Site Description - Part of the Santa Rita Experimental Range since 1901; Site vegetation has been dominated by Creosote bush since at least 1934

  15. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  16. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yihang; Hu, Jie; Shen, Wen-Jun; Singh, Madhurima; Hou, Xiaoming; Bittner, Alex; Bittner, Stefanie; Cortez, Yuan; Tabassum, Juveria; Kraemer, Fredric B.; Azhar, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity), insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36), and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor) genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors). Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt), AMPK activity (P-AMPK), MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1). These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation. PMID:26394137

  17. Effect of Creosote Bush-Derived NDGA on Expression of Genes Involved in Lipid Metabolism in Liver of High-Fructose Fed Rats: Relevance to NDGA Amelioration of Hypertriglyceridemia and Hepatic Steatosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyan; Li, Yihang; Hu, Jie; Shen, Wen-Jun; Singh, Madhurima; Hou, Xiaoming; Bittner, Alex; Bittner, Stefanie; Cortez, Yuan; Tabassum, Juveria; Kraemer, Fredric B; Azhar, Salman

    2015-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of Creosote bush, has been shown to have profound effects on the core components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), lowering blood glucose, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels in several models of dyslipidemia, as well as improving body weight (obesity), insulin resistance, diabetes and hypertension, and ameliorating hepatic steatosis. In the present study, a high-fructose diet (HFrD) fed rat model of hypertriglyceridemia was employed to further delineate the underlying mechanism by which NDGA exerts its anti-hypertriglyceridemic action. In the HFrD treatment group, NDGA administration by oral gavage decreased plasma levels of TG, glucose, FFA, and insulin, increased hepatic mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and attenuated hepatic TG accumulation. qRT-PCR measurements indicated that NDGA treatment increased the mRNA expression of key fatty acid transport (L-FABP, CD36), and fatty acid oxidation (ACOX1, CPT-2, and PPARα transcription factor) genes and decreased the gene expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis (FASN, ACC1, SCD1, L-PK and ChREBP and SREBP-1c transcription factors). Western blot analysis indicated that NDGA administration upregulated hepatic insulin signaling (P-Akt), AMPK activity (P-AMPK), MLYCD, and PPARα protein levels, but decreased SCD1, ACC1 and ACC2 protein content and also inactivated ACC1 activity (increased P-ACC1). These findings suggest that NDGA ameliorates hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis primarily by interfering with lipogenesis and promoting increased channeling of fatty acids towards their oxidation. PMID:26394137

  18. CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioremediation of creosote-contaminated materials is reviewed here by characterizing coal-tar creosote, identifying techniques for assessing the biodegradability of its many chemical constituents, examining known routes of microbial transformation of these chemicals, and reviewin...

  19. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Abrell, L.; Kurc, S. A.; Huxman, T.; Ortega, J.; Guenther, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009) field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of volatile organic compounds (VOC). While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (<5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (>80 mm) occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. We observed a strong diurnal pattern of branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids) as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere), as well as a group of compounds considered

  20. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Abrell, L.; Kurc, S. A.; Huxman, T.; Ortega, J.; Guenther, A.

    2010-07-01

    The emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from plants impacts both climate and air quality by fueling atmospheric chemistry and by contributing to aerosol particles. While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (<5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (>80 mm) occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009) field study in Southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of VOCs. We observed a strong diurnal pattern with branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids) as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan

  1. Two-Site Comparison of Transpiration by Larrea Tridentata 2024

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a result of landscape changes within the desert southwestern U.S. such as increased grazing, reduced wildfire frequency, and changes in atmospheric conditions, the native creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) has encroached upon historically grass-dominated ecosystems, expanding in range and land cove...

  2. The Bush Memorial Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamline University Bulletin, 1971

    1971-01-01

    The Bush Memorial Library was formally dedicated on October 9, 1971. As part of Hamline University in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Bush Memorial Library has a reading room, audio booths, and audio-visual classroom as well as an audio control room. The Bush Memorial Library is a member of the Cooperating Libraries in Consortium which is a cooperative…

  3. Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manciu, Felicia

    2012-10-01

    In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

  4. 2. Creosote plant site (NE side) as viewed from passenger ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Creosote plant site (NE side) as viewed from passenger deck of Washington State Ferry as it approaches the Winslow landing. Remnants of Milwaukee Bock are visible on far left. Building at left is Office Engine Room Building with sloped roof is at center behind tanks. To the right is Boiler Building with stack. Long building is Machine Shop. Dock on right is West Dock. - Pacific Creosoting Plant, 5350 Creosote Place, Northeast, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  5. HVDC wall bushing studies

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, H.M.; Lux, A.E.; Howes, D.R. )

    1990-07-01

    This report describes research conducted to determine the performance of HVDC wall bushings in different wetting conditions. The in-service behavior of these wall bushing on HVDC systems at voltages of {plus minus}450 kV and above is first described to establish the conditions under which flashovers have occurred. Laboratory tests made at the EPRI High Voltage Transmission Research Center confirm that wall bushings may flash over at rated operation voltage under conditions which are intended to be representative of those experienced on operating transmission systems. Methods for improving performance are discussed, and results of tests with several types of mitigation techniques are described. The major emphasis is placed on the application of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber. Clean fog is used to evaluate the characteristics of this material on post insulators. The encouraging performance of the post insulators coated with RTV is the basis for further evaluation on full scale wall bushings tested in nonuniform rain. In addition to tests on RTV coated wall bushings without pre-doposited contamination, attempts at achieving reasonable contamination layers on RV are described. By means of resistance measurements on horizontal insulators, the critical conditions which may lead to flashover on surfaces with different materials and coatings are investigated 15 refs., 39 figs., 11 tabs.

  6. Effects of petroleum creosote on selected stages of embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, P.R.

    1989-01-01

    The prenatal toxicity of petroleum creosote, a complex mixture of chemicals, was investigated via an in vivo study and an in vitro embryo culture system. Additionally, the prenatal toxicity of naphthalene, one chemical component of petroleum creosote, was determined in the in vitro system. The purpose of the study was to provide specific data on the prenatal toxicity of petroleum creosote and demonstrate the value of the two techniques. In the in vivo study, petroleum creosote was not embryotoxic or teratogenic in ICR mice when administered on gestation days 5-9, at a dose of 4000 mg/kg body weight. In vitro, petroleum creosote becomes embryotoxic to ICR mouse blastocysts at some exposure level between 22 and 33 {mu}g/ml of media. Bioactivation plays a major role in embryotoxicity of naphthalene. Naphthalene without rodent liver microsomal enzymes added to the media was not embryotoxic at levels as high as 100 {mu}g/ml media, whereas naphthalene became embryotoxic at some level between 10 and 50 {mu}g/ml of media in the presence of microsomes. The data indicate that naphthalene is one of the embryotoxic components of petroleum creosote, and that exposure to sufficient levels of petroleum creosote during early pregnancy could result in embryonic loss.

  7. REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE FROM SOIL BY BIOSLURRY REACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological slurry reactors were tested for removal of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from creosote contaminated soil. ive bioslurry reactors, operated in parallel, kept the soil aerated, partially suspended and well mixed. he reactors were inoculated with indigenous mic...

  8. Fluorescence induction as a bioindicator of creosote toxicity in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Marwood, C.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    The use of chlorophyll fluorescence induction as a photosynthetic bioindicator was evaluated as part of a study to assess the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on aquatic macrophytes. The wood preservative creosote was used as a mixed PAH source. Toxicity to aquatic plants was measured at the biomarker level using chlorophyll fluorescence induction and compared to effects at the population level in outdoor mesocosms. As well, the aquatic macrophytes Lemna gibba (G3) and Myriophyllum sp., and the green alga Selenastrum capricomutum were exposed to liquid creosote at nominal concentrations of 0.1 to 100 {micro}1/1 in static renewal 8-day toxicity bioassays. Plants were incubated in simulated solar radiation, which mimics the relative levels of UV in natural sunlight. Population-level endpoints (growth rate, cell numbers, chlorophyll content) were compared to results of the fluorescence induction assay. Growth rates of plants were significantly inhibited by creosote at concentrations above 3 {micro}l/l. However, inhibition of photosynthesis was detected by fluorescence induction at the lowest creosote concentration. Fluorescence induction assays of plants exposed to creosote in outdoor mesocosms also detected photosynthetic inhibition at lower creosote concentrations than growth assays, In addition, damage to the photosynthetic apparatus was detected by fluorescence induction after only a few hours of exposure to creosote. Chlorophyll fluorescence therefore appears to be a rapid and sensitive bioindicator for the toxicity of a PAH mixture. The fluorescence induction assay is also consistent with results from growth-based bioassays and is predictive of effects at population levels.

  9. ALTERNATIVE BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT PROCESSES FOR REMEDIATION OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED MATERIALS: BENCH-SCALE TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: olid-ph...

  10. TOXICITY OF CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENT TO FIELD-AND LABORATORY-COLONIZED ESTUARINE BENTHIC COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Macrobenthic animal communities that colonized uncontaminated and creosote-contaminated sand during 8 weeks were compared to assess effects of marine-grade creosote on community structure. Aquaria were colonized in the laboratory by planktonic larvae entrained in continuously sup...

  11. Responses of wind erosion to disturbance in a desert scrub grassland: grass vs. bush cover, and a snapshot into recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baddock, M.; Zobeck, T. M.; D'Odorico, P.; van Pelt, S.; Ravi, S.; Over, T. M.; Bhattachan, A.

    2010-12-01

    The mixture of grass and bush vegetation that typifies many desert scrublands is a distinctive feature of the northern Chihuahuan Desert, where it represents a change in land cover driven by shrub encroachment. In such environments, the redistribution of nutrients by aeolian transport has been recognized as an important biophysical process, with a role in sustaining shrub presence. Investigation of disturbances in these landscapes (e.g. fire and grazing) will enable better understanding of their dust emission behavior with changing climate, perturbance regime and management scenarios. Here we use a portable wind tunnel to investigate the impact of fire and animals on soil erodibilty and dust emissions from different vegetation types in the Sevilleta Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico. Plots were selected that were a) predominantly creosote bush or b) predominantly grass covered. Dust emission was measured for these surfaces both before and after a prescribed burn was conducted. The grass plots were also clipped and artificially trampled to simulate grazing. PM10 concentrations and emission rates from the test surfaces are shown for initial blow-off experiments as the wind tunnel flow accelerates to a target velocity, plus the steady state emission flux produced under constant wind flow with an added abrader sand. An adjacent area burned 8 months previously also allowed investigation of the change in erodibility of the soil for a known time after fire. Our preliminary results indicate the extent that dust emission is changed by the introduced disturbances, and their differing effect on creosote bush and grass dominated covers.

  12. The Bush Education Budget Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Jason; Luebchow, Lindsey; Rieman, Heather

    2008-01-01

    Next week, President George W. Bush will submit his eighth and final budget request to the Congress. How has he fared with respect to education budget proposals thus far? Answer: although President Bush made the No Child Left Behind Act, which deals with elementary and secondary education, the hallmark of his education policy, from a federal…

  13. Elevated CO2 alters root N uptake and C turnover in Larrea tridentata L

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To examine the impact of elevated CO2 on root N uptake, soil N availability and the feedbacks between them, we quantified the effects of elevated CO2 and N additions on root N uptake and leaf C gain in Larrea tridentata seedlings grown in reconstituted Mojave Desert soils. After six months of growt...

  14. Spectroscopic study of the inhibition of calcium oxalate calculi by Larrea tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinales, Luis Alonso

    The causes of urolithiasis include such influences as diet, metabolic disorders, and genetic factors which have been documented as sources that aggravate urinary calculi depositions and aggregations, and, implicitly, as causes of urolithiasis. This study endeavors to detail the scientific mechanisms involved in calcium oxalate calculi formation, and, more importantly, their inhibition under growth conditions imposed by the traditional medicinal approach using the herbal extract, Larrea tridentata. The calculi were synthesized without and with Larrea tridentata infusion by employing the single diffusion gel technique. A visible decrease in calcium oxalate crystal growth with increasing amounts of Larrea tridentata herbal infusion was observed in photomicrographs, as well as a color change from white-transparent for pure crystals to light orange-brown for crystals with inhibitor. Analysis of the samples, which includes Raman, infrared absorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) techniques, demonstrate an overall transition in morphology of the crystals from monohydrate without herbal extract to dihydrate with inhibitor. Furthermore, the resulting data from Raman and infrared absorption support the possibilities of the influences, in this complex process, of NDGA and its derivative compounds from Larrea tridentata, and of the bonding of the magnesium of the inhibitor with the oxalate ion on the surface of the calculi crystals. This assumption corroborates well with the micrographs obtained under higher magnification, which show that the separated small crystallites consist of darker brownish cores, which we attribute to the dominance of growth inhibition by NDGA, surrounded by light transparent thin shells, which possibly correspond to passivation of the crystals by magnesium oxalate. The SEM results reveal the transformation from the dominant monoclinic structure of the calcium oxalate crystals grown alone to the tetragonal

  15. SEALED INSULATOR BUSHING

    DOEpatents

    Carmichael, H.

    1952-11-11

    The manufacture of electrode insulators that are mechanically strong, shock-proof, vacuum tight, and are capable of withstanding gas pressures of many atmospheres under intense neutron bombardment, such as may be needed in an ionization chamber, is described. The ansulator comprises a bolt within a quartz tube, surrounded by a bushing held in place by two quartz rings, and tightened to a pressure of 1,000 pounds per square inch by a nut and washer. Quartz is the superior material to meet these conditions, however, to withstand this pressure the quartz must be fire polished, lapped to form smooth and parallel surfaces, and again fire polished to form an extremely smooth and fracture resistant mating surface.

  16. WASHING STUDIES FOR PCP AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted a series of bench-scale and pilot-scale studies to evaluate the feasibility of washing pentachlorophenol (PCP) and creosote from the soil at an abandoned wood-treatment Superfund site in Pensacola, FL. The high sand content and lo...

  17. VARIATION IN CREOSOTEBUSH (LARREA TRIDENTATA) CANOPY MORPHOLOGY IN RELATION TO HABITAT, SOIL FERTILITY AND ASSOCIATED ANNUAL PLANT COMMUNITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Differences in creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) crown morphology may reflect changes in the relative demand for water vs. nutrient resources, coinciding with shrub growth and development Creosotebushes with inverted cone-shaped crowns were more abundant in water-limited environme...

  18. Variation in seedling freezing response is associated with climate in Larrea

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Diane L.; Maherali, Hafiz; Pockman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Variation in freezing severity is hypothesized to have influenced the distribution and evolution of the warm desert evergreen genus Larrea. If this hypothesis is correct, performance and survival of species and populations should vary predictably along gradients of freezing severity. If freezing environment changes in the future, the ability of Larrea to adapt will depend on the structure of variation for freezing resistance within populations. To test whether freezing responses vary among and within Larrea populations, we grew maternal families of seedlings from high and low latitude L. divaricata and high latitude L. tridentata populations in a common garden. We measured survival, projected plant area and dark-adapted chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) before and after cold acclimation and for 2 weeks following a single freeze. We detected significant variation in freezing resistance among species and populations. Maternal family lines differed significantly in their responses to cold acclimation and/or freezing for two out of the three populations: among L. tridentata maternal families and among low latitude L. divaricata maternal families. There were no significant differences across maternal families of high latitude L. divaricata. Our results indicate that increased freezing resistance in high latitude populations likely facilitated historical population expansion of both species into colder climates, but this may have occurred to a greater extent for L. tridentata than for L. divaricata. Differences in the structure of variation for cold acclimation and freezing responses among populations suggest potential differences in their ability to evolve in response to future changes in freezing severity. PMID:22068319

  19. Estrogen receptor- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated activities of a coal-tar creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Fielden, M.R.; Wu, Z.F.; Sinal, C.J.; Jury, H.H.; Bend, J.R.; Hammond, G.L.; Zacharewski, T.R.

    2000-05-01

    A coal-tar creosote was examined for estrogen receptor (ER)- and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activity using a battery of mechanistically based assays. In vitro, creosote was found to bind to the mouse ER, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells. Based on competitive binding to the mouse ER, creosote contains approximately 165 mg/L of estradiol-equivalents. Creosote effectively transformed the AhR in vitro and induced a Cyplal-regulated luciferase reporter gene in transiently transfected Hepa 1c1c7 cells. Based on dose-response curves, creosote contains approximately 730 mg/L of dioxin-equivalents. Creosote did not exhibit any AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity in vitro. In vivo, creosote significantly induced liver pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation (EROD) in a dose-dependent manner in ovariectomized (OVX) ICR mice, but did not increase uterine weight wet or vaginal cornification, due possibly to AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. In OVX DBA/2 mice, a strain less responsive to AhR ligands, creosote induced liver EROD to a lesser extent, but still did not show an increase in uterine wet weight or vaginal cornification. These results demonstrate that coal-tar creosote exhibits AhR- and ER-mediated activity in vitro, but its dioxinlike activity may suppress estrogenic responses in vivo.

  20. Chlorophyll fluorescence from creosote-exposed plants in mesocosms: Validation of a bioindicator

    SciTech Connect

    Marwood, C.A.; Harris, M.L.; Day, K.E.; Greenberg, B.M.; Solomon, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    The chlorophyll fluorescence assay is a rapid, sensitive measure of photosynthetic competence in higher plants and algae that can be used to detect the impact of toxicants at many sites in the plant cell. Chlorophyll fluorescence was examined in plants exposed to PAHs as part of a study to validate chlorophyll fluorescence as a bioindicator by correlating effects on fluorescence with population-level effects in outdoor mesocosms. The wood preservative creosote was used as a mixed PAH source. Two species of aquatic plants, Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sp., were exposed to 0.1--100 uL/L of creosote in 12,000 L artificial ponds. Creosote was introduced into the mesocosms using different dosing schemes to simulate leaching and spill events. The pulse amplitude modulated fluorescence technique was used to measure several parameters from plants in situ during a 60-day exposure. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were compared to creosote effects on population-level growth. Chlorophyll fluorescence was inhibited by creosote at concentrations above 3 uL/L, which also caused a similar inhibition of plant growth in the mesocosms. However, chlorophyll fluorescence was more sensitive than growth endpoints at low creosote concentrations. The chlorophyll fluorescence assay also detected damage to the photosynthetic apparatus in plants after only a few days exposure to creosote. Thus, chlorophyll fluorescence from plants exposed to creosote was well correlated with environmentally relevant endpoints at the population level. The effects of the different dosing schemes on creosote toxicity will also be discussed.

  1. Population, community, and bioindicator responses to creosote in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, R.; Bestari, K.; Solomon, K.; Lewis, J.; McCann, J.; Marwood, C.; Munro, K.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    This presentation discusses the objectives, approach and preliminary results of a three year study focusing on the development and validation of bioindicators that are relevant to responses at the population and community level. The study focuses on creosote, a common wood preservative derived from coal tar distillate and containing approximately 85% mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a model stressor. The first year of the study documented the effects of creosote at the population and community level in aquatic mesocosms, and provided preliminary results for the selection of several bioindicators for use in further studies. Activities during the 1994 field season focused on the establishment of the aquatic ecosystems and a refinement of the methods to be used in the treatment and sampling of experimental mesocosms. Liquid creosote was applied to the mesocosms by subsurface injection at nominal concentrations of 0.3 to 300 ppm, and the effects of creosote on aquatic plants, invertebrates and fish were assessed by sampling during a six-week post-treatment phase. Parameters measured included: survival of caged fish (fathead minnows and goldfish), size-age class of juvenile fathead minnows: diversity and abundance of invertebrates (zooplankton and benthic invertebrates) and phytoplankton, and biomass of macrophytes. Work subsequent to the 1994 field component has focused on the selection of bioindicators based on known effects of PAHs on aquatic organisms and on examination of data generated in the first field season. These bioindicators include: oxidative stress and sex steroid hormones in fish; membrane permeability in plants, invertebrates and fish; stress proteins in invertebrates; and fluorescence induction in algae and macrophytes.

  2. Ecological risk assessment for river sediments contaminated by creosote

    SciTech Connect

    Pastorok, R.A.; Sampson, J.R.; Jacobson, M.A. ); Peek, D.C. )

    1994-12-01

    An ecological risk assessment was conducted for sediments of the lower Willamette River near a wood-treatment (creosote) facility. Both surface ad subsurface sediments near the facility are contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Limited contamination of sediments by dioxins/furans, chlorinated phenols, and arsenic was also observed. Sediment bioassays based on amphipod (Hyalella azteca) mortality and Microtox[reg sign] (Photobacterium phosphoreum) bioluminescence showed toxicity within approximately 300 ft of the shoreline, with a highly toxic area (i.e., possible acute lethal effects in sedentary benthic species) near a dock used for creosote off-loading. The relatively low concentrations of contaminants measured in crayfish muscle tissue and the absence of serious lesions in livers of large-scale sucker collected near the site suggest that excess risk to mobile species from chronic contamination is low. Cursory observations indicate that acute toxic effects on crayfish may be associated with creosote seeps. There is no evidence of adverse biological effects throughout most of the main channel of the river. Evaluation of sediment chemistry data for PAHs relative to available sediment-quality criteria proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency supports this conclusion.

  3. High voltage RF feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, Glenn F.

    1984-01-01

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for trmitting RF energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  4. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  5. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  6. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  7. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the...

  8. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak Bridge... the Bush River Yacht Club no later than noon on the Friday just preceding the day of opening or,...

  9. History of the Bush Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauriel, John J.

    The history of the Bush Public School Executive Fellows program is described. The primary objective of the program is to increase the ability of chief Minnesota school executives to guide and direct the design and delivery of public education in a more effective and efficient manner. Participation is designed to increase their ability to more…

  10. Q&A Steve Bush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Steve

    2016-08-01

    Steve Bush, curriculum leader for science at Sackville School in West Sussex, was awarded the 2016 RAS Patrick Moore Medal for his contribution to astronomy education. But, as he explains here, it was only chance that led him to astronomy.

  11. Vannevar Bush backs the bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, G.P.

    1992-12-01

    This article deals with Vannevar Bush's role in controlling America's secret research on the atomic bomb from 1939 to 1942, concentrating on administrative/political/military aspects. This is one of a series of articles in this magazine commemorating the 50th anniversary of the first controlled chain reaction.

  12. Creosote released from railway-ties recycled and the sanitary risks.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Giuseppe; Allegro, Giuseppe; Russo, Domenico; Rivetti, Daniela; Soardo, Vincenzo; Cerrato, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Through the history of railways, wooden crossties impregnated with potentially hazardous creosote tar, have been used for years. There are six major classes of compounds in the creosote: aromatic hydrocarbons; tar acids/phenolics; tar bases/nitrogen-containing heterocycles; aromatic amines; sulfur-containing heterocycles; and oxygen-containing heterocycles. The creosote molecules applied in railway crossties can be released in the environment and they can bioaccumulate in animals and vegetables. Some constituents (benzo(a)pyrene and phenolics like benzene) are considered as being carcinogenic which renders the entire complex of creosote to be classified as potentially carcinogenic. After several decades of use the railway-ties are been recycled for varies uses like fences, stakes for agriculture and fruit production or bank protection. In this paper are examined some environmental and sanitary risks from wood impregnated with creosote reported in the literature. PMID:23743701

  13. Survival, reproductive, and growth responses in fish to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Bestari, K.T.; Robinson, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    Creosote is a coal tar distillate, consisting mainly of a mixture of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Its widespread use as a wood preservative presents a potential risk to aquatic ecosystems. The use of mesocosms (precolonized with zooplankton, phytoplankton, macroinvertebrates, and periphyton) enabled evaluation of the total impact of creosote exposure, resulting from both direct toxic effects and indirect community-level interactions. Two methods of creosote addition were used, resulting in two series of mesocosm exposures: sixteen ponds were dosed with liquid creosote (from 0 to 100 ppm), and eight were dosed using creosote impregnated pilings (0 to 6 pilings per pond). In addition to growth and survival in two species of fish, Carassius auratus and Pimephales promelas, a number of reproductive parameters were measured (reproductive hormones, egg production, hatching success, and weight/frequency distribution of juveniles).

  14. High voltage feed through bushing

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, J.P.

    1993-04-06

    A feed through bushing for a high voltage diode provides for using compression sealing for all sealing surfaces. A diode assembly includes a central conductor extending through the bushing and a grading ring assembly circumferentially surrounding and coaxial with the central conductor. A flexible conductive plate extends between and compressively seals against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, wherein the flexibility of the plate allows inner and outer portions of the plate to axially translate for compression sealing against the central conductor and the grading ring assembly, respectively. The inner portion of the plate is bolted to the central conductor for affecting sealing. A compression beam is also bolted to the central conductor and engages the outer portion of the plate to urge the outer portion toward the grading ring assembly to obtain compression sealing therebetween.

  15. Molecular mechanisms and clinical applications of nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and its derivatives: An update

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jian-Ming; Nurko, Jacobo; Weakley, Sarah M.; Jiang, Jun; Kougias, Panagiotis; Lin, Peter H.; Yao, Qizhi; Chen, Changyi

    2010-01-01

    Summary Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata, is known as chaparral or greasewood in the United States and as gobernadora or hediondilla in Mexico. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), the main metabolite of the creosote bush, has been shown to have promising applications in the treatment of multiple diseases, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders and cancers. Creosote bush is a promising agent of North American herbal medicine, and it has extensive pharmacological effects and specific mechanisms of actions. This review provides an update of recent in vitro and in vivo research about NDGA and describes experimental studies using NDGA as antioxidant. Also, potential medical uses based on the effects of NDGA on the cardiovascular, immune and neurological systems; cancer; tissue engineering; as well as pharmacokinetics and toxicity are discussed. PMID:20424564

  16. Validating biomarkers of creosote phototoxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.; Day, K.E.; Ren, L.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1995-12-31

    The authors are developing and validating photosynthetic biomarker assays of creosote toxicity that are predictive of events at the population level in cultures of the floating aquatic macrophyte, Lemna gibba (G-3). Creosote was introduced as a liquid both at full strength, and in the form of a commercially available creosote `oil` (ca. 50% creosote) at doses ranging from 1--300 ppm ({micro}L/L, v/v). Because UV light enhances the toxicity of PAHs, plants also were incubated both under visible light, and under simulated solar radiation (SSR) which mimics UV levels found in natural sunlight. Static renewal (8-day) toxicity bioassays were performed, and the results from population-level endpoints (day 8 population growth and plant chlorophyll content) were compared to chlorophyll fluorescence induction assays (an index of photosystem 11 quantum yield). Population growth rates demonstrated that similar to individual PAHs, creosote in both forms exhibited UV-enhanced phototoxicity. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence induction parameters also were inhibited by creosote, and closely corresponded to functional responses of population growth inhibition after sufficient acclimation. Additionally, the two forms of creosote differed both with respect to overall toxicity, and with respect to their phototoxicity in the presence of UV light. Full strength creosote was at least 50% more toxic than the creosote oil, and the phototoxic effects of SSR vs. visible light were significantly more pronounced both with respect to population-level results, and to fluorescence induction results. Fluorescence induction, therefore, is a rapid and sensitive biomarker for the phototoxicity of a PAH mixture that is consistent with results from more traditional growth-based toxicity bioassays.

  17. Elevated CO2 increases root uptake of organic and inorganic N in the desert shrub, Larrea tridentata

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We quantified the effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 on root nitrogen (N) uptake and leaf carbon (C) turnover in the desert shrub, Larrea tridentata. We also examined the impact of elevated CO2 on soil N fluxes and plant-soil feedbacks. Seedlings of L. tridentata were grown in reconstituted Mojave...

  18. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Skin and Coal Tar Creosote Exposure in a Railroad Worker

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Hunt, Stephen Carl; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2005-01-01

    A 50-year-old male railroad worker presented to his primary care physician with an erythematous, tender skin lesion on the right knee; a biopsy of this lesion revealed squamous cell carcinoma in situ. The site of the lesion was sun-protected but had been associated with 30 years of creosote-soaked clothing. In this article, we review dermal and other malignancies associated with creosote, along with creosote occupational exposures and exposure limits. This is a unique case, given the lack of other, potentially confounding, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the sun-protected location of the lesion. PMID:15626654

  19. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  20. Fluorescence induction as a biomarker of creosote phototoxicity to the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.; Ren, L.; Greenberg, B.M.; Day, K.E. |

    1996-12-31

    Biomarkers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) toxicity to aquatic plants were developed using the wood preservative creosote. The authors tested physiological indicators of photosynthetic performance in cultures of the floating aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba (G3). Creosote was applied at concentrations ranging from 1--300 ppm, and plants were grown under laboratory lighting that mimics the relative levels of UV radiation found in natural sunlight (simulated solar radiation; SSR). Population growth bioassays demonstrated that similar to individual PAHs, creosote exhibited UV-enhanced phototoxicity. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence induction parameters were also diminished by creosote, and closely corresponded to functional responses of population growth by the end of each experiment. Fluorescence induction thus is a validated biomarker assay that is closely and functionally related to population growth inhibition in aquatic plants.

  1. DETOXIFICATION OF PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER BY PHYSICAL EXTRACTION CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and other organic compounds were present in a perennial freshwater stream that flowed through the abandoned American Creosote Works, designated for Superfund cleanup by the U.S Environmental Protection Agenc...

  2. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. xcept for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated ma...

  3. MICROBIAL ECOLOGY OF THE SUBSURFACE AT AN ABANDONED CREOSOTE WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The microbial ecology of pristine, slightly contaminated, and heavily contaminated subsurface materials, and four subsurface materials on the periphery of the plume at an abandoned creosote waste site was investigated. Except for the unsaturated zone of the heavily contaminated m...

  4. The draft genome sequence and annotation of the desert woodrat Neotoma lepida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Michael; Oakeson, Kelly F; Yandell, Mark; Halpert, James R; Dearing, Denise

    2016-09-01

    We present the de novo draft genome sequence for a vertebrate mammalian herbivore, the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida). This species is of ecological and evolutionary interest with respect to ingestion, microbial detoxification and hepatic metabolism of toxic plant secondary compounds from the highly toxic creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) and the juniper shrub (Juniperus monosperma). The draft genome sequence and annotation have been deposited at GenBank under the accession LZPO01000000. PMID:27408812

  5. Environmental assessment of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Butala, J.H.; Webb, D.A.; Jop, K.M.; Putt, A.E.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment at Moss Landing Harbor, Moss Landing, California. Four areas of investigation comprising the risk assessment were (1) evaluation of environmental conditions around existing creosote-treated pilings (2) investigating effects related to restoration of pilings (3) assessing creosote migration into surrounding environment, one year after pile-driving and (4) confirmation of creosote toxicity in laboratory studies. Biological and chemical evaluation of the impact of creosote-treated pilings was conducted on surface sheen, water column and sediment samples collected at Moss Landing Harbor. Water samples (surface sheen, water column and sediment pore water) were evaluated using short-term chronic exposures with Mysidopsis bahia, while bulk sediment samples were evaluated with 10-day sediment toxicity tests with Ampelisca abdita. Samples of surface, column water and sediment were analyzed for the constituents of creosote by GC mass spectrometry. In addition, a sample of neat material used to preserve treated pilings represented a reference for the polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Verification of organism response and analyses of field collected samples was performed by conducting 10-day A. abdita sediment and 7-day M. bahia elutriate exposures with creosote applied to clean sediment collected at Moss Landing, Evaluations were also performed to determine the effects of photoinduced toxicity on test organisms exposed to PAHs. The biological and analytical results of the field and laboratory exposures are being used to evaluate and determine risk of creosote-treated pilings on the marine environment.

  6. Bush Impact on Schools to Outlive Term

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2008-01-01

    George W. Bush entered the White House determined to change federal education policy. In his first year as the president, Bush forged a bipartisan consensus around the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which he signed into law on January 8, 2002. For the first time, states receiving federal K-12 education funding would be required to hold districts…

  7. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  8. Bush to Obama: Education in Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branch-Brioso, Karen; Dervarics, Charles; Powell, Tracie; Roach, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    President Bush's education legacy is inexorably tied to the No Child Left Behind Act, the comprehensive K-12 reform law he signed in January 2002. The law has drawn praise for requiring schools to show specific progress in educating minority and low-income children or face sanctions for failing to do so. But critics say the Bush administration…

  9. Fine Line on Schools for Bush, Kerry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    There's no doubt that President George W. Bush and Senator John Kerry, the two major-party candidates in the hard-fought presidential contest, part company on some education issues. President Bush, for instance, backs private school vouchers while Senator Kerry wants to see bigger spending increases for schools. This article discusses how much…

  10. Cadmium in Jamaican Bush Teas

    PubMed Central

    Hoo Fung, LA; Rattray, VR; Lalor, GC

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 μg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04–1.18 μg of Cd and would contribute 0.1 – 0.3 μg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 μg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  11. Cadmium in jamaican bush teas.

    PubMed

    Hoo Fung, L A; Rattray, V R; Lalor, G C

    2014-01-01

    Samples of Jamaican plants used as bush teas were collected from households in high soil-cadmium (Cd) areas of central Jamaica and analysed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry for total cadmium and for cadmium extractable with a hot water brew as prepared for human consumption to determine their contribution to dietary cadmium exposure. The concentrations ranged from < 0.03 to 6.85 µg/g for total Cd, between 1 and 15% of which was extracted with a hot water brew. One cup (200 ml) of the teas examined was found to contain < 0.04-1.18 µg of Cd and would contribute 0.1-0.3 µg of Cd to a person's dietary intake. This is significantly below the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 7 µg Cd/kg body weight established by the World Health Organization (WHO). While this suggests that bush tea consumption does not contribute significantly to the PTWI, some of the teas examined exceed the WHO recommendation of less than 0.3 mg/kg Cd for medicinal plants. PMID:25303189

  12. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulation by Larrea nitida on MCF-7 Cell Proliferation and Immature Rat Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Na; Jeong, Si-Yeon; Bae, Gyu-Un; Chang, Minsun; Zhang, Dongwei; Liu, Xiyuan; Pei, Yihua; Chin, Young-Won; Lee, Joongku; Oh, Sei-Ryang; Song, Yun Seon

    2014-01-01

    Larrea nitida is a plant that belongs to the Zygophyllaceae family and is widely used in South America to treat inflammatory diseases, tumors and menstrual pain. However, its pharmacological activity remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the property of selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) of Larrea nitida extracts (LNE) as a phytoestrogen that can mimic, modulate or disrupt the actions of endogenous estrogens, depending on the tissue and relative amount of other SERMs. To investigate the property of SERM of LNE, we performed MCF-7 cell proliferation assays, estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase reporter gene assay, human estrogen receptor (hER) binding assays and in vivo uterotrophic assay. To gain insight into the active principles, we performed a bioassay-guided analysis of LNE employing solvents of various polarities and using classical column chromatography, which yielded 16 fractions (LNs). LNE showed high binding affinities for hERα and hERβ with IC50 values of 1.20 ×10−7 g/ml and 1.00×10−7 g/ml, respectively. LNE induced 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced MCF-7 cell proliferation, however, it reduced the proliferation in the presence of E2. Furthermore, LNE had an atrophic effect in the uterus of immature rats through reducing the expression level of progesterone receptor (PR) proteins. LN08 and LN10 had more potent affinities for binding on hER α and β than other fractions. Our results indicate that LNE had higher binding affinities for hERβ than hERα, and showed SERM properties in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and the rat uterus. LNE may be useful for the treatment of estrogen-related conditions, such as female cancers and menopause. PMID:25143815

  13. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  14. Stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function in the rat: reversal by wood creosote.

    PubMed

    Kuge, Tomoo; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2006-07-24

    Our previous studies demonstrated that wood creosote (Seirogan) inhibits intestinal secretion and normalizes the transport of electrolytes and water in rats subjected to restraint stress. The goal of the present study was to examine whether wood creosote has a protective effect against stress-induced breakdown of intestinal barrier function. F-344 rats were subjected to 90-min water avoidance stress (WAS) with wood creosote (30 mg/kg) or vehicle administered intragastrically 30 min prior to WAS. Sham stressed rats received wood creosote or vehicle treatment but did not experience the WAS. All rats were euthanized at the end of the WAS or sham-stress and the jejunum and colon were isolated. Epithelial transport was studied in modified Ussing chambers. Spontaneous secretion was assessed by electrophysiological measurement of the short circuit current (I(sc)) while electrical conductance (G) was calculated from the potential difference (PD) and I(sc) using Ohm's law. Intestinal permeability was defined by the mucosal-to-serosal flux of horseradish peroxidase (HRP). WAS significantly elevated basal I(sc) and G and increased epithelial permeability to HRP in the jejunum but not in the colon. Wood creosote resulted in a significant reduction of the stress-induced increase in I(sc), G and the mucosal-to-serosal flux of HRP compared to the vehicle-treated group. Wood creosote caused no significant effects in sham-stressed rats. The results suggest that oral administration of wood creosote may prevent stress-induced diarrhea by preventing aversive effects on small intestinal secretion and barrier function. PMID:16643959

  15. Environmental assessment of the compounds from creosote-treated pilings in marine environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jop, K.M.; Butala, J.H.; Webb, D.A.; Wade, T.L.

    1995-12-31

    A comprehensive ecological risk assessment was conducted to evaluate the environmental impact of creosote-treated pilings in the marine environment at Moss Landing Harbor, Moss Landing, California. The chemical composition of creosote is critical to its fate and effects in the environment. Therefore, a multiple-stage methodology utilizing column gas chromatography with mass spectrometer detector was used for the identification and quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in neat creosote and environmental samples. The risk assessment of 46 PAHs (water soluble fraction) in the marine environment was based on bioaccumulation studies with caged mussels Mytilus californianus and a testing program with the surface sheen, water column, sediment elutriate, pore waters and bulk sediment. Water samples were evaluated using 7-day chronic exposures with Mysidopsis bahia, while bulk sediments were evaluated with 10-day tests with Ampelisca abdita. Testing program included exposure to normal and UV fluorescent lights. The results of this environmental assessment program allow to characterize the extent and magnitude of toxicity of PAHs released from creosote treated pilings and the risk associated with using creosote in marine environment.

  16. Enhancement of bioremediation of a creosote-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Carriere, P.P.E.; Mesania, F.A.

    1995-12-31

    There is a growing concern in the US about the increasing number of industrial sites containing concentration of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in their soil and waste sludge above background levels. PAHs, neutral and non-polar organic compounds, consist of two or more fused benzene rings which are generated from industrial activities such as creosote wood treating, gas manufacturing, coke making, coal tar refining, petroleum refining, and aluminum smelting. Low molecular weight PAHs are generally considered as extremely toxic compounds, whereas the higher molecular weight PAHs are carcinogenic in nature. Bioremediation, a viable option for treatment of PAHs contaminated soil, can be enhanced by the use of surfactant. In this study a nonionic surfactant Triton X-100, was investigated. Abiotic soil desorption experiments were performed to determine the kinetics of release of selected PAH compounds from the soil matrix to the aqueous phase. Respirometric experiments were also conducted to evaluate the effect of nonionic surfactant on biodegradation. The N-Con system respirometer was used to monitor the oxygen uptake by the microorganisms. The abiotic experiments results indicated that the addition of surfactant to soil/water systems increases the desorption of PAH compounds. The increase in PAHs availability to the microorganisms produced an increase in oxygen uptake.

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Rover Mobility Bushing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riggs, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    NASA s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Project will send a six-wheeled rover to Mars in 2009. The rover will carry a scientific payload designed to search for organic molecules on the Martian surface during its primary mission. This paper describes the development and testing of a bonded film lubricated bushing system to be used in the mobility system of the rover. The MSL Rover Mobility System contains several pivots that are tightly constrained with respect to mass and volume. These pivots are also exposed to relatively low temperatures (-135 C) during operation. The combination of these constraints led the mobility team to consider the use of solid film lubricated metallic bushings and dry running polymeric bushings in several flight pivot applications. A test program was developed to mitigate the risk associated with using these materials in critical pivots on the MSL vehicle. The program was designed to characterize bushing friction and wear performance over the expected operational temperature range (-135 C to +70 C). Seven different bushing material / lubricant combinations were evaluated to aid in the selection of the final flight pivot bushing material / lubricant combination.

  18. Effects of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata aqueous extracts in mice.

    PubMed

    Bigliani, M C; Grondona, E; Zunino, P M; Ponce, A A

    2010-07-01

    Our studies were performed to investigate the effects of the aqueous extracts of Cecropia pachystachya and Larrea divaricata. These plants are used in folkloric medicine in infusion and were administered orally (0.76 g/kg) to male Albino Swiss mice for 16 days, on drink intake, organ weight/body weight (OW/BW x 100) ratio, histology, broqueoalveolar fluid (BALF) and elevated plus-maze (EPM). Feeding as well as body weight were unaffected by the consumption of these extracts. There were no signs of toxicity in BALF, morbidity or mortality during the study. C. pachystachya caused an increase in relative kidney OW/BW (p

  19. Validating bioindicators of PAH effects in fish: Evaluating responsiveness to creosote exposure in aquatic mesocosms

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, K.A.; Solomon, K.R.; Gensemer, R.W.; Van Der Kraak, G.J.; Day, K.E.; Servos, M.R.

    1994-12-31

    While studies involving controlled exposures to PAHs have typically studied the effects of exposure to individual compounds, PAHs are usually present in the environment in complex mixtures. Some of these (eg. creosote) have been widely used and present potential risks to aquatic ecosystems. The objective of the current research is to evaluate whether population effects visible in fish at high creosote concentrations would be reflected in biomarker responses at lower concentrations. Goldfish (Carassius auratus) were exposed to five levels of creosote contamination in microcosms containing a simple community structure (including macroinvertebrates and macrophytes). Preliminary results have shown that changes in P450 induction, bile fluorescence, and levels of reproductive hormones are visible at lower concentrations than population effects such as increased mortality, reduced secondary sexual characteristics, and reduced fecundity.

  20. Technology Goes Bush: Using Mobile Technologies to Support Learning in a Bush Kinder Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masters, Jennifer; Grogan, Leanne

    2015-01-01

    A "bush kinder" is the Australian equivalent of a European forest kindergarten. Although it is not usual for technology to be used in the type of program, the authors suggest that mobile technologies can be used creatively and sensitively to support learning in the bush kinder context. This paper describes an ethnographical case study…

  1. Efficacious rat model displays non-toxic effect with Korean beechwood creosote: a possible antibiotic substitute

    PubMed Central

    Quynh, Anh Nguyen Thai; Sharma, Neelesh; Cho, Kwang Keun; Yeo, Tae Jong; Kim, Ki Beom; Jeong, Chul Yon; Min, Tae Sun; Young, Kim Jae; Kim, Jin Nam; Jeong, Dong-Kee

    2014-01-01

    Wood creosote, an herbal anti-diarrheal and a mixture of major volatile compounds, was tested for its non-toxicological effects, using a rat model, with the objective to use the creosote as an antibiotic substitute. A total of 30 Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to form five groups with 6 rats each. Korea beechwood creosote was supplemented into three test groups with 0.03 g/kg, 0.07 g/kg and 0.1 g/kg body weight/day without antibiotic support, along with a positive control of Apramycin sulphate (at 0.5% of the daily feed) and a negative control. Korean beechwood creosote supplementation showed no negative effect on the body weight gain in comparison to the negative and the positive control groups and the feed conversion ratio was also comparable with that of the control groups. The clinical pathology parameters studied were also under the umbrella of normal range, including liver specific enzymes, blood glucose, total protein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), which indicated no toxic effect of creosote at the given doses. The non-hepatotoxic effect was also confirmed using hepatic damage specific molecular markers like Tim-p1, Tim-p2 and Tgf-β1. The results suggested that Korean beechwood may be used as antibiotic substitute in weanling pigs feed without any toxic effect on the body. Although the antimicrobial properties of creosote were not absolutely similar to those of apramycin sulphate, they were comparable. PMID:26019530

  2. Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in creosote-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Abbady, Ehab A; Baghdadi, Hoda H

    2016-01-01

    Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. Coal tar can be utilized as raw materials for various industries. It is also a type of raw material from which phenols, naphthalenes, and anthracene can be extracted. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of coal tar creosote to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in ameliorating its toxic effects. Male Wister Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control; group II treated with rosemary (10 mL of water extract/kg BW for 21 days), group III received coal tar creosote (200 mg/4 mL olive oil/kg BW for 3 days), and group IV treated with both rosemary and coal tar creosote. The administration of coal tar creosote significantly caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly decreased while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Rosemary pretreatment to coal tar creosote-treated rats decreased LPO level and normalized GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST activities, while GSH content was increased. Also, liver AST, ALT, AlP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to rosemary treatment. In conclusion, rosemary has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize coal tar creosote toxicity. PMID:25044495

  3. Identifying multiple time scale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2015-06-01

    The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple time scales. We examine intra-annual to multiyear relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and vegetation growth over 50 years in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Ecohydrological model parameters are conditioned on field and remote sensing data using an ensemble Kalman filter. Although no specific periodicities were detected in the rainfall record, simulated leaf-area-index exhibits multiyear dynamics that are driven by multiyear (˜3 years) rains, but with up to a 1 year delay in peak response. Within a multiyear period, Larrea tridentata is more sensitive to winter rains than summer. In the most active part of the root zone (above ˜80 cm), >1 year average soil moisture drives vegetation growth, but monthly average soil moisture is controlled by root uptake. Moisture inputs reach the lower part of the root zone (below ˜80 cm) infrequently, but once there they can persist over a year to help sustain plant growth. Parameter estimates highlight efficient plant physiological properties facilitating persistent growth and high soil hydraulic conductivity allowing deep soil moisture stores. We show that soil moisture as an ecological indicator is complicated by bidirectional interactions with vegetation that depend on time scale and depth. Under changing climate, Larrea tridentata will likely be relatively resilient to shorter-term moisture variability but will exhibit higher sensitivity to shifts in seasonal to multiyear moisture inputs.

  4. Identifying multiple timescale rainfall controls on Mojave Desert ecohydrology using an integrated data and modeling approach for Larrea tridentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The perennial shrub Larrea tridentata is widely successful in North American warm deserts but is also susceptible to climatic perturbations. Understanding its response to rainfall variability requires consideration of multiple timescales. We examine intra-annual to multi-year relationships using model simulations of soil moisture and vegetation growth over 50 years in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Ecohydrological model parameters are conditioned on field and remote sensing data using an ensemble Kalman filter. Although no specific periodicities were detected in the rainfall record, simulated leaf-area-index exhibits multi-year dynamics that are driven by multi-year (∼3-years) rains, but with up to a 1-year delay in peak response. Within a multi-year period, Larrea tridentata is more sensitive to winter rains than summer. In the most active part of the root zone (above ∼80 cm), >1-year average soil moisture drives vegetation growth, but monthly average soil moisture is controlled by root uptake. Moisture inputs reach the lower part of the root zone (below ∼80 cm) infrequently, but once there they can persist over a year to help sustain plant growth. Parameter estimates highlight efficient plant physiological properties facilitating persistent growth and high soil hydraulic conductivity allowing deep soil moisture stores. We show that soil moisture as an ecological indicator is complicated by bidirectional interactions with vegetation that depend on timescale and depth. Under changing climate, Larrea tridentata will likely be relatively resilient to shorter-term moisture variability but will exhibit higher sensitivity to shifts in seasonal to multi-year moisture inputs.

  5. Electrical bushing for a superconductor element

    DOEpatents

    Mirebeau, Pierre; Lallouet, Nicolas; Delplace, Sebastien; Lapierre, Regis

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical bushing serving to make a connection at ambient temperature to a superconductor element situated in an enclosure at cryogenic temperature. The electrical bushing passes successively through an enclosure at intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and cryogenic temperature, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, and it comprises a central electrical conductor surrounded by an electrically insulating sheath. According to the invention, an electrically conductive screen connected to ground potential surrounds the insulating sheath over a section that extends from the end of the bushing that is in contact with the enclosure at cryogenic temperature at least as far as the junction between the enclosure at intermediate temperature and the enclosure at ambient temperature. The invention is more particularly applicable to making a connection to a superconductor cable.

  6. ACTION OF A FLUORANTHENE-UTILIZING BACTERIAL COMMUNITY OF POLYCYLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPONENTS OF CREOSOTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cultures enriched by serial transfer through a mineral salts medium containing fluoranthene were used to establish a stable, 7-membered bacterial community from a sandy soil highly contaminated with coal-tar creosote. his community exhibited an ability to utilize fluoranthene as ...

  7. FIELD EVALUATION OF THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE SORDIDA TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with creosote was performed at a wood-treating facility in south central Mississippi in the autumn of 1991. The effects of solid-phase bioremediation with Phanerochaete sordid...

  8. STRATEGY USING BIOREACTORS AND SPECIALLY SELECTED MICROORGANISMS FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF GROUNDWATER CONTAMINATED WITH CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A two-stage, continuous-flow, sequential inoculation bioreactor strategy for the bioremediation of ground water contaminated with creosote and pentachlorophenol (PCP) was evaluated at the bench- and pilot-scale levels. erformance of continually stirred tank reactors (CSTR) using ...

  9. FIELD EVALUATION OF LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGI TO TREAT CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A field study to determine the ability of selected lignin-degrading fungi to remediate soil contaminated with pentachlorophenol and creosote was performed at a wood treating facility in south central Mississippi in the Autumn of 1991. he study was designed to evaluate 7 fungal tr...

  10. REMEDIATION OF SOILS CONTAMINATED WITH WOOD-TREATMENT CHEMICALS (PCP AND CREOSOTE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCP and creosote PAHs are found in most of the contaminated soils at wood-treatment sites. The treatment methods currently being used for such soils include soil washing, incineration, and biotreatment. Soil washing involves removal of the hazardous chemicals from soils ...

  11. EXOCRINE PANCREATIC NEOPLASMS IN THE MUMMICHOG (FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS) FROM A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high prevalence of exocrine pancreatic neoplasms occurred in mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus, from a creosote-contaminated site in the Elizabeth River, Virginia. otal of 20 neoplasms occurred in a group of about 1 100 fish evaluated histologically. f 240 adult fish collected d...

  12. Inhibition of Acetoclastic Methanogenesis in Crude Oil- and Creosote-Contaminated Groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater was studied. The crude oil and water-soluble components of creosote contributed to the inhibition of acetoclastic methanogens. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was much more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At a crude oil-contaminated site, numbers of acetoclastic methanogens found close to crude oil were 100 times fewer than those of hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens. In laboratory toxicity assays, crude oil collected from the site inhibited methane production from acetate but not from formate or hydrogen. Toxicity assays with aqueous creosote extract completely inhibited acetate utilization over the range of tested dilutions but only mildly affected formate and hydrogen utilization. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity would result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  13. The effect of creosote on vitellogenin production in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherry, J.P.; Whyte, J.J.; Karrow, N.A.; Gamble, A.; Boerman, H.J.; Bol, N.C.; Dixon, D.G.; Solomon, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader investigation into the effects of creosote treatments on the aquatic biota in pond microcosms, we examined the possible implications for vitellogenin (Vtg) production in Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout (RT)]. Vtg is the precursor of egg yolk protein and has emerged as a useful biomarker of exposure to estrogenic substances. Our a priori intent was to assess the ability of the creosote treatments (nominal cresoste concentrations were 0, 3, and 10 ??l/L immediately after the last subsurface addition) to induce estrogenic responses in RT. The data showed no evidence of an estrogenic response in the treated fish. During the course of the experiment, however, the fish matured and began to produce Vtg, probably in response to endogenous estrogen. A posteriori analysis of the Vtg data from the maturing fish showed that after 28 days, the plasma Vtg concentrations were about 15-fold lower in fish from the creosote-treated microcosms compared with fish from the reference microcosm. Although the experiment design does not permit mechanistic insights, our observation suggests that exposure of female fish to PAH mixtures such as creosote can impair the production of Vtg with possible health implications for embryos and larvae. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  14. Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of Creosote degradation process under isothermal experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Janković, Bojan Ž; Janković, Marija M

    2013-01-01

    Isothermal degradation process of commercial Creosote was analyzed by the thermogravimetric (TG) technique in a nitrogen atmosphere, at four different operating temperatures (230, 250, 270 and 290°C). The kinetic triplet [Ea , A and f(α)] and the thermodynamic parameters (ΔH (≠), ΔS (≠)and ΔG (≠)) for investigated Creosote samples were calculated. It was found that two-parameter autocatalytic Šesták-Berggren (SB) kinetic model best describes the process, but in the form of accommodation function with phenomenological character. Applying the multiplicative factor, the true value of activation energy (E (true) a ) was calculated. The experimental density distribution function of the apparent activation energy values was evaluated from isoconversional kinetic analysis. Based of the characteristic shape of distribution curve, it was concluded that the isothermal degradation of Creosote represents a complex physico-chemical process, given the chemical structure of the studied system. It is assumed that the considered process probably includes primary and secondary (autocatalytic) pyrolysis reactions, together with various decomposition reactions and radicals recombination pathways. The objective of the presented work is the proof of principle of the pyrolysis-based thermo-chemical conversion technologies for the production of value-added chemicals from the complex organic compounds, which even include chemical contaminants (such as PAHs). Also, the present work allows us that by using a unified kinetic approach we can obtain a significant physico-chemical characteristics of the tested system, which can then be used in the procedure for the separation of organics from creosote-treated woods and creosote-contaminated soils. The significance of this research is to identify the global kinetic behavior of some target contaminant compounds for pyrolysis, which are primarily PAHs. PMID:23705620

  15. Electrokinetically enhanced bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil: laboratory and field studies.

    PubMed

    Suni, Sonja; Malinen, Essi; Kosonen, Jarmo; Silvennoinen, Hannu; Romantschuk, Martin

    2007-02-15

    Creosote is a toxic and carcinogenic substance used in wood impregnation. Approximately 1,200 sites in Finland are contaminated with creosote. This study examined the possibility of enhancing bioremediation of creosote-contaminated soil with a combination of electric heating and infiltration and electrokinetic introduction of oxygenated, nutrient-rich liquid. Preliminary tests were performed in the laboratory, and a pilot test was conducted in situ at a creosote-contaminated former wood impregnation plant in Eastern Finland. Wood preservation practices at the plant were discontinued in 1989, but the soil and the groundwater in the area are still highly contaminated. The laboratory tests were mainly performed as a methodological test aiming for upscaling. The soils used in these tests were a highly polluted soil from a marsh next to the impregnation plant and a less polluted soil near the base of the impregnation building. The laboratory test showed that the relative degradation was significantly higher in high initial contaminant concentrations than with low initial concentrations. During the first 7 weeks, PAH-concentrations decreased by 68% in the marsh soil compared with a 51% reduction in the building soil. The field test was performed to a ca. 100 m3 soil section next to the former impregnation building. Nutrient and oxygen levels in the soils were elevated by hydraulic and electrokinetic pumping of urea and phosphate amended, aerated water into the soil. The DC current introduced into the soil raised the temperature from the ambient ca. 6 degrees C up to between 16 and 50 degrees C. Total PAH concentrations decreased by 50-80% during 3 months of treatment while mineral oil concentrations decreased approximately 30%. Electrokinetically enhanced in situ - bioremediation, which also significantly raised the soil temperature, proved to be a promising method to remediate creosote-contaminated soils. PMID:17365294

  16. Bush and Gore Focus on Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2000-01-01

    In the 2000 presidential race, education seems a top priority for Vice-President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush. Although both candidates are promising billions of federal-aid dollars to raise standards, many believe they are ignoring factors such as student motivation and funding inequities. (MLH)

  17. 2005 Budget Drops below Bush Request

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education will see its smallest budget increase in nearly a decade under the catchall spending plan approved by the Republican-controlled Congress in a lame-duck session. For the first time since President Bush entered office, the budget will fall short of his overall request for education funding. The final fiscal 2005…

  18. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  19. Obama Echoes Bush on Education Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2009-01-01

    President Barack Obama campaigned on a message of change, but when it comes to K-12 education, he appears to be walking in the policy footsteps of his recent predecessors, including George W. Bush. Obama is sounding themes of accountability based on standards and assessments. He is delivering tough talk on teacher quality, including a call for…

  20. Bush to Start NCLB Push in Congress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Making college more affordable, raising the minimum wage, and other domestic items were at the top of Democrats' agenda during their meeting at Capitol Hill. President Bush made clear that reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is one of the priorities. To mark the fifth anniversary of his signing the measure into law on January 8, 2007, the…

  1. Bush Budget Would Boost NCLB Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson

    2007-01-01

    This article reports that President Bush's fiscal 2008 budget request for reauthorizing the No Child Left Behind Act is being criticized by two key congressional Democrats as they believe that the plan falls short of what schools need to get on track to meet the measure's ambitious achievement goals. Rep. George Miller, D-Calif., and Sen. Edward…

  2. HEPATOBLASTOMAS IN THE MUMMICHOG, FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS (L.), FROM A CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENT: A HISTOLOGIC, ULTRASTRUCTURAL AND IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    A detailed histologic and ultrastructural description of two cases of hepatoblastoma, a primitive liver cell neoplasm, is provided from mummichog, Fundulus heteroclitus(L.), inhabiting a creosote-contaminated site in the Elizabeth River, Virginia, USA. Both neoplasms were multifo...

  3. Bioaccumulation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons by the clam, Rangia cuneata, in the vicinity of a creosote spill

    SciTech Connect

    DeLeon, I.R.; Ferrario, J.B.; Byrne, C.J.

    1988-12-01

    During 1980-81, as part of NOAA/US Coast Guard initiative, the authors participated in an environmental study of a creosote spill into Bayou Bonfouca at the American Creosote Works Plant (ACWP) site at Slidell, Louisiana. The objectives for the study were: (1) to determined the nature and extent of creosote contamination at the site and in the bayou, and (2) to evaluate through biomonitoring the bioavailability and human health implications of creosote derived PAHs in the bayou and the estuarine system into which Bayou Bonfouca flows. So dramatic were their findings that their data was used in part by state and federal agencies to bring about in 1982, the inclusion of the Bayou Bonfouca site on the National Priorities List of hazardous waste sites that pose a threat to public health and the environment. This is a report of their findings on the biomonitoring of their study.

  4. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Peter G.; Webb, Robert H.; Fisher, Mark; Muth, Allan

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  5. Plants and ventifacts delineate late Holocene wind vectors in the Coachella Valley, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Webb, R.H.; Fisher, M.; Muth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Strong westerly winds that emanate from San Gorgonio Pass, the lowest point between Palm Springs and Los Angeles, California, dominate aeolian transport in the Coachella Valley of the western Sonoran Desert. These winds deposit sand in coppice dunes that are critical habitat for several species, including the state and federally listed threatened species Uma inornata, a lizard. Although wind directions are generally defined in this valley, the wind field has complex interactions with local topography and becomes more variable with distance from the pass. Local, dominant wind directions are preserved by growth patterns of Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), a shrub characteristic of the hot North American deserts, and ventifacts. Exceptionally long-lived, Larrea has the potential to preserve wind direction over centuries to millennia, shaped by the abrasive pruning of windward branches and the persistent training of leeward branches. Wind direction preserved in Larrea individuals and clones was mapped at 192 locations. Compared with wind data from three weather stations, Larrea vectors effectively reflect annual prevailing winds. Ventifacts measured at 24 locations record winds 10° more westerly than Larrea and appear to reflect the direction of the most erosive winds. Based on detailed mapping of local wind directions as preserved in Larrea, only the northern half of the Mission-Morongo Creek floodplain is likely to supply sand to protected U. inornata habitat in the Willow Hole ecological reserve.

  6. Groups praise, criticize Bush Transition choices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    As the administration of George W. Bush takes hold in the White House, transition plans gradually are coming into focus for many federal agencies that deal with geoscience issues. Congressional confirmation hearings already have been held for cabinet secretary nominees—including Gale Norton, the controversial figure named to head the Department of the Interior. Bush transition team members have fanned out to visit a number of agencies, and interest groups have lined up to either criticize or praise various appointment decisions that affect geoscience issues.Among cabinet nominees, New Jersey Governor Christine Todd Whitman has received mixed reviews as nominee to head the Environmental Protection Agency and is widely viewed as a moderate on environmental issues. Spencer Abraham, nominated to lead the Department of Energy co-sponsored a bill to abolish the department in 1999 while he represented Michigan in the Senate. However, there has not been a groundswell of political energy expended to try to challenge his nomination.

  7. Inhibition of acetoclastic methanogenesis in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B.A.; Godsy, E.M.; Smith, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    Results from a series of studies of methanogenic processes in crude oil- and creosote-contaminated aquifers indicated that acetoctastic methanogenesis is inhibited near non-aqueous sources. Acetoclastic methanogenesis was more susceptible to the toxic inhibition of crude oil and creosote than either hydrogen- or formate-utilizing methanogenesis. The effect of this toxic inhibition was apparent in the population of the methanogenic trophic groups near nonaqueous crude oil at the Bemidji, MN, site. At that site, acetoclastic methanogens were < 2/g within or near the oil where hydrogen- and formate-utilizing methanogens were 10-100/g. The geochemical effect of this toxic inhibition was the buildup of low molecular weight volatile acids, particularly acetate. Wastewater reactor studies indicated that this toxicity will result in a decrease in the biodegradation rate of contaminants at sites where toxic compounds are present.

  8. Action of a Fluoranthene-Utilizing Bacterial Community on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Components of Creosote

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, J. G.; Chapman, P. J.; Pritchard, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Cultures enriched by serial transfer through a mineral salts medium containing fluoranthene were used to establish a stable, seven-member bacterial community from a sandy soil highly contaminated with coal tar creosote. This community exhibited an ability to utilize fluoranthene as the sole carbon source for growth, as demonstrated by increases in protein concentration and changes in absorption spectra when grown on fluoranthene in liquid culture. Biotransformation of other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was verified by demonstrating their disappearance from an artificial PAH mixture by capillary gas chromatography. When grown on fluoranthene as the sole carbon source and subsequently exposed to fluoranthene plus 16 additional PAHs typical of those found in creosote, this community transformed all PAHs present in this defined mixture. After 3 days of incubation, 13 of the original 17 PAH components were degraded to levels below the limit of detection (10 ng/liter). Continued incubation resulted in extensive degradation of the remaining four compounds. The ability of this community to utilize a high-molecular-weight PAH as the sole carbon source, in conjunction with its ability to transform a diverse array of PAHs, suggests that it may be of value in the bioremediation of environments contaminated with PAHs, such as those impacted by creosote. PMID:16348069

  9. Altered enzyme expression in a population of creosote-resistant mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus)

    SciTech Connect

    Van-Veld, P.; Armknecht, S.; Cooper, P.; Vogelbein, W.

    1995-12-31

    A population of mummichog in the Elizabeth River, Virginia inhabit a site severely contaminated with creosote. Although adult fish develop cancer, all life stages are resistant to the acute effects of creosote-contaminated sediments. Creosote is a complex mixture of PAHs, N,S,O-heterocyclics and phenols. The site is also contaminated with other organic contaminants and metals. Studies are underway to identify possible resistance mechanisms in this population. Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) is the major enzyme involved in activation of PAHs and also contributes to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This enzyme is depressed in liver of resistant fish and unresponsive to CYP1A inducers. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are major cytosolic proteins involved in diverse detoxification mechanisms. GST levels and activity are clearly elevated in the resistant population. Monoclonal antibody to purified mummichog GST recognizes a form that is elevated approximately six-fold in the resistant fish relative to reference fish. This form appears to be a major cytosolic protein in the resistance population. P-glycoprotein, an efflux pump for diverse xenobiotics, is abundantly expressed on the canalicular surface of hepatocytes and over expressed in advanced hepatic lesions. The pattern of enzyme expression observed in the resistant population is similar to that observed in multidrug-resistant cell lines.

  10. Assessing the impact of fire on the spatial distribution of Larrea tridentata in the Sonoran Desert, USA.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Mudrak, Erika L; Caragea, Petrutza C; Holzapfel, Claus; Moloney, Kirk A

    2015-06-01

    In southwestern American deserts, fire has been historically uncommon because of insufficient continuity of fuel for spreading. However, deserts have been invaded by exotic species that now connect the empty space between shrubs to carry fire. We hypothesized that fire would change the spatial distribution of surviving Larrea tridentata shrubs. We established two study plots, one each in a burned and unburned area, and recorded location and living status of all shrubs. We performed univariate and bivariate point pattern analyses to characterize the impact of fire on the overall distribution of shrubs. Additionally, we used a simple wildfire model to determine how close we could come to reconstructing the observed spatial pattern of living and dead shrubs. We found a hyper-dispersed pattern of shrubs at finer scales and a random pattern at broader scales for both the unburned plot and for the living and dead shrubs combined in the burned plot, the latter providing an approximation of the pre-burn distribution of shrubs. After fire, living shrubs showed a clustered pattern at scales >2.5 m, whereas dead shrubs were randomly distributed, indicating that fire caused a change in the spatial pattern of the surviving shrubs. The fire model was able to partially reconstruct the spatial pattern of Larrea, but created a more clustered distribution for both living and dead shrubs. Our study reinforces the key role of fire in altering landscapes that had not been habituated to fire, and suggests the existence of potential cascading effects across the entire plant community. PMID:25561171

  11. 45. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 DOOR DETAILS ON GROUND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  12. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, Anne; Nghikembua, Matti; Maul, Jude E.; Marker, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  13. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyer, J. S.; Schmidt-Küntzel, A.; Nghikembua, M.; Maul, J. E.; Marker, L.

    2015-12-01

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. Bush thinning is a management approach that can, at least temporarily, restore grasslands and raise the grazing value of the land. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil through a chronosequence where bush was thinned at 9, 5, or 3 years before sampling. Soil microbial biomass, the biomass of specific taxonomic groups, and overall microbial community structure was determined by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the community structure of Bacteria, Archaea, and fungi was determined by multiplex terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Soil under bush had higher pH, C, N, and microbial biomass than under grass, and the microbial community structure was also altered under bush compared to grass. A major disturbance to the ecosystem, bush thinning, resulted in an altered microbial community structure compared to control plots, but the magnitude of this perturbation gradually declined with time. Community structure was primarily driven by pH, C, and N, while vegetation type, bush thinning, and time since bush thinning were of secondary importance.

  14. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 OLD SLAVE QUARTERS AND KITCHEN - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  15. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 VIEW ON INTERMEDIATE STAIRWAY - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  16. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 FRONT VIEW OF BUILDING, FACES NORTH - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1936 DENNY'S TOWER, COMPANY F IN BACKGROUND - University of Alabama, Denny's Tower, University Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  18. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1935 VIEW SHOWING PLOT - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  19. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. CLOSE-UP OF VAULTS - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. SECTION OF FENCE AROUND LOT - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. FRONT (WEST), NORTH SIDE - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE - Colonel John Young Kilpatrick House & Outbuildings, Bridgeport Road (County Road 37), Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SMOKE HOUSE. - Dr. William Hughes House & Outbuildings, Hughes Creek vicinity, Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  4. 39. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, 1935 CLOSE- UP OF FRONT DOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. Bush Research Budget again Focuses on Physical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Hebel, Sara

    2007-01-01

    This article presents compelling reasons why President George W. Bush decided to double federal funds for agencies supporting physical-science research. The biggest beneficiaries of Mr. Bush's plan for 2008 would be the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy's Office of Science. Those agencies, together with the National…

  6. Bush Has Own View of Promoting Civil Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses President Bush's own view of promoting civil rights. Mr. Bush has sought to redefine the discussion of civil rights in education. Instead of focusing on racial integration in public schools, for instance, the president has emphasized the achievement gap between minority and white students. He has spoken of school choice as a…

  7. Emanuel Goldberg, Electronic Document Retrieval, and Vannevar Bush's Memex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckland, Michael K.

    1992-01-01

    Describes the concept of the Memex, an imaginary information retrieval machine proposed by Vannevar Bush in 1945. The technological background of the Memex and of other visions of that period are examined with special reference to Emanuel Goldberg, inventor of a microfilm selector using a photoelectric cell. Bush's work is reassessed in this…

  8. Soil microbial communities following bush removal in a Namibian savanna

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Savanna ecosystems are subject to desertification and bush encroachment, which reduce the grazing value of the land and hence the carrying capacity for wildlife and livestock. In this study we examined the soil microbial communities under bush and grass in Namibia. We analyzed the soil at a chronose...

  9. Bush Keeps Math-Science Plan on Bunsen Burner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2006-01-01

    President Bush continued his campaign to get schools to focus more on mathematics and science education with a visit to a middle school in Rockville, Maryland, where students study robotics and work with NASA scientists. President Bush toured the school with Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings as part of his initiative to emphasize math and…

  10. Bush's Legacy in Higher Education: A Matter of Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul; Field, Kelly; Hebel, Sara

    2008-01-01

    President Bush is leaving the White House with a mixed record on higher education. His administration catapulted conversations about holding colleges more accountable for their performance into the national spotlight, and it pressed for some increases in federal spending on student aid and research. At the same time, Mr. Bush faced criticism from…

  11. Bush Test Proposal for High Schoolers Joins Wider Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.; Richard, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how President's Bush's proposals to expand educational accountability from the elementary and middle grades to high schools would mean more testing for teenagers, individual student plans to promote achievement, and financial incentives for teachers to help students meet their goals. Mr. Bush's campaign proposals, unveiled…

  12. Rebound of a coal tar creosote plume following partial source zone treatment with permanganate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, N. R.; Fraser, M. J.; Lamarche, C.; Barker, J. F.; Forsey, S. P.

    2008-11-01

    The long-term management of dissolved plumes originating from a coal tar creosote source is a technical challenge. For some sites stabilization of the source may be the best practical solution to decrease the contaminant mass loading to the plume and associated off-site migration. At the bench-scale, the deposition of manganese oxides, a permanganate reaction byproduct, has been shown to cause pore plugging and the formation of a manganese oxide layer adjacent to the non-aqueous phase liquid creosote which reduces post-treatment mass transfer and hence mass loading from the source. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of partial permanganate treatment to reduce the ability of a coal tar creosote source zone to generate a multi-component plume at the pilot-scale over both the short-term (weeks to months) and the long-term (years) at a site where there is > 10 years of comprehensive synoptic plume baseline data available. A series of preliminary bench-scale experiments were conducted to support this pilot-scale investigation. The results from the bench-scale experiments indicated that if sufficient mass removal of the reactive compounds is achieved then the effective solubility, aqueous concentration and rate of mass removal of the more abundant non-reactive coal tar creosote compounds such as biphenyl and dibenzofuran can be increased. Manganese oxide formation and deposition caused an order-of-magnitude decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Approximately 125 kg of permanganate were delivered into the pilot-scale source zone over 35 days, and based on mass balance estimates < 10% of the initial reactive coal tar creosote mass in the source zone was oxidized. Mass discharge estimated at a down-gradient fence line indicated > 35% reduction for all monitored compounds except for biphenyl, dibenzofuran and fluoranthene 150 days after treatment, which is consistent with the bench-scale experimental results. Pre- and post-treatment soil core data

  13. Distribution and composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within experimental microcosms treated with creosote-impregnated Douglas fir pilings

    SciTech Connect

    Bestari, K.T.J.; Solomon, K.R.; Steele, T.S.; Sibley, P.K.; Robinson, R.D.; Day, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    Temporal changes in the concentration and relative composition of 15 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, sediment, and polyvinylchloride (PVC) strips were assessed to evaluate the fate of creosote leached from impregnated wood pilings in aquatic environments. The study consisted of single microcosms containing one of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 creosote-impregnated pilings and two microcosms containing untreated pilings. Quantitative analyses of PAHs were performed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. For each treatment, total PAHs ({Sigma} PAH) in water increased rapidly up to 7 d posttreatment yielding a clear dose-dependant concentration gradient ranging from 7.3 to 97.2 {micro}g/L. Total PAHs declined exponentially after 7 d and was reduced close to background concentrations by the end of the study. No increase in {Sigma} PAH was observed in sediments at any treatment, nor was there any relationship between sediment PAHs and distance from each piling cluster. However, a slight increase in PAHs was observed on PVC liner strips that exhibited a concentration gradient similar to that in water. The PVC-bound {Sigma} PAH ranged from 0.3 to 2.4 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} and 0.2 to 2.2 {micro}g/cm{sup 2} at 31 and 58 d posttreatment, respectively. Based on these data, the authors estimated a rate loss of creosote from the pilings of approximately 50 {micro}g/cm{sup 2}/d. The low concentration of PAHs on the PVC, along with the absence of accumulation of PAHs in sediments, suggests that creosote was lost primarily from water via degradative pathways such as photolysis and microbial decomposition and adsorption onto PVC. The rapid loss of creosote from water in conjunction with the slow rate of leaching from the pilings suggests that risks associated with the use of creosote-impregnated pilings in aquatic environments may be minimal.

  14. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  15. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2014-10-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  16. Multiple myeloma and engine exhausts, fresh wood, and creosote: a case-referent study

    SciTech Connect

    Flodin, U.; Fredriksson, M.; Persson, B.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of potential risk factors for multiple myeloma was evaluated in a case-referent study encompassing 131 cases and 431 randomized referents, all alive. Information on exposure was obtained with questionnaires mailed to the subjects. An analysis of the material by means of the Miettinen confounder score technique resulted in a few rate ratios significantly exceeding unity--namely, occupational exposure to engine exhausts, creosote, and fresh wood. In view of other studies that suggest ionizing radiation as a risk factor, it was somewhat surprising that low-level gamma radiation from background exposure was less common among the cases than the referents.

  17. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 4): American Creosote Works, TN. (First Remedial Action), December 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-05

    The American Creosote Works (ACW) site is located immediately southwest of Jackson, in central Madison County, Tennessee. ACW conducted wood-preserving operations using both creosote and PCP from the early 1930s until December 1981. Untreated process waste water and potential contaminated storm water runoff were discharged directly into Central Creek until 1973, at which time a levee was constructed to retain surface water runoff. The soil borrow pits used for the levee construction became sludge storage lagoons. A waste water treatment system was installed onsite during 1974 and 1975 and operated until 1981. The selected remedial action for the site includes consolidation and incineration of sludges in the vicinity of the buildings and tanks; on- or offsite incineration of the oils and sludges from the tanks; treatment of tanked process liquids onsite using a sand filter, filter press, and carbon adsorption unit, followed by discharge to a surface stream; decontamination and offsite disposal of site structures; construction of a flood-protection dike; deed restrictions and site fencing; and site stabilization including monitoring onsite water levels behind the dikes and pumping, treating (as needed), and discharging impounded water pending a final remedy.

  18. The effects of freezing and thawing on the aqueous availability of creosote contamination in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Bevel, A.; Hrudey, S.; Dudas, M.; Sego, D.

    1996-11-01

    A variety of methods have been tested in attempts to remediate contaminated sites. Fine-grained soils are extremely problematic to remediate, due to the high adsorption capacity of the fine soil particles and the trapping effect of soil particle micropores. It is well documented that freezing of soil causes particle restructuring and reorganization, with different pore structures found after freezing. Some factors affecting restructuring include soil moisture content, freezing rate, freezing end-point temperature, and number of freezing cycles. This poster presents an experiment that determines if freezing creosote contaminated soil improves accessibility of the creosote, by measuring aqueous phase contaminant dissolution. This method was selected since water is the most common solvent in naturally occurring systems, and water represents a worst-case scenario since many contaminants have low aqueous solubilities. Freezing is carried out under controlled laboratory conditions. Variables examined include moisture content, freezing rate, and soil contamination level. If contaminant availability is increased through soil freezing, remediation becomes an easier task in fine grained soils.

  19. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote contaminants in natural and simulated ground-water ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald; Grbic-Galic, Dunja

    1992-01-01

    Wastes from a wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near-surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. Contamination resulted from the discharge of plant waste waters to and subsequent seepage from unlined surface impoundments that were in direct hydraulic contact with the ground water. Two distinct phases resulted when the creosote and water mixed: a denser than water hydrocarbon phase that moved vertically downward, and an organic-rich aqueous phase that moved laterally with the ground-water flow. The aqueous phase is enriched in organic acids, phenolic compounds, single- and double-ring nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen containing compounds, and single- and double-ring aromatic hydrocarbons. The ground water is devoid of dissolved O2, is 60-70% saturated with CH4 and contains H2S. Field analyses document a greater decrease in concentration of organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, and 2(1H)-isoquinolinone during downgradient movement in the aquifer than could be explained by dilution and/or dispersion. Laboratory microcosm studies have shown that within the study region, this effect can be attributed to microbial degradation to CH4 and CO2. A small but active methanogenic population was found on sediment materials taken from highly contaminated parts of the aquifer.

  20. Shape Optimization of Rubber Bushing Using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to design rubber bushing at desired level of stiffness characteristics in order to achieve the ride quality of the vehicle. A differential evolution algorithm based approach is developed to optimize the rubber bushing through integrating a finite element code running in batch mode to compute the objective function values for each generation. Two case studies were given to illustrate the application of proposed approach. Optimum shape parameters of 2D bushing model were determined by shape optimization using differential evolution algorithm. PMID:25276848

  1. Development of conical silicone rubber bushings to replace porcelain on SF{sub 6} circuit breakers

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, W.B.; Orbeck, T.; Moal, E.

    1994-12-31

    A unique design of a composite polymer bushing is introduced and evaluated. A comprehensive test program defined the mechanical and electrical performance of a conical silicone polymer composite bushing. This evaluation also included aging and pollution tests to assess the long-term stability of the new design. Results show that the composite bushing offers technical and safety benefits over conventional porcelain bushings.

  2. DELTA-13C VALUES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS) COLLECTED FROM TWO CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Groundwater samples were collected from the American Creosote Works (ACW) Superfund site in Pensacola, Florida in June and September 1994. Sampling wells were located along a transect leading away from the most contaminated area. PAHs were extracted from the groundwater samples w...

  3. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: PILOT-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF A SLURRY-PHASE BIOLOGICAL REACTOR FOR CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a pilot-scale test of a slurry-phase biological reactor for treatment of creosote-contaminated soil. he technology used was a reactor system in which an aqueous slurry of soil was mixed with appropriate nutrients and seeded with microorganisms to enhance the...

  4. 27. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 WINDOW DETAIL IN SIDE ON GROUND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 MANTEL IN S. E. ROOM, GROUND FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 DETAIL OF REAR S. E. GROUND FLOOR WINDOW - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, 1935 VIEW FROM FRONT DOOR TOWARDS LONG T AT REAR, SHOWING PART OF LIVING ROOM & DINING ROOM - Lee Haven, County Road 21, Livingston, Sumter County, AL

  8. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 14, 1937 CLOSE-UP DETAIL OF NORTH EAST CORNER - Doctor Wilkins House, State Highways 14 & 86 vicinity, Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  9. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 MANTEL ON WEST WALL IN LIVING ROOM - Sellers-Henderson House & Smokehouse, State Route 28, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, November 9, 1936 NORTH WEST CORNER OF ROOM ON SECOND FLOOR SHOWING WINDOW AND MANTEL - Strawberry Hill Plantation, U.S. Route 43, Forkland, Greene County, AL

  11. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 REAR (SOUTH) AND WEST SIDE, SHOWING OLD VAULT AT REAR OF COURT HOUSE - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 VIEW ON MAIN FLOOR, TOWARD N. W. - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  13. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 VIEW ON SECOND FLOOR, TOWARD S.E. - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  14. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 CLOSE UP OF FRONT, (NORTH) AND EAST SIDE OF BLDG. - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  15. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 FRONT, NORTH WEST, ROOM ON BASEMENT FLOOR - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  16. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 13, 1935 VIEW ON BASEMENT FLOOR AT FRONT OF BUILDING - Old Marengo County Courthouse, Cahaba Avenue & Mobile Street, Linden, Marengo County, AL

  17. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 27, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF CEILING TREATMENT S.E. CORNER OF PARLOR - Montgomery-Jones-Whitaker House, County Road 4 (Reynolds Mill Road), Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  18. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST IN GIRL'S DORMITORY, FOURTH FLOOR - East Alabama Masonic Female Institute, 205 East South Street, Talladega, Talladega County, AL

  19. Insulation Characteristics of Bushing Shed at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, S. H.

    2014-05-01

    In the development of high-Tc superconducting(HTS) devices, the bushing for HTS devices (HTS bushing) is the core technology, the need to because of supply high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. The lower part of the bushing is exposed to the liquid nitrogen (LN2), and it has many sheds. In particular, the insulation body with sheds and electrical insulation at cryogenic temperature have attracted a great deal of interest from the view point of the size, weight and efficiency of bushing. This study has mainly investigated the shed and insulation body by comparing glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRP) in LN2. We investigated the surface discharge characteristics according to insulating materials, width and height of the shed.

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT) OF OLD MUSIC BUILDING - Eutaw Female Academy, Main Street & Wilson Avenue (moved from original site), Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  1. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 CORNICE IN CORNER OF REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  2. 22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 CLOSE UP OF CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR (MUSIC ROOM), N. E. ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  3. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 14, 1935 LOOKING UP AT CORNICE IN REAR PARLOR - MUSIC ROOM - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 SOUTH WALL OF DINING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL AND DOORS - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  5. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL IN EAST WALL OF NORTH EAST FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  6. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL AND WINDOW IN EAST WALL OF NORTH EAST ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 8, 1936 MANTEL ON WEST WALL OF NORTH WEST BEDROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge W. E. Torbert House, 1101 South Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  8. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 FRONT (SOUTH), AND EAST SIDE OF SECOND HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CEILING CENTER IN PARLOR, N.E. ROOM - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  10. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 GENERAL VIEW OF STAIR TREATMENT IN HALL - WEST SIDE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  11. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF STAIR BASE AND DOOR, FIRST FLOOR FRONT HALL - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  12. 26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 HORSE STILE BLOCK + HITCHING POSTS IN FRONT OF HOUSE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1935 FRONT (SOUTH) AND EAST SIDE, SHOWING OLD SLAVE KITCHEN IN REAR OF 1ST HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (first), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  14. 31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 STONE CHIMNEY ON W. END OF OUTHOUSES - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  15. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN KITCHEN, WEST SIDE OF SLAVE HOUSE - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  16. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 DOOR DETAIL IN S. WALL OF S. W. ROOM (BEDROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  17. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE (NORTH) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  18. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1935 REAR (NORTH) AND WEST SIDE OF 1ST HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (first), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  19. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 VIEW OF STAIRS ON W. SIDE OF HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  20. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 DOOR IN W. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR) LEADING INTO HALL. - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  1. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN PARLOR, N. E. ROOM - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  2. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 STAIR BASE AND DOOR TO LIVING ROOM IN W. WALL OF HALL (FRONT) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  3. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 SLIDING DOORS IN S. WALL BETWEEN N. E. AND S. E. PARLORS, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 WEST SIDE OF SECOND HOUSE, KITCHEN AT REAR - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  5. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 BASE OF MAIN STAIR ON W. SIDE OF FRONT HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  6. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE - NORTH - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  7. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. W. FRONT ROOM (LIVING ROOM), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  8. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 MANTEL IN S. E. ROOM. DOWN STAIRS OF SECOND HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  9. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 WINDOW IN N. WALL OF N. E. FRONT ROOM (PARLOR), FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  10. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 25, 1935 FIREPLACE IN UPPER BED ROOM (N.E.) - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  11. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 15, 1936 MANTEL IN S. W. DOWN STAIRS ROOM OF 2nd HOUSE - Taylor-Cunningham House (second), Bellevue Road, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  12. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 29, 1936 MAIN STAIRS ON W. WALL OF REAR HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Cunningham Plantation, Old Memphis Road (Gaines Trace Road), Cherokee, Colbert County, AL

  13. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT AND SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  14. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) FRONT VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 (COPIED) SIDE VIEW (REPRODUCTION) - FROM E.L. LOVE PHOTO - Old Madison County Court House, Court Square, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  16. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 25, 1935 WALL AROUND REAR YARD OF BANK (SERPENTINE WALL) - State Bank of Alabama, Decatur Branch, Bank Street & Wilson Avenue, Decatur, Morgan County, AL

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 26, 1937 ENTRANCE FROM SUN PARLOR IN CROSS HALL, ALSO STAIRWAY - Governor Robert Lindsay House, U.S. Highway 72, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  18. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, Feb. 7, 1935 VIEW FROM HALL ON 2nd FLOOR SHOWING SUN PARLOR - Courtview, 505 North Court Street, University of North Alabama Campus, Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  19. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 12, 1936 PLAQUE (IN CHURCH) TO MEMORY OF WILLIAM C. THOMPSON AND WIFE - Methodist Church, State Highway 25, Dayton, Marengo County, AL

  20. 13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 30, 1936 SOUTH END OF BACK PORCH SHOWING BLINDS AND STAIR RAIL, SECOND FLOOR - Burford House, County Road 33 vicinity, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 9, 1936 EAST ELEVATION (GENERAL VIEW) VIEW FROM GATE - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  2. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 DOOR IN N. WALL OF HALL, ALSO STAIR BASE - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  3. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 MANTEL IN S. WALL OF E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  4. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 DETAIL OF DOOR AND MANTEL IN N. WALL OF E. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - White-McGiffert House & Office, Mesopotamia Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  5. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 5, 1936 STAIR IN SOUTH END OF CROSS-HALL, FIRST FLOOR - Alfred Battle Home, Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 12, 1936 DETAIL OF COLUMN CAP, S. W. CORNER PORTICO - Dearing-Bagby House, 421 Queen City Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  7. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, 1936 CORNICE IN N. W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Dr. John H. Drish House, 2300 Seventeenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  8. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 20, 1934. BRICK WALL, WAS ONCE USED AS A COW LOT - Jemison-van de Graaf-Burchfield House, 1305 Greensboro Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  9. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1936 NORTH AND EAST WALL IN PARLOR SHOWING MANTEL, DOOR AND WINDOW - McDowell House, State Road 221, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 29, 1936 SOUTH WEST CORNER OF HALL SHOWING STAIR BASE, DOORS AND CORNICE - McDowell House, State Road 221, Camden, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 5, 1935 MANTEL IN N. W. ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Judge William Harrison Walker House, 309 East Clinton Street, Athens, Limestone County, AL

  12. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, July 27, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF COLUMNS AT N. E. CORNER OF PORTICO - Stone-Young-Baggett House, County Road 54 (Old Selma Road), Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  13. 47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SLAVE CABIN #1 (WESTERNMOST) IN SHEETS, CABIN AT WEST SIDE OF PLOT, FACES EAST, GIRL'S DORMITORY IN REAR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 A LARGE SYRUP TROUGH IN S. W. ROOM OF BASEMENT - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 9, 1935 OLD SLAVE QUARTERS, KITCHEN AND DRIVERS ROOM, FACES S. - Shackelford-McCrary-Otts House, 901 Centreville Street, Greensboro, Hale County, AL

  16. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 17, 1935 OLD- TIME KITCHEN, WEST SIDE (NOW GARAGE), SLAVES CABIN No. 3 IN SHEETS, E SIDE OF YARD - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 4, 1937 OLD TIME TOOLS USED IN ANTI-BELLUM TIMES, TUSCUMBIA VICINITY. - Carl Rand House, 501 East Third Street, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  18. 23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 7, 1935 REAR VIEW, SHOWING SMALL OLD-TIME WINDOW OF SLAVE HOUSE - Forks of Cypress, Savannah Road (Jackson Road), Florence, Lauderdale County, AL

  19. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. CLOSE-UP OF N. W. SIDE - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. VIEW OF N. SIDE LOOKING W. - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. VIEW OF RIVER FROM LOT (W) - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, December 28, 1934 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. EAST ENTRANCE GATE TO BURIAL LOT - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  3. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 CLOSE-UP VIEW OF GATE TO ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  4. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 22, 1936 ALLEN GLOVER MAUSOLEUM. CLOSE-UP OF VAULTS AT N. END - Glover Family Mausoleum, Riverview Cemetery, Demopolis, Marengo County, AL

  5. 24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, January 9, 1937 INTERIOR VIEW OF N. W. CORNER SMOKE HOUSE - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  6. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 25, 1937 SMOKE HOUSE. WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE - Sellers-Henderson House & Smokehouse, State Route 28, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, February 20, 1936 LOOKING SOUTH AT PART OF OLD KITCHEN. SERVANT'S HOUSE ON LEFT, SMOKE HOUSE ON RIGHT - C. W. Dunlap House, 237 Wilson Avenue, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  8. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 25, 1935 FRONT (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE OF SMOKE HOUSE - J. O. Banks House & Smokehouse, Springfield Avenue & Pickens Street, Eutaw, Greene County, AL

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 12, 1935 OLD SLAVE HOUSE, SMOKE HOUSE IN REAR - Greenlawn, U.S. Highway 431 (Memorial Parkway), Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  10. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, June 2, 1937 LOOKING EAST AT SMOKE HOUSE AND COOK'S HOME. - Ingleside, House & Outbuildings, Second Street (State Highway 14), Aliceville, Pickens County, AL

  11. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 7, 1936 SMOKE HOUSE AND WELL AT REAR OF HOME - Samuel M. Peck House, Eighteenth Street & Thirtieth Avenue, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  12. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 CLOSE-UP SHOWING DETAIL OF MAIN ENTRANCE FROM BALCONY - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  13. 34. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 21, 1935 CLOSE- UP OF WINDOW-JAM TREATMENT - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 13, 1936 CLOSE-UP OF NORTH ELEVATION (FRONT) - Dr. John H. Drish House, 2300 Seventeenth Street, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 CLOSE-UP OF EXTERIOR VIEW OF TYPICAL PORTICO WINDOW - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  16. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 TREATMENT OF WALL CORNICE IN BOTH S. W. AND N. W. ROOMS, 1ST FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  17. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 TREATMENT OF CEILING AT TOP IN BOTH S. W. AND N. W. ROOMS - 1ST FLOOR - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  18. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 15, 1935 SLIDING DOORS ON 1ST FLOOR IN N. W. & S. W. ROOMS - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  19. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW INTO LIVING ROOM SHOWING MANTEL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  20. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW THROUGH DOUBLE SLIDING DOORS INTO DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  1. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF DINING ROOM - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  2. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF MAIN ENTRANCE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  3. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON SOUTH WALL OF PARLOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  4. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SERVANT'S HOUSE AND GARAGE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  5. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION FROM SOUTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  6. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH WEST AT OLD STABLE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 REAR (WEST) AND NORTH SIDE - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH ELEVATION - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  9. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING NORTH IN CROSS HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  10. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 GENERAL VIEW OF REAR OF MAIN HALL - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  11. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT OF ENTRANCE HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  12. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 VIEW IN FRONT OF MAIN HALL, SECOND FLOOR - Colonel Joseph R. Hawthorne House, Broad Street (County Road 59), Pine Apple, Wilcox County, AL

  13. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 EAST END OF HALL, SECOND FLOOR (GENERAL VIEW) - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  14. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ENTRANCE PORTICO - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  15. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 FRONT (WEST) ELEVATION FROM SOUTH WEST - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 PILASTER AND COLUMNS ON NORTH END BALCONY - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  17. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 MANTEL ON SOUTH WALL OF PARLOR - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  18. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 13, 1937 STAIR ON SOUTH WALL OF HALL - Ferguson-Long House, Chopitoulas Street (State Highway 14), Pickensville, Pickens County, AL

  19. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 DOORWAY BETWEEN LIVING ROOM AND DINING ROOM (WEST SIDE OF HOUSE) - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  20. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 HALL AND STAIRS, EAST SIDE OF HALL, SHOWING REAR DOOR - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  1. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 FRONT (EAST) AND SOUTH SIDE SLAVE QUARTERS AND OLD KITCHEN - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  2. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN NORTH END OF HALL OR LIVING ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - David Wade House, Bob Wade Lane, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  3. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, September 11, 1935 MANTEL IN LIVING ROOM, N. W. ROOM ON FIRST FLOOR - Thomas W. White House, 461 Eustis Avenue, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  4. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL ON WEST WALL N.W. FRONT ROOM, FIRST FLOOR - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 MANTEL AND WINDOWS ON EAST WALL OF N.E. FRONT ROOM - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  6. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 LOOKING SOUTH EAST AT OLD STORE - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 CLOSE-UP OF FRONT ELEVATION - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  8. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 FRONT AND WEST ELEVATION FROM N. W. - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  9. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, March 24, 1937 SOUTH END OF HALL (GENERAL VIEW) - Rosemary House & Plantation Store, State Route 28 vicinity, Millers Ferry, Wilcox County, AL

  10. Bush Pledges Increased Science Research and Education Funding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-02-01

    In his 31 January State of the Union address, U.S. President George W. Bush announced two new initiatives aimed at galvanizing scientific research and education. For the American Competitiveness Initiative, Bush proposes to ``double the federal commitment to the most critical basic research programs in the physical sciences in the next 10 years. . .[and to] make permanent the research and development tax credit to encourage bolder private-sector initiative in technology.''

  11. Bush blasts 'filth' on TV, school condom handouts.

    PubMed

    1991-12-18

    President Bush complained yesterday about the "filth and indecent material" that Americans are exposed to through televised trials. Mr. Bush also criticized programs to combat AIDS that give condoms to teenagers and clean needles to drug addicts. He said such efforts undermine traditional values. He expressed hope that Earvin "Magic" Johnson's revelation that he is HIV positive "will teach people that wayward lifestyles or just kind of unsafe sex at random is not the way it ought to work." Mr. Bush made the comments in a series of satellite television interviews with ABC affiliates in major cities. In an apparent reaction to graphic testimony at the recent Palm Beach rape trial of William Kennedy Smith, Mr. Bush said, "I think the American people have a right to be protected against some of these excesses." Mr. Smith, a nephew of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., was acquitted last week. The Cable News Network and Court TV provided virtually gavel-to-gavel coverage. Mr. Bush took a dim view of a plan to distribute condoms to juniors and seniors in Philadelphia city high schools as part of a program to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome. "This is a disease that can be controlled for the most part by individual behavior," Mr. Bush said. "Indeed, I must tell you I'm worried about it. I'm worried about so much filth and indecent material coming in through the airwaves and through these trials into people's homes," he said. PMID:12284862

  12. Elevated CO2 increases plant uptake of organic and inorganic N in the desert shrub Larrea tridentata.

    PubMed

    Jin, Virginia L; Evans, R D

    2010-05-01

    Resource limitations, such as the availability of soil nitrogen (N), are expected to constrain continued increases in plant productivity under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)). One potential but under-studied N source for supporting increased plant growth under elevated CO(2) is soil organic N. In arid ecosystems, there have been no studies examining plant organic N uptake to date. To assess the potential effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) on plant N uptake dynamics, we quantified plant uptake of organic and inorganic N forms in the dominant desert shrub Larrea tridentata under controlled environmental conditions. Seedlings of L. tridentata were grown in the Mojave Desert (NV, USA) soils that had been continuously exposed to ambient or elevated atmospheric CO(2) for 8 years at the Nevada Desert FACE Facility. After 6 months of growth in environmentally controlled chambers under ambient (380 micromol mol(-1)) or elevated (600 micromol mol(-1)) CO(2), pots were injected with stable isotopically labeled sole-N sources ((13)C-[2]-(15)N glycine, (15)NH(4) (+), or (15)NO(3) (-)) and moved back to their respective chambers for the remainder of the study. Plants were destructively harvested at 0, 2, 10, 24, and 49 days. Plant uptake of soil N derived from glycine, NH(4) (+), and NO(3) (-) increased under elevated CO(2) at days 2 and 10. Further, root uptake of organic N as glycine occurred as intact amino acid within the first hour after N treatment, indicated by approximately 1:1 M enrichment ratios of (13)C:(15)N. Plant N uptake responses to elevated CO(2) are often species-specific and could potentially shift competitive interactions between co-occurring species. Thus, physiological changes in root N uptake dynamics coupled with previously observed changes in the availability of soil N resources could impact plant community structure as well as ecosystem nutrient cycling under increasing atmospheric CO(2) levels in the Mojave Desert. PMID:20094733

  13. Effects of Anthropogenic Emissions on the Nitrogen Cycle in the Desert Creosote Scrub Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlan, J.; Simunek, J.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfires are an ongoing threat to many ecosystems in Southern California. In some ecosystems, evidence suggests that high anthropogenic nitrogen deposition can increase susceptibility to fire by increasing the fuel loads and altering the plant species composition. Desert creosote scrub ecosystems are dominant throughout many low-elevation areas in the Mohave Desert and are among the ecosystems subjected to added deposition of nitrate and ammonium due to emissions from nearby agriculture and fossil fuel combustion. An understanding of how nitrogen flows through the desert creosote scrub ecosystem and of how the additional deposition affects this cycle is critical to determining how these ecosystems will change over time and assessing how the spread of fires can be mitigated. One high deposition and one low deposition desert creosote scrub site in Joshua Tree National Park have been studied for the past year in order to observe the flow of nitrogen through the soil and assess its connection to shifts in the vegetation. Extractable nitrate, extractable ammonium, and total nitrogen and carbon have been measured throughout 100cm soil profiles at each site in order to determine the fate and transport of the deposited nitrogen. Because the flow of water through the soil following the infrequent precipitation events is essential to the flow of nitrogen, dielectric water potential sensors have been installed throughout the top 70cm of soil in order to obtain hourly measurements of water potential. These measurements have been used in conjunction with weather and deposition data to model the flow of water and nitrogen through the soil using the hydrological model HYDRUS-1D. A geochemical model representing basic nitrogen reactions occurring in the soil has been started using PHREEQC coupled with HYDRUS-1D, but further modeling is necessary in order to accurately represent the complexity of the nitrogen cycle. After completion of an additional year of measurements and

  14. TREATMENT OF A PENTACHLOROPHENOL AND CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SOIL USING THE LIGNIN-DEGRADING FUNGUS PHANERO- CHAETE SORDIDA: A FIELD DEMONSTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The feasibility of large-scale fungal bioaugmentation was evaluated by assessing the ability of the lignin-degrading fungus Phanerochaete sordida to decrease the soil concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 13 priority pollutant polynuclear aromatic (PNA) creosote component...

  15. Ambient temperature influences tolerance to plant secondary compounds in a mammalian herbivore.

    PubMed

    Kurnath, P; Merz, N D; Dearing, M D

    2016-01-13

    Growing evidence suggests that plant secondary compounds (PSCs) ingested by mammals become more toxic at elevated ambient temperatures, a phenomenon known as temperature-dependent toxicity. We investigated temperature-dependent toxicity in the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), a herbivorous rodent that naturally encounters PSCs in creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), which is a major component of its diet. First, we determined the maximum dose of creosote resin ingested by woodrats at warm (28-29°C) or cool (21-22°C) temperatures. Second, we controlled the daily dose of creosote resin ingested at warm, cool and room (25°C) temperatures, and measured persistence in feeding trials. At the warm temperature, woodrats ingested significantly less creosote resin; their maximum dose was two-thirds that of animals at the cool temperature. Moreover, woodrats at warm and room temperatures could not persist on the same dose of creosote resin as woodrats at the cool temperature. Our findings demonstrate that warmer temperatures reduce PSC intake and tolerance in herbivorous rodents, highlighting the potentially adverse consequences of temperature-dependent toxicity. These results will advance the field of herbivore ecology and may hone predictions of mammalian responses to climate change. PMID:26763703

  16. Sacrifice, the Bush Way: From Self to Others.

    PubMed

    Cotton, Marc-Andre

    2016-01-01

    The Walker Bush dynasty has marked the last American century, promoting "corporate democracy" as a means to expand its wealth. As 43rd President of the United States, George Walker Bush's biography illustrates how the members of our powerful elite sacrifice the inner self of their own children for the sake of political success. In his case, the childrearing violence and emotional neglect he experienced created the psychological basis for his later re-enactments as commander-in-chief in the wake of 9/11. From that standpoint, his intergenerational legacy of trauma bears strong affinities with that of the nation as a whole. This paper examines George W. Bush's paternal inheritance, the problem of maternal abuse and its subsequent psychic wounds, as well as the impact of an unresolved grief after the loss of his younger sister, Robin. Restaging childhood traumas as a vengeful young adult at Yale, before getting involved in dirty politics, Bush supported unlawful hazing practices. Then, as Governor of Texas he promoted the death penalty and a zero-tolerance approach to juvenile offenders. Controversial decisions of the Bush administration regarding the Enhanced Interrogation Program, the Guantanamo Bay detention camp and many others are further scrutinized as collective re-enactments of abuse deeply engrained in American society. PMID:27480013

  17. Time domain responses of hydraulic bushing with two flow passages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2014-02-01

    Hydraulic bushings are commonly employed in vehicle suspension and body sub-frame systems to control motion, vibration, and structure-borne noise. Since literature on this topic is sparse, a controlled bushing prototype which accommodates a combination of long and short flow passages and flow restriction elements is first designed, constructed and instrumented. Step-up and step-down responses of several typical fluid-filled bushing configurations are measured along with steady harmonic time histories of transmitted force and internal pressures. To analyze the experimental results and gain physical insights into the hydraulic bushing system, lumped system models of bushings with different design features are developed, and analytical expressions of transmitted force and internal pressure responses are derived by using the convolution method. Parametric studies are also conducted to examine the effect of hydraulic element parameters. System parameters are successfully estimated for both harmonic and step responses using theory and measurements, and the dynamic force measurements are analyzed using analytical predictions. Finally, some nonlinearities of the system are also observed, and the fluid resistance of flow passage is found to be the most nonlinear element.

  18. Digital Image Analysis of Flowering in the Repeat-Blooming Creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) in Relation to Climatic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, L. M.; Kurc, S. A.

    2008-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that phenology (seasonal timing of life cycle events) is an effective integrator of the impacts of climate change on natural systems. Thus, understanding the climate signals that activate plant phenological responses (e.g., flowering and leaf production) will allow for improved modeling efforts and more effective ecosystem management strategies to mitigate the effects of climate change. With warmer and drier weather patterns predicted for the Desert Southwest in the coming century it can be expected that plant phenological patterns will be altered as a result. The most dominant and widespread shrub species of the warm desert ecosystems of North America is the creosotebush (Larrea tridentata). Consequently, creosotebush has a major impact on the structure, functioning, and flow of resources (i.e., carbon, water, and energy) in these regions, and when in bloom serves as an abundant and reliable food source for hundreds of pollinating insects that synchronize their emergence with flowering time. In this study, we hypothesize that frequency, duration and abundance of flowers in the repeat-blooming creosotebush are regulated by (1) temperature during the spring and (2) soil moisture below the depth of atmospheric demand in the summer. We make use of daily digital images from three stations at the Santa Rita Experimental Range in southern Arizona. These stations are located within the footprint of an eddy covariance tower, where continuous records of precipitation, air temperature, soil temperature, soil moisture at various depths, and net radiation are also being collected. Unlike more discrete methods used to observe seasonal changes in vegetation, use of daily images results in a continuous record that can be directly compared to micrometeorological data, allowing us to evaluate the bloom-up response of creosotebush alongside (1) air temperature, (2) soil temperature, and (3) soil water content fluctuations across time. We show that this

  19. Origins and ecological consequences of pollen specialization among desert bees.

    PubMed Central

    Minckley, R L; Cane, J H; Kervin, L

    2000-01-01

    An understanding of the evolutionary origins of insect foraging specialization is often hindered by a poor biogeographical and palaeoecological record. The historical biogeography (20,000 years before present to the present) of the desert-limited plant, creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), is remarkably complete. This history coupled with the distribution pattern of its bee fauna suggests pollen specialization for creosote bush pollen has evolved repeatedly among bees in the Lower Sonoran and Mojave deserts. In these highly xeric, floristically depauperate environments, species of specialist bees surpass generalist bees in diversity, biomass and abundance. The ability of specialist bees to facultatively remain in diapause through resource-poor years and to emerge synchronously with host plant bloom in resource-rich years probably explains their ecological dominance and persistence in these areas. Repeated origins of pollen specialization to one host plant where bloom occurs least predictably is a counter-example to prevailing theories that postulate such traits originate where the plant grows best and blooms most reliably Host-plant synchronization, a paucity of alternative floral hosts, or flowering attributes of creosote bush alone or in concert may account for the diversity of bee specialists that depend on this plant instead of nutritional factors or chemical coevolution between floral rewards and the pollinators they have evolved to attract. PMID:10714881

  20. High-voltage R-F feedthrough bushing

    DOEpatents

    Grotz, G.F.

    1982-09-03

    Described is a multi-element, high voltage radio frequency bushing for transmitting rf energy to an antenna located in a vacuum container. The bushing includes a center conductor of complex geometrical shape, an outer coaxial shield conductor, and a thin-walled hollow truncated cone insulator disposed between central and outer conductors. The shape of the center conductor, which includes a reverse curvature portion formed of a radially inwardly directed shoulder and a convex portion, controls the uniformity of the axial surface gradient on the insulator cone. The outer shield has a first substantially cylindrical portion and a second radially inwardly extending truncated cone portion.

  1. High voltage bushing having weathershed and surrounding stress relief collar

    DOEpatents

    Cookson, Alan H.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage electric bushing comprises a hollow elongated dielectric weathershed which encloses a high voltage conductor. A collar formed of high voltage dielectric material is positioned over the weathershed and is bonded thereto by an interface material which precludes moisture-like contaminants from entering between the bonded portions. The collar is substantially thicker than the adjacent weathershed which it surrounds, providing relief of the electric stresses which would otherwise appear on the outer surface of the weathershed. The collar may include a conductive ring or capacitive foil to further relieve electric stresses experienced by the bushing.

  2. Horizontal cryogenic bushing for the termination of a superconducting power-transmission line

    DOEpatents

    Minati, K.F.; Morgan, G.H.; McNerney, A.J.; Schauer, F.

    1982-07-29

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminated the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  3. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    DOEpatents

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  4. Transport and biodegradation of creosote compounds in a large, intact, fractured clayey till column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Kim; Hansen, Asger B.; Jørgensen, Peter R.; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Martin

    1999-10-01

    An experiment was conducted using a large, intact column of fractured clayey till to study the transport and biodegradation of 25 organic compounds typical of creosote. The column (0.5 m in height and 0.5 m in diameter) was collected from a depth of 2.5-3 m at an experimental site on the island of Funen, Denmark. For the first 82 days of the experiment, the column was infiltrated with water containing nitrate, but no organic compounds. During this period, significant nitrate removal and nitrite production were observed indicating that denitrification occurred in the clayey till. After 82 days, a mixture of 25 organic compounds with a total concentration of approximately 70 mg l -1 was added to the influent water together with a conservative tracer (92 mg bromide l -1). Most of the organic compounds were transported as rapidly as bromide, and only carbazole, dibenzofuran, fluorene, dibenzothiophene, and phenanthrene were significantly retarded. No extensive loss of organic compounds was observed during this period, which was attributed to the high concentration of applicated organic compounds. After 40 days, the influent concentration of organic compounds was lowered by a factor of 5; subsequently, significant biodegradation of phenol, ethylbenzene, toluene, quinoline, indole, p-xylene, and o-cresol was observed. Additionally, o-xylene, naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, 2-methylquinoline, carbazole, acridine, benzothiophene, dibenzothiophene, benzofuran, dibenzofuran, pyrrole, 1-methylpyrrole, and benzene were biodegraded to some degree when oxygen was added concomitantly with nitrate (92 days after the addition of organic compounds). Pyrrole, 1-methylpyrrole, and benzene were only slightly biodegraded. The biodegradation of benzene was likely inhibited by the presence of pyrrole and/or 1-methylpyrrole. The study has shown that the transport of low-molecular-weight organic compounds through fractured clayey till may occur as rapid as the

  5. Migration and natural fate of a coal tar creosote plume. 2. Mass balance and biodegradation indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Mark W. G.; Barker, James F.; Devlin, John F.; Butler, Barbara J.

    1999-10-01

    A source of coal tar creosote was emplaced below the water table at CFB Borden to investigate natural attenuation processes for complex biodegradable mixtures. A mass balance indicated that ongoing transformation occurred for seven study compounds. Phenol migrated as a discrete slug plume and almost completely disappeared after 2 years, after being completely leached from the source early in the study. The m-xylene plume migrated outward to a maximum distance at approximately 2 years, and then receded back towards the source as the rate of mass flux out of the source decreased to below the overall rate of plume transformation. Carbazole showed similar behaviour, although the reversal in plume development occurred more slowly. The dibenzofuran plume remained relatively constant in extent and mass over the last 2 years of monitoring, despite constant source input over this period, providing evidence that the dibenzofuran plume was at steady state. Meanwhile, the naphthalene and 1-methylnaphthalene plumes continued to advance and increase in mass over the observation period, although at a decreasing rate. The phenanthrene plume was also subject to transformation, although measurement of the rate was less conclusive due to the higher proportion of sorbed mass for this compound. Three lines of evidence are presented to evaluate whether the observed plume mass loss was due to microbial biodegradation. Measurement of redox-sensitive parameters in the vicinity of the plume showed the types of changes that would be expected to occur due to plume biodegradation: dissolved oxygen and SO 42- decreased in groundwater within the plume while significant increases were noted for Fe 2+, Mn 2+ and methane. Further evidence that plume mass loss was microbially-mediated was provided by the accumulation of aromatic acids within the plume. Measurements of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in aquifer material indicated that microbial biomass and turnover rate were greater within the plume

  6. The Influence of Bush Identity on Attitudes to Mental Health in a Queensland Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McColl, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    There are many factors that impact on mental health and the utilization of these services in the bush. The results from a three year ethnographic study in a bush community indicate that attitudes to mental health in this area of Queensland are influenced by bush identity, defined by reference to historical and current characteristics which include…

  7. The Gore/Bush Records on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Compares the records of presidential candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore on higher education issues and, specifically, those of interest to the Black community. Concludes that Al Gore's record makes him an overall better choice in the 2000 campaign. (DB)

  8. Networking the "Bush"--Is There Anyone out There?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Janice

    2013-01-01

    Local rural communities and individuals are increasingly disarmed by the socially transforming processes of post modern times including the globalisation of rural production systems and trade. There is a new climate "in the bush" that is imbued with a deep suspicion that globalisation processes will continue to threaten the…

  9. The Invasive Shrub, Buddleja davidii (Butterfl y Bush)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name Butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas in temperate locations worldwide. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from c...

  10. President Bush: A Friend of Higher Education after All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    President Bush's proposals on such topics as toughening accreditation standards and limiting the use of human embryonic stem cells in research may not have made him popular in academe over his two terms. This article reports that the president's willingness to spend federal money on many of colleges' top priorities might improve the perception of…

  11. Bush energy policy may fuel Democratic challenger in '92

    SciTech Connect

    Whalen, B.

    1991-03-18

    This article describes President Bush's energy policy and the conflict with the Democrats. The plan calls for more domestic oil production from offshore oil drilling, from the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, and from new nuclear power plants. Little mention is made of increasing energy conservation. Democrats hope the issue will give them at least some indication of the mood of the electorate.

  12. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, May 30, 1936 (WEST SIDE) VIEW LOOKING S.E. SHOWING 'DOG RUN' WALL EXPOSED AFTER REMOVAL OF WEST HALF OF HOUSE - Adam Weaver Log House, U.S. Highway 72, Rogersville, Lauderdale County, AL

  13. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  14. The Bush Administration's Civic Agenda and National Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenkowsky, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    The Bush Administration believes that a modest investment in programs administered by the Corporation for National and Community Service will be an effective way to build the strength of the nonprofit sector and foster the ethic of good citizenship. The administration also believes that federal service programs must be designed to buttress, rather…

  15. Bush Administration Looks to Congress to Proceed in Lender Bailout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basken, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The Bush administration has called off internal deliberations over a bailout plan for student-loan companies after concluding it did not have the authority to act on its own. Instead, it endorsed a Congressional proposal that would allow the education secretary to purchase loans from private lenders. The decision leaves Congress facing a ticking…

  16. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, August 15, 1935 LOOKING SOUTH IN CROSS HALL AT REAR OF MAIN HALL, SHOWING STONE ALTAR AND DOOR TORN OPEN BY THE FED. TROOPS DURING THE WAR - Colonel Goodloe House, Tuscumbia, Colbert County, AL

  17. Bush's 2008 Budget: "Robbing Peter to Pay Pell"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    A few days before President Bush officially released his 2008 budget, administration officials announced that it would contain a historic increase in the maximum Pell Grant. The increase in Pell Grants would be paid for by cutting subsidies for student loans, a step that experts predicted could induce lenders to offer fewer benefits to borrowers.…

  18. RESPONSE OF BUSH BEAN EXPOSED TO ACID MIST

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Contender) were treated once a week for six weeks with simulated acid mist at five pH ranging from 5.5 to 2.0. Leaf injury developed on plants exposed to acid concentrations below pH 3 and many leaves developed a flecking symptom simila...

  19. Rethinking Education Reform in the Age of George Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    In the current educational reform movement, schools have become the new scapegoat for the American economy's increasing failure to compete in the world market. The Bush Administration needs to articulate a vision linking public education to democratic imperatives, rather than the marketplace's narrow demands. Education for empowerment should be a…

  20. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 27, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, April 27, 1935 OLD SLAVE KITCHEN N & W SIDE, (ICE HOUSE IN REAR LEFT, OLD WELL HOUSE IN FRONT OF KITCHEN, FACES N.) - Pitts' Folly, House & Outbuildings, State Highway 21, Uniontown, Perry County, AL

  1. Analysis of President Bush's Education Budget Request: Fiscal Year 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New America Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    President George W. Bush submitted his eighth and final budget request to the Congress on Monday. Under the proposal, fiscal year 2009 discretionary spending--spending subject to annual appropriations--would be at the same level as in the prior year for domestic programs and agencies not involved in homeland security efforts. The budget request…

  2. Effects of the Bush/Ferraro Debate on Candidate Characterization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamm, Keith R.

    A study was conducted to determine the cognitive effects on viewers of the debate between vice-presidential candidates George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro. Adult passengers (N=468) on the Washington State ferries were interviewed, 191 before the debate and 277 afterward. Of those interviewed after the debate, 168 reported watching the debate and 108…

  3. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey Alex Bush, Photographer, October 16, 1935 SMOKE HOUSE AND DAIRY, W SIDE AND S END (SLAVE CABIN No. 2 IN SHEETS, W SIDE OF YARD) - University of Alabama, President's House, University Boulevard, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  4. Bush Plan Takes Security Out of Social Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Jeanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Social workers understand that assessing the implications of a policy for individual citizens like Veronica, a 51 year-old African American woman whose retirement will be jeopardized by President Bush's plan for social security, is often a good yardstick by which to measure the impact of a change. Moreover, social workers understand that policy…

  5. Jeb Bush's Impact Felt on K-12 Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Jeb Bush left the Florida governor's office in 2007 with a legacy of having brought sweeping changes to his state's education system, through hard-edged policies that gave parents and students more choices and demanded more of schools. Today, that legacy seems poised to grow--and well beyond Florida. In state capitals across the country, numerous…

  6. Microbial populations related to PAH biodegradation in an aged biostimulated creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Lladó, Salvador; Jiménez, Nuria; Viñas, Marc; Solanas, Anna Maria

    2009-09-01

    A previous bioremediation survey on a creosote-contaminated soil showed that aeration and optimal humidity promoted depletion of three-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but residual concentrations of four-ringed benzo(a)anthracene (B(a)A) and chrysene (Chry) remained. In order to explain the lack of further degradation of heavier PAHs such as four-ringed PAHs and to analyze the microbial population responsible for PAH biodegradation, a chemical and microbial molecular approach was used. Using a slurry incubation strategy, soil in liquid mineral medium with and without additional B(a)A and Chry was found to contain a powerful PAH-degrading microbial community that eliminated 89% and 53% of the added B(a)A and Chry, respectively. It is hypothesized that the lack of PAH bioavailability hampered their further biodegradation in the unspiked soil. According to the results of the culture-dependent and independent techniques Mycobacterium parmense, Pseudomonas mexicana, and Sphingobacterials group could control B(a)A and Chry degradation in combination with several microorganisms with secondary metabolic activity. PMID:19153811

  7. Using polymer solutions to enhance recovery of mobile coal tar and creosote DNAPLs.

    PubMed

    Giese, Steven W; Powers, Susan E

    2002-09-01

    Direct pumping and enhanced recovery of coal tar and creosote dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) from the subsurface have had mixed results because these DNAPLs are viscous fluids that can potentially alter aquifer wettability. To improve the inefficiencies associated with waterflooding, the research presented here considered the use of a polymer solution that can be added to the injected flood solution to increase the viscosity and decrease the velocity of the flooding solution. Results from one-dimensional, vertically oriented laboratory column experiments that evaluate the recovery of coal-derived DNAPL with both water and polymer flooding solutions are presented. The final DNAPL saturation remaining in the column was assessed in water and oil-wet systems for three viscous DNAPLs. Adding polymer to increase the aqueous solution viscosity did not have a significant impact in water-wet systems. A final DNAPL saturation of approximately 19% was achieved for both water and polymer floods. In contrast, the addition of polymer significantly improved recovery in oil-wet systems. The final saturation was over 40% in oil-wet systems after waterflooding, but approximately 19% with a polymer flushing solution. Although the final saturation produced with polymer flooding was similar between the oil- and water-wet systems, differences in the relative permeability and distribution of DNAPL in the porous matrix caused the DNAPL recovery to be much slower in the oil-wet system. PMID:12236554

  8. Microbial ecology of a creosote-contaminated aquifer at St. Louis Park, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, G.G.; Godsy, E.M.; Goerlitz, D.F.; Hult, M.F.

    1983-01-01

    Bacterial populations were sampled in creosote-contaminated and undisturbed zones of the anaerobic, surficial Middle Drift aquifer at St. Louis Park, Minnesota. The densities of several types of bacteria including total aerobes, total anaerobes, nitrate-respirers, and iron-reducers were about the same in the contaminated and undisturbed zones. Chemical analyses suggested that nitrate-respiration and iron-reduction were occurring in the contaminated zone. Conversion of phenolic compounds to methane occurred in the contaminated zone. Methanogenic bacteria were found only in the contaminated zone. In laboratory culture, methane was evolved when contaminated groundwater was inoculated with bacteria from the contaminated zone. Obligate anaerobic bacteria isolated from laboratory reactors include: a methanosarcina; a short methanobacterium; and a longer, crooked methanobacterium. Pseudomonas stutzeri, a nitrate-respiring bacterium, was isolated from both the laboratory reactors and the contaminated zone of the aquifer. These Ps. stutzeri strains used phenol as an electron source for nitrate reduction. The methanogenic consortium found in the laboratory reactor appears similar to those described in other studies of the methanogenic fermentation of aromatic compounds. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  9. The effect of CaCO sub 3 on the uptake of phosphorus by two desert shrub species, Larrea tridentata (DC. ) Cov. and Parthenium incanum H. B. K

    SciTech Connect

    Lajtha, K.; Schlesinger, W.H. )

    1988-09-01

    In a phytotron growth study, the effects of soil CaCO{sub 3} on the uptake of P by two desert shrub species were species specific. Larrea tridentata seedlings responded to soil CaCO{sub 3} with increased root: shoot ratios, increased N:P ratios in tissues, and decreased specific absorption rates of P, indicating that CaCO{sub 3} directly inhibited the uptake or the availability of P to roots. Parthenium incanum seedlings responded negatively to CaCO{sub 3}, but this response was not specific to P uptake and did not appear to be caused by a reduction in P availability. Pedogenic carbonates, present in many arid-land soils of the world, might greatly affect both P availability and the biogeochemical cycle of P in desert ecosystems.

  10. The influence of stream channels on distributions of Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa in the Mojave Desert, CA, USA: Patterns, mechanisms and effects of stream redistribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwinning, S.; Sandquist, D.R.; Miller, D.M.; Bedford, D.R.; Phillips, S.L.; Belnap, J.

    2011-01-01

    Drainage channels are among the most conspicuous surficial features of deserts, but little quantitative analysis of their influence on plant distributions is available. We analysed the effects of desert stream channels ('washes') on Larrea tridentata and Ambrosia dumosa density and cover on an alluvial piedmont in the Mojave Desert, based on a spatial analysis of transect data encompassing a total length of 2775 m surveyed in 5 cm increments. Significant deviations from average transect properties were identified by bootstrapping. Predictably, shrub cover and density were much reduced inside washes, and elevated above average levels adjacent to washes. Average Larrea and Ambrosia cover and density peaked 1??2-1??6 m and 0??5-1??0 m from wash edges, respectively. We compared wash effects in runon-depleted (-R) sections, where washes had been cut off from runon and were presumably inactive, with those in runon-supplemented (+R) sections downslope from railroad culverts to help identify mechanisms responsible for the facilitative effect of washes on adjacent shrubs. Shrub cover and density near washes peaked in both + R and - R sections, suggesting that improved water infiltration and storage alone can cause a facilitative effect on adjacent shrubs. However, washes of < 2 m width in + R sections had larger than average effects on peak cover, suggesting that plants also benefit from occasional resource supplementation. The data suggest that channel networks significantly contribute to structuring plant communities in the Mojave Desert and their disruption has notable effects on geomorphic and ecological processes far beyond the original disturbance sites. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Electrochemical degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote solution using ruthenium oxide on titanium expanded mesh anode.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lan-Huong; Drogui, Patrick; Mercier, Guy; Blais, Jean-François

    2009-05-30

    In this study, expanded titanium (Ti) covered with ruthenium oxide (RuO(2)) electrode was used to anodically oxidize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in creosote solution. Synthetic creosote-oily solution (COS) was prepared with distilled water and a commercial creosote solution in the presence of an amphoteric surfactant; Cocamidopropylhydroxysultaine (CAS). Electrolysis was carried out using a parallelepipedic electrolytic 1.5-L cell containing five anodes (Ti/RuO(2)) and five cathodes (stainless steel, 316 L) alternated in the electrode pack. The effects of initial pH, temperature, retention time, supporting electrolyte, current density and initial PAH concentration on the process performance were examined. Experimental results revealed that a current density of 9.23 mA cm(-2) was beneficial for PAH oxidation. The sum of PAH concentrations for 16 PAHs could be optimally diminished up to 80-82% while imposing a residence time in the electrolysis cell of 90 min. There was not a significant effect of the electrolyte (Na(2)SO(4)) concentration on oxidation efficiency in the investigated range of 500-4000 mg/L. However, an addition of 500 mg Na(2)SO(4)L(-1) was required to reduce the energy consumption and the treatment cost. Besides, there was no effect of initial PAH concentration on oxidation efficiency in the investigated range of 270-540 mg PAHL(-1). Alkaline media was not favourable for PAH oxidation, whereas high performance of PAH degradation could be recorded without initial pH adjustment (original pH around 6.0). Likewise, under optimal conditions, 84% of petroleum hydrocarbon (C(10)-C(50)) was removed, whereas removal yields of 69% and 62% have been measured for O&G and COD, respectively. Microtox and Daphnia biotests showed that electrochemical oxidation using Ti/RuO(2) could be efficiently used to reduce more than 90% of the COS toxicity. PMID:18926633

  12. Fate and transport potential for dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from a shallow to a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote works

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, R.W.; Tzhone, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Remedy selected for a deep aquifer at the Madisonville Creosote Works, which have a potential threat of contamination from a nearby contaminated shallow aquifer is presented. The remedy includes monitoring, in consideration of the low permeability of the clay unit separating the two aquifers and the limited transport potential of the dissolved polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A computer model was used for predication of the potential fate and transport of contaminants to the deep drinking water supply aquifer. The model results show conservative breakthrough of naphthalene from the source creosote in the shallow water bearing zone at about 150 years.

  13. Methanogenic biodegradation of creosote-derived contaminants in natural and simulated ground water ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Godsy, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    Wastes from an abandoned wood preserving plant in Pensacola, Florida have contaminated the near surface sand-and-gravel aquifer with creosote-derived compounds and pentachlorophenol. The contaminated ground water is enriched in organic fatty acids, benzoic acid, phenol, 2-, 3-, 4-methylphenol, indole, oxindole, quinoline, isoquinoline, 1(2H)-quinolinone, 2(1H)-isoquinolinone, benzothiophene, benzofuran, naphthalene, and indene. Evidence is presented that the methanogenic degradation of the compounds listed above and concomitant microbial growth in batch microcosms derived from contaminated aquifer material can be described using Monod kinetics. The K{sub s} values obtained for the biodegradation of the phenolic compounds in this study are much lower than published values, indicating that the aquifer microorganisms may have developed enzyme systems and transport mechanisms that are adapted to low nutrient conditions. The values for k{sub d} are much less than {mu}{sub max}, and can be neglected in the microcosm studies. The low Y values, approximately an order of magnitude lower than theoretical values, and the low numbers of microorganisms in the aquifer derived microcosms suggest that these organisms may use some unique strategies to survive in the subsurface environment. Studies of the degradation pathways of the homocyclic and heterocyclic aromatic compounds on the basis of intermediate compounds have revealed that the process consists of both a major and a minor pathway. The first transformation step of the major pathway consists of oxidation and cleavage of the heterocyclic ring. After cleavage of this ring, the substituent side chains and the remaining homocyclic ring are subjected to various reactions including oxidation, decarboxylation, desulfurylation or ammonification, and O-methylation. These reactions are followed by the reduction of the homocyclic ring, cleavage of this ring, {beta}-oxidation, and mineralization.

  14. Dynamic Spring Model of Rubber Bush Based on Linear Viscoelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujikawa, Masaki; Sato, Masami; Kobayashi, Takaya

    A set of simplified formulae is proposed for estimating the dynamic spring constants of rubber bushes used in suspension systems. These formulae are structured by extending a set of elastic solutions[Editor2] proposed before to calculate the dynamic spring constants according to the associated law (pseudo-elasticity) of the linear viscoelasticity theory. A unique feature of this method is that it helps in the easy and quick evaluation of the dynamic behavior of rubber bushes for all the six degrees of freedom (axial loading, loading normal to an axis in two directions, wrench in two directions, and torsion[Editor3]) with no direct involvement of the FEM. In order to validate this method of calculation, the results obtained for all the degrees of freedom are compared with those obtained using the FEM. It is verified that this approach is capable of qualitatively reproducing the results obtained by using the FEM analysis.

  15. Recognizing the obvious bush should declare the ABM Treaty dead

    SciTech Connect

    1992-02-05

    In televised speech to the Russian people on January 29, Russia`s President Boris Yeltsin called for the United States and Russia to create and jointly operate a global defense system. One day earlier, in his State of the Union address, George Bush affirmed his own commitment to strategic defense, or SDI. Washington and Moscow now both are on record in favor of deploying defenses against missile attacks. Then late last week, Yeltsin at the United Nations reaffirmed his Moscow statement. The common Bush-Yeltsin view is not surprising. Both of their countries face a growing danger of accidental, unauthorized, or irrational attacks from an expanding number of states armed with ballistic missiles.

  16. High voltage insulation of bushing for HTS power equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Woo-Jin; Choi, Jae-Hyeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun

    2012-12-01

    For the operation of high temperature superconducting (HTS) power equipments, it is necessary to develop insulating materials and high voltage (HV) insulation technology at cryogenic temperature of bushing. Liquid nitrogen (LN2) is an attractive dielectric liquid. Also, the polymer insulating materials are expected to be used as solid materials such as glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP), polytetra-fluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), Silicon (Si) rubber, aromatic polyamide (Nomex), EPDM/Silicon alloy compound (EPDM/Si). In this paper, the surface flashover characteristics of various insulating materials in LN2 are studied. These results are studied at both AC and impulse voltage under a non-uniform field. The use of GFRP and Teflon as insulation body for HTS bushing should be much desirable. Especially, GFRP is excellent material not only surface flashover characteristics but also mechanical characteristics at cryogenic temperature. The surface flashover is most serious problem for the shed design in LN2 and operation of superconducting equipments.

  17. Evaluation of Wear between Pin and Bush in Roller Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Shoji; Yoshiba, Hideaki; Nakayama, Satoshi; Kanada, Tohru

    A roller chain is a typical machine element used in bicycles, motorcycles and many other devices for power transmission. The life of a roller chain is determined by elongation. As a rule of thumb, a chain begins to skip cogs on the sprocket wheel when the percentage of elongation reaches approximately 3%. Mechanical wear between pins and bushes causes elongation of the roller chain. However, research on the evaluation of wear of the roller chain is rare and the achievement is unstated. We describe the following initiatives in the study of wear between pins and bushes of a roller chain: (1) development of a wear tester using only two chain links, (2) establishment of a specific evaluation method using a roundness tester, and (3) causal explanation of non-uniform wear using the finite-element method (FEM). The experimental results show that pins and bushes are not in contact at the centerline, and that wear occurs exclusively at the tips of the pins owing to the bending deformation under the condition of tensile load.

  18. Evaluation of aromatic pathway induction for creosote contaminated soils in slurried soil media designed to achieve environmentally acceptable treatment endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, J.; McCauley, P.; Potter, C.; Herrmann, R.; Dosani, M.

    1995-12-31

    Polyaromatic hydrocarbon contaminants (PAHs) are commonly associated with the use of creosote for wood preservation and the process residues left by municipal gas production. The biological treatment of this set of organic compounds has been found to be difficult since they have low water solubility and reactivity in soil systems. Liquid culture studies have shown that inducer chemicals may assist the biotreatment of PAH contaminated soils. A set of designed experimental treatments were conducted to evaluate the incorporation of potential inducer compounds. The inducers chosen for evaluation were 2-hydroxybenzoic acid and phthalic acid with treatment controls of 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and terephthalic acid at three concentrations in slurried creosote-contaminated soil. An abiotic treatment control of formaldehyde was used for contrast. The designed treatment evaluation used 250mL Erlenmeyer flask slurry reaction vessels. The flask study used an orbital shaker to maintain slurry suspension. At selected time points throughout the study individual flask reactors were sacrificed and the contents were analyzed for PAH concentration, nutrients, and biomass (FAME Analysis). Depletion of individual PAHs, total PAHs, 2 and 3-ring, and 4 and 6-ring PAHs was correlation with the biomass. The effect of selected surfactant addition was also evaluated. Rates of PAH depletion and applications to larger scale investigations will be discussed.

  19. Alternative biological-treatment processes for remediation of creosote- and PCP-contaminated materials: Bench-scale treatability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, J.G.; Lantz, S.E.; Blattman, B.O.; Middaugh, D.P.; Chapman, P.J.

    1991-03-01

    Bench-scale biotreatability studies were performed to determine the most effective of two bioremediation application strategies to ameliorate creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soils present at the American Creosote Works Superfund site, Pensacola, Florida: solid-phase bioremediation or slurry-phase bioremediation. When indigenous microorganisms were employed as biocatalysts, solid-phase bioremediation was slow and ineffective (8-12 weeks required to biodegrade >50% of resident organics). Biodegradation was limited to lower-molecular-weight constituents rather than the more hazardous, higher-molecular-weight (HMW) compounds; PCP and HMW polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing 4 or more fused rings resisted biological attach. Moreover, supplementation with aqueous solution of inorganic nutrients had little effect on the overall effectiveness of the treatment strategy. Alternatively, slurry-phase bioremediation was much more effective: >50% of targeted organics were biodegraded in 14 days. Again, however, more persistent contaminants, such as PCP and HMW PAHs, were not extensively degraded when subjected to the action of indigenous microorganisms.

  20. Field scale testing of a hyperfiltration unit for removal of creosote and pentachlorophenol from ground water: Chemical and biological assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Middaugh, D.P.; Thomas, R.L.; Lantz, S.E.; Heard, C.S.; Mueller, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    Chemical analyses and biological response data were used to assess the efficacy of a field-scale hyperfiltration unit in the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other organic compounds from creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water recovered from the former American Creosote Works in Escambia County, Pensacola, Florida. The hyperfiltration unit consisted of 4 modules containing porous stainless steel tubes which were coated with a formed-in-place zirconium hydrous oxide-polyacrylic acid (ZOPA) membrane. A 5-fold concentration of the feedwater (80% volume reduction) with up to 97% removal of high molecular weight PAHs was achieved during pre-demonstration and field-demonstration runs of the hyperfiltration unit. Toxicological and teratogenic data for embryonic inland silversides, Menidia beryllina, indicated that 100, 10 and 1% solutions of the ground water sample used in the pre-demonstration run caused statistically significant (p < or - 0.05) biological responses when compared to controls. Permeates from both runs, diluted to 1%, met the pre-condition of non-toxic responses in 48h tests with Ceriodaphnia dubia. Meeting this requirement allowed for discharge of diluted permeate into the county's sanitary sewerage collector system.

  1. FIELD-SCALE TESTING OF A HYPERFILTRATION UNIT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CREOSOTE AND PENTACHLOROPHENOL FROM GROUND WATER: CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical analyses and biological response data were used to assess the efficacy of a field-scale hyperfiltration unit in the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) and other organic compounds from creosote- and pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated ground water recover...

  2. Seismic isolation technique for extra tall bushing of GIS using a pendulum type counterweight

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Tomisawa, Masao; Murase, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of the authors` investigation here is to adopt the seismic isolation technique by using a pendulum type counterweight as a new approach for seismic qualification of the extra tall bushing of Gas-Insulated-Substations. It has been definitely shown by the results of numerical simulation of this isolation type bushing that the stress of the lower end of bushing can be effectively reduced to about 50% as compared with non-isolated case.

  3. Transport of creosote compounds in a large, intact, macroporous clayey till column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broholm, Kim; Jørgensen, Peter R.; Hansen, Asger B.; Arvin, Erik; Hansen, Martin

    1999-10-01

    The transport in macroporous clayey till of bromide and 25 organic compounds typical of creosote was studied using a large intact soil column. The organic compounds represented the following groups: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds, monoaromatic hydrocarbons (BTEXs), and heterocyclic compounds containing oxygen, nitrogen or sulphur in the aromatic ring structure (NSO-compounds). The clayey till column (0.5 m in height and 0.5 m in diameter) was obtained from a depth of 1-1.5 m at an experimental site located on the island of Funen, Denmark. Sodium azide was added to the influent water of the column to prevent biodegradation of the studied organic compounds. For the first 24 days of the experiment, the flow rate was 219 ml day -1 corresponding to an infiltration rate of 0.0011 m day -1. At this flow rate, the effluent concentrations of bromide and the organic compounds increased very slowly. The transport of bromide and the organic compounds were successfully increased by increasing the flow rate to 1353 ml day -1 corresponding to 0.0069 m day -1. The experiment showed that the transport of low-molecular-weight organic compounds was not retarded relative to bromide. The high-molecular-weight organic compounds were retarded significantly. The influence of sorption on the transport of the organic compounds through the column was evaluated based on the observed breakthrough curves. The observed order in the column experiment was, with increasing retardation, the following: benzene=pyrrole=toluene= o-xylene= p-xylene=ethylbenzene=phenol=benzothiophene=benzofuran

  4. [A study on the vibration hazards due to using bush cutters (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M

    1979-05-01

    Bush cutters were introduced into Japanese forestry for cutting bush in 1957 or thereabout. Thereafter, they have been used widely not only in forestry but also in agriculture, public engineering, etc. In spite of the fact that vibration acceleration levels of the bush cutters are high, vibration hazards due to using these tools have not been studied. The reason lies in few professions using bush cutters exclusively. Moreover, the tool is only used seasonally from June to September. The author examined 641 bush cutters users in the State Forestry in southern Kyushu and compared the results with a sample of chain saw users matched by age, duration of use, and district. The prevalence rate of Raynaud's phenomenon is 0.4% at 4 years after beginning the use of bush cutters, 4.0% after 10 years and 9.2% after 18 years. The prevalence of Raynaud's phenomenon in chain saw users is twice as great as that in bush cutter users. Bush cutter users are attacked by Raynaud's phenomenon after about 1,000 hours' use of the tool. The difference is regarded to depend on the difference in the density of use and the difference in the levels of vibration acceleration. The vibration hazards due to using bush cutters were characterized by relatively mild complaints in the upper extremities, together with disturbances of peripheral circulation but not always with peripheral neuropathy. PMID:529563

  5. Bushing retention system for thermal medium cooling delivery tubes in a gas turbine rotor

    DOEpatents

    Mashey, Thomas Charles

    2002-01-01

    Bushings are provided in counterbores for wheels and spacers for supporting thermal medium cooling tubes extending axially adjacent the rim of the gas turbine rotor. The retention system includes a retaining ring disposed in a groove adjacent an end face of the bushing and which retaining ring projects radially inwardly to prevent axial movement of the bushing in one direction. The retention ring has a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs along its inner diameter whereby the ring is supported by the lands of the tube maintaining its bushing retention function, notwithstanding operation in high centrifugal fields and rotation of the ring in the groove into other circular orientations.

  6. Laboratory tests to evaluate HVDC wall bushing performance in wet weather

    SciTech Connect

    Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    Two test methods have been developed to simulate the conditions causing flashover of DC wall bushings at working voltage. One is based on the clean fog pollution test. The other is a rain test, with part of the bushing unwetted. The effect of varying test parameters has been measured and five variants of the rain test have been adopted for measuring the performance of a wall bushing. Its performance compared unfavorably with that of an empty porcelain shell. Various numbers of booster sheds, (removable silicone-rubber cones fitted round the bushing) have been found to improve its performance substantially.

  7. Polyphenol-Rich Fraction from Larrea divaricata and its Main Flavonoid Quercetin-3-Methyl Ether Induce Apoptosis in Lymphoma Cells Through Nitrosative Stress.

    PubMed

    Martino, Renzo; Arcos, María Laura Barreiro; Alonso, Rosario; Sülsen, Valeria; Cremaschi, Graciela; Anesini, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    Larrea divaricata is a plant with antiproliferative principles. We have previously identified the flavonoid quercetin-3-methyl ether (Q-3-ME) in an ethyl acetate fraction (EA). Both the extract and Q-3-ME were found to be effective against the EL-4 T lymphoma cell line. However, the mechanism underlying the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation remains to be elucidated. In this work, we analyzed the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the induction of apoptosis mediated by Q-3-ME and EA. Both treatments were able to induce apoptosis in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. The western blot analysis revealed a sequential activation of caspases-9 and 3, followed by poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase cleavage. EA and Q-3-ME lowered the mitochondrial membrane potential, showing the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Q-3-ME and EA increased NO production and inducible NO synthase expression in tumor cells. The involvement of NO in cell death was confirmed by the nitric oxide synthases inhibitor L-NAME. In addition, EA and Q-3-ME induced a cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. These drugs did not affect normal cell viability. This data suggested that EA and Q-3-ME induce an increase in NO production that would lead to the cell cycle arrest and the activation of the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27038396

  8. Significance of dermal and respiratory uptake in creosote workers: exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and urinary excretion of 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed Central

    Elovaara, E; Heikkilä, P; Pyy, L; Mutanen, P; Riihimäki, V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate workers' exposure in a creosote impregnation plant by means of ambient and biological monitoring. METHODS--Naphthalene (vapour phase) and 10 large molecular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (particulate phase) were measured in the breathing zone air during an entire working week. 1-Hydroxypyrene (1-HP) was measured in 24 hour urine as a metabolite of the pyrene found in neat (dermal exposure) and airborne creosote. RESULTS--Naphthalene (0.4-4.2 mg/m3) showed 1000 times higher concentrations in air than did the particulate PAHs. In total, the geometric mean (range) of three to six ring PAHs was 4.8 (1.2-13.7) micrograms/m3; pyrene 0.86 (0.23-2.1) micrograms/m3, and benzo(a)pyrene 0.012 (0.01-0.05) micrograms/m3. There was no correlation between pyrene and gaseous naphthalene. The correlations between pyrene and the other nine particulate PAHs were strong, and gave a PAH profile that was similar in all air samples: r = 0.83 (three to six ring PAHs); r = 0.81 (three ring PAHs); r = 0.78 (four to six ring PAHs). Dermal exposure was probably very high in all workers, because the daily output of urinary 1-HP exceeded the daily uptake of inhaled pyrene by < or = 50-fold. Urinary 1-HP concentrations were very high, even on Monday mornings, when they were at their lowest (4-22 mumol/mol creatinine). 1-HP seldom showed any net increase over a workshift (except on Monday) due to its high concentrations (16 to 120 mumol/mol creatinine) in the morning samples. 1-HP was always lower at the end of the shift (19 to 85 mumol/mol creatinine) than in the evening (27 to 122), and the mean (SD) change over the working week (47 (18)) was greater than the change over Monday (35 (32)). The timing of 1-HP sampling is therefore very important. CONCLUSIONS--Urinary 1-HP proved to be a good biomarker of exposure to three to six ring PAHs but not to airborne naphthalene. Hence, biomonitoring based on 1-HP has to be completed with exposure assessment for

  9. Habitat invasibility and dominance by alien annual plants in the western Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Patterns of habitat invasibility and alien dominance, respectively measured as species richness and biomass of alien annual plants, were evaluated in association with four habitat factors at the Desert Tortoise Research Natural Area (DTNA) in the western Mojave Desert, USA. Habitat factors varied in levels of disturbance outside (high) and inside (low) the DTNA, and in levels of soil nutrients in washlet (high) and hummock (low) topographic positions, in Larrea-north (high), Larrea-south (medium), and interspace (low) microhabitats near creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata), and during 1995 when rainfall was 207% (high) and 1994 when rainfall was 52% (low) of the long-term average. Dominant alien plants included the annual grasses Bromus rubens, Bromus trinii, and Schismus spp., and the forb Erodium cicutarium. Species richness and dominance of alien annual plants were slightly higher where disturbance was high, and much higher where soil nutrients were high. B. rubens and B. trinii were most dominant in washlets and in the Larrea-north microhabitats during both years. These two species evolved in mesic ecosystems, and appeared to be particularly limited by soil nutrients at this site. Schismus spp. and E. cicutarium were also most dominant in washlets, but their dominance varied between interspaces in 1994 and the Larrea-south microhabitat in 1995. Monitoring to detect the invasion of new annual plants should focus on regions of high rainfall and nitrogen deposition and on washes and beneath-canopy microhabitats. The ecological range of each alien species should be evaluated separately, because their evolutionary origins may greatly affect their patterns of invasion and dominance in the Mojave Desert.

  10. Accumulation and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a nearshore estuarine environment near a Pensacola (Florida) creosote contamination site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elder, J.F.; Dresler, P.V.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term accumulation of creosote wastes at a wood-preserving facility near Pensacola, Florida, has produced high levels of organic contamination of groundwaters near Pensacola Bay. Impacts of this contamination on the nearshore environment of the bay were examined by analysis of water, sediment and tissues of two mollusc species. One of the species (Thais haemastoma) was native to the study area. Individuals of the other test species (Crassostrea virginica) were placed in cages at the test sites for a 6-week period. Contamination at the nearshore estuarine sites was assessed by comparison to a control site in an uncontaminated area of the bay, as well as a small stream which forms a direct surface-water link between the creosote storage ponds and the bay. The study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), the primary components of creosote. Very little PAH in water or in the surface layer of estuarine sediments was detected, despite heavy pollution of the stream sediments. This is attributed to various degradation processes which attack the PAH compounds once they discharge into the estuary, and to the likelihood of intermittent and localised release of contaminants to the estuary. Examination of sediment cores and mollusc tissues, which provide a record integrated over time and space, revealed some accumulation of a few PAH, notably fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene and phenanthrene. In the sediments, the highest concentrations of these compounds appeared below the surface, within a depth range of 8-13 cm. Bioaccumulation of fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene in both mollusc species was up to ten times greater at test sites than at the control site. This contrasts with naphthalene, the bioaccumulation of which was no greater at test sites than at the control site. These differences in bioaccumulation factors relate to structural chemistry of the compounds which control their solubility, bioavailability, susceptibility to degradation

  11. Assessing the Debt: George W. Bush's Legacy and the Future of Public Education under Barack Obama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Means, Alex; Taylor, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    This article utilizes Gloria Ladson-Billings' notion of educational debt in order to explore the historical, economic, and cultural politics of education reform under George W. Bush and Barack Obama. It tracks the No Child Left Behind Act across a number of fields in order to claim that Bush's expansion of the educational debt should be understood…

  12. Preparing Children To Read and Learn: An Education Initiative of Laura Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Noting that teaching reading is one of the Bush Administration's top domestic priorities, this pamphlet introduces the Ready to Read, Ready to Learn education initiative of First Lady Laura Bush. The goals of the initiative are to ensure that all young children are ready to read and learn when they enter their first classroom, and to ensure that…

  13. President Bush's Pre-War Rhetoric on Iraq: Paranoid Style in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikolaev, Alexander G.; Porpora, Douglas V.

    2006-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the war rhetoric of the Bush administration as reflected in the speeches of President Bush. What was explored is how presidential speeches drew on a variety of rhetorical techniques, from role-taking and punctuation to the adoption of the paranoid style. The purpose of these techniques is to nullify voices of…

  14. Environmental geophysics, offshore Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.F.; Kuecher, G.J.; Davies, B.E.

    1995-11-01

    Geophysical studies in shallow waters adjacent to the Bush River Peninsula, Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, have delineated the extent of waste disposal sites and established a hydrogeologic framework, which may control contaminant transport offshore. These studies indicate that during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea levels resulted in a complex pattern of shallow channel-fill deposits around the Bush River Peninsula. Ground-penetrating radar studies reveal paleochannels greater than 50 ft deep. Some of the paleochannels are also imaged with marine seismic reflection. Conductivity highs measured with the EM-31 are also indicative of paleochannels. This paleochannel depositional system is environmentally significant because it may control the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the peninsula. Magnetic, conductivity, and side-scan sonar anomalies outline anthropogenic anomalies in the study area. On the basis of geophysical data, underwater anthropogenic materials do exist in some isolated areas, but large-scale offshore dumping has not occurred in the area studied.

  15. Microbial degradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons in creosote-contaminated groundwater under nitrate-reducing conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flyvbjerg, John; Arvin, Erik; Jensen, Bjørn K.; Olsen, Susan K.

    1993-02-01

    Batch experiments were carried out to investigate the biodegradation of phenols and aromatic hydrocarbons under anaerobic, nitrate-reducing conditions in groundwater from a creosote-contaminated site at Fredensborg, Denmark. The bacteria in the creosote-contaminated groundwater degraded a mixture of toluene, phenol, the cresols ( o-, m- and p-cresol) and the dimethylphenols 2,4-DMP and 3,4-DMP at both 10° and 20°C. Benzene, the xylenes, napthalene, 2,3-DMP, 2,5-DMP, 2,6-DMP and 3,5-DMP were resistant to biodegradation during 7-12 months of incubation. It was demonstrated that the degradation of toluene, 2,4-DMP, 3,4-DMP and p-cresol depended on nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptors. 40-80% of the nitrate consumed during degradation of the aromatic compounds was recovered as nitrite, and the consumption of nitrate was accompanied by a production of ATP. Stoichiometric calculations indicated that in addition to the phenols are toluene other carbon sources present in the groundwater contributed to the consumption of nitrate. If the groundwater was incubated under anaerobic conditions without nitrate, sulphate-reducing conditions evolved after ˜ 1 month at 20°C and ˜2 months at 10°C. In the sulphate-reducing batches disappearance of toluene, phenol, o-cresol and o-cresol was observed, whereas no removal of benzene, the xylenes, naphthalane, 2,3-DMP, 2,4-DMP, 2,5-DMP and 3,5-DMP was detected during 7 months of incubation.

  16. Bush Encroachment Mapping for Africa - Multi-Scale Analysis with Remote Sensing and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graw, V. A. M.; Oldenburg, C.; Dubovyk, O.

    2015-12-01

    Bush encroachment describes a global problem which is especially facing the savanna ecosystem in Africa. Livestock is directly affected by decreasing grasslands and inedible invasive species which defines the process of bush encroachment. For many small scale farmers in developing countries livestock represents a type of insurance in times of crop failure or drought. Among that bush encroachment is also a problem for crop production. Studies on the mapping of bush encroachment so far focus on small scales using high-resolution data and rarely provide information beyond the national level. Therefore a process chain was developed using a multi-scale approach to detect bush encroachment for whole Africa. The bush encroachment map is calibrated with ground truth data provided by experts in Southern, Eastern and Western Africa. By up-scaling location specific information on different levels of remote sensing imagery - 30m with Landsat images and 250m with MODIS data - a map is created showing potential and actual areas of bush encroachment on the African continent and thereby provides an innovative approach to map bush encroachment on the regional scale. A classification approach links location data based on GPS information from experts to the respective pixel in the remote sensing imagery. Supervised classification is used while actual bush encroachment information represents the training samples for the up-scaling. The classification technique is based on Random Forests and regression trees, a machine learning classification approach. Working on multiple scales and with the help of field data an innovative approach can be presented showing areas affected by bush encroachment on the African continent. This information can help to prevent further grassland decrease and identify those regions where land management strategies are of high importance to sustain livestock keeping and thereby also secure livelihoods in rural areas.

  17. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-11-01

    A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  18. Are Our President Learning? Unpacking the Enthymematic Connections in the Speech Mistakes of President George W. Bush

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore public interpretations of President George W. Bush's speaking errors. One interpretation of Bush's speech mistakes offered in the media is that he may have dyslexia. Therefore, we explore how an enthymeme using markers of dyslexia as a sign of bad leadership has been used to frame Bush's speaking errors. We…

  19. Public health assessment for McCormick and Baxter Creosoting Company (Portland), Portland, Multnomah County, Oregon, Region 10. Cerclis No. ORD009020603. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-13

    The McCormick and Baxter Creosoting site is located on the Willamette River in Portland, Oregon. ATSDR considers the site to have been a public health hazard for former plant workers because of past ingestion exposure to arsenic, creosote, pentachlorophenol, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, and dibenzofurans at levels of public health concern. The site also poses an ongoing and future public health hazard because people might encounter hazardous chemicals along the shoreline on or near the site at levels that can damage the skin, as was reported to have happened to two boys. Finally, dioxin levels would pose a public health hazard if people subsist on crayfish and suckers contaminated with polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.

  20. NASA is big winner in Bush administration science budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Bierly, Eugene; Eden, Frank; Keelor, Bradley; Lifland, Jonathan

    The Bush Administration's budget request for Fiscal Year 2006, announced on 7 February represents a mixed bag for federal science agencies. While NASA and the National Science Foundation would receive increases, funding for some other agencies, including the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, would decrease. This article looks at the budgets for NASA and the Department of Energy; other agencies will be examined in forthcoming issues.NASA's FY 2006 budget request of $16.5 billion is a 2.4% overall. Guided in part by the 2004 presidential directive for expanding space exploration, the administration plans to streamline NASA's structure to 12 themes condensed into four directorates in 2006. With that shift, space science and Earth science will be combined into a broader science category, and biological and physical research and exploration systems will merge to become exploration systems. Aeronautics and education are the other two directorates, while a space operations category continues as a separate entity

  1. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  2. Low-Cost Production of Composite Bushings for Jet Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this research program were to reduce the manufacturing costs of variable stator vane bushings by 1) eliminating the expensive carbon fiber braiding operation, 2) replacing the batch mode impregnation, B-stage, and cutting operations with a continuous process, and 3) reducing the molding cycle and machining operations with injection molding to achieve near-net shapes. Braided bushings were successfully fabricated with both AMB-17XLD and AMB-TPD resin systems. The composite bushings achieved high glass transition temperature after post-cure (+300 C) and comparable weight loss to the PNM-15 bushings. ANM-17XLD bushings made with "batch-mode" molding compound (at 0.5 in. fiber length) achieved a +300 lb-force flange break strength which was superior to the continuous braided-fiber reinforced bushing. The non-MDA resin technology developed in this contract appears attractive for bushing applications that do not exceed a 300 C use temperature. Two thermoplastic polyimide resins were synthesized in order to generate injection molding compound powders. Excellent processing results were obtained at injection temperatures in excess of 300 C. Micro-tensile specimens were produced from each resin type and the Tg measurements (by TMA) for these samples were equivalent to AURUM(R). Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) conducted at 10 C/min showed that the non-MDA AMB-type polyimide thermoplastics had comparable weight loss to PMR-15 up to 500 C.

  3. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-01-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  4. A Study on the Body Insulators for the Bushing for HTS Devices at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W. J.; Shin, H. S.; Kim, S. H.

    A bushing for high temperature superconducting devices (HTS bushing) is important because of applying high voltage to the cable or the winding of the transformer. It is cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2) and is insulated with various insulators. For the development of the HTS bushing, it is necessary to know the fundamental characteristics of various insulators at cryogenic temperature. The electrical characteristics of the breakdown were studied under AC and impulse voltages. Also, the mechanical characteristics such as tensile strength in air and LN2 were studied. It was confirmed that GFRP is excellent not only electrical characteristics but also mechanical characteristics in LN2.

  5. Parasabella Bush, 1905, replacement name for the polychaete genus Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida, Polychaeta, Sabellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Hernández, María Ana; Harris, Leslie H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Parasabella Bush, 1905 is reintroduced as a replacement name for Demonax Kinberg, 1867 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellidae) which is a junior homonym of Demonax Thomson, 1860 (Insecta: Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). PMID:21594198

  6. Texas Hold'em: Secretary Spellings--the Ace in Bush's Hand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    President Bush has one ace in his hand when it comes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB): Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings. Spellings, who has been working on education issues for Bush since the 1990s and his days as a Texas governor, is the person who from the very beginning has had to make NCLB work. She was a key architect of the…

  7. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from creosote-contaminated soil in selected plants and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus

    SciTech Connect

    Ann-Sofie Allard; Marianne Malmberg; Alasdair H. Neilson; Mikael Remberger

    2005-07-01

    The accumulation of PAHs from a creosote-contaminated soil was examined in laboratory experiments using English ryegrass (Lolium perenne), white clover (Trifolium repens) and radish (Raphanus sativus), and the oligochaete worm Enchytraeus crypticus. Toxicity to the plants and the worms was assessed, and a soil sample mixed with calcined sand was used for accumulation experiments to avoid interference from toxicity in the soil. Accumulation of potentially carcinogenic PAHs varied among the plants, and there was a linear relation between concentrations of PAHs in the soil and in the plants. Correlations between values of the biota-soil accumulation factors and octanol-water partition coefficients, or water solubility varied among the plants and were rather weak, so that lipophilic character or water solubility of the PAHs alone cannot explain PAH accumulation. Accumulation of carcinogenic PAHs from the soil, in the presence of the other PAHs was greatest for Trifolium repens. PAHs were accumulated in the oligochaete worm (Enchytraeus crypticus), and biota-soil accumulation factors exceeded those for the plants. It is suggested that site-specific evaluation of contaminated sites should include not only chemical analysis and evaluation of toxicity but also accumulation of contaminants into biota such as plants and worms.

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and microbial community shifts during co-composting of creosote-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Covino, Stefano; Fabianová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena; Čvančarová, Monika; Burianová, Eva; Filipová, Alena; Vořísková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of decontaminating creosote-treated wood (CTW) by co-composting with agricultural wastes was investigated using two bulking agents, grass cuttings (GC) and broiler litter (BL), each employed at a 1:1 ratio with the matrix. The initial concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in CTW (26,500 mg kg(-1)) was reduced to 3 and 19% after 240 d in GC and BL compost, respectively. PAH degradation exceeded the predicted bioaccesible threshold, estimated through sequential supercritical CO2 extraction, together with significant detoxification, assessed by contact tests using Vibrio fisheri and Hordeum vulgare. GC composting was characterized by high microbial biomass growth in the early phases, as suggested by phospholipid fatty acid analyses. Based on the 454-pyrosequencing results, fungi (mostly Saccharomycetales) constituted an important portion of the microbial community, and bacteria were characterized by rapid shifts (from Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Actinobacteria to Proteobacteria). However, during BL composting, larger amounts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic PLFA markers were observed during the cooling and maturation phases, which were dominated by Proteobacteria and fungi belonging to the Ascomycota and those putatively related to the Glomeromycota. This work reports the first in-depth analysis of the chemical and microbiological processes that occur during the co-composting of a PAH-contaminated matrix. PMID:26342147

  9. Combination of biochar amendment and mycoremediation for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons immobilization and biodegradation in creosote-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, Carlos; Alfaro-Barta, Irene; Eymar, Enrique

    2015-03-21

    Soils impregnated with creosote contain high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). To bioremediate these soils and avoid PAH spread, different bioremediation strategies were tested, based on natural attenuation, biochar application, wheat straw biostimulation, Pleurotus ostreatus mycoremediation, and the novel sequential application of biochar for 21 days and P. ostreatus 21 days more. Soil was sampled after 21 and 42 days after the remediation application. The efficiency and effectiveness of each remediation treatment were assessed according to PAH degradation and immobilization, fungal and bacterial development, soil eco-toxicity and legal considerations. Natural attenuation and biochar treatments did not achieve adequate PAH removal and soil eco-toxicity reduction. Biostimulation showed the highest bacterial development but low PAH degradation rate. Mycoremediation achieved the best PAH degradation rate and the lowest bioavailable fraction and soil eco-toxicity. This bioremediation strategy achieved PAH concentrations below Spanish legislation for contaminated soils (RD 9/2005). Sequential application of biochar and P. ostreatus was the second treatment most effective for PAH biodegradation and immobilization. However, the activity of P. ostreatus was increased by previous biochar application and PAH degradation efficiency was increased. Therefore, the combined strategy for PAH degradation have high potential to increase remediation efficiency. PMID:25506817

  10. Organic chemicals from the Chihuahuan desert

    SciTech Connect

    Campos-Lopez, E.; Roman-Alemany, A.

    1980-03-01

    A consideration of social, economic, political, and technological factors in the search for new renewable sources of raw materials suggests the exploitation and development of the resources of marginal land regions. Desert regions on the North American continent, which cannot be used for food production, nonetheless, grow a variety of indigenous floral species which offer, in their chemical composition, possibilities for agroindustrial development. Prospects for utilization of the resources of the Chihuahuan Desert for the production of organic raw materials are presented. Research and development projects presently underway in Mexico for the commercialization of plants such as Guayule (Parthenium argentatum), Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata), Candelilla (Euphorbia antisyphilitica), and Palma (Yucca filiera), among others, are documented. Raw materials obtained from such plants are characterized, with emphasis on the identification of components of industrial interest. Current bench and pilot plant activities, as well as process and product development requirements, are detailed.

  11. PS300 Tribomaterials Evaluated at 6500C by Bushing Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striebing, Donald R.; DellaCorte, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    A new facility has been developed to test the tribological behavior (friction and wear) of PS300 solid lubricant bushings at high temperatures. PS300 is a commercially available solid lubricant invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It can be prepared as a plasma spray coating or as a free-standing powder metallurgy component, designated PM300. PS300 and PM300 composites are designed to lubricate sliding components at temperatures above the capability of today's best oils, greases, and solid lubricants. One of the primary applications being pursued for PM300 is the development of bushings for use in high-temperature machinery. Examples include inlet guide vane bushings for gas turbines and conveyors, and bearings for industrial furnaces and ovens. Encouraging preliminary field trials indicate that PS300 and PM300 lubricant materials have been commercialized successfully in several industrial applications. However, the lack of laboratory performance data has hindered further commercialization especially for new applications that differ significantly from the established experience base. The purpose of the newly developed bushing test rig will be to determine the performance characteristics of PM300, and other materials, under conditions closely matching intended applications. The data will be used to determine engineering friction and wear rates and to estimate the life expectancy of bushings for new applications. In the new rig, the bushing is loaded against a rotating shaft inside a furnace enclosure (see the preceding photograph). Loads can vary from 5 to 200 N, speeds from 1 to 400 rpm, and temperatures from 25 to 800 C. Furnace temperature, bushing temperature, shaft speed, and torque are monitored during the test, and wear of both the bushing and the shaft is measured after testing is completed. Initially, PM300 bushings will be evaluated and compared with lower temperature, traditional bushing materials like graphite and porous bronze. The baseline PM304

  12. Grow tubes change microclimate and bush architecture but have little effect on bush biomass allocation at the end of the establishment year in blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microclimate variables were integrated over a six-month period during which blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Liberty) bushes were grown in 51-cm high, 20-cm diameter round grow tubes (opaque or translucent) on a sawdust mulch-covered raised bed with the mulch incorporated into tilled soil. Grow t...

  13. Defrosting Polar Dunes--'They Look Like Bushes!'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    'They look like bushes!' That's what almost everyone says when they see the dark features found in pictures taken of sand dunes in the polar regions as they are beginning to defrost after a long, cold winter. It is hard to escape the fact that, at first glance, these images acquired by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) over both polar regions during the spring and summer seasons, do indeed resemble aerial photographs of sand dune fields on Earth--complete with vegetation growing on and around them! Of course, this is not what the features are, as we describe below and in related picture captions. Still, don't they look like vegetation to you? Shown here are two views of the same MGS MOC image. On the left is the full scene, on the right is an expanded view of a portion of the scene on the left. The bright, smooth surfaces that are dotted with occasional, nearly triangular dark spots are sand dunes covered by winter frost.

    The MGS MOC has been used over the past several months (April-August 1999) to monitor dark spots as they form and evolve on polar dune surfaces. The dark spots typically appear first along the lower margins of a dune--similar to the position of bushes and tufts of grass that occur in and among some sand dunes on Earth.

    Because the martian air pressure is very low--100 times lower than at Sea Level on Earth--ice on Mars does not melt and become liquid when it warms up. Instead, ice sublimes--that is, it changes directly from solid to gas, just as 'dry ice' does on Earth. As polar dunes emerge from the months-long winter night, and first become exposed to sunlight, the bright winter frost and snow begins to sublime. This process is not uniform everywhere on a dune, but begins in small spots and then over several months it spreads until the entire dune is spotted like a leopard.

    The early stages of the defrosting process--as in the picture shown here--give the impression that something is 'growing' on the dunes

  14. Bush Encroachment and Soil Biochemistry: Controls and Feedbacks in Kalahari Rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougill, A. J.; Thomas, A. D.

    2003-12-01

    In the Kalahari of Southern Africa the main ecological change following cattle-based agricultural intensification has been grass removal and bush encroachment, notably of Acacia mellifera. A conceptual 'state-and-transition' model has expressed changes to vegetation communities in Kalahari rangelands. However, many uncertainties remain as to the controls, processes and feedbacks leading to bush encroachment, due to previous inadequate spatial scales of data collection. The aim of integrated research from four sites across the Kalahari was to characterise the controls and feedbacks between ecological changes, soil properties and livestock grazing. Key research questions include: Do changes in soil water and nutrient cycling occur with, and/or cause, bush encroachment?; and, what mechanisms can explain the perceived resilience of Kalahari soils? Research includes process studies of nutrient leaching and mineralization; controlled plot studies examining the impacts of surface nutrient inputs and disturbance; local-scale analyses of spatial patterns of soil biochemistry and bush cover; and ranch-scale assessments of ecology and soil properties. The results demonstrate that bush encroachment has not been caused by, nor is it associated with, increased leaching of soil water and nutrients into the subsoil. Nutrient adsorption in the surface layer explains much of the resilience to soil chemical changes, together with the low mineralization rates that enable synchrony between nutrient availability and plant uptake by surface roots. The main encroaching bush species all have extensive surface rooting systems to enable their competitive dominance following intensive grazing. Bush encroachment is associated with increased spatial heterogeneity of surface nutrients with enhanced concentrations under bush canopies. This enrichment results from both plant canopy inputs, and the more extensive biological soil crust cover found in protected sub-canopy niches. As total nutrient

  15. Measurement of Oil Film Thickness between Bush and Blade in Swing Type Refrigerant Compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shinji; Zuo, Siyang; Hikam, Achmad; Toyama, Toshiyuki

    A swing type refrigerant compressor was developed in order to overcome problems related to lubrication of a rotary compressor. However, the lubrication condition of the swing compressor has not been measured quantitatively yet. This paper describes an application of an eddy current displacement sensor to measure oil film thickness of a sliding part between a suction side bush and a blade in the swing compressor, and examined lubrication condition of the sliding part and a motion of the bush against the blade under some operating conditions. The results indicate that the sliding part between the suction side bush and the blade forms a wedge shape in shaft angle from 0° to 180° and forms a negative wedge shape in shaft angle from 180° to 360°. In addition, the results show that the oil film thickness on an upper edge side of the bush and a slope angle of the bush against the blade decrease with an increase of discharge pressure and increase with an increase of operating frequency of the compressor.

  16. Cryogenic lifetime tests on a commercial epoxy resin high voltage bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwenterly, S. W.; Pleva, E. F.; Ha, T. T.

    2012-06-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES), SuperPower (SP), and Southern California Edison (SCE) to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen (LN) needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-rms-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is continuously energized at 25 kVac rms. LN is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  17. CRYOGENIC LIFETIME TESTS ON A COMMERCIAL EPOXY RESIN HIGH VOLTAGE BUSHING

    SciTech Connect

    Schwenterly, S W; Pleva, Ed; Ha, Tam T

    2012-01-01

    High-temperature superconducting (HTS) power devices operating in liquid nitrogen frequently require high-voltage bushings to carry the current leads from the superconducting windings to the room temperature grid connections. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems, SuperPower, and Southern California Edison to develop and demonstrate an HTS utility power transformer. Previous dielectric high voltage tests in support of this program have been carried out in test cryostats with commercial epoxy resin bushings from Electro Composites Inc. (ECI). Though the bushings performed well in these short-term tests, their long-term operation at high voltage in liquid nitrogen needs to be verified for use on the utility grid. Long-term tests are being carried out on a sample 28-kV-class ECI bushing. The bushing has a monolithic cast, cycloaliphatic resin body and is fire- and shatter-resistant. The test cryostat is located in an interlocked cage and is energized at 25 kVac around the clock. Liquid nitrogen (LN) is automatically refilled every 9.5 hours. Partial discharge, capacitance, and leakage resistance tests are periodically performed to check for deviations from factory values. At present, over 2400 hours have been accumulated with no changes in these parameters. The tests are scheduled to run for four to six months.

  18. Effects of hedgerows on bats and bush crickets at different spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacoeuilhe, Aurélie; Machon, Nathalie; Julien, Jean-François; Kerbiriou, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Biodiversity is threatened by the loss and fragmentation of habitats. The role of hedgerows in maintaining biodiversity is well established, but few studies have addressed the importance for biodiversity of the intrinsic characteristics of hedgerows and the quality of hedgerow networks along a spatial scale. We examined three quality indices providing information at different territorial levels: density in the landscape, structural diversity and wood production. We performed an acoustic survey in a grassland to estimate the species abundance and community composition of bats (9 taxa) and bush crickets (11 species). Using an approach based on species and traits, we assessed how hedgerow quality influenced the activity of these taxa at different spatial scales (from 50 to 1000 m) and focused on three types of traits: bush cricket mobility ability, bat foraging strategy and habitat specialization. In general, our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for bats and bush crickets, but the strength of the association between taxa and hedgerows varied substantially among the species and the spatial scales. Although it depends on the taxa, the production, density and structural diversity of hedgerows each had an overall positive effect. Our results suggested that these effects were generally more important at large scales. The scale effect of the production index is the best predictor of activity for bat and bush cricket taxa and traits. Our results showed the importance of hedgerow quality for the ecology of bat and bush cricket communities and could be used to improve conservation management.

  19. Design and Overview of 100 kV Bushing for the DNB Injector of ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sejal; Rajesh, S.; Nishad, S.; Srusti, B.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M. J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.; Svensson, L.

    2011-09-01

    The 100 kV bushing is one of the most important and technologically challenging Safety Important Class (SIC) components of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector of ITER. It forms interface between gas insulated electrical transmission line and torus primary vacuum and acts as a vacuum feedthrough of ITER. Design optimization has been carried out to meet the electric and structural requirements based on its classification. Unlike HNB bushing, single stage bushing is designed to provide 100 kV isolation. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based optimization has been carried out for electrostatic and structural analysis. Manufacturing assembly sequence is studied and presented in this paper. However validation of the same is foreseen from manufacturer.

  20. Design and Overview of 100 kV Bushing for the DNB Injector of ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Sejal; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M. J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A. K.; Rajesh, S.; Nishad, S.; Srusti, B.; Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.; Svensson, L.

    2011-09-26

    The 100 kV bushing is one of the most important and technologically challenging Safety Important Class (SIC) components of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector of ITER. It forms interface between gas insulated electrical transmission line and torus primary vacuum and acts as a vacuum feedthrough of ITER. Design optimization has been carried out to meet the electric and structural requirements based on its classification. Unlike HNB bushing, single stage bushing is designed to provide 100 kV isolation. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based optimization has been carried out for electrostatic and structural analysis. Manufacturing assembly sequence is studied and presented in this paper. However validation of the same is foreseen from manufacturer.

  1. Evaluation of two polyimides and of an improved liner retention design for self-lubricating bushings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    Two different polyimide polymers were studied and the effectiveness of a design feature to improve retention of the self lubricating composite liners under high load was evaluated. The basic bearing design consisted of a molded layer of chopped graphite-fiber-reinforced-polyimide (GFRP) composite bonded to the bore of a steel bushing. The friction, wear, and load carrying ability of the bushings were determined in oscillating tests at 25, 260 and 315 C at radial unit loads up to 260 MPa. Friction coefficients were typically 0.15 to 0.25. Bushings with liners containing a new partially fluorinated polymer were functional, but had a lower load capacity and higher wear rate than those containing a more conventional, high temperature polyimide. The liner retention design feature reduced the tendency of the liners to crack and work out of the contact zone under high oscillating loads.

  2. George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    The appeal of Bush's post-September 11 discourse lies in its similarities with the Puritan rhetoric of covenant renewal by which ministers brought second- and third-generation Puritans into the church. Through this epideictic discourse, Bush implored younger Americans to uphold the national covenant of their "elders," the World War II generation,…

  3. The Reclamation of Theological Integrity: L. Russ Bush III and Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary, 1989-1992

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duesing, Jason G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper seeks to argue that the life and work of L. Russ Bush III (1944-2008) made a significant contribution in the return of the Southern Baptist Convention to its theologically conservative heritage specifically in the early reformation of Southeastern Baptist Theological Seminary from theological liberalism. That is, through Bush's…

  4. Remembering the Future: Rhetorical Echoes of World War II and Vietnam in George Bush's Public Speech on the Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Mary E.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that, through his use of specific language choices, George Bush's Gulf War rhetoric embraced and supported the orientational metaphor of the World War II model, while simultaneously rejecting the Vietnam model. Concludes the use of the World War II model legitimated both the military action and Bush's leadership. (NH)

  5. "One More Time, Let Me Justify This War": An Analysis of President Bush's Declaration of Days of Thanksgiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin T.

    President Bush's declaration of April 5-7, 1991 as National Days of Thanksgiving is a unique example of Presidential civil religious discourse: no other President has ever made such a declaration to thank God for a victory in war. Whether he intended to or not, President Bush engaged in a rhetorical form which allowed him to manipulate a very…

  6. 77 FR 31684 - Withdrawal of Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the George Bush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... stating such on September 16, 2010 [75 FR 56653]. On January 3, 2012, the HAS sent a letter to the FAA... Statement for the George Bush Intercontinental Airport, Houston, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... the George Bush Intercontinental Airport (IAH). The Houston Airport System (HAS), the sponsor of...

  7. 76 FR 30393 - Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express Employment Professionals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 9282). In order to avoid an overlap in worker group coverage, the Department is amending... Employment and Training Administration Bush Industries, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Express... Adjustment Assistance on February 10, 2011, applicable to workers of Bush Industries, Inc., including...

  8. Fatal aortic aneurysm and rupture in a neotropical bush dog (Speothos venaticus) caused by Spirocerca lupi.

    PubMed

    Rinas, Miguel A; Nesnek, Raquel; Kinsella, John M; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2009-10-14

    This report details the post-mortem discovery of a larva of Spirocerca lupi in the caudal thoracic aorta of a 2-year, male bush dog (Speothos venaticus). This individual presented no clinical symptoms of the parasite's presence prior to its sudden death. The cause of death was determined to be acute bleeding following the rupture of an aneurysm in the caudal thoracic aorta as a result of the parasite located there. This is the first report of S. lupi in a bush dog. PMID:19515493

  9. Frequency domain properties of hydraulic bushing with long and short passages: System identification using theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Tan; Dreyer, Jason T.; Singh, Rajendra

    2015-05-01

    Fluid-filled bushings with tunable stiffness and damping properties are now employed in vehicles to improve ride characteristics and to reduce vibration and noise. Since scientific literature on this topic is sparse, a bushing prototype which can provide various combinations of long and short flow passages is designed and built. Several common fluid-filled bushing configurations are experimentally examined for their dynamic stiffness and pressure spectra. Linear time-invariant models (with lumped fluid elements) are proposed for a hydraulic bushing with two parallel flow passages. Next, a model with only a long capillary tube passage (an inertia track) is examined. Further, peak magnitude and loss angle frequencies are analytically found. Several methods for the identification of bushing parameters (up to 50 Hz) are suggested. The linear models are validated by comparing predictions with measured stiffness magnitude and loss angle spectra. Finally, the principal features of a practical device are diagnosed using analytical models and measurements for two excitation amplitudes.

  10. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive.

    PubMed

    Kampen, Helge; Werner, Doreen

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace

  11. Out of the bush: the Asian bush mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus (Theobald, 1901) (Diptera, Culicidae) becomes invasive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Asian bush or rock pool mosquito Aedes japonicus japonicus is one of the most expansive culicid species of the world. Being native to East Asia, this species was detected out of its original distribution range for the first time in the early 1990s in New Zealand where it could not establish, though. In 1998, established populations were reported from the eastern US, most likely as a result of introductions several years earlier. After a massive spread the mosquito is now widely distributed in eastern North America including Canada and two US states on the western coast. In the year 2000, it was demonstrated for the first time in Europe, continental France, but could be eliminated. A population that had appeared in Belgium in 2002 was not controlled until 2012 as it did not propagate. In 2008, immature developmental stages were discovered in a large area in northern Switzerland and bordering parts of Germany. Subsequent studies in Germany showed a wide distribution and several populations of the mosquito in various federal states. Also in 2011, the species was found in southeastern Austria (Styria) and neighbouring Slovenia. In 2013, a population was detected in the Central Netherlands, specimens were collected in southern Alsace, France, and the complete northeastern part of Slovenia was found colonized, with specimens also present across borders in adjacent Croatia. Apparently, at the end of 2013 a total of six populations occurred in Europe although it is not clear whether all of them are completely isolated. Similarly, it is not known whether these populations go back to the same number of introductions. While entry ports and long-distance continental migration routes are also obscure, it is likely that the international used tyre trade is the most important mode of intercontinental transportation of the mosquito. Aedes j. japonicus does not only display an aggressive biting behaviour but is suspected to be a vector of various disease agents and to displace

  12. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Very little is known about the behavior and effects of fire in the Mojave Desert, because fire was historically uncommon. However, fire has become more frequent since the 1970s with increased dominance of the invasive annual grasses Bromus rubens and Schismus spp., and land managers are concerned about its ecological effect. In this paper, I describe patterns of peak fire temperature and their effect on annual plants in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert. Temperatures were monitored among microhabitats and distances from the soil surface, and between spring and summer. Microhabitats ranged from high amounts of fuel beneath creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) canopies, to intermediate amounts at the canopy drip line, to low amounts in the interspaces between them. Distances from the soil surface were within the vertical range where most annual plant seeds occur (-2, 0, 5, and 10 cm). I also compare temperature patterns with postfire changes in soil properties and annual plant biomass and species richness to infer potential mechanisms by which fires affect annual plants. Peak fire temperatures were most affected by the microhabitat fuel gradient, and the effects of fire on annual plants varied among microhabitats. Beneath creosote bushes, lethal fire temperatures for annual plant seeds occurred above- and belowground, resulting in four postfire years of reduced annual plant biomass and species richness due most likely to seed mortality, especially of Bromus rubens and native forbs. At the canopy drip line, lethal fire temperatures occurred only aboveground, reducing annual plant biomass for 1 yr and species richness for 2 yr, and increasing biomass of Schismus sp., the alien forb Erodium cicutarium, and native annuals after 3 yr. Negligible changes were caused by fire in interspaces or between spring and summer. Fire effects models for creosote bush scrub vegetation must account for patterns of peak fire temperature along the shrub-intershrub gradient

  13. A Rhetorical Analysis of the 1984 Bush-Ferraro Vice-Presidential Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellweg, Susan A.; Kugler, Drew B.

    A rhetorical analysis of the 1984 vice-presidential debate between George Bush and Geraldine Ferraro was conducted to determine argumentation tactics, argumentation flaws, reasoning strategies, and other rhetorical characteristics. The results indicated that the format of the debate allowed for little actual direct confrontation between…

  14. Assault on Liberty: The Record of the Reagan-Bush Courts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People for the American Way, Washington, DC.

    This report argues that fundamental constitutional liberties have undergone severe changes and continue to be threatened because of the changes in the federal judiciary that have been brought about by Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Bush. This judicial change has been effected through the appointment of judges with two qualities: first, a…

  15. Access to College and Bush's Budget Top Agenda at Meeting of Higher-Education Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Richard; Field, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the plan of Bush's administration to end the Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant program and focus on the broader goal with increased access to college for underrepresented groups and not spend their time protecting inefficient programs. During the annual meeting of the American Council on Education, the new under…

  16. President Bush's Economic Stimulus Package and Families: A Look at the Details. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Bush administration's recently proposed economic stimulus package and the Democrats' rival tax-cutting plan, and discusses the impact of the proposed reduction or elimination of taxes on corporate dividends on middle-income families. Considers the extent to which families would benefit from the administration's package and reiterates…

  17. William Bennett and the "Good War" against Drugs: Doublespeak and the Bush Administration's Hidden Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Tom

    This paper contends that former Secretary of Education William Bennett's "war on drugs" (he now directs the government's campaign against drugs) is not being waged against those who sell and use drugs, but against the civil liberties of everyone. The paper maintains that under the guise of ridding society of what President Bush called "the…

  18. Southern Methodist's Bush-Library Deal Mollifies Some Critics, but Doubts Persist about Think Tank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, David

    2008-01-01

    Southern Methodist University has released the terms of its agreement with the George W. Bush Presidential Library Foundation to house the president's official library and museum. To some faculty members, the most troubling element of the project is a conservative policy institute that will be affiliated with the library and museum. Unlike similar…

  19. Outdoor Education and Bush Adventure Therapy: A Socio-Ecological Approach to Health and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Anita; Carpenter, Cathryn; Townsend, Mardie

    2005-01-01

    Together, outdoor education and bush adventure therapy can be seen to constitute a population-wide health intervention strategy. Whether in educational or therapeutic settings, the intentional use of contact with nature, small groups, and adventure provides a unique approach in the promotion of health and wellbeing for the general population, and…

  20. The End of the Bush-Obama Regulatory Approach to School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    At the turn of the century, the United States was trying to come to grips with a serious education crisis. The country was lagging behind its international peers, and a half-century effort to erode racial disparities in school achievement had made little headway. Many people expected action from the federal government. George W. Bush and Barack…

  1. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSES OF BUSH BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) TO OZONE AND DROUGHT STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants were exposed to ozone (O3) episodes in open-top chambers in early and late season studies at Corvallis, Oregon. lants were grown in cultural systems that controlled plant water status. he 7-h seasonal mean O3 concentrations were 0.067 and ...

  2. "No Child Left Behind": Expanding the Promise. Guide to President Bush's FY 2006 Education Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Three years ago, President George W. Bush signed into law the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), which reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA). The new law reflected an unprecedented, bipartisan commitment to ensuring that all students, regardless of background, have the opportunity to obtain a quality education and reach…

  3. Lost Opportunities: The Civil Rights Record of the Bush Administration Mid-Term.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Susan M., Ed.; Taylor, William L., Ed.

    This study of the civil rights policies and practices of the Bush Administration reviews the first 2 years of that administration's actions, presents recommendations for the future, and offers a series of working papers prepared by experts in the civil rights field. Part 1 of two major parts presents the actual report of the Citizen's Commission…

  4. The Other Memex: The Tangled Career of Vannevar Bush's Information Machine, the Rapid Selector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Colin

    1992-01-01

    Presents an historical overview of Vannevar Bush's efforts to develop a machine for free-form indexing and computerized information retrieval. Descriptions of the Memex concept and two related machines--the Rapid Selector and the Comparator--are provided; and the shift in emphasis to a device for business or cryptanalytic purposes is discussed.…

  5. A Functional Analysis of the 1988 Bush-Dukakis Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, William L.; Brazeal, LeAnn M.

    2002-01-01

    Applies the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse to the 1988 presidential debates between George Bush and Michael Dukakis. Challenges the notion that this campaign was mostly negative. Concludes that despite the belief that modern campaigns are devoid of substance, these debates stressed policy about twice as much as character. (SG)

  6. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles Cutter's 3…

  7. Bigger Education Department Role Seen in Bush Foreign-Language Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    Foreign-language experts are praising the Department of Education for taking a larger role in promoting the teaching of other languages as part of a proposed Bush administration initiative to bolster national security and the economy. The departments of Defense and State have headed up efforts to increase the teaching of much-needed foreign…

  8. I'm Not Sure What George Bush Has to Do with Hitler

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogorelskin, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Alexis Pogorelskin, an associate professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth and chair of the History Department, recounts her experience in 2004 after making a controversial comment in her History of the Holocaust and 20th Century Russia class. Her comment was in reference to President Bush making no mention in the 2000 campaign about the…

  9. The George W. Bush Economic Philosophy: How It Might Affect Working Families. Family Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindjord, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of presidential candidate George W. Bush's proposed tax cuts on families of various income levels. Discusses how replacing current five-rates with four lower rates would reduce high marginal tax rates for moderate-income working families, focusing on effects of reporting tax breaks in terms of actual dollars rather than…

  10. George W. Bush at Goree Island: American Slavery and the Rhetoric of Redemption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medhurst, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    On July 8, 2003, at Goree Island, Senegal, George W. Bush delivered the most important speech on American slavery since Abraham Lincoln. As an example of rhetorical artistry, the speech is a masterpiece, putting the brutality of slavery into historical, political, and theological perspective. Although the speech had deliberative effects--it grew…

  11. The Supreme Court's Misplaced Concern with Selective Fairness: Bush v. Gore and Three Analogies to Grading Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, William K. S.

    2002-01-01

    Regarding the Supreme Court's decision in the Bush v. Gore election controversy, argues that selective fairness to individual voters is better than no increase in fairness. Offers three analogies to grading dilemmas faced by teachers. (EV)

  12. Outcome of Semi-Constrained Total Elbow Arthroplasty in Posttraumatic Conditions with Analysis of Bushing Wear on Stress Radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Jenniefer Y.; Adams, Brian D.; O'Rourke, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Total elbow arthroplasty for posttraumatic arthritis or nonunion has been associated with a high rate of complications. Bushing wear is a known complication, although the actual incidence is unknown because stress views of the elbow are not routinely performed. We evaluate incidence of bushing wear in total elbow arthroplasty using stress radiographs. Methods Eighteen patients underwent total elbow arthroplasty from 1997-2009 for posttraumatic arthritis or distal humerus nonunion using the third generation Coonrad-Moorey design. Eight patients met inclusion criteria and had an average age of 67 years and mean follow-up of 105 months. Radiographs were analyzed for bushing wear and implant loosening on standard and stress radiographs. Clinical outcome measures included the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), overall patient satisfaction, range of motion, and complications. Results Rate of bushing wear was high, and stress views were five times more sensitive in detecting bushing wear (63%) compared to non-stress views (12%). Seventy-five percent of patients had a good or excellent MEPS. Range of motion slightly improved from pre- to post-operatively. Minor complications were common, but there were no revisions and no cases with radiographic loosening. There was no correlation between bushing wear and the DASH or MEPS. Conclusion Incidence of bushing wear in total elbow arthroplasty is high, and under-diagnosed without stress views. Although minor complications are common, frequent loosening and revision do not occur as previously reported for other implants. Despite bushing wear, mid-term functional outcomes are good. Level of Evidence Therapeutic IV. PMID:26361454

  13. Tribological Performance of PM300 Solid Lubricant Bushings for High Temperature Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striebing, Donald R.; Stanford, Malcolm K.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Rossi, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    PM300 is a high temperature solid lubricant material produced through conventional powder metallurgy processing. PM300 is a combination of metal binder (NiCr), hardener (Cr2O3) and lubricant (Ag and BaF2/CaF2) phases and is in commercial use in high temperature furnace conveyors. In this paper, the tribological characteristics of PM300 are evaluated using a newly developed bushing test rig in which PM300 bushings are loaded against rotating steel shafts at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The data shows that friction and wear are low to moderate and that the lubrication performance (friction) improves with increasing temperature. Several alternative PM300 compositions are evaluated which do not contain silver and are targeted at aircraft gas turbine applications in which environmental compatibility of silver is a concern. It is expected that the data resulting from this research will further the commercialization of this technology.

  14. Harmonic amplitude dependent dynamic stiffness of hydraulic bushings: Alternate nonlinear models and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredette, Luke; Dreyer, Jason T.; Rook, Todd E.; Singh, Rajendra

    2016-06-01

    The dynamic stiffness properties of automotive hydraulic bushings exhibit significant amplitude sensitivity which cannot be captured by linear time-invariant models. Quasi-linear and nonlinear models are therefore proposed with focus on the amplitude sensitivity in magnitude and loss angle spectra (up to 50 Hz). Since production bushing model parameters are unknown, dynamic stiffness tests and laboratory experiments are utilized to extract model parameters. Nonlinear compliance and resistance elements are incorporated, including their interactions in order to improve amplitude sensitive predictions. New solution approximations for the new nonlinear system equations refine the multi-term harmonic balance term method. Quasi-linear models yield excellent accuracy but cannot predict trends in amplitude sensitivity since they rely on available dynamic stiffness measurements. Nonlinear models containing both nonlinear resistance and compliance elements yield superior predictions to those of prior models (with a single nonlinearity) while also providing more physical insight. Suggestion for further work is briefly mentioned.

  15. VIPs join Florida Governor Jeb Bush in the Firing Room after the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Firing Room, Launch Control Center, after a successful launch of STS-97, VIPs gather to congratulate the launch team. In the center of the photo is Florida Governor Jeb Bush. On his left is KSC Director of External Relations and Business Development JoAnn H. Morgan; on Bush's right is Joseph Rothenberg, associate administrator, Office of Space Flight; on the far right is Bill Readdy, manager at Johnson Space Center. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station's first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  16. Research of on-line monitoring method for insulation condition of power transformer bushing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jiuyun; Qian, Zheng; Yu, Hao; Yao, Junda

    2016-01-01

    The power transformer is the key equipment of the power system; its insulation condition will directly influence the security and reliability of the power system. Thus, the on-line monitoring of power transformer is urgently required in order to guarantee the normal operation of the power system. Moreover, the dielectric loss factor is a significant parameter reflecting the condition of transformer bushing, so the on-line measurement of dielectric loss factor is really important. In this paper, the phase-to-phase comparison method is selected as the on-line monitoring method based on the overall analysis and discussion of the existing on-line monitoring methods. At first, the harmonic analysis method is utilized to calculate the dielectric loss of each phase of the three-phase transformer bushing, and then the differences of dielectric loss between every two phases are calculated and analyzed. So the insulation condition of each bushing could be achieved based on the careful analysis of different phase-to-phase dielectric loss. The simulation results of phase-to-phase comparison method are carried out in this paper, and the validity is verified. At last, this method is utilized in an actual equipment of on-line monitoring.

  17. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC), in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is important to understand the

  18. Rose bush leaf and internode expansion dynamics: analysis and development of a model capturing interplant variability

    PubMed Central

    Demotes-Mainard, Sabine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Boumaza, Rachid; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Guéritaine, Gaëlle; Guérin, Vincent; Andrieu, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Rose bush architecture, among other factors, such as plant health, determines plant visual quality. The commercial product is the individual plant and interplant variability may be high within a crop. Thus, both mean plant architecture and interplant variability should be studied. Expansion is an important feature of architecture, but it has been little studied at the level of individual organs in rose bushes. We investigated the expansion kinetics of primary shoot organs, to develop a model reproducing the organ expansion of real crops from non-destructive input variables. We took interplant variability in expansion kinetics and the model's ability to simulate this variability into account. Changes in leaflet and internode dimensions over thermal time were recorded for primary shoot expansion, on 83 plants from three crops grown in different climatic conditions and densities. An empirical model was developed, to reproduce organ expansion kinetics for individual plants of a real crop of rose bush primary shoots. Leaflet or internode length was simulated as a logistic function of thermal time. The model was evaluated by cross-validation. We found that differences in leaflet or internode expansion kinetics between phytomer positions and between plants at a given phytomer position were due mostly to large differences in time of organ expansion and expansion rate, rather than differences in expansion duration. Thus, in the model, the parameters linked to expansion duration were predicted by values common to all plants, whereas variability in final size and organ expansion time was captured by input data. The model accurately simulated leaflet and internode expansion for individual plants (RMSEP = 7.3 and 10.2% of final length, respectively). Thus, this study defines the measurements required to simulate expansion and provides the first model simulating organ expansion in rosebush to capture interplant variability. PMID:24167509

  19. In Brief: Entering the ``Anthropocene era''; Bush administration defends environmental policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2004-02-01

    The Earth has entered the ``Anthropocene'' era, a geological era ``in which humans are a significant and sometimes dominating environmental force.'' That according to several key scientists and a policy maker who, on 21 January, launched the publication of the book, The Earth System: A Planet Under Pressure'' by the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program. The chairman of the White House Council on Environmental Quality defended the Bush administration's initiatives on a wide range of environmental issues, including climate change, at a 22 January speech in Washington, D.C.

  20. Control of the bush tick (Haemaphysalis longicornis) with Zebu x European cattle.

    PubMed

    Dicker, R W; Sutherst, R W

    1981-02-01

    Brahman x Hereford cattle carried only one-quarter as many engorging adult bush ticks (Haemaphysalis (Kaiseriana) longicornis) as Hereford. Simmental x Hereford or Friesian x Hereford cattle when grazed together on the north coast of New South Wales. Fourteen percent of a Brahman x Hereford herd carried half of the engorging ticks suggesting that infestation levels would be further reduced by culling procedures. The results indicate an additional advantage to those already established for Brahman x Hereford cattle on the north coast of New South Wales and have important implications for tick control. PMID:7259646

  1. Territory Tenure Increases with Repertoire Size in Brownish-Flanked Bush Warbler

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Canwei; Wei, Chentao; Zhang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    Song repertoire size is often cited as a classic example of a secondary sexual trait in birds. Models of sexual selection and empirical tests of their predictions have often related secondary sexual traits to longevity. However, the relationship between repertoire size and longevity is unclear. Using capture-mark-recapture studies in two populations of the brownish-flanked bush warbler Cettia fortipes, we found that males with a repertoire size of three maintained territory tenure for a longer duration than did males with a repertoire size of two. These results provide evidence that even a minimal difference in repertoire size can serve as a potential signal of territory tenure capability. PMID:25822524

  2. Governor Bush makes first phone call to KSC using new area code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the videoconference room at Headquarters, key representatives of KSC contractors, along with KSC directorates, fill the room during an early morning phone call from Florida Governor Jeb Bush (seen on the video screen) in Tallahassee, Fla. The call is to inaugurate the change of KSC's area code from 407 to 321, effective today. Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings (fourth from right) received the call. Next to Jennings (at his right) is seated Robert Osband, Florida Space Institute, who suggested the 3-2-1 sequence to reflect the importance of the space industry to Florida's space coast.

  3. The event bush as a semantic-based numerical approach to natural hazard assessment (exemplified by volcanology)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pshenichny, C. A.; Nikolenko, S. I.; Carniel, R.; Vaganov, P. A.; Khrabrykh, Z. V.; Moukhachov, V. P.; Akimova-Shterkhun, V. L.; Rezyapkin, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    The event bush is a new formalism for organizing knowledge in various fields of geoscience, particularly suitable for hazard assessment purposes. Acting as an intermediary between expert knowledge and the well-established field of Bayesian belief networks, the event bush allows at the same time a variety of other applications, linking geoscientific knowledge to the field of artificial intelligence and uniting probabilistic, deterministic, and fuzzy approaches. In this paper, we present basic principles, mathematical formulation, guidelines for application, and examples, including the connection with Bayesian belief networks. Further development of the method will include spatial and temporal modelling, implementation in mapping in GIS medium, formalization by means of predicate logic, definition of variable states in BBNs by membership functions based on the event bush semantics, and other applications.

  4. Sliding Wear Response of a Bronze Bushing: Influence of Applied Load and Test Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, B. K.

    2012-10-01

    This investigation pertains to the examination of the sliding wear behavior of a leaded-tin bronze bushing under the conditions of varying applied loads and test environments against a steel shaft. The test environment was changed by adding 5% of solid lubricants like talc and lead to an oil lubricant separately as well as in combination; the fraction of the two (solid) lubricants within the solid lubricant mixture was varied in the range of 25-75% in the latter case. The wear performance of the bushing was characterized in terms of the wear rate, frictional heating, and friction coefficient. The increasing load led to deterioration in the wear response, while the addition of the solid lubricant particles produced a reverse effect. Further, an appreciable difference in the wear behavior was not observed when the tests were conducted in the oil plus talc and oil plus lead lubricant mixtures. However, the oil containing lead and talc together brought about a significant improvement in the wear response; best results were obtained in the case of the lubricant mixture consisting of lead and talc together in the ratio of 3:1 in the oil. The observed wear behavior of the samples has been discussed in terms of specific characteristics of various microconstituents. The features of the wear surfaces and subsurface regions further substantiated the wear response and enabled us to understand the operating material removal mechanisms.

  5. Patterns of biomediated CaCO3 crystal bushes in hot spring deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Jones, Brian

    2013-08-01

    In the Eryuan hot spring, located in south China, the vent pool is covered with “crystal bushes”, up to 2 cm high, 1 cm in diameter, that grew in the biofilms that thrive in the spring waters that have a pH of 7.5 and a temperature of 88 °C. The biofilms are formed largely of phototrophic purple bacteria and green bacteria. Growth of the crystal bushes, which are formed of aragonite crystals (wheat-sheaves, radiating clusters), rhombohedral and dodecahedral calcite crystals, amorphous CaCO3 (ACC), and opal-A, is attributed to precipitation in the micro-domains of the biofilms where physiochemical conditions can vary on the sub-micron scale. There is no evidence that the calcite was formed through recrystallization of the metastable aragonite and most of the calcite crystals developed as mesocrystals that are characterized by incomplete growth and porous crystal faces. With the onset of diagenesis, there is a high probability that the crystal bushes will lose much of their identity as the (1) biofilm is lost through decay, (2) ACC and aragonite change to calcite, (3) identities of the mesocrystals and incompletely formed crystals are lost through continued precipitation and/or recrystallization, and (4) porous crystal faces are converted to solid crystal faces. This means that most of the features considered indicative of biomediated calcite precipitation have a low preservation potential and that the recognition of biomediated precipitates in old spring deposits may remain problematical.

  6. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D.

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  7. Wear characteristics of microscopic bushings for MEMS applications investigated by an AFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Jang, Cheol-Eun; Kim, Dae-Eun

    2007-09-01

    The wear characteristics of silicon-based materials that are widely utilized in MEMS applications were investigated. Silicon (1 0 0), silicon oxide, silicon nitride and polysilicon specimens with microscopic bushings were fabricated for the wear tests performed under 100 µN normal force. The wear tests were conducted for a relatively long sliding distance of 5.6-187 km. Following the sliding experiment, the wear characteristics of the bushings were assessed by using an atomic force microscope. It was found that the wear rate was highest for the silicon oxide specimens and decreased in the order of polysilicon, silicon (1 0 0) and silicon nitride. Observation of the wear region showed that the scratches due to wear particles were often formed on the silicon (1 0 0), silicon oxide and polysilicon specimens. However, silicon nitride specimens showed signs of burnishing wear. The wear coefficients of the specimens were in the order of 10-8 to 10-7. Based on the wear characteristics and the wear debris behavior, the application of microgrooves for wear debris removal at the contacting interface was proposed.

  8. Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S P; Menezes, Riya C; Jayarajan, Aditi; Shanker, Kartik

    2016-08-17

    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums. PMID:27534957

  9. Evaluation of Athrixia bush tea for cytotoxicity, antioxidant activity, caffeine content and presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    McGaw, L J; Steenkamp, V; Eloff, J N

    2007-03-01

    In South Africa, Athrixia phylicoides DC. (bush tea) is widely used as a beverage, cough remedy and purgative. The commercialization of this tea in a similar vein to rooibos (Aspalathus linearis), is being considered. Traditional infusions and decoctions, as well as water and ethanol extracts, were prepared and screened. A related species, Athrixia elata Sond. (daisy tea), was included in many of the assays as a comparison. Extracts of Athrixia phylicoides and Athrixia elata were tested for toxic effects to brine shrimp larvae and the Vero kidney cell line. In both assays, the traditional preparations and aqueous extracts had little effect, but the ethanol extracts were relatively toxic. Antioxidant activity comparable to that found in rooibos was established. No detectable levels of caffeine were present in the Athrixia extracts following analysis using TLC and I/HCl spray reagent. Neither screening using spectrophotometry nor confirmation using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses showed evidence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Athrixia phylicoides. Although a wider range of studies needs to be conducted prior to commercialization, these results support the development of bush tea as a healthy alternative to caffeine-containing beverages. PMID:17045437

  10. Heterogeneous WSx/WO₃ Thorn-Bush Nanofiber Electrodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Won-Hee; Wilson, Hope; Sohn, Sungwoo; Li, Jinyang; Tong, Xiao; Shaulsky, Evyatar; Schroers, Jan; Elimelech, Menachem; Taylor, André D

    2016-03-22

    Heterogeneous electrode materials with hierarchical architectures promise to enable considerable improvement in future energy storage devices. In this study, we report on a tailored synthetic strategy used to create heterogeneous tungsten sulfide/oxide core-shell nanofiber materials with vertically and randomly aligned thorn-bush features, and we evaluate them as potential anode materials for high-performance Na-ion batteries. The WSx (2 ≤ x ≤ 3, amorphous WS3 and crystalline WS2) nanofiber is successfully prepared by electrospinning and subsequent calcination in a reducing atmosphere. To prevent capacity degradation of the WSx anodes originating from sulfur dissolution, a facile post-thermal treatment in air is applied to form an oxide passivation surface. Interestingly, WO3 thorn bundles are randomly grown on the nanofiber stem, resulting from the surface conversion. We elucidate the evolving morphological and structural features of the nanofibers during post-thermal treatment. The heterogeneous thorn-bush nanofiber electrodes deliver a high second discharge capacity of 791 mAh g(-1) and improved cycle performance for 100 cycles compared to the pristine WSx nanofiber. We show that this hierarchical design is effective in reducing sulfur dissolution, as shown by cycling analysis with counter Na electrodes. PMID:26808095

  11. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    PubMed

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work. PMID:27263235

  12. Ploidy race distributions since the Last Glacial Maximum in the North American desert shrub, Larea tridentata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, Kimberly L.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Riddle, Brett R.; Van Devender, Thomas R.; Cole, K.L.; Spaulding, W.G.

    2001-01-01

    1. A classic biogeographic pattern is the alignment of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid races of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) across the Chihuahuan, Sonoran and Mohave Deserts of western North America. We used statistically robust differences in guard cell size of modern plants and fossil leaves from packrat middens to map current and past distributions of these ploidy races since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). 2 Glacial/early Holocene (26a??10 14C kyr bp or thousands of radiocarbon years before present) populations included diploids along the lower Rio Grande of west Texas, 650 km removed from sympatric diploids and tetraploids in the lower Colorado River Basin of south-eastern California/south-western Arizona. Diploids migrated slowly from lower Rio Grande refugia with expansion into the northern Chihuahuan Desert sites forestalled until after ~4.0 14C kyr bp. Tetraploids expanded from the lower Colorado River Basin into the northern limits of the Sonoran Desert in central Arizona by 6.4 14C kyr bp. Hexaploids appeared by 8.5 14C kyr bp in the lower Colorado River Basin, reaching their northernmost limits (~37A?N) in the Mohave Desert between 5.6 and 3.9 14C kyr bp. 3 Modern diploid isolates may have resulted from both vicariant and dispersal events. In central Baja California and the lower Colorado River Basin, modern diploids probably originated from relict populations near glacial refugia. Founder events in the middle and late Holocene established diploid outposts on isolated limestone outcrops in areas of central and southern Arizona dominated by tetraploid populations. 4 Geographic alignment of the three ploidy races along the modern gradient of increasingly drier and hotter summers is clearly a postglacial phenomenon, but evolution of both higher ploidy races must have happened before the Holocene. The exact timing and mechanism of polyploidy evolution in creosote bush remains a matter of conjecture.

  13. Characterization of molecular mass ranges of two coal tar distillate fractions (creosote and anthracene oils) and aromatic standards by LD-MS, GC-MS, probe-MS and size-exclusion chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    T.J. Morgan; A. George; P. A'lvarez; M. Millan; A.A. Herod; R. Kandiyoti

    2008-09-15

    Laser-desorption mass spectrometry (LD-MS) method development was undertaken to improve estimates of mass ranges for complex hydrocarbon mixtures. A creosote oil, an anthracene oil, and a mixture of known polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were examined. The formation of cluster ions was possible without overloading the detector system. These multimer ions overlapped with higher-mass ion signals from the sample. However, careful balancing of sample concentration, laser power, total ion current, and delayed ion extraction appears to show high-mass materials without generating high-mass multimer (artifact) ions. It is possible to suppress the formation of cluster ions by keeping low target concentrations and, consequently, low gas phase concentrations formed by the laser pulse. The principal method used in this work was the fractionation of samples by planar chromatography followed by successive LD-MS analysis of the separated fractions directly from the chromatographic plates. This method separated the more abundant small molecules from the less abundant large molecules to permit the generation of their mass spectra independently, as well as reducing the concentration of sample by spreading over the PC-plate. The technique demonstrably suppressed multimer formation and greatly improved the reproducibility of the spectra. Results showed the presence of molecule ions in the ranges m/z 1000-2000 for the anthracene oil sample and m/z 600-1500 for the creosote oil sample, tailing off to m/z about 5,000. The creosote oil contained significantly less of this high-mass material than the anthracene oil sample, and in both cases, high-mass material was only present in low quantities. The method outlined in the paper appears directly applicable to the characterization of heavier coal and petroleum derived fractions. 44 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Use of 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance To Assess Fossil Fuel Biodegradation: Fate of [1-13C]Acenaphthene in Creosote Polycyclic Aromatic Compound Mixtures Degraded by Bacteria†

    PubMed Central

    Selifonov, Sergey A.; Chapman, Peter J.; Akkerman, Simon B.; Gurst, Jerome E.; Bortiatynski, Jacqueline M.; Nanny, Mark A.; Hatcher, Patrick G.

    1998-01-01

    [1-13C]acenaphthene, a tracer compound with a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-active nucleus at the C-1 position, has been employed in conjunction with a standard broad-band-decoupled 13C-NMR spectroscopy technique to study the biodegradation of acenaphthene by various bacterial cultures degrading aromatic hydrocarbons of creosote. Site-specific labeling at the benzylic position of acenaphthene allows 13C-NMR detection of chemical changes due to initial oxidations catalyzed by bacterial enzymes of aromatic hydrocarbon catabolism. Biodegradation of [1-13C]acenaphthene in the presence of naphthalene or creosote polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) was examined with an undefined mixed bacterial culture (established by enrichment on creosote PACs) and with isolates of individual naphthalene- and phenanthrene-degrading strains from this culture. From 13C-NMR spectra of extractable materials obtained in time course biodegradation experiments under optimized conditions, a number of signals were assigned to accumulated products such as 1-acenaphthenol, 1-acenaphthenone, acenaphthene-1,2-diol and naphthalene 1,8-dicarboxylic acid, formed by benzylic oxidation of acenaphthene and subsequent reactions. Limited degradation of acenaphthene could be attributed to its oxidation by naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase or related dioxygenases, indicative of certain limitations of the undefined mixed culture with respect to acenaphthene catabolism. Coinoculation of the mixed culture with cells of acenaphthene-grown strain Pseudomonas sp. strain A2279 mitigated the accumulation of partial transformation products and resulted in more complete degradation of acenaphthene. This study demonstrates the value of the stable isotope labeling approach and its ability to reveal incomplete mineralization even when as little as 2 to 3% of the substrate is incompletely oxidized, yielding products of partial transformation. The approach outlined may prove useful in assessing bioremediation performance

  15. Fungal bioremediation of the creosote-contaminated soil: influence of Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons removal and soil microbial community composition in the laboratory-scale study.

    PubMed

    Byss, Marius; Elhottová, Dana; Tříska, Jan; Baldrian, Petr

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of selected basidiomycetes in the removing of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the creosote-contaminated soil. Fungi Pleurotus ostreatus and Irpex lacteus were supplemented with creosote-contaminated (50-200 mg kg(-1) PAH) soil originating from a wood-preserving plant and incubated at 15 °C for 120 d. Either fungus degraded PAH with 4-6 aromatic rings more efficiently than the microbial community present initially in the soil. PAH removal was higher in P. ostreatus treatments (55-67%) than in I. lacteus treatments (27-36%) in general. P. ostreatus (respectively, I. lacteus) removed 86-96% (47-59%) of 2-rings PAH, 63-72% (33-45%) of 3-rings PAH, 32-49% (9-14%) of 4-rings PAH and 31-38% (11-13%) of 5-6-rings PAH. MIS (Microbial Identification System) Sherlock analysis of the bacterial community determined the presence of dominant Gram-negative bacteria (G-) Pseudomonas in the inoculated soil before the application of fungi. Complex soil microbial community was characterized by phospholipid fatty acids analysis followed by GC-MS/MS. Either fungus induced the decrease of bacterial biomass (G- bacteria in particular), but the soil microbial community was influenced by P. ostreatus in a different way than by I. lacteus. The bacterial community was stressed more by the presence of I. lacteus than P. ostreatus (as proved by the ratio of the fungal/bacterial markers and by the ratio of trans/cis mono-unsaturated fatty acids). Moreover, P. ostreatus stimulated the growth of Gram-positive bacteria (G+), especially actinobacteria and these results indicate the potential of the positive synergistic interaction of this fungus and actinobacteria in creosote biodegradation. PMID:18782639

  16. Odorants of the Flowers of Butterfly Bush, Buddleia davidii as Possible Attractants of Pest Species of Moths

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowers of the butterfly bush, Buddleia davidii Franch., are visited by butterflies and moths, as well as other insects. Moths captured in traps over flowers were 21 species of Geometridae, Noctuidae, Pyralidae, and Tortricidae. The most abundant moths trapped at these flowers were the cabbage loop...

  17. Things Are Crook in the Bush: Report on a Needs Analysis Survey on a Selected Region, the Central Western Queensland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seabrook, J.

    The rural Australian recession resulting from lower commodity prices and poor weather conditions raised concerns about how people were coping in the bush. A survey was distributed to all grazing properties in 10 shires of central western Queensland. Of 1,050 surveys distributed, 223 were returned representing 284 families and 914 individuals.…

  18. Automatic classification of Google Earth images for a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Bush encroachment of savannas and grasslands is a common form of land degradation in the rangelands of South Africa. To assess the carrying capacity of the land and to understand underlaying processes of bush encroachment, continuous monitoring of this phenomenon is needed. The aim of this study is to provide training sites for satellite-based monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa on a medium spatial resolution satellite sensor (e.g. MODIS or Landsat) scale. Since field surveys are time consuming and of limited spatial extent, the satellite based creation of training sites using Google Earth images is intended. Training pixels for woody vegetation and non-woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 sample Google Earth images. A Random Forests model was trained to delineate woody from non-woody pixels. The results indicate a high performance of the model (AUC = 0.97). The model was applied to a further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250 m × 250 m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa.

  19. Voices from the Field: 30 Expert Opinions on America 2000, The Bush Administration Strategy To "Reinvent" America's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Educational Leadership, Washington, DC.

    "America 2000," President Bush's national strategy for "Reinventing America's Schools" is evaluated by 30 invited experts in the following papers: "Bottom-up Reform From the Top Down" (John E. Chubb); "Would Choice + Competition Yield Quality Education?" (Richard F. Elmore); "The Federal Education Role Comes of Age" (Denis P. Doyle; "Choice,…

  20. 78 FR 77171 - Proposed Disposal of George H.W. Bush and Clinton Administration Electronic Backup Tapes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Federal Register on June 28, 2013 (78 FR 125, p. 39016), and contains a detailed description of this issue... Clinton Administration Electronic Backup Tapes'' on June 28, 2013, in the Federal Register (78 FR 125) for... RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Proposed Disposal of George H.W. Bush and Clinton Administration Electronic...

  1. Classifying Google Earth images as training sites for application to a larger scale monitoring of bush encroachment in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Annika; Meyer, Hanna; Higginbottom, Thomas; Nauss, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Bush encroachment of rangelands in South Africa is a common form of land degradation with negative economic consequences. A monitoring of bush encroachment is needed for several reasons: on the one hand, it allows farmers to identify locations with upcoming bushes which gives them a tool for management (e.g. poisoning of bushes) and would further allow them to assess the current carrying capacity of their land. On the other hand, it serves scientists as a baseline to reveal the still unknown causes of bush encroachment. This study aimed at providing training sites applicable for a satellite-based monitoring of woody vegetation in South Africa on the scale of medium spatial resolution satellite sensors (e.g. MODIS or Landsat). Since field surveys are time consuming and only of limited spatial extent, a satellite based creation of training sites on the basis of Google Earth images was intended. In view to an automatic classification of the Google Earth RGB images, training pixels for woody vegetation and non woody land cover were manually digitized from 50 example images. A Random Forests model was then trained to delineate woody from non woody pixels. With an area under the ROC-curve of 0.97, the model was highly able to classify the images. The model was applied to classify further 500 Google Earth images with a spatial extent of 250x250m. The classified images form the database of training sites which can be used for a MODIS based monitoring of woody vegetation in upcoming studies.

  2. Evaluation of DFIR and Bush Gauge Snowfall Measurements at Boreal Forest Sites in Saskatchewan/Canada and Valdai/Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, D.; Smith, C.

    2013-12-01

    Snowfall is important to cold region climate and hydrology including Canada. Large uncertainties and biases exist in gauge-measured precipitation datasets and products. These uncertainties affect important decision-making, water resources assessments, climate change analyses, and calibrations of remote sensing algorithms and land surface models. Efforts have been made at both the national and international levels to quantity the errors/biases in precipitation measurements, such as the WMO Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE). Both the DFIR (double fence intercomparison reference) and the bush shielded gauge have been used in the past as a reference measurement for solid precipitation and they both have been selected as the references for the current SPICE project. Previous analyses of the DFIR vs. the bush (manual Tretyakov) gauge data collected at the Valdai station in Russia suggest DFIR undercatch of snowfall by up to 10% for high wind conditions. A regression relationship between the 2 systems was derived and used for the last WMO gauge intercomparison. Given the importance of the DFIR as the reference for the WMO SPICE project, it is necessary to re-examine and update the DFIR and bush gauge relationship. As part of Canada's contribution to the WMO SPICE project, a test site has been set up by EC/ASTD/WSDT in the southern Canadian Boreal forest to compare the DFIR and bush gauges. This site, called the Caribou Creek, has been installed within a modified young Jack Pine forest stand - north of Prince Albert in Saskatchewan. This study compiles and analyzes recent DFIR and bush gauge data from both the Valdai and Caribou Creek sites. This presentation summarizes the results of data analyses, and evaluates the performance of both references for snowfall observations in the northern regions. The methods and results of this research will directly support the WMO SPICE project and contribute to cold region hydrology and climate change research.

  3. Phylogeography of Indonesian and Sino-Himalayan region bush warblers (Cettia, Aves).

    PubMed

    Olsson, Urban; Alström, Per; Gelang, Magnus; Ericson, Per G P; Sundberg, Per

    2006-12-01

    We present a hypothesis for the phylogeny and phylogeography of a group of bush warblers in the genus Cettia, based on parts of the mitochondrial Cytochrome b gene and the nuclear myoglobin intron II (in all approximately 1.7 kb). Ancestral areas were reconstructed by dispersal-vicariance analysis and constrained Bayesian inference. The results suggest that the insular taxa in the Cettia vulcania group are most closely related to Cettia flavolivacea, and originated from a dispersal by an ancestral population in the Himalayas towards the south, to the Sunda region. From this population, a second dispersal along a different route colonized China and northern Vietnam. Hence, the Chinese taxon intricata and Vietnamese oblita, currently allocated to C. flavolivacea, are more closely related to the vulcania group than to the other taxa in the flavolivacea group, and we propose that they be treated as conspecific with C. vulcania, restricting C. flavolivacea to Myanmar and the Himalayas. PMID:16854603

  4. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize "trample burr" dispersal.

    PubMed

    Martine, Christopher T; Cantley, Jason T; Frawley, Emma S; Butler, Alice R; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E

    2016-01-01

    A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic "Dioicum Complex" lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent "trample burr" seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum 'Tanami.' Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  5. Governor Bush makes first phone call to KSC using new area code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At 8 a.m. in the videoconference room at Headquarters, Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings (center) waits for a phone call from Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Center Director Roy Bridges in Tallahassee, Fla. The call is to inaugurate the change of KSC's area code from 407 to 321, effective today. Key representatives of KSC contractors, along with KSC directorates, fill the room where the phone call is being received. Seated next to Jennings are Robert Osband (left), Florida Space Institute, and Col. Stephan Duresky (right), vice commander, 45th Space Wing. Osband is the one who suggested the 3-2-1 sequence, to reflect the importance of the space industry to Florida's space coast.

  6. Governor Bush makes first phone call to KSC using new area code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At 8 a.m. in the videoconference room at Headquarters, Deputy Director for Business Operations Jim Jennings (center) makes the connection for a phone call from Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Center Director Roy Bridges in Tallahassee, Fla. The call is to inaugurate the change of KSC's area code from 407 to 321, effective today. Key representatives of KSC contractors, along with KSC directorates, fill the room where the phone call is being received. Seated next to Jennings are Robert Osband (left), Florida Space Institute, and Col. Stephan Duresky (right), vice commander, 45th Space Wing. Osband is the one who suggested the 3-2-1 sequence to reflect the importance of the space industry to Florida's space coast.

  7. Florida Governor Jeb Bush joins Daniel Goldin at KSC for STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida's Gov. Jeb Bush (left) joins NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (right) for the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97. They viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP Site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST with a crew of five. The sixth construction flight to the International Space Station, Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  8. Florida Governor Jeb Bush joins Daniel Goldin at KSC for STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Enjoying a light moment before the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97 are NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (left) and Florida Governor Jeb Bush (right). Between them is California Congressman Dana Rohrabacher. Guests of NASA, they viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP Site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST with a crew of five. The sixth construction flight to the International Space Station, Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  9. Florida Governor Jeb Bush joins Daniel Goldin at KSC for STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida's Governor Jeb Bush (center) joins NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin (right) for the launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97. They viewed the launch from the Banana Creek VIP Site. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST with a crew of five. The sixth construction flight to the International Space Station, Endeavour is transporting the P6 Integrated Truss Structure that comprises Solar Array Wing-3 and the Integrated Electronic Assembly, to provide power to the Space Station. The 11-day mission includes two spacewalks to complete the solar array connections. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  10. Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Daniel Goldin in the Firing Room after the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Firing Room, Launch Control Center, after a successful launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97, Launch Director Michael Leinbach (with microphone) addresses the launch team. Behind him at right are Florida Governor Jeb Bush and NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. Endeavour and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station's first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  11. Florida Governor Jeb Bush addresses launch team in the Firing Room after the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Florida Governor Jeb Bush (with microphone) addresses the launch team in the Firing Room, Launch Control Center, after a successful launch of STS-97. At right is NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. Endeavour and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station's first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  12. Florida Governor Jeb Bush and Daniel Goldin in the Firing Room after the STS-97 launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In the Firing Room, Launch Control Center, after a successful launch of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97, Florida Governor Jeb Bush shakes the hand of NASA Administrator Daniel Goldin. Liftoff of Endeavour occurred at 10:06:01 p.m. Endeavour and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station's first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land at KSC Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  13. Fiddler on the tree--a bush-cricket species with unusual stridulatory organs and song.

    PubMed

    Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; Hemp, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Insects of the order Orthoptera are well-known for their acoustic communication. The structures used for this purpose show a high diversity which obviously relates to differences in song parameters and to the physics of sound production. Here we describe song and morphology of the sound producing organs of a tropical bush-cricket, Ectomoptera nepicauda, from East Africa. It has a very unusual calling song consisting of frequency-modulated, pure-tone sounds in the high ultrasonic range of 80 to 120 kHz and produced by extremely fast wing movements. Concerning morphology, it represents the most extreme state in the degree of left-right fore-wing differentiation found among Orthoptera: the acoustic parts of the left fore-wing consist exclusively of the stridulatory file, comparable in function to the bow of a violin, while the right wing carries only the plectrum ( =  string) and mirror ( =  soundbox). PMID:24643071

  14. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (<14 years old) and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector. Conclusions Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife

  15. Fluid and chemical cycling at Bush Hill: Implications for gas- and hydrate-rich environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryon, Michael D.; Brown, Kevin M.

    2004-12-01

    The results of a deployment of aqueous flux meters at the Bush Hill hydrate mound show that persistent hydrologic instability is a primary feature of the globally abundant gas- and hydrate-rich cold seep environment. Seven flux meters were deployed for 14 weeks in the area of the Bush Hill hydrate mound. Instruments were deployed on microbial mats, bivalves, adjacent to the surface hydrate mound, and a site without visible fauna. Flow rates were observed to range from downflow of 0.01 mm/day to upflow of >15 mm/day. Temporal variability and a major hydrological event were observed to occur on all instruments. There is evidence that this event was related to a gas expulsion episode. The two instruments which exhibited downflow during the event were near surface hydrates and bubbling vents. Nearby instruments recorded a rapid increase in flow rates at the time of the event with a subsequent decrease in rates to the previous background values. Two instruments showed significant output of seawater-like fluids, while the others output typical methane seep-type pore fluids. These results at a passive margin site, along with our previously published convergent margin results at gas-rich northeast Pacific cold seeps (Hydrate Ridge, Eel River margin), illustrate the hydrologic complexity of these environments. We now propose that these and our earlier results are characteristic of seafloor environments which have abundant free gas and hydrates. These mechanisms have major consequences for the near-surface geochemical and microbial environment and for the way we interpret measurements made in these areas.

  16. Deliver us from evil: the effects of mortality salience and reminders of 9/11 on support for President George W. Bush.

    PubMed

    Landau, Mark J; Solomon, Sheldon; Greenberg, Jeff; Cohen, Florette; Pyszczynski, Tom; Arndt, Jamie; Miller, Claude H; Ogilvie, Daniel M; Cook, Alison

    2004-09-01

    According to terror management theory, heightened concerns about mortality should intensify the appeal of charismatic leaders. To assess this idea, we investigated how thoughts about death and the 9/11 terrorist attacks influence Americans' attitudes toward current U.S. President George W. Bush. Study 1 found that reminding people of their own mortality (mortality salience) increased support for Bush and his counterterrorism policies. Study 2 demonstrated that subliminal exposure to 9/11-related stimuli brought death-related thoughts closer to consciousness. Study 3 showed that reminders of both mortality and 9/11 increased support for Bush. In Study 4, mortality salience led participants to become more favorable toward Bush and voting for him in the upcoming election but less favorable toward Presidential candidate John Kerry and voting for him. Discussion focused on the role of terror management processes in allegiance to charismatic leaders and political decision making. PMID:15359017

  17. Assessment of the safety of US nuclear weapons and related nuclear test requirements: A post-Bush Initiative update

    SciTech Connect

    Kidder, R.E.

    1991-12-10

    The Nuclear Weapons Reduction Initiative announced by President Bush on September 27, 1991, is described herein as set forth in Defense Secretary Cheney`s Nuclear Arsenal Reduction Order issued September 28, 1991. The implications of the Bush Initiative for improved nuclear weapons safety are assessed in response to a request by US Senators Harkin, Kennedy, and Wirth to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory that the author prepare such an assessment. The author provides an estimate of the number of nuclear tests needed to accomplish a variety of specified warhead safety upgrades, then uses the results of this estimate to answer three questions posed by the Senators. These questions concern pit reuse and the number of nuclear tests needed for specified safety upgrades of those ballistic missiles not scheduled for retirement, namely the Minuteman III, C4, and D5 missiles.

  18. Anisotropy in Alpedrete granite cutting (Rift, Grain and Hardway directions) and effect on bush hammered heritage ashlars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freire-Lista, David Martin; Fort, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Many monuments and cities that are part of humanity's heritage have been built with carved granite ashlars. This dimension stone is one of the most used due to its abundance and durability. Traditional quarrymen have used anisotropic planes to cut granite blocks in the quarry for improved cutting performance. These planes are called Rift, Grain and Hardway (R, G, H) according to the ease of cutting. The aim of this study is to determine the response of each of the three orthogonal cutting planes R, G and H to the craft styling with bush hammer, based on their decay. Alpedrete granite was selected for this research, it is a monzogranite quarried in the Sierra de Guadarrana (Spanish Central System) foothills, in the province of Madrid, Spain. It is one of the most representative of Madrid's heritage granites. Alpedrete granite is also used as building stone in other European cities. From an Alpedrete granite bush hammered ashlar, three thin sections were cut parallel to the H plane; these thin sections cut R and G bush hammered planes. Also three thin sections have been cut parallel to the R plane at a distance of 2 mm, 10 mm and 30 mm from the bush hammered surface. All thin sections have been treated with fluorescein. In each of the thin sections a micrograph mosaic was performed covering the entire area (about 10 cm2, 300 photomicrographs) and printed with 120 increases. The length and spacing of inter-, intra- and trans-crystalline microcracks were quantified and measured. Microcracks were subdivided based on affected minerals in each R, G and H planes. Through these observations it was found that Alpedrete Granite R plane (easier to cut) is determined by exfoliation microcracks orientation. That is, R plane is parallel to the exfoliations microcracks, which are intra-crystalline and straight. The cutting of stones in the R plane is due to the coalescence of straight microcracks in the plane. This plane minimizes the effort and cost of subsequent carving so it

  19. Intrinsic versus extrinsic controls on the development of calcite dendrite bushes, Shuzhishi Spring, Rehai geothermal area, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian; Peng, Xiaotong

    2012-04-01

    In the Rehai geothermal area, located near Tengchong, there is an old succession of crystalline calcite that formed from a spring that is no longer active. The thin-bedded succession, exposed on the south bank of Zaotang River, is formed of three-dimensional dendrite bushes that are up to 6 cm high and 3 cm in diameter with multiple levels of branching. Bedding is defined by color, which ranges from white to gray to almost black and locally accentuated by differential weathering that highlights the branching motif of the dendrites. The succession developed through repeated tripartite growth cycles that involved: Phase I that was characterized by rapid vertical growth of the dendrite bushes with ever-increasing branching; Phase II that developed once growth of the dendrites had almost or totally ceased, and involved an initial phase of etching that was followed by the precipitation of various secondary minerals (sheet calcite, trigonal calcite crystals, hexagonal calcite crystals, hexagonal plates formed of Ca and P, Mn precipitates, Si-Mg reticulate coatings, opal-CT lepispheres) on the branches of the calcite dendrites, and Phase III that involved deposition of detrital quartz, feldspar, clay, and calcite on top of the dendrite bushes. The tripartite growth cycle is attributed primarily to aperiodic cycles in the CO2 content of the spring water that was controlled by subsurface igneous activity rather than climatic controls. High CO2 coupled with rapid CO2 degassing triggered growth of the dendrite bushes. As CO2 levels waned, saturation levels in the spring water decreased and calcite dendrite growth ceased and precipitation of the secondary minerals took place, possibly in the microcosms of microbial mats. Deposition of the detrital sediment was probably related to surface runoff that was triggered by periods of high rainfall. Critically, this study shows that intrinsic factors rather than extrinsic factors (e.g., climate) were the prime control on the

  20. Vannevar Bush 2: Science for the 21st Century. Why Should Federal Dollars be Spent to Support Scientific Research?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Kate (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    On July 5, 1945, Dr. Vannevar Bush delivered a report to President Truman known as 'Science: The Endless Frontier'. In the report, Dr. Bush stated that 'scientific progress is one essential key to our security as a nation, to our better health, to more jobs, to a higher standard of living, and to our cultural progress'. Bush addressed job creation, the independence of basic research, the ties between research and application, and the nations's need for new talent. In 1995, there are strong similarities between the issues addressed in the Congress, Administration, and the public and those following World War 2. Federal funds and research funding are under severe pressure, including that from fiscal constraints in the federal budget due to the large and growing deficit and the escalating cost of health care. Defense conversion is addressed in the Congress and in industry, where many jobs are at stake. Conversion of the national laboratories, particularly nuclear weapons laboratories, has been a subject of a governmental commission and is the subject of draft legislation. Health care costs and the appropriate role of the federal government in funding basic and applied research has become a major topic of debate. Discussion on education in science has grown from the issue of how to produce more Ph.D.'s to how to improve the understanding of technology and science among the general public.

  1. Tar sand occurrences in the Bush Butte Quadrangle, Wyoming, with emphasis on the Trapper Canyon Deposit

    SciTech Connect

    VerPloeg, A.J.; DeBruin, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit is located in the eastern Bighorn Basin, approximately 25 miles east of Greybull, Wyoming. This project not only involved detailed geologic mapping of the Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit, but also sampling and describing the tar zone as well as the bounding barren zones. Samples were analyzed for porosity, permeability, oil saturation, and characteristics of the oil. Thin sections from both the tar zone and barren zones were made and examined to determine textural characteristics and kinds of pore-filling cements. In addition, samples were analyzed using the scanning electron microscope to gain insight into the diagenesis of the reservoir rock and trapping mechanisms. The Trapper Canyon Tar Sand Deposit was investigated because it was considered potentially commercial, and the results of the study could aid in forming an economical plan of development for this deposit and similar deposits elsewhere in the State. Also, the area provided an excellent opportunity to examine surface exposures of a tar sand deposit. The final phase of the study involved mapping the Bush Butte quadrangle and looking for additional tar sand deposits in the quadrangle. The search for additional deposits was carried out based on a model developed by examination of the Trapper Canyon Deposit. 16 references, 14 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Experimental reintroduction of the federally endangered Santa Cruz Island bush mallow (Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nestioticus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilken, D.H.; McEachern, K.

    2011-01-01

    Studies of Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. nesioticus were begun in 1995 to understand its distribution, reproductive biology and ecological requirements. After 100+ years of depredation by sheep, two known populations of fewer than 20 plants each survived in 1995. Molecular studies showed that each of the two populations was composed of 1–3 genets. During our study, two additional populations of similar size were discovered. Plants are self-compatible but require insect visitation to augment pollination. Based on seed set, viable embryos, and germination rates, we found no evidence for inbreeding depression. Bush mallow also reproduces vegetatively by rhizomes, the primary means of establishment and persistence in natural populations, and a key feature for maximizing recovery success. Ex situ observations and trial in situ outplantings suggested that supplemental watering was critical to initial survival. We developed a recovery strategy composed of four plots located at varying elevations and aspects. Each plot was enclosed to exclude feral pigs, which posed a continuing threat. Each plot was planted with twelve rooted plants derived from each of three natural populations. Plants were provided supplemental watering for four months. Survivorship after one year ranged from 46% to 91%. Significant differences in survivorship were observed relative to source of plants. After twelve months some plants were flowering and reproducing vegetatively.

  3. The effect of coatings and liners on heat transfer in a dry shaft-bush tribosystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Mihir K.; Brewe, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The temperatures due to frictional heating within a solid lubricated or coated journal bearing were analyzed by using a finite element method. A solid model of the shaft-bush tribocontact was generated with an eight-node, three-dimensional, first-order isoparametric heat-transfer element and the Patran solid modeler software. The Patmar (Patran-Marc) translator was used to help develop the Marc-based finite element program for the system; this software was used on the Cray X-MP supercomputer to perform a finite element analysis of the contact. The analysis was performed for various liner materials, for thin, hard, wear-resistant coated bearings, and for different geometries and thermal cooling boundary conditions. The analyses indicated that thermal conductivity of the liner or coating material is the most vital thermal parameter that controls the interface temperature. In addition to design variations, the proximity of the cooling source to the heat-flux-generating interface is critically important to the temperature control in the system.

  4. The Australian bush fires of February 2009: MIPAS observations and GEM-AQ model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatthor, N.; Höpfner, M.; Semeniuk, K.; Lupu, A.; Palmer, P. I.; McConnell, J. C.; Kaminski, J. W.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.; Wiegele, A.

    2012-06-01

    On 7 February 2009, and the following days Southeast Australia was devastated by large bush fires, which burned an area of about 3000 km2. This event was extraordinary, because a large number of combustion products was transported into the uppermost troposphere and lower stratosphere within a few days. Various biomass burning products released by the fire were observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) on the ENVISAT satellite. We track the plume using MIPAS C2H2, HCN and HCOOH single-scan measurements on a day-to-day basis. The measurements are compared with a high-resolution model run of the Global Environmental Multiscale-Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model. Generally there is very good agreement between the spatial distribution of measured and modelled pollutants during the first two weeks after the outbreak of the fire even over intercontinental distances. Both MIPAS and GEM-AQ show a fast south-eastward transport of the pollutants to New Zealand within one day. During the following 3-4 days the plume was located north and eastward of New Zealand and centered at altitudes of 15 to 18 km. Thereafter its eastern part was transported eastward at altitudes of 15-16 km, followed by westward transport of its western part at somewhat higher altitudes. On 17 February the eastern part had reached Southern South America and on 20 February the South African west coast. On the latter day a second relic of the plume was observed moving eastward above the Southern Pacific, whereas the westward transported pollutants were located above Australia at altitudes of 18-20 km. First evidence for entry of the pollutants into the stratosphere was found in MIPAS data of 11 February, followed by larger amounts on 17 February and the days thereafter. Between 20 February and the first week of March the stratospheric pollutants above Australia were transported further westward over the Indian Ocean towards Southern Africa.

  5. Genotypic differences in architectural and physiological responses to water restriction in rose bush

    PubMed Central

    Li-Marchetti, Camille; Le Bras, Camille; Relion, Daniel; Citerne, Sylvie; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Sakr, Soulaiman; Morel, Philippe; Crespel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20 and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones [abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA)], sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype × watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction – weak, moderate and strong – represented by Hw336, ‘Baipome’ and ‘The Fairy,’ respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of ‘Baipome’ compared to ‘The Fairy,’ but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses in ‘Baipome’ could be related to: (i) the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK) and to a lower concentration in SA; (ii) a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to water restriction. PMID

  6. Genotypic differences in architectural and physiological responses to water restriction in rose bush.

    PubMed

    Li-Marchetti, Camille; Le Bras, Camille; Relion, Daniel; Citerne, Sylvie; Huché-Thélier, Lydie; Sakr, Soulaiman; Morel, Philippe; Crespel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    The shape and, therefore, the architecture of the plant are dependent on genetic and environmental factors such as water supply. The architecture determines the visual quality, a key criterion underlying the decision to purchase an ornamental potted plant. The aim of this study was to analyze genotypic responses of eight rose bush cultivars to alternation of water restriction and re-watering periods, with soil water potential of -20 and -10 kPa respectively. Responses were evaluated at the architectural level through 3D digitalization using six architectural variables and at the physiological level by measuring stomatal conductance, water content, hormones [abscisic acid (ABA), auxin, cytokinins, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA)], sugars (sucrose, fructose, and glucose), and proline. Highly significant genotype and watering effects were revealed for all the architectural variables measured, as well as genotype × watering interaction, with three distinct genotypic architectural responses to water restriction - weak, moderate and strong - represented by Hw336, 'Baipome' and 'The Fairy,' respectively. The physiological analysis explained, at least in part, the more moderate architectural response of 'Baipome' compared to 'The Fairy,' but not that of Hw336 which is an interspecific hybrid. Such physiological responses in 'Baipome' could be related to: (i) the maintenance of the stimulation of budbreak and photosynthetic activity during water restriction periods due to a higher concentration in conjugated cytokinins (cCK) and to a lower concentration in SA; (ii) a better resumption of budbreak during the re-watering periods due to a lower concentration in ABA during this period. When associated with the six architectural descriptors, cCK, SA and ABA, which explained the genotypic differences in this study, could be used as selection criteria for breeding programs aimed at improving plant shape and tolerance to water restriction. PMID:26074929

  7. Common and distinguishing features of the bacterial and fungal communities in biological soil crusts and shrub root zone soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steven, Blaire; Gallegos-Graves, La Verne; Yeager, Chris; Belnap, Jayne; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2013-01-01

    Soil microbial communities in dryland ecosystems play important roles as root associates of the widely spaced plants and as the dominant members of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) colonizing the plant interspaces. We employed rRNA gene sequencing (bacterial 16S/fungal large subunit) and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to compare the microbial communities inhabiting the root zones of the dominant shrub, Larrea tridentata (creosote bush), and the interspace biocrusts in a Mojave desert shrubland within the Nevada Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment. Most of the numerically abundant bacteria and fungi were present in both the biocrusts and root zones, although the proportional abundance of those members differed significantly between habitats. Biocrust bacteria were predominantly Cyanobacteria while root zones harbored significantly more Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Pezizomycetes fungi dominated the biocrusts while Dothideomycetes were highest in root zones. Functional gene abundances in metagenome sequence datasets reflected the taxonomic differences noted in the 16S rRNA datasets. For example, functional categories related to photosynthesis, circadian clock proteins, and heterocyst-associated genes were enriched in the biocrusts, where populations of Cyanobacteria were larger. Genes related to potassium metabolism were also more abundant in the biocrusts, suggesting differences in nutrient cycling between biocrusts and root zones. Finally, ten years of elevated atmospheric CO2 did not result in large shifts in taxonomic composition of the bacterial or fungal communities or the functional gene inventories in the shotgun metagenomes.

  8. Competition between alien annual grasses and native annual plants in the Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Alien annual grasses in the genera Bromus and Schismus are widespread and abundant in the Mojave Desert, and negative correlations between these aliens and native annual plants suggest that competition may occur between them. Effects of competition were evaluated by thinning alien annual grass seedlings and measuring the responses of native annual plants at three sites in the central, southcentral and southwestern Mojave Desert during 2 y of contrasting plant productivity. Effects of Bromus and Schismus were evaluated separately in the microhabitat where each was most abundant, beneath the north side of creosote bushes (Larrea tridentata) for Bromus and in the open interspace between shrubs for Schismus. Thinning of Bromus and Schismus significantly increased density and biomass of native annuals at all three sites, only during a year of high annual plant productivity and species richness. Effects of thinning were greatest for Amsinckia tesselata and for a group of relatively uncommon native annuals. Thinning also significantly increased the density and biomass of the alien forb, Erodium cicutarium. These results show that alien annual grasses can compete with native annual plants and an alien forb in the Mojave Desert and that effects can vary among years.

  9. Channel Response to Low-Elevation Desert Fire: The King Valley Fire of 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, Robert H.; Griffiths, Peter G.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Boyer, Diane E.

    2007-01-01

    In late September to early October 2005, a fire swept north from the Yuma Proving Grounds and into the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), traveling mainly along desert wash systems and low-relief alluvial fans. This fire burned 9,975 ha, moving through xeroriparian systems in washes as well as low-elevation desert ecosystems in King Valley, a major area of designated wilderness in the southern part of the Kofa NWR. Using satellite imagery, we determined that 9,255 ha of the Kofa NWR in King Valley burned. The fine-fuel loading for the fire was mostly a native forb (Plantago insularis), and the desert environment that was burned was mostly low-cover creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) scrub with scattered palo verde (Cercidium microphyllum). The wash environments had significant tree cover, including ironwood (Olneya tesota), blue palo verde (Cercidium floridum), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis), and/or smoke tree (Psorothamnus spinosa). This report presents monitoring data collected in June 2006 and January-February 2007 on the effects of this fire on channel morphology in King Valley.

  10. Nordihydroguaiaretic Acid Inhibits Insulin-Like Growth Factor Signaling, Growth, and Survival in Human Neuroblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Gary E.; Chesler, Louis; Liu, Dandan; Gable, Karissa; Maddux, Betty A.; Goldenberg, David D.; Youngren, Jack F.; Goldfine, Ira D.; Weiss, William A.; Matthay, Katherine K.; Rosenthal, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a common pediatric malignancy that metastasizes to the liver, bone, and other organs. Children with metastatic disease have a less than 50% chance of survival with current treatments. Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) stimulate neuroblastoma growth, survival, and motility, and are expressed by neuroblastoma cells and the tissues they invade. Thus, therapies that disrupt the effects of IGFs on neuroblastoma tumorigenesis may slow disease progression. We show that NVP-AEW541, a specific inhibitor of the IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR), potently inhibits neuroblastoma growth in vitro. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a phenolic compound isolated from the creosote bush (Larrea divaricata), has anti-tumor properties against a number of malignancies, has been shown to inhibit the phosphorylation and activation of the IGF-IR in breast cancer cells, and is currently in Phase I trials for prostate cancer. In the present study in neuroblastoma, NDGA inhibits IGF-I-mediated activation of the IGF-IR and disrupts activation of ERK and Akt signaling pathways induced by IGF-I. NDGA inhibits growth of neuroblastoma cells and induces apoptosis at higher doses, causing IGF-I-resistant activation of caspase-3 and a large increase in the fraction of sub-G0 cells. In addition, NDGA inhibits the growth of xenografted human neuroblastoma tumors in nude mice. These results indicate that NDGA may be useful in the treatment of neuroblastoma and may function in part via disruption of IGF-IR signaling. PMID:17486636

  11. A mechanistic modeling and data assimilation framework for Mojave Desert ecohydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Gene-Hua Crystal; Bedford, David R.; Miller, David M.

    2014-06-01

    This study demonstrates and addresses challenges in coupled ecohydrological modeling in deserts, which arise due to unique plant adaptations, marginal growing conditions, slow net primary production rates, and highly variable rainfall. We consider model uncertainty from both structural and parameter errors and present a mechanistic model for the shrub Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) under conditions found in the Mojave National Preserve in southeastern California (USA). Desert-specific plant and soil features are incorporated into the CLM-CN model by Oleson et al. (2010). We then develop a data assimilation framework using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) to estimate model parameters based on soil moisture and leaf-area index observations. A new implementation procedure, the "multisite loop EnKF," tackles parameter estimation difficulties found to affect desert ecohydrological applications. Specifically, the procedure iterates through data from various observation sites to alleviate adverse filter impacts from non-Gaussianity in small desert vegetation state values. It also readjusts inconsistent parameters and states through a model spin-up step that accounts for longer dynamical time scales due to infrequent rainfall in deserts. Observation error variance inflation may also be needed to help prevent divergence of estimates from true values. Synthetic test results highlight the importance of adequate observations for reducing model uncertainty, which can be achieved through data quality or quantity.

  12. Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism of the Black-throated Sparrow in central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, M.J.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2004-01-01

    From 1994-1996 we investigated effects of Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) parasitism on Black-throated Sparrow (Amphispiza bilineata) nesting success in the Verde Valley of central Arizona. Of 56 Black-throated Sparrow nests, 52% were parasitized. Black-throated Sparrows appear to respond to natural parasitism by accepting the cowbird egg, deserting the nest, or burying the cowbird egg. Removal and damage of host eggs by female cowbirds effectively reduced clutch size from an average of 3.4 to 1.9 eggs. Because of this reduced clutch size, Black-throated Sparrow reproductive success was significantly lower in parasitized nests (0.2 young fledged/ nest) as compared to nonparasitized nests (1.6 young fledged/nest). When comparing cowbird parasitism between two habitat types, we found significantly higher parasitism frequencies in crucifixion-thorn (Canotia holacantha) versus creosote-bush (Larrea divaricata) habitat. We argue that this difference in parasitism is due to the greater number of tall perches (e.g., shrubs >4 m) available in crucifixion-thorn habitat, providing vantage points for female cowbirds to better find Black-throated Sparrow nests.

  13. Atmospheric-Ecosystem CO2 Exchange in Sparse Arid Shrublands Across the Great Basin USA Over Multiple Years: Identifying Patterns and Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, J. A.; Jasoni, R. L.; Larsen, J. D.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2008-12-01

    Up to recently, desert ecosystems have essentially been ignored with respect to their influence on global carbon cycling and their potential role in modulating atmospheric CO2 levels. Because deserts, defined here as ecosystems receiving <280 mm of precipitation annually, cover 35% of Earth's surface, even small positive or negative net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE=fluxes) can have globally meaningful effects on atmospheric CO2. Since 2003 we have been measuring NEE and annual NEP at 10 arid shrubland sites around the Great Basin in Nevada, USA using eddy covariance and large static chamber "domes" with the objectives of quantifying seasonal, annual and interannual fluxes and the environmental and ecological factors that may be modulating these fluxes. Surprisingly, annual NEP measured in Mojave Desert creosote bush (Larrea tridentata)-dominated ecosystems, high desert sagebrush steppe (Aremesia tridentata) ecosystems, and greasewood (Sarcobatus vermiculatus) ecosystems have been largely positive (net C uptake by ecosystems; range of zero to 90 g C m-2 yr-1) and often large (as high 100 to 180 g C m-2 yr-1). Thus, the data from these arid shrublands suggest a much larger arid land C sink than has been previously assumed and call for closer tracking of the CO2 fluxes in these ecosystems.

  14. Nest site characteristics and nesting success of the Western Burrowing Owl in the eastern Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen M.; Crowe, Dorothy E.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated nest site selection at two spatial scales (microsite, territory) and reproductive success of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) at three spatial scales (microsite, territory, landscape) in the eastern Mojave Desert. We used binary logistic regression within an information-theoretic approach to assess factors influencing nest site choice and nesting success. Microsite-scale variables favored by owls included burrows excavated by desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii), burrows with a large mound of excavated soil at the entrance, and a greater number of satellite burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. At the territory scale, owls preferred patches with greater cover of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) within 50 m of the nest burrow. An interaction between the presence or absence of a calcic soil horizon layer over the top of the burrow (microsite) and the number of burrows within 50 m (territory) influenced nest site choice. Nesting success was influenced by a greater number of burrows within 5 m of the nest burrow. Total cool season precipitation was a predictor of nesting success at the landscape scale. Conservation strategies can rely on management of habitat for favored and productive nesting sites for this declining species.

  15. The effect of fast transient overvoltages on 550 kV SF{sub 6}/oil transformer bushings

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, H.J.A.; Neves, A.; Amorim, I.B.; Maranhao, F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the results of the studies in a GIS (Gas-insulated substation) about disconnector operations and short-circuit and their dielectric stress in the form of steep front wave on the main power transformer bushings of Itaipu hydroelectric power plant. As a singular point is presented also the results of some tests specially developed to confirm and determine safe operational level and some modifications required in the equipment in order to enable them to live with these kinds of stresses.

  16. A review of bush dog Speothos venaticus (Lund, 1842) (Carnivora, Canidae) occurrences in Paraná state, subtropical Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tiepolo, L M; Quadros, J; Pitman, M R P L

    2016-06-01

    We report six new occurrence records of the bush dog Speothos venaticus, a widely distributed South American carnivore that is threatened with extinction. These records are accompanied by notes on the places where the records were made, such as vegetation type, date and information about the protection of areas. The records, obtained over the last 17 years in Paraná state, southern Brazil, offer an improved understanding of the species geographic range and the threats it faces and can enable better assessments of the conservation status of the species in southern Brazil. PMID:27007505

  17. Effects of aging on the structural, mechanical, and thermal properties of the silicone rubber current transformer insulation bushing for a 500 kV substation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhigao; Zhang, Xinghai; Wang, Fangqiang; Lan, Xinsheng; Zhou, Yiqian

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyze the cracking and aging reason of the silicone rubber current transformer (CT) insulation bushing used for 8 years from a 500 kV alternating current substation, characteristics including Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical properties analysis, hardness, and thermo gravimetric analysis have been carried out. The FTIR results indicated that the external surface of the silicone rubber CT insulation bushing suffered from more serious aging than the internal part, fracture of side chain Si-C bond was much more than the backbone. Mechanical properties and thermal stability results illustrated that the main aging reasons were the breakage of side chain Si-C bond and the excessive cross-linking reaction of the backbone. This study can provide valuable basis for evaluating degradation mechanism and aging state of the silicone rubber insulation bushing in electric power field. PMID:27390631

  18. Effect of DTPA on concentration ratios of /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm in vegetative parts of bush bean and barley

    SciTech Connect

    Romney, E.M.; Wallace, A.; Mueller, R.T.; Cha, J.W.; Wood, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    We grew bush beans, barley, and rice in two different soils in a glasshouse with /sup 237/Np or /sup 244/Cm mixed into separate containers of the soil. The chelating agent DTPA at 100 ..mu..g/g soil was added to half of the containers. The concentration ratio (CR) for /sup 237/Np without DTPA was two orders of magnitude higher than for /sup 244/Cm without DTPA for all three plant species. The DTPA increased the CR of /sup 244/Cm by two to three orders of magnitude, but had no influence on that for /sup 237/Np. In bush beans, both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm CRs were higher in primary leaves than in trifoliate leaves, which were higher than for stems. The CRs for bush beans were generally higher for both /sup 237/Np and /sup 244/Cm than for either barley or rice, especially without DTPA.

  19. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini).

    PubMed

    Lambkin, Christine L; Bartlett, Justin S

    2011-01-01

    Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia's National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery - identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei Lambkin sp. n., Palirika culgoafloodplainensis Lambkin sp. n., and Larrpana bushblitz Lambkin sp. n. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 Australian exoprosopine species belonging to the Balaana generic-group Lambkin & Yeates 2003 supports the placement of the three new species into existing genera, and the erection and description of the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n. for Ngalki trigonium (Lambkin & Yeates 2003) comb. n. Revised keys are provided for the genera of the Australian Balaana genus-group and the species of Palirika Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 and Larrpana Lambkin & Yeates 2003. With the description of the three new species and the transferral of Munjua trigona Lambkin & Yeates 2003 into the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n., three genera are rediagnosed; Munjua Lambkin & Yeates 2003, Palirika and Larrpana. PMID:22207816

  20. Prevention of Carbody Vibration of Railway Vehicles Induced by Imbalanced Wheelsets with Displacement-Dependent Rubber Bush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Takahiro; Takigami, Tadao; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Suzuki, Takashi

    This paper discusses the issue of carbody excitation of railway vehicles due to rotation of imbalanced wheelsets and proposes a simple and cost-effective countermeasure. The basic mechanisms of the carbody excitation are first described, then a displacement-dependent rubber bush, which is used for the connection between bogie frame and carbody, is proposed. The displacement-dependent property is realized by introducing a small gap between the rubber and the inner fixture, and the transmission of excitation force with high-frequency and small displacement are isolated by the gap. The small gap can be created naturally just by skipping the bonding process of rubber and inner fixture, so it is very simple and cost-effective countermeasure against this issue. The stiffness property can be tailored to meet the requirements from motional properties of the bogie by applying a Finite Element Analysis (FEA). The effectiveness and validity of the displacement-dependent rubber bushes applied for traction links are investigated and confirmed by both numerical calculation and excitation test using a full-scale test vehicle in the rolling stock testing plant.

  1. Bush Blitz aids description of three new species and a new genus of Australian beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Exoprosopini)

    PubMed Central

    Lambkin, Christine L.; Bartlett, Justin S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Bush Blitz is a three-year multimillion dollar program to document the plants and animals in hundreds of properties across Australia’s National Reserve System. The core focus is on nature discovery – identifying and describing new species of plants and animals. The Bush Blitz program has enabled the collection and description of beeflies (Diptera, Bombyliidae) from surveys in Western Australia and Queensland. Three new species of Australian beeflies belonging to the Exoprosopini are described; Palirika mackenziei Lambkin sp. n., Palirika culgoafloodplainensis Lambkin sp. n., and Larrpana bushblitz Lambkin sp. n. Phylogenetic analysis of 40 Australian exoprosopine species belonging to the Balaana generic-group Lambkin & Yeates 2003 supports the placement of the three new species into existing genera, and the erection and description of the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n. for Ngalki trigonium (Lambkin & Yeates 2003) comb. n. Revised keys are provided for the genera of the Australian Balaana genus-group and the species of Palirika Lambkin & Yeates, 2003 and Larrpana Lambkin & Yeates 2003. With the description of the three new species and the transferral of Munjua trigona Lambkin & Yeates 2003 into the new genus Ngalki Lambkin gen. n., three genera are rediagnosed; Munjua Lambkin & Yeates 2003, Palirika and Larrpana. PMID:22207816

  2. The Iraq War, "Sound Science," and "Evidence-Based" Educational Reform: How the Bush Administration Uses Deception, Manipulation, and Subterfuge to Advance Its Chosen Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Stephen P.; Smyth, John; Diehl, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In this article we describe how the Bush administration has used deceptive techniques and subterfuge to force its ideology upon the American people. We provide examples of similar techniques used to manipulate public opinion and national policy in three broad areas: national defense, science, and education. Our example from national defense…

  3. The Calm AFTER the Storm: An Interview with Laura Bush about the Caring Power of the Gulf Coast School Library Recovery Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Julie

    2012-01-01

    In 2005, a record breaking 26 named tropical storms including 13 hurricanes ravaged the Gulf Coast of the United States. In response to the devastation of hundreds of schools, the Laura Bush Foundation swiftly created The Gulf Coast School Library Recovery Initiative to help school libraries become fully functional and to offer the needed print…

  4. Restoring Equal Opportunity in Education: An Analysis of Arguments for and against the Bush Administration Single-Sex Education Regulations. Briefing Paper #C368

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, the George W. Bush Administration issued new Title IX regulations that allow for sex-segregated classrooms and schools in public, non-vocational elementary and secondary schools. These regulations provide schools with another condition that allows them to provide sex-segregated programs as long as they meet an "important governmental…

  5. Mechanical and Acoustical Properties of Bushings Made of Low-Alloyed Materials and Used in Brake Systems of Transport Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironov, V.; Stankevich, P.; Tatarinov, A.; Zemchenkov, V.; Boiko, I.

    2015-11-01

    The increasing freight volumes and the speed of transport, as well as increasing demands with regard to safety have made the search and development of new anti-friction materials a topical task. The main requirements to the bearing assemblies include reliability, durability, simplicity and ease of maintenance. The paper considers the features of the manufacture of braking sliding sleeves/ bushings for transport vehicles made from sintered low-alloy powder materials based on Fe-C-Ni with Ni and Mo contents of 0.3%. The paper presents data on the microstructure of the sintered samples of the products and research of some physical and mechanical properties. Surface quality and friction coefficient were evaluated by surface profiling and tribological tests, correspondingly. Particular attention is paid to the use of ultrasonic testing for quality control of the products.

  6. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Priti, H; Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H S; Ravikanth, G; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam; Gururaja, Kotambylu Vasudeva

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members--R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8-2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats. PMID:26934213

  7. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2015-01-01

    The Fukushima–Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  8. Monitoring free-living Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone) in a most highly radiocontaminated area of Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Ken; Tanoi, Keitaro; Nakanishi, Tomoko M

    2015-12-01

    The Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F1NPP) accident is an IAEA level 7 event, the same as that of Chernobyl, while the amount of radionuclides released is not comparable. Radioactivity attributed to the F1NPP accident was detected 250 km away from the F1NPP. Although we have not yet systematically studied the effect of radionuclides on the environment and wildlife, one of three Japanese Bush Warblers (Cettia diphone), captured in Akaugi district in August 2011, was observed to have a conspicuous lesion near the cloaca, which is rare in Japan. All of the birds' feathers were strongly contaminated. Further study is needed to determine the significance of this result. We emphasize the importance of continuing assessment of the effects of the F1NPP accident on wildlife. PMID:26825298

  9. Integrative Taxonomic Approach for Describing a New Cryptic Species of Bush Frog (Raorchestes: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Roshmi, Rekha Sarma; Ramya, Badrinath; Sudhira, H. S.; Ravikanth, G.; Aravind, Neelavara Anantharam

    2016-01-01

    A new cryptic species of bush frog Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov. is described from the south-eastern part of the Western Ghats, India. This newly described species belongs to the Charius clade and is morphologically similar to other clade members—R. charius and R. griet. Therefore, an integrative taxonomic approach based on molecular and bioacoustic analysis along with morphology was used to delimit the new species. Raorchestes honnametti sp. nov., is currently known only from Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, a part of Biligiri Rangaswamy horst mountain range (a mountain formed due movement of two faults) formed during the Late Quaternary period (1.8–2.58 Ma). Discovery of cryptic species from a highly speciose and well-studied genus Raorchestes hints at the possible existence of several more cryptic species in this genus. We discuss the possible reasons for crypsis and emphasize the need for continued systematic surveys of amphibians across the Western Ghats. PMID:26934213

  10. Wavelet-based detection of bush encroachment in a savanna using multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekede, Munyaradzi D.; Murwira, Amon; Masocha, Mhosisi

    2015-03-01

    Although increased woody plant abundance has been reported in tropical savannas worldwide, techniques for detecting the direction and magnitude of change are mostly based on visual interpretation of historical aerial photography or textural analysis of multi-temporal satellite images. These techniques are prone to human error and do not permit integration of remotely sensed data from diverse sources. Here, we integrate aerial photographs with high spatial resolution satellite imagery and use a discrete wavelet transform to objectively detect the dynamics in bush encroachment at two protected Zimbabwean savanna sites. Based on the recently introduced intensity-dominant scale approach, we test the hypotheses that: (1) the encroachment of woody patches into the surrounding grassland matrix causes a shift in the dominant scale. This shift in the dominant scale can be detected using a discrete wavelet transform regardless of whether aerial photography and satellite data are used; and (2) as the woody patch size stabilises, woody cover tends to increase thereby triggering changes in intensity. The results show that at the first site where tree patches were already established (Lake Chivero Game Reserve), between 1972 and 1984 the dominant scale of woody patches initially increased from 8 m before stabilising at 16 m and 32 m between 1984 and 2012 while the intensity fluctuated during the same period. In contrast, at the second site, which was formely grass-dominated site (Kyle Game Reserve), we observed an unclear dominant scale (1972) which later becomes distinct in 1985, 1996 and 2012. Over the same period, the intensity increased. Our results imply that using our approach we can detect and quantify woody/bush patch dynamics in savanna landscapes.

  11. The oxidation of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) in the environment by atmospheric oxygen during the bush fires.

    PubMed

    Panichev, N; Mabasa, W; Ngobeni, P; Mandiwana, K; Panicheva, S

    2008-05-30

    The presence of Cr(VI) in soils and plants of remote unpolluted areas can be explained by partial oxidation of Cr(III) with atmospheric oxygen during seasonable bush fires, which are rather frequent event in South Africa. Experiments with thermal treatment of a veld grass, Hyperthelia dissoluta, in muffle furnace at high temperature, followed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) determination of chromium, show a remarkable increase in Cr(VI) concentration from initial 2.5 to 23.2% after the treatment of grass ash at 500 degrees C and to 58.1% at 900 degrees C. Before ETAAS determination, the two chromium species of interest were separated by the treatment of samples with 0.1M Na2CO3. Thermodynamic calculations confirm the possibility of Cr(III) to Cr(VI) oxidation with atmospheric oxygen at high temperature in alkaline media, which is typical for vegetation ash. Analysis of field samples show that percent of Cr(VI), in respect to the total amount of chromium increased from initial 2.5% in grass to 9.3% in ash of grass. Without oxidation the percent of Cr(VI) in grass and ash of grass should be a constant value. After the fire Cr(VI) concentration in top soil (0-3 cm) increased from 0.3+/-0.05 to 1.8+/-0.5 microg g(-1) and the total Cr from 26+/-9 to 69+/-14 microg g(-1). The reason for the appearance of additional amount of Cr on top soil can be explained by condensation of chromium species from flame and shouldering ash on a soil surface. The results of studies demonstrate that Cr(VI) is formed by Cr(III) oxidation with atmospheric oxygen at high temperature during bush fires. PMID:17980482

  12. AHR-related activities in a creosote-adapted population of adult atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, two decades post-EPA superfund status at the Atlantic Wood Site, Portsmouth, VA USA.

    PubMed

    Wojdylo, Josephine V; Vogelbein, Wolfgang; Bain, Lisa J; Rice, Charles D

    2016-08-01

    Atlantic killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, are adapted to creosote-based PAHs at the US EPA Superfund site known as Atlantic Wood (AW) on the southern branch of the Elizabeth River, VA USA. Subsequent to the discovery of the AW population in the early 1990s, these fish were shown to be recalcitrant to CYP1A induction by PAHs under experimental conditions, and even to the time of this study, killifish embryos collected from the AW site are resistant to developmental deformities typically associated with exposure to PAHs in reference fish. Historically, however, 90 +% of the adult killifish at this site have proliferative hepatic lesions including cancer of varying severity. Several PAHs at this site are known to be ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). In this study, AHR-related activities in AW fish collected between 2011 and 2013 were re-examined nearly 2 decades after first discovery. This study shows that CYP1A mRNA expression is three-fold higher in intestines of AW killifish compared to a reference population. Using immunohistochemistry, CYP1A staining in intestines was uniformly positive compared to negative staining in reference fish. Livers of AW killifish were examined by IHC to show that CYP1A and AHR2 protein expression reflect lesions-specific patterns, probably representing differences in intrinsic cellular physiology of the spectrum of proliferative lesions comprising the hepatocarcinogenic process. We also found that COX2 mRNA expression levels were higher in AW fish livers compared to those in the reference population, suggesting a state of chronic inflammation. Overall, these findings suggest that adult AW fish are responsive to AHR signaling, and do express CYP1A and AHR2 proteins in intestines at a level above what was observed in the reference population. PMID:27262937

  13. Soil, plant, and terrain effects on natural perchlorate distribution in a desert landscape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, Brian J.; Jackson, W.A.; Welborn, Toby L.; Böhlke, John Karl; Sevanthi, Ritesh; Stonestrom, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4−) is a contaminant that occurs naturally throughout the world, but little is known about its distribution and interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. The objectives of this Amargosa Desert, Nevada study were to determine (i) the local-scale distribution of shallow-soil (0–30 cm) ClO4− with respect to shrub proximity (far and near) in three geomorphic settings (shoulder slope, footslope, and valley floor); (ii) the importance of soil, plant, and terrain variables on the hillslope-distribution of shallow-soil and creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville] ClO4−; and (iii) atmospheric (wet plus dry, including dust) deposition of ClO4− in relation to soil and plant reservoirs and cycling. Soil ClO4− ranged from 0.3 to 5.0 μg kg−1. Within settings, valley floor ClO4− was 17× less near shrubs due in part to enhanced leaching, whereas shoulder and footslope values were ∼2× greater near shrubs. Hillslope regression models (soil, R2 = 0.42; leaf, R2 = 0.74) identified topographic and soil effects on ClO4− deposition, transport, and cycling. Selective plant uptake, bioaccumulation, and soil enrichment were evidenced by leaf ClO4− concentrations and Cl−/ClO4− molar ratios that were ∼8000× greater and 40× less, respectively, than soil values. Atmospheric deposition ClO4− flux was 343 mg ha−1 yr−1, ∼10× that for published southwestern wet-deposition fluxes. Creosote bush canopy ClO4− (1310 mg ha−1) was identified as a previously unrecognized but important and active reservoir. Nitrate δ18O analyses of atmospheric deposition and soil supported the leaf-cycled–ClO4− input hypothesis. This study provides basic data on ClO4− distribution and cycling that are pertinent to the assessment of environmental impacts in desert ecosystems and broadly transferable to anthropogenically contaminated systems.

  14. Tracking discourse complexity preceding Alzheimer's disease diagnosis: a case study comparing the press conferences of Presidents Ronald Reagan and George Herbert Walker Bush.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Visar; Wang, Shuai; LaCross, Amy; Liss, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Changes in some lexical features of language have been associated with the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Here we describe a method to extract key features from discourse transcripts, which we evaluated on non-scripted news conferences from President Ronald Reagan, who was diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease in 1994, and President George Herbert Walker Bush, who has no known diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Key word counts previously associated with cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease were extracted and regression analyses were conducted. President Reagan showed a significant reduction in the number of unique words over time and a significant increase in conversational fillers and non-specific nouns over time. There was no significant trend in these features for President Bush. PMID:25633673

  15. Too little or just right? Bush lays his healthcare budget on the table, but Democrats--and some Republicans--say $190 billion falls short.

    PubMed

    Lovern, Ed; Gardner, Jonathan

    2002-02-01

    In his State of the Union address last week, President Bush barely mentioned healthcare. But he tried to make up for it when he released his healthcare budget for 2003, which calls for $190 billion over 10 years to reform Medicare. The plan got a lukewarm reception from those in the industry, along with most Democrats and even some Republicans, who were hoping for a stronger stand. PMID:11859822

  16. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum, may utilize “trample burr” dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic “Dioicum Complex” lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent “trample burr” seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Australia to far northwestern Northern Territory and has been recognized for decades as a variant of Solanum dioicum W.Fitzg. Specimens of this species were previously referred to by D.E. Symon and others as Solanum dioicum ‘Tanami.’ Ex situ crossing studies and SEM images of inaperturate pollen grains produced in morphologically hermaphrodite flowers indicate that this taxon is functionally dioecious. The scientific name was chosen with the help of 150 seventh grade life science students from Pennsylvania, USA. PMID:27489475

  17. Two functional types of attachment pads on a single foot in the Namibia bush cricket Acanthoproctus diadematus (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae)

    PubMed Central

    Grohmann, Constanze; Henze, Miriam Judith; Nørgaard, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2015-01-01

    Insects have developed different structures to adhere to surfaces. Most common are smooth and hairy attachment pads, while nubby pads have also been described for representatives of Mantophasmatodea, Phasmida and Plecoptera. Here we report on the unusual combination of nubby and smooth tarsal attachment structures in the !nara cricket Acanthoproctus diadematus. Their three proximal tarsal pads (euplantulae) have a nubby surface, whereas the most distal euplantula is rather smooth with a hexagonal ground pattern resembling that described for the great green bush-cricket Tettigonia viridissima. This is, to our knowledge, the first report on nubby euplantulae in Orthoptera and the co-occurrence of nubby and smooth euplantulae on a single tarsus in a polyneopteran species. When adhering upside down to a horizontal glass plate, A. diadematus attaches its nubby euplantulae less often, compared to situations in which the animal is hanging upright or head down on a vertical plate. We discuss possible reasons for this kind of clinging behaviour, such as morphological constrains, the different role of normal and shear forces in attachment enhancement of the nubby and smooth pads, ease of the detachment process, and adaptations to walking on cylindrical substrates. PMID:26213740

  18. Molecular phylogeny of African bush-shrikes and allies: tracing the biogeographic history of an explosive radiation of corvoid birds.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Irestedt, Martin; Fjeldså, Jon; Couloux, Arnaud; Pasquet, Eric; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2012-07-01

    The Malaconotidea (e.g., butcherbirds, bush-shrikes, batises, vangas) represent an Old World assemblage of corvoid passerines that encompass many different foraging techniques (e.g., typical flycatchers, flycatcher-shrikes, canopy creepers, undergrowth skulkers). At present, relationships among the primary Malaconotidea clades are poorly resolved, a result that could either be attributed to a rapid accumulation of lineages over a short period of time (hard polytomy) or to an insufficient amount of data having been brought to bear on the problem (soft polytomy). Our objective was to resolve the phylogenetic relationships and biogeographic history of the Malaconotidea using DNA sequences gathered from 10 loci with different evolutionary properties. Given the range of substitution rates of molecular markers we sequenced (mitochondrial, sex-linked, autosomal), we also sought to explore the effect of altering the branch-length prior in Bayesian tree estimation analyses. We found that changing the branch-length priors had no major effect on topology, but clearly improved mixing of the chains for some loci. Our phylogenetic analyses clarified the relationships of several genera (e.g., Pityriasis, Machaerirhynchus) and provide for the first time strong support for a sister-group relationship between core platysteirids and core vangids. Our biogeographic reconstruction somewhat unexpectedly suggests that the large African radiation of malaconotids originated after a single over-water dispersal from Australasia around 45-33.7 mya, shedding new light on the origins of the Afrotropical avifauna. PMID:22475817

  19. Changing vegetation self organisation affecting eco-hydrological and geomorphological processes under invasion of blue bush in SE South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; Kakembo, V.

    2012-04-01

    In southeastern South Africa sub-humid grasslands on abandoned soils are spontaneously being invaded by the exotic shrub Pteronia incana (Blue bush) originating from the semi-arid and arid Karoo region. This results eventually in soil loss and rill and gully erosion and consequently loss in agricultural production affecting the local rural economy. Degradation of soils is occurring following replacement of grassland by unpalatable shrubs and altering the spatial organization of the vegetation. This in consequence is changing the eco-hydrological response of the hillslopes leading to a dramatic increase of runoff and erosion. However the reason for this spontaneous vegetation replacement is not clear. Various explanations have been proposed and discussed such as overgrazing, vegetation cover and rainfall, drought or climatic change or exposition. The study presented aims at quantifying the observed changes in the plant and bare spot patterns and which may help us unraveling vegetation self organisation processes in relation to environmental disturbances. We analyzed high resolution low altitude images of vegetation patterns in combination with high resolution digital terrain model analysis. We applied this procedure for different patterns reflecting a time series covering the observed changing patterns. These reflect changing interactions between the (re-) organization of the plant patterns during the bushy invasion and incorporated the interaction between vegetation, water redistribution and soil properties. By doing so we may be able to unravel critical processes as indicated by changes in vegetation patterns that might enable us to mitigate degradation of dryland ecosystems.

  20. Humidity and seasonality drives body size patterns in males of the bush cricket Isophya rizeensis Sevgili, 2003 (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae).

    PubMed

    Cağlar, Selim S; Karacaoğlu, Cağaşan; Kuyucu, A Cem; Sağlam, Ismail K

    2014-04-01

    Two primary patterns of body size variation have been recorded in ectotherms in relation to latitudinal/altitudinal shifts. In some, body size increases with increasing latitude/altitude whereas, in others, body size decreases with increasing latitude/altitude. This clinal variation is generally assumed to be caused by local adaptation to environmental conditions however the selective variable(s) (temperature, humidity, diet quality, etc.) is still heavily debated. Here we investigate geographic variation in body size of dark and pale color morphs of males of the bush-cricket Isophya rizeensis collected from 15 locations along an elevation gradient ranging from 350 to 2 500 m. Using an information theoretical approach we evaluate the relative support of four different hypotheses (the temperature size rule, the moisture gradient hypothesis, the seasonal constraint hypothesis, and the primary productivity hypothesis) explaining body size variation along the altitudinal gradient. Body size variation in pale color morphs showed a curvilinear relationship with altitude while dark color morphs showed no variation in body size. Body size variation in pale color morphs was highly correlated with precipitation and temperature seasonality values thus giving strong support for the moisture gradient and seasonal constraint hypothesis. Our results reinforce the importance of gradients in humidity and seasonality over temperature in the creation of altitudinal body size clines and the role of selection for resistance to stress factors in the establishment of these clines. Whether a body size cline is observed or not might also depend on the phenotypic properties of the individuals, like coloration. PMID:23956203

  1. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

  2. Lineage delimitation and description of nine new species of bush frogs (Anura: Raorchestes, Rhacophoridae) from the Western Ghats Escarpment.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, S P; Dinesh, K P; Prabhu, Mrugank V; Shanker, Kartik

    2014-01-01

    Bush frogs of the genus Raorchestes are distributed mainly in the Western Ghats Escarpment of Peninsular India. The inventory of species in this genus is incomplete and there is ambiguity in the systematic status of species recognized by morphological criteria. To address the dual problem of taxon sampling and systematic uncertainty in bush frogs, we used a large-scale spatial sampling design, explicitly incorporating the geographic and ecological heterogeneity of the Western Ghats. We then used a hierarchical multi-criteria approach by combining mitochondrial phylogeny, genetic distance, geographic range, morphology and advertisement call to delimit bush frog lineages. Our analyses revealed the existence of a large number of new lineages with varying levels of genetic divergence. Here, we provide diagnoses and descriptions for nine lineages that exhibit divergence across multiple axes. The discovery of new lineages that exhibit high divergence across wide ranges of elevation and across the major massifs highlights the large gaps in historical sampling. These discoveries underscore the significance of addressing inadequate knowledge of species distribution, namely the "Wallacean shortfall", in addressing the problem of taxon sampling and unknown diversity in tropical hotspots. A biogeographically informed sampling and analytical approach was critical in detecting and delineating lineages in a consistent manner across the genus. Through increased taxon sampling, we were also able to discern a number of well-supported sub-clades that were either unresolved or absent in earlier phylogenetic reconstructions and identify a number of shallow divergent lineages which require further examination for assessment of their taxonomic status.  PMID:25544534

  3. Application of the US Geological Survey's precipitation-runoff modeling system to Williams Draw and Bush Draw basins, Jackson County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey 's precipitation-runoff modeling system was calibrated for this study by using daily streamflow data for April through September, 1980 and 1981, from the Williams Draw basin in Jackson County, Colorado. The calibrated model then was verified by using daily streamflow data for April through September, 1982 and 1983. Transferability of the model was tested by application to adjoining Bush Draw basin by using daily streamflow data for April through September, 1981 through 1983. Four model parameters were optimized in the calibration: (1) BST, base air temperature used to determine the form of precipitation (rain, snow, or a mixture); (2) SMAX, maximum available water-holding capacity of the soil zone; (3) TRNCF, transmission coefficient for the vegetation canopy over the snowpack; and (4) DSCOR, daily precipitation correction factor for snow. For calibration and verification, volume and timing of simulated streamflow were reasonably close to recorded streamflow; differences were least during years that had considerable snowpack accumulation and were most during years that had minimal or no snowpack accumulation. Calibration and optimization of parameters were facilitated by snowpack water-equivalent data. Application of the model to Bush Draw basin to test for transferability indicated inaccurate results in simulation of streamflow volume. Weighted values of SMAX, TRNCF, and DSCOR from the calibration basin were used for Bush Draw. The inadequate results obtained by use of weighted parameters indicate that snowpack water-equivalent data are needed for successful application of the precipitation-runoff modeling system in this area, because frequent windy conditions cause variations in snowpack accumulation. (USGS)

  4. Prediction of the effects of nutrient loadings from a power plant at Perryman on the water quality of the Bush River estuary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, K.A.; Dwyer, R.L.; Turner, M.A.

    1986-10-01

    A water-quality model consisting of a one-dimensional Hydraulic Module coupled with a Water Quality Module was used to assess the effects of increased nutrient loadings from the proposed Perryman Power Plant on the dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the Bush River estuary. The Hydraulic Module represented the longitudinal water movement (and physical transport of associated constituents) among 12 spatial segments. The Water Quality Module represented the biological processes affecting nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and dissolved oxygen in each segment (e.g., photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, decomposition).

  5. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil.

    PubMed

    Andraski, B J; Sandstrom, M W; Michel, R L; Radyk, J C; Stonestrom, D A; Johnson, M J; Mayers, C J

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphite-based solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sessé & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments. PMID:12809299

  6. A 30-year chronosequence of burned areas in Arizona: effects of wildfires on vegetation in Sonoran Desert Tortoise (Gopherus morafkai) habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Chen, Felicia C.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is widely regarded as a key evolutionary force in fire-prone ecosystems, with effects spanning multiple levels of organization, from species and functional group composition through landscape-scale vegetation structure, biomass, and diversity (Pausas and others, 2004; Bond and Keeley 2005; Pausas and Verdu, 2008). Ecosystems subjected to novel fire regimes may experience profound changes that are difficult to predict, including persistent losses of vegetation cover and diversity (McLaughlin and Bowers, 1982; Brown and Minnich, 1986; Brooks, 2012), losses to seed banks (Esque and others, 2010a), changes in demographic processes (Esque and others, 2004; DeFalco and others, 2010), increased erosion (Soulard and others, 2013), changes in nutrient availability (Esque and others, 2010b), increased dominance of invasive species (Esque and others, 2002; Brooks and others, 2004), and transitions to alternative community states (Davies and others, 2012). In the deserts of the Southwestern United States, fire size and frequency have increased substantially over the last several decades because of an invasive grass/fire feedback cycle (Schmid and Rogers, 1988; D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Swantek and others, 1999; Brooks and Matchett, 2006; Esque and others, 2010a), in which invasive annual species are able to establish fuel loads capable of sustaining large-scale wildfires following years of high rainfall (Esque and Schwalbe, 2002). Native perennial vegetation is not well-adapted to fire in these environments, and widespread, physiognomically dominant species such as creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), Joshua tree (Yucca brevifolia), giant saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea), and paloverde (Parkinsonia spp.) may be reduced or eliminated (Brown and Minnich, 1986; Esque and others, 2006; DeFalco and others, 2010), potentially affecting wildlife populations including the Sonoran and federally threatened Mojave Desert Tortoises (Gopherus morafkai and Gopherus agassizii

  7. Nordihydroguaiaretic acid activates hTRPA1 and modulates behavioral responses to noxious cold in mice

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, William John; Camo, Maxime; Mitchell, Vanessa; Vaughan, Christopher Walter; Connor, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) is a major biologically active component of the creosote bush, Larrea tridentate, widely used in unregulated therapies. NDGA is a lipoxygenase inhibitor while a derivative, terameprocol, has been trialed as a chemotherapeutic agent. When investigating fatty acid activation of the human transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily A, member 1 (hTRPA1), we found that NDGA activated the channel. Here we investigate the actions of NDGA and terameprocol at hTRPA1 and the consequences of this for noxious cold sensitivity in mice. hTRPA1 was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells (HEK 293-TRPA1) and channel activity examined by measuring changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca]i) using a fluorescent dye and activation of membrane currents using patch clamp electrophysiology. The effects of local NDGA and terameprocol application on acetone-induced paw flinching were examined in mice. NDGA (pEC50 of 5.4 ± 0.1, maximum change in fluorescence of 385 ± 30%) and terameprocol (pEC50 4.5 ± 0.2, maximum 550 ± 75%) increased [Ca]i in HEK 293-hTRPA1 cells. NDGA also induced an increase in membrane conductance in HEK 293-hTRPA1 cells. These effects were prevented by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, and were dependent on the presence of Cys621, Cys 641, and Cys 665 in hTRPA1. Neither NDGA nor terameprocol alone produced spontaneous pain behaviors in mice after hind paw injection, but both enhanced responses to acetone. NDGA and terameprocol are efficacious activators of TRPA1. NDGA should be used with care to probe lipoxygenase involvement in nociception while TRPA1 activity should be considered when considering use of these drugs in humans. PMID:25505619

  8. Cytochrome P450 2B Diversity and Dietary Novelty in the Herbivorous, Desert Woodrat (Neotoma lepida)

    PubMed Central

    Malenke, Jael R.; Magnanou, Elodie; Thomas, Kirk; Dearing, M. Denise

    2012-01-01

    Detoxification enzymes play a key role in plant-herbivore interactions, contributing to the on-going evolution of ecosystem functional diversity. Mammalian detoxification systems have been well studied by the medical and pharmacological industries to understand human drug metabolism; however, little is known of the mechanisms employed by wild herbivores to metabolize toxic plant secondary compounds. Using a wild rodent herbivore, the desert woodrat (Neotoma lepida), we investigated genomic structural variation, sequence variability, and expression patterns in a multigene subfamily involved in xenobiotic metabolism, cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B). We hypothesized that differences in CYP2B expression and sequence diversity could explain differential abilities of woodrat populations to consume native plant toxins. Woodrats from two distinct populations were fed diets supplemented with either juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) or creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), plants consumed by woodrats in their respective desert habitats. We used Southern blot and quantitative PCR to determine that the genomic copy number of CYP2B in both populations was equivalent, and similar in number to known rodent copy number. We compared CYP2B expression patterns and sequence diversity using cloned hepatic CYP2B cDNA. The resulting sequences were very diverse, and clustered into four major clades by amino acid similarity. Sequences from the experimental treatments were distributed non-randomly across a CYP2B tree, indicating unique expression patterns from woodrats on different diets and from different habitats. Furthermore, within each major CYP2B clade, sequences shared a unique combination of amino acid residues at 13 sites throughout the protein known to be important for CYP2B enzyme function, implying differences in the function of each major CYP2B variant. This work is the most comprehensive investigation of the genetic diversity of a detoxification enzyme subfamily in a wild mammalian

  9. Simplified method for detecting tritium contamination in plants and soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andraski, B.J.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Michel, R.L.; Radyk, J.C.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Mayers, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Cost-effective methods are needed to identify the presence and distribution of tritium near radioactive waste disposal and other contaminated sites. The objectives of this study were to (i) develop a simplified sample preparation method for determining tritium contamination in plants and (ii) determine if plant data could be used as an indicator of soil contamination. The method entailed collection and solar distillation of plant water from foliage, followed by filtration and adsorption of scintillation-interfering constituents on a graphitebased solid phase extraction (SPE) column. The method was evaluated using samples of creosote bush [Larrea tridentata (Sesse?? & Moc. ex DC.) Coville], an evergreen shrub, near a radioactive disposal area in the Mojave Desert. Laboratory tests showed that a 2-g SPE column was necessary and sufficient for accurate determination of known tritium concentrations in plant water. Comparisons of tritium concentrations in plant water determined with the solar distillation-SPE method and the standard (and more laborious) toluene-extraction method showed no significant difference between methods. Tritium concentrations in plant water and in water vapor of root-zone soil also showed no significant difference between methods. Thus, the solar distillation-SPE method provides a simple and cost-effective way to identify plant and soil contamination. The method is of sufficient accuracy to facilitate collection of plume-scale data and optimize placement of more sophisticated (and costly) monitoring equipment at contaminated sites. Although work to date has focused on one desert plant, the approach may be transferable to other species and environments after site-specific experiments.

  10. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C.A.; Andraski, B.J.; Stonestrom, D.A.; Cooper, C.A.; Johnson, M.J.; Michel, R.L.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil-plant-atmosphere interactions strongly infl uence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but litile is known about how such interactions aff ect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantifi ed the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fl uxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fl uxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L-1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley-Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the diff erence between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 ??g d-1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 ?? 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium fl ux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  11. Transport of tritium contamination to the atmosphere in an arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Andraski, Brian J.; Johnson, Michael J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Michel, Robert L.; Cooper, C.A.; Wheatcraft, S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Soil–plant–atmosphere interactions strongly influence water movement in desert unsaturated zones, but little is known about how such interactions affect atmospheric release of subsurface water-borne contaminants. This 2-yr study, performed at the U.S. Geological Survey's Amargosa Desert Research Site in southern Nevada, quantified the magnitude and spatiotemporal variability of tritium (3H) transport from the shallow unsaturated zone to the atmosphere adjacent to a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) facility. Tritium fluxes were calculated as the product of 3H concentrations in water vapor and respective evaporation and transpiration water-vapor fluxes. Quarterly measured 3H concentrations in soil water vapor and in leaf water of the dominant creosote-bush [Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville] were spatially extrapolated and temporally interpolated to develop daily maps of contamination across the 0.76-km2 study area. Maximum plant and root-zone soil concentrations (4200 and 8700 Bq L−1, respectively) were measured 25 m from the LLRW facility boundary. Continuous evaporation was estimated using a Priestley–Taylor model and transpiration was computed as the difference between measured eddy-covariance evapotranspiration and estimated evaporation. The mean evaporation/transpiration ratio was 3:1. Tritium released from the study area ranged from 0.12 to 12 μg d−1 and totaled 1.5 mg (8.2 × 1010 Bq) over 2 yr. Tritium flux variability was driven spatially by proximity to 3H source areas and temporally by changes in 3H concentrations and in the partitioning between evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration removed and limited penetration of precipitation beneath native vegetation and fostered upward movement and release of 3H from below the root zone.

  12. On the topographic imprint of vegetation: Results from field observations and DEM analysis of small semiarid basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Istanbulluoglu, E.; Vivoni, E. R.; Gutierrez-Jurado, H. A.; Bras, R. R.

    2006-12-01

    Terrestrial landforms result from the complex interactions between biotic and abiotic earth surface processes forced by climate and tectonics. Understanding the coupled evolution of the physical landscape system with its biology is a fundamental problem in hydrological sciences. One efficient way to study this coupling is to quantify the differences in vegetation patterns on neighboring hillslopes that are within the same climate, geology and catchment area. Vegetation patterns in the southwestern US are typically organized with respect to the topographic texture with repeated bands consisting of more mesic plant species in the wetter north- facing slopes, and communities dominated by xeric species on the drier south-facing slopes, especially where climate promotes ecosystem coexistence. There is evidence that over the long-term such differences in plant species lead to differential soil and landform development on hillslopes with opposing aspects. In this study we report preliminary results on the mathematical properties of landscape morphology of various hillslope aspects in several small-scale (<10km2) semiarid catchments near Socorro New Mexico based on field measurements of hillslope profiles and digital elevation model analysis. In the basins studied, the north-facing hillslopes are composed of oneseed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) and several grass species, have convex hilltops and planar slopes atypical of diffusive landforms. The south-facing slopes are primarily creosote bush (Larrea tridentata), and visually more dissected and concave than the north facing slopes, displaying geomorphic signatures of fluvial erosion. Along the head slopes, often an active ecotone serves as a boundary between the ecosystems. Our results suggest that even subtle differences in the vegetation type under essentially the same climate and geologic controls leave detectable signatures on the mathematical properties of landscape organization and morphology.

  13. Soil Ecology of Coccidioides immitis at Amerindian Middens in California

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, George H.; Swatek, Frank E.

    1974-01-01

    Outbreaks of coccidioidomycosis and isolation of Coccidioides immitis have been reported from Amerindian middens. This study was undertaken to determine the most important ecological component(s) for the occurrence of C. immitis at archeological sites. Soils from 10 former Indian villages with no prior history of coccidioidal infection were collected and cultured. The physicochemical properties of the midden soils were compared with nonmidden soils and positive soils. The following theories for the sporadic distribution of the pathogen in the soil of the Lower Sonoran Life Zone were considered: (i) the Larrea tridentata (creosote bush) association, (ii) the preference for saline soils, (iii) isolation near rodent burrows, and (iv) animals as possible agents of dispersal. Results showed that a high percentage of the midden soils contained C. immitis, whereas none of the adjacent, nonmidden soils yielded the fungus. Physicochemical analyses revealed that the dark color and alkaline pH of the midden soils were due to past organic contamination. Repeated isolations were made from soils with low to moderate alkalinity. Alkalinity and sandy texture were consistent features of all soils in this study. However, the lack of any reports of nonsandy infested soils possibly indicates that the sandy texture and alkalinity may be factors in the distribution of this fungus. The organic content, soil parent material, and color were not important in the soil ecology. L. tridentata was not significant in the macroflora at the infested sites surveyed. Samples collected without reference to rodent burrows yielded a high percentage of recoveries. Animals, although not the major natural reservoir, cannot be ignored as possible factors in the ecology of C. immitis. Images PMID:4856715

  14. Fate of the explosive hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in soil and bioaccumulation in bush bean hydroponic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, S.D.; Fellows, R.J.; Cataldo, D.A.; Bean, R.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Soils amended with [[sup 14]C]hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) were sampled over 60 d and subjected to exhaustive Soxhlet extraction followed by HPLC analysis. RDX was the only radiolabeled compound observed in soil extracts. Emission of volatile organics and [sup 14]CO[sub 2] from soil accounted for only 0.31 % of the amended radiolabel. Mass balance for RDX-amended soil was better than 84% throughout the two-month study. The analytical method developed for plants involved acid hydrolysis, solvent extraction, fractionation on Florisil adsorbent and separation by HPLC. The described methodology allowed for RDX recovery of 86 [+-] 3% from fortified bush bean leaf tissue. Further experiments were conducted with bush bean plants maintained on RDX-containing hydroponic solutions. Hydroponic plants did not emit detectable amounts of [sup 14]CO[sub 2] or radiolabeled volatile organics. Analysis of the plant tissue indicated bioaccumulation of RDX in the aerial tissues of hydroponic plants exposed for either 1 or 7 d. Metabolism of RDX to polar metabolites was observed in plants exposed for 7 d.

  15. Sticking to My Bush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Jun

    2005-01-01

    Forty years ago I was trying to solve the problem of the resistance minimum in dilute magnetic alloys. In this note I shall describe experimental facts that played an essential role in solving the problem and difficulties involved in the problem that embarrassed theoretical people at that time. I shall then mention how the difficulties were overcome.

  16. Ecohydrology of root zone water fluxes and soil development in complex semiarid rangelands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez-Jurado, Hugo A.; Vivoni, Enrique R.; Harrison, J. Bruce J.; Guan, Huade

    2006-10-01

    In semiarid complex terrain, the landscape creates spatial niches for different types of vegetation through the effects of aspect, slope and curvature on the water and energy balance at the soil surface. The ecohydrology of rangelands is defined by the interaction of soils, plants and climate occurring on a topographic surface. While these interactions have been studied for subtle terrain, little is known about the controls exerted by terrain position, in particular terrain aspect, on ecosystem processes. Furthermore, differential plant establishment can lead to measurable differences in rates of soil development, which in turn can affect soil hydraulic properties and the surface water balance. In this study, we outline the physical mechanisms affecting plant establishment, soil development and hydrologic fluxes in semiarid complex terrain. We illustrate the interactions between vegetation, root zone water fluxes and soil development using, as an example, a small drainage basin in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), New Mexico. In the study basin, opposing hillslopes are characterized by marked differences in ecosystem composition and soil profile properties, with the north-facing hillslope dominated by one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) and the south-facing slope consisting of creosote bush (Larrea tridentata). We assess the effect of terrain aspect on root zone hydrologic fluxes and soil development in the two ecosystems by using soil observations, hydraulic properties from pedotransfer functions (PTFs), and numerical modelling of vadose zone fluxes. Modelling results show marked differences in root zone fluxes in the north-facing juniper and south-facing creosote ecosystems. Differences in the amplitude and frequency of soil water content and pressure correspond to changes in soil profile and vegetation characteristics. For example, soil properties of the calcium carbonate (CaCO3) horizons and differential plant water uptake impact the simulated

  17. American Presidents and Their Attitudes, Beliefs, and Actions Surrounding Education and Multiculturalism. A Series of Research Studies in Educational Policy. Sixth Installment: Examining Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, H. Prentice; Orvosh-Kamenski, Heidi; Kamenski, Christopher J.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the recent presidencies of Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and William Jefferson Clinton and is the sixth installment in a series that examines how presidents, through their office of power, have impacted U.S. citizens by their actions and policies. By viewing the presidents through a multicultural lense we can more…

  18. A long-term experimental case study of the ecological effectiveness and cost effectiveness of invasive plant management in achieving conservation goals: bitou bush control in booderee national park in eastern australia.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J; Catford, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  19. A Long-Term Experimental Case Study of the Ecological Effectiveness and Cost Effectiveness of Invasive Plant Management in Achieving Conservation Goals: Bitou Bush Control in Booderee National Park in Eastern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Wood, Jeff; MacGregor, Christopher; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Dexter, Nicholas; Fortescue, Martin; Hobbs, Richard J.; Catford, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive plant management is often justified in terms of conservation goals, yet progress is rarely assessed against these broader goals, instead focussing on short-term reductions of the invader as a measure of success. Key questions commonly remain unanswered including whether invader removal reverses invader impacts and whether management itself has negative ecosystem impacts. We addressed these knowledge gaps using a seven year experimental investigation of Bitou Bush, Chrysanthemoides monilifera subsp. rotundata. Our case study took advantage of the realities of applied management interventions for Bitou Bush to assess whether it is a driver or passenger of environmental change, and quantified conservation benefits relative to management costs of different treatment regimes. Among treatments examined, spraying with herbicide followed by burning and subsequent re-spraying (spray-fire-spray) proved the most effective for reducing the number of individuals and cover of Bitou Bush. Other treatment regimes (e.g. fire followed by spraying, or two fires in succession) were less effective or even exacerbated Bitou Bush invasion. The spray-fire-spray regime did not increase susceptibility of treated areas to re-invasion by Bitou Bush or other exotic species. This regime significantly reduced plant species richness and cover, but these effects were short-lived. The spray-fire-spray regime was the most cost-effective approach to controlling a highly invasive species and facilitating restoration of native plant species richness to levels characteristic of uninvaded sites. We provide a decision tree to guide management, where recommended actions depend on the outcome of post-treatment monitoring and performance against objectives. Critical to success is avoiding partial treatments and treatment sequences that may exacerbate invasive species impacts. We also show the value of taking advantage of unplanned events, such as wildfires, to achieve management objectives at

  20. Solanum watneyi, a new bush tomato species from the Northern Territory, Australia named for Mark Watney of the book and film “The Martian”

    PubMed Central

    Martine, Christopher T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Cantley, Jason T.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new species of andromonoecious Solanum from the Australian “bush tomato clade” of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum watneyi Martine & Frawley, sp. nov. is closely allied with Solanum eburneum, and is sympatric with it in parts of its range in the Northern Territory. The new species has been recognized as a variant of Solanum eburneum for decades, at times being referred to by local botanists as Solanum sp. “Bullita” because of its relative abundance in the vicinity of the Bullita Station area of Judbarra/Gregory National Park. Morphometric analyses show that Solanum watneyi differs statistically from Solanum eburneum in several key reproductive and vegetative characters and field observations suggest that the two sister species may represent a case of edaphic speciation. We provide morphometric evidence for the novelty of Solanum watneyi, a complete description, and cite specimens for both species. PMID:27081345