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1

The Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (K-T) Interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Philip W. Stoffer and USGS colleagues wrote this report (.pdf format) on the marine K-T boundary interval that occurs throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments (supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology) suggest that several asteroid impacts may be preserved in the Badlands. The deposits are thought to represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event.

Chamberlain, John A.; Messina, Paula.; Stoffer, Philip W.; Terry, Dennis O.

2001-01-01

2

Carbon isotopic compositions of organic matter across continental Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections: Implications for paleoenvironment after the K-T impact event  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To assess the environmental perturbation induced by the impact event that marks the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, concentrations and isotopic compositions of bulk organic carbon were determined in sedimentary rocks that span the terrestrial K-T boundary at Dogie Creek, Montana, and Brownie Butte, Wyoming in the Western Interior of the United States. The boundary clays at both sites are not bounded by coals. Although coals consist mainly of organic matter derived from plant tissue, siliceous sedimentary rocks, such as shale and clay, may contain organic matter derived from microbiota as well as plants. Coals record ??13C values of plant-derived organic matter, reflecting the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, whereas siliceous sedimentary rocks record the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plants and microbiota. The microbiota ??13C value reflects not only the ??13C value of atmospheric CO2, but also biological productivity. Therefore, the siliceous rocks from these sites yields information that differs from that obtained previously from coal beds. Across the freshwater K-T boundary at Brownie Butte, the ??13C values decrease by 2.6??? (from - 26.15??? below the boundary clay to - 28.78??? above the boundary clay), similar to the trend in carbonate at marine K-T sites. This means that the organic ??13C values reflect the variation of ??13C of atmospheric CO2, which is in equilibrium with carbon isotopes at the ocean surface. Although a decrease in ??13C values is observed across the K-T boundary at Dogie Creek (from - 25.32??? below the boundary clay to - 26.11??? above the boundary clay), the degree of ??13C-decrease at Dogie Creek is smaller than that at Brownie Butte and that for marine carbonate. About 2??? decrease in ??13C of atmospheric CO2 was expected from the ??13C variation of marine carbonate at the K-T boundary. This ??13C-decrease of atmospheric CO2 should affect the ??13C values of organic matter derived from plant tissue. As such a decrease in ??13C value was not observed at Dogie Creek, a process that compensates the ??13C-decrease of atmospheric CO2 should be involved. For example, the enhanced contribution of 13C-enriched organic matter derived from algae in a high-productivity environment could be responsible. The ??13C values of algal organic matter become higher than, and thus distinguishable from, those of plant organic matter in situations with high productivity, where dissolved HCO3- becomes an important carbon source, as well as dissolved CO2. As the ??13C-decrease of atmospheric CO2 reflected a reduction of marine productivity, the compensation of the ??13C decrease by the enhanced activity of the terrestrial microbiota means that the microbiota at freshwater environment recovered more rapidly than those in the marine environment. A distinct positive ??13C excursion of 2??? in the K-T boundary clays is superimposed on the overall decreasing trend at Dogie Creek; this coincides with an increase in the content of organic carbon. We conclude that the K-T boundary clays include 13C-enriched organic matter derived from highly productive algae. Such a high biological productivity was induced by phenomena resulting from the K-T impact, such as nitrogen fertilization and/or eutrophication induced by enhanced sulfide formation. The high productivity recorded in the K-T boundary clays means that the freshwater environments (in contrast to marine environments) recovered rapidly enough to almost immediately (within 10??yr) respond to the impact-related environmental perturbations. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Maruoka, T.; Koeberl, C.; Bohor, B.F.

2007-01-01

3

The Cretaceous/ Tertiary Boundary At Iridium Hill, Garfield County, Montana  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of this virtual field trip to Iridium Hill, Montana is to investigate the disappearance of dinosaur fossils above the Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary. The site provides rock outcrop photos of Cretaceous and Tertiary strata (Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations), stratigraphic sections and supporting text for this classic iridium-bearing locality. Topics include the K/T boundary, iridium concentrations, stratigraphy, sedimentology and, fluvial and lacustrine depositional environments.

Limited, Athro

4

The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact: One or more source craters?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary is marked by signs of a worldwide catastrophe, marking the demise of more than 50 percent of all living species. Ever since Alvarez et al. found an enrichment of IR and other siderophile elements in rocks marking the K/T boundary and interpreted it as the mark of a giant asteroid (or comet) impact, scientists have tried to understand the complexities of the K/T boundary event. The impact theory received a critical boost by the discovery of shocked minerals that have so far been found only in association with impact craters. One of the problems of the K/T impact theory was, and still is, the lack of an adequate large crater that is close to the maximum abundance of shocked grains in K/T boundary sections, which was found to occur in sections in Northern America. The recent discovery of impact glasses from a K/T section in Haiti has been crucial in establishing a connection with documented impact processes. The location of the impact-glass findings and the continental nature of detritus found in all K/T sections supports at least one impact site near the North American continent. The Manson Impact Structure is the largest recognized in the United States, 35 km in diameter, and has a radiometric age indistinguishable from that of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Although the Manson structure may be too small, it may be considered at least one element of the events that led to the catastrophic loss of life and extinction of many species at that time. A second candidate for the K/T boundary crater is the Chicxulub structure, which was first suggested to be an impact crater more than a decade ago. Only recently, geophysical studies and petrological (as well as limited chemical) analyses have indicated that this buried structure may in fact be of impact origin. At present we can conclude that the Manson crater is the only confirmed crater of K/T age, but Chicxulub is becoming a strong contender; however, detailed geochemical, geochronological, and isotopic data are necessary to provide definitive evidence.

Koeberl, Christian

1992-01-01

5

Seawater strontium isotopes at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Anomalously high values of Seawater Sr-87/Sr-86 near the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary have been reported. However, few of the data from the literature are from a single continuous section, and perhaps the most complete study of the boundary region, from a shallow marine limestone sequence in Alabama, showed elevated Sr-87/Sr-86 but no pronounced spike. Thus, in order to investigate the cause of the change in strontium isotopic composition, it is important to determine the exact nature and magnitude of the increase by studying in detail continuous sections through the boundary. If there is indeed a Sr isotope spike at the K-T boundary, it requires the addition of a large amount of radiogenic Sr to the oceans over a short time period, a phenomenon that may be linked to other large-scale environmental disturbances which occurred at that time. In order to address this question, a high-resolution strontium isotope study of foraminifera from three Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) cores which recovered the K-T boundary section: Site 356 in the South Atlantic, Site 384 in the North Atlantic and Site 577 from the Shatsky Rise in the Pacific was initiated. The isotope measurements are being made on either single or small numbers of forams carefully picked and identified and in most cases examined by SEM before analysis. Because this work is not yet complete, conclusions drawn here must be viewed as tentative. They are briefly discussed.

Macdougall, J. D.; Martin, E.

1988-01-01

6

Extinction and recovery patterns of scleractinian corals at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extinction and recovery of scleractinian corals at the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary was analyzed based on a global database of taxonomically revised late Campanian to Paleocene coral collections. In contrast to earlier statements, our results indicate that extinction rates of corals were only moderate in comparison to other marine invertebrates. We have calculated a 30% extinction rate for Maastrichtian coral

Wolfgang Kiessling; Rosemarie C. Baron-Szabo

2004-01-01

7

Extraterrestrial amino acids in Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary sediments at Stevns Klint, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

SINCE the discovery1 nearly a decade ago that Cretaceous\\/Tertiary (K\\/T) boundary layers are greatly enriched in iridium, a rare element in the Earth's crust, there has been intense controversy on the relationship between this Ir anomaly and the massive extinction of organisms ranging from dinosaurs to marine plankton that characterizes the K\\/T boundary. Convincing evidence suggests that both the Ir

Meixun Zhao; Jeffrey L. Bada

1989-01-01

8

Palynology and sedimentology across a new marine Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary section on Nuussuaq, West Greenland  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new northern high-latitude Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary section has been studied at Annertuneq on the north coast of Nuussuaq, West Greenland. The boundary section is situated in a succession of homogeneous dark mudstone deposited in a marine-slope environment. Identification of the boundary is based on the presence of the latest Maastrichtian palynomorphs Palynodinium grallator, Disphaerogena carposphaeropsis, Manumiella spp., and Wodehouseia

Henrik Nøhr-Hansen; Gregers Dam

1997-01-01

9

An extraterrestrial event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closely spaced samples from an uninterrupted calcareous pelagic sequence across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary reveal that the extinction of planktonic Foraminifera and nannofossils was abrupt without any previous warning in the sedimentary record, and that the moment of extinction was coupled with anomalous trace element enrichments, especially of iridium and osmium. The rarity of these two elements in the crust of

J. Smit; J. Hertogen

1980-01-01

10

Magnesioferrite from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Caravaca, Spain  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnesioferrite grading toward magnetite has been identified as a very small but meaningful constituent of the basal iron-rich portion of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay at the Barranco del Gredero section, Caravaca, Spain. This spinel-type phase and others of the spinel group, found in K-T boundary clays at many widely separated sites, have been proposed as representing unaltered remnants of ejecta deposited from an earth-girdling dust cloud formed from the impact of an asteroid or other large bolide at the end of the Cretaceous period. The magnesioferrite occurs as euhedral, frequently skeletal, micron-sized octahedral crystals. The magnesioferrite contains 29 ?? 11 ppb Ir, which accounts for only part of the Ir anomaly at this K-T boundary layer (52 ?? 1 ppb Ir). Major element analyses of the magnesioferrite show variable compositions. Some minor solid solution exists toward hercynite-spinel and chromite-magnesiochromite. A trevorite-nichromite (NiFe2O4NiCr2O4) component is also present. The analyses are very similar to those reported for sites at Furlo and Petriccio, Umbria, Italy. On the basis of the morphology and general composition of the magnesioferrite grains, rapid crystallization at high temperature is indicated, most likely directly from a vapor phase and in an environment of moderate oxygen fugacity. Elemental similarity with metallic alloy injected into rocks beneath two known impact craters suggests that part of the magnesioferrite may be derived from the vaporized chondritic bolide itself, or from the mantle; there is no supporting evidence for its derivation from crustal target rocks. ?? 1986.

Bohor, B.F.; Foord, E.E.; Ganapathy, R.

1986-01-01

11

Cathodoluminescence of shocked quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Empirical studies have documented an association between rock type and the cathodoluminescence color of constituent quartz grains. Quartz from extrusive igneous sources luminesces uniform pale blue. Quartz from intrusive igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks generally luminesces darker purple-blue, whereas quartz recrystallized under low-grade metamorphic conditions luminesces reddish-brown. Quartz grains in most sandstones luminesce a heterogeneous mixture of these colors because the grains were derived from a variety of ultimate source rocks. If shocked quartz found at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary is volcanic in origin, its cathodoluminescence should be predominantly pale blue. Alternatively, quartz grains derived from bolide impact upon, and ejection of, mixed igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks should luminesce a variety of colors. Grain mounts of sand collected at the K-T boundary horizon from the Clear Creek North site in the Raton Basin, Colorado were examined. Shocked quartz luminesced a variety of colors and very few grains luminesced the pale blue color that is typical of volcanic quartz. It was concluded that the shocked quartz was derived from a petrologically diverse source region without substantial volcanic contribution. Most shocked grains apparently were derived from low-grade metamorphic rocks, with a slightly smaller contribution from high-grade metamorphic and intrusive igneous rocks. Rare quartz grains with brown-luminescing rims reflect a minor addition from detrital sedimentary sources. The apparent relative abundances of intrusive (and rare extrusive) igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary ultimate source rocks suggested by CL colors of shock-deformed quartz at the K-T boundary is consistent with a crustal/supracrustal origin for the grains.

Owen, Michael R.; Anders, Mark H.

1988-01-01

12

40Ar/39Ar age of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites from Haiti  

USGS Publications Warehouse

40Ar/39Ar dating of tektites discovered recently in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary marine sedimentary rocks on Haiti indicates that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 million years ago. Sanidine from a bentonite that lies directly above the K-T boundary in continental, coal-bearing, sedimentary rocks of Montana was also dated and has a 40Ar/39Ar age of 64.6 ?? 0.2 million years ago, which is indistinguishable statistically from the age of the tektites.

Izett, G.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.; Snee, L.W.

1991-01-01

13

Extinction and recovery patterns of scleractinian corals at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The extinction and recovery of scleractinian corals at the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary,was analyzed based on a global database of taxonomically revised late Campanian to Paleocene coral collections. In contrast to earlier statements, our results indicate that extinction rates of corals were only moderate,in comparison,to other marine invertebrates. We have calculated a 30% extinction rate for Maastrichtian coral genera occurring

Wolfgang Kiessling; Rosemarie C. Baron-Szabo

2004-01-01

14

Major wildfires at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current status of the reconstruction of major biomass fire events at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is discussed. Attention is given to the sources of charcoal and soot, the identification of biomass and fossil carbon, and such ignition-related problems as delated fires, high atmospheric O2 content, ignition mechanisms, and the greenhouse-effect consequences of fire on the scale envisioned. Consequences of these factors for species extinction patterns are noted.

Anders, Edward; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Gilmour, Iain

1991-01-01

15

Deccan flood basalts and the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Courtillot et al.1 have presented palaeomagnetic, palaeontological and K-Ar data for the Deccan flood basalts which suggest that > 106 km3 of basalt may have been erupted in < 1 Myr, mostly in a reversed magnetic chron. This chron is argued to be 29R, the one which contains the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary. Here we aim to test the hypothesis1-5 that the

V. Courtillot; G. Féraud; H. Maluski; D. Vandamme; M. G. Moreau; J. Besse

1988-01-01

16

Biostratigraphy of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the Sirwan Valley (Sulaimani Region, Kurdistan, NE Iraq)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary sequence, which crops out in the studied area is located within the High Folded Zone, in the Sirwan Valley, northeastern Iraq. These units mainly consist of flysch and flysch-type successions of thick clastic beds of Tanjero/Kolosh Formations. A detailed lithostratigraphic study is achieved on the outcropping uppermost part of the Upper Cretaceous successions (upper part of Tanjero Formation) and the lowermost part of the Kolosh Formation. On the basis of the identified planktonic foraminiferal assemblages, five biozones are recorded from the uppermost part of Tanjero Formation and four biozones from the lower part of the Kolosh Formation (Lower Paleocene) in the Sirwan section. The biostratigraphic correlations based on planktonic foraminiferal zonations showed a comparison between the biostratigraphic zones established in this study and other equivalents of the commonly used planktonic zonal scheme around the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in and outside Iraq.

Sharbazheri, Khalid Mahmood; Ghafor, Imad Mahmood; Muhammed, Qahtan Ahmad

2009-10-01

17

Proximal Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact deposits in the Caribbean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element, isotopic, and mineralogic studies indicate that the proposed impact at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary occurred in an ocean basin, although a minor component of continental material is required. The size and abundance of shocked minerals and the restricted geographic occurrence of the ejecta layer and impact-wave deposits suggest an impact between the Americas. Coarse boundary sediments at sites 151 and 153 in the Colombian Basin and 5- to 450-meter-thick boundary sediments in Cuba may be deposits of a giant wave produced by a nearby oceanic impact.

Hildebrand, Alan R.; Boynton, Willam V.

1990-05-01

18

Ignition of global wildfires at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The recent discovery of an apparently global soot layer at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary indicates that global wildfires were somehow ignited by the impact of a comet or asteroid. It is shown here that the thermal radiation produced by the ballistic reentry of ejecta condensed from the vapor plume of the impact could have increased the global radiation flux by factors of 50 to 150 times the solar input for periods ranging from one to several hours. This great increase in thermal radiation may have been responsible for the ignition of global wildfires, as well as having deleterious effects on unprotected animal life.

Melosh, H. J.; Schneider, N. M.; Zahnle, K. J.; Latham, D.

1990-01-01

19

Ignition of global wildfires at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary.  

PubMed

An impressive amount of evidence supports the proposal of Alvarez et al. that the Cretaceous era was ended abruptly by the impact of a comet or asteroid. The recent discovery of an apparently global soot layer at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary indicates that global wildfires were somehow ignited by the impact. Here we show that the thermal radiation produced by the ballistic re-entry of ejecta condensed from the vapour plume of the impact could have increased the global radiation flux by factors of 50 to 150 times the solar input for periods ranging from one to several hours. This great increase in thermal radiation may have been responsible for the ignition of global wildfires, as well as having deleterious effects on unprotected animal life. PMID:11536461

Melosh, H J; Schneider, N M; Zahnle, K J; Latham, D

1990-01-18

20

A possible tsunami deposit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Pernambuco, northeastern Brazil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interdisciplinarry and integrated investigations of a stratigraphic succession spanning the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary in Pernambuco (the Poty Quarry section, near Recife), northeastern Brazil, provides direct evidence for the hypothesis of an extraterrestrial bolide impact event. Discussions on the exact position of the K-T boundary point to an impact event in the earliest Danian. One particular bed at the base of the Maria Farinha Formation shows sedimentary characteristics and exotic (probably impact-derived) material which suggest the action of a tsunami wave. The distribution of iridium concentrations throughout the studied succession records a major peak of iridium (up to 69 times the background levels) at about 15-20 cm above the main tsunami bed.

Albertão, Gilberto A.; Martins, Paulo P.

1996-07-01

21

Iridium, sulfur isotopes and rare earth elements in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay at Stevns Klint, Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial activity and redox-controlled precipitation have been of major importance in the process of metal accumulation in the strongly Ir-enriched Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay, the Fish Clay, at Stevns Klint in Denmark. Two important findings support this view: 1. 1) Kerogen, recovered by leaching the Fish Clay in HCl and HF, shows an Ir concentration of 1100 ppb; this represents

Birger Schmitz; Per Andersson; Jeremy Dahl

1988-01-01

22

Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water

Jan Smit; Alessandro Montanari; Nicola H. M. Swinburne; Walter Alvarez; Alan R. Hildebrand; Stanley V. Margolis; Philippe Claeys; William Lowrie; Frank Asaro

1992-01-01

23

Palynologically calibrated vertebrate record from North Dakota consistent with abrupt dinosaur extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

New data from 17 Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sections and 53 vertebrate sites in the Hell Creek and Fort Union Formations in southwestern North Dakota document a 1.76 m barren interval between the highest Cretaceous vertebrate fossils and the palynologically recognized K-T boundary. The boundary is above the formational contact at 15 localities and coincident with it at two, demonstrating that the formational contact is diachronous. Dinosaurs are common in the highest Cretaceous vertebrate samples and a partial dinosaur skeleton in the Fort Union Formation is the highest recorded Cretaceous vertebrate fossil in this area.

Pearson, D.A.; Schaefer, T.; Johnson, K.R.; Nichols, D.J.

2001-01-01

24

Orbital Cyclicities Above and Below the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary, Umbria-Marche Region, Italy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the Umbria-Marche region of central Italy, the deep basinal carbonate Scaglia Rossa Formation contains an important sequence of Cretaceous-Tertiary strata including a detailed paleomagnetic record and the distal impactoclastic Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay layer. In addition to this significant paleomagnetic and impactoclastic record, the Scaglia Rossa also contains potentially important stratigraphic evidence of relatively long-term oceanic and atmospheric consequences of the Cretaceous-Tertiary bolide catastrophe, which we will describe for the first time herein. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

King, D. T., Jr.; Petruny, L. W.; Rampino, M. R.; Prokoph, A.; Pope, K.; Fischer, A. G.; Montanari, A.; Ocampo, A. C.

2000-01-01

25

Paleocene reefs on the Maiella Platform Margin, Italy: An example of the effects of the cretaceous\\/tertiary boundary events on reefs and carbonate platforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Reef facies, reef types and their biotic associations in the Maiella platform margin (central Italy) provide qualitative evidence\\u000a for a significant reef decline across the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary (K\\/T) boundary, and indicate two phases of reef recovery during\\u000a the Paleocene. Rudists dominated the reef community until the latest Cretaceous. A significant sea-level fall around the time\\u000a of the K\\/T boundary is documented

Adam Vecsei; Esmail Moussavian

1997-01-01

26

Dinoflagellate and calcareous nannofossil response to sea-level change in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sections  

SciTech Connect

Stratigraphic sections in south-central Alabama were studied to test palynological evidence of sea-level change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. New evidence from both calcareous nannofossils and dinoflagellate cysts places the regional disconformity in Alabama (Type 1 sequence boundary) virtually at the K-T boundary. This suggests that sea-level fall may have contributed to mass-extinction event. Dinoflagellate diversity varies between systems tract components of coastal onlap. This parameter is useful for interpreting sea-level change in this part of the section, because dinoflagellates did not participate in the mass extinction. The iridium spikes in the roadcut near Braggs are of earliest Danian age and correlate in relative magnitude with the lower values reported from directly above the K-T boundary in the Gubbio stratotype section. Iridium was concentrated in marine flooding surfaces in episodes of higher productivity of algal organic matter at the time when the iridium-enriched ocean encroached on the shelf during the first Cenozoic episode of sea-level rise.

Habib, D. (City Univ. of New York, Flushing (United States)); Moshkovitz, S. (Geological Survey of Israel, Jerusalem (Israel)); Kramer, C. (Hamilton College, Clinton, NY (United States))

1992-02-01

27

Clay mineralogy of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clay. [in search for asteroid ejecta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer clay samples from four localities were subjected to analyses which imply that they are neither mineralogically exotic nor distinct from locally derived clays above and below the boundary. The anomalous iridium-rich ejecta component predicted by the asteroid impact scenario of Alvarez et al (1980) was not detected. It is proposed that volcanic material be considered as an explanation of the geochemical anomalies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. A model which involves a period of intense volcanism at the end of the Cretaceous would generate a variety of climatic and biological effects consonant with the geologic history of that period.

Rampino, M. R.; Reynolds, R. C.

1983-01-01

28

Deccan volcanism at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accuracy with which one can claim that Deccan trap volcanism occurred at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) over a very short time interval is of key importance in deciding whether a volcanic origin of the KTB events should be taken seriously. In the two years since paleomagnetic, paleontological and geodynamic evidence was published, further data have become available and the case now appears to be well constrained. The Ar-40/Ar-39 results from six labs have yielded some 24 reliable plateau ages that narrow the age range to 65 to 69 Ma. Moreover, it appears that a significant part of this range results from inter-lab spread and possible minor alteration. Paleontology demonstrates that volcanism started in the Maestrichtian, more precisely in the A. mayaroensis zone. Paleomagnetism shows that volcanism spanned only 3 chrons and only one correlation remains possible, that of the main central reversed chron with 29R. Therefore, whereas Ar-40/Ar-39 is able only to restrict the duration of volcanism to some 4 Ma, paleomagnetism restricts it to 0.5 Ma. Using some geochemical indicators such as C-13 as proxy, it is suggested that volcanism actually consists of a few shorter events of unequal magnitude. Extrusion rates may be as high as 100 cu km/yr and fissure lengths as long as several 100 km. Such a scenario appears to be at least as successful as others in accounting for most anomalies observed at the KTB. Particularly important are Iridium and other platinum group elements (PGE) profiles, Sr-87/Sr-86, C-13, 0-18, other exotic geochemical signatures, spherules, soot, shocked minerals, selective and stepwise extinctions. The environmental impact of CO2 possibly released during explosive phases of volcanism, and SO2 released during effusive phases, and the ability of volcanism to ensure worldwide distribution of KTB products are now all addressed. In conclusion, the case for a causal link between internal hotspot activity, birth of the Reunion hotspot itself as the Deccan and KTB events appears to rest on an increasingly stronger basis.

Courtillot, V.; Vandamme, D.; Besse, J.

1988-01-01

29

Magnetostratigraphy of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary section at La Ceiba, central-Eastern Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report initial paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic results for one of the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary sections from northeastern Mexico. La Ceiba section is located in the Tampico-Mizantla carbonate basin, northeastern Puebla State. The section is characterized by three sedimentary clastic units, which have been described in detail in previous studies of K/T sections of northern Mexico. Its basal unit is formed by an alternation of calcareous reddish-greenish to gray shales, with calcareous clay layers. Unit II is 1.10-m thick and includes a shperulitic layer at the base and four sandstone layers. The top of the K/T sediments is marked by a clay layer and is covered by the Paleocene Velasco Formation. The Palaeocene is represented by 0.7-m dark brown-gray calcarenites with interbedded greenish-gray fine-grained material. Twenty-eight oriented cores were drilled from several beds in the K/T clastic units and the Paleocene sediments. All samples were measured in the laboratory (low-field magnetic susceptibility, NRM intensity and direction). Alternating field and thermal demagnetizations were used to investigate on the vectorial composition and stability of remanences. The magnetic mineralogy was further studied by imparting samples an isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and measuring magnetic hysteresis parameters using the MicroMag system. Well-defined characteristic magnetizations were isolated and used to construct a polarity stratigraphy for the K/T section. The clastic unit II and Paleocene sediments present a reverse polarity magnetization, which correlates with the expected polarity within 29r chron that includes the K/T boundary.

Martinez-Lopez, M.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Rebolledo-Vieyra, M.

2003-04-01

30

40Ar-39Ar dating of the Manson impact structure: A cretaceous-tertiary boundary crater candidate  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The mineralogy of shocked mineral and lithic grains in the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary claystone worldwide is most consistent with a bolide impact on a continent. Both the concentrations and sizes of these shocked grains are greatest in the western interior of North America. These data suggest that the Manson impact structure in north-central Iowa is a viable candidate for the K-T boundary impact event. Argon-40-argon-39 age spectrum dating of shocked microcline from the crystalline central uplift of the Manson impact structure indicates that there was severe argon-40 loss at 65.7 ?? 1.0 million years ago, an age that is indistinguishable from that of the K-T boundary, within the limits of analytical precision.

Kunk, M.J.; Izett, G.A.; Haugerud, R.A.; Sutter, J.F.

1989-01-01

31

Pseudomorphs of impact spherules from a Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary section at Shell Creek, Alabama  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a biostratigraphic investigation of a Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary section at Shell Creek, Alabama dark green spherules with distinctive morphologies were serendipitously found in the lower Danian basal Clayton sand. With the exception of in the upper 30 cm, they were found throughout the sand, upwards from an erosional contact separating the sand from the underlying upper Maastrichtian Prairie Bluff Chalk. Additional studies revealed that the spherules exhibit the morphologies of splash-form tektites and that their original composition has been altered to a smectite external layer with a calcite core. The presence of spherules with similar morphologies and size distribution in K-T boundary sections at Beloc (Haiti) and in Arroyo El Mimbral (northeastern Mexico) leads to the deduction that the Shell Creek spherules represent altered impact ejecta. Impact glasses, Ni spinels and shocked mineral grains were searched for extensively, but intense alteration and dilution by detrital quartz sand have made it unlikely that such supporting evidence of an impact origin will be found at this site. Nonetheless, the large sizes of the microtektite pseudomorphs, which are well over 1 mm in diameter, and abundance (the total fluence is about 2 g/sq cm, makes this location an important corroboration of a proximal site for the K-T impact.

Pitakpaivan, Kasana; Byerly, Gary R.; Hazel, Joseph E.

1994-06-01

32

Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Antarctic: Climatic cooling precedes biotic crisis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Stable isotopic investigations were conducted on calcareous microfossils across two deep sea Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sequences on Maud Rise, Weddell Sea, Antarctica. The boundary is taken at the level of massive extinctions in calcareous planktonic microfossils, and coincides with a sharp lithologic change from pure calcareous ooze to calcareous ooze with a large volcanic clay component. The uppermost Maestrichtian is marked by a long-term decrease in delta value of 0 to 18 which spans most of the lower and middle A. mayaroensis Zone and represents a warming trend which culminated in surface water temperatures of about 16 C. At approximately 3 meters below the K-T boundary this warming trend terminates abruptly and benthic and planktonic isotopic records exhibit a rapid increase in delta value of 0 to 18 that continues up to the K-T boundary. The trend towards cooler surface water temperatures stops abruptly at the K-T boundary and delta value of 0 to 18 values remain relatively stable through the Paleocene. Comparison of the Antarctic sequence with the previously documented deep sea records in the South Atlantic reveal shifts of similar magnitude in the latest Maestrichtian. It is indicated that the Southern Ocean underwent the most significant, and apparently permanent, climatic change. The latest Cretaceous oxygen isotopic shift recorded at Maud Rise and other deep sea sites is similar in magnitude to large positive delta valve of 0 to 18 shifts in the middle Eocene, at the Eocene/Oligocene boundary and in the middle Miocene that marked large scale climatic transitions which ultimately lead to cryospheric development of the Antarctic. The climatic shift at the end of the Cretaceous represents one of the most significant climatic transitions recorded in the latest Phanerozoic and had a profound effect on global climate as well as oceanic circulation.

Stott, Lowell D.; Kennett, James P.

1988-01-01

33

The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE Mexico  

E-print Network

The Cretaceous/ Tertiary boundary: sedimentology and micropalaeontology at El Mulato section, NE and sedimentological analysis of this transition at the El Mulato section (NE Mexico), in order to infer the little Palaeogene Velasco Formation, there is a 2-m-thick Clastic Unit. Strati- graphical and sedimentological ana

Royer, Dana

34

A Short Duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Event: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Helium3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analyses of marine carbonates through the interval 63.9 to 65.4 million years ago indicate a near-constant flux of extraterrestrial helium-3, a tracer of the accretion rate of interplanetary dust to Earth. This observation indicates that the bolide associated with the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinction event was not accompanied by enhanced solar system dustiness and so could not have been a member

S. Mukhopadhyay; K. A. Farley; A. Montanari

2001-01-01

35

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary locality in the western powder River basin, Wyoming: biological and geological implications  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A newly discovered Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary locality in the western Powder River basin, Wyoming, is characterized by a palynologically defined extinction horizon, a fern-spore abundance anomaly, a strong iridium anomaly, and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. Detailed microstratigraphic analyses show that about one third of the palynoflora (mostly angiosperm pollen) disappeared abruptly, placing the K-T boundary within a distinctive, 1- to 2-cm-thick claystone layer. Shocked quartz grains are concentrated at the top of this layer, and although fern-spore and iridium concentrations are high in this layer, they reach their maximum concentrations in a 2-cm-thick carbonaceous claystone that overlies the boundary claystone layer. The evidence supports the theory that the K-T boundary event was associated with the impact of an extraterrestrial body or bodies. Palynological analyses of samples from the K-T boundary interval document extensive changes in the flora that resulted from the boundary event. The palynologically and geochemically defined K-T boundary provides a unique time-line of use in regional basin analysis. ?? 1992.

Nichols, D.J.; Brown, J.L.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Orth, C.J.

1992-01-01

36

Step-wise extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and their climatic implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative study of planktonic foraminifera and radiolarian assemblages from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary section of the Beloc Formation in the southern Peninsula of Haiti, and the lowermost Danian sequence of the Micara Formation in southern Cuba reveals a remarkable pattern of step-wise extinctions. This pattern is consistent in both places despite the widely different lithologies of the two formations. Because of a step-wise extinction and the delayed disappearance of taxa known to be more representative of cooler water realms, it is inferred that a cooling trend which characterized the close of the Maastrichtian and the onset of the Tertiary had the major adverse effect on the existing biota. Although repetitive lithologic and faunal fluctuations throughout the Maastrichtian sediments found at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) site 146/149 in the Caribbean Sea indicate variations reminiscent of known climatically induced cycles in the Cenozoic, rapid biotic succession appears to have taken place during a crisis period of a duration greater than 2 mission years. Widespread and abundant volcanic activities recorded in the Caribbean area during the crisis period gives further credence to earlier contention that intense volcanism may have played a major role in exhacerbating pre-existing climatic conditions during that time.

Maurrasse, Florentin J-M. R.

1988-01-01

37

Major wildfires at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

K-T boundary (KTB) clays from five sites are enriched in soot and charcoal by factors of 100-1000 over Cretaceous levels, apparently due to a global fire. The soot profile nearly coincides with the Ir profile, implying that the fire was triggered by the impact. Much or all of the fuel was biomass, as indicated by the presence of retene and by the C isotopic composition. The amount of elemental C at the KTB (0.012 g/sq cm) is very large, and requires either that most of the Cretaceous biomass burned down or that the soot yield was higher than in small fires. At undisturbed sites, soot correlates tightly with Ir, As, Sb, and Zn. Apparently soot and Ir-bearing ejecta particles coagulated in the stratosphere and then scavenged additional chalcophiles from the hydrosphere. In view of this coagulation, the K-T fire would only slightly prolong the period of darkness and cold caused by impact ejecta.

Gilmour, Iain; Wolbach, Wendy S.; Anders, Edward

38

Geochemical evidence for suppression of pelagic marine productivity at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The normal, biologically productive ocean is characterized by a gradient of the 13C/12C ratio from surface to deep waters. Here we present stable isotope data from planktonic and benthic micro-fossils across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary in the North pacific, which reveal a rapid and complete breakdown in this biologically mediated gradient. The fluxes of barium (a proxy for organic carbon) and CaCO3 also decrease significantly at the time of the major marine plankton extinctions. The implied substantial reduction in oceanic primary productivity persisted for ???0.5 Myr before the carbon isotope gradient was gradually re-established. In addition, the stable isotope and preservational data indicate that environmental change, including cooling, began at least 200 kyr before the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary, and a peak warming of ???3 ??C occurred 600 kyr after the boundary event. ?? 1989 Nature Publishing Group.

Zachos, J.C.; Arthur, M.A.; Dean, W.E.

1989-01-01

39

Completeness of pelagic sequences at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

SciTech Connect

Dingus has suggested that several Cretaceous-tertiary pelagic sections are sufficiently incomplete that a catastrophic extinction event spanning less than 100 years cannot be resolved. The authors show that his estimates of completeness are based in part on spurious data and therefore should be rejected. Completeness is defined by Dingus, over specific time intervals, as the ratio of long term to short term sedimentation rates. Long term rates are determined by the magneto-stratigraphic chrons of the section studied. Short term rates are determined by extrapolations of Sadler's sediment accumulation rate plot for calcareous oozes. The authors present evidence that shows the high short term sedimentation rates in Sadler's plots are an artifact of measurement precision and the use of fixed sampling intervals. To demonstrate the artificial character of the short term sedimentation rate resulting from measurement precision, a series of plots are generated. These plots are constructed using constant sedimentation rates at defined levels of precision and with standard deviations assigned to simulate measurement error. Fixed sampling intervals can also result in sedimentation accumulation rate plots exhibiting artificially high short term sedimentation. Examples from data used to construct Sadler's sediment accumulation plots show that fixed sampling intervals result in scattering of datum points toward higher accumulation rates. This is especially evident in the shorter time intervals where radiometric errors comprise a greater percentage of time measured. Although completeness estimates cannot be determined for short time intervals using Sadler's plot of calcareous oozes, estimates for intervals greater than 10,000 years may be possible. Extrapolations of data from intervals greater than 10,000 years to shorter time intervals suggest that many pelagic sections are complete enough to resolve catastrophic events.

Anders, M.H.; Krueger, S.W.

1985-01-01

40

Spherules from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay at Gubbio, Italy: the problem of outcrop contamination  

SciTech Connect

Surficial outcrop contamination has occurred in some well-known stratigraphic sections of carbonate rocks in the northern Apennines. A critical case involves several contaminated clay partings, including the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay in the classic Bottaccione section near Gubbio, Italy. These clay layers contain shiny spherules which, in several recent studies, have been said to consist of volcanic glass and have been used to support the hypothesis that the terminal Cretaceous mass extinction was caused by widespread volcanism. Laboratory tests, however, indicate that these shiny spherules are made of HF-insoluble and combustible material and are therefore of recent biological origin. These objects were introduced into the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and other clay layers from the surrounding soil along with abundant detrital contaminants derived from erosion of the middle Miocene flysch exposed at the head of the Bottaccione Gorge. They are completely different from the altered and flattened microtektitelike spheroids that are found only in the iridium-rich Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary clay and that provide strong evidence for a large impact.

Montanari, A.

1986-12-01

41

Evidence for the recovery of terrestrial ecosystems ahead of marine primary production following a biotic crisis at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The fossil record demonstrates that mass extinction across the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) boundary is more severe in the marine than the terrestrial realm. We hypothesize that terrestrial ecosystems were able to recover faster than their marine counterparts. To test this hypothesis, we measured sedimentary ?13C as a tracer for global carbon cycle changes and compared it with palaeovegetational changes reconstructed from palynomorphs and cuticles across the K–T boundary at Sugarite, New Mexico, USA. Different patterns of perturbation and timescales of recovery of isotopic and palaeobotanical records indicate that the ?13C excursion reflects the longer recovery time of marine versus terrestrial ecosystems.

Beerling, D.J.; Lomax, B.H.; Upchurch, G.R., Jr.; Nichols, D.J.; Pillmore, C.L.; Handley, L.L.; Scrimgeour, C.M.

2001-01-01

42

INTRODUCTION Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary strati-  

E-print Network

but poorly preserved, although dinoflagellates are well preserved and common. Body fossils of invertebrates indicate their presence. Marine invertebrates are represented by a few fish teeth. The uppermost

43

A new Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary site at Flaxbourne River, New Zealand - Biostratigraphy and geochemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the basis of biostratigraphy data, it is shown that the Flaxbourne River Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is among the most complete and least disturbed marine sequences yet found; this is particularly true with respect to its post-Ir anomaly and prelowermost Paleocene sequence. INAA and ICP analyses reveal that the boundary clay is also enriched in Cr and Ni, mainly from meteoritic material, and As, Co, Cu, Sb, and Zn from terrestrial sources. It is found that Zn/Sb, As/Sb, and Zn/As ratios generally fall between crustal and oceanic values, suggesting contributions from both sources.

Strong, C. P.; Brooks, Robert R.; Wilson, Shane M.; Reeves, Roger D.; Orth, Charles J.

1987-01-01

44

Palynological and iridium anomalies at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, south-central Saskatchewan  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in south-central Saskatchewan is marked by coincident anomalies in abundance of iridium and fern spores at the extinction level of a suite of Cretaceous pollen taxa. Evidence of disruption of the terrestrial flora includes the fern-spore abundance anomaly and local extinction of as much as 30 percent of angiosperm species. The reorganized earliest Tertiary flora is made up largely of surviving species that assumed new roles of dominance. Persistence of climatically sensitive taxa across the boundary indicates that if paleoclimate was altered by the terminal Cretaceous event, it returned quickly to the pre-event condition.

Nichols, D.J.; Jarzen, D.M.; Orth, C.J.; Oliver, P.Q.

1986-01-01

45

Disruption of the terrestrial plant ecosystem at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, western interior  

SciTech Connect

The palynologically defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the western interior of North America occurs at the top of an iridium-rich clay layer. The boundary is characterized by the abrupt disappearance of certain pollen species, immediately followed by a pronounced, geologically brief change in the ratio of fern spores to angiosperm pollen. The occurrence of these changes at two widely separated sites implies continent-wide disruption of the terrestrial ecosystem, probably caused by a major catastrophic event at the end of the period. 15 references, 2 figures.

Tschudy, R.H.; Pillmore, C.L.; Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.

1984-09-07

46

Biospheric effects of a large extraterrestrial impact: Case study of the cretaceous/tertiary boundary crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chicxulub impact crater, buried in the Yucatan carbonate platform in Mexico, is the site of the impact purported to have caused mass extinctions at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. A recently discovered Chicxulub ejecta deposit in Belize contains evidence of carbonate vaporization and precipitation from the vapor plume. Sulfate clasts are almost absent in the Belize ejecta, but are abundant in the coarse ejecta near the crater rim, hwich may reflect the greater abundance of sulfates deep in the target section. The absence of sulfate precipitates in Belize may indicate that most of the vaporized sulfur was deposited in the upper atmosphere. Hydrocode modeling of the impact indicates that between 0.4 to 7.0 x 10(exp 17) g of sulfur were vaporized by the impact in sulfates. Laser experiments indicate that SO2, SO3, and SO4 are produced, and that complex chemical reactions between plume constituents occur during condensation. The sulfur released as SO3 or SO4 converted rapidly into H2HO4 aerosol. A radiative transfer model coupled with a model of coagulation predicts that the aerosol prolonged the initial blackout period caused by impact dust only if it contained impurities. The sulfur released as SO2 converted to aerosol slowly due to the rate limiting oxidation of SO2. Radiative transfer calculations combined with rates of acid production, coagulation, and diffusion indicate that solar transmission was reduced to 10-20 percent of normal for a period of 8-13 years. This reduction produced a climate forcing (cooling) of -300 Wm(exp -2), which far exceeded the +8 Wm(exp -2) greenhouse warming caused by the CO2 released through the vaporization of carbonates, and therefore produced a decade of freezing and near-freezing temperatures. Several decades of moderate warming followed the decade of severe cooling due to the long residence time of CO2. The prolonged impact winter may have been a major cause of the K/T extinctions.

Pope, Kevin O.

1995-01-01

47

Biospheric effects of a large extraterrestrial impact: Case study of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary crater  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chicxulub Crater in Yucatan, Mexico, is the primary candidate for the impact that caused mass extinctions at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary. The target rocks at Chicxulub contain 750 to 1500 m of anhydrite (CaSO4), which was vaporized upon impact, creating a large sulfuric acid aerosol cloud. In this study we apply a hydrocode model of asteroid impact to calculate the amount of sulfuric acid produced. We then apply a radiative transfer model to determine the atmospheric effects. Results include 6 to 9 month period of darkness followed by 12 to 26 years of cooling.

Pope, Kevin O.

1994-01-01

48

Catastrophic extinction of Caribbean rudist bivalves at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) in pristine low-Mg calcite of shells of rudist bivalves from the Titanosarcolites limestones exposed in the Central, Maldon, and Marchmont inliers of Jamaica indicate that species-rich rudist-coral associations persisted into the latest Maastrichtian (66 65 Ma). This finding contradicts the currently accepted hypothesis of stepwise extinction of rudist bivalves in the middle Maastrichtian and argues for a catastrophic, impact-related demise of Caribbean Cretaceous reefal ecosystems at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

Steuber, Thomas; Mitchell, Simon F.; Buhl, Dieter; Gunter, Gavin; Kasper, Haino U.

2002-11-01

49

Trace element and isotope geochemistry of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments: identification of extra-terrestrial and volcanic components  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trace element and stable isotope analyses were performed on a series of sediment samples crossing the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary from critical sections at Aumaya and Sopelano, Spain. The aim is to possibly distinguish extraterrestrial vs. volcanic or authigenic concentration of platinum group and other elements in K-T boundary transitional sediments. These sediments also have been shown to contain evidence for step-wise extinction of several groups of marine invertebrates, associated with negative oxygen and carbon isotope excursions occurring during the last million years of the Cretaceous. These isotope excursions have been interpreted to indicate major changes in ocean thermal regime, circulation, and ecosystems that may be related to multiple events during latest Cretaceous time. Results to date on the petrographic and geochemical analyses of the Late Cretaceous and Early Paleocene sediments indicate that diagenesis has obviously affected the trace element geochemistry and stable isotope compositions at Zumaya. Mineralogical and geochemical analysis of K-T boundary sediments at Zumaya suggest that a substantial fraction of anomalous trace elements in the boundary marl are present in specific mineral phases. Platinum and nickel grains perhaps represent the first direct evidence of siderophile-rich minerals at the boundary. The presence of spinels and Ni-rich particles as inclusions in aluminosilicate spherules from Zumaya suggests an original, non-diagenetic origin for the spherules. Similar spherules from southern Spain (Caravaca), show a strong marine authigenic overprint. This research represents a new approach in trying to directly identify the sedimentary mineral components that are responsible for the trace element concentrations associated with the K-T boundary.

Margolis, S. V.; Doehne, E. F.

1988-01-01

50

A non-catastrophist explanation for the iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The iridium (Ir) anomaly at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (C/T) boundary can be explained by dissolution of normal pelagic limestones producing an insoluble clay residue containing Ir-rich meteoritic material. Further concentration of Ir and other trace metals in the clay can be explained by deposition under reducing conditions. Clay-mineral analyses indicate that the boundary clay is similar to locally derived clays in the limestones above and below the boundary, and contains no detectable exotic components. This supports a terrestrial origin for the boundary clay. The genesis of the boundary clay is attributed to changes in ocean chemistry (pH and oxygenation), leading to an interval of widespread dissolution of carbonate sequences in the oceans, and culminating in the development of submarine pyritic hardgrounds and a disconformity of global extent.

Rampino, M. R.

1982-01-01

51

A Major Meteorite Impact on the Earth 65 Million Years Ago: Evidence from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Clay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence for a major meteorite impact on the earth 65 million years ago is shown by the presence of meteoritic debris in the ``fish clay'' from Denmark representing the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary Noble metals (iridium, osmium, gold, platinum, rhenium, ruthenium, palladium, nickel, and cobalt), which are sensitive indicators of meteorites and are normally depleted on the terrestrial surface by factors of

R. Ganapathy

1980-01-01

52

Multiple factors in the origin of the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary: the role of environmental stress and Deccan Trap volcanism.  

PubMed

A review of the scenarios for the Cretaceous/ Tertiary (K/T) boundary event is presented and a coherent hypothesis for the origin of the event is formulated. Many scientists now accept that the event was caused by a meteorite impact at Chicxulub in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. Our investigations show that the oceans were already stressed by the end of the Late Cretaceous as a result of the long-term drop in atmospheric CO2, the long-term drop in sea level and the frequent development of oceanic anoxia. Extinction of some marine species was already occurring several million years prior to the K/T boundary. The biota were therefore susceptible to change. The eruption of the Deccan Traps, which began at 66.2 Ma, coincides with the K/T boundary events. It erupted huge quantities of H2SO4, HCl, CO2, dust and soot into the atmosphere and led to a significant drop in sea level and marked changes in ocean temperature. The result was a major reduction in oceanic productivity and the creation of an almost dead ocean. The volcanism lasted almost 0.7 m.y. Extinction of biological species was graded and appeared to correlate with the main eruptive events. Elements such as Ir were incorporated into the volcanic ash, possibly on soot particles. This horizon accumulated under anoxic conditions in local depressions and became the marker horizon for the K/T boundary. An oxidation front penetrated this horizon leading to the redistribution of elements. The eruption of the Deccan Traps is the largest volcanic event since the Permian-Triassic event at 245 Ma. It followed a period of 36 m.y. in which the earth's magnetic field failed to reverse. Instabilities in the mantle are thought to be responsible for this eruption and therefore for the K/T event. We therefore believe that the K/T event can be explained in terms of the effects of the Deccan volcanism on an already stressed biosphere. The meteorite impact at Chicxulub took place after the onset of Deccan volcanism. It probably played a regional, rather than global, role in the K/T extinction. PMID:11543126

Glasby, G P; Kunzendorf, H

1996-06-01

53

Oxygen isotope constraints on the origin of impact glasses from the cretaceous-tertiary boundary  

SciTech Connect

Laser-extraction oxygen isotope and major element analyses of individual glass spherules from Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments demonstrate that the glasses fall on a mixing line between an isotopically heavy ({delta}{sup 18}O = 14 per mil) high-calcium composition and an isotopically light ({delta}{sup 18}O = 6 per mil) high-silicon composition. This trend can be explained by melting of heterogeneous source rocks during the impact of an asteroid (or comet) {approximately}65 million years ago. The data indicate that the glasses are a mixture of carbonate and silicate rocks and exclude derivation of the glasses either by volcanic processes or as mixtures of sulfate-high evaporate and silicate rocks.

Blum, J.D.; Chamberlain, C.P. (Dartmouth Coll, Hanover, NH (United States))

1992-08-21

54

Tektite-bearing, deep-water clastic unit at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northeastern Mexico.  

PubMed

The hypothesis of Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact on Yucatán, Mexico, predicts that nearby sites should show evidence of proximal impact ejecta and disturbance by giant waves. An outcrop along the Arroyo el Mimbral in northeastern Mexico contains a layered clastic unit up to 3 m thick that interrupts a biostratigraphically complete pelagic-marl sequence deposited at more than 400 m water depth. The marls were found to be unsuitable for determining magnetostratigraphy, but foraminiferal biostratigraphy places the clastic unit precisely at the K-T boundary. We interpret this clastic unit as the deposit of a megawave or tsunami produced by an extraterrestrial impact. The clastic unit comprises three main subunits. (1) The basal "spherule bed" contains glass in the form of tektites and microtektites, glass spherules replaced by chlorite-smectite and calcite, and quartz grains showing probable shock features. This bed is interpreted as a channelized deposit of proximal ejecta. (2) A set of lenticular, massive, graded "laminated beds" contains intraclasts and abundant plant debris, and may be the result of megawave backwash that carried coarse debris from shallow parts of the continental margin into deeper water. (3) At the top, several thin "ripple beds" composed of fine sand are separated by clay drapes; they are interpreted as deposits of oscillating currents, perhaps a seiche. An iridium anomaly (921 +/- 23 pg/g) is observed at the top of the ripple beds. Our observations at the Mimbral locality support the hypothesis of a K-T impact on nearby Yucatán. PMID:11537752

Smit, J; Montanari, A; Swinburne, N H; Alvarez, W; Hildebrand, A R; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F

1992-02-01

55

Iridium and trace element measurements from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, site 752, Broken Ridge, Indian Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourteen samples spanning a 2.5 m interval that includes the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary from Hole 752B near the crest of Broken Ridge in the eastern Indian Ocean were studied in order to search for anomalous enrichments of iridium (Ir) and shock-metamorphosed quartz grains. No allogenic quartz grains larger than 10 microns were observed, hence the presence of quartz containing diagnostic evidence of shock-metamorphism could not be confirmed. Two Ir anomalies of 2.2 +/- 0.6 and 2.0 +/- 0.4 parts per billion (ppb) were measured in samples of dark green ash-bearing chalk at depths of 357.93 and 358.80 m below seafloor, respectively. These samples containing anomalous enrichments of Ir were taken from approximately 82 cm above and 5 cm below the extinction level of Globotruncanids. Our results are consistent with those of Michel et al., who observe elevated concentrations of Ir at these depths in addition to a larger Ir anomaly associated with the extinction level of Globotruncanids.

Schuraytz, B. C.; O'Connell, S.; Sharpton, V. L.

1991-01-01

56

Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event, El Kef Tunesia: a foraminiferal response  

SciTech Connect

The Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction event affected benthic communities less than planktonic faunas. Only 9% of benthic species comprising 20% in relative abundance of the total population became extinct, but most species declined in abundance. Only one species, Gavelinella eriksdalensis rapidly increased in abundance through the Danian and Loxostomum and Alabamian dorsoplanata are common in the boundary clay. Two further extinction events of lesser magnitude are observed in the upper A. mayaroensis Zone where 2% of the species go extinct, or 9% of the population, and in the Globigerina engubina Zone where also 2% of the species go extinct or 4% of the population. Significant species abundance changes also accompany these extinction events. Similar stepwise extinction events are also observed in the planktonic foraminifers. Benthic foraminifers indicate that the C/T boundary event was accompanied by a shallowing environment from middle slope to outer shelf. Reducing conditions prevailed during deposition of the boundary clay as suggested by the abundance of pyrite. The authors study of the El Kef section suggests that the observed population turnovers in benthic and planktonic communities could be explained by a sea level fall and/or geotectonically induced changes in oceanic circulation accompanied by temperature and salinity fluctuations. Although they cannot rule out the possibility of impact induced extinction events, have found no evidence of microtektite-like spherules in the boundary clay.

Chi, W.R.; Keller, G.

1985-01-01

57

Iridium profile for 10 million years across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio (Italy)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary was discovered in the pelagic limestone sequence at Gubbio on the basis of 12 samples analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA) and was interpreted as indicating impact of a large extraterrestrial object at exactly the time of the KT mass extinction. Continuing controversy over the shape of the Ir profile at the Gubbio KT boundary and its interpretation called for a more detailed follow-up study. Analysis of a 57-meter-thick, 10-million-year-old part of the Gubbio sequence using improved NAA techniques revealed that there is only one Ir anomaly at the KT boundary, but this anomaly shows an intricate fine structure, the origin of which cannot yet be entirely explained. The KT Ir anomaly peaks in a 1-centimeter-thick clay layer, where the average Ir concentration is 3000 parts per trillion (ppt); this peak is flanked by tails with Ir concentrations of 20 to 80 ppt that rise above a background of 12 to 13 ppt. The fine structure of the tails is probably due in part to lateral reworking, diffusion, burrowing, and perhaps Milankovitch cyclicity.

Alvarez, Walter; Asaro, Frank; Montanari, Alessandro

1990-01-01

58

Octopods: Nude ammonoids that survived the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary mass extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Certain ammonoids changed the mode of coiling or the growth angle of their last body chamber, constricted the terminal aperture, or developed apertural processes, which restricted all life functions. The modified terminal body chamber of macroconchs apparently functioned as a floating egg case for a single breeding phase. The young that hatched from tiny eggs fed on the enclosed female corpse. This same breeding strategy is executed by the extant octopod Argonauta. As a nude cephalopod, the sexually mature female secretes an egg case, which resembles Cretaceous ammonites, for the tiny eggs. The remarkable similarity in mode of breeding between Argonauta and ammonoids with modified terminal body chambers suggests that the ancestral argonautid was a nude ammonoid. Other octopods, which lay large, yolk-rich eggs attached onto substrates, likewise originate from ancestral nude ammonoids, which, however, did not breed in a floating egg case. Nude ammonoids crossed the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, as did the genuine coleoids comprising rudimentary endoskeletons.

Lewy, Z.

1996-07-01

59

Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: a restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

Alvarez, W.; Smit, J.; Lowrie, W.; Asaro, F.; Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Kastner, M.; Hildebrand, A. R.

1992-01-01

60

Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: A restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540  

SciTech Connect

Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater.

Alvarez, W.; Asaro, F. (Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States)); Smit, J. (Free Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands)); Lowrie, W. (Inst. fuer Geophysik, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Asaro, F. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Margolis, S.V.; Claeys, P. (Univ. of California, Davis (United States)); Kastner, M. (Univ. of California, San Diego (United States)); Hildebrand, A.R. (Geological Survey, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1992-08-01

61

Proximal impact deposits at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Gulf of Mexico: a restudy of DSDP Leg 77 Sites 536 and 540.  

PubMed

Restudy of Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 536 and 540 in the southeast Gulf of Mexico gives evidence for a giant wave at Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary time. Five units are recognized: (1) Cenomanian limestone underlies a hiatus in which the five highest Cretaceous stages are missing, possibly because of catastrophic K-T erosion. (2) Pebbly mudstone, 45 m thick, represents a submarine landslide possibly of K-T age. (3) Current-bedded sandstone, more than 2.5 m thick, contains anomalous iridium, tektite glass, and shocked quartz; it is interpreted as ejecta from a nearby impact crater, reworked on the deep-sea floor by the resulting tsunami. (4) A 50-cm interval of calcareous mudstone containing small Cretaceous planktic foraminifera and the Ir peak is interpreted as the silt-size fraction of the Cretaceous material suspended by the impact-generated wave. (5) Calcareous mudstone with basal Tertiary forams and the uppermost tail of the Ir anomaly overlies the disturbed interval, dating the impact and wave event as K-T boundary age. Like Beloc in Haiti and Mimbral in Mexico, Sites 536 and 540 are consistent with a large K-T age impact at the nearby Chicxulub crater. PMID:11538163

Alvarez, W; Smit, J; Lowrie, W; Asaro, F; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Kastner, M; Hildebrand, A R

1992-08-01

62

An atmospheric pCO2 reconstruction across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from leaf megafossils  

PubMed Central

The end-Cretaceous mass extinctions, 65 million years ago, profoundly influenced the course of biotic evolution. These extinctions coincided with a major extraterrestrial impact event and massive volcanism in India. Determining the relative importance of each event as a driver of environmental and biotic change across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) crucially depends on constraining the mass of CO2 injected into the atmospheric carbon reservoir. Using the inverse relationship between atmospheric CO2 and the stomatal index of land plant leaves, we reconstruct Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary atmospheric CO2 concentration (pCO2) levels with special emphasis on providing a pCO2 estimate directly above the KTB. Our record shows stable Late Cretaceous/Early Tertiary background pCO2 levels of 350–500 ppm by volume, but with a marked increase to at least 2,300 ppm by volume within 10,000 years of the KTB. Numerical simulations with a global biogeochemical carbon cycle model indicate that CO2 outgassing during the eruption of the Deccan Trap basalts fails to fully account for the inferred pCO2 increase. Instead, we calculate that the postboundary pCO2 rise is most consistent with the instantaneous transfer of ?4,600 Gt C from the lithic to the atmospheric reservoir by a large extraterrestrial bolide impact. A resultant climatic forcing of +12 W?m?2 would have been sufficient to warm the Earth's surface by ?7.5°C, in the absence of counter forcing by sulfate aerosols. This finding reinforces previous evidence for major climatic warming after the KTB impact and implies that severe and abrupt global warming during the earliest Paleocene was an important factor in biotic extinction at the KTB. PMID:12060729

Beerling, D. J.; Lomax, B. H.; Royer, D. L.; Upchurch, G. R.; Kump, L. R.

2002-01-01

63

Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary mass extinction.  

PubMed

Since the early l990s the Chicxulub crater on Yucatan, Mexico, has been hailed as the smoking gun that proves the hypothesis that an asteroid killed the dinosaurs and caused the mass extinction of many other organisms at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary 65 million years ago. Here, we report evidence from a previously uninvestigated core, Yaxcopoil-1, drilled within the Chicxulub crater, indicating that this impact predated the K-T boundary by approximately 300,000 years and thus did not cause the end-Cretaceous mass extinction as commonly believed. The evidence supporting a pre-K-T age was obtained from Yaxcopoil-1 based on five independent proxies, each with characteristic signals across the K-T transition: sedimentology, biostratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, stable isotopes, and iridium. These data are consistent with earlier evidence for a late Maastrichtian age of the microtektite deposits in northeastern Mexico. PMID:15004276

Keller, Gerta; Adatte, Thierry; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Rebolledo-Vieyra, Mario; Fucugauchi, Jaime Urrutia; Kramar, Utz; Stüben, Doris

2004-03-16

64

Geologic and biostratigraphic framework of the non-marine Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in western North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Palynologically defined Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sites in nonmarine rocks in western North America exhibit similar characteristics. All are marked by abrupt disappearance of the regional uppermost Cretaceous palynoflora at the level of an iridium anomaly; most also yeild shock-metamorphosed minerals. All are in coal-bearing, fluvial or paludal depositional settings, although the boundary horizon may be below, within, above, or at some stratigraphic distance from coal seams. At many sites the lowermost Tertiary beds contain assemblages overwhelmed by fern spores that, together with extinctions of some groups of angiosperms, are taken as evidence of regional devastation of terrestrial plant communities and subsequent recolonization by pioneer species. ?? 1990.

Nichols, D.J.

1990-01-01

65

Cretaceous-tertiary boundary spherules and Cenozoic microtektites: Similarities and differences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bohor and Betterton pointed out that the K-T spherules can be divided into three groups. Their Type 1 spherules appear to be found in or adjacent to North America, particularly the Western Interior and in Haiti and Mexico. The Type 1 spherules occur in the lower part of the K-T boundary clay below an Ir anomaly. It is the Type 1 spherules which are most similar to microtektites. The discovery of K-T boundary spherules in Beloc, Haiti, and Mimbral, Mexico, with residual tektite-like glass cores supports the hypothesis that the Type 1 spherules are diagenetically altered microtektites. The similarities and differences of the Type 1 K-T boundary spherules to previously described Cenozoic microtektites are discussed.

Glass, B. P.; Bohor, Bruce F.; Betterton, William J.

1993-01-01

66

The Unique Significance and Origin of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary: Historical Context and Burdens of Proof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The abruptness and intensity of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary have been deemphasized by some authors over recent years, mainly by those skeptical of an impact origin for the boundary. However, it was recognized at the birth of stratigraphy as both abrupt and of major importance. It was used to define the change from the Mesozoic to the Cenozoic; the boundary has become continually more precisely defined and its global sequences more correlatable. It is now unique in being an event boundary marked by an iridium-bearing layer of global extent, rather than an arbitrary boundary in a sequence of little change. The Permian-Triassic boundary, in contrast, is arbitrary and the transition is not yet proven to be abrupt, the extinctions that define it perhaps having taken place in pulses over several millions of years. Some of those who have denied the importance (and in some cases even the existence) of an impact in the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions have placed burdens of proof on the impact hypothesis that they do not place on strictly terrestrial mechanisms. Terrestrial mechanisms have always been unsatisfactory (or at least unconvincing for global, massive, multienvironment faunal change) and are now even more so. Some authors have required of the impact hypothesis attributes that are not inherent in it, including particular patterns of extinction selectivity and timing.

Ryder, Graham

1996-01-01

67

The Manson impact structure - Its contribution to impact materials observed at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Manson impact structure (MIS) in Iowa is an excellently preserved complex crater that formed 65.7 Ma ago at the K/T boundary. Drill and seismic data have been used to identify three primary terranes within the 35-km diameter crater: (1) an outermost ring graben composed of listric normal fault blocks that structurally preserve Paleozoic and Cretaceous strata, impact ejecta, and possibly earliest Tertiary lake sediments; (2) a crater moat region of slumped and fallback materials overlain by Tertiary lake sediments in most areas; and (3) a central peak of uplifted basement rock capped in many areas by impact breccia. It is argued that concentrations of Ir at a K/T boundary exposure near Gubbio, Italy and clasts of glass reported from the K/T boundary in Haiti are consistent with possible production in the MIS.

Anderson, Raymond R.; Hartung, Jack B.

1992-01-01

68

New Evidence links Deccan Traps to the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Mass Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that Deccan Trap volcanism began with a relatively minor eruption phase (~6% of total volume) during the late Maastrichtian magnetic polarity C30n. The main eruption phase (~80%) occurred over a short period in C29r just below the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and the last Deccan phase (~14%) erupted in the early Danian C29n. Multiproxy studies from sections in Meghalaya (NE India), Jhilmili in central India (Madhya Pradesh), 6 quarry outcrops from Rajahmundry (SE India), 10 deep wells from the Krishna-Godavari Basin (K-G) (Andhra Pradesh) place the KTB mass extinction near the end of the main Deccan phase coincident with the mass extinction. These studies show that the second and third phase of eruptions each produced the world's largest and longest lava megaflows ~1500 km across India through the K-G Basin into the Bay of Bengal. These megaflows are separated by sand, silt and shale which record the mass extinction across an interval that spans zones CF1-CF2 and most of the nannofossil Micula prinsii zone and is correlative with the rapid global warming and subsequent cooling near the end of the Maastrichtian. The mass extinction began preceding the first of the four mega-flows in C29r. Planktic foraminifera suffered a 50% drop in species richness. Survivors suffered another 50% drop after the first mega-flow, leaving just 7 to 8 survivor species. No recovery occurred between the next three mega-flows and the mass extinction was complete with the last phase-2 megaflow at the KTB. The last phase of Deccan volcanism and its 3 to 4 megaflows in the early Danian C29n (zone P1b) delayed biotic recovery of marine plankton. Correlative with these intense volcanic phases, climate changed from humid/tropical to arid conditions and returned to normal tropical humidity after the last phase of volcanism. Similar environmental conditions, mass extinction and delayed recovery patterns are observed in Meghalaya, NE India.The mass extinction was likely the consequence of rapid and massive volcanic CO2 and SO2 gas emissions, leading to high continental weathering rates, global warming, cooling, acid rains, ocean acidification and a carbonate crisis in the marine environment.

Adatte, T.; Keller, G.

2012-04-01

69

Ar-40 to Ar-39 ages of the large impact structures Kara and Manicouagan and their relevance to the Cretaceous-Tertiary and the Triassic-Jurassic boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the discovery of the Ir enrichment in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary clays in 1980, the effects of a 10-km asteroid impacting on the Earth 65 Ma ago have been discussed as the possible reason for the mass extinction--including the extinction of the dinosaurs--at the end of the Cretaceous. But up to now no crater of this age that is large enough (ca. 200 km in diameter) has been found. One candidate is the Kara Crater in northern Siberia. Kolesnikov et al. determined a K-Ar isochron of 65.6 +/- 0.5 Ma, indistinguishable from the age of the K-T boundary and interpreted this as confirmation of earlier proposals that the Kara bolide would have been at least one of the K-T impactors. Koeberl et al. determined Ar-40 to Ar-39 ages ranging from 70 to 82 Ma and suggested an association to the Campanian-Maastrichtian boundary, another important extinction horizon 73 Ma ago. We dated four impact melts, KA2-306, KA2-305, SA1-302, and AN9-182. Results from the investigation are discussed.

Trieloff, M.; Jessberger, E. K.

1992-01-01

70

Evidence for a single impact at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary from trace elements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Not only meteoritic elements (Ir, Ni, Au, Pt metals), but also some patently non-meteoritic elements (As, Sb) are enriched at the K-T boundary. Eight enriched elements at 7 K-T sites were compared and it was found that: All have fairly constant proportions to Ir and Kilauea (invoked as an example of a volcanic source of Ir by opponents of the impact theory) has too little of 7 of these 8 elements to account for the boundary enrichments. The distribution of trace elements at the K-T boundary was reexamined using data from 11 sites for which comprehensive are available. The meteoritic component can be assessed by first normalizing the data to Ir, the most obviously extraterrestrial element, and then to Cl chondrites. The double normalization reduces the concentration range from 11 decades to 5 and also facilitates the identification of meteoritic elements. At sites where trace elements were analyzed in sub-divided samples of boundary clay, namely, Caravaca (SP), Stevns Klint (DK), Flaxbourne River (NZ) and Woodside Creek (NZ), Sb, As and Zn are well correlated with Ir across the boundary implying a common deposition mechanism. Elemental carbon is also enriched by up to 10,000 x in boundary clay from 5 K-T sides and is correlated with Ir across the boundary at Woodside Creek. While biomass would appear to be the primary fuel source for this carbon a contribution from a fossil fuel source may be necessary in order to account for the observed C abundance.

Gilmour, Iain; Anders, Edward

1988-01-01

71

Extinction and survival of plant life following the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary event, Western Interior, North America ( USA).  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The palynological Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary is recognized in the northern part of the Western Interior by the abrupt disappearance of a few characteristic Cretaceous pollen genera. In the southern part, the boundary is recognized by the disappearance of a somewhat different group of pollen. The abrupt change in both regions takes place precisely at the stratigraphic horizon at which boundary clay layers containing anomalously high concentrations of iridium are found. All the principal Cretaceous pollen genera that disappear regionally have been reported from Tertiary rocks in other parts of North America. Differential apparent extinction and/or survival reflects a pronounced temporary disruption of plant life immediately after the impact event. Some Cretaceous plants must have persisted in refugia to have provided the propagules for the rapid recovery of the flora. No massive total extinction of plant genera at the end of the Cretaceous can be seen from the palynologic record. -from Authors

Tschudy, R.H.; Tschudy, B.D.

1986-01-01

72

Main Deccan Trap Eruptions occurred close to the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary: increasing Multiproxy Evidence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent studies indicate that the bulk (80%) of the Deccan trap eruptions occurred over less than 0.8 m.y. in magnetic polarity C29r spanning the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) (Chenet et al, 2007, 2008). Detailed multiproxy studies from several sections from southeastern India (Rajhamundry, Andhra Pradesh) and central India (Jilmili, Madhya Pradesh) place the KTB event near the end of the main Deccan eruptive phase and indicate that Deccan volcanism could have been a major contributor to the mass extinction (Keller et al., 2008, 2009). Geochemical, mineralogical and micropaleontogical evidence from localities outside India suggest that this megapulse took place in the uppermost Maastrichtian C29r (CF2-CF1 transition). For example, a rapid shift in 187Os/188Os ratios observed in three deep-sea sections (Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans) are interpreted to mark the onset of the main Deccan pulse in C29r (Robinson et al., 2009). Foraminiferal oxygen isotope data from DSDP Site 525 (South Atlantic) show a short rapid global warming in C29r (Li and Keller, 1998) coincident with the decline in 187Os/188Os ratios. This warming is also observed in the terrestrial plant record (Wilf 2003). A coeval increase in weathering observed in Site 525 and Tunisia (Adatte et al., 2002) is marked by dominant kaolinite clay assemblages. In the same interval a significant decrease in bulk carbonate content suggests acidification due to volcanic SO2. Enhanced dissolution is also observed at DSDP Site 527 and Gubbio, Italy. Calcareous microfossils (planktic foraminifera and nannofossils) experienced major stress conditions expressed by species dwarfing, decreased diversity and decreased abundance (Keller, 2005). These observations indicate that Deccan volcanism played a key role in increasing atmospheric CO2 levels that resulted in global warming and enhanced greenhouse effect, which coupled with high SO2 emission increased biotic stress and predisposed faunas to eventual extinction at the KTB. Adatte, T. Keller, G. & Stinnesbeck, W. (2002). PPP 178; 3-4, Pages 165-196. Chenet, A-L., Quidelleur, X., Fluteau, F., Courtillot, V., 2007. EPSL. 263, 1-15. Chenet, A-L., Fluteau, F., Courtillot, V., Gerard, M., Subbarao, K.V., 2008. J. Geophys. Res. 113, B04101. Li, L., Keller, G., 1998c. Geology 26, 995-998. Keller, G. 2005. Lithos, 79, 3-4, 317-341. Keller, G., Adatte, T., Gardin, S., Bartolini, A., Bajpai, S., 2008. EPSL 268, 293-311. Keller, G., Adatte, T., Bajpai, S., Mohabey, D.M., Widdowson, M., Khosla, A., Sharma, R., Khosla, S. C., Gertsch, B., Fleitmann, D., Sahni, A. 2009.. EPSL, 282, 1-4, 10-23 Robinson, Ravizza, G., Coccioni, R. Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B. Norris, R. 2009. EPSL, 281, 3-4, 159-158. Wilf, P., Johnson, K.R., Huber, B.T., 2003. PNAS 100, 599-604.

Adatte, Thierry; Keller, Gerta

2010-05-01

73

Geochemistry and Stratigraphy of the Cretaceous/tertiary Boundary Impact Ejecta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An array of stratigraphic, chemical, isotopic, and mineralogical evidence indicates that an impact terminated the Cretaceous Period. The 180-km-diameter Chicxulub crater, which now lies buried on the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico, was probably formed by the impact. The impactor was probably a long-period comet. Shock devolatization of the thick carbonate/evaporite sequence impacted at Chicxulub probably led to a severe and long-lasting greenhouse warming and a prompt pulse of sulfuric acid rain. The fallout of crater ejecta formed two layers: a lower layer which varies in thickness following a power -law relation based on distance from the Chicxulub crater and an upper, globally-distributed, uniformly ~3-mm-thick layer. The upper layer probably represents the fallout of condensates and entrained solid and liquid particles which were distributed globally by the impact fireball. The lower layer consists of brecciated rock and impact melt near the crater and largely altered tektites far from the crater. The clasts of this layer were probably ballistically transported. The Raton, New Mexico K/T boundary section preserves the fireball and ejecta layers in a coal-free nonmarine environment. Siderophile, chalcophile, and lithophile trace element anomalies occur similar to those found at marine K/T boundary localities. Soot occurs peaking in the 3-mm-thick fireball layer and the immediately overlying 3 mm of sediment, implying prompt burning of the Cretaceous forests. The Brazos River, Texas continental-shelf K/T sections preserve coarse boundary sediments which were probably produced by impact waves. Siderophile and chalcophile trace-element anomalies occur suggesting that the fireball layer and possibly part of the ejecta layer are interbedded with the coarse boundary sediments. The Beloc, Haiti deep-sea K/T sections preserve a thick ejecta sequence including altered and unaltered tektites and shocked minerals capped by the fireball layer. The thick K/T ejecta preserved at this and other nearby K/T localities require a source crater of Chicxulub's size and location. The composition of the tektites and shocked grains require an impact into recently extracted continental crust with a carbonate/evaporite component as found at the Chicxulub crater.

Hildebrand, Alan Russell

1992-01-01

74

Macrofossil extinction patterns at Bay of Biscay Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Researchers examined several K-T boundary cores at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) core repositories to document biostratigraphic ranges of inoceramid shell fragments and prisms. As in land-based sections, prisms in the deep sea cores disappear well before the K-T boundary. Ammonites show a very different extinction pattern than do the inoceramids. A minimum of seven ammonite species have been collected from the last meter of Cretaceous strata in the Bay of Biscay basin. In three of the sections there is no marked drop in either species numbers or abundance prior to the K-T boundary Cretaceous strata; at the Zumaya section, however, both species richness and abundance drop in the last 20 m of the Cretaceous, with only a single ammonite specimen recovered to date from the uppermost 12 m of Cretaceous strata in this section. Researchers conclude that inoceramid bivalves and ammonites showed two different times and patterns of extinction, at least in the Bay of Biscay region. The inoceramids disappeared gradually during the Early Maestrichtian, and survived only into the earliest Late Maestrichtian. Ammonites, on the other hand, maintained relatively high species richness throughout the Maestrichtian, and then disappeared suddenly, either coincident with, or immediately before the microfossil extinction event marking the very end of the Cretaceous.

Ward, Peter D.; Macleod, Kenneth

1988-01-01

75

Iridium, shocked minerals, and trace elements across the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary at Maud Rise, Wedell Sea, and Walvis Ridge, South Atlantic Ocean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sediments spanning a 5 meter section across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at ODP holes 689B and 690D, Maud Rise, Wedell Sea and hole 527, Walvis Ridge, are being analyzed for shock deformation, PGE's and other trace elements (including REE's). Mineral separates from each sample were studied with optical microscopy to determine the distribution and microstructural state of quartz and feldspar present in the sediments. Samples from Maud Rise were taken of the K/T transition and at about 50 cm intervals above and below it. These samples consist of carbonate-rich sediments, with the K/T transition marked by a change from white Maastrichtian oozes to a greenish ooze with higher concentrations of altered volcanic clay and vitric ash. The Walvis Ridge site is characterized by more clay-rich sediments with average carbonate content about 60 to 70 percent. Initial results from RNAA studies indicate that iridium is present in all the Maud Rise samples in concentrations equal to or greater than 0.01 ppb (whole-rock basis). Preliminary results from optical microscopy indicate the occurrence of shock mosaicism in quartz and feldspar in all of the samples studied. The pervasiveness of shock mosaicism and presence of planar features to 2 meters from the K/T boundary indicates that a single impact or volcanic explosion 66 ma may be ruled out as responsible for the K/T event. A similar conclusion may be drawn independently from the distribution of iridium and other trace elements. Regardless of the source of the shock waves and sediment contamination, multiple events are required over a ca.0.5 my timespan; currently we favor endogenous sources.

Huffman, Alan R.; Crocket, James H.; Carter, Neville L.

1988-01-01

76

Thermal decomposition pattern and particle size estimation of iron minerals associated with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary at Gubbio  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mössbauer studies of the samples from the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (KTB) layer at Gubbio, Italy show that iron appears mainly in two phases, magnetically ordered hematite and a paramagnetic silicate phase. The average particle size of hematite is estimated to be in the range 16-27 nm from the Transmission Electron Micrographs and lack of Morin transition. The hyperfine magnetic field at the iron nucleus is observed to be somewhat less than that of bulk hematite, which may be explained by collective magnetic excitation. Stepwise heating up to 1000 deg C shows a decomposition pattern of the paramagnetic phase, which suggests it to be a tri-octahedral layer silicate. The iron-bearing phases found in the bulk sedimentary KTB material are different from those found in the spherules separated from this material indicating that the REDOX conditions changed rapidly after the impact, becoming more oxidizing during the period these bulk phases were formed.

Verma, H. C.; Upadhyay, Chandan; Tripathi, Amita; Tripathi, R. P.; Bhandari, N.

2002-07-01

77

Palaeobotanical evidence for a June 'impact winter' at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aquatic leaves in the K/T boundary section near Teapot Dome/Wyoming, preserve structural deformation that can be duplicated experimentally in extant aquatic leaves by freezing. Reproductive stages reached by the fossil aquatic plants at the time of death suggests that freezing took place in approximately early June. Both the existence of the structurally deformed plants and the high abundance of fern spores occur in a horizon containing sparse impact debris, but below the horizon containing abundant impact debris. It is suggested that the lower horizon represents debris and effects from a large, distant bolide impact, and the upper horizon represents a small, nearby bolide impact.

Wolfe, Jack A.

1991-08-01

78

The Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary interval in Badlands National Park, South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A marine K-T boundary interval has been identified throughout the Badlands National Park region of South Dakota. Data from marine sediments suggest that deposits from two asteroid impacts (one close, one far away) may be preserved in the Badlands. These impact-generated deposits may represent late Maestrichtian events or possibly the terminal K-T event. Interpretation is supported by paleontological correlation, sequence stratigraphy, magnetostratigraphy, and strontium isotope geochronology. This research is founded on nearly a decade of NPS approved field work in Badlands National Park and a foundation of previously published data and interpretations. The K-T boundary occurs within or near the base of a stratigraphic interval referred to as the "Interior Zone." We interpret the stratigraphy of the Interior Zone as a series of distinct, recognizable lithologic members and units from oldest to youngest, an upper weathered interval of the Elk Butte Member of the Pierre Shale (early late Maestrichtian), a complete (albeit condensed) interval of Fox Hill Formation, a pedogenically altered K-T Boundary "Disturbed Zone," and a generally unresolved sequence of marine to marginal marine units ranging in age from possibly latest Maestrichtian to late Paleocene (the "Yellow Mounds"), that underlie a basal red clay unit (the late Eocene overbank channel facies of the Chamberlain Pass Formation at the base of the White River Group). Within this sequence is a series of unconformities that all display some degree of subaerial weathering and erosion. The dating of marine fossils above and below these unconformities are in line with generally accepted global sea-level changes recognized for the late Campanian through early Eocene. Within the greater framework of regional geology, these findings support that the Western Interior Seaway and subsequent Cannonball Seaway were dependently linked to the changing base-level controlled by sea-level of the global ocean through the Gulf of Mexico and possibly the Arctic Ocean. The variation of facies preserved in Late Cretaceous strata in the Badlands National Park area were in part controlled by local or regional tectonic blocks that were either rising or sinking contemporaneous with deposition.

Stoffer, Philip W.; Messina, Paula; Chamberlain, John A., Jr.; Terry, Dennis O., Jr.

2001-01-01

79

Energy, volatile production, and climatic effects of the Chicxulub Cretaceous\\/Tertiary impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive analysis of volatiles in the Chicxulub impact strongly supports the hypothesis that impact-generated sulfate aerosols caused over a decade of global cooling, acid rain, and disruption of ocean circulation, which contributed to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary (K\\/T) boundary. The crater size, meteoritic content of the K\\/T boundary clay, and impact models indicate that the Chicxulub crater

Kevin O. Pope; Kevin H. Baines; Adriana C. Ocampo; Boris A. Ivanov

1997-01-01

80

Nitrogen geochemistry of a Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary site in New Zealand  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrogen in the basal layer of the K-T boundary clay at Woodside Creek, New Zealand, has an abundance of 1100 ppm, a 20-fold enrichment over Cretaceous and Tertiary values. The enrichment parallels that for Ir and elemental carbon (soot); all decrease over the next 6 mm of the boundary clay. The C/N ratio, assuming the nitrogen to be associated with organic rather than elemental carbon, is approximately 5 for the basal layer compared to 20 to 30 for the remainder of the boundary clay. The correlation between N and Ir abundances appears to persist above the boundary, implying that the N is intimately associated with the primary fallout and remained with it during the secondary redeposition processes that kept the Ir abundance relatively high into the lowermost Tertiary. Apparently the basal layer of the boundary clay represents the accumulation of a substantial quantity of N with an isotopic composition approximately 10 percent heavier than background delta value of N-15 values. If the boundary clay represents an altered impact glass from a meteorite impact than it probably denotes a time period of less than 1 year. Therefore, the changes in nitrogen geochemistry apparently occurred over a very short period of time. The high abundance of N and the correspondingly low C/N ratio may reflect enhanced preservation of organic material as a result of the rapid sweepout and burial of plankton by impact ejecta, with little or no bacterial degradation. It is conceivable that the shift in delta value of N-15 may represent an influx of nitrogen from a different source deposited contemporaneously with the impact ejecta. An interesting possibility is that it may be derived from nitrate, produced from the combustion of atmospheric nitrogen.

Gilmour, Iain; Boyd, Stuart R.

1988-01-01

81

The comparison of P\\/Tr and K\\/T boundaries on the basis of cosmic spherules found in Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major mass extinctions of taxa, enhanced tectonics, sea level changes, and volcanic activity occurred during both the Penno-Triassic (P\\/Tr) and Cretaceous-Tertiary (K\\/T) extinction levels. We give here a brief summary of our analyses of cosmic spherules extracted from geologic samples found in Hungary in the P\\/Tr and close to the K\\/T boundaries. Moreover, we suggest a new stratigraphic method

Cs. H. Detre; I. Toth; Sz. Berczi; Gy. Don; L. Dosztaly; A. Siegl-Garkas; P. Solt

1997-01-01

82

The cretaceous-tertiary transition.  

PubMed

The fossil sequences from cores across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary show a, range of transition times and transition time intervals depending on the fossil indicators and the location of the site. These variations, together with the pattern of iridium distribution with depth at some sites, differences in total amounts of iridium, variations in noble metal abundances normalized to extraterrestrial concentrations, the depositional effects that might be expected in a reducing environment, and the clay mineralogy of the boundary layer clays, put into question the interpretation that an extraterrestrial event was the cause of the faunal changes and the iridium anomaly in the vicinity of the Cretaceous-Tertiary transition. It seems more likely that an explanation for the changes during the transition will come from continued examination of the great variety of terrestrial events that took place at that time, including extensive volcanism, major regression of the sea from the land, geochemical changes, and paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic changes. PMID:17735175

Officer, C B; Drake, C L

1983-03-25

83

Impact mineralogy and chemistry of the cretaceous-tertiary boundary at DSDP site 576  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have identified the K/T boundary in pelagic clay sediments from cores at DSDP Site 576 in the western North Pacific. Detailed geochemical and trace mineralogical analyses of this boundary section are in progress and initial results indicate similarities and differences relative to the only other clay core investigated in detail; DSDP Site 596, a locality in the western South Pacific. Peak Ir concentrations of 13 ng/g in DSDP Hole 576B are virtually identical with those observed in the South Pacific, but in the North Pacific this peak is much narrower and the integrated Ir fluence of 85 ng cm(exp -2) is 4 times lower (320 in Hole 596). Of the 34 elements measured, only Ir and Cr were found to have anomalous concentrations in K/T boundary samples. Trace mineral residues were obtained by washing away clays and sequential chemical leaches (including HF) to remove typical hydrogenous and biogenous sediment components (e.g., zeolites and radiolarian opal). We attempted to quantitatively recover the entire trace mineral assemblage for grains greater than 30 micrometers in diameter. Our mineral residues were dominated by two phases: quartz and magnesioferrite spinel. Other non-opaque mineral grains we have positively identified were trace K-feldspar, plagioclase, corundum, and muscovite. Of these only K-feldspar exhibited planar deformation features (PDF). We have not found abundant plagioclase, as in the South Pacific suggesting that this phase was either not preserved in the North Pacific, or that in the south, it has a non-impact (i.e., volcanic) source. PDF in quartz were commonly obscured by secondary overgrowths on the surfaces of quartz grains, presumably from diagenetic reprecipitation of silica dissolved from opaline radiolarian tests that are common in these sediments. However, careful examination revealed that most grains had multiple sets of PDF. Of the 133 quartz grains greater than 30 micrometers analyzed, 62 percent showed evidence of shock. The largest shocked grain recovered to date had a maximum diameter of 160 micrometers, consistent with other sites in the Pacific.

Bostwick, Jennifer A.; Kyte, Frank T.

1993-01-01

84

Tektites in Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary rocks on Haiti and their bearing on the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Relic tektites are associated with a Pt-group metal abundance anomaly and shocked minerals in a thin marl bed that marks the K-T boundary on Haiti. The presence of these three impact-produced materials at the precise K-T boundary enormously strengthens the Alvarez impact extinction hypothesis. The Haitian tektites are the first datable impact products in K-T boundary rocks, and 40Ar-39Ar ages of the glass show that the K-T boundary and impact event are coeval at 64.5 ?? 0.1 Ma. -from Author

Izett, G.A.

1991-01-01

85

Rubey Colloquium Paper A Search for Soot from Global Wildfires in Central Pacific Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary and Other Extinction and Impact Horizon Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypotheses of global wildfires following the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary impact are supported by high concentrations of elemental carbon (3.6 mg cm 22) and soot (1.8 mg cm 22) in DSDP Site 465, which was located several thousand kilometers from potential continental sources at 65 Ma. Soot is not preserved at four other central Pacific KT localities, but this is attributed

WENDY S. WOLBACH; SUSANNA WIDICUS; FRANK T. KYTE

86

Field guide to Cretaceous-tertiary boundary sections in northeastern Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This guide was prepared for the field trip to the KT elastic sequence of northeastern Mexico, 5-8 February 1994, in conjunction with the Conference on New Developments Regarding the KT Event and Other Catastrophes in Earth History, held in Houston, Texas. The four-day excursion offers an invaluable opportunity to visit three key outcrops: Arroyo El Mimbral, La Lajilla, and El Pinon. These and other outcrops of this sequence have recently been interpreted as tsunami deposits produced by the meteorite impact event that produced the 200 to 300-km Chicxulub basin in Yucatan, and distributed ejecta around the world approximately 65 m.y. ago that today is recorded as a thin clay layer found at the K/T boundary. The impact tsunami interpretation for these rocks has not gone unchallenged, and others examining the outcrops arrive at quite different conclusions: not tsunami deposits but turbidites; not KT at all but 'upper Cretaceous.' Indeed, it is in hopes of resolving this debate through field discussion, outcrop evaluation, and sampling that led the organizers of the conference to sanction this field trip. This field guide provides participants with background information on the KT clastic sequence outcrops and is divided into two sections. The first section provides regional and logistical context for the outcrops and a description of the clastic sequence. The second section presents three representative interpretations of the outcrops by their advocates. There is clearly no way that these models can be reconciled and so two, if not all three, must be fundamentally wrong. Readers of this guide should keep in mind that many basic outcrop observations that these models are based upon remain unresolved. While great measures were taken to ensure that the information in the description section was as objective as possible, many observations are rooted in interpretations and the emphasis placed on certain observations depends to some degree upon the perspective of the author.

Keller, Gerta; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Adatte, Thierry; Macleod, Norman; Lowe, Donald R.

1994-01-01

87

Corals of the K\\/T?boundary: Scleractinian corals of the suborders Astrocoeniina, Faviina, Rhipidogyrina and Amphiastraeina  

Microsoft Academic Search

This taxonomic review of the scleractinian corals of the Maastrichtian and Paleocene period focuses on the scleractinian suborders Astrocoeniina, Faviina, Rhipidogyrina and Amphiastraeina. This, the first extensive compilation of coral species of the K\\/T (Cretaceous\\/Tertiary) boundary, deals with more than 2500 records of 550 nominal taxa. In addition to the re?examination and re?evaluation of described forms, this study also includes

2006-01-01

88

Extended period of K/T boundary mass extinction in the marine realm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary mass extinction has been widely recognized as a nearly instantaneous catastrophy among marine plankton such as foraminifera. However, the suddenness of this extinction event may have been overemphasized because most pelagic K/T boundary sequences are stratigraphically incomplete and generally lack the earliest Tertiary (Zones P0 and P1a) either due to carbonate dissolution and/or non-deposition. Stratigraphically complete sections appear to be restricted to continental shelf regions with high sedimentation rates and deposition well above the CCD. Such sections have been recovered from El Kef, Tunisia (1) and Brazos River, Texas. Quantitative foraminiferal analysis of these sections indicate an extinction pattern beginning below the K/T boundary and ending above the boundary. These data imply that the mass extinction event was not geologically instantaneous, but occurred over an extended period of time. Evidence supporting this conclusion is discussed.

Keller, G.

1988-01-01

89

A Search for Soot from Global Wildfires in Central Pacific Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary and Other Extinction and Impact Horizon Sediments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hypotheses of global wildfires following the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) boundary impact are supported by high concentrations of elemental carbon (3.6 mg cm-3) and soot (1.8 mg cm-2) in DSDP Site 465, which was located several thousand kilometers from potential continental sources at 65 Ma. Soot is not preserved at four other central Pacific KT localities, but this is attributed to loss during oxic diagenesis. We find no evidence for wildfires related to major impacts in the late Eocene or to Ir anomalies and extinctions in the late Cenomanian.

Wolbach, Wendy S.; Widicus, Susanna; Kyte, Frank T.

2003-01-01

90

Volcanism around K/T boundary time — its rôle in an impact scenario for the K/T extinction events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A widespread debate on the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary (65 ± 1 Ma) extinctions has largely revolved around an impact or a volcanic cause. Evidence for both events is strengthened by recent work. Impact-triggered Deccan volcanism or independent impact and mantle plume events have been suggested. This review examines evidence for both events and suggests that they overlapped in time, but with globally uneven effects. The combined effects produced generally inhospitable K/T environments leading to mass extinctions, although some life forms flourished afterwards. Volcanic contributions to the K/T boundary environment probably include increased Platinum Group Element (PGE) and acid rain fall out, particularly from large scale mantle upwellings e.g. Deccan, Cameroon and Coral Sea events. A previously proposed post-K/T Greenland starting plume apparently already existed in the Cretaceous. K/T features such as the Iridium (Ir) anomaly most likely include longer term volcanic as well as sudden meteoritic impact contributions. Volcanic contributions were greatest from Southern Hemisphere sources, whereas meteorite impacts featured in the Northern Hemisphere.

Sutherland, F. L.

1994-04-01

91

The Cretaceous-Tertiary biotic transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass extinctions are recognized through the study of fossil groups across event horizons, and from analyses of long-term trends in taxonomic richness and diversity. Both approaches have inherent flaws, and data that once seemed reliable can be readily superseded by the discovery of new fossils and\\/or the application of new analytical techniques. Herein the current state of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T)

N. MACLEOD; P. F. RAWSON; P. L. FOREY; F. T. BANNER; M. K. BOUDAGHER-FADEL; P. R. BOWN; J. A. BURNETT; P. CHAMBERS; S. CULVER; S. E. EVANS; C. JEFFERY; M. A. KAMINSKI; A. R. LORD; A. C. MILNER; N. MORRIS; E. OWEN; B. R. ROSEN; A. B. SMITH; P. D. TAYLOR; E. URQUHART; J. R. YOUNG

1997-01-01

92

Mineralogical and geochemical anomalous data of the K-T boundary samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary problem has been discussed previously from the geological research, mainly by fossil changes. Although geochemical bulk data of Ir anomaly suggest the extraterrestrial origin of the K-T boundary, the exact formation process discussed mainly by mineralogical and geochemical study has been started recently, together with noble gas contents. The K-T boundary sample at Kawaruppu River, Hokkaido was collected, in order to compare with the typical K-T boundary samples of Bubbio, Italy, Stevns Klint, Denmark, and El Kef, Tunisia. The experimental data of the silicas and calcites in these K-T boundary samples were obtained from the X-ray unit-cell dimension (i.e., density), ESR signal and total linear absorption coefficient, as well as He and Ne contents. The K-T boundary samples are usually complex mixture of the terrestrial activities after the K-T boundary event. The mineralogical and geochemical anomalous data indicate special terrestrial atmosphere at the K-T boundary formation probably induced by asteroid impact, followed the many various terrestrial activities (especially the strong role of sea-water mixture, compared with terrestrial highland impact and impact craters in the other earth-type planetary bodies).

Miura, Y.; Shibya, G.; Imai, M.; Takaoka, N.; Saito, S.

1988-01-01

93

Platinum-group elements (PGE) and Rhenium in Marine Sediments across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary: Constraints on Re-PGE Transport in the Marine Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nature of Re-platinum-group element (PGE; Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Ru) transport in the marine environment was investigated by means of marine sediments at and across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) at two hemipelagic sites in Europe and two pelagic sites in the North and South Pacific. A traverse across the KTB in the South Pacific pelagic clay core found elevated levels of Re, Pt, Ir, Os, and Ru, each of which is approximately symmetrically distributed over a distance of approx. 1.8 m across the KTB. The Re-PGE abundance patterns are fractionated from chondritic relative abundances: Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re contents are slightly subchondritic relative to Ir, and Os is depleted by approx. 95% relative to chondritic Ir proportions. A similar depletion in Os (approx. 90%) was found in a sample of the pelagic KTB in the North Pacific, but it is enriched in Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re relative to Ir. The two hemipelagic KTB clays have near-chondritic abundance patterns. The approx. 1.8-m-wide Re-PGE peak in the pelagic South Pacific section cannot be reconciled with the fallout of a single impactor, indicating that postdepositional redistribution has occurred. The elemental profiles appear to fit diffusion profiles, although bioturbation could have also played a role. If diffusion had occurred over approx. 65 Ma, the effective diffusivities are approx. 10(exp -13)sq cm/s, much smaller than that of soluble cations in pore waters (approx. 10(exp -5) sq cm/s). The coupling of Re and the PGEs during redistribution indicates that postdepositional processes did not significantly fractionate their relative abundances. If redistribution was caused by diffusion, then the effective diffusivities are the same. Fractionation of Os from Ir during the KTB interval must therefore have occurred during aqueous transport in the marine environment. Distinctly subchondritic Os/Ir ratios throughout the Cenozoic in the South Pacific core further suggest that fractionation of Os from Ir in the marine environment is a general process throughout geologic time because most of the inputs of Os and Ir into the ocean have OsAr ratios greater than or = 1. Mass balance calculations show that Os and Re burial fluxes in pelagic sediments account for only a small fraction of the riverine Os (less than 10%) and Re (less than 0.1%) inputs into the oceans. In contrast, burial of Ir in pelagic sediments is similar to the riverine Ir input, indicating that pelagic sediments are a much larger repository for Ir than for Os and Re. If all of the missing Os and Re is assumed to reside in anoxic sediments in oceanic margins, the calculated burial fluxes in anoxic sediments are similar to observed burial fluxes. However, putting all of the missing Os and Re into estuarine sediments would require high concentrations to balance the riverine input and would also fail to explain the depletion of Os at pelagic KTB sites, where at most approx. 25% of the K-T impactor's Os could have passed through estuaries. If Os is preferentially sequestered in anoxic marine environments, it follows that the OsAr ratio of pelagic sediments should be sensitive to changes in the rates of anoxic sediment deposition. There is thus a clear fractionation of Os and Re from Ir in precipitation out of sea water in pelagic sections. Accordingly, it is inferred here that Re and Os are removed from sea water in anoxic marine depositional regimes.

Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Wasserburg, Gerald J.; Kyte, Frank T.

2003-01-01

94

Plants and the K-T Boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Plants and the K--T Boundary, two of the world's leading experts in palynology and paleobotany provide a comprehensive account of the fate of land plants during the 'great extinction' about 65 million years ago. They describe how the time boundary between the Cretaceous and Paleogene Periods (the K--T boundary) is recognized in the geological record, and how fossil plants can be used to understand global events of that time. There are case studies from over 100 localities around the world, including North America, China, Russia and New Zealand. The book concludes with an evaluation of possible causes of the K--T boundary event and its effects on floras of the past and present. This book is written for researchers and students in paleontology, botany, geology and Earth history, and everyone who has been following the course of the extinction debate and the K--T boundary paradigm shift.

Nichols, Douglas J.; Johnson, Kirk R.

95

Coeval Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ar-40/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from Ar-40/Ar-39 ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The Ar-40/Ar-39 ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site.

Swisher, Carl C., III; Grajales-Nishimura, Jose M.; Montanari, Alessandro; Margolis, Stanley V.; Claeys, Philippe; Alvarez, Walter; Renne, Paul; Cedillo-Pardo, Esteban; Maurrasse, Florentin J.-M. R.; Curtis, Garniss H.

1992-01-01

96

Coeval 40Ar/39Ar Ages of 65.0 Million Years Ago from Chicxulub Crater Melt Rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Tektites.  

PubMed

(40)Ar/(39)Ar dating of drill core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained within the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater in Yucatán, Mexico, has yielded well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the Chicxulub 1 well. The age of the melt rock is virtually indistinguishable from (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages obtained on tektite glass from Beloc, Haiti, and Arroyo el Mimbral, northeastern Mexico, of 65.01 +/- 0.08 Ma (mean plateau age for Beloc) and 65.07 +/- 0.10 Ma (mean total fusion age for both sites). The (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages, in conjunction with geochemical and petrological similarities, strengthen the recent suggestion that the Chicxulub structure is the source for the Haitian and Mexican tektites and is a viable candidate for the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary impact site. PMID:17789640

Swisher, C C; Grajales-Nishimura, J M; Montanari, A; Margolis, S V; Claeys, P; Alvarez, W; Renne, P; Cedillo-Pardoa, E; Maurrasse, F J; Curtis, G H; Smit, J; McWilliams, M O

1992-08-14

97

Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd, K-Ca, O, and H isotopic study of Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary sediments, Caravaca, Spain: evidence for an oceanic impact site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Isotopic ratios and trace element abundances were measured on samples of Ir-enriched clay at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and in carbonate and marl from 5 cm below and 3 cm above the boundary. Samples were leached with acetic acid to remove carbonate, and with hydrochloric acid. Leachates and residues were measured. The Sr, Nd, O and H isotopic compositions of the boundary clay residues are distinct from those of the stratigraphically neighboring materials. The data indicate that most of the clay material was derived from a terrestrial source with relatively low 87Sr/86Sr and high 143Nd/144Nd ratios. The ??18O data suggest that the detritus has been modified by submarine weathering. K-Ca and Rb-Sr systematics, as well as O isotope ratios of K-feldspar spherules within the boundary clay, suggest that they are predominantly authigenic and may have formed after the time of deposition. However, Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isotopic data indicate that the spherules contain relict material that provides information on the nature of the original detritus. The isotopic evidence for foreign terrestrial detritus in the boundary clay, the low rare earth element concentrations and high Ni concentration, support the hypothesis of a terminal Cretaceous asteroidal impact that produced a global layer of fallout. The data are most easily explained if the impact site was on oceanic crust rather than continental crust, and if a substantial fraction of the fallout was derived from relatively deep within the lithosphere (>3 km). This would probably require a single large impactor. ?? 1983.

DePaolo, D.J.; Kyte, F.T.; Marshall, B.D.; O'Neil, J.R.; Smit, J.

1983-01-01

98

The K\\/T boundary at Beloc (Haiti): Compared stratigraphic distributions of the boundary markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

At Beloc, Haiti the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) is characterized by a spherule bed containing glass particles. These particles are considered by some authors as remains of tektites resulting from a nearby impact. However, because of the stratigraphic complexity of the Beloc sections the genetic link between the KTB cosmic event and the spherule bed is not obvious. In this paper,

Hugues Leroux; Robert Rocchia; Laurence Froget; Xavier Orue-Etxebarria; Jean-Claude Doukhan; Eric Robin

1995-01-01

99

A Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction? Were most of Earth's species killed off?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For the past decade, the scientific and popular press have carried frequent articles about a catastrophic mass extinction that supposedly destroyed the majority of the earth's species, including the dinosaurs, approximately 65 million years ago. Since 1980, more than 2000 papers and books have dealt with some aspect of a mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. One authoritative estimate of the severity of the extinctions is that 60-80% of all the living species became extinct at this boundary (Raup 1988). There appears to be a general acceptance of the fact that such a great catastrophe did occur. Most of the argument among scientists now is devoted to the determination of the cause. In this article, I argue that the species changes at the K/T boundary were neither sudden nor catastrophic. They were most likely caused by a regression of sea level that led to a decrease in primary production.

Briggs, J. C.

1991-01-01

100

A Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction? Were most of Earth's species killed off?  

PubMed

For the past decade, the scientific and popular press have carried frequent articles about a catastrophic mass extinction that supposedly destroyed the majority of the earth's species, including the dinosaurs, approximately 65 million years ago. Since 1980, more than 2000 papers and books have dealt with some aspect of a mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. One authoritative estimate of the severity of the extinctions is that 60-80% of all the living species became extinct at this boundary (Raup 1988). There appears to be a general acceptance of the fact that such a great catastrophe did occur. Most of the argument among scientists now is devoted to the determination of the cause. In this article, I argue that the species changes at the K/T boundary were neither sudden nor catastrophic. They were most likely caused by a regression of sea level that led to a decrease in primary production. PMID:11538279

Briggs, J C

1991-10-01

101

Bio-, Magneto- and event-stratigraphy across the K-T boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining the time and the time structure of rare events in geology can be accomplished by applying three different and independent stratigraphic methods: Biostratigraphy, magneto-stratigraphy and event-stratigraphy. The optimal time resolution of the two former methods is about 1000 years, while by means of event-stratigraphy a resolution of approximately one year can be achieved. For biostratigraphy across the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary micro- and nannofossils have been found best suited. The qualitative and quantitative analyses of minerals and trace elements across the K-T boundary show anomalies on a millimeter scale and permit conclusions regarding the time structure of the K-T event itself. The results of the analyses find a most consistent explanation by the assumption of an extraterrestrial impact. The main portion of the material rain from the atmosphere evidently was deposited within a short time. The long-time components consist of the finest portion of the material rain from the atmosphere and the transported and redeposited fall-out.

Preisinger, A.; Stradner, H.; Mauritsch, H. J.

1988-01-01

102

Impact wave deposits provide new constraints on the location of the K/T boundary impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

All available evidence is consistent with an impact into oceanic crust terminating the Cretaceous Period. Although much of this evidence is incompatible with an endogenic origin, some investigators still feel that a volcanic origin is possible for the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay layers. The commonly cited evidence for a large impact stems from delicate clay layers and their components and the impact site has not yet been found. Impact sites have been suggested all over the globe. The impact is felt to have occurred near North America by: the occurrence of a 2 cm thick ejecta layer only at North American locales, the global variation of shocked quartz grain sizes peaking in North America, the global variation of spinel compositions with most refractory compositions occurring in samples from the Pacific region and possibly uniquely severe plant extinctions in the North American region. The K/T boundary interval was investigated as preserved on the banks of the Brazos River, Texas. The K/T fireball and ejecta layers with associated geochemical anomalies were found interbedded with this sequence which apparently allows a temporal resolution 4 orders of magnitude greater than typical K/T boundary sections. A literature search reveals that such coarse deposits are widely preserved at the K/T boundary. Impact wave deposits have not been found elsewhere on the globe, suggesting the impact occurred between North and South America. The coarse deposits preserved in Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) holes 151-3 suggest the impact occurred nearby. Subsequent tectonism has complicated the picture.

Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

1988-01-01

103

Biospheric Effects of the Chicxulub Impact and Their Role in the Cretaceous/Tertiary Mass Extinction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive analysis of volatiles in the Chicxulub impact strongly supports the hypothesis that impact-generated sulfate aerosols caused over a decade of global cooling, acid rain, and disruption of ocean circulation, which contributed to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. The crater size, meteoritic content of the K/T boundary clay, and impact models indicate that the Chicxulub crater was formed by a short period comet or an asteroid impact that released 0.7-3.4 x 10(exp 31) ergs of energy. Impact models and experiments combined with estimates of volatiles in the projectile and target rocks predict that over 200 gigatons (Gt) each of SO2 and water vapor, and over 500 Gt of CO2, were globally distributed in the stratosphere by the impact.

Pope, Kevin O.

1997-01-01

104

Mineralogy and petrology of the Cretaceous- Tertiary boundary clay bed and adjacent clay-rich rocks, Raton Basin, New Mexico and Colorado.  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The K-T boundary occurs at the top of a kaolinitic claystone layer, commonly referred to as the 'boundary clay layer', in an interval of coal and carbonaceous shale. The boundary is defined by the disappearance of certain fossil-pollen taxa. The boundary clay layer also contains shocked quartz grains and abundance anomalies of iridium, chromium, and other elements. Each of these characteristics support the hypothesis of an asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous. -from Authors

Pollastro, R.M.; Pillmore, C.L.

1987-01-01

105

Deccan volcanism and K-T boundary signatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Deccan Traps in the Indian subcontinent represent one of the most extensive flood basalt provinces in the world. These basalts occur mainly as flat-lying, subaerially erupted tholeiitic lava flows, some of which are traceable for distances of more than 100 km. Offshore drilling and geophysical surveys indicate that a part of the Deccan subsided or was downfaulted to the west beneath the Arabian Sea. The presence of 1 to 5 m thick intertrappean sediments deposited by lakes and rivers indicates periods of quiescence between eruptions. The occurrence of numerous red bole beds among the flows suggests intense weathering of flow tops between eruptive intervals. Although the causative relationship of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) biotic extinctions to Deccan volcanism is debatable, the fact that the main Deccan eruptions straddle the K-T event appears beyond doubt from the recent Ar-40/Ar-39 ages of various Deccan flows. This temporal relationship of the K-T event with Deccan volcanism makes the petrochemical signatures of the entire Deccan sequence (basalt flows, intercalated intertrappean sediments, infratrappean Lameta beds (with dinosaur fossils), and the bole beds) pertinent to studies of the K-T event. The results of ongoing study is presented.

Murali, A. V.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Parekh, P. P.

1988-01-01

106

Isotopic signatures of black tektites from the K-T boundary on Haiti - Implications for the age and type of source material  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An isotopic study was carried out to characterize the type of black tektites from the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary on Haiti (the first reasonably well-preserved impact-derived material recovered from the K-T boundary), in order to help characterize the tektite source material (i.e., the type of rocks that were melted and ejected during the impact event(s) at around 64.5 Ma). Results show that the isotopic data and all of the element concentration data obtained are consistent with an andesitic-dacitic composition for the tektites and their source material. The Nd isotopic data suggest that the source rocks were not older than Silurian (T(chur) = 400 Ma) in age, and were composed largely of young (less than 1080 Ma) crustal material. Of the suspected K-T boundary impact sites, both the Manson (Iowa) and Chicxulub (Yucatan) structures occur in suitable lithologies to yield the Haitian black tektites.

Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

1992-01-01

107

The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction: A lethal mechanism involving anhydrite target rocks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Chicxulub Crater, Yucatan, Mexico, is a leading contender as the site for the impact event that caused the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) extinctions. A considerable thickness of anhydrite (CaSO4) forms part of the target rock. High temperatures resulting from impact would drive SO2 off from the anhydrite. Hundreds of billions of tonnes of sulfuric acid aerosol would thus enter the stratosphere and cause considerable cooling of the Earth's surface, decrease photosynthesis by orders of magnitude, deplete the ozone layer, and permit increased UV radiation to reach the Earth's surface. Finally, the aerosol would fall back to Earth as acid rain and devastate land and some lacustrine biota and near-surface marine creatures. The presence of anhydrite in the Chicxulub target rock may thus help explain the many extinctions observed at the K-T boundary. ?? 1992.

Brett, R.

1992-01-01

108

The global Cretaceous-Tertiary fire: Biomass or fossil carbon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The global soot layer at the K-T boundary indicates a major fire triggered by meteorite impact. However, it is not clear whether the principal fuel was biomass or fossil carbon. Forests are favored by delta value of C-13, which is close to the average for trees, but the total amount of elemental C is approximately 10 percent of the present living carbon, and thus requires very efficient conversion to soot. The PAH was analyzed at Woodside Creek, in the hope of finding a diagnostic molecular marker. A promising candidate is 1-methyl-7-isopropyl phenanthrene (retene,), which is probably derived by low temperature degradation of abietic acid. Unlike other PAH that form by pyrosynthesis at higher temperatures, retene has retained the characteristic side chains of its parent molecule. A total of 11 PAH compounds were identified in the boundary clay. Retene is present in substantial abundance. The identification was confirmed by analysis of a retene standard. Retene is characteristic of the combustion of resinous higher plants. Its formation depends on both temperature and oxygen access, and is apparently highest in oxygen-poor fires. Such fires would also produce soot more efficiently which may explain the high soot abundance. The relatively high level of coronene is not typical of a wood combustion source, however, though it can be produced during high temperature pyrolysis of methane, and presumably other H, C-containing materials. This would require large, hot, low O2 zones, which may occur only in very large fires. The presence of retene indicates that biomass was a significant fuel source for the soot at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. The total amount of elemental C produced requires a greater than 3 percent soot yield, which is higher than typically observed for wildfires. However, retene and presumably coronene imply limited access of O2 and hence high soot yield.

Gilmour, Iain; Guenther, Frank

1988-01-01

109

Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K/T boundary.  

PubMed

Estimates of the time of origin for placental mammals from DNA studies span nearly the duration of the Cretaceous period (145 to 65 million years ago), with a maximum of 129 million years ago and a minimum of 78 million years ago. Palaeontologists too are divided on the timing. Some support a deep Cretaceous origin by allying certain middle Cretaceous fossils (97-90 million years old) from Uzbekistan with modern placental lineages, whereas others support the origin of crown group Placentalia near the close of the Cretaceous. This controversy has yet to be addressed by a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis that includes all well-known Cretaceous fossils and a wide sample of morphology among Tertiary and recent placentals. Here we report the discovery of a new well-preserved mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Mongolia and a broad-scale phylogenetic analysis. Our results exclude Cretaceous fossils from Placentalia, place the origin of Placentalia near the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in Laurasia rather than much earlier within the Cretaceous in the Southern Hemisphere, and place afrotherians and xenarthrans in a nested rather than a basal position within Placentalia. PMID:17581585

Wible, J R; Rougier, G W; Novacek, M J; Asher, R J

2007-06-21

110

Rocks, resolution, and the record at the terrestrial K/T boundary, eastern Montana and western North Dakota  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Reconstructions of mass extinction events are based upon faunal patterns, reconstructed from numerical and diversity data ultimately derived from rocks. It follows that geological complexity must not be subsumed in the desire to establish patterns. This is exemplified at the Terrestrial Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary in eastern Montana and western North Dakota, where there are represented all of the major indicators of the terrestrial K/T transition: dinosaurian and non-dinosaurian vertebrate faunas, pollen, a megaflora, iridium, and shocked quartz. It is the patterns of these indicators that shape ideas about the terrestrial K/T transition. In eastern Montana and western North Dakota, the K/T transition is represented lithostratigraphically by the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, and the Tertiary Tullock Formation. Both of these are the result of aggrading, meandering, fluvial systems, a fact that has important consequences for interpretations of fossils they contain. Direct consequences of the fluvial depositional environments are: facies are lenticular, interfingering, and laterally discontinuous; the occurrence of fossils in the Hell Creek and Tullock formations is facies-dependent; and the K/T sequence in eastern Montana and western North Dakota is incomplete, as indicated by repetitive erosional contacts and soil successions. The significance for faunal patterns of lenticular facies, facies-dependent preservation, and incompleteness is discussed. A project attempting to reconstruct vertebrate evolution in a reproducible manner in Hell Creek-type sediments must be based upon a reliable scale of correlations, given the lenticular nature of the deposits, and a recognition of the fact that disparate facies are not comparable in terms of either numbers of preserved vertebrates or depositional rates.

Fastovsky, D. E.

1988-01-01

111

The record of impact on earth - Implications for a major Cretaceous/Tertiary impact event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cratering mechanics suggests that if the proposed Cretaceous-Tertiary impact event occurred in the ocean, it may have been able to locally excavate the oceanic crust and bring upper mantle material to the surface, thereby creating a geophysical anomaly that has yet to be detected. If the siderophile enrichments in the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary layer denote projectile-contaminated ejecta from a major impact, the source of this material will probably be ejecta which had been accelerated upwards as the projectile penetrated the target rocks. The difficulties in defining projectile types from the siderophile anomalies in the relatively well known environment of impact melt rocks suggest that more detailed geochemistry and mineralogy will be needed before the siderophile enrichments at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary can be linked to a specific meteoritic compositional class.

Grieve, R. A. F.

1982-01-01

112

Terrestrial ecosystem destabilization at the K/T boundary in southwestern North Dakota, USA.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Much of the debate regarding mass extinction events tend to discuss the relationship between such events relative to the moment and timing of internal or external factors (such as volcanism, impact(s), climate, sea-level changes and so on). However, the details of the extinction process itself is still poorly understood, and most of the analysis are based on biodiversity patterns without integrating the biogeographic and environmental context. Another way of approaching the problem would be to propose precise paleoenvironment reconstructions and analyzing their evolution through time, which allows for the understanding of such processes. The badlands of southwestern North Dakota provides some of the most prolific exposures of the continental Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary in the world. The stratigraphical context indicates that the K/T boundary is coincident or lies in close proximity to the contact between the Hell Creek and the Fort Union Formations. In this area, a series of eight stratigraphical sections across a 40 km north-south transect were studied. These sections bracket the formational contact on a 10 m stratigraphical interval. Reconstruction of the depositional environment was undertaken at a centimeter scale by using sedimentological data, as well as palynological, paleobotanical and palaeontological content of the strata, using the K/T boundary as a precise chronological datum of correlation between the sections. Results shows a consistent evolution of pattern across the entire study area : 1) The uppermost 10 to 20 cm of the Hell Creek Formation always corresponds to a sequence of dark rooted mudstone. Pollen content is consistent with a Cretaceous age and displays a diversity of terrestrial taxa. 2) Immediately above, the formation contact lies at the lower part of the first laterally traceable lignite horizon. The K/T boundary indicators (iridium anomaly, shocked quartz, fern spike and boundary claystone) are located at or adjacent to this stratigraphical interval, when preserved. 3) Within or just above the formation contact coal, the relative abundance of palynological taxa indicative of the Cretaceous (K-taxa) drop significantly without significant subsequent recovery. 4) Above the formation contact lignite, lithology systematically the lithology consistently appears as a 1-2 m thick dark mudstone sequence. The palynological record of this interval is dominated by freshwater taxa (Pediastrum sp. and Penetetrapites sp.) indicating general flooding in the study area. 5) Change in the sedimentation style in comparison of the Hell Creek is reflected by the preservation of variegated beds, multiple lignite seams and small scale meandering river systems. The palynological content attest for reworking and erosion. Conclusions shows that both palaeoenviroments and biodiversity patterns stay consistent throughout the Hell Creek Formation, with the exception of its uppermost part. The vertebrate and plant communities underwent a significant change at this time coincident with the evidence for a impact scenario or catastrophic event of massive scale. Beginning at the very end of the Cretaceous and continuing up into the overlying Fort Union Formation, the area was experiencing the onset of a transgression cycle which contributed to widespread ponding. Following the impact, modifications in the environment caused by land denudation, changes in sea level and drainage patterns promoted run-off and reworking. The destabilization of terrestrial ecosystems in southwestern North Dakota is coincident with markers of the K/T boundary that supports a catastrophic event taking place over a very short duration.

Bercovici, Antoine; Pearson, Dean; Villanueva-Amadoz, Uxue

2010-05-01

113

Nanodiamonds and Carbon Spherules from Tunguska, the K/T Boundary, and the Younger Dryas Boundary Layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than a dozen markers, including nanodiamonds (NDs) and carbon spherules (CS), occur in a sedimentary layer marking the onset of the Younger Dryas (YD) cooling episode at ~12.9 ka. This boundary layer, called the YDB, has been found at nearly forty locations across North America, Europe, and Asia, although not all markers are present at any given site. Firestone et al. (2007) and Kennett et al. (2008, 2009) proposed that these markers resulted from a cosmic impact/airburst and impact-related biomass burning. Here we report features common to the YDB event, the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact, and the Tunguska airburst of 1908. In sediments attributed to each event, we and other researchers have recovered NDs either inside or closely associated with CS, which appear to be the high-temperature by-products of biomass burning. CS range in diameter from about 500 nanometers to 4 millimeters with a mean of ~100 microns, and they typically contain NDs, including lonsdaleite (hexagonal diamonds), in the interior matrix and in the crust. To date, CS and NDs have been found in the K/T layer in the United States, Spain, and New Zealand. Similarly, CS and NDs have been found in the YDB layer in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, and France. Thus far, every site examined contains NDs and/or CS in the K/T and YDB layers; conversely, we have yet to detect CS associated with NDs in any non-YDB sediments tested. Five allotropes of NDs have been identified in association with CS: cubic diamonds, lonsdaleite, n-diamonds, p-diamonds, and i-carbon, which are differentiated by slight variations in their crystalline structure. All allotropes have been identified using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with confirmation by selected area diffraction (SAED). Lonsdaleite is found on Earth only in three instances: (1) in the laboratory, where it is produced by shock synthesis under a high-temperature-high-pressure regime (~1000°C to 1700°C at 15 GPa) or by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) under a very-high-temperature-low-pressure regime (~13,000°C at 300 Torr) (Maruyama et al., 1993); (2) after arrival on Earth inside extraterrestrial material; and (3) as a result of high-temperature cosmic impact/airbursts. Lonsdaleite associated with CS has been found in sediments only at the K/T, the YDB, and Tunguska, consistent with the hypothesis that all three events have cosmic origins, although the nature of the impactors may have been different.

Wittke, J. H.; Bunch, T. E.; West, A.; Kennett, J.; Kennett, D. J.; Howard, G. A.

2009-12-01

114

K-T magmatism of western Rajasthan, India: Manifestation of Reunion plume activity or extensional lithospheric tectonics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of alkaline plutons have been recorded at the K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary in western Rajasthan, India. Significant magmatism occurred at Mundwara, Barmer, Sarnu-Dandali and Tavider. The evolution of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift during the K-T period resulted in these alkaline complexes at the rift margins. Sedimentary basins are developed in the Barmer and Jaiselmer regions. The magmatism of Mundwara and

K. Sharma

2004-01-01

115

Explosive volcanism, shock metamorphism and the K-T boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The issue of whether shocked quartz can be produced by explosive volcanic events is important in understanding the origin of the K-T boundary constituents. Proponents of a volcanic origin for the shocked quartz at the K-T boundary cite the suggestion of Rice, that peak overpressures of 1000 kbars can be generated during explosive volcanic eruptions, and may have occurred during the May, 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Attention was previously drawn to the fact that peak overpressures during explosive eruptions are limited by the strength of the rock confining the magma chamber to less than 8 kbars even under ideal conditions. The proposed volcanic mechanisms for generating pressures sufficient to shock quartz are further examined. Theoretical arguments, field evidence and petrographic data are presented showing that explosive volcanic eruptions cannot generate shock metamorphic features of the kind seen in minerals at the K-T boundary.

Desilva, S. L.; Sharpton, V. L.

1988-01-01

116

Catastrophic volcanism as a cause of shocked features found at the K/T boundary and in cryptoexplosion structures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of quartz grains containing shock lamellae at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary is viewed by many as the single most compelling evidence of meteoritic or cometary impact because there is no known endogenous mechanism for producing these features. Similarly the presence of shocked quartz, shatter cones, coesite and stishovite at cryptoexplosion structures is comonly taken as conclusive evidence of impact. However, several recent studies have cast doubt on this interpretation. It is argued that basaltic volcanism, although not normally explosive, can under exceptional circumstances produce overpressures sufficiently high to produce shock features. The exceptional circumstances include a high content of volatiles, usually CO2, and no preestablished pathway to the surface. Rapid cooling of the saturated basaltic magma can occur if it underlies a cooler more evolved magma in a chamber. Initial slow cooling and partial exsolution of the volatiles will cause the density of the basaltic magma to become less than that of the overlying magma, leading to overturning and mixing. Gas will escape the magma chamber along planar cracks once the pressure becomes sufficiently high. In the vicinity of the crack tip there is a smallscale deviatoric stress pattern which is thought to be sufficiently high to produce transient cracks along secondary axes in the quartz crystals, causing the planar features. The CO2-rich fluid inclusions which have been found along planar elements of quartz in basement rocks of the Vredefort Dome were likely to have been emplaced by such a process. If the mechanism described is capable of producing shocked features as above, it would require a reassessment of the origin of many cryptoexplosion structures as well as seriously weakening the case for an impact origin of the K/T event.

Loper, D. E.; Mccartney, K.

1988-01-01

117

Reverse Polarity Magnetized Melt Rocks from the Cretaceous/Tertiary Chicxulub Structure, Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report paleomagnetic results for core samples of the breccia and andesitic rocks recovered from the Yucatan-6 Petrolcos Mexicanos exploratory well within the Chicxulub structure (about 60 km SSW from its center), northern Yucatan, Mexico. A previous study has shown that the rocks studied contain high iridium levels and shocked breccia clasts and an Ar/Ar date of 65.2 +/- 0.4 Ma. Andesitic rocks are characterized by stable single-component magnetizations with a mean inclination of -42.6 deg +/- 2.4 deg. Breccias present a complex paleomagnetic record characterized by multivectorial magnetizations with widely different initial NRM inclinations. However, after alternating field demagnetization, well defined characteristic components with upward inclinations are defined. IRM acquisition experiments, comparison of IRM and NRM coercivity spectra and the single component magnetization of the andesitic rocks indicate the occurrence of iron-rich titanomagnetites of single or pseudo-single domain states as the dominant magnetic carriers. Mean inclinations from the andesitic rocks and most of the breccia samples give a mean inclination of about -40 deg to -45 deg, indicating a reverse polarity for the characteristic magnetization that is consistent with geomagnetic chron 29R, which spans the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. The inclination is also consistent with the expected value (and corresponding paleolatitude) for the site estimated from the reference polar wander curve for North America. We suggest that the characteristic magnetizations for the andesitic and breccia rocks are the result of shock heating at the time of formation of the impact structure and that the age, polarity and pateolatitude are consistent with a time at the K/T boundary.

Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Marin, Luis; Sharpton, Virgil L.

1994-01-01

118

Cretaceous-Tertiary findings, paradigms and problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The asteroid hypothesis has stimulated numerous studies of the paleontological record at Cretaceous/Tertiary time as well as of geological indicators of environmental crisis preserved in the rock record. Both extinctions and geological anomalies often occur at times that do not appear to be synchronous or instantaneous. The record includes paleontological indicators of dinosaurs, terrestrial flora, marine planktonic organisms, and shallow water marine macrofauna and geological phenomena include occurrences of iridium and other platinum metals, trace elements, clay mineralogy, shocked minerals, soot, microspherules, and isotopes of osmium, strontium and carbon. These findings are reviewed in the context of the alternate hypotheses of an exogenic cause, involving either a single asteroid impact or multiple commentary impacts, and an endogenic cause, involving intense global volcanism and major sea level regression.

Officer, C. B.; Drake, C. L.

1988-01-01

119

A regional perspective on the palynofloral response to K-T boundary event(s) with emphasis on variations imposed by the effects of sedimentary facies and latitude  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Palynological studies deal with fossil reproductive bodies that were produced by fully functioning plants, whereas most faunal studies are based on death assemblages. Therefore, changes in pollen and spore assemblages cannot be used directly as evidence of catastrophic mass killings but only to indicate changes in ecological conditions. The impact of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event on terrestrial plant communities is illustrated by the degree, rate and selectivity of change. As in most classical palynological studies, the degree of change is expressed in terms of relative abundance and changes in species diversity. It is recognized that sampling interval and continuity of the rock record within individual sections can affect the percieved rate of change. Even taking these factors into account, a gradual change in relative abundance and multiple levels of apparent extinctions, associated with the interval bounding the K-T boundary, can be demonstrated. Climatic change, which locally exceeds the tolerance of individual species, and the possible loss of a group of pollinating agents are examined as possible explanations for the selectivity of apparent extinctions and/or locally truncated occurrences. The aspects of change are demonstrated with data from four different K-T boundary localities in Western Canada between paleolatitudes 60 and 75 deg north. Together, the four localities discussed allow changes imposed by latitude and differences in the depositional environment be isolated from the boundary event itself which is reflected by the truncated ranges of several species throughout the region of study. What must be recognized is that variations in the response of vegetation to the K-T boundary event(s) occurred throughout the Western Interior basin.

Sweet, A. R.

1988-01-01

120

Impact winter and the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinctions: Results of a Chicxulub asteroid impact model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chicxulub impact crater in Mexico is the site of the impact purported to have caused mass extinctions at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. 2-D hydrocode modeling of the impact, coupled with studies of the impact site geology, indiate that between 0.4 and 7.0 x 10(exp 17) g of sulfur were vaporized by the impact into anhydrite target rocks. A small portion of the sulfur was released as SO3 or SO4, which converted rapidly into H2SO4 aerosol and fell as acid rain. A radiative transfer model, coupled with a model of coagulation indicates that the aerosol prolonged the initial blackout period caused by impact dust only if the aerosol contained impurities. A larger portion of sulfur was released as SO2, which converted to aerosol slowly, due to the rate-limiting oxidation of SO2. Our radiative transfer calculations, combined with rates of acid production, coagulation, and diffusion indicate that solar transmission was reduced to 10-20% of normal for a period of 8-13 yr. This reduction produced a climate forcing (cooling) of -300 W/sq.m, which far exceeded the +8 W/sq.m greenhouse warming, caused by the CO2 released through the vaporization of carbonates, and therefore produced a decade of freezing and near-freezing temperatures. Several decades of moderate warming followed the decade of severe cooling due to the long residence time of CO2. The prolonged impact winter may have been a major cause of the K/T extinctions.

Pope, Kevin O.; Baines, Kevin H.; Ocampo, Adriana C.; Ivanov, Boris A.

1994-01-01

121

Large meteorite impacts: The K/T model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary event represents probably the largest meteorite impact known on Earth. It is the only impact event conclusively linked to a worldwide mass extinction, a reflection of its gigantic scale and global influence. Until recently, the impact crater was not definitively located and only the distal ejecta of this impact was available for study. However, detailed investigations of this ejecta's mineralogy, geochemistry, microstratigraphy, and textures have allowed its modes of ejection and dispersal to be modeled without benefit of a source crater of known size and location.

Bohor, B. F.

1992-01-01

122

Energy, volatile production, and climatic effects of the Chicxulub Cretaceous/Tertiary impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comprehensive analysis of volatiles in the Chicxulub impact strongly supports the hypothesis that impact-generated sulfate aerosols caused over a decade of global cooling, acid rain, and disruption of ocean circulation, which contributed to the mass extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. The crater size, meteoritic content of the K/T boundary clay, and impact models indicate that the Chicxulub crater was formed by a short period comet or an asteroid impact that released 0.7-3.4 x 10(31) ergs of energy. Impact models and experiments combined with estimates of volatiles in the projectile and target rocks predict that over 200 gigatons (Gt) each of SO2 and water vapor, and over 500 Gt of CO2, were globally distributed in the stratosphere by the impact. Additional volatiles may have been produced on a global or regional scale that formed sulfate aerosols rapidly in cooler parts of the vapor plume, causing an early, intense pulse of sulfuric acid rain. Estimates of the conversion rate of stratospheric SO2 and water vapor to sulfate aerosol, based on volcanic production of sulfate aerosols, coupled with calculations of diffusion, coagulation, and sedimentation, demonstrate that the 200 Gt stratospheric SO2 and water vapor reservoir would produce sulfate aerosols for 12 years. These sulfate aerosols caused a second pulse of acid rain that was global. Radiative transfer modeling of the aerosol clouds demonstrates (1) that if the initial rapid pulse of sulfate aerosols was global, photosynthesis may have been shut down for 6 months and (2) that for the second prolonged aerosol cloud, solar transmission dropped 80% by the end of first year and remained 50% below normal for 9 years. As a result, global average surface temperatures probably dropped between 5 degrees and 31 degrees K, suggesting that global near-freezing conditions may have been reached. Impact-generated CO2 caused less than 1 degree K greenhouse warming and therefore was insignificant compare to the sulfate cooling. The magnitude of sulfate cooling depends largely upon the rate of ocean mixing as surface waters cool, sink, and are replaced by upwelling of deep ocean water. This upwelling apparently drastically altered ocean stratification and circulation, which may explain the global collapse of the delta 13C gradient between surface and deep ocean waters at the K/T boundary.

Pope, K. O.; Baines, K. H.; Ocampo, A. C.; Ivanov, B. A.

1997-01-01

123

Barium anomaly preceding K\\/T boundary: possible causes and implications on end Cretaceous events of K\\/T sections in Cauvery basin (India), Israel, NE-Mexico and Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maastrichtian–Danian strata of the Cauvery basin as well as selected sections of NE-Mexico, Guatemala and Israel record Ba anomalies, away from the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary (KTB) in addition to common occurrences of geochemical and stable isotopic anomalies across the KTB. Ba anomalies were recorded in monotonous shallow marine sandstones of the Cauvery basin (south India) which contain minor amounts of Ba-orthoclase.

M. Ramkumar; M. Harting; D. Stüben

2005-01-01

124

The Cretaceous-Tertiary Impact Crater and the Cosmic Projectile that Produced it  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidence gathered to date from topographic data, geophysical data, well logs, and drill-core samples indicates that the buried Chicxulub basin, the source crater for the approximately 65 Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary deposits, is approximately 300 km in diameter. A prominent topographic ridge and a ring of gravity anomalies mark the position of the basin rim at approximately 150 km from the center. Wells in this region recovered thick sequences of impact-generated breccias at 200-300 m below present sea level. Inside the rim, which has been severely modified by erosion following impact, the subsurface basin continues to deepen until near the center it is approximately 1 km deep. The best planetary analog for this crater appears to be the 270 km-diameter Mead basin on Venus. Seismic reflection data indicate that the central zone of downward displacement and excavation (the transient crater is approximately 130 km in diameter, consistent with previous studies of gravity anomaly data). Our analysis of projectile characteristics utilizes this information, coupled with conventional scaling relationships, and geochemical constraints on the mass of extraterrestrial material deposited within the K/T boundary layer. Results indicate that the Chicxulub crater would most likely be formed by a long-period comet composed primarily of nonsilicate materials (ice, hydrocarbons, etc.) and subordinate amounts (less than or equal to 50 percent) primitive chondritic material. This collision would have released the energy equivalent to between 4 x 10(exp 8) and 4 x 10(exp 9) megatons of TNT. Studies of terrestrial impact rates suggest that such an event would have a mean production rate of approximately 1.25 x 10(exp -9) y(exp -1). This rate is considerably lower than that of the major mass extinctions over the last 250 million years (approximately 5 x 10(exp -7) y(exp -1). Consequently, while there is substantial circumstantial evidence establishing the cause-effect link between the Chicxulub basin forming event and the K/T biological extinctions, the results of our analysis do not support models of impact as a common or singular causative agent of mass extinctions on Earth.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.

1997-01-01

125

The Cretaceous-Tertiary impact crater and the cosmic projectile that produced it.  

PubMed

Evidence gathered to date from topographic data, geophysical data, well logs, and drill-core samples indicates that the buried Chicxulub basin, the source crater for the approximately 65 Ma Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary deposits, is approximately 300 km in diameter. A prominent topographic ridge and a ring of gravity anomalies mark the position of the basin rim at approximately 150 km from the center. Wells in this region recovered thick sequences of impact-generated breccias at 200-300 m below present sea level. Inside the rim, which has been severely modified by erosion following impact, the subsurface basin continues to deepen until near the center it is approximately 1 km deep. The best planetary analog for this crater appears to be the 270 km-diameter Mead basin on Venus. Seismic reflection data indicate that the central zone of downward displacement and excavation (the transient crater is approximately 130 km in diameter, consistent with previous studies of gravity anomaly data). Our analysis of projectile characteristics utilizes this information, coupled with conventional scaling relationships, and geochemical constraints on the mass of extraterrestrial material deposited within the K/T boundary layer. Results indicate that the Chicxulub crater would most likely be formed by a long-period comet composed primarily of nonsilicate materials (ice, hydrocarbons, etc.) and subordinate amounts (< or = 50%) primitive chondritic material. This collision would have released the energy equivalent to between 4 x 10(8) and 4 x 10(9) megatons of TNT. Studies of terrestrial impact rates suggest that such an event would have a mean production rate of approximately 1.25 x 10(-9) y-1. This rate is considerably lower than that of the major mass extinctions over the last 250 million years (approximately 5 x 10(-7) y-1). Consequently, while there is substantial circumstantial evidence establishing the cause-effect link between the Chicxulub basin forming event and the K/T biological extinctions, the results of our analysis do not support models of impact as a common or singular causative agent of mass extinctions on Earth. PMID:11543120

Sharpton, V L; Marin, L E

1997-05-30

126

Extraterrestrial Cause for the Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Platinum metals are depleted in the earth's crust relative to their cosmic abundance; concentrations of these elements in deep-sea sediments may thus indicate influxes of extraterrestrial material. Deep-sea limestones exposed in Italy, Denmark, and New Zealand show iridium increases of about 30, 160, and 20 times, respectively, above the background level at precisely the time of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions, 65

Luis W. Alvarez; Walter Alvarez; Frank Asaro; Helen V. Michel

1980-01-01

127

Origin and diagenesis of K/T impact spherules - from Haiti to Wyoming and beyond  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Impact spherules in Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary clays and claystones consist of two types; each type is confined to its own separate layer of the boundary couplet in the Western Hemisphere. The form and composition of each of the spherule types result from its own unique mode of origin during the K/T event. Type 1 splash-form spherules occur only in the melt-ejecta (basal) layer of the K/T couplet. This layer was deposited from a ballistic ejecta curtain composed of melt-glass droplets transported mostly within the atmosphere. In contrast, Type 2 spherules are accreted, partially crystalline, spheroidal bodies that formed by condensation of vaporized bolide and target-rock materials in an expanding fireball cloud, from which they settled out of buoyant suspension to form the fireball layer. Dendritic and skeletal Ni-rich spinel crystals are unique to these Type 2 spherules in the fireball layer. -from Authors

Bohor, B.F.; Glass, B.P.

1995-01-01

128

Platinum-group elements in the Morokweng impact structure, South Africa: Evidence for the impact of a large ordinary chondrite projectile at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary 1 1 Associate editor: C. Koeberl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radiometric dating of melt rocks at impact craters has revealed that some giant impacts appear to overlap in time with major boundaries in Earth history [e.g., the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K\\/T) and Jurassic–Cretaceous (J\\/K) boundaries]. The Morokweng impact crater in South Africa is coincident in age with the J\\/K boundary. However, the types of objects that generate large craters are poorly known

I. McDonald; M. A. G. Andreoli; R. J. Hart; M. Tredoux

2001-01-01

129

Provenance of the K/T boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An array of chemical, physical and isotopic evidence indicates that an impact into oceanic crust terminated the Cretaceous Period. Approximately 1500 cu km of debris, dispersed by the impact fireball, fell out globally in marine and nonmarine environments producing a 2 to 4 mm thick layer (fireball layer). In North American locales, the fireball layer overlies a 15 to 25 mm thick layer of similar but distinct composition. This 15 to 25 mm layer (ejecta layer) may represent approximately 1000 cu km of lower energy ejecta from a nearby impact site. Isotopic and chemical evidence supports a mantle provenance for the bulk of the layers. The extraordinary REE pattern of the boundary clays was modelled as a mixture of oceanic crust, mantle, and approximately 10 percent continental material. The results are presented. If the siderophiles of the ejecta layer were derived solely from the mantle, a test may be available to see if the siderophile element anomaly of the fireball layer had an extraterrestrial origin. Radiogenic Os-187 is depleted in the mantle relative to an undifferentiated chondritic source. Os-187/Os-186 ratios of 1.049 and 1.108 were calculated for the ejecta and fireball layers, respectively.

Hildebrand, A. R.; Boynton, W. V.

1988-01-01

130

Preliminary Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum and laser probe dating of the M1 core of the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa: A K-T boundary crater candidate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary Ar-40/Ar-39 age spectrum and laser probe dating results from new drill core from the 35-km-diameter Manson Impact Structure (MIS), Iowa indicates a reasonable possibility that the MIS is a Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary impact event. Several different types of samples from a melt-matrix breccia, a unit of apparent crater fill intersected by the M1 core, were analyzed. Ar-40/Ar-39 results from these samples indicate a maximum age for the MIS of about 65.4 plus or minus 0.4(2 sigma) Ma. Petrographic analyses of the samples indicate a high probability that all the dated samples from the melt-matrix breccia contain relict grains that were not entirely melted or degassed at the time of impact, suggesting that the actual age of the MIS could be somewhat younger than our preliminary results indicate. The results are consistent with a previously published age estimate of shocked microcline from the MIS central uplift of 65.7 plus or minus 1.0 Ma.

Kunk, M. J.; Snee, L. W.; French, B. M.; Harlan, S. S.; Mcgee, J. J.

1993-01-01

131

Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the K/T boundary deposit in Haiti  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The K/T boundary sequence is exposed in uplifted carbonate sediments of the southwest peninsula of Haiti. It is found at 15 localities within the Beloc formation, a sequence of limestone and marls interpreted as a monoclinal nappe structure thrust to the north. This tectonic deformation has affected the K/T boundary deposit to varying degrees. In some cases the less competent K/T deposit has acted as a slip plane leading to extensive shearing of the boundary layer, as well as duplication of the section. The presence of glassy tektites, shocked quartz, and an Ir anomaly directly link the deposit to a bolide impact. Stratigraphic and sedimentological features of the tripartite sequence indicate that it was formed by deposition from ballistic fallout of coarse tektites, emplacement of particle gravity flows and fine grained fallout of widely dispersed impact ejecta.

Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Dhondt, S.; Espindola, J. M.

1993-01-01

132

The Penalver Formation: Deep-Sea Tsunami Deposit at K/T Boundary in Western Cuba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penalver Formation in western Cuba is one of the thickest K/T boundary deposit. The lower unit is local debris flow deposit whereas the upper unit is deep-sea tsunami deposit, which is affected the repetition of tsunamis.

Goto, K.; Tajika, E.; Tada, R.; Iturralde-Vinent, M. A.; Kiyokawa, S.; Nakano, Y.; Yamamoto, S.; Garcia, D.; Oji, T.; Rojas, R.; Takayama, H.; Matsui, T.

2001-03-01

133

Extraordinary Thick K/T Boundary Sequence; Cacarajicara Formation, Western Cuba  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cacarajicara Formation of western Cuba is the thickest K/T boundary sequence in the world. It is an upwardfining carbonate clastics, at least 300m in thickness. It might be a distal part of the ejector blanket of Chicxulub impact crater or a giant tsunami deposit.

Kiyokawa, S.; Tada, R.; Matsui, T.; Tajika, E.; Takayama, H.; Iturralde-Vinent, M. A.

1999-03-01

134

Deccan flood basalts at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Joint consideration of new paleomagnetic, paleontological and geochronological data from the Deccan continental flood basalts in India and critical discussion of earlier results lead us to suggest that volcanic activity may have lasted less than 1 Ma, thus possibly ranking as one of the largest volcanic catastrophes in the last 200 Ma. Available data are best satisfied if volcanism spanned

Vincent Courtillot; Jean Besse; Didier Vandamme; Raymond Montigny; Jean-Jacques Jaeger; Henri Cappetta

1986-01-01

135

Geochemical comparison of K-T boundaries from the Northern and Southern Hemispheres  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closely spaced (cm-scale) traverses through the K-T boundary at Stevns Klint (Denmark), Woodside Creek (New Zealand) and a new Southern Hemisphere site at Richards Bay (South Africa) were subjected to trace element and isotopic (C, O, Sr) investigation. Intercomparison between these data-sets, and correlation with the broad K-T database available in the literature, indicate that the chemistry of the boundary clays is not globally constant. Variations are more common than similarities, both of absolute concentrations, and interelement ratios. For example, the chondrite normalized platinum-group elements (PGE) patterns of Stevns Klint are not like those of Woodside Creek, with the Pt/Os ratios showing the biggest variation. These differences in PGE patterns are difficult to explain by secondary alteration of a layer that was originally chemically homogeneous, especially for elements of such dubious crustal mobility as Os and Ir. The data also show that enhanced PGE concentrations, with similar trends to those of the boundary layers, occur in the Cretaceous sediments below the actual boundary at Stevns Klint and all three the New Zealand localities. This confirms the observations of others that the geochemistry of the boundary layers apparently does not record a unique component. It is suggested that terrestrial processes, eg. an extended period of Late Cretaceous volcanism can offer a satisfactory explanation for the features of the K-T geochemical anomaly. Such models would probably be more consistent with the observed stepwise, or gradual, palaeontological changes across this boundary, than the instant catastrophe predicated by the impact theory.

Tredous, M.; Verhagen, B. TH.; Hart, R. J.; Dewit, C. B.; Smith, C. B.; Perch-Nielsen, K.; Sellschop, J. P. F.

1988-01-01

136

Mass extinctions, atmospheric sulphur and climatic warming at the K/T boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possible climatic effects of a drastic decrease in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) associated with a severe reduction in the global marine phytoplankton abundance are investigated. Calculations suggest that a reduction in CCN of more than 80 percent and the resulting decrease in marine cloud albedo could have produced a rapid global warming of 6 C or more. Oxygen isotope analyses of marine sediments from many parts of the world have been interpreted as indicating a marked warming coincident with the demise of calcareous nannoplankton at the K/T boundary. Decreased marine cloud albedo and resulting high sea surface temperatures could have been a factor in the maintenance of low productivity in the 'Strangelove Ocean' period following the K/T extinctions.

Rampino, Michael R.; Volk, Tyler

1988-01-01

137

First Evidence for a Massive Extinction Event Affecting Bees Close to the K-T Boundary  

PubMed Central

Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators. PMID:24194843

Rehan, Sandra M.; Leys, Remko; Schwarz, Michael P.

2013-01-01

138

First evidence for a massive extinction event affecting bees close to the K-T boundary.  

PubMed

Bees and eudicot plants both arose in the mid-late Cretaceous, and their co-evolutionary relationships have often been assumed as an important element in the rise of flowering plants. Given the near-complete dependence of bees on eudicots we would expect that major extinction events affecting the latter would have also impacted bees. However, given the very patchy distribution of bees in the fossil record, identifying any such extinctions using fossils is very problematic. Here we use molecular phylogenetic analyses to show that one bee group, the Xylocopinae, originated in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the early radiation of the eudicots. Lineage through time analyses for this bee subfamily show very early diversification, followed by a long period of seemingly no radiation and then followed by rapid diversification in each of the four constituent tribes. These patterns are consistent with both a long-fuse model of radiation and a massive extinction event close to the K-T boundary. We argue that massive extinction is much more plausible than a long fuse, given the historical biogeography of these bees and the diversity of ecological niches that they occupy. Our results suggest that events near the K-T boundary would have disrupted many plant-bee relationships, with major consequences for the subsequent evolution of eudicots and their pollinators. PMID:24194843

Rehan, Sandra M; Leys, Remko; Schwarz, Michael P

2013-01-01

139

Twelve-year trail of clues leads to impact crater from the K-T boundary  

SciTech Connect

In 1980, scientists at the University of California, Berkeley proposed that a massive comet or asteroid might have struck the earth about 65 million years ago, changing the earth's climate so drastically that dinosaurs and other creatures could no longer survive. This article describes the evidence for the elusive crater required to support this theory. The structure in question is 180 km in diameter and is submeged beneath the Yucatan peninsula and centered on the Mexican village of Chicxulub. Material drilled from this crater has been linked chemically and geologically to pellets found in Northeast Mexico and Haiti. The link between this ejecta material and the crater was confirmed by a report that the Chicxulub melt rock and pellets are coeval, all having ages consistent with 65 million years. This puts the possible impact at the K-T boundary -- the dividing line between the Cretaceous period of the dinosaurs and the Tertiary period of the mammals. 13 refs.

Levi, B.G.

1992-12-01

140

Mineralogy and phase-chemistry of the Cretaceous/Tertiary section in the Lattengebirge, Bavarian Alps  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lattengebirge K/T section reveals three distinct Ir spikes. Two of them are contained in the K/T transition zone sensu-strictu termed clayey interval, with 4.4 ppb Ir at the actual K/T boundary, and 2.8 ppb Ir 10 cm above the boundary. The highest Ir enrichment of 9 ppb, however, was detected in semi-cleaned organic material from a thin sandstone layer of Upper Maastrichtian age at 16 cm below the boundary. In this layer various discernible phases are preserved, contrasting with the worldwide observed K/T transition zones which are generally entirely composed of diagenetically altered materials. Given that, important clues to understanding the Cretaceous terminal events may be provided. The phases of the Cretaceous Ir bearing layer at Lattengebirge consist of: sandstone fragmental minerals in a carbonate matrix, coal which is partly burnt, melt glasses presumably of combustion-metamorphic origin, and sulfides, mainly chalcopyrite, contained in the coal. Like many known K/T sections and the Lattengebirge boundary sensu-strictu, the Cretaceous horizon is enriched in Ir and chalcophile elements as well. Although the Lattengebirge section offers the freshest materials, including melt glasses, of all K/T localities investigated, no unequivocal evidence of formation by impact has been found there.

Graup, G.

1988-01-01

141

Altered spherules of impact melt and associated relic glass from the K\\/T boundary sediments in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partially to wholly altered glass spherules produced by impact-induced shock melting have been found in the K\\/T boundary sediments of Haiti which also contain grains of shocked quartz. The relic glass has an approximately dacitic composition, and although grossly similar in composition to most previously described tektite glasses, it is slightly enriched in Ca and slightly depleted in Si, suggesting

D. A. Kring; W. V. Boynton

1991-01-01

142

Origin of a Giant Event Deposit in Northwestern Cuba and Its Relation to K/T Boundary Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the Penalver Formation in northwestern Cuba, which is a <180 m thick, normal-graded calcareous clastic deposit. This formation must have been formed by a grain flow and huge tsunami waves caused by the K/T boundary impact.

Takayama, H.; Tada, R.; Matsui, T.; Iturralde-Vinent, M. A.; Oji, T.; Tajika, E.; Kiyokawa, S.; Garciaanmd, D.; Okada, H.; Hasegawa, T.; Toyoda, K.

1999-03-01

143

Avian evolution, Gondwana biogeography and the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event.  

PubMed Central

The fossil record has been used to support the origin and radiation of modern birds (Neornithes) in Laurasia after the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction event, whereas molecular clocks have suggested a Cretaceous origin for most avian orders. These alternative views of neornithine evolution are examined using an independent set of evidence, namely phylogenetic relationships and historical biogeography. Pylogenetic relationships of basal lineages of neornithines, including ratite birds and their allies (Palaleocognathae), galliforms and anseriforms (Galloanserae), as well as lineages of the more advanced Neoves (Gruiformes, (Capimulgiformes, Passeriformes and others) demonstrate pervasive trans-Antarctic distribution patterns. The temporal history of the neornithines can be inferred from fossil taxa and the ages of vicariance events, and along with their biogeographical patterns, leads to the conclusion that neornithines arose in Gondwana prior to the Cretaceous Tertiary extinction event. PMID:11296857

Cracraft, J.

2001-01-01

144

Strontium and oxygen isotope study of M-1, M-3 and M-4 drill core samples from the Manson impact structure, Iowa: Comparison with Haitian K-T impact glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Strontium and oxygen isotope analyses were performed on 8 samples from the M-1, M-3, and M-4 cores recently drilled at the Manson impact structure. The samples were three elastic sedimentary rocks (of probable Cretaceous age) which occurred as clasts within the sedimentary clast breccia, two samples of crystalline rock breccia matrix, and three samples of dolomite and limestone. The Sr-87/Sr-86 (corrected to 65 Ma) ratios were much higher than those in impact glasses from the Haitian Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. Isotope mixing calculations demonstrate that neither the silicate or carbonate rocks analyzed from the Manson crater, or mixtures of these rocks are appropriate source materials for the Haitian impact glasses. However, the Sr-87/Sr-86 (65Ma) ratio and delta O-18 value of the Ca-rich Haitian glasses are well reproduced by mixtures of Si-rich Haitian glass with platform carbonate of K-T age.

Blum, Joel D.; Chamberlain, C. Page; Hingston, Michael P.; Koeberl, Christian

1993-01-01

145

Stable isotope stratigraphy across the K\\/T boundary, and isotopic investigations of an ‘Ignored’ worm bed, Eastern Desert, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Oxygen and carbon stable isotope profiles of the Dakhla sequence at the Eastern Desert, Egypt, reveal that the negative isotopic\\u000a excursion commonly observed at the K\\/T boundary in sections showing continuous deposition around the world (e.g. El Kef section\\u000a at Tunisia,Perch-Nielsen et al.; 1982 and at Zumaya, Spain;Mount et al., 1986) is missing in this Egyptian study area. However, several

Mohamed N. A. Shaaban

1997-01-01

146

Paleosols and the Cretaceous/Tertiary transition in the Big Bend region of Texas  

SciTech Connect

A marked change in paleosols coincides with Cretaceous/Tertiary transition in fluvial sediments of the Big Bend region in Texas. Early Paleocene paleosols exhibit thick, black epipedons and a greater depth to the argillic and petrocalcic horizons compared to Late Cretaceous paleosols. These features and comparison with modern soils suggest that early Paleocene soils developed under conditions of higher rainfall and cooler temperatures than did Late Cretaceous soils. The change in paleosols occurs abruptly at the highest occurrence of dinosaur bones in the section.

Lehman, T.M. (Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock (USA))

1990-04-01

147

Environments and extinctions at the K-T boundary in eastern Montana are compatible with an asteroid impact  

SciTech Connect

In the terrestrial latest Cretaceous Hell Creek (HC) Formation, both non-biotic events and patterns of extinction and survivorship are consistent with an asteroid impact causing the extinctions. Environments through the last 2--3 million-year interval represented by the HC remained relatively constant: an aggrading coastal lowland dissected by meandering rivers. The K-T boundary occurred during an abrupt change to impeded drainage represented by coals and pond deposits formed under low-energy conditions. Because of the close temporal proximity of the sediments of the Paleocene Cannonball Sea to the K-T boundary in South Dakota, impeded drainage in the earliest Paleocene in eastern Montana may be attributable to riverine base-level changes associated with a renewed transgression of the western interior sea during the K-T transition. Patterns within the biota mirror those of the paleoenvironments. The ecological diversity of HC dinosaurs remains statistically unchanged through HC time. Analyses of vertebrates at the species level indicate a differential extinction in which the terrestrial biota underwent far more extinction than its aquatic counterpart. There is no evidence for changing environments in the upper HC, and there is circumstantial evidence that the latest Cretaceous was a time of renewed transgression rather than regression. Likewise, biotic patterns do not accord with gradual, environmentally driven extinctions. While the paleoenvironmental change that marks the K-T transition in eastern Montana accounts for some of the extinctions, the pattern of differential extinction is concordant with an asteroid impact. In this scenario, aquatic ecosystems and some land-based food chains would be buffered by detritus-based feeding. Terrestrial systems, dependent upon primary productivity, would undergo a short-term loss of resources causing extinctions.

Fastovsky, D.E. (Univ. of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI (United States)); Sheehan, P.M. (Milwaukee Public Museum, WI (United States))

1992-01-01

148

U-Pb provenance ages of shocked zircons from the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U-Pb isotopic systematics from analyses of single zircons identify at least two provenance ages, approximately 575 Ma and approximately 330 Ma, for zircons from the impact layer of the K-T boundary, Raton Basin, Colorado. These data are a preliminary confirmation of results reported from the same layer. The zircon provenance ages provide a unique signature for identification of the source crater since igneous rocks of these ages (or sedimentary rocks derived from them) must characterize part of the impact stratigraphy.

Premo, W. R.; Izett, G. A.

1993-01-01

149

Iridium enrichment in volcanic dust from blue ice fields, Antarctica, and possible relevance to the K/T boundary event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of samples of volcanic ash dust layers from the Lewis Cliff/Beardmore Glacier in Antarctica shows that some of the samples contain Ir concentrations up to 7.5 ppb. It is shown that the Ir is positively correlated with Se, As, Sb, and other volcanogenic elements. The results show that Ir may be present in some volcanic ash deposits, suggesting that the Ir in the K/T boundary clays is not necessarily of cosmic origin, but may have originated from mantle reservoirs tapped during extensive volcanic eruptions possibly triggered by impact events.

Koeberl, Christian

1989-01-01

150

No Evidence For Autochtonous Maastrichtian Sediment Above Chicxulub Suevitic Ejecta in The Yaxcopoil-1 Core: The Chicxulub Impact is the K\\/T Boundary Impact  

Microsoft Academic Search

No Evidence for Autochthonous Maastrichtian Sediment Above Chicxulub Suevitic Ejecta in the Yaxcopoil-1 Core: The Chicxulub Impact is the K\\/T Boundary Impact. J. Smit, Dept. of Sedimentology, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences FALW, Vrije Universiteit, de Boelelaan 1085, 1081HV Amsterdam, Netherlands Recently(1), it was suggested that the Chicxulub crater might precede the K\\/T boundary by about 300kyrs. Initially, the

J. Smit

2006-01-01

151

Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Measurements of K/T Boundary Spherules from Haiti  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Glass spherules thought to be tektites from Haiti have previously been analyzed for their mineralogy and chemical composition to identify their origin and mode of formation [1]. They contain bubbles and occur in various colors dependent upon the original target rock. To investigate these spherules and the nature of any gas phase, several dark brown glasses have been analyzed for their carbon content and isotope composition, using stepped combustion analysis and static mass spectrometry. Both brown and yellow spherules were analyzed for oxygen isotope composition using laser fluorination and conventional dynamic gas-source mass spectrometry. Some spherules were analyzed whole for carbon but one was broken into fragments for the purpose of replication. Individual fragments were initially analyzed and found to yield a total of 0.2 wt% carbon in two components of different isotopic composition. The first, released between 350-400 degrees C had a delta^13C of -22 per mil whereas the second, between 500-600 degrees C had a delta^13C of -6.3 per mil. As the lower temperature release was presumed to be contaminated, other spherule fragments were pre- treated with 0.1M chromic acid to remove organic and carbonate components. Analyses of cleaned fragments indicated a variable carbon content from 0.005 to 2.6 wt% carbon but still with two isotopically different components. The first with a delta^13C of -0.8 per mil and the second, a delta^13C of -19.0 per mil. The spherules are both variable and heterogeneous. The -19 per mil component is apparently present in most of the spherules and released by 600 degrees C. A component with a similar combustion temperature and delta^13C has been encountered in K/T residues containing nanodiamonds [2]. There is currently no information available confirming its identity, but it does not appear to be surficial or an oxidizable organic. Identification of these carbon components by future work may reveal a possible source and mode of formation for the spherules and will also clarify the effect of the internal bubbles upon the compositions. Dark brown spherules selected for oxygen isotope measurements were broken into fragments to allow repeat analyses on the same spherule. Due to the smaller size of the yellow spherules they were analyzed whole. The dark brown spherules yield a delta^17O of 4.97 to 3.65 per mil and a delta^18O between 9.47 to 7.15 per mil. The yellow spherules yield a delta^17O of 6.77 per mil and a delta^18O of 13.02 per mil. Both closely follow the terrestrial fractionation line for Delta^17O with only a slight deviation and the delta^18O values agree with those previously measured by [3]. Heterogeneity's seen in the carbon data for the dark brown spherules seem to be reflected in the oxygen data with variations between fragments of the same spherule and between whole spherules. The yellow spherules appear to be homogeneous in terms of their oxygen isotopic compositions. References: [1] Koeberl C. and Sigurdsson H. (1992) GCA, 56, 2113-2119. [2] Gilmour I. et al. (1992) Science, 258, 1624-1625. [3] Sigurdsson H. et al. (1991) Nature, 349, 482-486.

Hough, R. M.; Sigurdsson, H.; Franchi, I. A.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.; Gilmour, I.

1993-07-01

152

Altered spherules of impact melt and associated relic glass from the K/T boundary sediments in Haiti  

SciTech Connect

Partially to wholly altered glass spherules produced by impact-induced shock melting have been found in the K/T boundary sediments of Haiti which also contain grains of shocked quartz. The relic glass has an approximately dacitic composition, and although grossly similar in composition to most previously described tektite glasses, it is slightly enriched in Ca and slightly depleted in Si, suggesting the Haitian glass was produced either from a target with a greater fraction of carbonate and anhydrite lithologies and fewer silicate units than the targets from which most other tektites were produced, and/or from one with a significant mafic component. The composition of the glass can best be reconciled with a continental margin terrane, consistent with studies of shocked mineral phases reported elsewhere. The thickness of the deposit in which the impact spherules occur indicates the source of the ejecta was in the proto-Caribbean region.

Kring, D.A.; Boynton, W.V. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (United States))

1991-06-01

153

Dynamics of exploding magma chambers: Implications for K-T volcanism and mass extinctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although it is well known that unconfined chemical explosives may yield pressures to several megabars on detonation in air, the explosive literature has yet to be accessed by some contributors to the volcanological literature who've indicated that pressures in excess of the overburden and/or tensile cannot be obtained. Idealized ballistic assessments of pressures internal to volcanoes yield pressures in the hundreds of kilobar range upon correction by addition of friction, etc. Previous assessments of exploding magma chamber pressure have been made from the characteristics of the Mt. St. Helens explosion. A variety of methods yield pressures of similar value: at least hundreds of kilobars. Such results are consistent with free energy requirements for quench supersaturation explosion, a process occurring in solidifying industrial melts. Several reviews of geochemical literature emphasize the carbon event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary as being an indicator of a massive dump of CO2 derived from the mantle and entering the atmosphere by extensive global volcanism. Oxygen isotope data indicates extreme warming at the end of the Cretaceous which is consistent with a greenhouse effect attending the CO2 event. Reaction rate equations for the quench supersaturation explosion mechanism indicated, are consistent with the rise in pressure to 30 kbar on solidification of magmatic melts, these pressures limited by the strength of the experimental apparatus.

Rice, A. R.

1988-01-01

154

Geochemistry of impact glasses from the K\\/T boundary in Haiti - Relation to smectites and a new type of glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed element analyses were carried out on 12 black and seven yellow glasses from the K\\/T boundary section at Beloc (Haiti), and of three samples from smectite mantles around black glasses. The results obtained for bulk black and yellow glasses show differences between these, confirming the results of Sigurdsson et al. (1991) and Izett (1991), and the results obtained on

Christian Koeberl; Haraldur Sigurdsson

1992-01-01

155

An iridium abundance anomaly at the palynological Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in northern New Mexico  

USGS Publications Warehouse

An iridium abundance anomaly, with concentrations up to 5000 parts per trillion over a background level of 4 to 20 parts per trillion, has been located in sedimentary rocks laid down under freshwater swamp conditions in the Raton Basin of northeastern New Mexico. The anomaly occurs at the base of a coal bed, at the same stratigraphic position at which several well-known species of Cretaceous-age pollen became extinct. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Knight, J.D.; Pillmore, C.L.; Tschudy, R.H.; Fassett, J.E.

1981-01-01

156

Palynological assemblages across the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary in northern Jiangsu, eastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Palynological assemblages from the uppermost Cretaceous (Taizhou Formation) and the basal Tertiary (First Member of Funing Formation) in northern Jiangsu are described, and the distribution of some distinctive palynomorphs, including Consoliduspollenites, Crassimarginpollenites, Taizhoupollis, Jiangsupollis, Jianghanpollis, Morinoipollenites, Aquilapollenites and Extratriporopollenites is discussed. Some species of these genera are redescribed. The plants that produced them must have become extinct shortly before, or

Song Zhichen; Zheng Yahui; Liu Jinling

1995-01-01

157

Seawater strontium isotopes, acid rain, and the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A large bolide impact at the end of the Cretaceous would have produced significant amounts of nitrogen oxides by shock heating of the atmosphere. The resulting acid precipitation would have increased continental weathering greatly and could be an explanation for the observed high ratio of strontium-87 to strontium-86 in seawater at about this time, due to the dissolution of large amounts of strontium from the continental crust. Spikes to high values in the seawater strontium isotope record at other times may reflect similar episodes.

Macdougall, J. D.

1988-01-01

158

Bolide impacts, acid rain, and biospheric traumas at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two plausible projectiles are considered: an ice-rich long-period comet and a much smaller rock-metal asteroid. In the framework of a proposal addressed by Lewis et al. (1982), it is shown that, while the impact projectiles themselves do not shock-heat the atmosphere very extensively, the supersonic plume of water vapor and rock produced on impact does shock the atmosphere up to global scales and the shock is of sufficient intensity to produce abundant nitric oxide. For example, an ice-rich long-period comet with a mass of 1.25 x 10 to the 16th kg and a velocity of 65 km/s striking the earth would produce about 7 x 10 to the 40th molecules NO through shock-heating of the atmosphere by the high-velocity ejecta plume fragments. Specific attention is given to the fraction of the atmosphere shock-heated, the global circulation of the nitrogen oxides, the effects of the ejecta plume water on acid rain (AR) predictions, the effects of AR on continental soils, the relationship between AR production rates and the total amount of acid needed to acidify the surface oceans, and the longevity of the oceanic acidity event and the exhaled CO2 event and their implications for the environment in the first millenia or so after the impact.

Prinn, Ronald G.; Fegley, Bruce, Jr.

1987-01-01

159

Bolide impacts, acid rain, and biospheric traumas at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two plausible projectiles are considered: an ice-rich long-period comet and a much smaller rock-metal asteroid. In the framework of a proposal addressed by Lewis et al. (1982), it is shown that, while the impact projectiles themselves do not shock-heat the atmosphere very extensively, the supersonic plume of water vapor and rock produced on impact does shock the atmosphere up to

Ronald G. Prinn; Bruce Fegley Jr.

1987-01-01

160

Paleosol barometer indicates extreme fluctuations in atmospheric CO2 across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an atmospheric pCO2 (p is partial pressure) curve showing extreme fluctuations for the interval between ca. 77 and 63 Ma in southern Alberta, Canada, using a paleosol barometer. Paleosol carbonate nodules (micrite) were collected from 40 Bk horizons among 6 stratigraphic sections for stable carbon isotope analysis. Based on results from the study area, declining atmospheric pCO2 from

Lee Nordt; Stacy Atchley; S. I. Dworkin

2002-01-01

161

The impact of the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary bolide on evaporite terrane and generation of major sulfuric acid aerosol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impact glasses from the K\\/T boundary in Haiti include high-Ca glasses with up to 1 wt pct SO3, formed by the fusion of anhydrite- or gypsum-rich evaporite sediments in the presence of high-silica melts, derived from melting of continental crust. Experimental studies have duplicated these two melts by fusion of gypsum and andesite, and suggest a formation temperature of 1300

H. Sigurdsson; S. D'Hondt; S. Carey

1992-01-01

162

Hexagonal Diamonds (Lonsdaleite) Discovered in the K/T Impact Layer in Spain and New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first evidence from Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary clay and rock for shocked hexagonal nanodiamonds (lonsdaleite), these being found in concentrations greater than 50 ppm at Needles Point, New Zealand, and Caravaca, Spain. This is also the first evidence for K/T diamonds of any kind outside of North America. No diamonds were detected immediately above or below the impact layer. Cubic diamonds have been reported earlier from North American K/T sediments by Carlisle and Braman (1991; 45 ppm) and Hough et al. (1997; 18 ppm), but lonsdaleite was not detected. Carlisle and Braman suggested that the cubic diamonds arrived already formed within the impactor, but Hough argued that they were shock-produced by the impact with Earth. Hence, it is not yet clear that K/T cubic diamonds were formed through shock. Lonsdaleite does not co-occur with terrestrial diamonds but is found with cubic diamonds in ET impact craters (e.g., Popigai, Sudbury). Both also have been reported in the impact layer of the proposed Younger Dryas impact event at 12.9 ka. Lonsdaleite is formed by shocking carbonaceous material, e. g., graphite, under extreme conditions of pressure and temperature (more than 15 GPa at more than 1000° C), thus making this mineral an excellent impact-shock indicator (DeCarli, 2002). Although lonsdaleite is also contained in meteorites, such as ureilites, there appears to be a consensus of opinion that crater-related lonsdaleite formed during ET impact. K/T sediment samples were acquired from the boundary layer, as well as above and below. To extract the diamonds from the sediments, we utilized the protocol from Amari (1994) and Huss and Lewis (1995), but modified their methodology after determining that phosphoric and perchloric acids oxidize metastable lonsdaleite. We extracted the diamonds successfully after eliminating those acids, which may explain why lonsdaleite was not apparent in extractions by others. The extracted lonsdaleite was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by selected area diffraction (SAED), which displayed characteristic reflections corresponding to lattice planar spacings of 2.18, 1.26, 1.09, and 0.82 A. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed their carbon composition. With exposure to long-wave ultraviolet (365 nm) radiation, clusters of lonsdaleite crystals exhibited a blue fluorescence that is characteristic of many diamonds. Individual crystals were angular to sub-rounded in shape and ranged in size from 20 to 1000 nm, with a mean size of about 50 nm. This discovery represents (1) the strongest available evidence for K/T diamond formation during the impact; (2) the first discovery of K/T diamonds outside North America; and (3) the first occurrence of any form of K/T diamonds in the Southern Hemisphere, about 12,000 km from the Chicxulub Crater in Mexico.

Bunch, T. E.; Wittke, J. H.; West, A.; Kennett, J. P.; Kennett, D. J.; Que Hee, S. S.; Wolbach, W. S.; Stich, A.; Mercer, C.; Weaver, J. C.

2008-12-01

163

Formation of the Shelf-edge Cretaceous-Tertiary contact off the southeastern U.S. Coast  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Submarine erosion, associated with changes in position of the proto-Gulf Stream, was the dominant mechanism controlling the formation of the Cretaceous-Tertiary unconformity in AMCOR borehole 6004. Paleontologic evidence indicates that this unconformity, which is marked by a gravelly-sand enriched in glauconitic and phosphoritic concretions, represents a hiatus of about 7 m.y. Both Cretaceous and Paleocene sediments contain middle-outer neritic foraminiferal assemblages that become more diverse with distance from the contact. Of the elemental abundances measured, Al, Ba, Co, Fe, Ga, K, Mg/Ca, Mo, Ni, P, Sr/Ca, V, Y, and Zn show a strong positive correlation with proximity to the contact, probably as a result of the concentration of authigenic and heavy minerals present as lag sediments on the erosion surface. ?? 1986.

Poppe, L.J.; Hathaway, J.C.; Hall, R.E.; Commeau, R.F.

1986-01-01

164

Strangelove ocean at era boundaries, terrestrial or extraterrestrial cause  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Negative perturbations in carbon-isotope value of calcite in pelagic sediments were found at times of biotic crisis, marking horizons which are, or were proposed as era boundaries: Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T), Permian/Triassic (P/T), and Precambrian/Cambrian (PreC/C). The anomaly was also found at several other mass-extinction horizons, such as terminal Ordovician, Frasnian-Famenian, etc. Studies of K/T boundary indicate that only the planktic fraction of the sediments has the negative isotope anomaly, whereas the benthic fraction has the same value across the boundary. This geochemical signal is thus considered a record of strangelove ocean, or an ocean where isotope fractionation of dissolved carbonate ions in surface waters (by biotic function of planktic organisms) has been significantly reduced because of the drastic reduction of the biomass in the oceans. The reduction of marine biomass at each of the era boundaries was related to chemical pollution of the oceans as a consequence of a catastrophic event; a pH decrease of 0.5 could inhibit the fertility of planktons. Studies of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and meteorite-impact occurrences have indicated a linearly inverse log/log relationship between the magnitude and frequency of events. The frequency of era boundaries in geologic history supports the postulate that the rare events causing those biotic crises were large bolide-impacts.

Hsue, Kenneth J.

1988-01-01

165

Multielement geochemical investigations by SRXRF microprobe studies on tectite material: Evidence from the NE-Mexican Cretaceous/Tertiary record  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The K/T boundary is long known as one of a few mass extinctions in earth history. The impact of a big meteorite at the Chicxulub on the northern Yucatan peninsula in Mexico is discussed to have triggered the faunal mass extinction and the rapid change of the palaeoenvironmental conditions near the K/T boundary. Tectite material, especially spherules are explained from many of the sections in correlation to the K/T-boundary event. This rare, glassy or alterated material is extremely variable in its major element chemistry, morphology and stratigraphic position in K/T transitions worldwide. For the first time, we perfom trace element analysis on tectites from the K/T boundary using synchrotron radiation XRF (SRXRF). Measurements were performed at the Hamburger Strahlungssynchrotronlabor HASYLAB at DESY (Hamburg, Germany) and at the ANKA (Karlsruhe, Germany) with polychromatic and monochromatic excitation, respectively collimating the beam to 15 æm by capillary optics. Based on results from SRXRF microprobe determinations, these structures are to be interpreted as mixing of several melts with different chemical composition. The different components may represent melts from different sediment layers and possibly of basement material excavated by the Chicxulub impact. Igneous rocks with andesitic composition in cores at Chicxulub are considered to be impact melt rocks and are correlated mainly by the composition of major elements with the glass spherules found in the surrounding. Our investigations show that it is possible to trace elements with high sensitivity and a high spatial resolution. Some of the samples show clearly zonation and alteration parts, as well as carbonate inclusions, triggered by the Chicxulub impact event. In general, the results from the SRXRF show that the tectite material have different trace element patterns, formed by mixing of melts with different chemical composition derived from different sediment layers and possibly of basement material excavated by the Chicxulub impact. There is no evidence at the moment that there is a homogeneous origin in the sample material or distribution in the investigated sections. The enrichment of Ce in spherules from the Mesa-Juan Perez section indicates a possible origin from the Yucatan carbonate platform generated by the Chicxulub impact event near the K/T-boundary. Area scans from tektite material of the Bochil section show a clearly zonation in the inner part, dominated by Ba and Sr as well as a alteration margin dominated by secondary CaCO3. Glassy material of the Beloc (Haiti) section is characterised by a homogeneous trace element distribution but shows characteristic differences between Ca-rich and Ca-poor glass. Moreover there is no similarity to material from other sections investigated. A clear differentiation between alteration rims, non-alterated material and mixing of different source materials can be shown by space resolved trace element determination in æm scale of schlieren structures and inclusions.(see also Schulte et al. this volume)

Harting, M.; Rickers, K.; Kramar, U.; Simon, R.; Staub, S.; Schulte, P.

2002-12-01

166

K-T magmatism of western Rajasthan, India: Manifestation of Reunion plume activity or extensional lithospheric tectonics?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of alkaline plutons have been recorded at the K-T (Cretaceous-Tertiary) boundary in western Rajasthan, India. Significant magmatism occurred at Mundwara, Barmer, Sarnu-Dandali and Tavider. The evolution of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift during the K-T period resulted in these alkaline complexes at the rift margins. Sedimentary basins are developed in the Barmer and Jaiselmer regions. The magmatism of Mundwara and Sarnu-Dandali is dated at 68.50 Ma and considered as an early pulse of Deccan volcanism. Several workers correlated K-T sedimentary basin evolution, magmatism and other tectonic features of western Rajasthan with the Reunion plume-interaction in the northwestern Indian shield. Alkaline igneous complexes along the rift from the southern part are reported from Phenai Mata, Amba Dongar and Seychelles. The Seychelles was part of the northwestern Indian shield prior to Deccan volcanism. The Mundwara igneous complex represents three distinct circular plutonic bodies - Toa, Mer and Mushala, which are situated in the periphery of an area three kilometers in radius. Besides these, there are numerous concentric and radial dykes of lamprophyre, carbonatite, dolerite and amphibolite. All these three bodies represent different phases of intrusion and are not similar to each other. The alkaline rocks of Sarnu-Dandali occur as dykes and isolated plugs in the desert sand. Carbonatite dykes are also reported from southeast of Barmer. The Tavider outcrop is devoid of any plutonic rock and consists of rhyolite, andesite and basalt. These rocks occur along the Precambrian Malani magmatic lineaments. The development of the Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift caused reactivation of Precambrian fractures and resulted in magmatism at the basin margin. The Gondwanaland fragmentation during the Mesozoic era caused extensional tectonics in the northwestern Indian shield. This led to the development of rift basins in Gujarat and western Rajasthan. Deccan volcanism, separation of the Seychelles microcontinent from India, sedimentary basin development in western Rajasthan and the alkaline magmatism of Mundwara, Sarnu-Dandali and elsewhere are considered to be the products of Reunion plume activity in western India. However, basin development began in western Rajasthan in the Jurassic period and no plume has been suggested for this. The continual extensional tectonic regime caused deep fractures in the continental and oceanic lithosphere. The Cambay-Sanchor-Barmer rift developed in continental lithosphere. The Mundwara, Sarnu-Dandali and Barmer magmatism with nephelinite-carbonatite affinity at the basin margin represents a typical rift-tectonic setting. The tectonic setting and crustal development during the K-T period in western Rajasthan represents an extensional tectonic regime rather than the manifestation of Reunion plume activity.

Sharma, K.

2004-12-01

167

Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System, Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit, New Zealand  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Cretaceous-Tertiary Composite Total Petroleum System coincident Taranaki Basin Assessment Unit was recently assessed for undiscovered technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) World Energy Resources Project, World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 487 million barrels of oil, 9.8 trillion cubic feet of gas, and 408 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

Wandrey, Craig J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

2013-01-01

168

End of the Cretaceous: sharp boundary or gradual transition  

SciTech Connect

Evidence indicates that the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is very sharp, and, within the limits of resolution, it is apparently synchronous at the various boundary localities. Arguments to the contrary, particularly those of Officer and Drake, are shown to be invalid. 35 references, 2 figures.

Alvarez, W.; Alvarez, L.W.; Asaro, F.; Michel, H.V.

1984-03-16

169

A track of the giant theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus from close to the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary Boundary, northern New Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first unequivocal example of a large tyrannosaur track attributable to the species Tyrannosaurus rex is an 86 cm long tetradactyl pedal impression assigned to Tyrannosauripus pillmorei ichnogen. et ichnosp. nov. The ichnospecies Tyrannosauropus petersoni Haubold is a nomen dubium. The only other example of a possible track of Tyrannosaurus is from the Laramie Formation of Colorado.

Martin G. Lockley; Adrian P. Hunt

1994-01-01

170

Proportions of coarse and fine clay across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in Milam, Falls, and Travis Counties, Texas  

E-print Network

' thrs sec I o!! ', ', i vcn ", 'e r t i . ry Sy tern llidway Group Kincaid I'"ormation fhi ckno -':, i! C av; 'ark olive browr! to ourn!c, weathering dark brown, moc!eratcly sof' t. calcareous, silty. covereo in part, by river ajluvium Clay; dark... olive br own t o pu!. pie ? weathering dark brown. mode:- tely sof' t? calcareous, silty 2. 5 G. Clay; da. rk olive brown to purple. weathering dark brown, softer thar. unit (G), corrtains more silt than unit (I), separated f'rom adjacent units...

Smith, John Charles

2012-06-07

171

Comparison of the magnetic properties and Mossbauer analysis of glass from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, Beloc, Haiti, with tektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The magnetic properties of black Beloc glass have been measured. The Curie constant, the magnetization, and the magnetic susceptibility of the Beloc glass fall within the known ranges observed for tektites. However, the temperature-independent component of the magnetic susceptibility is slightly higher than that found for tektites. Moreover, it is not possible to match the experimental magnetic data for the Beloc glass with the calculated values using the previously reported Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio of 0.7. The oxidation state of Fe was therefore redetermined by Mossbauer measurements, and the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio was found to be 0.024 plus or minus 0.015. Using the redetermined value of the ratio, the magnetic parameters were again calculated using formulas that are applicable to tektites, and good agreement was found between the calculated and experimental values. The experimental magnetic measurements and the redetermined Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) ratio of the Beloc glass specimens are essentially the same as those found for tektite glass.

Thorpe, A. N.; Senftle, F. E.; May, L.; Barkatt, A.; Adel-Hadadi, M. A.; Marbury, G. S.; Izett, G. A.; Maurrasse, F. R.

1994-01-01

172

Examination of 10 K/T boundary sections in northeastern and east-central Mexico, and new data presented from 7 sections, permit the fol-  

E-print Network

/T boundary and siliciclastic or breccia deposits is ob- served at Brazos River in Texas, Beloc in Haiti/T boundary and is marked by glass and siliciclastic or breccia deposits. INTRODUCTION Yucatan The subsurface (breccia sample N19) and C1 (sample N10) reported by Sharpton et al. (1992), although these results could

Keller, Gerta

173

Evolutionary Events and Phytoplankton Recovery After the K/T Mass Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recovery of the open ocean ecosystem after the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary mass extinction (65 Ma) was extremely slow. The surface to deep carbon isotopic gradient remained below latest Cretaceous levels for more than three million years after the boundary event, suggesting suppressed rates of carbon cycling and low phytoplankton productivity. There is a rapid change in the carbon isotopic gradient between 62 and 61 Ma, indicating the final recovery of surface water production levels (D'Hondt et al., 1998). We are investigating nannoplankton communities in the interval from 61.5 to 62.5 Ma to determine the relationship between the recovery and changes in productivity and carbon cycling. Samples were collected at high resolution from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1209 in the western Pacific, and Deep Sea Drilling Project Sites 384 in the North Atlantic and 528 in the South Atlantic. Results show major diversification of two dominant Cenozoic nannoliths (non-coocolith bearing, calcite-secreting nannoplankton), Fasciculithus and Sphenolithus, occurred shortly after carbon gradients were restored. The first occurrences of these two genera are associated with significant changes in calcareous nannoplankton communities, indicative of abrupt changes in surface water circulation. A rapid evolutionary sequence of early forms of Fasciculithus has been identified at Sites 1209 and 384. Two unidentified taxa were found before the first occurrence of the earliest documented species, F. pileatus. SEM work currently underway is designed to elucidate the evolution of this genus. At the Pacific site, the diversification is associated with an interval of dissolution, presumably resulting from a change in deep water circulation. The significance of this relationship is currently not understood. D'Hondt, S. et al., Organic carbon fluxes and ecological recovery from the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, Science, 282, 276-279, 1998.

Fuqua, L. M.; Bralower, T. J.

2004-12-01

174

Relative contribution of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and Cretaceous-Tertiary igneous rocks to Oligocene and Holocene fluvial sands and the unroofing of a magmatic arc  

SciTech Connect

Oligocene and Holocene fluvial sands were deposited in small extensional basins in a magmatic arc in southwestern Montana under relatively humid and semi-arid conditions, respectively. The source rocks are roof-pendants and thrust-slices of Precambrian metamorphic rocks (PCM) and Cretaceous-Tertiary igneous rocks (KTI) that make up the arc. The authors have surveyed 143,607 heavy mineral grains (HMGs) in polished thin sections of 55 samples collected from adjacent but discrete geomorphologic units. In the Holocene sands, of 5440 HMGs 519 are garnets and of 97,667 HMGs 395 are zircons. In the Oligocene sandstones, of 6397 HMGs 998 are garnets, and of 45,940 HMGs 331 are zircons. Garnets are absent in the igneous rocks and zircons are extremely rare in the metamorphic rocks. Garnets ar estimated to be about 100 times as abundant in the metamorphic rocks as the zircons are in the igneous rocks. Mass balance calculations show that the proportion of PCM/(PCM+KTI) ranges from 0 to 21% in Oligocene sandstones, and from 3 to 76% in Holocene sands in different local units. However, the overall PCM/(PCM+KTI) proportions in the Holocene and the Oligocene sands in southwestern Montana are 19% and 18%, respectively. This suggests that the roof pendants, thrust slices, and magmatic arc rocks have been unroofed in constant proportions since the Oligocene although locally the proportions have been different.

Molinaroli, E.; Basu, A. (Indiana Univ., Bloomington (United States))

1991-03-01

175

Platinum-group elements in the Morokweng impact structure, South Africa: Evidence for the impact of a large ordinary chondrite projectile at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary^1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiometric dating of melt rocks at impact craters has revealed that some giant impacts appear to overlap in time with major boundaries in Earth history [e.g., the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) and Jurassic-Cretaceous (J/K) boundaries]. The Morokweng impact crater in South Africa is coincident in age with the J/K boundary. However, the types of objects that generate large craters are poorly known because it is difficult to unambiguously identify the projectile from the signature it imparts into the impact rocks. Meteorites are highly enriched in the platinum-group elements (PGE), which have been widely used as a tool for identifying the presence of a meteorite signature. Here we present new PGE analyses from the Morokweng impact melt sheet. Our data reveal high PGE concentrations and high degree of PGE correlation through the melt sheet. Regression analysis was used to determine the projectile PGE signature and constrain input from the terrestrial target rocks. The closest match to Morokweng is the PGE signature of ordinary (L or LL) chondrite meteorites, which is broadly in agreement with the results of an earlier Cr isotope study. The results of these independent studies provide strong evidence that a large, ordinary chondrite projectile struck the area of Morokweng in the late Jurassic.

McDonald, I.; Andreoli, M. A. G.; Hart, R. J.; Tredoux, M.

2001-01-01

176

Geochemical anomalies near the Eocene-Oligocene and Permian-Triassic boundaries  

SciTech Connect

Evidence is presented to support the theory that several mass extinctions, i.e., those that define the Permian-Triassic boundary, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and the Eocene-1 Oligocene boundary, were caused by impact on the earth of extraterrestrial objects having the composition of carbonaceous chondrites and diameters of about 10 km. The evidence consists of anomalously high concentrations of iridium and other siderophile elements at the stratigraphic levels defining the extinctions. (ACR)

Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L.W.; Alvarez, W.; Michel, H.V.

1981-10-01

177

The role of Deccan volcanism during the K-T mass extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The potential role of major volcanic provinces has long been neglected as potential cause for major mass extinctions in Earth's history. This is despite the fact that volcanic activity is implicated in four of the five Phanerozoic mass extinctions, whereas a large asteroid impact is only associated with the K-T mass extinction. After 28 years of nearly unchallenged perception that a large impact (Chicxulub) on Yucatan caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, this theory is facing its most serious challenge from Deccan volcanism in India. Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies show that Deccan Trap volcanism began with a relatively minor eruption phase (~6% of total volume) during the late Maastrichtian magnetic polarity C30n. The main eruption phase (~80%) occurred over a short period in C29r just below the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) and the last Deccan phase (~14%) erupted in the early Danian C29n. Multiproxy studies from sections in Meghalaya (NE India), Jhilmili in central India (Madhya Pradesh), 6 quarry outcrops from Rajahmundry (SE India), 10 deep wells from the Krishna-Godavari Basin (K-G) (Andhra Pradesh) place the KTB mass extinction near the end of the main Deccan phase coincident with the mass extinction. These studies show that the second and third phase of eruptions each produced the world's largest and longest lava megaflows ~1500 km across India through the K-G Basin into the Bay of Bengal. These megaflows are separated by sand, silt and shale which record the mass extinction across an interval that spans zones CF1-CF2 and most of the nannofossil Micula prinsii zone and is correlative with the rapid global warming and subsequent cooling near the end of the Maastrichtian. The mass extinction began preceding the first of the four mega-flows in C29r. Planktic foraminifera suffered a 50% drop in species richness. Survivors suffered another 50% drop after the first mega-flow, leaving just 7 to 8 survivor species. No recovery occurred between the next three mega-flows and the mass extinction was complete with the last phase-2 megaflow at the KTB. The last phase of Deccan volcanism and its 3 to 4 megaflows in the early Danian C29n (zone P1b) delayed biotic recovery of marine plankton. Correlative with these intense volcanic phases, climate changed from humid/tropical to arid conditions and returned to normal tropical humidity after the last phase of volcanism. Similar environmental conditions, mass extinction and delayed recovery patterns are observed in Meghalaya, NE India. The mass extinction was likely the consequence of rapid and massive volcanic CO2 and SO2 gas emissions, leading to high continental weathering rates, global warming, cooling, acid rains, ocean acidification and a carbonate crisis in the marine environment. Combined with an impact, Deccan volcanism can thus explain both the KTB mass extinction and the long delayed biotic recovery that has been an enigma for so long. But added to impact catastrophe, a cascade of rapid massive volcanic eruptions and their complex destructive interactions with Earth's equilibrium may have done the deed. The observed climate, faunal and floral changes may have been triggered by Deccan volcanism as a result of massive CO2 and SO2 emissions.

Adatte, T.; Keller, G.; Gertsch, B.

2012-12-01

178

Shock-induced devolatilization of calcium sulfate and implications for K-T extinctions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The devolatilization of calcium sulfate, which is present in the target rock of the Chicxulub, Mexico impact structure, and dispersal in the stratosphere of the resultant sulfuric acid aerosol have been suggested as a possible mechanism for the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinctions. We measured the amount of SO2 produced from two shock-induced devolatilization reactions of calcium sulfate up to 42 GPa in the laboratory. We found both to proceed to a much lower extent than calculated by equilibrium thermodynamic calculations. Reaction products are found to be approx. 10(exp -2) times those calculated for equilibrium. Upon modeling the quantity of sulfur oxides degassed into the atmosphere from shock devolatilization of CaSO4 in the Chicxulub lithographic section, the resulting 9 x 10(exp 16) to 6 x 10(exp 17) g (in sulfur mass) is lower by a factor of 10-100 than previous upper limit estimates, the related environmental stress arising from the resultant global cooling and fallout of acid rain is insufficient to explain the widespread K-T extinctions.

Chen, Guangqing; Tyburczy, James A.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

1994-01-01

179

The K/T-boundary carbonate breccia succession at the Cantarell Field, Campeche Bay area: a representative example of the influence of the Chicxulub meteorite-impact event on the formation of extraordinary petroleum reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last decade, intense petroleum exploration and exploitation activities have been conducted in the Campeche Bay area. Detailed stratigraphic studies in this region based on seismic, well logs, and core data have allowed the documentation of numerous deep-water carbonate breccia deposits throughout the Cretaceous stratigraphic column. However, the uppermost carbonate breccia succession is very distinctive in terms of its sedimentological properties compared to the underlying and older calcareous breccia layers. The unique characteristics of this deposit include: its unusual thickness, stratigraphic position, distribution, and content of impact-metamorphic constituents. At the Cantarell field, this carbonate breccia sedimentary package is a representative example of how the Chuxulub meteorite-impact event influenced the formation of a remarkable carbonate reservoir. This deposit was the most important oil-producing stratigraphic horizon for long time in that field. Nevertheless, this reservoir is still important not only in that field but also in other fields in offshore Campeche. The K/T boundary carbonate breccia succession is a typical fining-upward deposit made up, from base to top, of three units. The 50 to 300-m thick, basal Unit 1 consists of a coarse-grained carbonate breccia. Unit 2 is a 10 to 20 m-thick, fine-grained carbonate breccia. The 25 to 30 m-thick, uppermost Unit 3 is a greenish interval of friable sand, silt and clay-sized constituents with abundant ejecta material. In some wells, a 10 to 20 m-thick, non-oil producing fine-grained calcareous breccia occurs interbedded within Unit 3. The K/T boundary carbonate sedimentary package is underlain and overlain by deep-water shaly calcareous facies of Upper Maastrichtian and Lower Paleocene age, respectively. Studies of cronostratigraphic-equivalent outcrop analogs of this K/T boundary carbonate reservoir carried out by the authors in the Sierra de Chiapas (El Guayal, Tabasco and Bochil, Chiapas) support the stratigraphic architecture documented at the Cantarell Field. Lithoclasts of the calcareous breccias were derived dominantly from platform-interior and platform-margin environments and a few from deep-water settings. Ejecta material includes: shocked quartz, quartz with ballen structure, shocked plagioclase, altered melt rock, and rare fragments of the crystalline basement. Its paleogeographic distribution, stratigraphic position, and abundance of impact-metamorphic constituents in this carbonate breccia deposit are the most striking evidences of a genetic relation to the Chicxulub meteorite-impact event. Hence, this carbonate breccia succession, deposited by gravity-driven processes under deep-water conditions, represents the collapse of the western paleomargin of the Yucatan Peninsula, ballistic transport and tsunami-related current reworking as a consequence of the Chicxulub meteorite-impact incident.

Murillo-Muñeton, G.; Grajales-Nishimura, J. M.; Velasquillo-Martínez, L. G.; García-Hernández, J.

2013-05-01

180

K-T impact(s): Continental, oceanic or both  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Although geochemical and mineralogical evidence indicate that a major accretionary event occurred at the K-T boundary, no impact crater of suitable size and age was recognized. The 35 km Manson Structure, Iowa, was suggested recently as a possibility and Ar-40/Ar-39 determinations indicate that its formation age is indistinguishable from that of the K-T boundary. In order to test a possible association between Manson and the K-T boundary clay, the geochemistry and mineralogy of the K-T boundary clays at the Scollard Canyon section, Alberta and the Starkville South section, Colorado are compared with three dominant lithologies affected by the Manson impact: Proterozoic red clastics, underlying late-state granites, and gneisses. The chemical and mineralogical makeup of the Scollard Canyon boundary clay and its clastic constituents are presented, commenting on the implications for impact models. An impact into crystalline material of continental affinity appears to be required to explain the mineralogy and chemistry of the Scollard Canyon (and other Western N. American K-T sections). The low REE abundances of some K-T boundary layers are unusual but perhaps attempts should be made to understand the contributions of individual crustal components (e.g., carbonates, arkoses) as well as the potential for alteration involving these and other elements during and after impact-induced vaporization, before mantle excavation is invoked. If further studies confirm the results of published studies of marine boundary clays that indicate an oceanic target, attention must be paid to the possibility that multiple impacts occurred at the K-T boundary - one or more on the continents and one or more in the ocean.

Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.; Murali, A. V.; Ryder, G.; Burke, K.

1988-01-01

181

Causal Link Between Flood Basalts and Large Impacts: Were The K-t and P-tr Impactors `verneshots' Fired From Terrestrial Plume-fed Co2-guns?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both bolide impacts (Alvarez et al., 1980) and Continental Flood Basalt (CFB) events (Courtillot, 1996; Courtillot et al., 1994; Morgan, 1986) have been proposed to be the cause of the three largest Phanerozoic mass-extinctions. The Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary is the age of both one of the largest known terrestrial impact struc- tures (the Chixculub site on the Yucatan peninsula) and a very large continental flood basalt (the Deccan Traps event, the first well-documented trace of the Reunion plume- hotspot). In the past year, two papers (Becker et al., 2001; Kaiho et al., 2001) have suggested that the Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) boundary, the age of the largest well- documented CFB (the Siberian Traps), is also marked, in some marine sediments, by the geochemical signature of a large bolide impact. If correct, this would require that both a bolide impact and a CFB occurred at the P-Tr boundary. Finally, the Frasnian- Famennian (Late Devonian) event appears to be contemporaneous with an impact or impacts (e.g. Siljan Ring - Grieve and Robertson, 1987), the eruption of both a Siberian Kimberlite field (Agashev et al., 2001), and the Dniepr-Donets CFB (Wilson et al., 1996). Both large bolide impacts (K-T anomaly appears to occur well within the flood-basalt stratigraphy (Bhandari et al., 1994). Therefore, here we examine whether terrestrial processes can produce the `signal' of an extraterrestrial impact event. We explore a physical model where sub-cratonic plume activity leads to massive C- and S-volatile build-up at 80-100km depths within cold cratonic lithosphere, consis- tent with recent E-M soundings (Jones et al., 2001) beneath the Slave Craton (Canada). If this gas-rich phase can build up to a 1% fraction, than its catastrophic release may be large enough to be the environmental shock that leads to a mass extinction event. 1 Furthermore, its release would supply large amounts of plume mantle rare-gases (and possibly core-entrained iridium?) to the surface environment. Such super-kimberlite- precurser gas-release events appear capable of providing a terrestrial source for the recently found geochemical signals of `extraterrestrial' P-Tr bolide impacts, while also better explaining the massive mantle-linked geochemical anomalies (in particular S-isotope excursions) that take place at this time. Furthermore, the energy release from sudden cratonic CO2 escape is large enough, that if released at one time, it could eject a suborbital mass-jet that causes a secondary impact event itself. Was even the Chix- culub impactor such a `Verneshot', fired from a Deccan-Reunion plume CO2-gun? 2

Phipps Morgan, J.; Reston, T.; Ranero, C.

182

Coeval Ar40\\/Ar39 ages of 65.0 million years ago from Chicxulub crater melt rock and Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary tektites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ar-40\\/Ar-39 dating of drill-core samples of a glassy melt rock recovered from beneath a massive impact breccia contained with the 180-kilometer subsurface Chicxulub crater yields well-behaved incremental heating spectra with a mean plateau age of 64.98 +\\/- 0.05 million years ago (Ma). The glassy melt rock of andesitic composition was obtained from core 9 (1390 to 1393 meters) in the

Carl C. Swisher III; Jose M. Grajales-Nishimura; Alessandro Montanari; Stanley V. Margolis; Philippe Claeys; Walter Alvarez; Paul Renne; Esteban Cedillo-Pardo; Florentin J.-M. R. Maurrasse; Garniss H. Curtis; J. Smit; M. O. McWilliams

1992-01-01

183

Evidence for a Widespread Disruption Layer Associated With the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary in the Upper Fox Hills Formation Throughout the Badland National Park Region of South Dakota  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A widespread zone of disrupted bedding (0.5 to 3.0 m thick) is preserved in the upper Fox Hills Formation throughout the Badlands National Park region. This unit, the Disturbed Zone (DZ), is recognizable in park outcrops extending for twelve miles (east to west) along the crest of the Sage Creek Arch. It also extends at least 20 miles north of the park along the Cheyenne River valley. The DZ features an abundance of soft-sediment liquefaction characteristics including rolled-up sandy beds (now mostly concretions) with an east-to-west axis orientation. The current mapped extent of the DZ covers about 3,000 square kilometers in central South Dakota, but may be much greater. In the park, the DZ unit rest on top of richly fossiliferous marine marls bearing marine mollusks (mostly ammonites and belemnites) of Late Maestrichtian age. After many seasons of searching, the sandstone and shale units overlying the DZ have not yielded any Cretaceous fossils. However, the overlying beds do preserve an abundance of small traces fossils, arthropod and fish remains, and plant material. In the park, this uppermost unit above the DZ ranges up to 16 meters thick, and the upper part preserves a series of paleosols known locally as the Yellow Mounds. The Fox Hills Formation in the park preserves the same biozonation sequence as the Type Fox Hills in the Missouri Valley region. In both regions the thickness of the formation varies, but the measurable maximum thickness is about the same (50 meters). In the Badlands National Park area, structural patterns preserved in the underlying Pierre Shale seem to have influenced sedimentation characteristics (including sand content and fossil distribution) in the overlying Fox Hills Formation. In addition, the thickness of the Fox Hills Formation is controlled by the distribution and pattern of ancient stream valleys preserved beneath the overlying Tertiary White River Group.

Stoffer, P. W.

2002-12-01

184

Search for extractable fullerenes in clays from the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary of the Woodside Creek and Flaxbourne River sites, New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When fullerenes were first discovered to form spontaneously in condensing carbon vapors ( KROTO et al., 1985), it was suggested that they might be widely distributed in the Universe. Searches for fullerenes in meteorites (see DEVRIES et al., 1993) were unsuccessful, but C 60 and C 70 were reported to occur on Earth in samples of shungite, a meta-anthracite from a deposit near Shunga, Russia ( BUSECK et al., 1992), and in "fulgurite", a substance formed when lightning strikes certain soils or rocks ( DALY et al., 1993). The occurrence of fullerenes in shungite is particularly surprising since fullerene synthesis in the laboratory has always involved gas phase chemistry at temperatures over 1000°C. Such conditions may be attained during lightning strikes, but shungite is believed to have formed from carbonaceous material creeping into fissures of a Precambrian rock which metamorphosed under extreme pressures. If the original carbonaceous material did not already contain fullerenes perhaps from wildfires, they must have formed during the metamorphism by as yet unknown solid- or liquid-phase mechanisms.

Heymann, D.; Wolbach, W. S.; Chibante, L. P. F.; Brooks, R. R.; Smalley, R. E.

1994-08-01

185

Shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments.  

PubMed

The long-standing controversy regarding the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America has been invigorated by a hypothesis implicating a cosmic impact at the Allerød-Younger Dryas boundary or YDB (approximately 12,900 +/- 100 cal BP or 10,900 +/- 100 (14)C years). Abrupt ecosystem disruption caused by this event may have triggered the megafaunal extinctions, along with reductions in other animal populations, including humans. The hypothesis remains controversial due to absence of shocked minerals, tektites, and impact craters. Here, we report the presence of shock-synthesized hexagonal nanodiamonds (lonsdaleite) in YDB sediments dating to approximately 12,950 +/- 50 cal BP at Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, California. Lonsdaleite is known on Earth only in meteorites and impact craters, and its presence strongly supports a cosmic impact event, further strengthened by its co-occurrence with other nanometer-sized diamond polymorphs (n-diamonds and cubics). These shock-synthesized diamonds are also associated with proxies indicating major biomass burning (charcoal, carbon spherules, and soot). This biomass burning at the Younger Dryas (YD) onset is regional in extent, based on evidence from adjacent Santa Barbara Basin and coeval with broader continent-wide biomass burning. Biomass burning also coincides with abrupt sediment mass wasting and ecological disruption and the last known occurrence of pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) on the Channel Islands, correlating with broader animal extinctions throughout North America. The only previously known co-occurrence of nanodiamonds, soot, and extinction is the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact layer. These data are consistent with abrupt ecosystem change and megafaunal extinction possibly triggered by a cosmic impact over North America at approximately 12,900 +/- 100 cal BP. PMID:19620728

Kennett, Douglas J; Kennett, James P; West, Allen; West, G James; Bunch, Ted E; Culleton, Brendan J; Erlandson, Jon M; Que Hee, Shane S; Johnson, John R; Mercer, Chris; Shen, Feng; Sellers, Marilee; Stafford, Thomas W; Stich, Adrienne; Weaver, James C; Wittke, James H; Wolbach, Wendy S

2009-08-01

186

Shock-synthesized hexagonal diamonds in Younger Dryas boundary sediments  

PubMed Central

The long-standing controversy regarding the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions in North America has been invigorated by a hypothesis implicating a cosmic impact at the ?llerød-Younger Dryas boundary or YDB (?12,900 ± 100 cal BP or 10,900 ± 100 14C years). Abrupt ecosystem disruption caused by this event may have triggered the megafaunal extinctions, along with reductions in other animal populations, including humans. The hypothesis remains controversial due to absence of shocked minerals, tektites, and impact craters. Here, we report the presence of shock-synthesized hexagonal nanodiamonds (lonsdaleite) in YDB sediments dating to ?12,950 ± 50 cal BP at Arlington Canyon, Santa Rosa Island, California. Lonsdaleite is known on Earth only in meteorites and impact craters, and its presence strongly supports a cosmic impact event, further strengthened by its co-occurrence with other nanometer-sized diamond polymorphs (n-diamonds and cubics). These shock-synthesized diamonds are also associated with proxies indicating major biomass burning (charcoal, carbon spherules, and soot). This biomass burning at the Younger Dryas (YD) onset is regional in extent, based on evidence from adjacent Santa Barbara Basin and coeval with broader continent-wide biomass burning. Biomass burning also coincides with abrupt sediment mass wasting and ecological disruption and the last known occurrence of pygmy mammoths (Mammuthus exilis) on the Channel Islands, correlating with broader animal extinctions throughout North America. The only previously known co-occurrence of nanodiamonds, soot, and extinction is the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impact layer. These data are consistent with abrupt ecosystem change and megafaunal extinction possibly triggered by a cosmic impact over North America at ?12,900 ± 100 cal BP. PMID:19620728

Kennett, Douglas J.; Kennett, James P.; West, Allen; West, G. James; Bunch, Ted E.; Culleton, Brendan J.; Erlandson, Jon M.; Que Hee, Shane S.; Johnson, John R.; Mercer, Chris; Shen, Feng; Sellers, Marilee; Stafford, Thomas W.; Stich, Adrienne; Weaver, James C.; Wittke, James H.; Wolbach, Wendy S.

2009-01-01

187

DOI: 10.1126/science.1113692 , 2204 (2005);309Science  

E-print Network

Interdecadal Variability in Coral Reef pH This copy is for your personal, non-commercial use only. clicking at the Cretaceous- Tertiary (K-T) boundary and the ensuing extinc- tion of dinosaurs provided ecological opportunity discovery of larger Cretaceous mammals (29), but this trend does not appear to be driven by oxygen. A second

Cobb, Kim

188

Magnetic microspherules associated with the K/T and upper Eocene extinction events  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Magnetic microspherules were identified in over 20 K/T boundary sites, and in numerous Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) cores from the Caribbean and Pacific, synchronous with the extinction of several radiolarian species near the end of the Eocene. The K/T magnetic spherules are of particular interest as carriers of Ir and other siderophiles generally found in abundance in K/T boundary clay. Furthermore the textures and unusual chemistry of their component magnetic phases indicate an origin at high temperature, possibly related to (an) unusual event(s) marking the end of the Cretaceous and Eocene periods. Their origin, along with the non-magnetic (sanidine) spheules, is generally ascribed directly to megaimpact events hypothesized to have periodically disrupted life on Earth. A survey of microspherical forms associated with known meteorite and impact derived materials reveals fundamental differences from the extinction related spherules. Low temperature magnetic experiments on the K/T and Upper Eocene spheroids indicate that, unlike tektites, extremely small superparamagnetic carriers are not present in abundance. The extensive subaerial exposure of Cretaceous combustible black shale during sea level regression in the latest Cretaceous represents a potential source for the magnetic spheroids found in certain K/T boundary clays. The recent discovery of high Ir abundances distributed above and below the K/T boundary within shallow water sediments in Israel, which also contain the most extensive known zones of combustion metamorphism, the so called Mottled Zone, adds a further dramatic footnote to the proposed association between the magnetic spheroids and combustion of organic shales. Interestingly, the Mottled Zone also contains the rare mineral magnesioferrite, which was identified both within the K/T magnetic spheroids and as discrete crystals in boundary clay from marine and continental sites.

Cisowski, Stanley M.

1988-01-01

189

Deccan Volcanism likely cause for K-T Mass Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in Deccan volcanic studies suggest that the main phase of eruptions occurred rapidly over tens of thousands of years near the end of the Maastrichtian (Chenet et al. 2007, 2008) and may have caused the mass extinction as initially discovered in intertrappean sediments exposed in quarries of Rajahmundry, SE India. In these shallow marine sediments early Danian zone P1a planktic foraminifera were deposited in C29r immediately above the last mega eruption of the main volcanic phase (Keller et al. (2008). At Jhilmili in central India (Madhya Pradesh), early Danian zone P1a assemblages were also discovered in intertrappean sediments, which mark a marine incursion in a predominantly terrestrial sequence which signals a major seaway existed at K-T time. In Meghalaya, NE India, about 600 km from the Deccan volcanic province the K-T boundary and mass extinction identified from planktic foraminifera, calcareous nannofossils and palynomorphs is marked by very large Ir (11.8 ppb), Ru, Rh and Pd anomalies. High biotic stress conditions precede the KTB. Critical new data linking Deccan volcanism to the K-T mass extinction comes also from investigations of subsurface cores drilled in the Krishna-Godavari Basin, eastern India, by the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation of India (ONGC). In eight subsurface cores examined, a total of 4 volcanic megaflows have been identified as occurring in very rapid succession near the end of the Maastrichtian. These megaflows span a 1000 km across India and out to the Gulf of Bengal. They are the longest lava flows known in Earth's history. Preliminary evaluation of the biotic effects of these megaflows on planktic foraminifera indicate that after the first megaflow up to 50% of the species disappeared and with each new megaflow more species died out culminating in near total mass extinction coincident with the last megaflow by K-T boundary time. After the mass extinction, no megaflows reached the Krishna-Godavari Basin for about 250-280 ky during which time a low diversity early Danian assemblage of small new species evolved globally. The last major Deccan volcanic pulses began at the C29R/C29N boundary and may have been the cause for the long delay in the full biotic recovery. These studies suggest that the real cause for the K-T mass extinction may have been the main phase of Deccan volcanic eruptions at the end of the Maastrichtian. In particular, the rapid succession of megaflows and the massive SO2 emissions estimated at least 10 to 30 times those from the Chicxulub impact may have caused a deadly runaway effect that lead to the K-T mass extinction. Chenet, A-L. et al. (2007) EPSL 263, 1-15; Chenet et al. (2008) JGR, 113, B04101; Keller, G. et al. (2008) EPSL 268, 293-311.

Keller, G.; Reddy, A. N.; Jaiprakash, B. C.; Adatte, T.; Gertsch, B.; Bajpai, S.; Garg, R.; Prasad, V.; Upadhyay, H.; Bhowmick, P. K.

2009-04-01

190

Locating the K\\/T boundary impact crater(s)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stratigraphic, mineralogical, chemical and isotopic evidence have led to the large (˜10-km) asteroid or comet impact theory as the cause of the Cretaceous period coming to an end. However, a suitable crater has not yet been found. Although the crater may have been destroyed because half of what was then the ocean floor has since been subducted, researchers are still

Susan M. Bush

1990-01-01

191

Chicxulub impact predates the K-T boundary mass extinction  

E-print Network

, a 100- m-thick impact (suevite) breccia overlies a 617-m-thick sequence of horizontally layered shallow (suevite) breccia consist primarily of clasts from these underlying shallow-water lithologies, some and spherules. The upper 15 m of the breccia are stratified with alternating layers of upward fining clasts (3

Keller, Gerta

192

Deposition of Distal K/T Ejecta via Density Currents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the K/T boundary ejecta layer is well known, both the mechanics of deposition and the environmental effects of this deposition are less established. KFIX-LPL, a two-phase fluid flow code, allows us to model the interactions between the atmosphere and ejecta spherules. KFIX-LPL accommodates a range of flow regimes and includes a complete treatment of thermal radiation. We modeled a distal Chicxulub scenario (impact plume ejecta only) by injecting 250-?m spherules into the atmosphere at 8 km/s with an inflow density consistent with observed spherule volumes. The spherules fall through the thin upper atmosphere, compressing the atmosphere until the spherules decelerate due to drag and increasing atmospheric pressure. The particles accumulate in dense layers at ~50-km altitude. At intermediate distances from Chicxulub, such as North America where a dual-layer is observed at the K/T boundary, ejecta curtain material must also be considered. For these models we include an initial brief injection 500-?m terrestrial ejecta at 4.5 km/s in addition to the more prolonged flux of fireball material. The ejecta curtain material compresses the atmosphere to below 40 km in altitude. As this brief pulse ends, the atmosphere rebounds upwards and ejecta from the fireball pulse accumulates at a higher level and the two types of ejecta are deposited separately. In both the distal and North American models, the spherules initially settle through the atmosphere as individual particles, but as the ejecta near the ground, density currents form. The modeled instabilities are real density currents and not numerical artifacts, as confirmed by KFIX-LPL simulations of a series of tephra fall experiments in water (Carey 1997). We modeled these experiments by dropping spherical particles at various mass fluxes into water. Instability formation was evaluated using a criterion yielded by the ratio between turbulent instability growth rate and Stokes velocity of individual particles. Instabilities in our tephra fall models agree with both the instability criterion and the experimental results. Thus the modeled density currents are real and both the single ejecta layer observed in distal localities and the double layer observed in North American localities were deposited on a scale of hours rather than settling out slowly via Stokes flow. The K/T boundary layer truly represents a blink in geologic time.

Goldin, T. J.; Melosh, H. J.

2007-12-01

193

K/T spherules from Haiti and Wyoming: Origin, diagenesis, and similarity to some microtektites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spherules with relict glass cores in the K/T boundary bed of Haiti allow for a comparison of these bodies with hollow goyazite shells in the K/T boundary claystone of Wyoming and with younger microtektites of the Ivory Coast strewn field. Samples of the Haitian beds from undisturbed sections at Beloc, as determined by Jehanno et al., contain both hollow shells and relict glass cores rimmed by palagonite that has been partially converted to smectite. These palagonite rims developed from hydration zones formed when hot, splash-form droplets of andesitic impact glass were deposited into water. Mutual collisions between these droplets in the ejecta curtain may have formed point-source stresses on their surfaces. Initiation of hydration would be facilitated at these surface stress points and propagated radially into the glass. The inner surface of these merged hemispherical fronts appears mammillary, which is reflected as scalloping in Haitian relict glass cores.

Bohor, B. F.; Glass, B. P.; Betterton, W. J.

1993-01-01

194

Dinosaur bone beds and mass mortality: Implications for the K-T extinction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass accumulations of fossilized large terrestrial vertebrate skeletons (bone beds: BB) provide a test for K-T catastrophic extinction hypotheses. The two major factors contributing to BB formation are mode of death and sedimentation rate. Catastrophic mass mortality (CMM) is the sudden death of numerous individuals where species, age, health, gender, or social ranking offer no survivorship advantage. Noncatastrophic mass mortality (NCMM) occurs over time and is strongly influenced by species, age, or gender. In addition to cause of death, sedimentation rate is also important in BB formation. Models of BBs can be made. The CMM drops all individuals in their tracks, therefore, the BB should reflect the living population with respect to species, age, or gender. The NCMM results in monospecific BBs skewed in the direction of the less fit, usually the very young or very old, or towards a specific gender. The NCMM and AM BBs may become more similar the more spread out over time NCMM deaths occur because carcasses are widely scattered requiring hydraulic accumulation, and the greater time allows for more disarticulation and weathering. The CMM and NCMM BB appear to be dominated by social animals. Applying this and the characteristics of mortality patterns to the uppermost Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation indicates that only NCMM and AM BB occur. Furthermore, NCMM BB are rare in the upper third of the Hell Creek. Near the K-T boundary, only AM BB are known. The absence of CMM and NCMM BB appears to be real reflecting a decrease in population levels of some dinosaurs prior to the K-T event. The absence of CMM suggests that the K-T event did not lead to an instantaneous extinction of dinosaurs. Nor was there a protracted die-off due to an asteroid impact winter, because no NCMM BB are known at or near the K-T boundary.

Carpenter, Kenneth

1988-01-01

195

Chondritic ratios of Fe/Cr/Ir in Kerguelen Plateau (Hole 738C) K/T carbonate-rich sediments support asteroid-cometary impact at K/T time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the study of marine carbonate sediments from Holes 577 and 577B, Shatsky Plateau (Rise), a net extraterrestrial Fe/Ir = C1 chondritic ratio at the K/T boundary was reported. Applying a similar procedure to Hole 738C (Kerguelen Plateau) data reported, Fe/Cr/Ir ratios similar to C1 or C2 chondritic ratios were obtained.

Liu, Y. G.; Schmitt, R. A.

1993-01-01

196

Iridium in marine organisms from the Gulf of Mexico  

E-print Network

the scientific and popular literature of possible causes of the Iridium (Ir) enrichment in Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary sediments and the concomitant biological extinctions (65 m. y. BP). No published data exist for Ir in marine biota, therefore... organisms from all parts of the marine food web were analyzed for Ir by radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) to characterize the levels present, to estimate the size of the marine biological Ir reservoir, and to compare it to the Ir inventory...

Wells, Mona Cara

1987-01-01

197

Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary (K\\/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western

Gerhard Schmidt; Lei Zhou; John T. Wasson

1993-01-01

198

Projectile-target mixing in melted ejecta formed during a hypervelocity impact cratering event  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tektites contain little to no projectile contamination while, in contrast, some distal ejecta deposits can be relatively projectile-rich (e.g. the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay). This compositional difference motivated an experimental study of hypervelocity target-projectile mixing processes. We hope to scale up the results from these experiments and apply them to terrestrial impact structures like the Chicxulub Crater, Yucutan, Mexico, the

Noreen Joyce Evans; Thomas J. Ahrens; M. Shahinpoor; W. W. Anderson

1993-01-01

199

PDF orientations in shocked quartz grains around the Chicxulub crater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We measured 852 sets of planar deformation features (PDFs) in shocked quartz grains in impactite samples of the Yaxcopoil (YAX-1) core and from 4 Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary deposits: the Monaca, the Cacarajícara, and the Peñalver formations in Cuba, and DSDP site 536, within 800 km of the Chicxulub crater, in order to investigate variations of PDF orientations in the proximity of the crater.

Nakano, Yoichiro; Goto, Kazuhisa; Matsui, Takafumi; Tada, Ryuji; Tajika, Eiichi

2008-04-01

200

Heavy quark impact factor in k T -factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the calculation of the finite part of the heavy quark impact factor at next-to-leading logarithmic accuracy in a form suitable for phenomenological studies such as the calculation of the cross-section for single bottom quark production at the LHC within the k T -factorization scheme.

Chachamis, Grigorios; Deak, Michal; Rodrigo, Germán

2013-12-01

201

A detailed taxonomy of Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary Crassatellidae in the Eastern United States; an example of the nature of extinction at the boundary  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Current theories on the causes of extinction at the CretaceousTertiary boundary have been based on previously published data; however, few workers have stopped to ask the question, 'How good is the basic data set?' To test the accuracy of the published record, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the Crassatellidae (Mollusca, Bivalvia) of the Gulf and Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plains of the United States for the Upper Cretaceous and lower Tertiary was conducted. Thirty-eight species names and four generic names are used in publications for the Crassatellidae within the geographic and stratigraphic constraints of this analysis. Fourteen of the 38 species names are represented by statistically valid numbers of specimens and were tested by using canonical discriminant analysis. All 38 names, with the exception of 1 invalid name and 4 names for which no representative specimen could be located, were evaluated qualitatively. The results show that the published fossil record is highly inaccurate. Only 8 valid, recognizable species exist in the Crassatellidae within the limits of this study, 14 names are synonymized, and 11 names are represented by indeterminate molds or poorly preserved specimens. Three of the four genera are well founded; the fourth is based on the juvenile of another genus and therefore synonymized. This detailed taxonomic analysis of the Crassatellidae illustrates that the published fossil record is not reliable. Calculations of evolutionary and paleobiologic significance based on poorly defined, overly split fossil groups, such as the Crassatellidae, are biased in the following ways: Rates of evolution and extinction are higher, Faunal turnover at mass extinctions appears more catastrophic, Species diversity is high, Average species durations are shortened, and Geographic ranges are restricted. The data on the taxonomically standardized Crassatellidae show evolutionary rates one-quarter to one-half that of the published fossil record; faunal change at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary that was not catastrophic; a constant number of species on each side of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; a decrease in abundance in the Tertiary; and lower species diversity, longer average species durations, and expanded geographic ranges. Similar detailed taxonomic studies need to be conducted on other groups of organisms to test the patterns illustrated for the Crassatellidae and to determine the extent and direction of the bias in the published fossil record. Answers to our questions about evolutionary change cannot be found in the literature but rather with the fossils themselves. Evolution and extinction occur within small populations of species groups, and it is only through detailed analysis of these groups that we can achieve an understanding of the causes and effects of evolution and extinction.

Wingard, G. Lynn

1993-01-01

202

Benthic foraminifera across the K/Pg boundary in the Brazos River area (Texas) and Stevns Klint (Denmark): sequence stratigraphy, sea level change and extinctions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While the majority of micropalaeontologists have concentrated on the planktic foraminifera of the Brazos River succession (in order to define the position of the K/T boundary), there are relatively few studies of the benthic foraminifera published. There are a number of sites available for study, including the Brazos River itself and the tributaries of Cottonmouth Creek and Darting Minnow Creek. There have also been a number of drill cores recovered from the area including the Mullinax - 1 core which we have studied. Almost all of the benthic foraminifera recovered from the Mullinax - 1 core were described by Joseph Cushman (1946) in his monograph. The Corsicana Formation (Kemp Formation of the State Geological Map) of latest Maastrichtian age is overlain by the Littig Member of the Kincaid Formation which includes, at its base, the so-called "Event Bed". The base of this unit is the "impact-defined K/T boundary" of many authors (e.g., Yancey, 1996). The "Event Bed" contains a number of discreet (but thin) sedimentary units including spherule-rich layers, shell lags and a number of hummocky sandstone beds (Gale, 2006). In a recent paper, Keller et al. (2009) have identified an "impact" layer below the "Event Bed" and a K/T boundary higher in the succession that most other authors. In the Mullinax - 1 core, there is a diverse fauna of benthic foraminifera, although the species count is much less than that described by Cushman (1946). This is almost certainly the result of the small sample size available in the small diameter core. There is a distinctive assemblage of mid-outer shelf taxa, including agglutinated foramininfera (Tritaxia, Verneuilina, Plectina, etc.) and aragonitic taxa (Epistomina). The numbers of agglutinated taxa in the Mullinax - 1 core are much reduced at the level of the "Event Bed" and this, coupled with the changes in the planktic fauna, indicates a (fairly) marked drop in sea level. Both Yancey (1996) and Gale (2006) argue that this brings the sea floor into the range of storm wave base and that this is what is indicated by the "Event Bed". There are a number of water-depth changes in the famous Stevns Klint succession in Denmark, although the majority of the benthic taxa are different. All belong to the normal Chalk Sea assemblage of North West Europe. The planktic assemblage in Denmark is limited and there are no aragonitic taxa (preservation problems). Benthic foraminifera are rare, though generally more abundant in the chalks immediately below the K/T boundary. Work on material from Denmark and the Brazos River successions is on-going including a more detailed assessment of the various morphogroups represented. The presence of an unusual "foraminiferal sand" within the lowermost Paleocene of the Cottonmouth Creek succession has yet to be fully described and its presence is not fully understood (environmental control or re-deposition?). A sequence stratigraphical interpretation of the successions in Texas and Denmark has shown parallel changes in sea level (of the same magnitude in both areas) that are coincident with the major lithological changes. The most significant feature is a fall in sea level some tens of thousands of years before the K/Pg boundary. Cushman, J. A. 1946. Upper Cretaceous Foraminifera of the Gulf Coastal Region of the United States and adjacent areas. U. S. Geological Survey, Professional Paper, 206, 1 - 241. Gale, A. S. 2006. The Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary on the Brazos River, Falls County, Texas: is there evidence for impact-induced tsunami sedimentation? Proceedings of the Geologists' Association, London, 117, 173 - 185. Keller, G., Abramovich, S., Berner, Z. & Adatte, T. 2009. Biotic effects of the Chicxulub Impact, K-T catastrophe and sea level change in Texas. Palaegeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 271, 52 - 68. Yancey, T. E. 1996. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary Complex and Basal Paleocene section, Brazos River, Texas. Tran

Hart, Malcolm; Smart, Christopher; Searle, Sarah; Feist, Sean; Leighton, Andrew; Price, Gregory; Twitchett, Richard

2010-05-01

203

Inferring snow types from , SSA and kT (transform SSA and kT from diagnostic to prognostic variables of the model).  

E-print Network

· Inferring snow types from , SSA and kT (transform SSA and kT from diagnostic to prognostic on mesurable state variables. · Specific surface area (SSA): - quantifies the surface/mass ratio of snow-CT) · Thermal conductivity (kT): - related to snow type, grain size and bonds between grains - effective value

Ribes, Aurélien

204

Shock-induced vaporization of anhydrite and global cooling from the K/T impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of abundant anhydrite (CaSO 4) and gypsum (CaSO 4·2H 2O) in the otherwise carbonate sediment comprising the upper 3 km thick layer of the target rock at the K/T impact site has prompted research on these minerals. Evaluation of the severity of the proposed extinction mechanism involving injection of impact-generated SO 2 and SO 3 into the stratosphere entails determination of criteria for shock-induced vaporization of these minerals. In the present work we present new data on the vaporization criteria of anhydrite. These are based on the reanalysis of the shock wave experiments of Yang and Ahrens [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 156 (1998) 125-140], conducted on material with 30% porosity, in which the shock- (fully or partially) vaporized sample interacts with an overlying LiF window. The velocity histories, monitored using a velocity interferometer, are compared with numerical simulations employing an improved equation of state for porous anhydrite and its vaporization products. We also employ the 'entropy criterion' for vaporization of material under shock compression. The values of the entropies of incipient and complete vaporization for anhydrite are determined to be 1.65±0.12 and 3.17±0.12 kJ (kg K) -1, respectively, and the corresponding pressures for incipient and the complete vaporization along the Hugoniot for the solid material are 32.5±2.5 and 122±13 GPa, respectively as compared with 81±7 and 155±13 GPa previously reported by Yang and Ahrens. Along with these criteria, the use of the recent estimate of diameter (100 km) for the Chicxulub transient crater [O'Keefe and Ahrens, J. Geophys. Res. 104 (E11) (1999) 27091-27104; Morgan et al., Nature 390 (1997) 472-476] that is smaller than previously assumed, along with Ivanov et al.'s [Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap. 307 (1996) 125-142] 2-D hydrodynamic simulation to determine the shock attenuation and Pope et al.'s [J. Geophys. Res., 102 (E9) (1997) 21645-21664] radiative transfer model, yields the maximum decrease in the average global surface temperature of 12-19 K for 9.0-9.5 years at the K/T boundary. Thus, the global cooling is inferred to have been less severe than that indicated by the upper limit of the range of 5-31 K decrease lasting for ˜12 years calculated by Pope et al. Because ambient global surface temperatures at K/T time were ˜18-20°C warmer than present values, this cooling event produced cold, but not freezing conditions at the Earth's surface.

Gupta, Satish C.; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Yang, Wenbo

2001-06-01

205

Carbon dioxide emissions from Deccan volcanism and a K/T boundary greenhouse effect  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A greenhouse warming caused by increased emissions of carbon dioxide from the Deccan Traps volcanism has been suggested as the cause of the terminal Cretaceous extinctions on land and in the sea. Total eruptive and noneruptive CO2 output by the Deccan eruptions (from 6 to 20 x 10 to the 16th moles) over a period of several hundred thousand years is estimated based on best estimates of the CO2 weight fraction of the original basalts and basaltic melts, the fraction of CO2 degassed, and the volume of the Deccan Traps eruptions. Results of a model designed to estimate the effects of increased CO2 on climate and ocean chemistry suggest that increases in atmospheric pCO2 due to Deccan Traps CO2 emissions would have been less than 75 ppm, leading to a predicted global warming of less than 1 C over several hundred thousand years. It is concluded that the direct climate effects of CO2 emissions from the Deccan eruptions would have been too weak to be an important factor in the end-Cretaceous mass extinctions.

Caldeira, Ken; Rampino, Michael R.

1990-01-01

206

Terrestrial Acidification at the K/T Boundary James R. Lyons*  

E-print Network

on geochemically constraining the production of acid during the KT impact. The potential importance of acid timescale as stratospheric SO2 was slowly converted to sulfuric acid aerosol [9-11]. Evaporite deposits the KTB [1] and acid leaching of base cations at North American KTB sites [2]. Continental weathering

Stewart, Sarah T.

207

What Effect Do They Have? Direct Hit at the K-T Boundary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the effects of large impacts. Learners will use critical thinking skills to evaluate and apply data from a narrative to a scientific selection process, will demonstrate or visualize simulations of some of the effects of a huge impact, and will write a point of view narrative. Materials and vocabulary lists, and advanced preparation and procedural tips are included. This is lesson 14 of 19 in Exploring Meteorite Mysteries.

208

Cretaceous eutherians and Laurasian origin for placental mammals near the K\\/T boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the time of origin for placental mammals from DNA studies span nearly the duration of the Cretaceous period (145 to 65million years ago), with a maximum of 129million years ago and a minimum of 78million years ago. Palaeontologists too are divided on the timing. Some support a deep Cretaceous origin by allying certain middle Cretaceous fossils (97-90million years

J. R. Wible; G. W. Rougier; M. J. Novacek; R. J. Asher

2007-01-01

209

What Caused the Mass Extinction Recorded at the K-T Boundary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Exploring Earth Investigations are Internet-based activities that use animations, interactive graphics, and unique imagery to help students gather information about a particular Earth science theme, issue, or concept.

TERC (www.terc.edu)

210

Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Measurements of K\\/T Boundary Spherules from Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glass spherules thought to be tektites from Haiti have previously been analyzed for their mineralogy and chemical composition to identify their origin and mode of formation [1]. They contain bubbles and occur in various colors dependent upon the original target rock. To investigate these spherules and the nature of any gas phase, several dark brown glasses have been analyzed for

R. M. Hough; H. Sigurdsson; I. A. Franchi; I. P. Wright; C. T. Pillinger; I. Gilmour

1993-01-01

211

The structure of the group G(k[t]): Variations on a theme of Soule  

E-print Network

The structure of the group G(k[t]): Variations on a theme of Soulâ??e Benedictus Margaux Abstract. Following Soulâ??e's ideas [14] we give a presentation of the abstract group G(k[t]) for any semisimple absolutely almost simple k--group. For G split, Soulâ??e [14] has given a presentation of the group G

212

Poisson harmonic forms, Kostant harmonic forms, and the S 1 equivariant cohomology of K/T  

E-print Network

Poisson harmonic forms, Kostant harmonic forms, and the S 1 ­equivariant cohomology of K/T Sam Abstract We characterize the harmonic forms on a flag manifold K/T defined by Kostant in 1963 in terms of a Poisson structure. Namely, they are ``Poisson harmonic'' with respect to the so­called Bruhat Poisson

Evens, Sam

213

Terminal Cretaceous Extinctions in the Hell Creek Area, Montana: Compatible with Catastrophic Extinction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Inaccurate stratigraphic correlations in the Hell Creek area, Montana, have led to the assumption that transitional vertebrate faunas (Bug Creek Anthills) exist in the latest Cretaceous, refuting a catastrophic turnover at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Establishment of the transitional faunas in Paleocene channels that cut down through the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary renders the terrestrial faunal record compatible with the marine record and

J. Smit; S. van der Kaars

1984-01-01

214

Chicxulub multiring impact basin - Size and other characteristics derived from gravity analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The buried Chicxulub impact structure in Mexico, which is linked to the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary layer, may be significantly larger than previously suspected. Reprocessed gravity data over Northern Yucatan reveal three major rings and parts of a fourth ring, spaced similarly to those observed at multiring impact basins on other planets. The outer ring, probably corresponding to the basin's topographic rim, is almost 300 kilometers in diameter, indicating that Chicxulub may be one of the largest impact structures produced in the inner solar system since the period of early bombardment ended nearly 4 billion years ago.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Burke, Kevin; Camargo-Zanoguera, Antonio; Hall, Stuart A.; Lee, D. S.; Marin, Luis E.; Suarez-Reynoso, Gerardo; Quezada-Muneton, Juan M.; Spudis, Paul D.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

1993-01-01

215

The structure of the group G(k[t]): Variations on a theme of Soule  

E-print Network

The structure of the group G(k[t]): Variations on a theme of Soul´e Benedictus Margaux Abstract. Following Soul´e's ideas [14] we give a presentation of the abstract group G(k[t]) for any semisimple absolutely almost simple k­group. For G split, Soul´e [14] has given a presentation of the group G

216

T H I N K T A N K O N Enhancing Obesity  

E-print Network

T H I N K T A N K O N Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart,Lung, andBlood Institute U Institute #12;#12;T H I N K T A N K O N Enhancing Obesity Research at the National Heart,Lung, and with an unprecedented obesity epidemic--the solu- tion to which will be as complex in its nature as the epidemic itself

Bandettini, Peter A.

217

Response of marine and freshwater algae to nitric acid and elevated carbon dioxide levels simulating environmental effects of bolide impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the intriguing facets of the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction is the apparently selective pattern of mortality amongst taxa. Some groups of organisms were severely affected and some remained relatively unscathed as they went through the K/T boundary. While there is argument concerning the exact interpretation of the fossil record, one of the best documented extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is that of the calcareous nannoplankton. These organisms include coccolithic algae and foraminiferans. Attempts to explain their decline at the K/T boundary center around chemistry which could affect their calcium carbonate shells while leaving their silica-shelled cousins less affected or unaffected. Two environmental consequences of an extraterrestrial body impact which were suggested are the production of large quantities of nitrogen oxides generated by the shock heating of the atmosphere and the possible rise in CO2 from the dissolution of CaCO3 shells. Both of these phenomena would acidify the upper layers of the oceans and bodies of freshwater not otherwise buffered. The effects of nitric acid, carbon dioxide, or both factors on the growth and reproduction of calcareous marine coccoliths and non-calcareous marine and freshwater species of algae were considered. These experiments demonstrate that nitric acid and carbon dioxide have significant effects on important aspects of the physiology and reproduction of modern algae representative of extinct taxa thought to have suffered significant declines at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Furthermore, calcareous species showed more marked effects than siliceous species and marine species tested were more sensitive than freshwater species.

Boston, P. J.

1988-01-01

218

Nuclear k_T in d+Au Collisions from Multiparticle Jet Reconstruction at STAR  

E-print Network

This paper presents the most recent nuclear k_T measurements from STAR derived from multiparticle jet reconstruction of d+Au and p+p collisions at sqrt(s)=200 GeV. Since jets reconstructed from multiple particles are relatively free of fragmentation biases, nuclear k_T can be measured with greater certainty in this way than with traditional di-hadron correlations. Multi-particle jet reconstruction can also be used for a direct measurement of the fragmentation function.

Thomas Henry

2005-11-01

219

Princeton//98-10 C. Lu and K.T. McDonald  

E-print Network

number and high density are desirable. Both tungsten and tungsten carbide powders are readily from sources in mainland China [2]. We also obtained samples of 1-m tungsten carbide powder fromPrinceton//98-10 C. Lu and K.T. McDonald March 15, 1998 Flowing Tungsten Powder for Possible Use

McDonald, Kirk

220

Princeton//9810 C. Lu and K.T. McDonald  

E-print Network

number and high density are desirable. Both tungsten and tungsten carbide powders are readily/pound from sources in mainland China [2]. We also obtained samples of 1­¯m tungsten carbide powder fromPrinceton/¯¯/98­10 C. Lu and K.T. McDonald March 15, 1998 Flowing Tungsten Powder for Possible Use

McDonald, Kirk

221

Fatigue of aluminium-lithium alloys K. T. Venkateswara Rao and R. O. Ritchie  

E-print Network

Fatigue of aluminium-lithium alloys K. T. Venkateswara Rao and R. O. Ritchie Aluminium in commercial and military aircraft. In this review, the cyclic fatigue strength and fatigue crack propagation. Compared with traditional aerospace aluminium alloys, results on the fatigue of binary AI-Li, experimental

Ritchie, Robert

222

Restoration of $k_T$ factorization for low $p_T$ hadron hadroproduction  

E-print Network

We discuss the applicability of the $k_T$ factorization theorem to low-$p_T$ hadron production in hadron-hadron collision in a simple toy model, which involves only scalar particles and gluons. It has been shown that the $k_T$ factorization for high-$p_T$ hadron hadroproduction is broken by soft gluons in the Glauber region, which are exchanged among a transverse-momentum-dependent (TMD) parton density and other subprocesses of the collision. We explain that the contour of a loop momentum can be deformed away from the Glauber region at low $p_T$, so the above residual infrared divergence is factorized by means of the standard eikonal approximation. The $k_T$ factorization is then restored in the sense that a TMD parton density maintains its universality. Because the resultant Glauber factor is independent of hadron flavors, experimental constraints on its behavior are possible. The $k_T$ factorization can also be restored for the transverse single-spin asymmetry in hadron-hadron collision at low $p_T$ in a similar way, with the residual infrared divergence being factorized into the same Glauber factor.

Chun-peng Chang; Hsiang-nan Li

2011-06-10

223

Surviving the K-T mass extinction: New perspectives of polyploidization in angiosperms  

E-print Network

Surviving the K-T mass extinction: New perspectives of polyploidization in angiosperms Douglas E played a major role in angiosperm evolution (1), analy- ses of genomic data have dramatically increased­50% of all angiosperms may be polyploids, modern genome studies prompted the stunning realization that all

Gent, Universiteit

224

What killed the dinosaurs?  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Out of a number of earlier attempts to explain mass extinctions, only the volcanism alternative to the impact hypothesis remains under serious consideration. The evidence for an impact is reviewed, and the mechanisms which might have brought about the apocalyptic series of extinctions at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary are reviewed, referring to Alvarez's and other research teams working on the problem. As suggested by the patterns of extinctions and the periodicity of this and other mass extinctions, the "volcanist alternative' is introduced. This would produce a series of selective extinctions spread over a considerable length of time, and which is similar to what the fossil record shows, and could account for the iridium anomaly at the K-T boundary. More support for this theory comes from models put forward by volcanist exponents, but it is concluded that the debate is far from ended. -J.W.Cooper

Glen, W.

1990-01-01

225

Constraining mass accumulation rates across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary clay layer using extraterrestrial helium-3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extended duration of the negative ?13C excursion observed in marine carbonates spanning the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event has lead to two main hypothesized post-extinction models ("Strangelove" and "Living Ocean";[1, 2]) for the status of marine primary productivity and the global carbon cycle. However, these models are largely inconsistent with recent paleontological and geochemical evidence suggesting heterogeneous changes in marine productivity and carbon export [3, 4]. While the analysis of lipid biomarkers in the cosmopolitan boundary clay layer allows us to assess changes in primary production by non-calcifying organisms in the immediate aftermath of the mass extinction [4], our poor understanding of the deposition of the clay layer precludes a more detailed reconstruction of short-term variations in marine ecosystem resilience. Here, we present data on extraterrestrial 3He derived from interplanetary dust particles used as a constant flux proxy to constrain fluctuations in mass accumulation rates (MARs) [5] and the duration of the boundary clay deposition in three classic and expanded K-Pg boundary sections: El Kef (Tunisia), Caravaca (Spain), and Kulstirenden (Denmark). Our results from different depositional environments indicate average durations for the sedimentation of the clay layer that are comparable (~10 kyr) to other localities [5], thus confirming its globally brief deposition. Early Paleogene MARs vary among locations when compared to background Late Cretaceous values and do not strictly follow carbonate content as traditionally assumed, thus suggesting variable depositional conditions at different locations. Changes in sediment MARs across the K-Pg will be used to calculate MARs of algal- and bacterial-derived biomarkers, as well as benthic foraminifera, in order to assess the timing and global nature of the recovery of marine primary production and carbon export. 1. Hsu, K.J., He, Q., Mckenzie, J.A., Weissert, H., Perchnielsen, K., Oberhansli, H., Kelts, K., Labrecque, J., Tauxe, L., Krahenbuhl, U., et al. (1982). Mass Mortality and Its Environmental and Evolutionary Consequences. Science 216, 249-256. 2. D'hondt, S. (1998). Organic carbon fluxes and ecological recovery from the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction (vol 282, pg 276, 1998). Science 282, 1051-1051. 3. Alegret, L., Thomas, E., and Lohmann, K.C. (2012). End-Cretaceous marine mass extinction not caused by productivity collapse. P Natl Acad Sci USA 109, 728-732. 4. Sepulveda, J., Wendler, J.E., Summons, R.E., and Hinrichs, K.U. (2009). Rapid Resurgence of Marine Productivity After the Cretaceous-Paleogene Mass Extinction. Science 326, 129-132. 5. Mukhopadhyay, S., Farley, K.A., and Montanari, A. (2001). A short duration of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary event: Evidence from extraterrestrial helium-3. Science 291, 1952-1955.

Giron, M.; Sepulveda, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Alegret, L.; Summons, R. E.

2012-12-01

226

The Kara and Ust-Kara impact structures (USSR) and their relevance to the K/T boundary event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Kara and Ust-Kara craters are twin impact structures situated at about 69 deg 10 min N; 65 deg 00 min E at the Kara Sea. For Kara a diameter of about 55 km would be a very conservative estimate, and field observations indicate a maximum current diameter of about 60 km. The diameter of Ust-Kara has to be larger than 16 km. A better estimate might be 25 km but in all likelihood it is even larger. Suevites and impactites from the Kara area have been known since the beginning of the century, but had been misidentified as glacial deposits. Only about 15 years ago the impact origin of the two structures was demonstrated, following the recognition of shock metamorphism in the area. The composition of the target rocks is mirrored by the composition of the clasts within the suevites. In the southern part of Kara, Permian shales and limestones are sometimes accompanied by diabasic dykes, similar to in the central uplift. Due to the high degree of shock metamorphism the shocked magmatic rocks are not easily identified, although most of them seem to be of diabasic or dioritic composition. The impact melts (tagamites) are grey to dark grey fine grained crystallized rocks showing very fine mineral components and are the product of shock-melting with later recrystallization. The impact glasses show a layered structure, inclusions, and vesicles, and have colors ranging from translucent white over brown and grey to black. A complete geochemical characterization of the Kara and Ust-Kara impact craters was attempted by analyzing more than 40 samples of target rocks, shocked rocks, suevites, impact melts, and impact glasses for major and trace elements.

Koeberl, Christian; Nazarov, M. A.; Harrison, T. M.; Sharpton, V. L.; Murali, A. V.; Burke, K.

1988-01-01

227

Characterization of the K-T and Chicxulub Ejecta Layers along the Brazos River, Texas: Correlation with NE Mexico and Yucatan.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the results of preliminary investigations of four K-T boundary sections, which are located in small tributaries (Cottonmouth and Darting Minnow creeks) of the Brazos River. The study is based on high-resolution sampling, sedimentological observations, biostratigraphy, bulk rock and clay mineralogy, geochemistry and granulometry. The Cottonmouth Creek exposure is characterized by Late Maastrichtian dark grey fossiliferous claystone, interrupted by laterally variable channel fill storm deposits, which previously have been erroneously interpreted as impact tsunami deposits. These deposits consist of a basal shell hash (10cm), followed by glauconitic sand with altered impact spherules (10cm), laminated sandstones, and 4 to 5 hummocky cross-bedded sandstone layers separated by burrowed erosion surfaces that mark repeated colonization of the ocean floor between storm events. Above and below these storm events are dark grey fossiliferous claystones of the late Maastrichtian zone CF1, which spans the last 300,000 years of the Cretaceous. The K-T boundary is 40 cm above the storm deposits. Granulometric analyses of this interval reveal no size grading due to suspension settling from storm or tsunami waves, but rather indicate normal hemipelagic sedimentation. The Chicxulub spherule ejecta in the glauconitic sand near the base of the storm beds is reworked from an older original ejecta layer, as indicated by abundant reworked fossil shells. This is similar to the reworked spherule layers at the base of the siliclastic deposits throughout NE Mexico, where the original layer is within marls up to 5 m below (base of CF1) and predating the K-T by 300,000 years. We may have discovered the original ejecta layer in Cottonmouth Creek 60 cm below the basal unconformity of the storm beds and within claystones near the base of zone CF1. This layer consists of a prominent 3-4 cm thick yellow clay of pure and well-crystallized smectite (Cheto Mg-smectite) that possibly represents the alteration product of Chicxulub impact glass. The presence of a significant amount of gypsum may derive from remobilization of Chicxulub sulfate bearing spherules. Similar Cheto smectite layers have been documented from ejecta spherule deposits in Central America and the Caribbean. The Brazos studies confirm that the Chicxulub impact predates the KT boundary by about 300,000 years, as earlier observed based on impact glass spherule layers in northeastern Mexico and the suevite breccia from the Yaxcopoil-1 core in Yucatan.

Thierry, A.; Gerta, K.

2005-05-01

228

A new measure of molecular attractions between nanoparticles near kT adhesion energy.  

PubMed

The weak molecular attractions of nanoparticles are important because they drive self-assembly mechanisms, allow processing in dispersions e.g. of pigments, catalysts or device structures, influence disease through the attraction of viruses to cells and also cause potential toxic effects through nanoparticle interference with biomolecules and organs. The problem is to understand these small forces which pull nanoparticles into intimate contact; forces which are comparable with 3kT/2z the thermal impact force experienced by an average Brownian particle hitting a linear repulsive potential of range z. Here we describe a new method for measuring the atomic attractions of nanoparticles based on the observation of aggregates produced by these small forces. The method is based on the tracking of individual monosize nanoparticles whose diameter can be calculated from the Stokes-Einstein analysis of the tracks in aqueous suspensions. Then the doublet aggregates are distinguished because they move slower and are also very much brighter than the dispersed nanoparticles. By finding the ratio of doublets to singlets, the adhesive energy between the particles can be calculated from known statistical thermodynamic theory using assumptions about the shape of the interaction potential. In this way, very small adhesion energies of 2kT have been measured, smaller than those seen previously by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). PMID:19531867

Kendall, Kevin; Dhir, Aman; Du, Shangfeng

2009-07-01

229

Terminal Cretaceous Extinctions in the Hell Creek Area, Montana: Compatible with Catastrophic Extinction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inaccurate stratigraphic correlations in the Hell Creek area, Montana, have led to the assumption that transitional vertebrate faunas (Bug Creek Anthills) exist in the latest Cretaceous, refuting a catastrophic turnover at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Establishment of the transitional faunas in Paleocene channels that cut down through the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary renders the terrestrial faunal record compatible with the marine record and with catastrophic extinction.

Smit, J.; van der Kaars, S.

1984-03-01

230

Modeling study of infrasonic detection of 1 kT atmospheric blast  

SciTech Connect

A modified version of the ``Pierce code``, which provides a theoretical prediction of acoustic-gravity pressure waveforms generated by explosions in the atmosphere, has been used to simulate detectable signal amplitudes from a 1 kT atmospheric detonation at high latitudes upton distances of about 1,000 kilometers from the source. Realistic prevailing winds and temperature profiles have been included in these simulations and propagation results for with wind and counter wind conditions are presented. En route, the code has been successfully ported from a CRAY/UNICOS platform to a more general UNIX/workstation environment in FORTRAN90. The effects of seasonal variations of winds and temperature at high latitudes will be presented at the symposium.

Dighe, K.A.; Whitaker, R.W.; Armstrong, W.T.

1998-12-31

231

Isolated prompt photon pair production at hadron colliders with k T -factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the framework of the k T -factorization approach, the isolated prompt photon pair production in pp and poverline{p} collisions at high energies is studied. The consideration is based on the quark-antiquark annihilation, quark-gluon scattering and gluon-gluon fusion subprocesses, where the non-zero transverse momenta of incoming partons are taken into account. The unintegrated quark and gluon densities in a proton are determined using the Kimber-Martin-Ryskin prescription. Additionally, we apply the CCFM-evolved unintegrated gluon as well as valence and sea quark distributions. The numerical analysis covers the total and differential production cross sections and extends to specific angular correlations between the produced prompt photons. Theoretical uncertainties of our evaluations are studied and comparison with the NLO pQCD calculations is performed. The numerical predictions are compared with the recent experimental data taken by the D?, CDF, CMS and ATLAS collaborations at the Tevatron and LHC energies.

Lipatov, A. V.

2013-02-01

232

The interaction of the cretaceous-tertiary extinction bolide with the atmosphere, ocean, and solid earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of investigations, including those reported by Orth et al. (1981), have provided physical evidence for the impact of an extraterrestrial object on earth 65 million years ago. This time corresponds to the end of the cretaceous period. This impact could, therefore, be responsible for the observed extinction of biological species at the end of the Mesozoic era. Among the species becoming extinct are found also flying and walking dinosaurs, which include all land animals that had masses greater than 25 kg. The present investigation is concerned with a study of the possibilities for the collision of earth with 10 km-size object, and the consequences produced by such a collision. It is found that the penetration of the atmosphere by the bolide creates a temporary hole in the atmosphere. The resulting flow fields can inject melt droplets and finely commuted solid particles into the atmosphere. Short-term effects of heating, followed by dust induced worldwide cooling, may provide several mechanisms for the observed extinction of the species.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1981-01-01

233

Diagenesis and reservoir characterization of the Cretaceous-Tertiary sequence, eastern Venezuela  

SciTech Connect

The giant El Furrial field Maturin subbasin is the most important oil field discovered in Venezuela in the last three decades. The average oil column has a thickness of 400 m and the reservoirs consist of essentially sandy siliciclastic sediments of nearshore-shallow marine origin. The oil's API gravity ranges from light to extra heavy and occurs in a stratified manner in the reservoirs. A total of 1,080 m of core from the producing sequence was studied through x-ray diffraction scanning electron microscopy, and petrography. This data, along with petrophysical measurements, show a clear differentiation between the Upper Cretaceous and the Oligocene reservoirs. The Upper Cretaceous reservoirs are characterized by relatively fine and uniform grain size, subarkosic composition with common volcanic rock fragments, high degree of chemical and mechanical compaction highly illitic mixed-layer I/S assemblage with less than 10% expandable layers, and ubiquitous baroque dolomite. Additionally, porosity and permeability values are persistently low. Clearly, the Cretaceous sediments are diagenetically mature and may indicate diagenetic transformation at greater depths or under a different thermal regime. In contrast the coarser grained Oligocene reservoirs of quartz arenitic composition show a lesser diagenetic overprint, and greater porosity and permeability. Porosity is dominantly secondary due to cement and grain (mostly quartz) dissolution, as well as tectonically induced grain fracturing. Common kaolinite and minor amounts of I/S with up to 20% of expandable layers attest to a lower diagenetic regime than in the Cretaceous reservoirs.

Aquado, B.; Ghosh, S.; Isea, A. (Intevep, S.A., Caracas (Venezeula))

1990-05-01

234

Biospheric effects of volatiles produced by the Chicxulub Cretaceous/Tertiary impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The meteorite impact that formed the Chicxulub crater 65 million years ago caused a mass extinction of life. Analyses indicate that the projectile was either a 9.4-16.8 km diameter asteroid or a 14.2-24.0 km diameter comet. We estimate that 200 gigatons each of S02 and H2O were deposited globally in the stratosphere by the impact into water saturated sulfate-rich sediments. Conversion of these gases into sulfuric acid aerosols blocked an average of 68 percent of the sun's radiation for a period of 12 years. Global average temperatures probably dropped to near freezing in 5 years and remained near or below freezing for 7 years. Greenhouse warming due to impact-generated C02 was negligible, hence global cooling from sulfates was the major cause of climate change and contributed greatly to the mass extinction.

Pope, Kevin O.

1996-01-01

235

The interaction of the cretaceous-tertiary extinction bolide with the atmosphere, ocean, and solid earth  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of investigations, including those reported by Orth et al. (1981), have provided physical evidence for the impact of an extraterrestrial object on earth 65 million years ago. This time corresponds to the end of the cretaceous period. This impact could, therefore, be responsible for the observed extinction of biological species at the end of the Mesozoic era. Among the species becoming extinct are found also flying and walking dinosaurs, which include all land animals that had masses greater than 25 kg. The present investigation is concerned with a study of the possibilities for the collision of earth with 10 km-size object, and the consequences produced by such a collision. It is found that the penetration of the atmosphere by the bolide creates a temporary hole in the atmosphere. The resulting flow fields can inject melt droplets and finely commuted solid particles into the atmosphere. Short-term effects of heating, followed by dust induced worldwide cooling, may provide several mechanisms for the observed extinction of the species.

Okeefe, J. D.; Ahrens, T. J.

1981-10-01

236

GEOL 104 Dinosaurs: A Natural History Homework 6: The Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction  

E-print Network

starvation of carnivores o Possibly other short-term effects (blast wave, increased acid rain, wildfires, etc starvation of carnivores o Possibly also increased amounts of various pollutants into atmosphere o Immediate

Holtz Jr., Thomas R.

237

Emergence of a Rival Paradigm to Account for the Cretaceous/Tertiary Event.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the origin of the catastrophic event as to whether it was an episodic process or of extraterrestrial or endogenous origin. Develops a model of a volcanic mechanism to produce shocked quartz like those found in the Deccan basalts. (MVL)

McCartney, Kevin; Loper, David E.

1989-01-01

238

Accelerated dynamic MRI exploiting sparsity and low-rank structure: k-t SLR  

PubMed Central

We introduce a novel algorithm to reconstruct dynamic MRI data from under-sampled k-t space data. In contrast to classical model based cine MRI schemes that rely on the sparsity or banded structure in Fourier space, we use the compact representation of the data in the Karhunen Louve transform (KLT) domain to exploit the correlations in the dataset. The use of the data-dependent KL transform makes our approach ideally suited to a range of dynamic imaging problems, even when the motion is not periodic. In comparison to current KLT-based methods that rely on a two-step approach to first estimate the basis functions and then use it for reconstruction, we pose the problem as a spectrally regularized matrix recovery problem. By simultaneously determining the temporal basis functions and its spatial weights from the entire measured data, the proposed scheme is capable of providing high quality reconstructions at a range of accelerations. In addition to using the compact representation in the KLT domain, we also exploit the sparsity of the data to further improve the recovery rate. Validations using numerical phantoms and in-vivo cardiac perfusion MRI data demonstrate the significant improvement in performance offered by the proposed scheme over existing methods. PMID:21292593

Lingala, Sajan Goud; Hu, Yue; DiBella, Edward; Jacob, Mathews

2013-01-01

239

The structure of the group G (k[t]): Variations on a theme of Soul'e  

E-print Network

of Soul'e Benedictus Margaux Abstract. Following Soul'e's ideas [14] we almost s* *imple k-group. For G split, Soul'e [14] has given a presentation of the group G (k is to provide a presentation of G (k[t]) in the general case. We will follow Soul'e's original ideas

240

Evolution and microstructure of shear bands in nanostructured Fe Q. Wei, D. Jia, K. T. Ramesh, and E. Maa)  

E-print Network

Evolution and microstructure of shear bands in nanostructured Fe Q. Wei, D. Jia, K. T. Ramesh, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 Received 6 March 2002; accepted for publication 25 June 2002 Shear band the shear bands, the origin of the inhomogeneous deformation, and the propensity for shear localization

Wei, Qiuming

241

Symmetry and Stability of Plutonium: The Influence of Electronic Structure K. T. Moore,1,* P. Soderlind,1  

E-print Network

Symmetry and Stability of Plutonium: The Influence of Electronic Structure K. T. Moore,1,* P. So-functional theory, we calculate the bond strengths between the 12 nearest neighbors in plutonium for both pure Pu rather than face-centered cubic Fm3m, showing that the anomalously large anisotropy of plutonium

Laughlin, David E.

242

Fluid acceleration effects on suspended sediment transport in the J. A. Puleo, K. T. Holland, and N. G. Plant  

E-print Network

Fluid acceleration effects on suspended sediment transport in the swash zone J. A. Puleo, K. T-energy steep beach were used to investigate the importance of fluid accelerations to suspended sediment transport. Swash flow acceleration was nearly constant at about one-half downslope gravitational

Slinn, Donald

243

Fitting of atomic data for astrophysical applications D. A. Verner, G. J. Ferland, K. T. Korista, E. M. Verner  

E-print Network

Fitting of atomic data for astrophysical applications D. A. Verner, G. J. Ferland, K. T. Korista, E. M. Verner Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506, USA; verner (Verner et al. 1993, Verner & Yakovlev 1995), we presented the Hartree­Dirac­Slater (HDS) calculations

Verner, Dima

244

K.T. McDonald June 18, 2009 DUSEL Workshop @ FNAL 1 Strategies for Liquid Argon Detectors at DUSEL  

E-print Network

K.T. McDonald June 18, 2009 DUSEL Workshop @ FNAL 1 Strategies for Liquid Argon Detectors at DUSEL proposal is to build a 5 kton liquid argon detector for use at that time. However, that size is too small desire a giant liquid argon detector in its first round of accelerator neutrino physics. We should rise

McDonald, Kirk

245

NITROGEN SECRETION INTO THE DIGESTIVE TRACT IN SHEEP J. VARADY K. BODA, K.T. TASENOV J. FEJES  

E-print Network

NITROGEN SECRETION INTO THE DIGESTIVE TRACT IN SHEEP J. VARADY K. BODA, K.T. TASENOV J. FEJES protein and non-protein nitrogenous compounds not only from food, i.e. of exogenous origin, but also those is important from the point of view of nitrogen circulation, its balance and nitrogen enonomy

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

246

Mass extinctions in the deep sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The character of mass extinctions can be assessed by studying extinction patterns of organisms, the fabric of the extinction, and assessing the environmental niche and mode of life of survivors. Deep-sea benthic foraminifera have been listed as little affected by the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction, but very few quantitative data are available. New data on deep-sea Late Maestrichtian-Eocene benthic foraminifera from Maud Rise (Antractica) indicate that about 10 percent of the species living at depths of 2000 to 2500 m had last appearances within 1 my of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, versus about 25 percent of species at 1000 to 1500 m. Many survivors from the Cretaceous became extinct in a period of global deep-sea benthic foraminiferal extinction at the end of the Paleocene, a time otherwise marked by very few extinctions. Preliminary conclusions suggest that the deep oceanic environment is essentially decoupled from the shallow marine and terrestrial environment, and that even major disturbances of one of these will not greatly affect the other. This gives deep-sea benthic faunas a good opportunity to recolonize shallow environments from greater depths and vice versa after massive extinctions. The decoupling means that data on deep-sea benthic boundary was caused by the environmental effects of asteriod impact or excessive volcanism. The benthic foraminiferal data strongly suggest, however, that the environmental results were strongest at the Earth's surface, and that there was no major disturbance of the deep ocean; this pattern might result both from excessive volcanism and from an impact on land.

Thomas, E.

1988-01-01

247

Image Reconstruction from Highly Undersampled (k, t)-Space Data with Joint Partial Separability and Sparsity Constraints  

PubMed Central

Partial separability (PS) and sparsity have been previously used to enable reconstruction of dynamic images from undersampled (k, t)-space data. This paper presents a new method to use PS and sparsity constraints jointly for enhanced performance in this context. The proposed method combines the complementary advantages of PS and sparsity constraints using a unified formulation, achieving significantly better reconstruction performance than using either of these constraints individually. A globally convergent computational algorithm is described to efficiently solve the underlying optimization problem. Reconstruction results from simulated and in vivo cardiac MRI data are also shown to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. PMID:22695345

Zhao, Bo; Haldar, Justin P.; Christodoulou, Anthony G.; Liang, Zhi-Pei

2012-01-01

248

k-t acceleration in pure phase encode MRI to monitor dynamic flooding processes in rock core plugs.  

PubMed

Monitoring the pore system in sedimentary rocks with MRI when fluids are introduced is very important in the study of petroleum reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery. However, the lengthy acquisition time of each image, with pure phase encode MRI, limits the temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal correlations can be exploited to undersample the k-t space data. The stacked frames/profiles can be well approximated by an image matrix with rank deficiency, which can be recovered by nonlinear nuclear norm minimization. Sparsity of the x-t image can also be exploited for nonlinear reconstruction. In this work the results of a low rank matrix completion technique were compared with k-t sparse compressed sensing. These methods are demonstrated with one dimensional SPRITE imaging of a Bentheimer rock core plug and SESPI imaging of a Berea rock core plug, but can be easily extended to higher dimensionality and/or other pure phase encode measurements. These ideas will enable higher dimensionality pure phase encode MRI studies of dynamic flooding processes in low magnetic field systems. PMID:24809307

Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J

2014-06-01

249

k-t Acceleration in pure phase encode MRI to monitor dynamic flooding processes in rock core plugs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Monitoring the pore system in sedimentary rocks with MRI when fluids are introduced is very important in the study of petroleum reservoirs and enhanced oil recovery. However, the lengthy acquisition time of each image, with pure phase encode MRI, limits the temporal resolution. Spatiotemporal correlations can be exploited to undersample the k-t space data. The stacked frames/profiles can be well approximated by an image matrix with rank deficiency, which can be recovered by nonlinear nuclear norm minimization. Sparsity of the x-t image can also be exploited for nonlinear reconstruction. In this work the results of a low rank matrix completion technique were compared with k-t sparse compressed sensing. These methods are demonstrated with one dimensional SPRITE imaging of a Bentheimer rock core plug and SESPI imaging of a Berea rock core plug, but can be easily extended to higher dimensionality and/or other pure phase encode measurements. These ideas will enable higher dimensionality pure phase encode MRI studies of dynamic flooding processes in low magnetic field systems.

Xiao, Dan; Balcom, Bruce J.

2014-06-01

250

Effect of environmental variables on body size evolution of crinoids between periods of mass extinctions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size plays a major role in determining whether or not an organism can sustain in its local environment. The ecosystem of an animal has a major effect on the fitness of organisms, and it would be interesting to note the degree to which various environmental factors alter body size. In my project, I identify three environmental factors that seem to affect body size of crinoids, marine invertebrates from phylum Echinodermata, and explore how these variables play out in the intervals between the five mass extinctions. The particular factors I study include atmospheric CO2 concentration (proxy for temperature), O2 concentration, and sea level. Although the r and p values for all of these factors were statistically insignificant to definitively make any correlation, there was a visual correlation. For O2, I noted a generally positive correlation with body size over time. CO2 trends suggested a negative correlation until the K-T boundary, but a positive correlation afterwards. Correlation with sea level was a little more complicated: correlation was positive from the start of the Phanerozoic to the Permian extinction; it turned negative until the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; afterwards, it again became positive. However, for all three variables, statistical values are too low to say definitively mark any correlation. Out of all three factors, CO2 levels had the highest correlation and lowest p-values in the most time intervals: from the start of the Phanerozoic to Ordovician-Silurian Extinction, from the Late Devonian to the Permian Extinction, and from the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary to the present. When considering first differences, CO2 levels also had the highest correlation from the Permian Extinction to Triassic-Jurassic Extinction and from the Triassic-Jurassic Extinction to Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction. Using PaleoTS, I found that body size evolution patterns either seemed to follow either an unbiased random walk (URW) or stasis in the intervals between mass extinctions. Put together, these results suggest that environmental factors may have an effect of body size, but it may be the consequence of several environmental factors in conjunction. That is a correlation between body size and an individual environmental factor is hard to determine, but several biotic and abiotic factors may work interdependently to alter body size of crinoids.

Jani, T.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

2013-12-01

251

Iridium abundance measurements across bio-event horizons in the geological record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geochemical studies have been performed on thousands of rock samples collected across bio-event horizons in the fossil record using INAA for about 40 common and trace elements and radiochemical isolation procedures for Os, Ir, Pt, and Au on selected samples. These studies were begun soon after the Alvarez team announced their discovery of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Ir anomaly in marine rock sequences in Europe. With their encouragement the Authors searched for the anomaly in nearby continental (freshwater coal swamp) deposits. In collaboration with scientists from the U.S.G.S. in Denver, the anomaly was located and it was observed that a floral crisis occurred at the same stratigraphic position as the Ir spike. Further work in the Raton Basin has turned up numerous well-preserved K-T boundary sections. Although the Authors have continued to study the K-T boundary and provide geochemical measurements for other groups trying to precisely locate it, the primary effort was turned to examining the other bio-events in the Phanerozoic, especially to those that are older than the terminal Cretaceous. A list of horizons that were examined in collaboration with paleontologists and geologists is given. Results are also given and discussed.

Orth, C. J.; Attrep, M., Jr.

1988-01-01

252

New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor  

E-print Network

In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

Majaess, Daniel J; Molnar, Larry A; Haegert, Melissa J; Lane, David J; Turner, David G; Nielsen, Inga

2008-01-01

253

New Constraints on the Asteroid 298 Baptistina, the Alleged Family Member of the K/T Impactor  

E-print Network

In their study Bottke et al. (2007) suggest that a member of the Baptistina asteroid family was the probable source of the K/T impactor which ended the reign of the Dinosaurs 65 Myr ago. Knowledge of the physical and material properties pertaining to the Baptistina asteroid family are, however, not well constrained. In an effort to begin addressing the situation, data from an international collaboration of observatories were synthesized to determine the rotational period of the family's largest member, asteroid 298 Baptistina (P_r = 16.23+-0.02 hrs). Discussed here are aspects of the terrestrial impact delivery system, implications arising from the new constraints, and prospects for future work.

Daniel J. Majaess; David Higgins; Larry A. Molnar; Melissa J. Haegert; David J. Lane; David G. Turner; Inga Nielsen

2008-11-02

254

Ground boundaries  

SciTech Connect

The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished on the study of grain boundaries in Ag, Au, Ni, Si, and Ge. Research was focused on the following four major efforts: study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; grain boundary migration; short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of Thin-Film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals. 10 refs., 1 fig.

Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

1990-01-01

255

Vertebrate time-tree elucidates the biogeographic pattern of a major biotic change around the K-T boundary in Madagascar.  

PubMed

The geographic and temporal origins of Madagascar's biota have long been in the center of debate. We reconstructed a time-tree including nearly all native nonflying and nonmarine vertebrate clades present on the island, from DNA sequences of two single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes (BDNF and RAG1) and a set of congruent time constraints. Reconstructions calculated with autocorrelated or independent substitution rates over clades agreed in placing the origins of the 31 included clades in Cretaceous to Cenozoic times. The two clades with sister groups in South America were the oldest, followed by those of a putative Asian ancestry that were significantly older than the prevalent clades of African ancestry. No colonizations from Asia occurred after the Eocene, suggesting that dispersal and vicariance of Asian/Indian groups were favored over a comparatively short period during, and shortly after, the separation of India and Madagascar. Species richness of clades correlates with their age but those clades that have a large proportion of species diversity in rainforests are significantly more species-rich. This finding suggests an underlying pattern of continuous speciation through time in Madagascar's vertebrates, with accelerated episodes of adaptive diversification in those clades that succeeded radiating into the rainforests. PMID:22431616

Crottini, Angelica; Madsen, Ole; Poux, Celine; Strauss, Axel; Vieites, David R; Vences, Miguel

2012-04-01

256

Vertebrate time-tree elucidates the biogeographic pattern of a major biotic change around the K–T boundary in Madagascar  

PubMed Central

The geographic and temporal origins of Madagascar's biota have long been in the center of debate. We reconstructed a time-tree including nearly all native nonflying and nonmarine vertebrate clades present on the island, from DNA sequences of two single-copy protein-coding nuclear genes (BDNF and RAG1) and a set of congruent time constraints. Reconstructions calculated with autocorrelated or independent substitution rates over clades agreed in placing the origins of the 31 included clades in Cretaceous to Cenozoic times. The two clades with sister groups in South America were the oldest, followed by those of a putative Asian ancestry that were significantly older than the prevalent clades of African ancestry. No colonizations from Asia occurred after the Eocene, suggesting that dispersal and vicariance of Asian/Indian groups were favored over a comparatively short period during, and shortly after, the separation of India and Madagascar. Species richness of clades correlates with their age but those clades that have a large proportion of species diversity in rainforests are significantly more species-rich. This finding suggests an underlying pattern of continuous speciation through time in Madagascar's vertebrates, with accelerated episodes of adaptive diversification in those clades that succeeded radiating into the rainforests. PMID:22431616

Crottini, Angelica; Madsen, Ole; Poux, Celine; Strauß, Axel; Vieites, David R.; Vences, Miguel

2012-01-01

257

Boundary conditions at grain boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Grain boundaries in polycrystalline semiconductor material are frequently idealized as surfaces possessing a characteristic surface recombination velocity. Minority carrier densities generated by external sources (electron beams, light, etc.) in polycrystalline p-n junctions must satisfy certain boundary conditions at these grain boundaries which will be derived. It will also be shown that a 'folding technique' introduced recently to deal with this problem is of limited value.

Von Roos, O.

1983-01-01

258

Grain boundaries  

SciTech Connect

The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

1991-01-01

259

Plate Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides information on plate boundaries, which are found at the edge of the lithospheric plates and are of three types: convergent, divergent and conservative. Wide zones of deformation are usually characteristic of plate boundaries because of the interaction between two plates. The three boundaries are characterized by their distinct motions which are described in the text and depicted with block diagram illustrations, all of which are animated. There are also two maps that show the direction of motion of the plates. Active links lead to more information on plate tectonics.

260

Impact production of CO2 by the Cretaceous/Tertiary extinction bolide and the resultant heating of the earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various observations and data demonstrate that sea level at the end of the Cretaceous was 150-200 m higher than at present, suggesting the possibility that the extinction bolide struck a shallow marine carbonate-rich sedimentary section. It is shown here that the impact of such a bolide (about 5 km in radius) onto a carbonate-rich terrane would increase the CO2 content of the atmosphere by a factor of two to ten. Additional dissolution of CO2 from the ocean's photic zone could release much larger quantities of CO2. The impact-induced release of CO2, by itself, would enhance atmospheric greenhouse heating and give rise to a worldwide increase in temperature from 2 K to 10 K for periods of 10,000 to 100,000 years.

O'Keefe, John D.; Ahrens, Thomas J.

1989-01-01

261

Comet impacts and chemical evolution on the bombarded earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids yields for previously published shock tube experiments are used with minimum Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) impactor mass and comet composition to predict AIB amino acid K/T boundary sediment column density. The inferred initial concentration of all amino acids in the K/T sea and in similar primordial seas just after 10 km comet impacts would have been at least 10 exp -7 M. However, sinks for amino acids must also be considered in calculating amino acid concentrations after comet impacts and in assessing the contribution of comets to the origin of life. The changing concentration of cometary amino acids due to ultraviolet light is compared with the equilibrium concentration of amino acids produced in the sea from corona discharge in the atmosphere, deposition in water, and degradation by ultraviolet light. Comets could have been more important than endogenous agents for initial evolution of amino acids. Sites favorable for chemical evolution of amino acids are examined, and it is concluded that chemical evolution could have occurred at or above the surface even during periods of intense bombardment of earth before 3.8 billion years ago.

Oberbeck, Verne R.; Aggarwal, Hans

1992-01-01

262

Clustering dynamics in water/methanol mixtures: a nuclear magnetic resonance study at 205 k<295 k.  

PubMed

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) experiments have been performed to measure the spin-lattice, T1, and spin-spin, T2, relaxation times of the three functional groups in water/methanol mixtures at different methanol molar fractions (XMeOH=0, 0.04, 0.1, 0.24, 0.5, 1) as a function of temperature in the range 205 K<295 K. The measured relaxation times in the mixtures, at all the methanol molar fractions, are faster than those of pure water and methanol because of strong interactions, resulting in a complex hydrogen bonding dynamics that determines their thermodynamic properties. In particular, we observe how the interplay between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity changes with temperature and influences the peculiar thermal behavior of the NMR relaxation times of the solution. The obtained results are interpreted in terms of the existence of stable water-methanol clusters at high temperature whereas, upon cooling to low temperature, clusters of single species are present in the mixture. PMID:18672927

Corsaro, Carmelo; Spooren, Jeroen; Branca, Caterina; Leone, Nancy; Broccio, Matteo; Kim, Chansoo; Chen, Sow-Hsin; Stanley, H Eugene; Mallamace, Francesco

2008-08-28

263

Interface mechanics of adhesiveless microtransfer printing processes H.-J. Kim-Lee, A. Carlson, D. S. Grierson, J. A. Rogers, and K. T. Turner  

E-print Network

Interface mechanics of adhesiveless microtransfer printing processes H.-J. Kim-Lee, A. Carlson, D microtransfer printing processes H.-J. Kim-Lee,1,a) A. Carlson,2 D. S. Grierson,1,b) J. A. Rogers,2 and K. T) Microtransfer printing is a versatile process for retrieving, transferring, and placing nanomembranes of various

Rogers, John A.

264

Design and construction of a novel quad tilt-wing UAV E. Cetinsoy, S. Dikyar, C. Hancer, K.T. Oner, E. Sirimoglu, M. Unel  

E-print Network

Design and construction of a novel quad tilt-wing UAV E. Cetinsoy, S. Dikyar, C. Hancer, K.T. Oner 12 March 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: UAV Quad tilt-wing Aerodynamic design Carbon composite VehIcle). SUAVI is an electric powered quad tilt-wing UAV that is capable of vertical takeoff

Ã?Â?nel, Mustafa

265

Petrogenesis of an augite-bearing melt rock in the Chicxulub structure and its relationship to K\\/T impact spherules in Haiti  

Microsoft Academic Search

The link between the Chicxulub structure and the K\\/T impact is strengthened here by a showing that a simple chemical relationship exists between glassy tektitelike relics and an augite-bearing melt rock found within the structure. It is argued that the composition of this melt rock could not easily have been produced by volcanic processes.

David A. Kring; William V. Boynton

1992-01-01

266

Integrated High Power Electro-Optic Lens/Scanner for Spaced-Based K. T. Gahagan', j. L. Casson', v. Gopalanb, D. A. Scrymgeour'', and J. M. Robinson"  

E-print Network

Integrated High Power Electro-Optic Lens/Scanner for Spaced-Based Platforms K. T. Gahagan', j. L applications is the modulation, deflection, and focusing of laser light. Integrated electro-optic devices, target tracking, and optical data storage/processing. Electro- optic devices offer promise as an ideal

Gopalan, Venkatraman

267

Selective extinction of marine plankton at the end of the Mesozoic era: The fossil and stable isotope record  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Floral, faunal and stable isotope evidence in a continuous sequence of latest Cretaceous and earliest Tertiary shallow water marine deposits in the Mangyshlak Peninsula, USSR suggest severe environmental changes at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Time frame is provided by nanno, micro and macrofossils as well as by magnetic stratigraphy and an iridium spike. Oxygen isotopic analyses of the bulk sediments, composed of nanno and microplankton skeletal remains, show a sharp positive spike at the K/T boundary. This shift is primarily attributed to severe cooling possibly accompanied by increased salinities of the surface mixed layer. Floral and faunal extinctions were selective, affecting approximately 90 percent of the warm water calcareous phyto and zooplankton genera in the Tethyan-Paratethyan regions. These highly diverse taxa with many endemic representatives were at the peak of their evolutionary development. Geologic evidence indicates that the terminal Cretaceous temperature decline was coeval with widespread and intense volcanic activity which reached a peak at the close of the Mesozoic Era. Increased acidity temporarily prohibited calcite nucleation of the surface dwelling warm-water plankton. Superimposed upon decreased alkalinity, severe and rapid climatic changes caused the extinction of calcareous phyto and zooplankton.

Herman, Y.; Bhattacharya, S. K.

1988-01-01

268

A Model of the Chicxulub Impact Basin Based on Evaluation of Geophysical Data, Well Logs, and Drill Core Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abundant evidence now shows that the buried Chicxulub structure in northern Yucatan, Mexico, is indeed the intensely sought-after source of the ejecta found world-wide at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. In addition to large-scale concentric patterns in gravity and magnetic data over the structure, recent analyses of drill-core samples reveal a lithological assemblage similar to that observed at other terrestrial craters. This assemblage comprises suevite breccias, ejecta deposit breccias (Bunte Breccia equivalents), fine-grained impact melt rocks, and melt-matrix breccias. All these impact-produced lithologies contain diagnostic evidence of shock metamorphism, including planar deformation features in quartz, feldspar, and zircons; diaplectic glasses of quartz and feldspar; and fused mineral melts and whole-rock melts. In addition, elevated concentrations of Ir, Re, and Os, in meteoritic relative proportions, have been detected in some melt-rock samples from the center of the structure. Isotopic analyses, magnetization of melt-rock samples, and local stratigraphic constraints identify this crater as the source of K/T boundary deposits.

Sharpton, Virgil L.; Marin, Luis E.; Carney, John D.; Lee, Scott; Ryder, Graham; Schuraytz, Benjamin C.; Sikora, Paul; Spudis, Paul D.

1996-01-01

269

Projectile-target mixing in melted ejecta formed during a hypervelocity impact cratering event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tektites contain little to no projectile contamination while, in contrast, some distal ejecta deposits can be relatively projectile-rich (e.g. the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary clay). This compositional difference motivated an experimental study of hypervelocity target-projectile mixing processes. We hope to scale up the results from these experiments and apply them to terrestrial impact structures like the Chicxulub Crater, Yucutan, Mexico, the leading contender as the site for the impact that caused the mass extinction that marks the K-T boundary. Shock decomposition of the approximately 500m thickness of anhydrite, or greater thickness of limestone, in the target rocks at Chicxulub may have been a critical mechanism for either global cooling via SO3, and subsequently H2SO4, formation, or possibly, global warming via increased CO2 formation. Understanding target-projectile mixing processes during hypervelocity impact may permit more accurate estimates of the amount of potentially toxic, target-derived material reaching stratospheric heights.

Evans, Noreen Joyce; Ahrens, Thomas J.; Shahinpoor, M.; Anderson, W. W.

1993-01-01

270

investigate boundaries?  

E-print Network

; Results For all three types of stimuli used (rings, pinwheel, checker­ board): ffl Motion segmentation of stimuli used (rings, pinwheel, checker­ board): ffl V1 responds less to extremely high and extremely low RINGS Cues: Relative motion #12; MOTION BOUNDARY PINWHEELS Cues: Relative motion Kinetic occlusion #12

271

Boundary issues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

What is our point of no return? Caesar proclaimed 'the die is cast' while crossing the Rubicon, but rarely does modern society find so visible a threshold in our continued degradation of ecosystems and the services they provide. Humans have always used their surroundings to make a living— sometimes successfully, sometimes not (Diamond 2005)—and we intuitively know that there are boundaries to our exploitation. But defining these boundaries has been a challenge since Malthus first prophesied that nature would limit the human population (Malthus 1798). In 2009, Rockström and colleagues tried to quantify what the 6.8 billion (and counting) of us could continue to get away with, and what we couldn't (Rockström et al 2009). In selecting ten 'planetary boundaries', the authors contend that a sustainable human enterprise requires treating a number of environmental thresholds as points of no return. They suggest we breach these Rubicons at our own peril, and that we've already crossed three: biodiversity loss, atmospheric CO2, and disruption of the global nitrogen (N) cycle. As they clearly hoped, the very act of setting targets has provoked scientific inquiry about their accuracy, and about the value of hard targets in the first place (Schlesinger 2009). Such debate is a good thing. Despite recent emphasis on the science of human-ecosystem interactions, understanding of our planetary boundaries is still in its infancy, and controversy can speed scientific progress (Engelhardt and Caplan 1987). A few weeks ago in this journal, Carpenter and Bennett (2011) took aim at one of the more controversial boundaries in the Rockström analysis: that for human alteration of the global phosphorus (P) cycle. Rockström's group chose riverine P export as the key indicator, suggesting that humans should not exceed a value that could trigger widespread marine anoxic events—and asserting that we have not yet crossed this threshold. There are defensible reasons for a marine-centric boundary (Filippelli 2008, Handoh and Lenton 2003). However, human alteration of the P cycle has multiple potential boundaries (figure 1), including P-driven freshwater eutrophication (Smith and Schindler 2009), the potential for world P supply to place an ultimate limit on food production (Smil 2000, Childers et al 2011), and depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions (MacDonald et al 2011). Carpenter and Bennett revisit the P boundary from the freshwater eutrophication perspective. Given the extraordinary variation in freshwater ecosystems across the globe, this is a challenging task, but the authors strengthen their analysis by using three different boundaries with relevance to eutrophication, along with two water quality targets and a range of estimates of P flow to the sea. In doing so, they make a compelling case that if freshwater eutrophication is indeed a Rubicon, we have already crossed it. Importantly, Carpenter and Bennett go beyond the calculation of new boundaries to make broader points about humanity's relationship with the P cycle. Disruptions of both the P and N cycles are mostly about our need for food (Galloway et al 2008, Cordell et al 2009), but unlike N, P supplies are finite and irreplaceable. Environmental concerns aside, we can fix all the N2 from the atmosphere we want—but deplete our economically viable P reserves and we're in trouble. Figure 1 Figure 1. Human alteration of the global P cycle has multiple possible boundaries. These include the environmental risks posed by freshwater eutrophication and marine anoxic events, and the food security risks that come from depletion of soil P stocks in some world regions, as well as finite global supplies of high-value mineral P reserves. Photo credits beyond authors: upper left, Shelby Riskin; upper right, Pedro Sanchez. In effect, Carpenter and Bennett argue that among P's multiple boundaries, the one for freshwaters is less forgiving of our current activities (but no less important) than is the one for oceans. Encouragingly, while they argue that we've already crossed one key bound

Townsend, Alan R.; Porder, Stephen

2011-03-01

272

A measurement of the Ne-22(n, gamma)Ne-23 capture cross section at a stellar temperature of kT = 25 keV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capture cross section of Ne-22 has been determined by a fast cyclic activation technique. The measurements were carried out at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV pulsed Van de Graaff accelerator using the L-7(p, n) reaction close to the reaction threshold to generate neutrons with a distribution resembling a Maxwell spectrum of kT = 25 keV. The activation samples consisted of a mixture of enriched Ne-22 (99.9 percent) and natural Kr-gas contained in stainless steel spheres (20 mm diameter and 0.5 mm wall thickness). The activity of the samples was counted with a high-resolution Ge(Li) detector via the characteristic 439 keV Ne-23 gamma-ray line. The Ne-22 capture cross section at kT = 25 keV was found to be 66.0 + or - 5.0 microbarn.

Beer, Hermann; Rupp, G.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.

1991-09-01

273

Boundary layer emission in luminous LMXBs  

E-print Network

We show that aperiodic and quasiperiodic variability of bright LMXBs - atoll and Z- sources, on ~sec - msec time scales is caused primarily by variations of the boundary layer luminosity. The accretion disk emission is less variable on these time scales and its power density follows 1/f law, contributing to observed flux variation at low frequencies and low energies only. The kHz QPOs have the same origin as variability at lower frequencies - independent of the nature of the "clock", the actual luminosity modulation takes place on the NS surface. The boundary layer spectrum remains nearly constant during luminosity variations and can be represented by the Fourier frequency resolved spectrum. In the range of Mdot~(0.1-1)*Mdot_Edd it depends weakly on the global mass accretion rate and in the limit Mdot~Mdot_Edd is close to Wien spectrum with kT~2.4 keV. Its independence on the Mdot lends support to the suggestion by Inogamov & Sunyaev (1999) that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. Based on the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters. Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional ~50% on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch. This decrease can be caused, for example, by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thickened accretion disk at Mdot~Mdot_Edd. Alternatively, this can indicate significant change of the structure of the accretion flow at Mdot~Mdot_Edd and disappearance of the boundary layer as a distinct region of the significant energy release associated with the NS surface.

M. Gilfanov; M. Revnivtsev

2005-12-14

274

A scale of greatness and causal classification of mass extinctions: Implications for mechanisms  

PubMed Central

A quantitative scale for measuring greatness, G, of mass extinctions is proposed on the basis of rate of biodiversity diminution expressed as the product of the loss of biodiversity, called magnitude (M), and the inverse of time in which that loss occurs, designated as intensity (I). On this scale, the catastrophic Cretaceous–Tertiary (K-T) extinction appears as the greatest since the Ordovician and the only one with a probable extraterrestrial cause. The end-Permian extinction was less great but with a large magnitude (M) and smaller intensity (I); only some of its individual episodes involved some semblance of catastrophe. Other extinctions during the Phanerozoic, with the possible exception of the end-Silurian diversity plunge, were parts of a forced oscillatory phenomenon and seem caused by marine- and land-habitat destruction during continental assemblies that led to elimination of shelves and (after the Devonian) rain forests and enlargement of deserts. Glaciations and orogenies that shortened and thickened the continental crust only exacerbated these effects. During the Mesozoic and Cainozoic, the evolution of life was linearly progressive, interrupted catastrophically only at the K-T boundary. The end-Triassic extinction was more like the Paleozoic extinctions in nature and probably also in its cause. By contrast, the current extinction resembles none of the earlier ones and may end up being the greatest of all. PMID:18779562

?engör, A. M. Celâl; Atayman, Saniye; Özeren, Sinan

2008-01-01

275

Cenozoic bolide impacts and biotic change in North American mammals.  

PubMed

North American mammals experienced a major mass extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary that is tied unambiguously to the Chicxulub impact event. Immediately afterwards, there was an immense adaptive radiation that greatly expanded taxonomic diversity and the range of body sizes and ecological strategies. However, ties between later, Cenozoic impact events and specific episodes in mammalian evolution cannot be demonstrated. A time series of maximum known crater sizes within 1.0-million-year-long temporal bins is shown not to cross-correlate with five separate measures of taxonomic turnover rate, one measure of change in relative taxonomic composition, and four measures of change in body mass distributions. The lack of correlation persists even after excluding the volatile Paleocene mammalian data, adding dummy data to represent intervals without known craters, or lagging the time series against each other for up to 5 million years. Furthermore, the data fail to support broad-brush correspondences between ages of major (>20 km in diameter) craters and the timing of five key, post-K/T biotic transitions, including medium-sized extinction episodes during the late Paleocene and latest Miocene. The results challenge the idea that extraterrestrial impacts drive all, most, or even many extinction and radiation episodes in terrestrial organisms, and add to other evidence that natural, long-term biotic changes are often independent of changes in the physical environment. PMID:12804369

Alroy, John

2003-01-01

276

Dynamics of Mammalian Chromosome Evolution Inferred from Multispecies Comparative Maps  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genome organizations of eight phylogenetically distinct species from five mammalian orders were compared in order to address fundamental questions relating to mammalian chromosomal evolution. Rates of chromosome evolution within mammalian orders were found to increase since the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Nearly 20% of chromosome breakpoint regions were reused during mammalian evolution; these reuse sites are also enriched for centromeres. Analysis

William J. Murphy; Denis M. Larkin; Annelie Everts-van der Wind; Guillaume Bourque; Glenn Tesler; Loretta Auvil; Jonathan E. Beever; Bhanu P. Chowdhary; Francis Galibert; Lisa Gatzke; Christophe Hitte; Stacey N. Meyers; Denis Milan; Elaine A. Ostrander; Greg Pape; Heidi G. Parker; Terje Raudsepp; Margarita B. Rogatcheva; Lawrence B. Schook; Loren C. Skow; Michael Welge; James E. Womack; Stephen J. O'Brien; Pavel A. Pevzner; Harris A. Lewin

2005-01-01

277

Alvarez, Luis Walter (1911-88)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicist and astronomer, born in San Francisco, CA, professor at the University of California, Nobel prizewinner (1968) for his discoveries in particle physics. Used cosmic rays to `x-ray' the pyramids of Egypt, finding in particular that the tombs in the Great Pyramid at Giza had no hidden rooms. Alvarez (and his son) discovered globally distributed iridium at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary

P. Murdin

2000-01-01

278

and Mlr is the primary mass in solar mass units. Inside the Hill's sphere, the motion of the satellite is con-  

E-print Network

Indication of Global Deforestation at the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary by New Zealand Fern Spike Vivi Vajda,1 by a diverse flora being abruptly replaced by one dominated by a few species of fern. Well documented in North America, this fern spike signals widespread deforestation due to an impact winter or massive wildfires

Vajda, Vivi

279

Experimental evidence that an asteroid impact led to the extinction of many species 65 million years ago  

SciTech Connect

The development of the theory that the mass extinction of the dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary was caused by an asteroid impact is reviewed. The personnel involved, the objections to the theory, and the evidence refuting those objections are presented chronologically. (ACR)

Alvarez, L.W.

1982-09-01

280

Diachronism between extinction time of terrestrial and marine dinosaurs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The dinosaur eggs of southern France occur in continental, fine-grained red-beds, rich in carbonate. The last eggs in the region occur in the magnetic polarity interval 30 normal. Estimates of the accumulation rate of these sediments on the basis of the magneto-stratigraphy leads to placement of the time of disappearance of the dinosaurs in this region of 200,000 to 400,000 years earlier than the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the Red Deer Valley, Canada, estimates of average accumulation rate lead to a time of disappearance of the dinosaurs of 135,000 to 157,000 years earlier than the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. In the central part of Poland, in the Nasilow Quarry, the paleomagnetic pattern shows 7 m of chalk of reversed polarity containing in its upper part the marine Cretaceous-Tertiary biostratigraphic boundary. A greensand deposit contains numerous re-deposited Maastrichtian fossils. The fossils show no signs of wear and are of very different sizes including 1 mm thick juvenile belemnites. The deposit was described as a lag-sediment. Among the various fossils are teeth of mosasaurs. Thus there is coincidence in time between the extinction of mosasaurs and other Cretaceous organisms. This leads to the conclusion, that extinction of terrestrial dinosaurs took place earlier than extinction of marine dinosaurs at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary.

Hansen, H. J.

1988-01-01

281

Implications of asteroid composition for the geochemistry of the ancient terrestrial projectile flux  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of enhanced siderophile abundances at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary has provoked many searches for geochemical signatures which could reveal other catastrophic impacts in Earth's history. These searches implicitly assume that most large impactors are of chondritic, iron, or stony-iron composition, with a greatly enhanced abundance of siderophile elements. Impactors composed of asteroidal crust or mantle rocks analogous to the

Jeffrey F. Bell

1988-01-01

282

Distribution of siderophile and other trace elements in melt rock at the Chicxulub impact structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent isotopic and mineralogical studies have demonstrated a temporal and chemical link between the Chicxulub multiring impact basin and ejecta at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. A fundamental problem yet to be resolved, however, is identification of the projectile responsible for this cataclysmic event. Drill core samples of impact melt rock from the Chichxulub structure contain Ir and Os abundances and Re-Os

B. C. Schuraytz; D. J. Lindstrom; R. R. Martinez; V. L. Sharpton; L. E. Marin

1994-01-01

283

Mammals from the end of the age of dinosaurs in North Dakota and southeastern Montana, with a reappraisal of geographic differentiation among Lancian mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

An end-Cretaceous nonavian dinosaur extinction and an early Paleocene mam- malian radiation is documented primarily in stratigraphic sequences in eastern Mon- tana. To determine how representative these sequences are, we extended investigation of this Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) transition to new areas. Studies in southwestern North Dakota and southeastern Montana provide new records of mammals through the last 1.32-1.68 million years of

John P. Hunter

284

Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by UPb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta  

USGS Publications Warehouse

UPb isotopic dating of single 1-3 ??g zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 ?? 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, white those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 ?? 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With UPb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age. ?? 1993.

Krogh, T.E.; Kamo, S.L.; Bohor, B.F.

1993-01-01

285

Fingerprinting the K/T impact site and determining the time of impact by U-Pb dating of single shocked zircons from distal ejecta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U-Pb isotopic dating of single 1 - 3 micrograms zircons from K/T distal ejecta from a site in the Raton Basin, Colorado provides a powerful new tool with which to determine both the time of the impact event and the age of the basement at the impact site. Data for the least shocked zircons are slightly displaced from the 544 +/- 5 Ma primary age for a component of the target site, while those for highly shocked and granular grains are strongly displaced towards the time of impact at 65.5 +/- 3.0 Ma. Such shocked and granular zircons have never been reported from any source, including explosive volcanic rocks. Zircon is refractory and has one of the highest thermal blocking temperatures; hence, it can record both shock features and primary and secondary ages without modification by post-crystallization processes. Unlike shocked quartz, which can come from almost anywhere on the Earth's crust, shocked zircons can be shown to come from a specific site because basement ages vary on the scale of meters to kilometers. With U-Pb zircon dating, it is now possible to correlate ejecta layers derived from the same target site, test the single versus multiple impact hypothesis, and identify the target source of impact ejecta. The ages obtained in this study indicate that the Manson impact site, Iowa, which has basement rocks that are mid-Proterozoic in age, cannot be the source of K/T distal ejecta. The K/T distal ejecta probably originated from a single impact site because most grains have the same primary age.

Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

1993-01-01

286

Boundary streaming with Navier boundary condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In microfluidic applications involving high-frequency acoustic waves over a solid boundary, the Stokes boundary-layer thickness ? is so small that some non-negligible slip may occur at the fluid-solid interface. This paper assesses the impact of this slip by revisiting the classical problem of steady acoustic streaming over a flat boundary, replacing the no-slip boundary condition with the Navier condition u |y =0=Ls?yu |y =0, where u is the velocity tangent to the boundary y =0, and the parameter Ls is the slip length. A general expression is obtained for the streaming velocity across the boundary layer as a function of the dimensionless parameter Ls/?. The limit outside the boundary layer provides an effective slip velocity satisfied by the interior mean flow. Particularizing to traveling and standing waves shows that the boundary slip respectively increases and decreases the streaming velocity.

Xie, Jin-Han; Vanneste, Jacques

2014-06-01

287

High pT direct photon and pi0 triggered azimuthal jet correlations and measurement of kT for isolated direct photons in p+p collisions at s=200GeV  

Microsoft Academic Search

Correlations of charged hadrons of 1kT, is obtained by comparing to a model incorporating a Gaussian kT smearing. The sensitivity of the associated charged hadron spectra to

A. Adare; S. Afanasiev; C. Aidala; N. N. Ajitanand; Y. Akiba; H. Al-Bataineh; J. Alexander; K. Aoki; L. Aphecetche; R. Armendariz; S. H. Aronson; J. Asai; E. T. Atomssa; R. Averbeck; T. C. Awes; B. Azmoun; V. Babintsev; M. Bai; G. Baksay; L. Baksay; A. Baldisseri; K. N. Barish; P. D. Barnes; B. Bassalleck; A. T. Basye; S. Bathe; S. Batsouli; V. Baublis; C. Baumann; A. Bazilevsky; S. Belikov; R. Bennett; A. Berdnikov; Y. Berdnikov; A. A. Bickley; J. G. Boissevain; H. Borel; K. Boyle; M. L. Brooks; H. Buesching; V. Bumazhnov; G. Bunce; S. Butsyk; C. M. Camacho; S. Campbell; B. S. Chang; W. C. Chang; J.-L. Charvet; S. Chernichenko; J. Chiba; C. Y. Chi; M. Chiu; I. J. Choi; R. K. Choudhury; T. Chujo; P. Chung; A. Churyn; V. Cianciolo; Z. Citron; C. R. Cleven; B. A. Cole; M. P. Comets; M. Connors; P. Constantin; M. Csanád; T. Csörgo; T. Dahms; S. Dairaku; K. Das; G. David; M. B. Deaton; K. Dehmelt; H. Delagrange; A. Denisov; D. D'Enterria; A. Deshpande; E. J. Desmond; O. Dietzsch; A. Dion; M. Donadelli; O. Drapier; A. Drees; K. A. Drees; A. K. Dubey; A. Durum; D. Dutta; V. Dzhordzhadze; Y. V. Efremenko; J. Egdemir; F. Ellinghaus; W. S. Emam; T. Engelmore; A. Enokizono; H. En'Yo; S. Esumi; K. O. Eyser; B. Fadem; D. E. Fields; M. Finger Jr.; F. Fleuret; S. L. Fokin; Z. Fraenkel; J. E. Frantz; A. Franz; A. D. Frawley; K. Fujiwara; Y. Fukao; T. Fusayasu; S. Gadrat; I. Garishvili; A. Glenn; H. Gong; M. Gonin; J. Gosset; Y. Goto; R. Granier de Cassagnac; N. Grau; S. V. Greene; M. Grosse Perdekamp; T. Gunji; H.-Å. Gustafsson; T. Hachiya; A. Hadj Henni; C. Haegemann; J. S. Haggerty; H. Hamagaki; R. Han; H. Harada; E. P. Hartouni; K. Haruna; E. Haslum; R. Hayano; M. Heffner; T. K. Hemmick; T. Hester; X. He; H. Hiejima; J. C. Hill; R. Hobbs; M. Hohlmann; W. Holzmann; K. Homma; B. Hong; T. Horaguchi; D. Hornback; S. Huang; T. Ichihara; R. Ichimiya; H. Iinuma; Y. Ikeda; K. Imai; J. Imrek; M. Inaba; Y. Inoue; D. Isenhower; L. Isenhower; M. Ishihara; T. Isobe; M. Issah; A. Isupov; D. Ivanischev; B. V. Jacak; J. Jia; J. Jin; O. Jinnouchi; B. M. Johnson; K. S. Joo; D. Jouan; F. Kajihara; S. Kametani; N. Kamihara; J. Kamin; M. Kaneta; J. H. Kang; H. Kanou; J. Kapustinsky; D. Kawall; A. V. Kazantsev; T. Kempel; A. Khanzadeev; K. M. Kijima; J. Kikuchi; B. I. Kim; D. H. Kim; D. J. Kim; E. Kim; S. H. Kim; E. Kinney; K. Kiriluk; Á. Kiss; E. Kistenev; A. Kiyomichi; J. Klay; C. Klein-Boesing; L. Kochenda; V. Kochetkov; B. Komkov; M. Konno; J. Koster; D. Kotchetkov; A. Kozlov; A. Král; A. Kravitz; J. Kubart; G. J. Kunde; N. Kurihara; K. Kurita; M. Kurosawa; M. J. Kweon; Y. Kwon; G. S. Kyle; R. Lacey; Y. S. Lai; J. G. Lajoie; D. Layton; A. Lebedev; D. M. Lee; K. B. Lee; M. K. Lee; T. Lee; M. J. Leitch; M. A. L. Leite; B. Lenzi; P. Liebing; T. Liska; A. Litvinenko; H. Liu; M. X. Liu; X. Li; B. Love; D. Lynch; C. F. Maguire; Y. I. Makdisi; A. Malakhov; M. D. Malik; V. I. Manko; E. Mannel; Y. Mao; L. Masek; H. Masui; F. Matathias; M. McCumber; P. L. McGaughey; N. Means; B. Meredith; Y. Miake; P. Mikes; K. Miki; T. E. Miller; A. Milov; S. Mioduszewski; M. Mishra; J. T. Mitchell; M. Mitrovski; A. K. Mohanty; Y. Morino; A. Morreale; D. P. Morrison; T. V. Moukhanova; D. Mukhopadhyay; J. Murata; S. Nagamiya; Y. Nagata; J. L. Nagle; M. Naglis; M. I. Nagy; I. Nakagawa; Y. Nakamiya; T. Nakamura; K. Nakano; J. Newby; M. Nguyen; T. Niita; B. E. Norman; R. Nouicer; A. S. Nyanin; E. O'Brien; S. X. Oda; C. A. Ogilvie; H. Ohnishi; K. Okada; M. Oka; O. O. Omiwade; Y. Onuki; A. Oskarsson; M. Ouchida; K. Ozawa; R. Pak; D. Pal; A. P. T. Palounek; V. Pantuev; V. Papavassiliou; W. J. Park; S. F. Pate; H. Pei; J.-C. Peng; H. Pereira; V. Peresedov; D. Yu. Peressounko; C. Pinkenburg; M. L. Purschke; A. K. Purwar; H. Qu; J. Rak; A. Rakotozafindrabe; I. Ravinovich; K. F. Read; S. Rembeczki; M. Reuter; K. Reygers; V. Riabov; Y. Riabov; D. Roach; G. Roche; S. D. Rolnick; A. Romana; M. Rosati; S. S. E. Rosendahl; P. Rosnet; P. Rukoyatkin; P. Ruzicka; V. L. Rykov; B. Sahlmueller; N. Saito; T. Sakaguchi; S. Sakai; K. Sakashita; H. Sakata; V. Samsonov; S. Sato; T. Sato; S. Sawada; K. Sedgwick; J. Seele; R. Seidl; A. Yu. Semenov; V. Semenov; R. Seto; D. Sharma; I. Shein; A. Shevel; T.-A. Shibata; K. Shigaki; M. Shimomura; K. Shoji; P. Shukla; A. Sickles; C. L. Silva; D. Silvermyr; C. Silvestre; K. S. Sim; B. K. Singh; C. P. Singh; V. Singh; S. Skutnik; M. Slunecka; A. Soldatov; R. A. Soltz; W. E. Sondheim; S. P. Sorensen; I. V. Sourikova; F. Staley; P. W. Stankus; E. Stenlund; M. Stepanov; A. Ster; S. P. Stoll; T. Sugitate; C. Suire; A. Sukhanov; J. Sziklai; T. Tabaru; S. Takagi; E. M. Takagui; A. Taketani; R. Tanabe; Y. Tanaka; S. Taneja; K. Tanida; M. J. Tannenbaum; A. Taranenko; P. Tarján; H. Themann; T. L. Thomas; M. Togawa; A. Toia; J. Tojo; L. Tomásek; Y. Tomita; H. Torii; R. S. Towell; V.-N. Tram; I. Tserruya; Y. Tsuchimoto; C. Vale; H. Valle

2010-01-01

288

Measurement of the k(T) distribution of particles in jets produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV.  

PubMed

We present a measurement of the transverse momentum with respect to the jet axis (k(t)) of particles in jets produced in pp collisions at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV. Results are obtained for charged particles in a cone of 0.5 radians around the jet axis in events with dijet invariant masses between 66 and 737 GeV/c(2). The experimental data are compared to theoretical predictions obtained for fragmentation partons within the framework of resummed perturbative QCD using the modified leading log and next-to-modified leading log approximations. The comparison shows that trends in data are successfully described by the theoretical predictions, indicating that the perturbative QCD stage of jet fragmentation is dominant in shaping basic jet characteristics. PMID:19658924

Aaltonen, T; Adelman, J; Akimoto, T; Alvarez González, B; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Aurisano, A; Azfar, F; Azzurri, P; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Beauchemin, P-H; Bedeschi, F; Beecher, D; Behari, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bizjak, I; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bridgeman, A; Brigliadori, L; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burke, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Buzatu, A; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Calancha, C; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carls, B; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carrillo, S; Carron, S; Casal, B; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavaliere, V; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Choudalakis, G; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Chwalek, T; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Compostella, G; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cox, C A; Cox, D J; Crescioli, F; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cully, J C; Dagenhart, D; Datta, M; Davies, T; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lorenzo, G; Dell'orso, M; Deluca, C; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; Derwent, P F; di Giovanni, G P; Dionisi, C; Di Ruzza, B; Dittmann, J R; D'Onofrio, M; Donati, S; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Efron, J; Elagin, A; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Ferrazza, C; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Forrest, R; Frank, M J; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Furic, I; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garberson, F; Garcia, J E; Garfinkel, A F; Genser, K; Gerberich, H; Gerdes, D; Gessler, A; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giannetti, P; Gibson, K; Gimmell, J L; Ginsburg, C M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M; Giromini, P; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Golossanov, A; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; Guimaraes da Costa, J; Gunay-Unalan, Z; Haber, C; Hahn, K; Hahn, S R; Halkiadakis, E; Han, B-Y; Han, J Y; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, D; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hartz, M; Hatakeyama, K; Hays, C; Heck, M; Heijboer, A; Heinrich, J; Henderson, C; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hewamanage, S; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Husemann, U; Hussein, M; Husemann, U; Huston, J; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ivanov, A; James, E; Jayatilaka, B; Jeon, E J; Jha, M K; Jindariani, S; Johnson, W; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Jung, J E; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kar, D; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kephart, R; Keung, J; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, H W; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kreps, M; Kroll, J; Krop, D; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kubo, T; Kuhr, T; Kulkarni, N P; Kurata, M; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecompte, T; Lee, E; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Leone, S; Lewis, J D; Lin, C-S; Linacre, J; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, C; Liu, T; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Lovas, L; Lucchesi, D; Luci, C; Lueck, J; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Macqueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Makhoul, K; Maki, T; Maksimovic, P; Malde, S; Malik, S; Manca, G; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Margaroli, F; Marino, C; Marino, C P; Martin, A; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Martínez-Ballarín, R; Maruyama, T; Mastrandrea, P; Masubuchi, T; Mathis, M; Mattson, M E; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McIntyre, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Mehtala, P; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miller, R; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Mitra, A; Mitselmakher, G; Miyake, H; Moggi, N; Moon, C S; Moore, R; Morello, M J; Morlok, J; Movilla Fernandez, P; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Mussini, M; Nachtman, J; Nagai, Y; Nagano, A; Naganoma, J; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Necula, V; Nett, J; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Neubauer, S; Nielsen, J; Nodulman, L; Norman, M; Norniella, O; Nurse, E; Oakes, L; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Oksuzian, I; Okusawa, T; Orava, R; Pagan Griso, S; Palencia, E; Papadimitriou, V; Papaikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J

2009-06-12

289

Electronic structure of the complex alkali-transition-metal ternary hydrides A2TH4 ( A=Na,K ; T=Pd,Pt )  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of the alkali metal in determining the stability of the A2TH4 ( A=Na,K ; T=Pd,Pt ) hydrides has been investigated. We computed ab initio the structural and electronic properties of these compounds with special emphasis on the polarizability of the counterions. We evaluated the stabilizing effect of the alkali metal by computing the H site energy. We estimated that the stabilizing effect of the K cation in these systems is 0.3-0.4eV/H . In addition, we found that the electric field gradient at the alkali metals strongly differs from K2PdH4 to K2PtH4 , suggesting the necessity of nuclear quadrupole resonance measurements.

Orgaz, Emilio

2007-10-01

290

Inclusive production of Higgs boson in the two-photon channel at the LHC within $k_{t}$-factorization approach and with the Standard Model couplings  

E-print Network

We calculate differential cross sections for Higgs boson and/or two-photon production from intermediate (virtual) Higgs boson within the formalism of $k_t$-factorization. The off-shell $g^* g^* \\to H$ matrix elements are used. We compare results obtained with infinite top fermion (quark) mass and with finite mass taken into account. The latter effect is rather small. We compare results with different unintegrated gluon distributions from the literature. Two methods are used. In the first method first Higgs boson is produced in the $2 \\to 1$ $g g \\to H$ $k_t$-factorization approach and then isotropic decay with the Standard Model branching fraction is performed. In the second method we calculate directly two photons coupled to the virtual Higgs boson. The results of the two methods are compared and differences are discussed. The results for two photons from the Higgs boson are compared with recent ATLAS collaboration data. In contrast to a recent calculation the leading order $g g \\to H$ contribution is rather small compared to the ATLAS experimental data ($\\gamma \\gamma$ transverse momentum and rapidity distributions) for all unintegrated gluon distributions from the literature. We include also higher-order contribution $g g \\to H (\\to \\gamma \\gamma) g$, $g g \\to g H g$ and the contribution of the $W^+ W^-$ and $Z^0 Z^0$. The $gg\\to Hg$ mechanism gives similar cross section as the $gg\\to H$ mechanism. We argue that there is almost no double counting when adding $gg\\to H$ and $gg\\to Hg$ contributions due to different topology of Feynman diagrams. The final sum is comparable with the ATLAS two-photon data. We discuss uncertainties related to both the theoretical approach and existing UGDFs.

Antoni Szczurek; Marta Luszczak; Rafal Maciula

2014-07-16

291

Petromagnetic and paleomagnetic characterization deposits at Mesozoic/Cenozoic boundary: The Tetritskaro section (Georgia)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Petromagnetic and magnetostratigraphic characteristics are obtained for the Tetritskaro section. The boundary layer at the Mesozoic/Cenozoic (K/T) boundary is fixed primarily by an abrupt rise in the paramagnetic magnetization (total Fe concentration) and, to a lesser degree, by an increase in the concentration of such magnetic minerals as goethite, hemoilmenite, and magnetite. The along-section distribution of titanomagnetite of volcanic origin and metallic iron of cosmic origin does not correlate with the K/T boundary and lithologic properties of the sediments. The boundary of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic geological eras lies within the reversed polarity chron C29r and is marked by an abrupt rise in the geomagnetic field paleointensity and an instability of paleomagnetic directions, rather than by a polarity change. The accumulation time of the boundary clay layer is about 1.5-2 kyr, while abrupt changes in the paleointensity and direction of the geomagnetic field encompass 30-40 kyr. Such long occurrence intervals of the events in question cannot be related to a short-term impact phenomenon.

Pechersky, D. M.; Asanidze, B. Z.; Nourgaliev, D. K.; Sharonova, Z. N.

2009-02-01

292

Boundary Conditions Copenhagen University  

E-print Network

on the boundary problem of Geodesy, using Nash-Moser estimates to treat the inverse boundary value problem w (the Molodenskii problem). A Danish colleague C.C. Tcherning, professor in Geodesy, told me later

Grubb, Gerd

293

NATIONAL FOREST BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This dataset contains National Forest boundaries for the lower 48 states, including Puerto Rico. Alaska is maintained separately. This dataset includes administrative unit boundaries, derived primarily from the GSTC SOC data system, comprised of Cartographic Feature Files (CFFs...

294

Evolution of Modern Birds Revealed by Mitogenomics: Timing the Radiation and Origin of Major Orders  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial (mt) genes and genomes are among the major sources of data for evolutionary studies in birds. This places mitogenomic studies in birds at the core of intense debates in avian evolutionary biology. Indeed, complete mt genomes are actively been used to unveil the phylogenetic relationships among major orders, whereas single genes (e.g., cytochrome c oxidase I [COX1]) are considered standard for species identification and defining species boundaries (DNA barcoding). In this investigation, we study the time of origin and evolutionary relationships among Neoaves orders using complete mt genomes. First, we were able to solve polytomies previously observed at the deep nodes of the Neoaves phylogeny by analyzing 80 mt genomes, including 17 new sequences reported in this investigation. As an example, we found evidence indicating that columbiforms and charadriforms are sister groups. Overall, our analyses indicate that by improving the taxonomic sampling, complete mt genomes can solve the evolutionary relationships among major bird groups. Second, we used our phylogenetic hypotheses to estimate the time of origin of major avian orders as a way to test if their diversification took place prior to the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Such timetrees were estimated using several molecular dating approaches and conservative calibration points. Whereas we found time estimates slightly younger than those reported by others, most of the major orders originated prior to the K/T boundary. Finally, we used our timetrees to estimate the rate of evolution of each mt gene. We found great variation on the mutation rates among mt genes and within different bird groups. COX1 was the gene with less variation among Neoaves orders and the one with the least amount of rate heterogeneity across lineages. Such findings support the choice of COX 1 among mt genes as target for developing DNA barcoding approaches in birds. PMID:21242529

Pacheco, M. Andreína; Battistuzzi, Fabia U.; Lentino, Miguel; Aguilar, Roberto F.; Kumar, Sudhir; Escalante, Ananias A.

2011-01-01

295

Mammalian phylogeny reveals recent diversification rate shifts.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic trees of present-day species allow investigation of the rate of evolution that led to the present-day diversity. A recent analysis of the mammalian phylogeny challenged the view of explosive mammalian evolution after the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary (65 Mya). However, due to lack of appropriate methods, the diversification (speciation minus extinction) rates in the more recent past of mammalian evolution could not be determined. In this paper, I provide a method that reveals that the tempo of mammalian evolution did not change until ? 33 Mya. This constant period was followed by a peak of diversification rates between 33 and 30 Mya. Thereafter, diversification rates remained high and constant until 8.55 Mya. Diversification rates declined significantly at 8.55 and 3.35 Mya. Investigation of mammalian subgroups (marsupials, placentals, and the six largest placental subgroups) reveals that the diversification rate peak at 33-30 Mya is mainly driven by rodents, cetartiodactyla, and marsupials. The recent diversification rate decrease is significant for all analyzed subgroups but eulipotyphla, cetartiodactyla, and primates. My likelihood approach is not limited to mammalian evolution. It provides a robust framework to infer diversification rate changes and mass extinction events in phylogenies, reconstructed from, e.g., present-day species or virus data. In particular, the method is very robust toward noise and uncertainty in the phylogeny and can account for incomplete taxon sampling. PMID:21444816

Stadler, Tanja

2011-04-12

296

Behavior of carbonate shelf communities in the Upper Triassic of Nevada: Evidence of impact mediated faunal turnover  

SciTech Connect

The carbonate shelf sediments of the Luning and Gabbs Formations of Nevada span the last several million years of the Triassic. This richly fossiliferous sequence provides a relatively continuous record of benthic community behavior during a long interval of global biotic turnover. Upper Carnian-Lower Norian and Upper Norian sea floors in this region were inhabited by a variety of invertebrate communities, all of them mollusc-dominated. Across a range of offshore shelf to basinal environments and throughout repeated community replacements, the most abundant and diverse taxa were infaunal and epifaunal bivalves and ammonites. The sequence of Upper Triassic molluscan communities was interrupted by a Lower or Middle Norian interval of brachiopod-dominated faunas. Although preserved in similar offshore carbonate shelf sediments, these communities are nearly devoid of the infaunal bivalves and ammonites that characterize both older and younger assemblages in the section. This pattern, of a temporary replacement of molluscan communities by brachiopod faunas, mimics that reported for some shelf assemblages across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. That brief resurgence of brachiopods is linked to a sharp drop in marine primary productivity, which suggests that a disruption of planktonic food chains may also have occurred early in the Norian. The timing and pattern of Carnian-Norian faunal and physical events and their resemblance to K/T sequences are consistent with the proposal that an asteroid impact played a role in the Upper Triassic faunal transition.

Hogler, J.A. (Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Museum of Paleontology)

1993-04-01

297

The importance of being cratered: The new role of meteorite impact as a normal geological process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper is a personal (and, in many ways, incomplete) view of the past development of impact geology and of the newly recognized importance of impact events in terrestrial geological history. It also identifies some exciting scientific challenges for future investigators: to determine the full range of impact effects preserved on the Earth, to apply the knowledge obtained from impact phenomena to more general geological problems, and to continue the merger of the once exotic field of impact geology with mainstream geosciences. Since the recognition of an impact event at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary, much current activity in impact geology has been promoted by traditionally trained geoscientists who have unexpectedly encountered impact effects in the course of their work. Their studies have involved: 1) the recognition of additional major impact effects in the geological record (the Chesapeake Bay crater, the Alamo breccia, and multiple layers of impact spherules in Precambrian rocks); and 2) the use of impact structures as laboratories to study general geological processes (e.g., igneous petrogenesis at Sudbury, Canada and Archean crustal evolution at Vredefort, South Africa). Other research areas, in which impact studies could contribute to major geoscience problems in the future, include: 1) comparative studies between low-level (£7 GPa) shock deformation of quartz, and the production of quartz cleavage, in both impact and tectonic environments; and 2) the nature, origin, and significance of bulk organic carbon ("kerogen") and other carbon species in some impact structures (Gardnos, Norway, and Sudbury, Canada).

French, Bevan M.

2004-02-01

298

Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

1993-01-01

299

Iridium in sediments containing large abundances of Australasian microtektites from DSDP hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Excess Ir found in sediments at the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary and in other (e.g., Pliocene) sediments from deep sea drilling cores is widely interpreted as evidence of major impact events. The Australasian tektites originated in an impact event approximately 0.77 Ma ago; microtektites have been found in deep-sea sediment cores from throughout the Indian Ocean, the Philippine Sea, and western Pacific Ocean, but Ir has not been previously reported in these horizons. The deep-sea record of tektites is of particular interest, because in contrast to most continental occurrences, the stratigraphy preserves the original depositional position. Recently several cores having exceptionally high contents of Australasian microtektites have been investigated, Glass and Wu found shocked quartz associated with the microtektites. We used neutron activation to determine concentrations of Ir and other elements in two cores bearing microtektites, one from Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) hole 758B in the Eastern Indian Ocean and one from DSDP hole 769A in the Sulu Sea (near Mindanao, Philippines). The sedimentation age for the microtektite layers in core 758B lies between 0.73 - 0.78 Ma and agrees well with the mean laser-fusion Ar-40/Ar-39 age of Australasian tektites of 0.77 +/- 0.02 Ma by Izett et al. We are able to resolve a small positive Ir enhancement in 758B. Core 769A shows too much scatter to allow resolution of an Ir peak.

Schmidt, Gerhard; Zhou, Lei; Wasson, John T.

1993-03-01

300

Exclusive photoproduction of charmonia in $?p \\to V p$ and $p p \\to p V p$ reactions within $k_t$-factorization approach  

E-print Network

The amplitude for $\\gamma p \\to J/\\psi p$ ($\\gamma p \\to \\psi' p$) is calculated in a pQCD $k_{T}$-factorization approach. The total cross section for this process is calculated for different unintegrated gluon distributions and compared with the HERA data and the data extracted recently by the LHCb collaboration. The amplitude for $\\gamma p \\to J/\\psi p$ ($\\gamma p \\to \\psi' p$) is used to predict the cross section for exclusive photoproduction of $J/\\psi$ ($\\psi'$) meson in proton-proton collisions. Compared to earlier calculations we include both Dirac and Pauli electromagnetic form factors. The effect of Pauli form factor is quantified. Absorption effects are taken into account and their role is discussed in detail. Different differential distributions e.g. in $J/\\psi$ ($\\psi'$) rapidity and transverse momentum are presented and compared with existing experimental data. The UGDF with nonlinear effects built in better describe recent experimental data of the LHCb collaboration but no definite conclusion on onset of saturation can be drawn. We present our results also for the Tevatron. A good agreement with the CDF experimental data points at the midrapidity for both $J/\\psi$ and $\\psi'$ is achieved.

Anna Cisek; Wolfgang Schäfer; Antoni Szczurek

2014-05-09

301

Numerical Boundary Condition Procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics include numerical procedures for treating inflow and outflow boundaries, steady and unsteady discontinuous surfaces, far field boundaries, and multiblock grids. In addition, the effects of numerical boundary approximations on stability, accuracy, and convergence rate of the numerical solution are discussed.

1981-01-01

302

PTt path in metamorphic rocks of the Khoy region (northwest Iran) and their tectonic significance for Cretaceous–Tertiary continental collision  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metamorphic rocks in the Khoy region are exposed between obducted ophiolites to the southwest and sedimentary rocks of Precambrian–Paleozoic age to the northeast. The Qom formation (Oligocene–Miocene) with a basal conglomerate transgressively overlies all of these rocks. The metamorphic rocks consist of both metasediments and metabasites. The metasediments are micaschist, garnet–staurolite schist and garnet–staurolite sillimanite schist with some meta-arkose, marble

H. Azizi; H. Moinevaziri; M. Mohajjel; A. Yagobpoor

2006-01-01

303

Zircon U–Pb and Hf isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Cretaceous–Tertiary granites in eastern Karakoram and Ladakh, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple subduction events occurred preceding the collision of Greater India with the Karakoram terrane that consumed the Neotethyan Ocean between Early Cretaceous and Eocene time. Zircon U–Pb dating and Hf isotope analyses of granitic rocks collected from the Karakoram terrane and Ladakh batholith have been conducted to constrain these geological processes. Undeformed Ladakh batholith granodiorite yielded zircon U–Pb ages of

Vadlamani Ravikant; Fu-Yuan Wu; Wei-Qiang Ji

2009-01-01

304

Two-gluon correlations in heavy-light ion collisions: Energy and geometry dependence, IR divergences, and kT-factorization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the properties of the cross section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions derived in our previous paper [1] in the saturation/Color Glass Condensate framework. Concentrating on the energy and geometry dependence of the corresponding correlation functions we find that the two-gluon correlator is a much slower function of the center-of-mass energy than the one- and two-gluon production cross sections. The geometry dependence of the correlation function leads to stronger azimuthal near- and away-side correlations in the tip-on-tip U+U collisions than in the side-on-side U+U collisions, an exactly opposite behavior from the correlations generated by the elliptic flow of the quark-gluon plasma: a study of azimuthal correlations in the U+U collisions may thus help to disentangle the two sources of correlations. We demonstrate that the cross section for two-gluon production in heavy-light ion collisions contains a power-law infrared (IR) divergence even for fixed produced gluon momenta: while saturation effects in the target regulate some of the power-law IR-divergent terms in the lowest-order expression for the two-gluon correlator, other power-law IR-divergent terms remain, possibly due to absence of saturation effects in the dilute projectile. Finally we rewrite our result for the two-gluon production cross-section in a kT-factorized form, obtaining a new factorized expression involving a convolution of one- and two-gluon Wigner distributions over both the transverse momenta and impact parameters. We show that the two-gluon production cross-section depends on two different types of unintegrated two-gluon Wigner distribution functions.

Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Wertepny, Douglas E.

2014-05-01

305

Accretion rate of extraterrestrial matter: Iridium deposited over the last 70 million years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to quantify the accretion rate of extraterrestrial matter during the Cenozoic, Ir concentrations were measured in a continuous series of 450 samples across most of the length of piston core LL44-GPC3. LL44-GPC3 is a 25-meter-long, large-diameter piston core of abyssal clay from the central North Pacific. This core contains a nearly continuous record of sedimentation over the last 70 Ma, as this site migrated from a region near the Equator in the late Cretaceous to its present position north of Hawaii. The first-cut survey across the core is nearing completion, and all of the conclusions of the earlier study, in which was reported the concentrations of Ir, Co, and Sb across 9 meters of this core, remain unchanged. The only strongly enhanced Ir concentrations occur at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary and outside the K-T boundary Ir correlates well with Co, a terrestrial element which is largely present in hydrogenous ferromanganese oxide precipitates from seawater. Concentrations of both elements appear to be inversely correlated with the sedimentation rate. Although the K-T Ir anomaly is unique in magnitude in this core, there are several small bumps in the Ir profile which may reflect smaller accretionary events. The most promising Ir enhancement was observed in a 30 cm section approximately 1 m below the K-T boundary. Preliminary data suggest deposition of an excess across this interval at a time estimate to be approximate 1 Ma before the K-T impact event, but there is insufficient evidence at present to prove that this reflects enhanced accretion of extraterrestrial matter. A detailed model is being prepared of the chemical record of sedimentation in this core using a combined database of 39 elements in approximately 450 samples across the Cenozoic. Preliminary working model indicates that the only sedimentary sources which contribute significantly to the Ir budget in this core are the hydrogenous precipitates and extraterrestrial particulates.

Kyte, Frank T.

1988-01-01

306

Terrestrial and Extraterrestrial Fullerenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews reports of occurrences of fullerenes in circumstellar media, interstellar media, meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), lunar rocks, hard terrestrial rocks from Shunga (Russia), Sudbury (Canada) and Mitov (Czech Republic), coal, terrestrial sediments from the Cretaceous?Tertiary?Boundary and Permian?Triassic?Boundary, fulgurite, ink sticks, dinosaur eggs, and a tree char. The occurrences are discussed in the context of known and postulated

D. Heymann; L. W. Jenneskens; J. Jehli?ka; Carola Koper; E. J. Vlietstra

2003-01-01

307

Biodiversity changes in Cretaceous palynofloras of eastern Asia and western North America  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Palynology has great potential for providing comparative data and interpretations about changes in biodiversity during the Cretaceous Period. This is especially true for both eastern Asia and western North America because of strong floristic similarities that existed between these regions during Cretaceous time. Also, because palynomorphs of terrestrial origin can be deposited in offshore as well as terrestrial environments, significant potential exists for marine-to-continental palynostratigraphic correlations in both regions. Palynological biostratigraphy can improve the geologic dating of changes in biodiversity. During the Early Cretaceous, eastern Asia and western North America lay within the Cerebropollenites palynofloral province, a circumpolar phytogeographic zone characterized by distinctive palynological assemblages. During most of the Late Cretaceous, these regions lay within the palynofloristically unique Aquilapollenites Province, which was more restricted geographically than the Cerebropollenites Province. The most important development during Cretaceous time that is reflected in palynological assemblages was the rise of the angiosperms as the numerically and ecologically dominant forms of vegetation. The most striking short-term palynofloral event in the two regions was the sudden disappearance of species of Aquilapollenites and associated genera at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K/T) boundary. Both of these occurrences produced major changes in biodiversity in the terrestrial realm. Geologic research in International Geological Correlation Program Project 434 can benefit from applications of palynostratigraphy. Palynologic research within Project 434 could include development of a comprehensive palynostratigraphic zonation for the Cretaceous, the definition of regional palynostratigraphic datums, and investigation of the record of floral change at the K/T boundary. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nichols, D.J.

2003-01-01

308

Membranes with a boundary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the recently developed theory of multiple membranes. In particular, we consider open membranes, i.e. the theory defined on a membrane world volume with a boundary. We first restrict our attention to the gauge sector of the theory. We obtain a boundary action from the Chern-Simons terms. Secondly, we consider the addition of certain boundary terms to various Chern-Simons theories coupled to matter. These terms ensure the full bulk plus boundary action has the correct amount of supersymmetry. For the ABJM model, this construction motivates the inclusion of a boundary quartic scalar potential. The boundary dynamics obtained from our modified theory produce Basu-Harvey type equations describing membranes ending on a five-brane. The ultimate goal of this work is to throw light on the theory of five-branes using the theory of open membranes.

Berman, David S.; Thompson, Daniel C.

2009-10-01

309

Nanoscale Boundary Lubrication Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Boundary films are formed by physisorption, chemisorption, and chemical reaction. A good boundary boundary film physisorption\\u000a chemisorption lubricant should have a high degree of interaction between its molecules and the solid surface. As a general\\u000a rule, liquids are good lubricants when they are polar and thus able to grip solid surfaces perfluoropolyether (PFPE) (or be\\u000a adsorbed). In this chapter, we

Bharat Bhushan

310

The Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary in turbiditic deposits identified to the bed: a case study from the Skole Nappe (Outer Carpathians, southern Poland)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-T) boundary has been recognized in turbiditic sediments of the Ropianka Formation in the Skole Nappe (B?kowiec section) on the basis of planktonic foraminiferids with an accuracy of 40 cm. Such precise determination of the K-T boundary for the first time in the Carpathians and in turbiditic flysch sediments in general was possible due to the successive occurrence of the Early Paleocene planktonic taxa of the P1 Zone above the latest Maastrichtian Abathomphalus mayaroensis Zone with the Racemiguembelina fructicosa Subzone. The trends in composition of the latest Maastrichtian foraminiferal assemblages are similar to the Gaj section from the adjacent thrust sheet, probably due to the influence of the same paleoenvironmental factors.

Gasi?ski, M. Adam; Uchman, Alfred

2011-08-01

311

About positivity of green's functions for nonlocal boundary value problems with impulsive delay equations.  

PubMed

The impulsive delay differential equation is considered (Lx)(t) = x'(t) + ?(i=1)(m) p(i)(t)x(t - ?(i) (t)) = f(t), t ? [a, b], x(t j) = ?(j)x(t(j - 0)), j = 1,…, k, a = t0 < t1 < t2 < ?k < t k+1 = b, x(?) = 0, ? ? [a, b], with nonlocal boundary condition lx = ?(a)(b) ?(s)x'(s)ds + ?x(a) = c, ? ? L ? [a, b]; ?, c ? R. Various results on existence and uniqueness of solutions and on positivity/negativity of the Green's functions for this equation are obtained. PMID:24719584

Domoshnitsky, Alexander; Volinsky, Irina

2014-01-01

312

Boundary layer transition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The boundary layer stability, its active control by sound and surface heating and the effect of curvature are studied numerically and experimentally for subsonic flow. In addition, the experimental and flight test data are correlated using the stability theory for supersonic Mach numbers. Active transition fixing and feedback control of boundary layer by sound interactions are experimentally investigated at low

L. Maestrello; A. Bayliss; S. M. Mangalam; M. R. Malik

1986-01-01

313

NATIONAL PARK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The National Park Service has produced a data base of boundaries for its National Parks. A copy of this data was downloaded from the National Parks Service ftp site by Region 10. These digital boundaries represent the best guess and data that could be collected in a short time....

314

The Atmospheric Boundary Layer  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some important parameters of the boundary layer and effects of turbulence on the circulation and energy dissipation of the atmosphere. Indicates that boundary-layer research plays an important role in long-term forecasting and the study of air-pollution meteorology. (CC)

Tennekes, Hendrik

1974-01-01

315

Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various features of different stability regimes of the stable boundary layer are discussed. Traditional layering is examined in terms of the roughness sublayer, surface layer, local similarity, z-less stratification and the region near the boundary-layer top. In the very stable case, the strongest turbulence may be detached from the surface and generated by shear associated with a low level jet,

L. Mahrt

1999-01-01

316

The atmospheric boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this book, the author successfully reviews the current state of affairs in boundary-layer meteorology research. The book is organized into nine chapters. The first chapter is an introduction to the topic of the atmospheric boundary layer. The second chapter is a survey of turbulence theory. The third chapter reviews the similarity relationships that have been formulated for the various

J. R. Garratt

1992-01-01

317

Parabolic - hyperbolic boundary layer  

E-print Network

A boundary value problem related to a parabolic higher order operator with a small parameter is analized. When the small parameter tends to zero, the reduced operator is hyperbolic. When t tends to infinity a parabolic hyperbolic boundary layer appears. In this paper a rigorous asymptotic approximation uniformly valid for all t is established.

Monica De Angelis

2012-07-09

318

A compilation of information and data on the Manson impact structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A problem for the impact hypothesis for the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) mass extinction is the apparent absence of an identifiable impact site. The Manson Impact Structure is a candidate because it is the largest recognized in the U.S.; it is relatively close to the largest and most abundant shocked quartz grains found at the K-T boundary; and its age is indistinguishable from that of the K-T boundary based on paleontological evidence, fission track dates, and preliminary Ar-40/Ar-39 measurements. The region of northwest central Iowa containing the Manson Impact Structure is covered by Quaternary glacial deposits underlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks (mostly flat-lying carbonates) and Proterozoic red clastic, metamorphic, volcanic, and plutonic rocks. In a circular area about 22 miles (35 km) in diameter around Manson, Iowa, this normal sequence is absent or disturbed and near the center of the disturbed area granitic basement rocks have been uplifted some 20,000 ft (6000m). Attention was drawn to Manson initially by the unusual quality of the groundwater there. Within the structure three roughly concentric zones of rock associations have been identified: (1) displaced strata; (2) completely disrupted strata, and igneous and metamorphic rocks. Manson was established as an impact structure based on its circular shape, its central uplift, and the presence of shocked quartz within the granitic central uplift. A gravity survey identified locations of low-density brecciated rocks and high-density uplifted crystalline rocks, but the outer boundary of the structure could not be established. Aeromagnetic and ground magnetic surveys showed locations and depths of shallowly buried crystalline rock and the locations of faults. A refraction seismic survey identified the crystalline central uplift, determined that the average elevation of bedrock is 70 ft (20 m) higher outside the structure than within, and was used to map the bedrock topography within the structure. A connection between the Manson impact and the K-T boundary may be established or refuted through study of the impact energy, the impact time, and composition of host rock, possible impactors, and impact melts.

Hartung, Jack B.; Anderson, Raymond R.

1988-01-01

319

Measurement of the inclusive jet cross section using the kT algorithm in pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV with the CDF II detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on measurements of the inclusive jet production cross section as a function of the jet transverse momentum in pp¯ collisions at s=1.96TeV, using the kT algorithm and a data sample corresponding to 1.0fb-1 collected with the Collider Detector at Fermilab in run II. The measurements are carried out in five different jet rapidity regions with |yjet|<2.1 and transverse

A. Abulencia; J. Adelman; T. Affolder; T. Akimoto; M. G. Albrow; D. Ambrose; S. Amerio; D. Amidei; A. Anastassov; K. Anikeev; A. Annovi; J. Antos; M. Aoki; G. Apollinari; J.-F. Arguin; T. Arisawa; A. Artikov; W. Ashmanskas; A. Attal; F. Azfar; P. Azzi-Bacchetta; P. Azzurri; N. Bacchetta; W. Badgett; A. Barbaro-Galtieri; V. E. Barnes; B. A. Barnett; S. Baroiant; V. Bartsch; G. Bauer; F. Bedeschi; S. Behari; S. Belforte; G. Bellettini; J. Bellinger; A. Belloni; D. Benjamin; A. Beretvas; J. Beringer; T. Berry; A. Bhatti; M. Binkley; D. Bisello; R. E. Blair; C. Blocker; B. Blumenfeld; A. Bocci; A. Bodek; V. Boisvert; G. Bolla; A. Bolshov; D. Bortoletto; J. Boudreau; A. Boveia; B. Brau; L. Brigliadori; C. Bromberg; E. Brubaker; J. Budagov; H. S. Budd; S. Budd; S. Budroni; K. Burkett; G. Busetto; P. Bussey; K. L. Byrum; S. Cabrera; M. Campanelli; M. Campbell; F. Canelli; A. Canepa; S. Carillo; D. Carlsmith; R. Carosi; S. Carron; M. Casarsa; A. Castro; P. Catastini; D. Cauz; M. Cavalli-Sforza; A. Cerri; L. Cerrito; S. H. Chang; Y. C. Chen; M. Chertok; G. Chiarelli; G. Chlachidze; F. Chlebana; I. Cho; K. Cho; D. Chokheli; J. P. Chou; G. Choudalakis; S. H. Chuang; K. Chung; W. H. Chung; Y. S. Chung; M. Ciljak; C. I. Ciobanu; M. A. Ciocci; A. Clark; D. Clark; M. Coca; G. Compostella; M. E. Convery; J. Conway; B. Cooper; K. Copic; M. Cordelli; G. Cortiana; F. Crescioli; C. Cuenca Almenar; J. Cuevas; R. Culbertson; J. C. Cully; D. Cyr; S. Daronco; M. Datta; S. D'Auria; T. Davies; M. D'Onofrio; D. Dagenhart; P. de Barbaro; S. de Cecco; A. Deisher; G. de Lentdecker; M. Dell'Orso; F. Delli Paoli; L. Demortier; J. Deng; M. Deninno; D. de Pedis; P. F. Derwent; G. P. di Giovanni; C. Dionisi; B. di Ruzza; J. R. Dittmann; P. Dituro; C. Dörr; S. Donati; M. Donega; P. Dong; J. Donini; T. Dorigo; S. Dube; J. Efron; R. Erbacher; D. Errede; S. Errede; R. Eusebi; H. C. Fang; S. Farrington; I. Fedorko; W. T. Fedorko; R. G. Feild; M. Feindt; J. P. Fernandez; R. Field; G. Flanagan; A. Foland; S. Forrester; G. W. Foster; M. Franklin; J. C. Freeman; I. Furic; M. Gallinaro; J. Galyardt; J. E. Garcia; F. Garberson; A. F. Garfinkel; C. Gay; H. Gerberich; D. Gerdes; S. Giagu; P. Giannetti; A. Gibson; K. Gibson; J. L. Gimmell; C. Ginsburg; N. Giokaris; M. Giordani; P. Giromini; M. Giunta; G. Giurgiu; V. Glagolev; D. Glenzinski; M. Gold; N. Goldschmidt; J. Goldstein; A. Golossanov; G. Gomez; G. Gomez-Ceballos; M. Goncharov; O. González; I. Gorelov; A. T. Goshaw; K. Goulianos; A. Gresele; M. Griffiths; S. Grinstein; C. Grosso-Pilcher; U. Grundler; J. Guimaraes da Costa; Z. Gunay-Unalan; C. Haber; K. Hahn; S. R. Hahn; E. Halkiadakis; B.-Y. Han; J. Y. Han; R. Handler; F. Happacher; K. Hara; M. Hare; S. Harper; R. F. Harr; R. M. Harris; M. Hartz; K. Hatakeyama; J. Hauser; A. Heijboer; B. Heinemann; J. Heinrich; C. Henderson; M. Herndon; J. Heuser; D. Hidas; C. S. Hill; D. Hirschbuehl; A. Hocker; A. Holloway; S. Hou; M. Houlden; S.-C. Hsu; B. T. Huffman; R. E. Hughes; U. Husemann; J. Huston; J. Incandela; G. Introzzi; M. Iori; Y. Ishizawa; A. Ivanov; B. Iyutin; E. James; D. Jang; B. Jayatilaka; D. Jeans; H. Jensen; E. J. Jeon; S. Jindariani; M. Jones; K. K. Joo; S. Y. Jun; J. E. Jung; T. R. Junk; T. Kamon; P. E. Karchin; Y. Kato; Y. Kemp; R. Kephart; U. Kerzel; V. Khotilovich; B. Kilminster; D. H. Kim; H. S. Kim; J. E. Kim; M. J. Kim; S. B. Kim; S. H. Kim; Y. K. Kim; N. Kimura; L. Kirsch; S. Klimenko; M. Klute; B. Knuteson; B. R. Ko; K. Kondo; D. J. Kong; J. Konigsberg; A. Korytov; A. V. Kotwal; A. Kovalev; A. C. Kraan; J. Kraus; I. Kravchenko; M. Kreps; J. Kroll; N. Krumnack; M. Kruse; V. Krutelyov; T. Kubo; S. E. Kuhlmann; T. Kuhr; Y. Kusakabe; S. Kwang; A. T. Laasanen; S. Lai; S. Lami; S. Lammel; M. Lancaster; R. L. Lander; K. Lannon; A. Lath; G. Latino; I. Lazzizzera; T. Lecompte; J. Lee; Y. J. Lee; S. W. Lee; R. Lefèvre; N. Leonardo; S. Leone; S. Levy; J. D. Lewis; C. Lin; M. Lindgren; E. Lipeles; A. Lister; D. O. Litvintsev; T. Liu; N. S. Lockyer; A. Loginov; M. Loreti; P. Loverre; R.-S. Lu; D. Lucchesi; P. Lujan; P. Lukens; G. Lungu; L. Lyons; J. Lys; R. Lysak; E. Lytken; P. Mack; D. MacQueen; R. Madrak; K. Maeshima; K. Makhoul; T. Maki; P. Maksimovic; S. Malde; G. Manca; F. Margaroli; R. Marginean; C. Marino; A. Martin; M. Martin; V. Martin; M. Martínez; T. Maruyama; P. Mastrandrea; T. Masubuchi; H. Matsunaga; M. E. Mattson; R. Mazini; P. Mazzanti; K. S. McFarland; P. McIntyre; R. McNulty; A. Mehta; P. Mehtala; S. Menzemer; A. Menzione; P. Merkel; C. Mesropian; A. Messina; T. Miao; N. Miladinovic; J. Miles; R. Miller; C. Mills; M. Milnik; A. Mitra; G. Mitselmakher; A. Miyamoto; S. Moed; N. Moggi; B. Mohr; R. Moore; M. Morello; P. Movilla Fernandez; J. Mülmenstädt; A. Mukherjee; Th. Muller; R. Mumford; P. Murat; J. Nachtman; A. Nagano; J. Naganoma; I. Nakano; A. Napier; V. Necula; C. Neu; M. S. Neubauer; J. Nielsen

2007-01-01

320

Seeking the boundary of boundary extension.  

PubMed

Boundary extension (BE) is a remarkably consistent visual memory error in which participants remember seeing a more wide-angle image of a scene than was actually viewed (Intraub & Richardson, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:179-187, 1989). Multiple stimulus factors are thought to contribute to the occurrence of BE, including object recognition, conceptual knowledge of scenes, and amodal perception at the view boundaries (Intraub, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science 3:117-127, 2012). In the present study, we used abstract scenes instead of images of the real world, in order to remove expectations based on semantic associations with objects and the schematic context of the view. Close-angle and wide-angle scenes were created using irregular geometric shapes rated by independent observers as lacking any easily recognizable structure. The abstract objects were tested on either a random-dot or a blank background in order to assess the influence of implied continuation of the image beyond its boundaries. The random-dot background conditions had background occlusion cues either present or absent at the image border, in order to test their influence on BE in the absence of high-level information about the scenes. The results indicate that high-level information about objects and schematic context is unnecessary for BE to occur, and that occlusion information at the image boundary also has little influence on BE. Contrary to previous studies, we also found clear BE for all conditions, despite using scenes depicting undetailed objects on a blank white background. The results highlighted the ubiquitous nature of BE and the adaptability of scene perception processes. PMID:23921509

McDunn, Benjamin A; Siddiqui, Aisha P; Brown, James M

2014-04-01

321

Overstepping Mother Earth's Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Have we overstepped Mother Earth's boundaries? What are the consequences? In this video segment adapted from Haskell Indian Nations University, hear a Native perspective on our relationship with the natural environment.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2010-03-31

322

Defining Regional Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to identify a reqion for study as a system, and to establish a list of characteristics and features useful for determining the boundaries of regional systems. Students discuss their current understanding of what Earth systems are and how they work, and consider how to identify the boundaries of a region for Earth system study. In small groups, they select a region for recommendation to the class, and they make a list of characteristics and features that can mark the boundaries of regional systems. After presentations by each group, the class chooses one region for study as an Earth system. Then they mark the boundaries of their chosen region on their Landsat image, topographic map, or other map.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

323

Boundaries and Topological Algorithms  

E-print Network

This thesis develops a model for the topological structure of situations. In this model, the topological structure of space is altered by the presence or absence of boundaries, such as those at the edges of objects. ...

Fleck, Margaret Morrison

1988-09-01

324

Mapping Plate Tectonic Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

To prepare for this activity, students do background reading on Plate Tectonics from the course textbook. Students also participate in a lecture on the discovery and formulation of the unifying theory of plate tectonics, and the relationship between plate boundaries and geologic features such as volcanoes. Lastly, in lecture, students are introduced to a series of geologic hazards caused by certain plate tectonic interactions. The activity gives students practices at identifying plate boundaries and allows them to explore lesser known tectonically active regions.

Kerwin, Michael

325

The Blake Nose Cretaceous-Paleogene (Florida atlantic margin, ODP Leg 171 B): An exemplar record of the Maastrichtian-Danian transition [Le Cre??tace??-Pale??oge??ne du Blake Nose (marge atlantique de la Floride, campagne ODP 171 B) : Un enregistrement exemplaire de la transition Maastrichtien-Danien  

USGS Publications Warehouse

During ODP Leg 171B, devoted to the analysis of the Blake Plateau margin in front of Florida, 16 holes have been drilled in 5 distinct sites. The sites have documented a sedimentary succession ranging in age from Aptian to Eocene. Emphasis has been put on critical periods, comprising the Paleocene-Eocene transition, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary which has been cored in excellent conditions, the middle Maastrichtian extinctions and the Albian anoxic episodes.

Bellier, J.-P.; Marca, S.; Norris, R.D.; Kroon, D.; Klaus, A.; Alexander, I.T.; Bardot, L.P.; Barker, C.E.; Blome, C.D.; Clarke, L.J.; Erbacher, J.; Faul, K.L.; Holmes, M.A.; Huber, B.T.; Katz, M.E.; MacLeod, K.G.; Martinez-Ruiz, F. C.; Mita, I.; Nakai, M.; Ogg, J.G.; Pak, D.K.; Pletsch, T.K.; Self-Trail J.M.; Shackleton, N.J.; Smit, J.; Ussler, W., III; Watkins, D.K.; Widmark, J.; Wilson, P.A.

1997-01-01

326

Le Crétacé-Paléogène du Blake Nose (marge atlantique de la Floride, campagne ODP 171 B): un enregistrement exemplaire de la transition Maastrichtien-Danien  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During ODP Leg 171B, devoted to the analysis of the Blake Plateau margin in front of Florida, 16 holes have been drilled in 5 distinct sites. The sites have documented a sedimentary succession ranging in age from Aptian to Eocene. Emphasis has been put on critical periods, comprising the Paleocene-Eocene transition, the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary which has been cored in excellent conditions, the middle Maastrichtian extinctions and the Albian anoxic episodes.

Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Marca, Sandra; Norris, Richard D.; Kroon, Dick; Klaus, Adam; Alexander, Ian T.; Bardot, Léon Paul; Barker, Charles E.; Blome, Charles D.; Clarke, Leon J.; Erbacher, Jochen; Faul, Kristina L.; Holmes, Mary Anne; Huber, Brian T.; Kate, Miriam E.; MacLeod, Kenneth G.; Martinez-Ruiz, Francisca C.; Mita, Isao; Nakai, Mutsumi; Ogg, James G.; Pak, Dorothy K.; Pletsch, Thomas K.; Self-Trail, Jean M.; Shackleton, Nicholas J.; Smit, Jan; Ussler, William; Watkins, David K.; Widmark, Joen; Wilson, Paul A.

1997-10-01

327

Alvarez, Luis Walter (1911-88)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physicist and astronomer, born in San Francisco, CA, professor at the University of California, Nobel prizewinner (1968) for his discoveries in particle physics. Used cosmic rays to `x-ray' the pyramids of Egypt, finding in particular that the tombs in the Great Pyramid at Giza had no hidden rooms. Alvarez (and his son) discovered globally distributed iridium at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary i...

Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

328

Survival of the Fittest?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson plan students will investigate the evidence from modern and prehistoric crocodilians like SuperCroc (Sarcosuchus imperator) to determine the causes of survival and mass extinction at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary about 65 million years ago. Students will research and take notes on questions about modern and prehistoric crocodilians, and write papers providing their opinions of why crocodilians have survived so long, including evidence from their research.

329

Possible Climatic Perturbations Produced by Impacting Asteroids and Comets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the Chicxulub impact event suggest that large volumes of evaporites and carbonates in the target may have been vaporized, enhancing concentrations of S-rich aerosols and CO2 in the atmosphere, which may have, in turn, been partly responsible for the mass extinction that occurred at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. We note that in this and other impact events the projectile

D. A. Kring; H. J. Melosh; D. M. Hunten

1995-01-01

330

Meteoric smoke fallout over the Holocene epoch revealed by iridium and platinum in Greenland ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

An iridium anomaly at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary layer has been attributed to an extraterrestrial body that struck the Earth some 65million years ago. It has been suggested that, during this event, the carrier of iridium was probably a micrometre-sized silicate-enclosed aggregate or the nanophase material of the vaporized impactor. But the fate of platinum-group elements (such as iridium) that regularly

Paolo Gabrielli; Carlo Barbante; John M. C. Plane; Anita Varga; Sungmin Hong; Giulio Cozzi; Vania Gaspari; Frédéric A. M. Planchon; Warren Cairns; Christophe Ferrari; Paul Crutzen; Paolo Cescon; Claude F. Boutron

2004-01-01

331

Chemistry of Fullerenes on the Earth and in the Solar System: A 1995 Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fullerenes C(sub)60 and C(sub)70, the all-carbon molecules with closed-cage structures were discovered in 1990 in shungite from the Kola peninsula. Subsequent discoveries in terrestrial materials include a fulgurite from Colorado, clays and marls from several locations on the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, and carbon-rich breccias from the Sudbury impact structure. A search for fullerenes in the carbon-rich materials anthraxolite, shungite, and thucholite, however, failed to find them.

Heymann, D.

1996-03-01

332

The Manson Impact Structure: 40Ar\\/39Ar Age and Its Distal Impact Ejecta in the Pierre Shale in Southeastern South Dakota  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 40Ar\\/39Ar ages of a sanidine clast from a melt-matrix breccia of the Manson, lowa, impact structure (MIS) indicate that the MIS formed 73.8 ± 0.3 million years ago (Ma) and is not coincident with the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (64.43 ± 0.05 Ma). The MIS sanidine is 9 million years older than 40Ar\\/39Ar age spectra of MIS shock-metamorphosed microcline and melt-matrix

G. A. Izett; W. A. Cobban; J. D. Obradovich; M. J. Kunk

1993-01-01

333

Anomalies within the system - Rochechouart target rock meteorite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contaminated impact crater formations are pertinent to the study of meteoritic contamination at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and other Ir-enriched layers. Target mixing considerations and volumetric estimates of Rochechouart breccias are presently combined with the geochemistry of both major and siderophile trace elements, to evaluate how the chemistry of the preserved target rock-projectile mixture evolved since deposition. Over 99 percent of

P. Lambert

1982-01-01

334

Accretion rate of extraterrestrial matter - Iridium deposited 33 to 67 million years ago  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iridium measured in 149 samples of a continuous 9-meter section of Pacific abyssal clay covering the time span 33 to 67 million years ago shows a well-defined peak only at the Cretaceous\\/Tertiary boundary. In the rest of the section iridium ranges from a minimum concentration near 0.35 nanograms per gram in the Paleocene to a maximum near 1.7 in the

F. T. Kyte; J. T. Wasson

1986-01-01

335

Microtektites, microkrystites, and spinels from a late Pliocene asteroid impact in the southern ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of glassy spherules found in sedimentary deposits of a late Pliocene asteroid impact into the southeast Pacific are similar to those of both microtektites and microkrystites. These spherules probably formed from molten silicate droplets that condensed from an impact-generated vapor cloud. The spherules contain inclusions of magnesioferrite spinels similar to those in spherules found at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary, indicating that both sets of spherules are impact debris formed under similar physical and chemical conditions.

Margolis, S. V.; Claeys, P.; Kyte, F. T.

1991-03-01

336

Road boundary detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method for extracting road boundaries using the monochrome image of a visual road scene is presented. The statistical information regarding the intensity levels present in the image along with some geometrical constraints concerning the road are the basics of this approach. Results and advantages of this technique compared to others are discussed. The major advantages of this technique, when compared to others, are its ability to process the image in only one pass, to limit the area searched in the image using only knowledge concerning the road geometry and previous boundary information, and dynamically adjust for inconsistencies in the located boundary information, all of which helps to increase the efficacy of this technique.

Sowers, J.; Mehrotra, R.; Sethi, I. K.

1989-01-01

337

Probabilistic boundary element method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of the Probabilistic Structural Analysis Method (PSAM) project is to develop structural analysis capabilities for the design analysis of advanced space propulsion system hardware. The boundary element method (BEM) is used as the basis of the Probabilistic Advanced Analysis Methods (PADAM) which is discussed. The probabilistic BEM code (PBEM) is used to obtain the structural response and sensitivity results to a set of random variables. As such, PBEM performs analogous to other structural analysis codes such as finite elements in the PSAM system. For linear problems, unlike the finite element method (FEM), the BEM governing equations are written at the boundary of the body only, thus, the method eliminates the need to model the volume of the body. However, for general body force problems, a direct condensation of the governing equations to the boundary of the body is not possible and therefore volume modeling is generally required.

Cruse, T. A.; Raveendra, S. T.

1989-01-01

338

Cartographic Boundary Files  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cartographic Boundary Files Web site from the US Census Bureau contains "generalized extracts from the Census Bureau's TIGER geographic database for use in a Geographic Information System (GIS) or similar mapping systems." The files are mainly from the 2000 census and contain such things as Congressional Districts, School Districts, Urbanized Areas, and more. The Descriptions and Metadata link gives users an idea of what is contained in each file before downloading, and the Download Boundary Files link lists each file that can than be downloaded, all available in several formats.

339

Discovering Plate Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

???d?ersity's Earth Science Department offers the Discovering Plate Boundaries educational activity. The exercise is described as a data rich exercise to help students discover the processes that occur at plate tectonic boundaries and has been used successfully with 5th graders to undergraduates. The site provides the necessary downloads of maps; earthquake, volcanic, seafloor, topographic, and bathymetric data; and teacher guides and complete instructions. Because the activity can be geared towards such a large range of students, is well designed, and is easily accessible, educators will definitely appreciate the site.

2007-12-12

340

Detection of road boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several researchers have proposed and implemented various systems pertaining to the development of autonomous land vehicles (ALVs). One fundamental problem associated with the navigation of an ALV is the ability to efficiently extract the boundaries of the pathway that need to be navigated. In this paper a method is presented that will determine the road boundaries in one pass using a limited search area in the input image. The method employs the statistical information regarding the gray levels present in the images along with geometrical constraints concerning the road. Some examples are given to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

Sowers, James P.; Mehrotra, Rajiv

1988-01-01

341

Meteors and Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource covers meteors; meteor showers, such as Leonids; the relationship between meteor showers and comets; fireballs; classification of meteorites into chondrite, iron and carbonaceous chondrite meteorites; and meteorite impacts, including their velocities. There is information on a meteorite that may have come from the asteroid Vesta; a Mars meteorite that may hold evidence of life; the relation between the Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction (commonly known as the K-T Event), the Chicxulub crater in the Yucatan region of Mexico, and dinosaur extinction; and antarctic meteorites. There is also a video clip of the Peekskill fireball of 1992, and a photograph of the Barringer Crater of Arizona.

2007-06-05

342

The Arctic plate boundary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthquakes provide information on the regional segmentation and seismotectonics of the poorly known boundary between the Eurasian and the North American plates from the Knipovich Ridge to the Laptev Sea continental margin. To this end, we have sorted earthquake epicenter locations and focal mechanism solutions from global and regional catalogs, assessed location errors and network detectabilities, and compiled a well-constrained

Øyvind Engen; Olav Eldholm; Hilmar Bungum

2003-01-01

343

2000 CENSUS BLOCK BOUNDARIES  

EPA Science Inventory

This data set is a polygon shapefile of the boundaries of Census Blocks in New England derived from U.S. Census Bureau 2000 TIGER/Line data. Numerous attributes pertaining to population are included. TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau o...

344

Dialogic Bonds and Boundaries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of literature cannot be divorced from cultural contexts, nor can it ignore the humanist vision in interpreting literary texts. To discover dialogic bonds and boundaries between the reader and the text, or the writer and the audience, English classes should have two objectives: (1) to explore the diversity of perspectives, and (2) to relate…

Khawaja, Mabel

345

The atmospheric boundary layer  

SciTech Connect

This book is aimed at researchers in the atmospheric and associated sciences who require a moderately advanced text on the Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) in which the many links between turbulence, air-surface transfer, boundary-layer structure and dynamics, and numerical modeling are discussed and elaborated upon. Chapter 1 serves as an introduction, with Chapters 2 and 3 dealing with the development of mean and turbulence equations, and the many scaling laws and theories that are the cornerstone of any serious ABL treatment. Modelling of the ABL is crucially dependent for its realism on the surface boundary conditions, and Chapters 4 and 5 deal with aerodynamic and energy considerations, with attention to both dry and wet land surfaces and the sea. The structure of the clear-sky, thermally stratified ABL is treated in Chapter 6, including the convective and stable cases over homogeneous land, the marine ABL and the internal boundary layer at the coastline. Chapter 7 then extends the discussion to the cloudy ABL. This is seen as particularly relevant since the extensive stratocumulus regions over the sub-tropical oceans and stratus regions over the Arctic are now identified as key players in the climate system. Finally, Chapters 8 and 9 bring much of the book's material together in a discussion of appropriate ABL and surface parameterization schemes for the general circulation models of the atmosphere that are being used for climate simulation.

Garratt, J.R.

1992-01-01

346

Mapping Plate Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This in-class exercise, profiled on the Starting Point website, is intended to have the students discover plate boundaries based on the uneven geographic occurrence of geologic hazards. The website details the learning goals, teaching notes and materials, and context for this activity. It offers an extensive list of links to additional resources and materials for lecture on geologic hazards and plate tectonics.

Johnson, Rurik

2009-11-12

347

The immersed boundary method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the mathematical structure of the immersed boundary (IB) method, which is intended for the computer simulation of fluid{structure interaction, especially in biological fluid dynamics. The IB formulation of such problems, derived here from the principle of least ac- tion, involves both Eulerian and Lagrangian variables, linked by the Dirac delta function. Spatial discretization of the

Charles S. Peskin

2002-01-01

348

The role of partial grain boundary dislocations in grain boundary sliding and coupled grain boundary motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the process of grain boundary sliding through the motion of grain boundary dislocations, utilizing molecular dynamics\\u000a and embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials. For a ? = 5 [001]{310} symmetrical tilt boundary in bcc Fe, the sliding\\u000a process was found to occur through the nucleation and glide of partial grain boundary dislocations, with a secondary grain\\u000a boundary structure playing an

Joshua Monk; Brian Hyde; Diana Farkas

2006-01-01

349

Boundary layer emission and Z-track in the color-color diagram of luminous LMXBs  

E-print Network

We demonstrate that Fourier-frequency resolved spectra of atoll and Z- sources are identical, despite significant difference in their average spectra and luminosity (by a factor of ~10-20). This result fits in the picture we suggested earlier, namely that the f> 1 Hz variability in luminous LMXBs is primarily due to variations of the boundary layer luminosity. In this picture the frequency resolved spectrum equals the boundary layer spectrum, which therefore can be straightforwardly determnined from the data. The obtained so boundary layer spectrum is well approximated by the saturated Comptonization model, its high energy cut-off follows kT~2.4 keV black body. Its independence on the global mass accretion rate lends support to the theoretical suggestion by Inogamov &Sunyaev (1999) that the boundary layer is radiation pressure supported. With this assumption we constrain the gravity on the neutron star surface and its mass and radius. Equipped with the knowledge of the boundary layer spectrum we attempt to relate the motion along the Z-track to changes of physically meaningful parameters. Our results suggest that the contribution of the boundary layer to the observed emission decreases along the Z-track from conventional ~50% on the horizontal branch to a rather small number on the normal branch. This decrease can be caused, for example, by obscuration of the boundary layer by the geometrically thick accretion disk at Mdot ~ Mdot_Edd. Alternatively, this can indicate significant change of the structure of the accretion flow at Mdot ~ Mdot_ Edd and disappearance of the boundary layer as a distinct region of the significant energy release associated with the neutron star surface.

M. Revnivtsev; M. Gilfanov

2005-06-01

350

Boundary transfer matrices and boundary quantum KZ equations  

E-print Network

A simple relation between inhomogeneous transfer matrices and boundary quantum KZ equations is exhibited for quantum integrable systems with reflecting boundary conditions, analogous to an observation by Gaudin for periodic systems. Thus the boundary quantum KZ equations receive a new motivation. We also derive the commutativity of Sklyanin's boundary transfer matrices by merely imposing appropriate reflection equations, i.e. without using the conditions of crossing symmetry and unitarity of the R-matrix.

Bart Vlaar

2014-08-14

351

Boundary Element Method Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Boundary Element Method is a numerical scheme for solving partial differential equations. In this tutorial, we illustrate this method using the example of temperature distribution in a two dimensional plate. The tutorial was developed by Professor Jerry Dwyer and Kathy Hichcock of the Mathematics Departments of the University of Tennessee and Leonard Gray of the Mathematical Sciences Section of Oak Ridge National Laboratory . The zip file contains a word file.

Dwyer, Jerry; Hitchcock, Kathy; Gray, Leonard

2004-09-21

352

Tectonic Plates and Plate Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive activity adapted from NASA features world maps that identify different sections of the Earth's crust called tectonic plates. The locations of different types of plate boundaries are also identified, including convergent, divergent, and transform boundaries.

2005-12-17

353

Discovering Plate Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Discovering Plate Boundaries is based on 5 world maps containing earthquake, volcano, topography, satellite gravity, and seafloor age data. The novel aspect of the exercise is the "jigsaw" manner in which student groups access the maps and use them to discover, classify, and describe plate boundary types. The exercise is based only on observation and description, which makes it useful at a wide variety of levels; it has been used successfully in 5th grade classes, as well as in non-major earth science classes. The exercise is based on a set of wall maps that are not consumed during the exercise. Other inexpensive materials required include two 11x17 black and white copies per student and colored pencils. Because the exercise is not based on student access to the web, it is not dependent on classroom technology equipment. The exercise takes three 50-minute class periods to complete, and involves the students in making presentations to one another in small groups as well as to the whole class. The students come away from the exercise with knowledge of the key features of each type of plate boundary and a sense of why each looks and acts the way it does.

Dale Sawyer

1997-09-15

354

Boundary dynamics and multiple reflection expansion for Robin boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the presence of a boundary interaction, Neumann boundary conditions should be modified to contain a function S of the boundary fields: (?N+S)?=0. Information on quantum boundary dynamics is then encoded in the S-dependent part of the effective action. In the present paper we extend the multiple reflection expansion method to the Robin boundary conditions mentioned above, and calculate the heat kernel and the effective action (i) for constant S, (ii) to the order S2 with an arbitrary number of tangential derivatives. Some applications to symmetry breaking effects, tachyon condensation and a brane world are briefly discussed.

Bordag, M.; Falomir, H.; Santangelo, E. M.; Vassilevich, D. V.

2002-03-01

355

Boundaries on Spacetimes: An Outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causal boundary construction of Geroch, Kronheimer, and Penrose has some universal properties of importance for general studies of spacetimes, particularly when equipped with a topology derived from the causal structure. Properties of the causal boundary are detailed for spacetimes with spacelike boundaries, for multi-warped spacetimes, for static spacetimes, and for spacetimes with group actions.

Steven G. Harris

2003-01-01

356

Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103)  

E-print Network

of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and thermodynamics will be taught. Basic concepts of turbulence theory will be discussed and analyzed. Applications of this theory in the atmospheric boundary layer and mesoscale modeling and simulation of turbulent flows in atmospheric boundary layers under different meteorological conditions

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

357

METEOROLOGY 130 Boundary Layer Meteorology  

E-print Network

is designed to introduce the student to the atmospheric boundary layer and its properties. The course 1. To be able to describe the atmospheric boundary layer conceptually using figures and plots. 2. To understand how measurements of the atmospheric boundary layer are made. Reading and Textbook Roland Stull

Clements, Craig

358

5, 31913223, 2005 Boundary layer  

E-print Network

atmospheric research station (53.32 N, 9.90 W) on the west coast of Ireland.25 Boundary layer depthACPD 5, 3191­3223, 2005 Boundary layer structure during NAMBLEX E. G. Norton et al. Title Page Discussions Boundary layer structure and decoupling from synoptic scale flow during NAMBLEX E. G. Norton 1 , G

Boyer, Edmond

359

Boundary Layer Meteorology (METR 5103)  

E-print Network

of the atmospheric boundary layer dynamics and thermodynamics, including the basic concepts of turbulence theory conditions will be discussed and critically analyzed. Role of the boundary layer in atmospheric processes be considered. Atmospheric boundary layer types ranging from strongly stable to neutral and to strongly unstable

Droegemeier, Kelvin K.

360

10, 1990119938, 2010 Boundary layer  

E-print Network

ACPD 10, 19901­19938, 2010 Boundary layer dynamics over London J. F. Barlow et al. Title Page (ACP). Please refer to the corresponding final paper in ACP if available. Boundary layer dynamics over Boundary layer dynamics over London J. F. Barlow et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions

Weber, Rodney

361

THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER  

E-print Network

THE MARTIAN ATMOSPHERIC BOUNDARY LAYER A. Petrosyan,1 B. Galperin,2 S. E. Larsen,3 S. R. Lewis,4 A September 2011. [1] The planetary boundary layer (PBL) represents the part of the atmosphere), The Martian atmospheric boundary layer, Rev. Geophys., 49, RG3005, doi:10.1029/2010RG000351. 1. INTRODUCTION

Spiga, Aymeric

362

The Hale solar sector boundary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Hale solar sector boundary is defined as the half (Northern Hemisphere or Southern Hemisphere) of a sector boundary in which the change of sector magnetic field polarity is the same as the change of polarity from a preceding spot to a following spot. Above a Hale sector boundary the green corona has maximum brightness, while above a non-Hale boundary the green corona has a minimum brightness. The Hale portion of a photospheric sector boundary tends to have maximum magnetic field strength, while the non-Hale portion has minimum field strength.

Svalgaard, L.; Wilcox, J. M.

1976-01-01

363

A classification of ecological boundaries  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

Strayer, D.L.; Power, M.E.; Fagan, W.F.; Pickett, S.T.A.; Belnap, J.

2003-01-01

364

Measurement of the ratio of inclusive jet cross sections using the anti-kT algorithm with radius parameters R =0.5 and 0.7 in pp collisions at ?s =7 TeV  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Measurements of the inclusive jet cross section with the anti-kT clustering algorithm are presented for two radius parameters, R =0.5 and 0.7. They are based on data from LHC proton-proton collisions at ?s =7 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 fb-1 collected with the CMS detector in 2011. The ratio of these two measurements is obtained as a function of the rapidity and transverse momentum of the jets. Significant discrepancies are found comparing the data to leading-order simulations and to fixed-order calculations at next-to-leading order, corrected for nonperturbative effects, whereas simulations with next-to-leading-order matrix elements matched to parton showers describe the data best.

Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Heracleous, N.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Keaveney, J.; Kim, T. J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Dildick, S.; Garcia, G.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Malek, M.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Tomei, T. R. Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Plestina, R.; Tao, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, Y.; Li, Q.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zhang, L.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Morovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Juillot, P.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Brochet, S.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.

2014-10-01

365

Black holes without boundaries  

E-print Network

We discuss some of the drawbacks of using event horizons to define black holes and suggest ways in which black holes can be described without event horizons, using trapping horizons. We show that these trapping horizons give rise to thermodynamic behavior and possibly Hawking radiation too. This raises the issue of whether the event horizon or the trapping horizon should be seen as the true boundary of a black hole. This difference is important if we believe that quantum gravity will resolve the central singularity of the black hole and clarifies several of the issues associated with black hole thermodynamics and information loss.

Alex B. Nielsen

2008-09-10

366

Subduction at Convergent Boundary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts subduction. The narrated animated movie (simulation) shows subduction of the Indian Plate as the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate converge at the plate boundary. The segment begins showing a world view of the Earth's plates and zooms in on the highlighted Indian and Eurasian plate activity. The animation transitions to a cross-sectional view, giving an inside-the-Earth look at what happens as these plates converge. The movie can be viewed in two ways- in continuous play or step by step.

367

The Magnetopause Boundary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students explore in a quantitative way, how the distance to the bowshock balance point depends on the solar wind pressure acting on the Earth's magnetic field. They will explore the changes using actual satellite data, by both an algebraic and a graphical process. Students will discover that as the solar wind flows past the Earth, it applies pressure to the magnetic field of the earth, sweeping it back into a comet-like shape on the nighttime side of the planet and that the brunt of the solar wind pressure is exerted on the dayside field, compressing it; only the restorative pressure of the magnetic field pushes against the solar wind, and a rough balance of these pressures occurs. Students also learn that this balance moves towards the Earth when the solar wind pressure increases, and it moves outwards toward the sun as the solar wind pressure slackens. This line is called the magnetopause boundary. During this activity students use simple algebra to calculate the distance to the boundary where the solar wind presses on Earth's magnetosphere.

Odenwald, Sten

368

Boundary layer transition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The boundary layer stability, its active control by sound and surface heating and the effect of curvature are studied numerically and experimentally for subsonic flow. In addition, the experimental and flight test data are correlated using the stability theory for supersonic Mach numbers. Active transition fixing and feedback control of boundary layer by sound interactions are experimentally investigated at low speed over an airfoil. Numerical simulation of active control by surface heating and cooling in air shows that by appropriate phase adjustment a reduction in the level of perturbation can be obtained. This simulation is based on the solution of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a flat plate. Goertler vortices are studied experimentally on an airfoil in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). The flow pattern was visualized using the sublimating chemical technique and data were obtained using a three component laser velocimeter. The effect of curvature on swept leading-edge stability on a cylinder was numerically studied. The results suggest that transition is dominated by traveling disturbance waves and that the waves with the greatest total amplification has an amplitude ratio of e sup 11. Experimental data from the quiet supersonic tunnel and flight tests are analyzed using linear compressible stability theory.

Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.; Mangalam, S. M.; Malik, M. R.

1986-12-01

369

Boundary layer transition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The boundary layer stability, its active control by sound and surface heating and the effect of curvature are studied numerically and experimentally for subsonic flow. In addition, the experimental and flight test data are correlated using the stability theory for supersonic Mach numbers. Active transition fixing and feedback control of boundary layer by sound interactions are experimentally investigated at low speed over an airfoil. Numerical simulation of active control by surface heating and cooling in air shows that by appropriate phase adjustment a reduction in the level of perturbation can be obtained. This simulation is based on the solution of two-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations for a flat plate. Goertler vortices are studied experimentally on an airfoil in the Low Turbulence Pressure Tunnel (LTPT). The flow pattern was visualized using the sublimating chemical technique and data were obtained using a three component laser velocimeter. The effect of curvature on swept leading-edge stability on a cylinder was numerically studied. The results suggest that transition is dominated by traveling disturbance waves and that the waves with the greatest total amplification has an amplitude ratio of e sup 11. Experimental data from the quiet supersonic tunnel and flight tests are analyzed using linear compressible stability theory.

Maestrello, L.; Bayliss, A.; Mangalam, S. M.; Malik, M. R.

1986-01-01

370

A Classification of Ecological Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This peer-reviewed article from BioScience is about defining ecological boundaries. Ecologists use the term boundary to refer to a wide range of real and conceptual structures. Because imprecise terminology may impede the search for general patterns and theories about ecological boundaries, we present a classification of the attributes of ecological boundaries to aid in communication and theory development. Ecological boundaries may differ in their origin and maintenance, their spatial structure, their function, and their temporal dynamics. A classification system based on these attributes should help ecologists determine whether boundaries are truly comparable. This system can be applied when comparing empirical studies, comparing theories, and testing theoretical predictions against empirical results.

DAVID L. STRAYER, MARY E. POWER, WILLIAM F. FAGAN, STEWARD T. A. PICKETT, and JAYNE BELNAP (;)

2003-08-01

371

Boundary layer transition studies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A small-scale wind tunnel previously used for turbulent boundary layer experiments was modified for two sets of boundary layer transition studies. The first study concerns a laminar separation/turbulent reattachment. The pressure gradient and unit Reynolds number are the same as the fully turbulent flow of Spalart and Watmuff. Without the trip wire, a laminar layer asymptotes to a Falkner & Skan similarity solution in the FPG. Application of the APG causes the layer to separate and a highly turbulent and approximately 2D mean flow reattachment occurs downstream. In an effort to gain some physical insight into the flow processes a small impulsive disturbance was introduced at the C(sub p) minimum. The facility is totally automated and phase-averaged data are measured on a point-by-point basis using unprecedently large grids. The evolution of the disturbance has been tracked all the way into the reattachment region and beyond into the fully turbulent boundary layer. At first, the amplitude decays exponentially with streamwise distance in the APG region, where the layer remains attached, i.e. the layer is viscously stable. After separation, the rate of decay slows, and a point of minimum amplitude is reached where the contours of the wave packet exhibit dispersive characteristics. From this point, exponential growth of the amplitude of the disturbance is observed in the detached shear layer, i.e. the dominant instability mechanism is inviscid. A group of large-scale 3D vortex loops emerges in the vicinity of the reattachment. Remarkably, the second loop retains its identify far downstream in the turbulent boundary layer. The results provide a level of detail usually associated with CFD. Substantial modifications were made to the facility for the second study concerning disturbances generated by Suction Holes for laminar flow Control (LFC). The test section incorporates suction through interchangeable porous test surfaces. Detailed studies have been made using isolated holes in the impervious test plate that used to establish the Blasius base flow. The suction is perturbed harmonically and data are averaged on the basis of the phase of the disturbance, for conditions corresponding to strong suction and without suction. The technique was enhanced by using up to nine multiple probes to reduce the experimental run-time. In both cases, 3D contour surfaces in the vicinity of the hole show highly 3D TS waves which fan out in the spanwise direction forming bow-shaped waves downstream. The case without suction has proved useful for evaluating calculation methods. With suction, the perturbations on the centerline are much stronger and decay less rapidly, while the TS waves in the far field are similar to the case without suction. Downstream, the contour surfaces of the TS waves develop spanwise irregularities which eventually form into clumps. The spanwise clumping is evidence of a secondary instability that could be associated with suction vortices. Designers of porous surfaces use Goldsmith's Criterion to minimize cross-stream interactions. It is shown that partial TS wave cancellation is possible, depending on the hole spacing, disturbance frequency and free-stream velocity. New high-performance Constant Temperature Hot-Wire Anemometers were designed and built, based on a linear system theory analysis that can be extended to arbitrary order. The motivation was to achieve the highest possible frequency reponse while ensuring overall system stability. The performance is equal to or superior to commercially available instruments at about 10% of the cost. Details, such as fabrication drawings and a parts list, have been published to enable the instrument to be construced by others.

Watmuff, Jonathan H.

1995-01-01

372

Modeling the urban boundary layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary and evaluation is given of the Workshop on Modeling the Urban Boundary Layer; held in Las Vegas on May 5, 1975. Edited summaries from each of the session chairpersons are also given. The sessions were: (1) formulation and solution techniques, (2) K-theory versus higher order closure, (3) surface heat and moisture balance, (4) initialization and boundary problems, (5) nocturnal boundary layer, and (6) verification of models.

Bergstrom, R. W., Jr.

1976-01-01

373

Adaptive Multilingual Sentence Boundary Disambiguation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sentence is a standard textual unit in natual language processing applications. In many language the punctuation mark that indicates the end-of-sentence boundary is ambiguous; thus the tokenizers of most NLP systems must be equipped with special sentence boundary recognition rules for every new text collection.As an alternative, this article presents an efficient, trainable system for sentence boundary disambiguation. The

David D. Palmer; Marti A. Hearst

1997-01-01

374

Minimalist turbulent boundary layer model.  

PubMed

We discuss an elementary model of a turbulent boundary layer over a flat surface given as a vertical random distribution of spanwise Lamb-Oseen vortex configurations placed over a nonslip boundary-condition line. We are able to reproduce several important features of realistic flows, such as the viscous and logarithmic boundary sublayers, and the general behavior of the first statistical moments (turbulent intensity, skewness, and flatness) of the streamwise velocity fluctuations. As an application, we advance some heuristic considerations on the boundary layer underlying kinematics that could be associated with the phenomenon of drag reduction by polymers, finding a suggestive support from its experimental signatures. PMID:19518332

Moriconi, L

2009-04-01

375

Geometry of Weak Stability Boundaries  

E-print Network

The notion of a weak stability boundary has been successfully used to design low energy trajectories from the Earth to the Moon. The structure of this boundary has been investigated in a number of studies, where partial results have been obtained. We propose a generalization of the weak stability boundary. We prove analytically that, in the context of the planar circular restricted three-body problem, under certain conditions on the mass ratio of the primaries and on the energy, the weak stability boundary about the heavier primary coincides with a branch of the global stable manifold of the Lyapunov orbit about one of the Lagrange points.

Edward Belbruno; Marian Gidea; Francesco Topputo

2012-04-06

376

Implicit second-order immersed boundary methods with boundary mass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immersed boundary method is a computational framework for problems involving the interaction of a fluid and immersed elastic structures. Immersed boundary computations typically evaluate the elastic forces explicitly in the configuration of the immersed elastic structure. In many applications this results in a severe restriction on the time step. We present a semi-implicit and a fully implicit second-order accurate

Yoichiro Mori; Charles S. Peskin

2008-01-01

377

Symbolic Boundary Work in Schools: Demarcating and Denying Ethnic Boundaries  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article examines the symbolic boundary work that is carried out at a school whose student population is heterogeneous in terms of ethnicity and class. Based on ethnography, the article demonstrates how the school's staff seeks to neutralize ethnic boundaries and their accompanying discourse, while the pupils try to bring ethnic…

Tabib-Calif, Yosepha; Lomsky-Feder, Edna

2014-01-01

378

Balancing Boundaries: Everyday Boundary Work in Information Technology Project Management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study draws upon the project and team literatures to explore how project boundaries are managed across the IT project life-cycle. A longitudinal study of a commercial automation control solutions provider was conducted. Particular emphasis was placed on the interaction between one focal project and its environment. We found that recurrent, situated boundary activities pertaining to temporal, task and team

Eva Maaninen-olsson; Magnus Mähring

2009-01-01

379

K-T Transition into Chaos.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the destabilizing influences that affect feedback systems in the earth and trigger disorganization. Presents information that integrates mantle degassing with feed-back systems, and the Sun-Earth-Space energy flow system which is the primary source of energy that drives the Earth's biosphere. (RT)

McLean, Dewey M.

1988-01-01

380

Dependence of Boundary Layer Mixing On Lateral Boundary Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ocean circulation models often show strong mixing in association with lateral bound- ary layers. Such mixing is generally considered to be artifactual rather than real. Fur- thermore, the severity of the problem is boundary condition dependent. For example, an inconsistency between geostrophy and insulating boundary conditions on tempera- ture and salinity cause many modelers to opt for the no slip, rather than slip boundary condtion on the tangential component of momentum. As modellers increasingly move into the eddy revealing regime, biharmonic, rather than harmonic dissipative operators are likely to become more common. Biharmonic operators, however, require specifi- cation of additional boundary conditions. For example, there are several `natural ex- tensions' to each of the slip and no slip conditions. Here, these various possiblities are considered in the context of a simple model. Particular attention is payed to how mixing (and the associated overturning cell) is affected by the choice of boundary condition.

Straub, D.

381

Boundary Tides in the Kattegat  

Microsoft Academic Search

IN order to facilitate observations on the vertical movements of the boundary surface far from the shore a recording boundary gauge has been constructed. A commercial steel barrel of about 200 litres capacity used for kerosene was provided with an axial tube of two inches width running through the barrel and having its ends welded to the flat ends of

Hans Pettersson; Börje Kullenberg

1933-01-01

382

Scaling the atmospheric boundary layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review scaling regimes of the idealized Atmospheric Boundary Layer. The main emphasis is given on recent findings for stable conditions. We present diagrams in which the scaling regimes are illustrated as a function of the major boundary-layer parameters. A discussion is given on the different properties of the scaling regimes in unstable and stable conditions.

A. A. M. Holtslag; F. T. M. Nieuwstadt

1986-01-01

383

Boundary states for WZW models  

E-print Network

The boundary states for a certain class of WZW models are determined. The models include all modular invariants that are associated to a symmetry of the unextended Dynkin diagram. Explicit formulae for the boundary state coefficients are given in each case, and a number of properties of the corresponding NIM-reps are derived.

Matthias R Gaberdiel; Terry Gannon

2005-02-04

384

Degenerate elliptic boundary value problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we find conditions that guarantee that regular boundary value problems for elliptic differential-operator equations of the second order in an interval are coercive and Fredholm, and we prove the compactness of a resolvent. We apply this result to find some algebraic conditions that guarantee that regular boundary value problems for degenerate elliptic differential equations of the second

H. I. Karakas; V. B. Shakhmupov; S. Yakubov

1996-01-01

385

Expansive learning across workplace boundaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article analyses a collaborative effort of learning across workplace boundaries in a regional learning network of South Savo, Finland. The focus is on the Forum of In-house Development in the network. Our objective is to highlight a dialectical approach to boundaries that draws from the ideas of cultural–historical activity theory. Expansive transformation may be explored through the expansion of

Hannele Kerosuo; Hanna Toiviainen

2011-01-01

386

Cell boundary fault detection system  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and program product determine a nodal fault along the boundary, or face, of a computing cell. Nodes on adjacent cell boundaries communicate with each other, and the communications are analyzed to determine if a node or connection is faulty.

Archer, Charles Jens (Rochester, MN); Pinnow, Kurt Walter (Rochester, MN); Ratterman, Joseph D. (Rochester, MN); Smith, Brian Edward (Rochester, MN)

2011-04-19

387

Final Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report Draft Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report  

E-print Network

IV Final Boundary Layer Research and Findings Report #12;Draft Boundary Layer Research and Findings Cases Associated with Boundary Layer Model Problems ............. 6 1.1 Problems Related to Atmospheric ......................................................... 9 2.1.3 Boundary Layer Formulation Factors

388

Boundary Condition for Modeling Semiconductor Nanostructures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A recently proposed boundary condition for atomistic computational modeling of semiconductor nanostructures (particularly, quantum dots) is an improved alternative to two prior such boundary conditions. As explained, this boundary condition helps to reduce the amount of computation while maintaining accuracy.

Lee, Seungwon; Oyafuso, Fabiano; von Allmen, Paul; Klimeck, Gerhard

2006-01-01

389

15 CFR 922.130 - Boundary.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the southern boundary of the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary (GFNMS) beginning at Rocky Point just south of Stinson Beach in Marin County. The Sanctuary boundary follows the GFNMS boundary westward to a point approximately 29...

2010-01-01

390

Boundary Conditions in Elementary Mechanics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Uses the problem of determining when a car and truck traveling at the same speed will collide after the truck has applied its brakes to illustrate the need to consider boundary conditions when solving problems in elementary mechanics. (MDH)

Gonzalez, Alejandro D.

1991-01-01

391

Boundary characterization experiment series overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acoustic propagation and reverberation in continental shelf regions is often controlled by the seabed and sea surface boundaries. A series of three multi-national and multi-disciplinary experiments was conducted between 2000-2002 to identify and measure key ocean boundary characteristics. The frequency range of interest was nominally 500-5000 Hz with the main focus on the seabed, which is generally considered as

Charles W. Holland; Roger C. Gauss; Paul C. Hines; Peter Nielsen; John R. Preston; Chris H. Harrison; Dale D. Ellis; Kevin D. LePage; John Osler; Redwood W. Nero; Dan Hutt; Altan Turgut

2005-01-01

392

Conductance fluctuations and boundary conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The conductance fluctuations for various types for two- and three-dimensional disordered systems with hard wall and periodic boundary conditions are studied, all the way from the ballistic (metallic) regime to the localized regime. It is shown that the universal conductance fluctuations (UCF) depend on the boundary conditions. The same holds for the metal to insulator transition. The conditions for observing the UCF are also given.

Rühländer, Marc; Markoš, Peter; Soukoulis, C. M.

2001-11-01

393

Boundaries on Spacetimes: An Outline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causal boundary construction of Geroch, Kronheimer, and Penrose has some\\u000auniversal properties of importance for general studies of spacetimes,\\u000aparticularly when equipped with a topology derived from the causal structure.\\u000aProperties of the causal boundary are detailed for spacetimes with spacelike\\u000aboundaries, for multi-warped spacetimes, for static spacetimes, and for\\u000aspacetimes with group actions.

Steven G. Harris

2003-01-01

394

Removing Boundary Layer by Suction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Through the utilization of the "Magnus effect" on the Flettner rotor ship, the attention of the public has been directed to the underlying physical principle. It has been found that the Prandtl boundary-layer theory furnishes a satisfactory explanation of the observed phenomena. The present article deals with the prevention of this separation or detachment of the flow by drawing the boundary layer into the inside of a body through a slot or slots in its surface.

Ackeret, J

1927-01-01

395

Changing the Structure Boundary Geometry  

SciTech Connect

Analysis of previously obtained results shows that hexagonal crystal lattice is the dominant type of ordering, in particular, in striated glow discharges. We explore the possibility for changing the dust distribution in horizontal cross sections of relatively highly ordered structures in a glow-discharge. Presuming that boundary geometry can affect dust distribution, we used cylindrical coolers held at 0 deg. C and placed against a striation containing a structure, to change the geometry of its outer boundary. By varying the number of coolers, their positions, and their separations from the tube wall, azimuthally asymmetric thermophoretic forces can be used to form polygonal boundaries and vary the angles between their segments (in a horizontal cross section). The corner in the structure's boundary of 60 deg. stimulates formation of hexagonal cells. The structure between the supported parallel boundaries is also characterized by stable hexagonal ordering. We found that a single linear boundary segment does not give rise to any sizable domain, but generates a lattice extending from the boundary (without edge defects). A square lattice can be formed by setting the angle equal to 90 deg. . However, angles of 45 deg. and 135 deg. turned out easier to form. Square lattice was created by forming a near-135 deg. corner with four coolers. It was noted that no grain ordering is observed in the region adjacent to corners of angles smaller than 30 deg. , which do not promote ordering into cells of any shape. Thus, manipulation of a structure boundary can be used to change dust distribution, create structures free of the ubiquitous edge defects that destroy orientation order, and probably change the crystal lattice type.

Karasev, Viktor; Dzlieva, Elena; Ivanov, Artyom [St.-Petersburg State University, Physics Faculty, Ulianovskaya 1, Peterhof, St. Petersburg, 198504 (Russian Federation)

2008-09-07

396

Iridium and Spherules in Late Eocene Impact Deposits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have been independently examining the Ir (FTK) and spherule (SL) contents of recently discovered late Eocene impact deposits from the south Atlantic and western Indian oceans. These include ODP Sites 1090 [14,15], 709 [lo], and 699 [Liu in prep.]. Iridium abundances at these sites are within the typical range reported for late Eocene deposits, with peak concentrations between 100 and 1000 pg/g. In Table 1 we present estimated net Ir fluences (in ng Ir/cm ) for these and nine other sites. Although there are fewer sites than the K/T boundary, the average of 9 ng Ir/cm2 is probably a good estimate of the late Eocene global flux. This is enough Ir for a 6 km comet (assuming 250 ng/g Ir, p=1.5), is sufficient to produce the Popigai or Chesapeake Bay structures, and is 16% of the flux estimated for the K/T boundary (55 ng/cm2 [ 161). Figure 1 shows the relative abundances of Ir, glassy microtektites and cpx-bearing spherules in sediments from Sites 699 and 1090, which are separated by only 3100 km. Although these two sites have similar Ir anomalies, the abundances of spherules are quite different. Site 1090 has well-defined peaks for both types of spherules, with a peak of 562 cpx spheruledg, while Site 699 contains only a few glassy microtektites and no cpx spherules. While the different abundances of spherules may reflect a heterogeneous distribution of spherules on the Earth s surface, an equally likely cause of this difference may be differential preservation of spherules in the sediment. recovered are only a trace residue of the initial impact deposit. Earlier work found 0.22 ng/g Ir in glassy microtektites from Site 689 [17], an insufficient concentration to support 0.16 ng/g in the bulk sediment at this site. We measured 15 ng/g Ir in a group of 95 cpx spherules from Site 1090 with sizes from 63 to -200 pm, a set typical of the size distribution at this site. Although this is a significant concentration it also cannot support the Ir peak. We presently lack quantitative data on the mass concentration of cpx spherules in Site 1090 sediments, but it is certainly <1 mg/g in The impact record in the late Eocene is very different from that at the Cretaceous-Tertiary In contrast, the late Eocene probably experienced multiple impact events.

Kyte, F. T.; Liu, S.

2002-01-01

397

Dimension of Fractal Basin Boundaries.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show "final state sensitivity" of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent alpha) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - alpha , where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map. We look for universal scalings of the dimension of fractal basin boundaries near type I and type III intermittency transitions to chaos. Type I intermittency can occur as the system experiences a saddle-node (tangent) bifurcation and type III intermittency can occur as the system experiences an inverted period doubling bifurcation. At these bifurcations, multiple attractors with fractal basin boundaries can be created. It is found the dimension scales, with the parameter, according to the power law d = d_{o } - k| p - p_{c}| ^{beta} with beta = 1/2, where p is the system parameter, p _{c} is the bifurcation value, k is a scaling constant, and d_{o} is the dimension of the basin boundaries at p _{c}. For type I intermittency d_{o} < D and d _{o} = D for type III intermittency. This scaling was confirmed in numerical experiments near the type I and type III intermittency creating bifurcations values for the forced damped pendulum and the type I intermittency creating bifurcation value of period-3 window for the logistic map. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Park, Bae-Sig

398

Undulatory microswimming near solid boundaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The hydrodynamic forces involved in the undulatory microswimming of the model organism C. elegans are studied in proximity to solid boundaries. Using a micropipette deflection technique, we attain direct and time-resolved force measurements of the viscous forces acting on the worm near a single planar boundary as well as confined between two planar boundaries. We observe a monotonic increase in the lateral and propulsive forces with increasing proximity to the solid interface. We determine normal and tangential drag coefficients for the worm, and find these to increase with confinement. The measured drag coefficients are compared to existing theoretical models. The ratio of normal to tangential drag coefficients is found to assume a constant value of 1.5 ± 0.1(5) at all distances from a single boundary, but increases significantly as the worm is confined between two boundaries. In response to the increased drag due to confinement, we observe a gait modulation of the nematode, which is primarily characterized by a decrease in the swimming amplitude.

Schulman, R. D.; Backholm, M.; Ryu, W. S.; Dalnoki-Veress, K.

2014-10-01

399

Boundary Regularity in Variational Problems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We prove that, if {u : ? subset mathbb{R}^n to mathbb{R}^N} is a solution to the Dirichlet variational problem mathop minlimitswint_{?} F(x, w, Dw) dx quad {subject to} quad w equiv u_0 onpartial ?, involving a regular boundary datum ( u 0, ??) and a regular integrand F( x, w, Dw) strongly convex in Dw and satisfying suitable growth conditions, then {{mathcal H}^{n-1}} -almost every boundary point is regular for u in the sense that Du is Hölder continuous in a relative neighborhood of the point. The existence of even one such regular boundary point was previously not known except for some very special cases treated by J ost & M eier (Math Ann 262:549-561, 1983). Our results are consequences of new up-to-the-boundary higher differentiability results that we establish for minima of the functionals in question. The methods also allow us to improve the known boundary regularity results for solutions to non-linear elliptic systems, and, in some cases, to improve the known interior singular sets estimates for minimizers. Moreover, our approach allows for a treatment of systems and functionals with “rough” coefficients belonging to suitable Sobolev spaces of fractional order.

Kristensen, Jan; Mingione, Giuseppe

2010-11-01

400

Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2013  

E-print Network

ATS 623 Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) Spring 2013 Tues and Thurs 9 a.m. (2 contact hours per@atmos.colostate.edu) Course notes: Atmospheric Boundary Layer Notes (2013) by Richard H. Johnson (available online at http · Schlichting (1960) Boundary­Layer Theory · Sorbjan (1989) Structure of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

401

Boundary value problems with global projection conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parametrices of elliptic boundary value problems for differential operators belong to an algebra of pseudodifferential operators with the transmission property at the boundary. However, generically, smooth symbols on a manifold with boundary do not have this property, and several interesting applications require a corresponding more general calculus. We introduce here a new algebra of boundary value problems that contains Shapiro–Lopatinskij

B.-W. Schulze; J. Seiler

2004-01-01

402

Avoiding coincidental correctness in boundary value analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In partition analysis we divide the input domain to form subdomains on which the system's behaviour should be uniform. Boundary value analysis produces test inputs near each subdomain's boundaries to find failures caused by incorrect implementation of the boundaries. However, boundary value analysis can be adversely affected by coincidental correctness---the system produces the expected output, but for the wrong reason.

Robert M. Hierons

2006-01-01

403

Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer  

E-print Network

Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer Bob Plant Department of Meteorology, University of Reading NCAS Boundary-Layer Workshop 1st July 2011 With thanks to: Emilie Carter, Chris Holloway, Sonja with the boundary layer: perspectives from ensemble forecasting Novel parameterisations in the boundary layer ­ p.1

Plant, Robert

404

Nonlinear Boundaries in Quantum Mechanics  

E-print Network

Based on empirical evidence, quantum systems appear to be strictly linear and gauge invariant. This work uses concise mathematics to show that quantum eigenvalue equations on a one dimensional ring can either be gauge invariant or have a linear boundary condition, but not both. Further analysis shows that non-linear boundaries for the ring restore gauge invariance but lead unexpectedly to eigenfunctions with a continuous eigenvalue spectrum, a discreet subset of which forms a Hilbert space with energy bands. This Hilbert space maintains the principle of superposition of eigenfunctions despite the nonlinearity. The momentum operator remains Hermitian. If physical reality requires gauge invariance, it would appear that quantum mechanics should incorporate these nonlinear boundary conditions.

Arthur Davidson

2011-06-22

405

X-ray and EUV observations of the boundary layer emission of nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables  

SciTech Connect

EUVE, ROSAT, and ASCA observations of the boundary layer emission of nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs) are reviewed. EUVE spectra reveal that the effective temperature of the soft component of high-M nonmagnetic CVs is kT {approx}10-20 eV and that its luminosity is {approx} 0.1-0.5 times the accretion disk luminosity. Although the EUV spectra are very complex and belie simple interpretation, the physical conditions of the boundary layer gas are constrained by emission lines of highly ionized Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe. ROSAT and ASCA spectra of the hard component of nonmagnetic CVs are satisfactorily but only phenomenologically described by multi-temperature thermal plasmas, and the constraints imposed on the physical conditions of this gas are limited by the relatively weak and blended fines. It is argued that significant progress in our understanding of the X-ray spectra of nonmagnetic CVs will come with future observations with XMM, AXAF, and Astro-E.

Mauche, C.W.

1996-03-09

406

U-Pb isotopic results for single shocked and polycrystalline zircons record 550-65.5-Ma ages for a K-T target site and 2700-1850-Ma ages for the Sudbury impact event  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The refractory mineral zircon develops distinct morphological features during shock metamorphism and retains these features under conditions that would anneal them in other minerals. In addition, weakly shocked zircon grains give primary ages for the impact site, while highly reconstituted (polycrystalline) single grains give ages that approach the age of the impact event. Data for a series of originally coeval grains will define a mixing line that gives both of these ages providing that no subsequent geological disturbances have overprinted the isotopic systematics. In this study, we have shown that the three zircon grain types described by Bohor, from both K-T distal ejecta (Fireball layer, Raton Basin, Colorado) and the Onaping Formation, represent a progressive increase in impact-related morphological change that coincides with a progressive increase in isotopic resetting in zircons from the ejecta and basement rocks. Unshocked grains are least affected by isotopic resetting while polycrystalline grains are most affected. U-Pb isotopic results for 12 of 14 single zircon grains from the Fireball layer plot on or close to a line recording a primary age of 550 +/- 10 Ma and a secondary age of 65.5 +/- 3 Ma. Data for the least and most shocked grains plot closest to the primary and secondary ages respectively. The two other grains each give ages between 300 and 350 Ma. This implies that the target ejecta was dominated by 550-Ma rocks and that the recrystallization features of the zircon were superimposed during the impact event at 65.5 Ma. A predominant age of 550 Ma for zircons from the Fireball layer provides an excellent opportunity to identify the impact site and to test the hypothesis that multiple impacts occurred at this time. A volcanic origin for the Fireball layer is ruled out by shock-related morphological changes in zircon and the fact that the least shocked grains are old. Basement Levack gneisses north of the Sudbury structure have a primary age of 2711 Ma. Data for three single zircons from this rock, which record a progressive increase in shock features, are displaced 24, 36, and 45 percent along a Pb-loss line toward the 1850 +/- 1 Ma minimum age for the impact as defined by the age of the norite. Southeast of the structure three shocked grains from the Murray granite record a primary age of 2468 Ma and are displaced 24, 41, and 56 percent toward the 1853 +/- 4 Ma even as defined by coexisting titanite.

Krogh, T. E.; Kamo, S. L.; Bohor, B. F.

1992-01-01

407

Supersymmetry: Boundary Conditions and Edge States  

E-print Network

When spatial boundaries are inserted, SUSY can be broken. We have shown that in an $\\mathcal{N}=2$ supersymmetric theory, all the boundary conditions allowed by self-adjointness of the Hamiltonian break $\\mathcal{N}=2$ SUSY while only a few of these boundary conditions preserve $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY. We have also shown that for a subset of the boundary conditions compatible with $\\mathcal{N}=1$ SUSY, there exist fermionic ground states which are localized near the boundary.

Acharyya, Nirmalendu; Balachandran, A P; Vaidya, Sachindeo

2015-01-01

408

The seismotectonics of plate boundaries  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research on the seismotectonics of plate boundaries is summarized. Instrumental development and an observational program designed to study various aspects of the seismotectonics of southern California and the northern Gulf of California are described. A unique superconducting gravimeter was further developed and supported under this program for deployment and operation at several sites. Work on Earth tides is also discussed.

Berger, J.; Brune, J. N.; Goodkind, J.; Wyatt, F.; Agnew, D. C.; Beaumont, C.

1981-01-01

409

Prosodic Boundaries in Alaryngeal Speech  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Alaryngeal speakers (speakers in whom the larynx has been removed) have inconsistent control over acoustic parameters such as F[subscript 0] and duration. This study investigated whether proficient tracheoesophageal and oesophageal speakers consistently convey phrase boundaries. It was further investigated if these alaryngeal speakers used the…

van Rossum, M. A.; Quene, H.; Nooteboom, S. G.

2008-01-01

410

Boundary elements for structural analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The intent here is to discuss the status of the boundary element method (BEM) for structural analysis, both in terms of the present and anticipated capabilities of the method and in terms of the incorporation of the method in the design/analysis process, particularly for gas turbine engine components.

1989-01-01

411

Lagrangian Variational Framework for Boundary Value Problems  

E-print Network

A boundary value problem is commonly associated with constraints imposed on a system at its boundary. We advance here an alternative point of view treating the system as interacting "boundary" and "interior" subsystems. This view is implemented through a Lagrangian framework that allows to account for (i) a variety of forces including dissipative acting at the boundary; (ii) a multitude of features of interactions between the boundary and the interior fields when the boundary fields may differ from the boundary limit of the interior fields; (iii) detailed pictures of the energy distribution and its flow; (iv) linear and nonlinear effects. We provide a number of elucidating examples of the structured boundary and its interactions with the system interior. We also show that the proposed approach covers the well known boundary value problems.

Alexander Figotin; Guillermo Reyes

2014-07-29

412

Decision boundary feature extraction for neural networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We propose a new feature extraction method for neural networks. The method is based on the recently published decision boundary feature extraction algorithm. It has been shown that all the necessary features for classification can be extracted from the decision boundary. To apply the decision boundary feature extraction method, we first define the decision boundary in neural networks. Next, we propose a procedure for extracting all the necessary features for classification from the decision boundary. The proposed algorithm preserves the characteristics of neural networks, which can define arbitrary decision boundary. Experiments show promising results.

Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

1992-01-01

413

Dynamics of mammalian chromosome evolution inferred from multispecies comparative maps.  

PubMed

The genome organizations of eight phylogenetically distinct species from five mammalian orders were compared in order to address fundamental questions relating to mammalian chromosomal evolution. Rates of chromosome evolution within mammalian orders were found to increase since the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary. Nearly 20% of chromosome breakpoint regions were reused during mammalian evolution; these reuse sites are also enriched for centromeres. Analysis of gene content in and around evolutionary breakpoint regions revealed increased gene density relative to the genome-wide average. We found that segmental duplications populate the majority of primate-specific breakpoints and often flank inverted chromosome segments, implicating their role in chromosomal rearrangement. PMID:16040707

Murphy, William J; Larkin, Denis M; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Bourque, Guillaume; Tesler, Glenn; Auvil, Loretta; Beever, Jonathan E; Chowdhary, Bhanu P; Galibert, Francis; Gatzke, Lisa; Hitte, Christophe; Meyers, Stacey N; Milan, Denis; Ostrander, Elaine A; Pape, Greg; Parker, Heidi G; Raudsepp, Terje; Rogatcheva, Margarita B; Schook, Lawrence B; Skow, Loren C; Welge, Michael; Womack, James E; O'brien, Stephen J; Pevzner, Pavel A; Lewin, Harris A

2005-07-22

414

Geochemical anomalies, bolide impacts and biological extinctions on the Earth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Geochemical and mineralogical techniques are used to search for evidence of extraterrestrial impacts associated with mass and lesser biological extinction peaks in the geological record. Studies of the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary serve as a baseline for evaluating geochemical data from the extinction horizones. Other studies were generally concentrated on rock strata corresponding to the periodic extinction peaks noted by Raup and Sepkoski. A significant iridium anomaly in late Eocene marine sediments associated with extinctions of radiolaria in low latitudes and attributed to an extraterrestrial source is widely distributed in 8 to 9 sites around the world.

Asaro, F.; Alvarez, L. W.; Michel, H. V.; Alvarez, W.

1986-01-01

415

Decoupled temporal patterns of evolution and ecology in two post-Paleozoic clades  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Counts of taxonomic diversity are the prevailing standards for documenting large-scale patterns of evolution in the fossil record. However, the secular pattern of relative ecological importance between the bryozoan clades Cyclostomata and Cheilostomata is not reflected fully in compilations of generic diversity or within-fauna species richness, and the delayed ecological recovery of the Cheilostomata after the mass extinction at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary is missed entirely. These observations demonstrate that evolutionary success and ecological dominance can be decoupled and profoundly different, even over tens of millions of years.

McKinney, F. K.; Lidgard, S.; Sepkoski, J. J. Jr; Taylor, P. D.

1998-01-01

416

Anomalies within the system - Rochechouart target rock meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Contaminated impact crater formations are pertinent to the study of meteoritic contamination at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary and other Ir-enriched layers. Target mixing considerations and volumetric estimates of Rochechouart breccias are presently combined with the geochemistry of both major and siderophile trace elements, to evaluate how the chemistry of the preserved target rock-projectile mixture evolved since deposition. Over 99 percent of the mass of extraterrestrial Ir and Os in preserved formations at Rochechouart is located in suevite-like breccias and impact melts. Hydrothermal alteration and/or weathering are the most likely processes to explain both major and trace element redistribution in Rochechouart formations.

Lambert, P.

1982-01-01

417

Free boundary ballooning mode representation  

SciTech Connect

A new type of ballooning mode invariance is found in this paper. Application of this invariance is shown to be able to reduce the two-dimensional problem of free boundary high n modes, such as the peeling-ballooning modes, to a one-dimensional problem. Here, n is toroidal mode number. In contrast to the conventional ballooning representation, which requires the translational invariance of the Fourier components of the perturbations, the new invariance reflects that the independent solutions of the high n mode equations are translationally invariant from one radial interval surrounding a single singular surface to the other intervals. The conventional ballooning mode invariance breaks down at the vicinity of plasma edge, since the Fourier components with rational surfaces in vacuum region are completely different from those with rational surfaces in plasma region. But, the new type of invariance remains valid. This overcomes the limitation of the conventional ballooning mode representation for studying free boundary modes.

Zheng, L. J. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-10-15

418

Stability of compressible boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The stability of compressible 2-D and 3-D boundary layers is reviewed. The stability of 2-D compressible flows differs from that of incompressible flows in two important features: There is more than one mode of instability contributing to the growth of disturbances in supersonic laminar boundary layers and the most unstable first mode wave is 3-D. Whereas viscosity has a destabilizing effect on incompressible flows, it is stabilizing for high supersonic Mach numbers. Whereas cooling stabilizes first mode waves, it destabilizes second mode waves. However, second order waves can be stabilized by suction and favorable pressure gradients. The influence of the nonparallelism on the spatial growth rate of disturbances is evaluated. The growth rate depends on the flow variable as well as the distance from the body. Floquet theory is used to investigate the subharmonic secondary instability.

Nayfeh, Ali H.

1989-01-01

419

Closing the Mid- Paleocene gap: toward a complete astronomically calibrated Paleocene Epoch at Zumaia (Basque Basin, W Pyrenees)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ~10 Myr long Paleocene Epoch is bounded by two of the most popular and studied chronostratigraphic limits, the Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary at its base and the Paleocne/Eocene (P/E) boundary at the top. The Paleocene time scale has relied on an age model for magnetic polarity chrons derived from a cubic-spline fit of marine magnetic anomaly pattern in the South Atlantic to two radiometrically dated calibration points (Cande & Kent, 1992, 1995). These include an age of 65 Ma for the K/T boundary (66 Ma in the CK92 time scale) and a derived age of 55 Ma for the P-E boundary (this age constrained from 40Ar/39Ar dated volcanic ash layers within a clay sequence in Denmark). An age of 65.5±0.3 Ma for the K/T and 55.8±0.2 Ma for the P/E are taken in the most recent time scale GTS2004 (Gradstein et al, 2004) which combines both isotopically (using a 28.02 Ma age for the Fish Canyon Sanidine FCT monitor standard) and astronomically derived ages in the Neogene. However, intercalibration of single crystal sanidine dates of primary ash layers in astronomically dated sections arrives at an astronomically calibrated age of 28.24±0.1 Ma for the FCT standard (Hilgen et al., 2006), which will suggest an ~1% underestimate in current Paleogene ages. Thus, the astronomically tuned chronology for the (hemi)-pelagic basal Paleocene succession at Zumaia (Dinarès-Turell et al, 2003) that arrives an estimated age of ~65.8 Ma for the K/T appears consistent. In that study an ~4 Myr long tuned chronology based on the R7 full numerical solution for the Solar System of Varadi et al. (2003) we presented. However, more recently a second solution has been proposed (La04, Laskar et al., 2004), which differs notably in the Paleocene with respect R7 (offsets between the ~2.25 Myr long-term cycles). The differences arise from the uncertainty due to the chaotic behaviour of the inner planets to some resonant argument that limits an accurate age determination of successive minima in this very long eccentricity cycle. It is interesting to note, however, that in the Paleocene both solutions share one of such nodes of reduced eccentricity amplitude at about 62.2 Ma, which was the feature used as starting point in our tuning at Zumaia. Recent tuning efforts of hyperthermal events within the lower Cenozoic greenhouse climate record documented in Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) core sediments (Lourens et al., 2005) have provided tuned ages for the P/E thermal maximum using both the La04 and R7 astronomical target solutions (~55.270 Ma and ~55.675 Ma respectively) and showed that hyperthermal events correspond to maxima in the ~405-kyr and ~100-kyr eccentricity cycles that postdate prolonged minima in the 2.25-Myr eccentricity cycle. Here, we present integrated magnetostratigraphy and calcareous plankton biostratigraphy for the Mid Paleocene interval at Zumaia and evaluate the lithologic cyclicity using spectral analysis on magnetic susceptibility and CaCO3 proxy records. Considering that a previous study in the uppermost Paleocene interval included the record of chron C25n (Dinarès-Turell et al., 2002), all Paleocene reversals have now been identified at Zumaia, and a complete tuned Paleocene record is possible, rendering Zumaia an exceptional section. Implications for the definition of the Selandian stage, the absolute ages of chron C26r and the Mid-Paleocene Biotic Event (MPBE)) will be also considered.

Dinares-Turell, J.; Baceta, J.; Bernaola, G.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Pujalte, V.

2007-05-01

420

Tectonic Plates and Plate Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Continents were once thought to be static, locked tight in their positions in Earth's crust. Similarities between distant coastlines, such as those on opposite sides of the Atlantic, were thought to be the work of a scientist's overactive imagination, or, if real, the result of erosion on a massive scale. This interactive feature shows 11 tectonic plates and their names, the continents that occupy them, and the types of boundaries between them.

421

Boundary learning by optimization with topological constraints  

E-print Network

Recent studies have shown that machine learning can improve the accuracy of detecting object boundaries in images. In the standard approach, a boundary detector is trained by minimizing its pixel-level disagreement with ...

Helmstaedter, Moritz N.

422

MAE Seminar Series Boundary Closures for  

E-print Network

MAE Seminar Series Boundary Closures for ESWENO Schemes Mark H. Carpenter, Ph.D. Computational Aero-order, finite-domain ESWENO formulation is developed, featuring new boundary closures that maintain design

Krovi, Venkat

423

Characterization of grain boundaries in silicon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Zero-bias conductance and capacitance measurements at various temperatures were used to study trapped charges and potential barrier height at the boundaries. Deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) was applied to measure the density of states at the boundary. A study of photoconductivity of grain boundaries in p-type silicon demonstrated the applicability of the technique in the measurement of minority carrier recombination velocity at the grain boundary. Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in three cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials was studied. Enhancements for the three were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, although grown by different techniques. Grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion were found always to have strong recombination activities; the phenomena could be related to dangling bonds at the boundaries. Evidence that incoherent second-order twins of (111)/(115) type are diffusion-active is presented.

Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

1983-01-01

424

Boundary Channel of the Potomac River  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

The Boundary Channel of the Potomac River, which forms the boundary between the District of Columbia and the Commonwealth of Virginia. On the right of the image is the Lyndon Baines Johnson Memorial Grove on the Potomac....

425

Tropical cyclone boundary layer shocks  

E-print Network

This paper presents numerical solutions and idealized analytical solutions of axisymmetric, $f$-plane models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. In the numerical model, the boundary layer radial and tangential flow is forced by a specified pressure field, which can also be interpreted as a specified gradient balanced tangential wind field $v_{\\rm gr}(r)$ or vorticity field $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$. When the specified $\\zeta_{\\rm gr}(r)$ field is changed from one that is radially concentrated in the inner core to one that is radially spread, the quasi-steady-state boundary layer flow transitions from a single eyewall shock-like structure to a double eyewall shock-like structure. To better understand these structures, analytical solutions are presented for two simplified versions of the model. In the simplified analytical models, which do not include horizontal diffusion, the $u(\\partial u/\\partial r)$ term in the radial equation of motion and the $u[f+(\\partial v/\\partial r)+(v/r)]$ term in the tangential equat...

Slocum, Christopher J; Taft, Richard K; Schubert, Wayne H

2014-01-01

426

The Martian Surface Boundary Layer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The acquisition of meteorological data from the surface of Mars by the two Viking Landers and Mars Pathfinder make it possible to estimate atmospheric boundary layer parameters and surface properties at three different locations on the planet. Because the Martian atmosphere is so thin the majority of the solar radiance is converted to heat at the surface. The difference between surface and atmospheric temperature can also constraint surface albedo, thermal inertia, and infrared emissivity. The Mars Pathfinder Atmospheric Structure Instrument/Meteorological package (ASI/MET) was the most capable weather monitoring system ever sent to the surface of another planet to date. One of the prime objectives of the ASI/MET package is to characterize the surface boundary layer parameters, particularly the heat and momentum fluxes, scaling temperature and friction velocity, and estimate surface roughness. Other important boundary layer parameters, such as Richardson Number, Monin-Obukhov length, analysis of turbulence characteristics of wind and temperature, and atmospheric stability class can also be determined from these measurements.

Wilson, G. R.; Joshi, M.

1999-01-01

427

Boundary detection via dynamic programming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports a new method for detecting optimal boundaries in multidimensional scene data via dynamic programming (DP). In its current form the algorithm detects 2-D contours on slices and differs from other reported DP-based algorithms in an essential way in that it allows freedom in 2-D for finding optimal contour paths (as opposed to a single degree of freedom in the published methods). The method is being successfully used in segmenting object boundaries in a variety of medical applications including orbital volume from CT images (for craniofacial surgical planning), segmenting bone in MR images for kinematic analysis of the joints of the foot, segmenting the surface of the brain from the inner surface of the cranial vault, segmenting pituitary gland tumor for following the effect of a drug on the tumor, segmenting the boundaries of the heart in MR images, and segmenting the olfactory bulb for verifying hypotheses related to the size of this bulb in certain disease states.

Udupa, Jayaram K.; Samarasekera, Supun; Barrett, William A.

1992-09-01

428

Solitons induced by boundary conditions  

SciTech Connect

Although soliton phenomena have attracted wide attention since 1965, there are still not enough efforts paid to mixed-boundary - initial-value problems that are important in real physical cases. The main purpose of this thesis is to study carefully the various boundary-induced soliton under different initial conditions. The author states with three sets of nonlinear equations: KdV equations and Boussinesq equations (for water); two-fluid equations for cold-ion plasma. He was interested in four types of problems involved with water solitons: excitation by different time-dependent boundary conditions under different initial conditions; head-on and over-taking collisions; reflection at a wall and the excitation by pure initial conditions. For KdV equations, only cases one and four are conducted. The results from two fully nonlinear KdV and Boussinesq equations are compared, and agree extremely well. The Boussinesq equations permit solition head-on collisions and reflections, studied the first time. The results from take-over collision agree with KdV results. For the ion-acoustic plasma, a set of Boussinesq-type equations was derived from the standard two-fluid equations for the ion-acoustic plasma. It theoretically proves the essential nature of the solitary wave solutions of the cold-ion plasma. The ion acoustic solitons are also obtained by prescribing a potential phi/sub 0/ at one grid point.

Zhou, R.L.

1987-01-01

429

Nonequilibrium chemistry boundary layer integral matrix procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of an analytic procedure for the calculation of nonequilibrium boundary layer flows over surfaces of arbitrary catalycities is described. An existing equilibrium boundary layer integral matrix code was extended to include nonequilibrium chemistry while retaining all of the general boundary condition features built into the original code. For particular application to the pitch-plane of shuttle type vehicles, an approximate procedure was developed to estimate the nonequilibrium and nonisentropic state at the edge of the boundary layer.

Tong, H.; Buckingham, A. C.; Morse, H. L.

1973-01-01

430

Automated Boundary Testing from Z and B  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method for black-box boundary testing from B and Z formal specifications. The basis of the method is to test\\u000a every operation of the system at every boundary state using all input boundary values of that operation. The test generation\\u000a process is highly automated. It starts by calculating boundary goals from Pre\\/Post predicates derived from the formal model.

Bruno Legeard; Fabien Peureux; Mark Utting

2002-01-01

431

Boundary layer receptivity and control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Receptivity processes initiate natural instabilities in a boundary layer. The instabilities grow and eventually break down to turbulence. Consequently, receptivity questions are a critical element of the analysis of the transition process. Success in modeling the physics of receptivity processes thus has a direct bearing on technological issues of drag reduction. The means by which transitional flows can be controlled is also a major concern: questions of control are tied inevitably to those of receptivity. Adjoint systems provide a highly effective mathematical method for approaching many of the questions associated with both receptivity and control. The long term objective is to develop adjoint methods to handle increasingly complex receptivity questions, and to find systematic procedures for deducing effective control strategies. The most elementary receptivity problem is that in which a parallel boundary layer is forced by time-harmonic sources of various types. The characteristics of the response to such forcing form the building blocks for more complex receptivity mechanisms. The first objective of this year's research effort was to investigate how a parallel Blasius boundary layer responds to general direct forcing. Acoustic disturbances in the freestream can be scattered by flow non-uniformities to produce Tollmien-Schlichting waves. For example, scattering by surface roughness is known to provide an efficient receptivity path. The present effort is directed towards finding a solution by a simple adjoint analysis, because adjoint methods can be extended to more complex problems. In practice, flows are non-parallel and often three-dimensional. Compressibility may also be significant in some cases. Recent developments in the use of Parabolized Stability Equations (PSE) offer a promising possibility. By formulating and solving a set of adjoint parabolized equations, a method for mapping the efficiency with which external forcing excites the three-dimensional motions of a non-parallel boundary layer was developed. The method makes use of the same computationally efficient formulation that makes the PSE currently so appealing. In the area of flow control, adjoint systems offer a powerful insight into the effect of control forces. One of the simplest control strategies for boundary layers involves the application of localized mean wall suction.

Hill, D. C.

1993-01-01

432

Ecotone or Ecocline: Ecological Boundaries in Estuaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two main ecological boundaries, ecotone and ecocline, have been defined in landscape ecology. At this scale, the estuary represents a boundary between rivers and the sea, but there has been no attempt to fit empirical data for estuaries to these boundary models. An extensive data set from the Thames estuary was analysed using multivariate techniques and species-range analysis, in order

M. J Attrill; S. D Rundle

2002-01-01

433

Quantum systems with time-dependent boundaries  

E-print Network

We present here a set of lecture notes on quantum systems with time-dependent boundaries. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of a non-relativistic particle in a bounded domain of physical space, when the boundaries are moving or changing. In all cases, unitarity is preserved and the change of boundaries does not introduce any decoherence in the system.

Sara Di Martino; Paolo Facchi

2015-01-26

434

Grain Boundary Properties: Energy (L21)  

E-print Network

aluminum alloys - creep strength in high service temperature alloys - weld cracking (under investigation Boundary Diffusion · Especially for high symmetry boundaries, there is a very strong anisotropy of diffusion coefficients as a function of boundary type. This example is for Zn diffusing in a series of

Rollett, Anthony D.

435

Grain Boundary Properties: Texture, Microstructure & Anisotropy  

E-print Network

- creep strength in high service temperature alloys - weld cracking (under investigation (embrittlement, formation of second phases) #12;7 Grain Boundary Diffusion · Especially for high symmetry boundaries, there is a very strong anisotropy of diffusion coefficients as a function of boundary type

Rollett, Anthony D.

436

Galerkin Boundary Element Methods for Electromagnetic Scattering  

E-print Network

on boundary integral equations are widely used in the numeri- cal simulation of electromagnetic scatteringGalerkin Boundary Element Methods for Electromagnetic Scattering A. Buffa1 and R. Hiptmair2 1 acous- tic and electromagnetic scattering. The derivation of various boundary integral equations

Buffa, Annalisa

437