Science.gov

Sample records for criminal justice policy

  1. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  2. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  3. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  4. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  5. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  6. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and Juvenile Justice Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belair, Robert R.

    Elected officials, justice professionals, courts and other institutions of our society are contributing to a reevaluation of juvenile justice information policy. The tenet that juveniles who commit crimes are not culpable is being challenged as the public's safety and economic well being is increasingly threatened by children engaged in criminal…

  7. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and the Private Employer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEARCH Group, Inc., Sacramento, CA.

    Should private employers have a right of access to criminal history record information in order to make employment decisions about applicants and employees? This book addresses both legal and operational questions relating to the use of criminal justice data for private employment and decision-making purposes. The informative, non-prescriptive…

  8. Fixing a Failing System. National Policy Recommendations: How the Criminal Justice System Should Work with Communities To Reduce Substance Abuse. Report from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    A policy panel of criminal justice experts proposed recommendations to help criminal justice systems become consistently integrated into a community response to substance abuse. The recommendations are: (1) repeal mandatory sentencing; (2) expand substance abuse treatment throughout the criminal justice system; (3) collaborate within the criminal…

  9. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  10. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  11. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  12. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  13. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  14. Criminal Justice in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  15. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. PMID:26004454

  16. Professionalism Among Criminal Justice Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regoli, Robert M.; Miracle, Andrew W., Jr.

    Professionalism and its relationship to scholarly productivity was studied. Specific areas of analysis were the degree of professionalism of criminal justice educators, rankings of a series of selected publications, and the relationship between professionalism level and journal productivity. Data were derived from responses by 1,028 of 1,274…

  17. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  18. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE DATA (NACJD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD) preserves and distributes computerized crime and justice data from Federal agencies, state agencies, and investigator initiated research projects to users for secondary statistical analysis. Founded in 1978 as part of the Inte...

  19. Breaking into Careers in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lucia, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that young people's image of career in criminal justice field has been shaped by entertainment media and does not nearly match real thing. Describes reality of career in criminal justice and discusses how to prepare for such a career. Examines numerous career tracks in law enforcement, corrections, courts, forensic science, and private…

  20. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social trends. The…

  1. Walking a Policy Tightrope: Balancing Educational Opportunity and Criminal Justice in Federal Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II; Lane, Jason E.; Rogers, Kimberly R.

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Act's Drug-Free Student Aid Provision denies federal aid to anyone convicted of possessing or selling controlled substances. The criminalization of certain offenses and exclusion of others appears to accompany unstated racial and socioeconomic biases. Because minority and poor people are more likely to be convicted of drug…

  2. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal... Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``NIJ...

  3. Evaluation for Criminal Justice Agencies: Problem-Oriented Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Douglas K.

    This report discusses considerations involved in placing the evaluation process for criminal justice agencies within an organizational and practical context. The discussion proceeds from the following perspectives: (1) program evaluation is a policy/management tool; (2) various levels of policy and management personnel have numerous and varied…

  4. Criminal Justice in America. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice is intended to serve as the foundation for a high school course on law-related education or as a supplement for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and analytical skills, the book provides students with an understanding of the criminal justice…

  5. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume Five: Criminal Justice Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Planning Association, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on education and training needs for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel, this document is one in a series of six volumes reporting the results of the National Manpower Survey (NMS) of the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 1 of ten chapters provides an overview of nine types of educational and/or training programs, including the…

  6. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  7. Contesting Childhood in the US Justice System: The Transfer of Juveniles to Adult Criminal Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislative enactments have altered the boundary between US juvenile and criminal justice systems. Youth that were previously adjudicated as juveniles are increasingly being labeled "adults" and tried in the criminal court. This article begins with a review of policy and practice changes in the transfer of children to the criminal court.…

  8. Law Studies: The Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Experimental Curriculum Bulletin, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin on criminal justice focuses on selected aspects of the U.S. legal system, including the police, the courts, and the prisons as well as on the protections and guarantees that reinforce the legitimacy of the U.S. legal process. Unit 1, "The Role of Law in a Free Society," is designed to enhance the awareness of students about the…

  9. Criminal Justice in America. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    This book, a comprehensive and interactive introductory text on criminal justice, consists of six units: (1) Crime: covers victims' rights, gangs, violent crime, white-collar crime, elements of crimes, legal defenses, methods for measuring crime, hate crime, computer crime, and a history of crime in the United States; (2) Police: explores local…

  10. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Library Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University who are doing library research in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and related subject areas begins by noting that topics in these areas can be researched in a variety of subject disciplines, including psychology, sociology, law, social work, political science, public administration,…

  11. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  12. Legal Careers in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the broad range of jobs in law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional systems. Discusses the various paths of education and training leading to these jobs, the most preeminent being law school. Considers opportunities in growing fields such as international criminal law. (MJP)

  13. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  14. A Guide to Our Criminal Justice System. [Volume I].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addelston, Lorraine W., Ed.; And Others

    A study of the criminal justice system in New York City found that blame has been thrust on the judges, the police, the district attorneys, and the probation officers. To find out if there is, indeed, a system of criminal justice and if the necessary responsibilities, authority, and accountability for the successful conclusions to steps in the…

  15. Criminal Justice in America. Teacher's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Hayes, Bill

    This teacher's guide outlines effective strategies for using "Criminal Justice in America." This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice may serve either as the foundation for a high school law-related education course or as a supplemental text for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and…

  16. Syllabus Design and Construction in Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Robert G.; Carr, Adam F.

    Undergraduate course syllabi on law enforcement, courts-law, corrections, and general criminal justice-criminology were assessed, based on 759 usable submissions from 193 junior, community, and senior colleges and universities. Based on the analysis, a set of syllabi to represent the core of a criminal justice curriculum was constructed. Course…

  17. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  18. 28 CFR 50.2 - Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil proceedings. 50.2 Section 50.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.2 Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating...

  19. 28 CFR 50.2 - Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil proceedings. 50.2 Section 50.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.2 Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating...

  20. Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from a sample of juveniles to examine how racial differences in early police contact, and important social environments—family, school, and neighborhoods—affect later contact and arrests, controlling for self-reported delinquency. We find that early (in middle school) contact with police is an important predictor of later (high school) arrests. Also we found that, in addition to being male and living in a low-income family, children who have parents who have a history of arrest, who have experienced school disciplinary actions, who have delinquent peers, and who are in networks with deviant adults are more likely to have problems with law enforcement. These factors help to explain racial differences in police contacts and arrests. PMID:20190860

  1. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  2. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  3. Health care reform, behavioral health, and the criminal justice population.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; Cheema, Jehanzeb

    2014-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has a number of important features for individuals who are involved with the criminal justice system. Among the most important changes is the expansion of Medicaid to more adults. The current study estimates that 10% of the total Medicaid expansion could include individuals who have experienced recent incarceration. The ACA also emphasizes the importance of mental health and substance abuse benefits, potentially changing the landscape of behavioral health treatment providers willing to serve criminal justice populations. Finally, it seeks to promote coordinated care delivery. New care delivery and appropriate funding models are needed to address the behavioral health and other chronic conditions experienced by those in criminal justice and to coordinate care within the complex structure of the justice system itself. PMID:24807645

  4. Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 2. National Institute of Justice Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellam, Sheppard G.; Prinz, Ron; Sheley, Joseph F.

    This booklet contains conference presentations from the 1999 National Institute of Justice's research forum on preventing school violence. The theme of the conference was "Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research." Three researchers were asked to speak on topics of school violence since effective preventive policy and practices are…

  5. Juvenile crime and criminal justice: resolving border disputes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal architecture of the new boundary-drawing regime and how effective it has been in reducing crime. The juvenile court, Fagan emphasizes, has always had the power to transfer juveniles to the criminal court. Transfer decisions were made individually by judges who weighed the competing interests of public safety and the possibility of rehabilitating young offenders. This authority has now been usurped by legislators and prosecutors. The recent changes in state law have moved large numbers of juveniles into the adult system. As many as 25 percent of all juvenile offenders younger than eighteen, says Fagan, are now prosecuted in adult court. Many live in states where the age boundary between juvenile and criminal court has been lowered to sixteen or seventeen. The key policy question is: do these new transfer laws reduce crime? In examining the research evidence, Fagan finds that rates of juvenile offending are not lower in states where it is relatively more common to try adolescents as adults. Likewise, juveniles who have been tried as adults are no less likely to re-offend than their counterparts who have been tried as juveniles. Treating juveniles as adult criminals, Fagan concludes, is not effective as a means of crime control. Fagan argues that the proliferation of transfer regimes over the past several decades calls into question the very rationale for a juvenile court. Transferring adolescent offenders to the criminal court exposes them to harsh and sometimes toxic forms of punishment that have the perverse effect of increasing criminal activity. The accumulating evidence on transfer, the recent decrease in serious juvenile

  6. Criminal Justice and Alcohol Treatment: Results from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug treatment and past year treatment utilization (versus neither) on past year legal involvement, demographic, and clinical information. In general, results found stronger associations between frequency of criminal justice involvement for treatment utilization compared to perceived need for treatment alone. Treatment utilization was also associated with being on probation, arrests for drug possession/sale and DUI but perceived need was not. Study results suggest opportunities for interventions to increase treatment rates or treatment need, a major correlate of treatment utilization. PMID:22954511

  7. Mental health centers and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Modlin, H C; Porter, L; Benson, R E

    1976-10-01

    Through questionnaires, interviews, and site visits, the authors undertook to ascertain to what extent the 26 community mental health centers in Kansas were contributing to the resolution of problems that concern the criminal justice system. They found that in all large communities some reciprocal programs have developed between the two systems, but meaningful collaboration is rare in small communities. Juvenile courts, urban law enforcement agencies, and county probation officers are most receptive to collaborative programs. An evaluation of several effective programs revealed three basic conditions that attribute to their success: an urban community setting, individual initiative by staff from each system, and location of the program within the criminal justice system. PMID:976954

  8. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated. PMID:27269025

  9. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  10. Social Work and Criminal Justice: Are We Meeting in the Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; McCarter, Susan; Brigham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are needed but infrequently involved with criminal justice systems. One way to increase the number of social workers in the criminal justice system is by exposing students to work in these settings. This study examined the number, types, and utilization of criminal justice field placements in MSW programs by surveying field…

  11. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Criminal Justice Program. Volume XVI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, George; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) of students who had completed several courses in the Criminal Justice Program to determine why students left the criminal justice field, examine Criminal Justice students' enrollment and course-taking patterns, and to analyze withdrawal and failure rates in the course,…

  12. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  13. Grievance and Redress: Chicano Access to the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geilhufe, Nancy L.

    Focusing on the processes involved in making formal bureaucracies responsive, the study examined: the structure of formal grievance and redress procedures within the criminal justice system in San Jose, California; and the informal strategies used by politically active members of the Chicano community to extend and strengthen these channels. The…

  14. Doing Justice? Criminal Offenders with Developmental Disabilities. Detailed Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersilia, Joan

    People with cognitive, intellectual, or developmental disabilities are a small but increasing portion of offenders in the criminal justice system. People with developmental disabilities are estimated to comprise 2-3% of the general population, but 4-10% of the prison population, and an even higher percentage of those in juvenile facilities and in…

  15. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  16. Obstacles Faced by Deaf People in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, M.; Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    Deaf People, especially those who are not well educated, are at risk for serious injustices when they enter the criminal justice system. The present study describes these risks at all stages of the legal process, including arrest, trial, probation, prison, and parole. These dangers are greatest for those who are poorly educated, read at a…

  17. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  18. Children's Voices: Reactions to a Criminal Justice Issue Picture Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslick, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…

  19. The Developmentally Disabled Offender in the Illinois Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Services for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Reported are findings from five studies which explored the special problems and needs of the developmentally disabled offender in the Illinois criminal justice system. Introductory information includes a discussion of the problem, goals of the present study, and a review of programs for retarded offenders throughout the U.S. Presented are five…

  20. Rural Crime and Criminal Justice: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Robert D., Comp.; Horton, David M., Comp.

    The 140-item bibliography highlights available literature on crime and the administration of criminal justice in rural America, published between 1921 and 1979 (primarily in the 1970's). The 31 citations in Chapter 1, "Rural Crime: Nature and Extent," deal with incidence rates, contributing factors, offender studies, and crimes unique to rural…

  1. Ageism and Gender among Social Work and Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate social work and criminal justice students completed 1 of 4 vignettes that were identical with the exception of the age and gender of the vignette's subject. In each vignette, the subject interacted with an opposite-sex 24-year-old waiter or waitress. Following each vignette, respondents answered 20 items relating to the age, gender,…

  2. Using ELVIS to Measure Experiential Learning in Criminal Justice Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Erin; Dahl, Patricia; Bayens, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between criminal justice internships and knowledge domains. Kolb's four experiential learnings stages of experience, reflection, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation are assessed using the Experiential Learning Variables and Indicators Scale (ELVIS) to provide a…

  3. Criminal Justice Research in Libraries and on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bonnie R.

    In addition to covering the enduring elements of traditional research on criminal justice, this new edition provides full coverage on research using the World Wide Web, hypertext documents, computer indexes, and other online resources. It gives an in-depth explanation of such concepts as databases, networks, and full text, and covers the Internet…

  4. Criminal Justice Program Review: Training Programs in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report presents results from the Florida State Board of Community Colleges' review of Criminal Justice programs. A preface indicates that concerns related to crime in the state provided the impetus for the review and that it focused on issues related to curricula, funding and costs, labor demand and employment requirements, and labor supply.…

  5. Inventory of Potential Funding Sources for Criminal Justice Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Positive Futures, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Potential funding sources for criminal justice education programs are listed and information on supplemental source materials and a brief outline of grant writing considerations are included. Sections on general foundation grants, state restricted grants, and government grants are provided. Included under state restricted grants are Alabama,…

  6. A Heuristic Model of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalman, Marvin

    The differences between criminology and criminal justice are assessed by comparing them to a more abstract typology. This typology is comprised of four basic elements: the focal concerns of the fields; career patterns of professionals; the extent to which the fields are theoretically based and are disciplines, sciences, and professions; and the…

  7. Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Education. Directory 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobetz, Richard W.

    This document is designed to provide assistance to those students seeking information on colleges and universities that offer law enforcement and criminal justice degree programs. For this 1975-76 directory, questionnaires were mailed to every college and university in the United States and to those colleges and universities known to be offering…

  8. Criminal Justice: An Upper-Level Social Studies Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eau Claire Area Public Schools, WI.

    This teaching guide outlines an 18 week elective course on criminal justice for use in grades 11 or 12. The course consists of five units and is intended to help students learn about law, crime and law enforcement, courts, corrections, and capital punishment. Throughout the course there is extensive participation of law enforcement and other…

  9. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  10. Women, Crime and the Male Dominated Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    Our society has long adhered to a double standard of justice, one for male offenders and another for females. This system survived with little controversy mainly due to the small female prison population. But recent events have drawn attention to not only the issue of female criminality, but to the treatment of women while incarcerated. Female…

  11. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide... of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide. SUMMARY: In an effort to..., National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``NIJ...

  12. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  13. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute...

  14. 76 FR 78950 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...

  15. Colorado's energy boom: impact on crime and criminal justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Information is reported on the impact of rapid energy development on western slope criminal justice agencies. The focus is on crime rates, law enforcement, the courts, and juvenile justice problems. The problems that are likely to develop and what might be done to minimize the negative consequences are analyzed. The social characteristics of boom towns and the changes resulting from rapid growth, the changes in crime rates, the impact experienced by law enforcement agencies and the courts, and information on planning and funding in impact areas are described. (MCW)

  16. Treating Substance Use Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Matthew; Hamilton, Leah

    2013-01-01

    The large number of individuals with substance use disorders involved in the nation’s criminal justice system (CJS) represents a unique opportunity, as well as challenges, in addressing the dual concerns of public safety and public health. Unfortunately, a low proportion of those who could benefit from treatment actually receive it while involved in the CJS. This article presents a review of recent research on the effectiveness of major substance abuse treatment interventions used at different possible linkage points during criminal justice case processing, including diversion, jail, prison, and community supervision. This is followed by a discussion of key research and practice issues, including low rates of treatment access and under-utilization of medication-assisted treatment. Concluding comments discuss principles of effective treatment for offenders and identify key gaps in research and practice that need to be addressed to improve and expand provision of effective treatment for offenders. PMID:24132733

  17. Leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy

    This article, the second in a five-part series, explores leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system to effect change in service provision. The article discusses different leadership styles and distinguishes management from leadership. Factors that influence change are outlined, as is the need for emotional intelligence, teamwork and collaborative working. Change management, negotiating ability and conflict management are important skills that nurses should develop to become effective leaders. PMID:20578637

  18. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  19. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime. PMID:24285833

  20. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    PubMed

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  1. Criminal Justice Act 1988, 29 July 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This UK Act does the following, among other things: 1) facilitates the conviction of alleged child abusers by allowing evidence to be given through a television link by a witness under the age of 14 in cases involving assault, abuse, or sexual misconduct; 2) limits the calling of witnesses under the age of 14 in certain committal hearings for persons accused of committing the above offenses; 3) abolishes the requirement that unsworn evidence given by children be corroborated and that sworn evidence given by children be accompanied by a warning if not corroborated; 4) increases the maximum term of imprisonment for cruelty to children and young persons from two to 10 years; 5) puts the existing Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme on a statutory basis, giving claimants a right to compensation in certain cases, and creating, in addition to a payment for having been the victim of rape, a new payment of 5000 pounds payable to such a victim who becomes pregnant, gives birth to a child, and intends to keep the child; and 6) creates a new offense of possession of an indecent photograph of a child (i.e., a person under the age of 16); previously possession of such a photograph, per se, was not illegal. PMID:12289174

  2. Envisioning the Next Generation of Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731

  3. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes the user fee..., III, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation. BILLING CODE 4410-02-P...

  4. Integrating the American criminal justice and mental health service systems to focus on victimization.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2011-12-01

    Although most research and policy in the mental health and criminal justice arenas have operated independently of one another, there is a growing consensus suggesting the need for an integration of these two disparate, yet complementary systems. Furthermore, in light of the adverse mental health consequences that often accompany victimization experiences, it is apparent that these two systems should develop and foster overlapping services for crime victims. The research reviewed herein provides an examination of issues such as these, identifies some of the barriers that stand in the way of a successful integration of the two systems, and attempts to provide some guidance and direction for future integrated mental health and criminal justice system approaches. An outline of research gaps and directions for future study are offered for the integration of criminal justice and mental health systems, as such collaborations are likely to alleviate some of the deleterious mental health outcomes evident among crime victims and at the same time reduce the occurrence of repeat victimization. PMID:22114170

  5. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, J. E.; Frewing, H. K.; Lee, J. J.; Leflang, W. G.; Reilly, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for identifying user requirements and network designs for criminal justice networks on a state wide basis are discussed. Topics covered include: methods for determining data required; data collection and survey; data organization procedures, and methods for forecasting network traffic volumes. Developed network design techniques center around a computerized topology program which enables the user to generate least cost network topologies that satisfy network traffic requirements, response time requirements and other specified functional requirements. The developed techniques were applied in Texas and Ohio, and results of these studies are presented.

  6. Justice Department Airline Merger Policy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    Justice Department airline merger policy is developed within the context of the Federal Aviation Act, in which there is an unusually explicit reliance on competition as a means of fulfilling statutory goals. The economics of the airline industry appear to indicate that low concentration and vigorous competition are particularly viable and desirable. Several factors, including existing regulatory policy, create incentives for airlines to merge whether or not an individual merger promotes or conflicts with the public interest. Specific benefits to the public should be identified and shown to clearly outweight the detriments, including adverse competitive impact, in order for airline mergers to be approved.

  7. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  8. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  9. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  10. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  11. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  12. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  13. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  14. Building a Criminal Justice Program as an Educational, Community, and Professional Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolce, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Building a criminal justice program as a multidimensional resource requires a broad sense of purpose, the involvement of faculty and staff from many disciplines, the cooperation and partnership of criminal justice practitioners, and the involvement of the community. This coalition of personnel and resources should assist students in understanding…

  15. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  16. Criminal Justice. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a criminal justice program is designed for students interested in pursuing a future in law enforcement or a related public safety profession. The criminal justice program in the career-technical and adult education center is a two-year curriculum that is divided into these 14 units: orientation; legal aspects; communication…

  17. Criminal Justice Profile--Statewide, 1984. Supplement to "Crime and Delinquency in California."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This California annual Criminal Justice Statewide Profile presents data which supplements the Bureau of Criminal Statistics' (BCS) annual Crime and Delinquency publication. This monograph summarizes and combines data pertaining to California's justice system. The profile consists of two sections. The first section consists of 12 tables displaying…

  18. Tracking and location technologies for the criminal justice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1995-05-01

    Electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-release prgrams, on parole, and on probation. State-of-the-art electronic monitoring systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the clients leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the clients are behaving properly. As a result, electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of cases of low risk criminal offenders. There is a growing need for community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the safety and security provided by the electronic monitoring systems, and to expand the number of cliets monitored by these systems. In this paper, a review is made of the tracking and location technologies that are currently available or under development. Also presented is a brief overview of Westinghouse's program with the National Institute of Justice. This program aims to demonstrate the practicality of one possible tracking and location technology, spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems, for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  19. Medication-Assisted Treatment in Criminal Justice Agencies Affiliated with the Criminal Justice-Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Availability, Barriers & Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Hoskinson, Randall; Gordon, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Kinlock, Timothy; Knight, Kevin; Flynn, Patrick M.; Welsh, Wayne N.; Stein, Lynda A. R.; Sacks, Stanley; O’Connell, Daniel J.; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Shafer, Michael S.; Hall, Elizabeth; Frisman, Linda K.

    2012-01-01

    Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is underutilized in the treatment of drug-dependent, criminal justice populations. This study surveyed criminal justice agencies affiliated with the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) to assess use of MAT and factors influencing use of MAT. A convenience sample (N=50) of criminal justice agency respondents (e.g., jails, prisons, parole/probation, and drug courts) completed a survey on MAT practices and attitudes. Pregnant women and individuals experiencing withdrawal were most likely to receive MAT for opiate dependence in jail or prison, while those re-entering the community from jail or prison were the least likely to receive MAT. Factors influencing use of MAT included criminal justice preferences for drug-free treatment, limited knowledge of the benefits of MAT, security concerns, regulations prohibiting use of MAT for certain agencies, and lack of qualified medical staff. Differences across agency type in the factors influencing use and perceptions of MAT were also examined. MAT use is largely limited to detoxification and maintenance of pregnant women in criminal justice settings. Use of MAT during the community reentry period is minimal. Addressing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes about MAT may increase its adoption, but better linkages to community pharmacotherapy during the reentry period might overcome other issues, including security, liability, staffing and regulatory concerns. The CJ-DATS collaborative MAT implementation study to address inadequate knowledge, attitudes and linkage will be described. PMID:22263709

  20. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  1. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  2. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  3. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  4. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  5. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  6. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  7. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  8. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  9. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  10. The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M'Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning. I review the consequences of PFC damage on these endpoints, the capacity for factors such as alcohol and stress to transiently impair PFC function, and the remarkably late development of the PFC (in which full myelination may not occur until early adulthood). I also consider how individual variation in PFC function and anatomy, within the normative range, covaries with some of these endpoints. This literature is reviewed because of its relevance to issues of criminal insanity; specifically, damage can produce an individual capable of differentiating right from wrong but who, nonetheless, is organically incapable of appropriately regulating their behaviour. PMID:15590619

  11. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented. PMID:27232373

  12. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  13. Criminal justice pathways to psychiatric care for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Ullrich, Simone; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients are at higher risk of contact with criminal justice agencies when experiencing a first episode of psychosis. Aims To investigate whether violence explains criminal justice pathways (CJPs) for psychosis in general, and ethnic vulnerability to CJPs. Method Two-year population-based survey of people presenting with a first-episode of psychosis. A total of 481 patients provided information on pathways to psychiatric care. The main outcome was a CJP at first contact compared with other services on the care pathway. Results CJPs were more common if there was violence at first presentation (odds ratio (OR) = 4.23, 95% CI 2.74–6.54, P<0.001), drug use in the previous year (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.50–3.48, P<0.001) and for high psychopathy scores (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.43–4.53, P = 0.002). Compared with White British, CJPs were more common among Black Caribbean (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.54–5.72, P<0.001) and Black African patients (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.02–3.72, P = 0.01). Violence mediated 30.2% of the association for Black Caribbeans, but was not a mediator for Black African patients. These findings were sustained after adjustment for age, marital status, gender and employment. Conclusions CJPs were more common in violent presentations, for greater psychopathy levels and drug use. Violence presentations did not fully explain ethnic vulnerability to CJPs. PMID:26294370

  14. Substance Abuse and Addiction: The Interface of the Health and Criminal Justice Systems. Second Policy Report of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    The purpose of the Physician Consortium on Substance Abuse Education is to promote the role of physicians in prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and after-care referral for substance abuse by improving medical education and training. This policy report is the product of 2 years of work and a national conference of the consortium and presents in full…

  15. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. PMID:27302706

  16. Medication Assisted Treatment Research with Criminal Justice Populations: Challenges of Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Miller, Patrice M.

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors’ experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  17. Medication-assisted treatment research with criminal justice populations: challenges of implementation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Miller, Patrice M

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors' experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  18. Crime and the Black Community. An Assessment of the Impact of Selected Criminal Justice Issues in New York State. Report of the Criminal Justice Subcommittee. Volume 3, Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    Racially motivated and/or targeted violence is a priority criminal justice issue for New York State. Racially motivated violence occurs when the perpetrator's intent or conscious objective is to injure a person or his property because of the person's racial identity. The following factors may explain the occurrence and recent increase in racial…

  19. Case studies from three states: breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Matthew J; Caudy, Michael; Gardner, Tracie M; Huber, Alice; Mancuso, David; Samuels, Paul; Shah, Tanya; Venters, Homer D

    2014-03-01

    The jail-involved population-people with a history of arrest in the previous year-has high rates of illness, which leads to high costs for society. A significant percentage of jail-involved people are estimated to become newly eligible for coverage through the Affordable Care Act's expansion of Medicaid, including coverage of substance abuse treatment and mental health care. In this article we explore the need to break down the current policy silos between health care and criminal justice, to benefit both sectors and reduce unnecessary costs resulting from lack of coordination. To draw attention to the hidden costs of the current system, we review three case studies, from Washington State, Los Angeles County in California, and New York City. Each case study addresses different aspects of care needed by or provided to the jail-involved population, including mental health and substance abuse, emergency care, and coordination of care transitions. Ultimately, bending the cost curve for health care and criminal justice will require greater integration of the two systems. PMID:24590948

  20. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume One: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Washington, DC.

    As mandated in the 1973 Amendments to the Safe Streets Act, the National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System was conducted to assess current and projected manpower needs, personnel quality, and training and education programs. Data were collected from the following sources: surveys of 8,000 executives of state and local criminal justice…

  1. Commercializing Success: The Impact of Popular Media on the Career Decisions and Perceptual Accuracy of Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthe, Emmanuel P.; Leone, Matthew C.; Lateano, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of criminal justice continues to grow and attract students to this area of higher education. These students typically represent society in that their beliefs about the justice system are based on media depictions, not education or experience. This study surveyed Introduction to Criminal Justice students from two universities,…

  2. The Age of Criminal Responsibility: "The Frontier between Care and Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, John

    2006-01-01

    This is an extract from a speech given by Mr Justice Gillen to a conference in Belfast organised by Children Law UK in January 2006. It addresses the potential conflict between the concept of the welfare of children inherent in the family care system and that of responsibility inherent in the criminal justice system. It questions whether the…

  3. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS. PMID:19731365

  4. Interaction of the criminal justice system and psychiatric professionals in which civil commitment standards are prohibitive.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Rogers, R; Draine, J; Meyerson, A

    1995-01-01

    Three case studies are the basis for a discussion of the criminalization hypothesis as it may apply to psychiatric probationers and parolees in the criminal justice system. In each of these cases, the treating psychiatrist faced the problems of noncompliance with treatment and/or restrictive civil commitment standards. The patient's status as a probationer or parolee played a pivotal role in strategies for ensuring treatment through the criminal justice system as opposed to the mental health system or civil commitment process. PMID:7599364

  5. The Scope of Practice of Occupational Therapy in U.S. Criminal Justice Settings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M

    2016-09-01

    In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27094024

  6. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation. PMID:25774412

  7. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process. PMID:21490000

  8. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379

  9. 5 CFR 733.102 - Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Division of the United States Department of Justice. Employees in the Criminal Division in the Department... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. 733.102 Section 733.102 Administrative...

  10. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  11. An Annotated Bibliography of Theses: The College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University, 1965-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Peter J.; Wood, Richard J.

    A description of Sam Houston University and the College of Criminal Justice introduces this annotated bibliography, which provides a single comprehensive listing of the master's degree theses written by students in the criminal justice program from its establishment in 1965 through 1990. Several 1991 theses are included although their call numbers…

  12. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration. PMID:26789388

  13. The state of research funding from the National Institutes of Health for criminal justice health research

    PubMed Central

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Bolano, Marielle; Wang, Emily A.; Williams, Brie

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 20 million Americans are currently incarcerated or have been in the past. Most are from medically underserved populations; one in three African American men and one in six Latino men born in 2001 are projected to go to prison during their lifetimes. The amount of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to understand and improve the health of criminal justice-involved persons is unknown. Objective Describe NIH funding for research addressing the health and healthcare needs of criminal justice-involved individuals. Design Review of NIH grants (from 2008 through 2012) in the RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database. Setting The NIH RePORT database. Patients Criminal justice involved individuals participating in NIH-funded clinical research. Measurements NIH research and training grants awarded by number, type, research area, institute or center, and dollar amount. Results Of more than 250,000 NIH funded grants, 180 (less than 0.1%) focused on criminal justice health research. The three most common foci of criminal justice health research grants were substance use and/or HIV (64%), mental health (11%), and juvenile health (8%). Two institutes, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health, funded 78% of all grants. In 2012, the NIH invested $40.9 million in criminal justice health research, or 1.5% of the $2.7 billion health disparities budget for that year. Limitations NIH-supported research that did not explicitly include current or former prisoners but may have relevance to criminal justice health was not included. Conclusions Federal funding for research focused on understanding and improving the health of criminal justice-involved persons is small, even when compared to the NIH’s overall investment in health disparities research. The NIH is well-positioned to transform the care of current and former prisoners by investing in this critical yet overlooked research area. Primary

  14. ERIC First Analysis: 1976-77 National High School Debate Resolutions (How Can the Criminal Justice System in the United States Best Be Improved?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Robert B.

    The goal of this booklet is to assist debaters in developing problem-solving skills as represented in the 1976-77 debate topic: How can the criminal justice system in the United States best be improved? The sections of this document focus on the need for criminal justice reform; procedural steps in the criminal justice system; discussing or…

  15. Policy Implications of Social Justice in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bull, Barry

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the implications of a particular conception of social justice in education for the policies that have led to significant political controversies in contemporary communities in the United States. Many of these controversies have arisen from the collision between the increasingly multicultural reality in those communities and…

  16. What Makes a Good Criminal Justice Professor? A Quantitative Analysis of Student Evaluation Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerkin, Patrick M.; Kierkus, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to understand how students define teaching effectiveness. By using multivariate regression analysis of 8,000+ student evaluations of teaching compiled by a School of Criminal Justice at a Midwestern public university, this paper explores the relationships between individual indicators of instructor performance (e.g.…

  17. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  18. Evaluating Health Outcomes of Criminal Justice Populations Using Record Linkage: The Importance of Aliases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larney, Sarah; Burns, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals in contact with the criminal justice system are a key population of concern to public health. Record linkage studies can be useful for studying health outcomes for this group, but the use of aliases complicates the process of linking records across databases. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of aliases on sensitivity…

  19. Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System and Implications for Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tammy; Polloway, Edward A.; Patton, James R.; Beyer, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this manuscript is on the challenges faced by individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities within the criminal justice system. Prevalence data are cited and these data are interpreted in light of possible rationales for the disproportionate number of individuals with disabilities present within the system. Then the…

  20. The Career Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The past 2 decades have produced a rapid increase in the numbers of incarcerated mothers. This study investigated both career development and the career counseling needs of mothers in the criminal justice system. A mixed-methods design was employed using both qualitative interviews (n = 1,161) and quantitative survey methods (n = 1,170).…

  1. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  2. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  3. The Substance Abuse Counseling Needs of Women in the Criminal Justice System: A Needs Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Moe, Jeffry L.; Cox, Jane A.; Lambert, Eric; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the substance abuse counseling needs of women in the criminal justice system using interviews (n = 304) and surveys (n = 1,170). On the basis of the results, the authors call for gender-specific treatment as well as family-oriented support for women who are mothers.

  4. The Clinical Mental Health Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the mental health (MH) needs of mothers in the criminal justice system using qualitative methods. Identified needs included counseling to help mothers recover from trauma, to define sense of self, and to link them with external support systems. This study confirms and extends the knowledge base regarding the MH status and…

  5. Pathways into the Criminal Justice System for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Poonam; Arenovich, Tamara; Jones, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies focusing on pathways in the criminal justice system for individuals with intellectual disability are limited in that they only study individuals once they are involved in the system and do not consider the pathways into it. The purpose of this study is to examine predisposing factors that lead to various outcomes for…

  6. Expenditure and Employment Data for the Criminal Justice System, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Specific data relating to public expenditure and employment for the criminal justice system in the United States are presented in tabular form in this annual survey report. Comprehensive data are supplied in 29 tables for the Federal Government, each of the 50 state governments, city, county, and other local subdivisions of government. Data are…

  7. Clinical Education: Use of Criminal Justice Act Appointments at the University of Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyel, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A new course of clinical education at the University of Mississippi is described. A member of the teaching faculty was appointed under the Criminal Justice Act to represent indigent defendants with the assistance of student interns. Goals for the future and possible implementation at other law schools are discussed. (MLW)

  8. Evaluation of the Student Engagement Process in a Criminal Justice Program at a Technical College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totzke, Martin W.

    2007-01-01

    This applied dissertation was an evaluation of the student engagement practices offered to students in a criminal justice program at a Midwestern technical college. The problem was that an evaluation of the practices had not been conducted to provide data to indicate whether the current practices were effective. The researcher developed an…

  9. An Evaluation of a Service-Learning Model for Criminal Justice Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy Beth; Simons, Lori; Kenyon, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A triangulation mixed-methods design was used to measure differences in service-learning outcomes for 32 students enrolled in criminal justice courses during the academic years 2003 (n = 16) and 2005 (n = 16). Results show that service-learners increase their political awareness and course value but experience a decrease in problem-solving skills…

  10. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  11. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  12. A Comparative Analysis of Service Learning in Social Work and Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Elissa E.; Davis, Jaya; Cronley, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought input from a national sample of social work (SW) and criminal justice (CJ) educators ("N" = 276) to explore characteristics of those who use service learning in the two disciplines, differences in the conceptions of and beliefs about service learning, and distinctions in how it is used and implemented. This study…

  13. People with an Intellectual Disability and the Criminal Justice System: The Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockram, Judith; Jackson, Robert; Underwood, Rod

    1998-01-01

    An Australian study interviewed 20 family caregivers for individuals with intellectual disabilities who were offenders in the criminal justice system. Caregivers expressed concern for the lack of sentencing options and the inadequate level of services for this population. It is argued that these offenders require legal representation from the…

  14. Academic Disciplines and Debates: An Essay on Criminal Justice and Criminology as Professions in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank T.

    Current developments concerning criminology and criminal justice education are viewed historically and placed within a broader perspective of academic professionalization, and a few of the debates going on within and between the two fields are considered. Some early sociologists made considerable claim to studies of crime, and criminology and…

  15. The Literature of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn

    Included in this bibliography of about 500 items on criminology/criminal justice higher education is information on programs, services, and the issues that must be considered in the quest for quality education. Journal articles, essays, books, chapters, government publications, catalogs and conference proceedings from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s…

  16. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  17. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume IV: Network Design Software User's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jun-Ji

    A user's guide is provided for the network design software developed by the STACOM project. The STACOM program was developed and implemented with FORTRAN V on a UNIVAC 1108 computer using the EXEC-8 operating system, which enables the user to construct least cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A…

  18. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education, 1910-1935"; (3)…

  19. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law. PMID:23022585

  20. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  1. Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resource Manual (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donn B.

    This advanced training and reference manual is designed to aid investigators and prosecutors in dealing with white collar computer crime. The first five sections follow the typical order of events for prosecutors handling a criminal case: classifying the crime, computer abuse methods and detection, experts and suspects using information systems,…

  2. Forced withdrawal from methadone maintenance therapy in criminal justice settings: a critical treatment barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jeannia J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Yokell, Michael A; Bazazi, Alexander R; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization classifies methadone as an essential medicine, yet methadone maintenance therapy remains widely unavailable in criminal justice settings throughout the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy is often terminated at the time of incarceration, with inmates forced to withdraw from this evidence-based therapy. We assessed whether these forced withdrawal policies deter opioid-dependent individuals in the community from engaging methadone maintenance therapy in two states that routinely force inmates to withdraw from methadone (N = 205). Nearly half of all participants reported that concern regarding forced methadone withdrawal during incarceration deterred them engaging methadone maintenance therapy in the community. Participants in the state where more severe methadone withdrawal procedures are used during incarceration were more likely to report concern regarding forced withdrawal as a treatment deterrent. Methadone withdrawal policies in the criminal justice system may be a broader treatment deterrent for opioid-dependent individuals than previously realized. Redressing this treatment barrier is both a health and human rights imperative. PMID:23433809

  3. A Rasch Model Analysis of Evidence-Based Treatment Practices Used in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    This study used item response theory (IRT) to examine the extent to which criminal justice facilities and community-based agencies are using evidence-based substance abuse treatment practices (EBPs), which EBPs are most commonly used, and how EBPs cluster together. The study used data collected from wardens, justice administrators, and treatment directors as part of the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey (NCJTP; Taxman et al., 2007a), and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results of Rasch modeling demonstrated that a reliable measure can be formed to gauge the extent to which juvenile and adult correctional facilities, and community treatment agencies serving offenders, have adopted various treatment practices supported by research. We also demonstrated the concurrent validity of the measure by showing that features of the facilities’ organizational contexts were associated with the extent to which facilities were using EBPs, and which EBPs they were using. Researchers, clinicians, and program administrators may find these results interesting not only because they show the program factors most strongly related to EBP use, but the results also suggest that certain treatment practices are generally clustered together, which may help stakeholders plan and prioritize the adoption of new EBPs in their facilities. The study has implications for future research focused on understanding the adoption and implementation of EBPs in correctional environments. PMID:18029116

  4. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and

  5. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  6. To Blame or to Forgive? Reconciling Punishment and Forgiveness in Criminal Justice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    What do you do when faced with wrongdoing—do you blame or do you forgive? Especially when confronted with offences that lie on the more severe end of the spectrum and cause terrible psychological or physical trauma or death, nothing can feel more natural than blame. Indeed, in the UK and the USA, increasingly vehement and righteous public expressions of blame and calls for vengeance have become commonplace; correspondingly, contemporary penal philosophy has witnessed a resurgence of the retributive tradition, in the modern form usually known as the ‘justice’ model. On the other hand, people can and routinely do forgive others, even in cases of severe crime. Evolutionary psychologists argue that both vengeance and forgiveness are universal human adaptations that have evolved as alternative responses to exploitation, and, crucially, strategies for reducing risk of re-offending. We are naturally endowed with both capacities: to blame and retaliate, or to forgive and seek to repair relations. Which should we choose? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, we offer an account of forgiveness and argue that the choice to blame, and not to forgive, is inconsistent with the political values of a broadly liberal society and can be instrumentally counter-productive to reducing the risk of future re-offending. We then sketch the shape of penal philosophy and criminal justice policy and practice with forgiveness in place as a guiding ideal. PMID:26937059

  7. Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives That Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Hate Crimes Series. Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    This publication focuses on initiatives that are designed to address hate crimes by enhancing efforts of the criminal justice system. After discussing the pivotal role of law enforcement in this effort, the paper describes six Bureau of Justice Assistance-funded initiatives, which include: the International Association of Chiefs of Police Summit:…

  8. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 4: Network design software user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A user's guide to the network design program is presented. The program is written in FORTRAN V and implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer under the EXEC-8 operating system which enables the user to construct least-cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A complete description of program features, inputs, processing logic, and outputs is presented, and a sample run and a program listing are included.

  9. Integrated multisystem analysis in a mental health and criminal justice ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  10. Integrated Multisystem Analysis in a Mental Health and Criminal Justice Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  11. The Treatment of Women Within the Criminal Justice System: An Inquiry into the Social Impact of the Women's Rights Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.; Heilbrun, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possible impact of the feminist movement upon criminal justice decisions relating to women. One body of data confirmed a trend away from indiscriminate leniency in the punishment of female criminals during the women's movement. The second set of data disclosed that an increased seriousness was accorded to the crime of rape as feminism…

  12. Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Arfken, Cynthia L; Swartz, James A; Koch, Alison L

    2006-01-01

    important policy implications in reducing the number of subsequent arrests or preventing individuals moving further along the criminal justice continuum, as well as decreasing the fiscal and resource burdens associated with criminal justice processing and confinement. PMID:16879743

  13. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the "Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law." This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that "[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV." As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  14. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the “Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law.” This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that “[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV.” As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  15. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories. PMID:26715046

  16. Parents in Prison: Justice Literacy and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Laura; Baille, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    With the highest incarceration rate in the world, the United States has set an inauspicious precedent. More than 1.7 million American children--one in every 43--have a parent in jail or prison. The generational effects of incarceration are deep and lasting and include vastly increased risks of criminal justice involvement among the children of…

  17. Effect of criminal justice mandate on drug treatment completion among women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug and alcohol abuse among women is a growing problem in the United States. Drug treatment is an effective way to manage the psychological, biological, financial, and social cost of drug abuse. Prior research has identified criminal justice referrals or coercion as a predictor of treatment completion among men but questions remain about the same effect in women. Objectives This study uses the Treatment Episodes Datasets Discharge 2006–2008 (TEDS-D) to explore the association between coercion and treatment completion among women. Methods Analysis compared primary treatment episodes of coerced women to those who entered treatment voluntarily. A logistic model of the odds of treatment success was performed controlling for race/ethnicity, age, education, employment, primary substance of abuse, number of substances reported at admission, referral source, treatment setting, and treatment duration. Results 582,671 primary treatment episodes were analyzed comparing women with coercion referrals (n=196,660) to those who entered treatment voluntarily (n=390,054). Results of multivariable logistic modeling showed that coerced women had better odds of completion or transfer than women who entered voluntarily. However, this association was modified by treatment setting with better odds in ambulatory (OR=1.49 (1.47, 1.51)) than in inpatient (OR=1.06 (1.03, 1.10)) and worst outcomes in detoxification (OR=0.89 (0.84, 0.96)). Conclusion These results dispute the broad effectiveness of legal mandates across all drug treatment settings among women. They show the need for further recognition of female specific characteristics that can affect motivation and treatment success to better inform healthcare and judicial policies on drug treatment services for women. PMID:24528184

  18. Juvenile Justice and Public Policy: Toward a National Agenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Ira M., Ed.

    Some of the most critical and troubling issues in juvenile justice are addressed to serve as a catalyst and resource for developing sound juvenile justice public policy decisions. The following chapters examine juvenile court policies, special issues, and cost-effective interventions, and present findings of a national survey of public attitudes…

  19. 78 FR 64535 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board AGENCY: Federal Bureau of... meeting of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) Advisory..., CJIS Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division,......

  20. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  1. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report. PMID:24268458

  2. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. PMID:26204588

  3. Military Veterans in the Criminal Justice System: Partner Violence and the Impact of Relationships With Fathers.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the health characteristics of military veterans identified through the Criminal Justice System (CJS) with partner violence and their relationships with their fathers. The 282 veterans involved in the CJS participated to complete a psycho-social assessment which included partner violence and ascertained their relationships with their fathers. The mean age of the men in the study was 44.9 years old. The majority were divorced, Caucasian, had a high school education, and served in the Army. This sample shows the benefit of integrating partner violence and relationships with fathers into the assessment process and highlights the need for more research. PMID:25976170

  4. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed. PMID:24547675

  5. Adapting needs assessment methodologies to build integrated health pathways for people in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    de Viggiani, N

    2012-09-01

    Criminal justice health services should be underpinned with good public health evidence about the population's health needs. Health needs assessment methodologies can provide valuable intelligence for commissioners to evaluate the quality of services and innovate according to need. However, health needs assessment can be limited if it takes a conventional epidemiological approach, focussing on individuals' healthcare needs in criminal justice settings. Techniques used to measure health and social need could be more widely applied and appropriately employed in the planning of health and social care services, especially if the intention is to be effective in reducing social exclusion and tackling health inequalities. Assessment tools are available that capture individual, social and environmental risk factors and determinants predisposing people to health and criminogenic risks. Good evidence gathering can mean that public health practitioners not only improve health, reduce inequalities and tackle social exclusion, but contribute to reducing re-offending. This paper suggests a new approach to assessment that integrates the full range of assessment methodologies available to practitioners. An integrated approach may be the way to enhance and enrich the public health function in providing evidence to improve the quality of local public services. PMID:22770740

  6. Addressing the Aging Crisis in U.S. Criminal Justice Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brie A.; Goodwin, James S.; Baillargeon, Jacques; Ahalt, Cyrus; Walter, Louise C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice population is aging at a significantly more rapid rate than the overall U.S. population: the population of older adults in prison has more than tripled since 1990. This increase is at the root of a prison healthcare crisis that is spilling into communities and public healthcare systems as nearly 95% of prisoners are eventually released. The graying prison population is also straining state and local budgets. In prison, older prisoners cost approximately three times as much as younger prisoners to incarcerate, largely due to healthcare costs. In the community, older former prisoners present the least risk of recidivism yet are vulnerable to serious and costly social and medical challenges such as housing instability, poor employability, multiple chronic health conditions, and health-related mortality. Older current and former prisoners, however, are largely ignored in the current geriatrics evidence base. Knowledge about the health, functional and cognitive status of older prisoners is limited, with even less known about risk factors for long term poor health outcomes during and after incarceration. This article provides an overview of aging in the criminal justice system. It then describes how geriatric models of care could be adapted to address the mounting older prisoner healthcare crisis and identifies areas where additional research is needed to explore prison-specific models of care for older adults. PMID:22642489

  7. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Bazerman, Lauri; Beckwith, Curt G.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID:23984054

  8. Integrating Research, Policy, and Practice in Juvenile Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomberg, Thomas G.; Waldo, Gordon P.

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview and a context leading to Florida's efforts to implement an evaluation-driven research and associated quality assurance system for its juvenile justice education policies and practices. The Juvenile Justice Educational Enhancement Program described began implementing Florida's evaluation research and quality assurance system in…

  9. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  10. An Attitudinal Explanation of Biases in the Criminal Justice System: An Empirical Testing of Defensive Attribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives, supported by empirical evidence, have consistently argued that the judicial treatment of offenders by criminal justice agents is sometimes biased by extralegal factors, such as offenders' sociodemographic characteristics. According to defensive attribution theory, individuals tend to protect themselves against unfortunate…

  11. An Exploration of How Women Probation and Parole Officers Learn to Negotiate Power and Interest in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Barbara Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore the ways women probation and parole officers learn to negotiate power and interests in the criminal justice system. The women are considered officers of the courts and work within the constraints of the court system. The framework that informed this study was a critical feminist lens on the…

  12. Limitations and Potential in Current Research on Services for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draine, Jeffrey; Wilson, Amy Blank; Pogorzelski, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Intervention at the intersection of the mental health and criminal justice systems has followed a small set of service models with limited success and a narrow impact on the quality of treatment available to people with mental illness who experience arrest, court processing, incarceration, and release. In reviewing research on police, court, and…

  13. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  14. Wrongful Conviction: Perceptions of Criminal Justice Professionals Regarding the Frequency of Wrongful Conviction and the Extent of System Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert J.; Frank, James

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 798 Ohio criminal justice professionals (police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges), the authors examine respondents' perceptions regarding the frequency of system errors (i.e., professional error and misconduct suggested by previous research to be associated with wrongful conviction), and wrongful felony conviction.…

  15. Systematic Outcomes Research for Corrections-Based Treatment: Implications from the Criminal Justice Kentucky Treatment Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; McNees, Erin; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Walker, Robert; Thompson, LaDonna; Pangburn, Kevin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Kentucky correctional system has expanded corrections-based modified therapeutic community treatment from 6 programs to 24 programs. To examine the effectiveness of these programs, the state initiated a systematic treatment outcome study known as the Criminal Justice Kentucky Treatment Outcome Study (CJKTOS). The…

  16. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  17. Unfit for Human Consumption: The Problem of Flawed Writing in Criminal Justice and What to Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Don C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an account of the processes that are involved in the production of "Crime and Delinquency." Asserts that flawed writing in criminology and criminal justice appears to be a systemic rather than an individual one. Suggests to authors or prospective authors ways in which writing can be improved. (LKS)

  18. Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste

    2004-01-01

    This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…

  19. Young People with Learning Disabilities Who Sexually Harm Others: The Role of Criminal Justice within a Multi-Agency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the key findings from a recent study of statutory service responses to young people with learning disabilities who show sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviours, with a particular focus on the involvement of criminal justice agencies. The study found that although inappropriate sexual behaviours were commonplace in special…

  20. 5 CFR 733.102 - Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. 733.102 Section 733.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN...

  1. The Effectiveness of Virtual Learning Tools for Millennial Generation Students in a Community College Criminal Justice Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement and multiyear analysis of pretest/posttest scores in introductory criminal justice courses revealed there was a systemic decline in student engagement and achievement. Because of this analysis, a commercial virtual learning tool (CJI) that purported great success in…

  2. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. PMID:25352031

  3. Comparison of Race-Gender, Urban-Suburban Criminal Justice College Students Satisfaction of the Police Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…

  4. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24629567

  5. Opportunities to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent HIV in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Curt G.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Fu, Jeannia J.; Montague, Brian T.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2010-01-01

    Persons involved with the criminal justice system are at risk for HIV and other transmissible diseases due to substance use and related risk behaviors. Incarceration provides a public health opportunity to test for HIV, viral hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted infections, provide treatment such as highly active antiretroviral therapy, and link infected persons to longitudinal comprehensive HIV care upon their release for such comorbidities as addiction and mental illness. Delivering health interventions inside prisons and jails can be challenging, yet the challenges pale in comparison to the benefits of interventions for inmates and their communities. This article reviews the current state of delivering HIV testing, prevention, treatment, and transition services to incarcerated populations in the United States. It concludes with summary recommendations for research and practice to improve the health of inmates and their communities. PMID:21045600

  6. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

  7. Persons with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system: review of issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jessica

    2007-12-01

    Although the vast majority of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are law-abiding citizens, there is a small percentage with offending behaviour that is considered antisocial, socially inappropriate, or defined as illegal. It has long been recognised that individuals with ID or mental-health needs who break the law should be dealt with differently from the general population. There have been an increasing number of empirical studies in this area; however, these have been plagued by various definitional and methodological issues. Prevalence estimates of offenders with ID are complicated by diagnostic variations and inconsistencies in the criminal justice process. International studies have shown a large range, from 2% to 40%, depending on methodological approaches. The following review will highlight the salient issues including prevalence of offending, characteristics of offenders, vulnerabilities within the legal system, assessment, and a brief overview of intervention and treatment approaches. PMID:17636203

  8. Synthesising Evidence on the Impacts of Programmes and Policies in Education, Crime and Justice, and Social Welfare: Practical Recommendations Based on 14 Test-Bed Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottingham, Phoebe; Maynard, Rebecca; Stagner, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Review teams tested the systematic review procedures and principles developed under the Campbell Collaboration Fourteen review teams selected topics for intervention reviews in social policy, education, and criminal justice. Review protocols gave criteria for the extensive research literature search. Randomised Controlled Trials were selected.…

  9. DNA in the Criminal Justice System: The DNA Success Story in Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mapes, Anna A; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Poot, Christianne J

    2015-07-01

    Current figures on the efficiency of DNA as an investigative tool in criminal investigations only tell part of the story. To get the DNA success story in the right perspective, we examined all forensic reports from serious (N = 116) and high-volume crime cases (N = 2791) over the year 2011 from one police region in the Netherlands. These data show that 38% of analyzed serious crime traces (N = 384) and 17% of analyzed high-volume crime traces (N = 386) did not result in a DNA profile. Turnaround times (from crime scene to DNA report) were 66 days for traces from serious crimes and 44 days for traces from high-volume crimes. Suspects were truly identified through a match with the Offender DNA database of the Netherlands in 3% of the serious crime cases and in 1% of the high-volume crime cases. These data are important for both the forensic laboratory and the professionals in the criminal justice system to further optimize forensic DNA testing as an investigative tool. PMID:25845542

  10. Evaluating European Climate Change Policy: An Ecological Justice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhovic-Dorsner, Kamala

    2005-01-01

    To date, the concept of ecological justice, when applied to international climate change policy, has largely focused on the North-South dichotomy and has yet to be extended to Central and Eastern European countries. This article argues that current formulations of climate change policy cannot address potential issues of ecological injustice to…

  11. American Youth Violence: Implications for National Juvenile Justice Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimring, Franklin E.

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the perception of increasing youth violence is based on fiction rather than fact. Provides the facts involved in the juvenile justice policy focusing on the differences between juvenile and adult violence, youth violence trends, population trends, and three legal policy issues toward adolescent violence. Offers juvenile crime…

  12. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. PMID:24670371

  13. Associations among state and local organizational contexts: Use of evidence-based practices in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Young, Douglas W.; Farrell, Jill; Taxman, Faye S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the extent to which the organizational characteristics of state corrections agencies and local criminal justice facilities interacted in their associations with the extent to which local facilities are using evidence-based substance abuse treatment practices (EBPs). The study used data collected from two nationally representative surveys – one of state executives and the other of local prison wardens, justice administrators, and treatment directors – which were conducted as part of the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey [NCJTP; Taxman, F.S., Young, D., Wiersema, B., Mitchell, S., Rhodes, A.G., 2007. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey: Multi-level survey methods and procedures. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 32, 225–238], and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results indicated that several state organizational characteristics were either associated with more EBP use or interacted with local organizational characteristics in associations with EBP use, including: (1) systems integration at the state level was associated with greater EBP use; (2) state staffing adequacy and stability accentuated the association between local training and resources for new programs and EBP use (i.e., in states with better staffing, the relationship between training/resources and EBP use in local facilities was stronger); and (3) state executives’ attitudes regarding the missions and goals of corrections tended to diminish the extent to which corresponding local administrator attitudes were associated with EBP use. The study has implications for future research focused on EBP diffusion and implementation in correctional environments, particularly attempts to influence EBP use by working through state agencies. PMID:19174321

  14. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Allison G.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M.; Frisman, Linda K.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut’s public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  15. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  16. School Diversity and Social Justice: Policy and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Anne; Currie, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the long established diversity in the English education system--independent schools, grammar schools and religious schools--and in so doing explores tensions between education policy, politics and social justice. It explores the differential access to these different types of school, their social composition and implications…

  17. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  18. Factors associated with probation officers' use of criminal justice coercion to mandate alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Polcin, Douglas L; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2003-08-01

    Alcohol problems are widespread among individuals in county criminal justice probation systems. However, it is unclear why only a small fraction of these problem drinkers receive treatment. In this study, self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 145 probation officers in nine California counties to identify factors that predicted probation officers' use of coercion to mandate alcohol treatment. The questionnaire measured characteristics of probation officers, characteristics of their caseloads, and perceptions about their departments. Principle components analysis combined some of the items into six factor-based scales. Multiple regression analyses identified two significant predictors of use of coercion into treatment: a belief that treatment was effective and a belief that one's peers in the department were using coercion frequently. Implications for increasing treatment entry of probationers with drinking problems include educating probation officers about the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment in general and about coerced treatment in particular. Probation departments are encouraged to develop management styles that facilitate shared normative beliefs about assessing and managing alcohol problems among probationers. PMID:14510045

  19. Understanding the sustainability of implementing HIV services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Visher, Christy A; Yang, Yang; Mitchell, Shannon G; Patterson, Yvonne; Swan, Holly; Pankow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background In the growing field of implementation science, sustainability is a critical component of the implementation process of moving evidence-based treatments to regular practice. This paper is intended to extend our understanding of factors that influence the sustainability of HIV services in correctional settings following an organization-level intervention designed to implement improvements in preventing, detecting, or treating HIV for persons under correctional supervision. Methods Using semi-structured interviews to elicit perceptions from the principal researcher and executive sponsor at each of nine participating sites, this study explores the variations in the sustainability of HIV services in these criminal justice settings following the experimental implementation intervention. Results In six of the nine sites, changes in HIV services implemented as a result of the organizational intervention were sustained six to nine months following the end of project implementation. Organizational endorsement at multiple levels is likely the principal factor that facilitates sustainability. Conclusions The factors that result in the sustainability of changes to health services in correctional organizations include elements internal and external to the organization. Implementation strategies, such as the change team model strategy used in this study, are also sustainable and can be used to identify other changes that could be made, or improve other aspects of service delivery. PMID:25893155

  20. Evaluating environmental justice under the National Environmental Policy Act

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, R.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental justice refers to the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws. To avoid inequities in future federal activities, President Clinton issued Executive Order (EO) 12898, which requires federal agencies to consider environmental justice in carrying out their missions. Guidance issued by the Executive Office of the President requires every federal agency to consider environmental justice in conducting impact evaluations under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Thus, an environmental justice analysis is a highly focused form of social impact assessment that must be conducted within the framework of NEPA. The specific purpose of such an analysis is to determine whether a proposed federal activity would impact low-income and minority populations to a greater extent than it would impact a community`s general population. This article explains the development and implementation of EO 12898 and explores what federal agencies are doing to incorporate environmental justice into their NEPA procedures. It also includes recommendations for other authorities to consider when incorporating environmental justice into their environmental impact assessments.

  1. Health as a mediator of change in the trajectory of young people in contact with the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Cathrine; Matthews, Richard; Rosina, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Health care services in Juvenile Detention Centres have historically been provided by the criminal justice system. These health services have focused on assessment and treatment of presenting health problems and have been hampered by the lack of clinical algorithms and standardised protocols expected of health run services. There is now comprehensive information on the health needs and prevalence of ill health, both physical and mental, for the population of adolescents in contact with the criminal justice system. This information has led to a greater understanding of the causative relationship between disadvantage, trauma, ill health and behaviour judged to be criminal as well an understanding of the need for a population health approach to underpin intervention. Young people in contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales were found to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, have significant physical and mental health problems as well as increased risk behaviours and their associated health sequelae. This prevalence data can be used to plan service delivery and shape a model of delivery. Paradoxically incarceration offers an opportunity to target high prevalence health presentations and to screen for emerging physical and mental health problems. The potential to ameliorate life long conditions that impact on personal quality of life, and personal and system economic costs are of importance. There is the potential for some health interventions, such as mental illness and drug and alcohol to have an impact on the trajectory and lethality of recidivist behaviour. More research is required to examine health interventions with the potential to positively impact on long-term health outcomes as well as re-offending. PMID:17937143

  2. Technology Use in Linking Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community: A Qualitative Formative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, JAMES; COTA, MICHELLE; GRAY, HOLLY; BAZERMAN, LAURI; KUO, IRENE; KURTH, ANN; BECKWITH, CURT

    2014-01-01

    Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. Twenty-four qualitative interviews were conducted in Rhode Island (12) and Washington DC (12) among HIV infected persons recently incarcerated to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants’ perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants’ successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be utilized to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting. PMID:25529057

  3. A need for closer examination of FASD by the criminal justice system: has the call been answered?

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Karina Royer; Moore, Timothy E; Green, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with FASD exhibit deficits in many domains that can include memory, learning, behavioural inhibition, executive functioning, interpersonal skills, and language. These deficits have serious implications for affected persons when they become engaged in the legal system. In 2004, Moore and Green reviewed case law and psychological literature which suggested that FASD-related deficits placed affected individuals at a significant disadvantage in the justice system. According to them, this disadvantage stemmed from the limited awareness and knowledge of FASD demonstrated by key players in the justice system, as well as the scarcity of effective interventions in place to rehabilitate affected defendants. The aim of the current paper is to assess the extent to which awareness of FASD-related issues in the Canadian justice system has advanced since the publication of Moore and Green's conclusions. First, the deficits associated with FASD and their implications for the justice system are described. Next, recent case law and psychological evidence are reviewed as we consider issues of witness reliability and false confessions. The significance of FASD for sentencing, fitness to stand trial, and the Not Criminally Responsible by Reason of Mental Disorder defence are also briefly discussed. Finally, emerging system wide responses to FASD-related issues are presented. Overall, it appears that the call for closer examination of FASD by the justice system has been answered, but a need for increased education and awareness remains. PMID:21900706

  4. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  5. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2012-01-01

    International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women. PMID:24474876

  6. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  7. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  8. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  9. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  10. 8 CFR 287.9 - Criminal search warrant and firearms policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) In using a firearm, an immigration officer shall adhere to the standard of conduct set forth in 8 CFR... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criminal search warrant and firearms... REGULATIONS FIELD OFFICERS; POWERS AND DUTIES § 287.9 Criminal search warrant and firearms policies. (a)...

  11. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  12. HIV Prevention for Adults With Criminal Justice Involvement: A Systematic Review of HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions in Incarceration and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32 271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12 629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  13. American Indians: Social Justice and Public Policy. Ethnicity and Public Policy Series, Volume IX.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Donald E., Ed.; Tonnesen, Thomas V., Ed.

    This book discusses legal and social aspects of public policy in American society and their relationship to fulfilling the promise of social justice for American Indians. U.S. public policy is viewed as reflecting the collective sentiments of the electorate. If the American people have the will to bring about change in the socioeconomic conditions…

  14. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, David S.

    2007-01-01

    As a judge, the author was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did not appear to be intentional, but rather an inappropriate response to the circumstances that existed at the…

  15. Criminal Justice Involvement, Trauma, and Negative Affect in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…

  16. The (near) irrelevance of Daubert to criminal justice and some suggestions for reform.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc should have an extraordinary impact on criminal litigation, because there is rarely a criminal trial that does not rely on some form of expert testimony. In fact, it is almost irrelevant. Despite the frequency of prosecution proffered scientific and expert testimony in criminal cases, Daubert is rarely invoked to challenge it. In civil cases, when expert testimony is challenged in criminal proceedings, the outcome could not be more different. Because most violent crimes are committed by the poor, their court appointed advocates--overworked and under-financed--are not up to the challenge. In the absence of a system of effective representation, Daubert will not improve scientific evidence in criminal cases. The only way to guard against the misapplication of forensic science is to impose controls and reforms long before the cases come to court. PMID:16030325

  17. HIV, Alcohol Dependence and the Criminal Justice System: A Review and Call for Evidence-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Sandra A.; Azar, Marwan M.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    People with both HIV and alcohol use disorders are disproportionately concentrated within the U.S. criminal justice system; approximately one-quarter of all people with HIV cycle through the system each year. HIV-infected prisoners with alcohol problems face many obstacles as they transition back to the community. Specifically, although they have impressive HIV treatment outcomes during the period of incarceration while they are free from alcohol, upon release, however, they face inordinate challenges including relapse to alcohol use resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Randomized controlled trials affirm the role of pharmacotherapy using naltrexone (NTX) as the therapeutic option conferring the best treatment outcome for alcohol use disorders within the community. Absent from these trials were inclusion of prisoners or HIV-infected individuals. Relapse to alcohol use among HIV-infected prisoners is associated with reduced retention in care, poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy with consequential poor HIV treatment outcomes and higher levels of HIV risk behaviors. Untreated alcohol dependence, particularly for released HIV-infected prisoners, has both negative consequences for the individual and society and requires a concentrated effort and rethinking of our existing approaches for this vulnerable population. The specific aim of this manuscript is to review the existing literature regarding the relationship of HIV and treatment for alcohol use disorders in criminal justice populations in an effort to determine “best practices” that might effectively result in improved treatment of HIV and alcohol disorders for released prisoners. PMID:21171933

  18. Criminal Justice Involvement, Behavioral Health Service Use, and Costs of Forensic Assertive Community Treatment: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Joseph P.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Prins, Annabel; Williams, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs. At 12 months, FACT vs. TAU participants had fewer jail bookings, greater outpatient contacts, and fewer hospital days than did TAU participants. Results of zero-inflated negative binomial regression found that FACT participants had a higher probability of avoiding jail, although once jailed, the number of jail days did not differ between groups. Increased outpatient costs resulting from FACT outpatient services were partially offset by decreased inpatient and jail costs. The findings for the 24 month period followed the same pattern. These findings provide additional support for the idea that providing appropriate behavioral health services can reduce criminal justice involvement. PMID:20217230

  19. Criminal justice involvement, behavioral health service use, and costs of forensic assertive community treatment: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen J; Morrissey, Joseph P; Cuddeback, Gary S; Prins, Annabel; Williams, David M

    2010-08-01

    Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs. At 12 months, FACT vs. TAU participants had fewer jail bookings, greater outpatient contacts, and fewer hospital days than did TAU participants. Results of zero-inflated negative binomial regression found that FACT participants had a higher probability of avoiding jail, although once jailed, the number of jail days did not differ between groups. Increased outpatient costs resulting from FACT outpatient services were partially offset by decreased inpatient and jail costs. The findings for the 24 month period followed the same pattern. These findings provide additional support for the idea that providing appropriate behavioral health services can reduce criminal justice involvement. PMID:20217230

  20. "Drugs and AIDS--reaching for help": a videotape on AIDS and drug abuse prevention for criminal justice populations.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; DeJong, W; Lamb, D; Enos, T; Mason, T; Weitzman, E

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of a videotape targeted at persons under supervision of the criminal justice system. The videotape seeks to encourage those who use illicit drugs to enter drug treatment and to motivate those at risk for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to alter behaviors that may transmit infection. The criminal justice system presents an important opportunity to deliver such messages, particularly to a large population of persons briefly detained in a jail or lockup and released without subsequent incarceration. Evidence suggests that, even in this audience, knowledge of how to prevent exposure to HIV is widespread, yet those at risk often fail to take appropriate precautions: motivating behavior change demands more than imparting information. In order to shape this videotape, we analyzed the target audience and developed a drama-based approach that applies the framework of social learning theory, the health belief model, and principles of social marketing. This article describes the integration of that theoretical framework into the production process, content, and strategy of the videotape. PMID:8046547

  1. 76 FR 8379 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board AGENCY: Federal Bureau of... Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of......

  2. 77 FR 58870 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board AGENCY: Federal Bureau of... the meeting of the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS... Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of Investigation.......

  3. 77 FR 20051 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board AGENCY: Federal Bureau of... Trent, CJIS Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal...

  4. 76 FR 56225 - Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation Meeting of the CJIS Advisory Policy Board AGENCY: Federal Bureau of... Designated Federal Officer, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, Federal Bureau of......

  5. Education Policy for Social Justice in Cyprus: The Role of Stakeholders' Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hajisoteriou, Christina; Angelides, Panayiotis

    2014-01-01

    This article examines (a) the official policy for social justice as developed by the Ministry of Education and Culture and its policy-makers, (b) the ways in which school leaders (head teachers) and school actors (teachers) understand education policy for social justice, and (c) the impact of this process on school leaders' and actors'…

  6. The concentration of substance use, criminal justice involvement, and HIV/AIDS in the families of drug offenders.

    PubMed

    Barreras, Ricardo E; Drucker, Ernest M; Rosenthal, David

    2005-03-01

    Substance use (SU), criminal justice involvement (CJI), and HIV/AIDS co-occur in many urban families, but little is known about their intergenerational prevalence and the impact of their conjunction on these families. We determined lifetime prevalence of SU, CJI, and HIV/AIDS in 62 families with a member (the index case) on parole or probation for a drug offense and enrolled in the direct service arm of Family Justice, La Bodega de La Familia--a community support program in New York City's Lower East Side. Among these families, index cases are 94% male, and 97% Latino, with a median age of 37. Records of 80% of open cases, in months March through May, in 2003 (N = 62) were reviewed, and the family maps or "genograms," were analyzed and coded (by age, sex, and relationship to the index) to identify all significant members with histories of SU, CJI, and HIV/AIDS. Of the 62 families (with a total of 592 individuals) 82% had at least one other member besides the index case with a history of SU, 62% had two or more, and 40% had three or more; 72% had one other member with a history of CJI, 45% had two or more, and 24% had three or more. At least one member had HIV/AIDS in 49% of the families, 16% had two or more, and 10% had three or more. Of the 105 family members who reported a history of CJI, 88% had a history of substance use. These data demonstrate the extent to which many families in communities such as this are struggling with the burdens associated with having multiple relatives involved in the criminal justice system, largely related to drug use and frequently with HIV and AIDS. These data point to an important role for family-focused interventions to ameliorate the consequences of high rates of familial drug use, incarceration and other forms of CJI, and HIV/AIDS. PMID:15738327

  7. The Prevalence of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheely, Catherine A.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Charles, Jane; King, Lydia B.

    2012-01-01

    Past surveys have reported high rates of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, however, little research has examined the frequency with which youth with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are in contact with law enforcement. Using records linkage with the Department of Juvenile Justice and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division…

  8. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  9. Climbing down the steps from the ivory tower: how UK academics and criminal justice practitioners need to work together on alcohol studies.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-09-12

    Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier. PMID:27548015

  10. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…