Science.gov

Sample records for criminal justice projects

  1. Overview of criminal justice projects at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.D.

    1995-07-01

    The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.

  2. Criminal Justice in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…

  3. NATIONAL ARCHIVE OF CRIMINAL JUSTICE DATA (NACJD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD) preserves and distributes computerized crime and justice data from Federal agencies, state agencies, and investigator initiated research projects to users for secondary statistical analysis. Founded in 1978 as part of the Inte...

  4. Professionalism Among Criminal Justice Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regoli, Robert M.; Miracle, Andrew W., Jr.

    Professionalism and its relationship to scholarly productivity was studied. Specific areas of analysis were the degree of professionalism of criminal justice educators, rankings of a series of selected publications, and the relationship between professionalism level and journal productivity. Data were derived from responses by 1,028 of 1,274…

  5. Cultural Cleavage and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheingold, Stuart A.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…

  6. Breaking into Careers in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Lucia, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that young people's image of career in criminal justice field has been shaped by entertainment media and does not nearly match real thing. Describes reality of career in criminal justice and discusses how to prepare for such a career. Examines numerous career tracks in law enforcement, corrections, courts, forensic science, and private…

  7. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ... of Justice Programs Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal... Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice'' and (2) a draft companion document entitled, ``NIJ...

  8. Criminal Justice in America. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; And Others

    This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice is intended to serve as the foundation for a high school course on law-related education or as a supplement for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and analytical skills, the book provides students with an understanding of the criminal justice…

  9. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume Five: Criminal Justice Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Planning Association, Washington, DC.

    Focusing on education and training needs for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel, this document is one in a series of six volumes reporting the results of the National Manpower Survey (NMS) of the Criminal Justice System. Chapter 1 of ten chapters provides an overview of nine types of educational and/or training programs, including the…

  10. The Productivity of Criminology and Criminal Justice Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeZee, Matthew R.

    The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…

  11. Criminal Justice and Criminology. Library Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Phillip M.

    This guide to sources for students at San Diego State University who are doing library research in Criminal Justice, Criminology, and related subject areas begins by noting that topics in these areas can be researched in a variety of subject disciplines, including psychology, sociology, law, social work, political science, public administration,…

  12. Law Studies: The Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Experimental Curriculum Bulletin, 1978

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin on criminal justice focuses on selected aspects of the U.S. legal system, including the police, the courts, and the prisons as well as on the protections and guarantees that reinforce the legitimacy of the U.S. legal process. Unit 1, "The Role of Law in a Free Society," is designed to enhance the awareness of students about the…

  13. Criminal Justice in America. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Bill, Ed.

    This book, a comprehensive and interactive introductory text on criminal justice, consists of six units: (1) Crime: covers victims' rights, gangs, violent crime, white-collar crime, elements of crimes, legal defenses, methods for measuring crime, hate crime, computer crime, and a history of crime in the United States; (2) Police: explores local…

  14. Legal Careers in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Richard J.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the broad range of jobs in law enforcement, the courts, and the correctional systems. Discusses the various paths of education and training leading to these jobs, the most preeminent being law school. Considers opportunities in growing fields such as international criminal law. (MJP)

  15. The Parole Officer Aide Program in Ohio. An Exemplary Project. Criminal Justice System Series Number 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Harry E.; Priestino, Ramon R.

    The report represents an external evaluation of a three-year project designed to use ex-offenders as paraprofessional parole officer aides in Ohio. The report includes the results of a 1974 national survey of States' use of ex-offenders in parole work as background of the study. The program is described in terms of selection and assignment, duties…

  16. A Guide to Our Criminal Justice System. [Volume I].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addelston, Lorraine W., Ed.; And Others

    A study of the criminal justice system in New York City found that blame has been thrust on the judges, the police, the district attorneys, and the probation officers. To find out if there is, indeed, a system of criminal justice and if the necessary responsibilities, authority, and accountability for the successful conclusions to steps in the…

  17. Criminal Justice in America. Teacher's Guide. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croddy, Marshall; Hayes, Bill

    This teacher's guide outlines effective strategies for using "Criminal Justice in America." This comprehensive textbook on criminal justice may serve either as the foundation for a high school law-related education course or as a supplemental text for civics, government or contemporary-issues courses. Designed to foster critical thinking and…

  18. Syllabus Design and Construction in Criminal Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Robert G.; Carr, Adam F.

    Undergraduate course syllabi on law enforcement, courts-law, corrections, and general criminal justice-criminology were assessed, based on 759 usable submissions from 193 junior, community, and senior colleges and universities. Based on the analysis, a set of syllabi to represent the core of a criminal justice curriculum was constructed. Course…

  19. Access to Sign Language Interpreters in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveyed 46 professional sign language interpreters working in criminal justice settings and evaluated 22 cases to evaluate access issues for individuals with hearing impairments. Recommendations to increase the accessibility of interpreting services included providing ongoing awareness training to criminal justice personnel and…

  20. Female Sexual Abuse and Criminal Justice Intervention: A Comparison of Child Protective Service and Criminal Justice Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, Shannon M.; Scalora, Mario J.; Casady, Thomas K.; Black, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The current study compared a sample of female perpetrators reported to Child Protective Services (CPS) to a sample of women from the criminal justice system. Instead of examining a clinical or criminal justice sample in isolation, this comparison allows a more accurate description of female sexual offending. Methods: Cases were drawn…

  1. The National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System. Volume One: Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Washington, DC.

    As mandated in the 1973 Amendments to the Safe Streets Act, the National Manpower Survey of the Criminal Justice System was conducted to assess current and projected manpower needs, personnel quality, and training and education programs. Data were collected from the following sources: surveys of 8,000 executives of state and local criminal justice…

  2. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  3. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  4. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  5. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  6. 28 CFR 0.85a - Criminal justice policy coordination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau of Investigation shall report to the Attorney General on all its activities....

  7. Racial Disparities in Early Criminal Justice Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Crutchfield, Robert D.; Skinner, Martie L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.; McGlynn, Anne; Catalano, Richard F.

    2010-01-01

    Criminologists have long reported the existence of racial disparity in the criminal justice system, but the important question is why. While some argue that observed differences are a consequence of more criminal behavior among minorities, the weight of the evidence indicates that this is but a partial explanation. In this paper we study data from a sample of juveniles to examine how racial differences in early police contact, and important social environments—family, school, and neighborhoods—affect later contact and arrests, controlling for self-reported delinquency. We find that early (in middle school) contact with police is an important predictor of later (high school) arrests. Also we found that, in addition to being male and living in a low-income family, children who have parents who have a history of arrest, who have experienced school disciplinary actions, who have delinquent peers, and who are in networks with deviant adults are more likely to have problems with law enforcement. These factors help to explain racial differences in police contacts and arrests. PMID:20190860

  8. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and the Private Employer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SEARCH Group, Inc., Sacramento, CA.

    Should private employers have a right of access to criminal history record information in order to make employment decisions about applicants and employees? This book addresses both legal and operational questions relating to the use of criminal justice data for private employment and decision-making purposes. The informative, non-prescriptive…

  9. Health care reform, behavioral health, and the criminal justice population.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Alison Evans; Cheema, Jehanzeb

    2014-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) has a number of important features for individuals who are involved with the criminal justice system. Among the most important changes is the expansion of Medicaid to more adults. The current study estimates that 10% of the total Medicaid expansion could include individuals who have experienced recent incarceration. The ACA also emphasizes the importance of mental health and substance abuse benefits, potentially changing the landscape of behavioral health treatment providers willing to serve criminal justice populations. Finally, it seeks to promote coordinated care delivery. New care delivery and appropriate funding models are needed to address the behavioral health and other chronic conditions experienced by those in criminal justice and to coordinate care within the complex structure of the justice system itself. PMID:24807645

  10. Criminal Justice and Alcohol Treatment: Results from a National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Han, Xiaotong; Edlund, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the associations of recent criminal justice involvement with perceived need for alcohol treatment and alcohol treatment utilization, adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. We examined a national sample of adults with alcohol use disorders (AUD, N=4,390) from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Almost 15% reported criminal justice involvement in the past year. Generalized logit models regressed perceived need for alcohol or drug treatment and past year treatment utilization (versus neither) on past year legal involvement, demographic, and clinical information. In general, results found stronger associations between frequency of criminal justice involvement for treatment utilization compared to perceived need for treatment alone. Treatment utilization was also associated with being on probation, arrests for drug possession/sale and DUI but perceived need was not. Study results suggest opportunities for interventions to increase treatment rates or treatment need, a major correlate of treatment utilization. PMID:22954511

  11. Mental health centers and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Modlin, H C; Porter, L; Benson, R E

    1976-10-01

    Through questionnaires, interviews, and site visits, the authors undertook to ascertain to what extent the 26 community mental health centers in Kansas were contributing to the resolution of problems that concern the criminal justice system. They found that in all large communities some reciprocal programs have developed between the two systems, but meaningful collaboration is rare in small communities. Juvenile courts, urban law enforcement agencies, and county probation officers are most receptive to collaborative programs. An evaluation of several effective programs revealed three basic conditions that attribute to their success: an urban community setting, individual initiative by staff from each system, and location of the program within the criminal justice system. PMID:976954

  12. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  13. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  14. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  15. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  16. Social Work and Criminal Justice: Are We Meeting in the Field?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheyett, Anna; Pettus-Davis, Carrie; McCarter, Susan; Brigham, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Social workers are needed but infrequently involved with criminal justice systems. One way to increase the number of social workers in the criminal justice system is by exposing students to work in these settings. This study examined the number, types, and utilization of criminal justice field placements in MSW programs by surveying field…

  17. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's... representative of federal agencies participating in the CJIS systems; and representatives of criminal justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information...

  18. Follow-Up Study of Former Students of the Criminal Justice Program. Volume XVI, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, George; Lucas, John A.

    A follow-up study was conducted at William Rainey Harper College (WRHC) of students who had completed several courses in the Criminal Justice Program to determine why students left the criminal justice field, examine Criminal Justice students' enrollment and course-taking patterns, and to analyze withdrawal and failure rates in the course,…

  19. State Criminal Justice Telecommunications (STACOM). Final Report. Volume IV: Network Design Software User's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jun-Ji

    A user's guide is provided for the network design software developed by the STACOM project. The STACOM program was developed and implemented with FORTRAN V on a UNIVAC 1108 computer using the EXEC-8 operating system, which enables the user to construct least cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A…

  20. Criminal Justice Information Policy. Privacy and Juvenile Justice Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belair, Robert R.

    Elected officials, justice professionals, courts and other institutions of our society are contributing to a reevaluation of juvenile justice information policy. The tenet that juveniles who commit crimes are not culpable is being challenged as the public's safety and economic well being is increasingly threatened by children engaged in criminal…

  1. Rural Crime and Criminal Justice: A Selected Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Robert D., Comp.; Horton, David M., Comp.

    The 140-item bibliography highlights available literature on crime and the administration of criminal justice in rural America, published between 1921 and 1979 (primarily in the 1970's). The 31 citations in Chapter 1, "Rural Crime: Nature and Extent," deal with incidence rates, contributing factors, offender studies, and crimes unique to rural…

  2. Ageism and Gender among Social Work and Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael N.

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate social work and criminal justice students completed 1 of 4 vignettes that were identical with the exception of the age and gender of the vignette's subject. In each vignette, the subject interacted with an opposite-sex 24-year-old waiter or waitress. Following each vignette, respondents answered 20 items relating to the age, gender,…

  3. Using ELVIS to Measure Experiential Learning in Criminal Justice Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Erin; Dahl, Patricia; Bayens, Gerald

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationship between criminal justice internships and knowledge domains. Kolb's four experiential learnings stages of experience, reflection, abstract conceptualization, and active experimentation are assessed using the Experiential Learning Variables and Indicators Scale (ELVIS) to provide a…

  4. Criminal Justice Research in Libraries and on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Bonnie R.

    In addition to covering the enduring elements of traditional research on criminal justice, this new edition provides full coverage on research using the World Wide Web, hypertext documents, computer indexes, and other online resources. It gives an in-depth explanation of such concepts as databases, networks, and full text, and covers the Internet…

  5. Criminal Justice Program Review: Training Programs in Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Board of Community Colleges, Tallahassee.

    This report presents results from the Florida State Board of Community Colleges' review of Criminal Justice programs. A preface indicates that concerns related to crime in the state provided the impetus for the review and that it focused on issues related to curricula, funding and costs, labor demand and employment requirements, and labor supply.…

  6. Inventory of Potential Funding Sources for Criminal Justice Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Positive Futures, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Potential funding sources for criminal justice education programs are listed and information on supplemental source materials and a brief outline of grant writing considerations are included. Sections on general foundation grants, state restricted grants, and government grants are provided. Included under state restricted grants are Alabama,…

  7. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fast, Diane K.; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS…

  8. Obstacles Faced by Deaf People in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, M.; Miller, K.

    2005-01-01

    Deaf People, especially those who are not well educated, are at risk for serious injustices when they enter the criminal justice system. The present study describes these risks at all stages of the legal process, including arrest, trial, probation, prison, and parole. These dangers are greatest for those who are poorly educated, read at a…

  9. Why Rape Survivors Participate in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…

  10. Evaluation for Criminal Justice Agencies: Problem-Oriented Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Douglas K.

    This report discusses considerations involved in placing the evaluation process for criminal justice agencies within an organizational and practical context. The discussion proceeds from the following perspectives: (1) program evaluation is a policy/management tool; (2) various levels of policy and management personnel have numerous and varied…

  11. Children's Voices: Reactions to a Criminal Justice Issue Picture Book

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oslick, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…

  12. The Developmentally Disabled Offender in the Illinois Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correctional Services for the Developmentally Disabled, Inc., Chicago, IL.

    Reported are findings from five studies which explored the special problems and needs of the developmentally disabled offender in the Illinois criminal justice system. Introductory information includes a discussion of the problem, goals of the present study, and a review of programs for retarded offenders throughout the U.S. Presented are five…

  13. Hispanics in the Criminal Justice System--the "Nonexistent" Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Jerry

    1979-01-01

    Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…

  14. Women, Crime and the Male Dominated Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Laurence

    Our society has long adhered to a double standard of justice, one for male offenders and another for females. This system survived with little controversy mainly due to the small female prison population. But recent events have drawn attention to not only the issue of female criminality, but to the treatment of women while incarcerated. Female…

  15. Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Education. Directory 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobetz, Richard W.

    This document is designed to provide assistance to those students seeking information on colleges and universities that offer law enforcement and criminal justice degree programs. For this 1975-76 directory, questionnaires were mailed to every college and university in the United States and to those colleges and universities known to be offering…

  16. Criminal Justice: An Upper-Level Social Studies Elective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eau Claire Area Public Schools, WI.

    This teaching guide outlines an 18 week elective course on criminal justice for use in grades 11 or 12. The course consists of five units and is intended to help students learn about law, crime and law enforcement, courts, corrections, and capital punishment. Throughout the course there is extensive participation of law enforcement and other…

  17. Grievance and Redress: Chicano Access to the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geilhufe, Nancy L.

    Focusing on the processes involved in making formal bureaucracies responsive, the study examined: the structure of formal grievance and redress procedures within the criminal justice system in San Jose, California; and the informal strategies used by politically active members of the Chicano community to extend and strengthen these channels. The…

  18. Doing Justice? Criminal Offenders with Developmental Disabilities. Detailed Research Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersilia, Joan

    People with cognitive, intellectual, or developmental disabilities are a small but increasing portion of offenders in the criminal justice system. People with developmental disabilities are estimated to comprise 2-3% of the general population, but 4-10% of the prison population, and an even higher percentage of those in juvenile facilities and in…

  19. Juvenile Crime and Criminal Justice: Resolving Border Disputes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal…

  20. A Heuristic Model of Criminology and Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalman, Marvin

    The differences between criminology and criminal justice are assessed by comparing them to a more abstract typology. This typology is comprised of four basic elements: the focal concerns of the fields; career patterns of professionals; the extent to which the fields are theoretically based and are disciplines, sciences, and professions; and the…

  1. 75 FR 44284 - Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... of Justice Programs Notice of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide... of Draft NIJ Criminal Justice Restraints Selection and Application Guide. SUMMARY: In an effort to..., National Institute of Justice (NIJ) will make available to the general public the draft ``NIJ...

  2. Mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system: some perspectives.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E; Gross, Bruce H

    2004-01-01

    There is an increasing number of severely mentally ill persons in the criminal justice system. This article first discusses the criminalization of persons with severe mental illness and its causes, the role of the police and mental health, and the treatment of mentally ill offenders and its difficulties. The authors then offer recommendations to reduce criminalization by increased coordination between police and mental health professionals, to increase mental health training for police officers, to enhance mental health services after arrest, and to develop more and better community treatment of mentally ill offenders. The necessary components of such treatment are having a treatment philosophy of both theory and practice; having clear goals of treatment; establishing a close liaison between treatment staff and the justice system; understanding the need for structure; having a focus on managing violence; and appreciating the crucial role of case management, appropriate living arrangements, and the role of family members. PMID:15168834

  3. 76 FR 78950 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to...

  4. 78 FR 2443 - Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and Selection and Application Guide AGENCY: National Institute...

  5. The state of research funding from the National Institutes of Health for criminal justice health research

    PubMed Central

    Ahalt, Cyrus; Bolano, Marielle; Wang, Emily A.; Williams, Brie

    2015-01-01

    Background Over 20 million Americans are currently incarcerated or have been in the past. Most are from medically underserved populations; one in three African American men and one in six Latino men born in 2001 are projected to go to prison during their lifetimes. The amount of funding from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to understand and improve the health of criminal justice-involved persons is unknown. Objective Describe NIH funding for research addressing the health and healthcare needs of criminal justice-involved individuals. Design Review of NIH grants (from 2008 through 2012) in the RePORT (Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools) database. Setting The NIH RePORT database. Patients Criminal justice involved individuals participating in NIH-funded clinical research. Measurements NIH research and training grants awarded by number, type, research area, institute or center, and dollar amount. Results Of more than 250,000 NIH funded grants, 180 (less than 0.1%) focused on criminal justice health research. The three most common foci of criminal justice health research grants were substance use and/or HIV (64%), mental health (11%), and juvenile health (8%). Two institutes, the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute of Mental Health, funded 78% of all grants. In 2012, the NIH invested $40.9 million in criminal justice health research, or 1.5% of the $2.7 billion health disparities budget for that year. Limitations NIH-supported research that did not explicitly include current or former prisoners but may have relevance to criminal justice health was not included. Conclusions Federal funding for research focused on understanding and improving the health of criminal justice-involved persons is small, even when compared to the NIH’s overall investment in health disparities research. The NIH is well-positioned to transform the care of current and former prisoners by investing in this critical yet overlooked research area. Primary

  6. Colorado's energy boom: impact on crime and criminal justice

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-02-01

    Information is reported on the impact of rapid energy development on western slope criminal justice agencies. The focus is on crime rates, law enforcement, the courts, and juvenile justice problems. The problems that are likely to develop and what might be done to minimize the negative consequences are analyzed. The social characteristics of boom towns and the changes resulting from rapid growth, the changes in crime rates, the impact experienced by law enforcement agencies and the courts, and information on planning and funding in impact areas are described. (MCW)

  7. Treating Substance Use Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Hiller, Matthew; Hamilton, Leah

    2013-01-01

    The large number of individuals with substance use disorders involved in the nation’s criminal justice system (CJS) represents a unique opportunity, as well as challenges, in addressing the dual concerns of public safety and public health. Unfortunately, a low proportion of those who could benefit from treatment actually receive it while involved in the CJS. This article presents a review of recent research on the effectiveness of major substance abuse treatment interventions used at different possible linkage points during criminal justice case processing, including diversion, jail, prison, and community supervision. This is followed by a discussion of key research and practice issues, including low rates of treatment access and under-utilization of medication-assisted treatment. Concluding comments discuss principles of effective treatment for offenders and identify key gaps in research and practice that need to be addressed to improve and expand provision of effective treatment for offenders. PMID:24132733

  8. Leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy

    This article, the second in a five-part series, explores leadership skills for nurses working in the criminal justice system to effect change in service provision. The article discusses different leadership styles and distinguishes management from leadership. Factors that influence change are outlined, as is the need for emotional intelligence, teamwork and collaborative working. Change management, negotiating ability and conflict management are important skills that nurses should develop to become effective leaders. PMID:20578637

  9. Young Black Men and the Criminal Justice System: A Growing National Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauer, Marc

    The impact of the criminal justice system on Black male adults in the 20-to-29 year age group was examined. End results of the large-scale involvement of young Black men in the criminal justice system are considered, and the implications for crime control are discussed. Using data from Bureau of Justice Statistics and the Bureau of the Census…

  10. Trying to restore justice: bureaucracies, risk management, and disciplinary boundaries in New Zealand criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Fox, Kathryn J

    2015-05-01

    New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime. PMID:24285833

  11. Criminal Justice Act 1988, 29 July 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This UK Act does the following, among other things: 1) facilitates the conviction of alleged child abusers by allowing evidence to be given through a television link by a witness under the age of 14 in cases involving assault, abuse, or sexual misconduct; 2) limits the calling of witnesses under the age of 14 in certain committal hearings for persons accused of committing the above offenses; 3) abolishes the requirement that unsworn evidence given by children be corroborated and that sworn evidence given by children be accompanied by a warning if not corroborated; 4) increases the maximum term of imprisonment for cruelty to children and young persons from two to 10 years; 5) puts the existing Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme on a statutory basis, giving claimants a right to compensation in certain cases, and creating, in addition to a payment for having been the victim of rape, a new payment of 5000 pounds payable to such a victim who becomes pregnant, gives birth to a child, and intends to keep the child; and 6) creates a new offense of possession of an indecent photograph of a child (i.e., a person under the age of 16); previously possession of such a photograph, per se, was not illegal. PMID:12289174

  12. Envisioning the Next Generation of Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731

  13. 75 FR 18887 - FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FBI Criminal Justice Information Services Division User Fees AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice establishes the user fee..., III, Director, Federal Bureau of Investigation. BILLING CODE 4410-02-P...

  14. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, J. E.; Frewing, H. K.; Lee, J. J.; Leflang, W. G.; Reilly, N. B.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques for identifying user requirements and network designs for criminal justice networks on a state wide basis are discussed. Topics covered include: methods for determining data required; data collection and survey; data organization procedures, and methods for forecasting network traffic volumes. Developed network design techniques center around a computerized topology program which enables the user to generate least cost network topologies that satisfy network traffic requirements, response time requirements and other specified functional requirements. The developed techniques were applied in Texas and Ohio, and results of these studies are presented.

  15. Two Views of Criminology and Criminal Justice: Definitions, Trends, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.

    The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…

  16. Learning Disabilities and Criminal Justice: Custody Sergeants' Perceptions of Alleged Offenders with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellenbach, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Recent research demonstrates that despite increased attention and awareness by politicians and decision-makers, people with learning disabilities are still disadvantaged when engaging with the criminal justice system. It has been argued that shortcomings in providing support are because of criminal justice professionals lacking necessary skills…

  17. The Effects of Victim-Related Contextual Factors on the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins

    2011-01-01

    Despite numerous reforms designed to integrate the needs and concerns of crime victims into the criminal justice system, which include expanding programs for compensation and restitution, providing counseling and other services to victims, and increasing victims' involvement in the criminal justice process, critics have argued that these reforms…

  18. Estimating Criminal Justice System Costs and Cost-Savings Benefits of Day Reporting Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craddock, Amy

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the net cost-savings benefits (loss) to the criminal justice system of one rural and one urban day reporting center, both of which serve high risk/high need probationers. It also discusses issues of conducting criminal justice system cost studies of community corrections programs. The average DRC participant in the rural…

  19. What Professionals Think about Offenders with Learning Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cant, Richard; Standen, Penny

    2007-01-01

    There is evidence that people with learning disabilities who offend are treated differently within the criminal justice system compared to non-disabled offenders. As their treatment depends on decisions made by professionals within the criminal justice system, this study set out to explore the attitudes of these professionals. Semi-structured…

  20. Missing Out: Offenders with Learning Disabilities and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Whilst there has been an increase in research and clinical attention relating to the accused person or offender with a learning disability in the criminal justice system, some major areas require further inter-agency effort. These areas include: better identification of this group, increased education and training for criminal justice personnel,…

  1. Treatment of Persons with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Anna L. S.

    2012-01-01

    The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)

  2. To What Extent Is Criminal Justice Content Specifically Addressed in MSW Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epperson, Matthew W.; Roberts, Leslie E.; Ivanoff, Andre; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Gilmer, Christy N.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which criminal justice content is addressed in all CSWE-accredited MSW programs in the United States ("N"?=?192). Criminal justice content was measured in three areas: (1) dual or joint degree programs, (2) concentrations or specializations, and (3) coursework. Excluding social work and law classes, 22%…

  3. Building a Criminal Justice Program as an Educational, Community, and Professional Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolce, Philip C.

    2004-01-01

    Building a criminal justice program as a multidimensional resource requires a broad sense of purpose, the involvement of faculty and staff from many disciplines, the cooperation and partnership of criminal justice practitioners, and the involvement of the community. This coalition of personnel and resources should assist students in understanding…

  4. Criminal Justice Profile--Statewide, 1984. Supplement to "Crime and Delinquency in California."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.

    This California annual Criminal Justice Statewide Profile presents data which supplements the Bureau of Criminal Statistics' (BCS) annual Crime and Delinquency publication. This monograph summarizes and combines data pertaining to California's justice system. The profile consists of two sections. The first section consists of 12 tables displaying…

  5. Criminal Justice. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a criminal justice program is designed for students interested in pursuing a future in law enforcement or a related public safety profession. The criminal justice program in the career-technical and adult education center is a two-year curriculum that is divided into these 14 units: orientation; legal aspects; communication…

  6. Tracking and location technologies for the criminal justice system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, John H.

    1995-05-01

    Electronic monitoring systems are being used by the criminal justice system to effect behavioral modifications of persons in pre-release prgrams, on parole, and on probation. State-of-the-art electronic monitoring systems are merely radio frequency proximity detection systems that operate over limited ranges, on the order of 45 to 70 meters. One major defect with proximity detection systems is that when the clients leave the area being monitored, there is no way to ensure that the clients are behaving properly. As a result, electronic monitoring systems are only applied to a restricted number of cases of low risk criminal offenders. There is a growing need for community-wide tracking and location technologies to increase the safety and security provided by the electronic monitoring systems, and to expand the number of cliets monitored by these systems. In this paper, a review is made of the tracking and location technologies that are currently available or under development. Also presented is a brief overview of Westinghouse's program with the National Institute of Justice. This program aims to demonstrate the practicality of one possible tracking and location technology, spread spectrum based time-of-arrival location systems, for intelligently tracking people on probation and parole.

  7. Medication-Assisted Treatment in Criminal Justice Agencies Affiliated with the Criminal Justice-Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Availability, Barriers & Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Hoskinson, Randall; Gordon, Michael; Schwartz, Robert; Kinlock, Timothy; Knight, Kevin; Flynn, Patrick M.; Welsh, Wayne N.; Stein, Lynda A. R.; Sacks, Stanley; O’Connell, Daniel J.; Knudsen, Hannah K.; Shafer, Michael S.; Hall, Elizabeth; Frisman, Linda K.

    2012-01-01

    Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is underutilized in the treatment of drug-dependent, criminal justice populations. This study surveyed criminal justice agencies affiliated with the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) to assess use of MAT and factors influencing use of MAT. A convenience sample (N=50) of criminal justice agency respondents (e.g., jails, prisons, parole/probation, and drug courts) completed a survey on MAT practices and attitudes. Pregnant women and individuals experiencing withdrawal were most likely to receive MAT for opiate dependence in jail or prison, while those re-entering the community from jail or prison were the least likely to receive MAT. Factors influencing use of MAT included criminal justice preferences for drug-free treatment, limited knowledge of the benefits of MAT, security concerns, regulations prohibiting use of MAT for certain agencies, and lack of qualified medical staff. Differences across agency type in the factors influencing use and perceptions of MAT were also examined. MAT use is largely limited to detoxification and maintenance of pregnant women in criminal justice settings. Use of MAT during the community reentry period is minimal. Addressing inadequate knowledge and negative attitudes about MAT may increase its adoption, but better linkages to community pharmacotherapy during the reentry period might overcome other issues, including security, liability, staffing and regulatory concerns. The CJ-DATS collaborative MAT implementation study to address inadequate knowledge, attitudes and linkage will be described. PMID:22263709

  8. Contesting Childhood in the US Justice System: The Transfer of Juveniles to Adult Criminal Court

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shook, Jeffrey J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent legislative enactments have altered the boundary between US juvenile and criminal justice systems. Youth that were previously adjudicated as juveniles are increasingly being labeled "adults" and tried in the criminal court. This article begins with a review of policy and practice changes in the transfer of children to the criminal court.…

  9. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  10. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  11. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  12. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  13. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  14. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  15. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  16. 42 CFR 2.35 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Disclosures With Patient's Consent § 2.35 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have... criminal justice system which have made participation in the program a condition of the disposition of any...) The disclosure is made only to those individuals within the criminal justice system who have a...

  17. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  18. 38 CFR 1.479 - Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. 1.479 Section 1.479 Pensions, Bonuses... Consent § 1.479 Disclosures to elements of the criminal justice system which have referred patients. (a... part to those persons within the criminal justice system which have made participation in a...

  19. The frontal cortex and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed Central

    Sapolsky, Robert M

    2004-01-01

    In recent decades, the general trend in the criminal justice system in the USA has been to narrow the range of insanity defences available, with an increasing dependence solely on the M'Naghten rule. This states that innocence by reason of insanity requires that the perpetrator could not understand the nature of their criminal act, or did not know that the act was wrong, by reason of a mental illness. In this essay, I question the appropriateness of this, in light of contemporary neuroscience. Specifically, I focus on the role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in cognition, emotional regulation, control of impulsive behaviour and moral reasoning. I review the consequences of PFC damage on these endpoints, the capacity for factors such as alcohol and stress to transiently impair PFC function, and the remarkably late development of the PFC (in which full myelination may not occur until early adulthood). I also consider how individual variation in PFC function and anatomy, within the normative range, covaries with some of these endpoints. This literature is reviewed because of its relevance to issues of criminal insanity; specifically, damage can produce an individual capable of differentiating right from wrong but who, nonetheless, is organically incapable of appropriately regulating their behaviour. PMID:15590619

  20. Juvenile crime and criminal justice: resolving border disputes.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Rising juvenile crime rates during the 1970s and 1980s spurred state legislatures across the country to exclude or transfer a significant share of offenders under the age of eighteen to the jurisdiction of the criminal court, essentially redrawing the boundary between the juvenile and adult justice systems. Jeffrey Fagan examines the legal architecture of the new boundary-drawing regime and how effective it has been in reducing crime. The juvenile court, Fagan emphasizes, has always had the power to transfer juveniles to the criminal court. Transfer decisions were made individually by judges who weighed the competing interests of public safety and the possibility of rehabilitating young offenders. This authority has now been usurped by legislators and prosecutors. The recent changes in state law have moved large numbers of juveniles into the adult system. As many as 25 percent of all juvenile offenders younger than eighteen, says Fagan, are now prosecuted in adult court. Many live in states where the age boundary between juvenile and criminal court has been lowered to sixteen or seventeen. The key policy question is: do these new transfer laws reduce crime? In examining the research evidence, Fagan finds that rates of juvenile offending are not lower in states where it is relatively more common to try adolescents as adults. Likewise, juveniles who have been tried as adults are no less likely to re-offend than their counterparts who have been tried as juveniles. Treating juveniles as adult criminals, Fagan concludes, is not effective as a means of crime control. Fagan argues that the proliferation of transfer regimes over the past several decades calls into question the very rationale for a juvenile court. Transferring adolescent offenders to the criminal court exposes them to harsh and sometimes toxic forms of punishment that have the perverse effect of increasing criminal activity. The accumulating evidence on transfer, the recent decrease in serious juvenile

  1. Criminal justice pathways to psychiatric care for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Bhui, Kamaldeep; Ullrich, Simone; Kallis, Constantinos; Coid, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Some patients are at higher risk of contact with criminal justice agencies when experiencing a first episode of psychosis. Aims To investigate whether violence explains criminal justice pathways (CJPs) for psychosis in general, and ethnic vulnerability to CJPs. Method Two-year population-based survey of people presenting with a first-episode of psychosis. A total of 481 patients provided information on pathways to psychiatric care. The main outcome was a CJP at first contact compared with other services on the care pathway. Results CJPs were more common if there was violence at first presentation (odds ratio (OR) = 4.23, 95% CI 2.74–6.54, P<0.001), drug use in the previous year (OR = 2.28, 95% CI 1.50–3.48, P<0.001) and for high psychopathy scores (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.43–4.53, P = 0.002). Compared with White British, CJPs were more common among Black Caribbean (OR = 2.97, 95% CI 1.54–5.72, P<0.001) and Black African patients (OR = 1.95, 95% CI 1.02–3.72, P = 0.01). Violence mediated 30.2% of the association for Black Caribbeans, but was not a mediator for Black African patients. These findings were sustained after adjustment for age, marital status, gender and employment. Conclusions CJPs were more common in violent presentations, for greater psychopathy levels and drug use. Violence presentations did not fully explain ethnic vulnerability to CJPs. PMID:26294370

  2. Developing a Culturally Appropriate HIV and Hepatitis C Prevention Intervention for Latino Criminal Justice Clients.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose

    2016-07-01

    The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. PMID:27302706

  3. Medication Assisted Treatment Research with Criminal Justice Populations: Challenges of Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Michael S.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Miller, Patrice M.

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors’ experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  4. Medication-assisted treatment research with criminal justice populations: challenges of implementation.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Michael S; Kinlock, Timothy W; Miller, Patrice M

    2011-01-01

    Creating, implementing and evaluating substance abuse interventions, especially medication-assisted treatments, for prisoners, parolees, and probationers with histories of heroin addiction is an especially challenging endeavor because of the difficulty in coordinating and achieving cooperation among diverse criminal justice, substance abuse treatment, research, and social service agencies, each with its own priorities and agenda. In addition, there are special rules that must be followed when conducting research with criminal justice-involved populations, particularly prisoners. The following case studies will explore the authors' experience of over 10 years conducting pharmacotherapy research using methadone, buprenorphine, and naltrexone with criminal justice populations. The major obstacles and how they were overcome are presented. Finally, recommendations are provided with regard to implementing and conducting research with criminal justice populations. PMID:22086665

  5. Crime and the Black Community. An Assessment of the Impact of Selected Criminal Justice Issues in New York State. Report of the Criminal Justice Subcommittee. Volume 3, Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    Racially motivated and/or targeted violence is a priority criminal justice issue for New York State. Racially motivated violence occurs when the perpetrator's intent or conscious objective is to injure a person or his property because of the person's racial identity. The following factors may explain the occurrence and recent increase in racial…

  6. Commercializing Success: The Impact of Popular Media on the Career Decisions and Perceptual Accuracy of Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthe, Emmanuel P.; Leone, Matthew C.; Lateano, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Interest in the field of criminal justice continues to grow and attract students to this area of higher education. These students typically represent society in that their beliefs about the justice system are based on media depictions, not education or experience. This study surveyed Introduction to Criminal Justice students from two universities,…

  7. The Age of Criminal Responsibility: "The Frontier between Care and Justice"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillen, John

    2006-01-01

    This is an extract from a speech given by Mr Justice Gillen to a conference in Belfast organised by Children Law UK in January 2006. It addresses the potential conflict between the concept of the welfare of children inherent in the family care system and that of responsibility inherent in the criminal justice system. It questions whether the…

  8. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Fast, Diane K; Conry, Julianne

    2009-01-01

    The life-long neurological impairments found in people with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs), including learning disabilities, impulsivity, hyperactivity, social ineptness, and poor judgment, can increase susceptibility to victimization and involvement in the criminal justice system (CJS). Individuals with FASDs become involved in the CJS as complainants, witnesses, and accused. Their disabilities, resulting from the prenatal alcohol exposure, must be considered at all stages in the legal process. Adverse experiences, such as having a dysfunctional family background, mental health problems, and substance use disorders, are compounding factors. Experiencing physical, sexual, and emotional abuse also increases the risk that these individuals will become involved in the CJS. It is critical that everyone involved in the CJS receives education and training to understand FASD and the implications for the individual offender. A comprehensive medical-legal report, prepared by professionals experienced with FASD, can help judges and lawyers understand the complex interactions among brain damage, genetics and the environment. Corrections workers and probation officers need to comprehend the significance of FASD and how it affects the offender's abilities to understand and follow rules and probation orders. Caregivers and parents need to be involved whenever possible. Early recognition of the disabilities associated with FASDs may help reduce the over-representation of this group in the CJS. PMID:19731365

  9. Interaction of the criminal justice system and psychiatric professionals in which civil commitment standards are prohibitive.

    PubMed

    Solomon, P; Rogers, R; Draine, J; Meyerson, A

    1995-01-01

    Three case studies are the basis for a discussion of the criminalization hypothesis as it may apply to psychiatric probationers and parolees in the criminal justice system. In each of these cases, the treating psychiatrist faced the problems of noncompliance with treatment and/or restrictive civil commitment standards. The patient's status as a probationer or parolee played a pivotal role in strategies for ensuring treatment through the criminal justice system as opposed to the mental health system or civil commitment process. PMID:7599364

  10. The Scope of Practice of Occupational Therapy in U.S. Criminal Justice Settings.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M

    2016-09-01

    In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27094024

  11. Resistance to the mainlandization of criminal justice practices: a barrier to the development of restorative justice in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lo, T Wing

    2012-06-01

    This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process. PMID:21490000

  12. HIV Treatment in the Criminal Justice System: Critical Knowledge and Intervention Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Jaimie P.; Chen, Nadine E.; Springer, Sandra A.

    2011-01-01

    The criminal justice system bears a disproportionate burden of the HIV epidemic. Continuity of care is critical for HAART-based prevention of HIV-related morbidity and mortality. This paper describes four major challenges to successful management of HIV in the criminal justice system: relapse to substance use, homelessness, mental illness, and loss of medical and social benefits. Each of these areas constitutes a competing priority upon release that demands immediate attention and diverts time, energy, and valuable resources away from engagement in care and adherence to HAART. Numerous gaps exist in scientific knowledge about these issues and potential solutions. In illuminating these knowledge deficits, we present a contemporary research agenda for the management of HIV in correctional systems. Future empirical research should focus on these critical issues in HIV-infected prisoners and releasees while interventional research should incorporate evidence-based solutions into the criminal justice setting. PMID:21776379

  13. An Annotated Bibliography of Theses: The College of Criminal Justice, Sam Houston State University, 1965-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grande, Peter J.; Wood, Richard J.

    A description of Sam Houston University and the College of Criminal Justice introduces this annotated bibliography, which provides a single comprehensive listing of the master's degree theses written by students in the criminal justice program from its establishment in 1965 through 1990. Several 1991 theses are included although their call numbers…

  14. 5 CFR 733.102 - Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Division of the United States Department of Justice. Employees in the Criminal Division in the Department... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. 733.102 Section 733.102 Administrative...

  15. The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice: Academic Library, Special Library, or Both?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    The Lloyd Sealy Library of John Jay College of Criminal Justice started as a small collection of books in the corner of the New York City Police Academy. A little over four decades later, it now contains one of the best collections of criminal justice materials in the world. Despite fiscal setbacks and tough times for the University and the…

  16. Fixing a Failing System. National Policy Recommendations: How the Criminal Justice System Should Work with Communities To Reduce Substance Abuse. Report from a Join Together Policy Panel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    A policy panel of criminal justice experts proposed recommendations to help criminal justice systems become consistently integrated into a community response to substance abuse. The recommendations are: (1) repeal mandatory sentencing; (2) expand substance abuse treatment throughout the criminal justice system; (3) collaborate within the criminal…

  17. ERIC First Analysis: 1976-77 National High School Debate Resolutions (How Can the Criminal Justice System in the United States Best Be Improved?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Robert B.

    The goal of this booklet is to assist debaters in developing problem-solving skills as represented in the 1976-77 debate topic: How can the criminal justice system in the United States best be improved? The sections of this document focus on the need for criminal justice reform; procedural steps in the criminal justice system; discussing or…

  18. People with an Intellectual Disability and the Criminal Justice System: The Family Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cockram, Judith; Jackson, Robert; Underwood, Rod

    1998-01-01

    An Australian study interviewed 20 family caregivers for individuals with intellectual disabilities who were offenders in the criminal justice system. Caregivers expressed concern for the lack of sentencing options and the inadequate level of services for this population. It is argued that these offenders require legal representation from the…

  19. Academic Disciplines and Debates: An Essay on Criminal Justice and Criminology as Professions in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank T.

    Current developments concerning criminology and criminal justice education are viewed historically and placed within a broader perspective of academic professionalization, and a few of the debates going on within and between the two fields are considered. Some early sociologists made considerable claim to studies of crime, and criminology and…

  20. The Literature of Higher Education in Criminology and Criminal Justice: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Carolyn

    Included in this bibliography of about 500 items on criminology/criminal justice higher education is information on programs, services, and the issues that must be considered in the quest for quality education. Journal articles, essays, books, chapters, government publications, catalogs and conference proceedings from the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s…

  1. What Makes a Good Criminal Justice Professor? A Quantitative Analysis of Student Evaluation Forms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerkin, Patrick M.; Kierkus, Christopher A.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research is to understand how students define teaching effectiveness. By using multivariate regression analysis of 8,000+ student evaluations of teaching compiled by a School of Criminal Justice at a Midwestern public university, this paper explores the relationships between individual indicators of instructor performance (e.g.…

  2. Specious Rights: Myth vs. Reality in the American Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, William R.

    2010-01-01

    Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…

  3. Evaluating Health Outcomes of Criminal Justice Populations Using Record Linkage: The Importance of Aliases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larney, Sarah; Burns, Lucy

    2011-01-01

    Individuals in contact with the criminal justice system are a key population of concern to public health. Record linkage studies can be useful for studying health outcomes for this group, but the use of aliases complicates the process of linking records across databases. This study was undertaken to determine the impact of aliases on sensitivity…

  4. Individuals with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System and Implications for Transition Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tammy; Polloway, Edward A.; Patton, James R.; Beyer, Julia F.

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this manuscript is on the challenges faced by individuals with developmental and intellectual disabilities within the criminal justice system. Prevalence data are cited and these data are interpreted in light of possible rationales for the disproportionate number of individuals with disabilities present within the system. Then the…

  5. The Career Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The past 2 decades have produced a rapid increase in the numbers of incarcerated mothers. This study investigated both career development and the career counseling needs of mothers in the criminal justice system. A mixed-methods design was employed using both qualitative interviews (n = 1,161) and quantitative survey methods (n = 1,170).…

  6. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  7. A Systematic Review of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder and the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Claire; Murphy, Glynis H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systemic review of the available literature on people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the criminal justice system (CJS). The review considers two main types of study: those that examined the prevalence of people with ASD in the CJS and those that examined the prevalence of offending in populations with ASD. In…

  8. The Substance Abuse Counseling Needs of Women in the Criminal Justice System: A Needs Assessment Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Moe, Jeffry L.; Cox, Jane A.; Lambert, Eric; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors assessed the substance abuse counseling needs of women in the criminal justice system using interviews (n = 304) and surveys (n = 1,170). On the basis of the results, the authors call for gender-specific treatment as well as family-oriented support for women who are mothers.

  9. The Clinical Mental Health Counseling Needs of Mothers in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Calmes, Stephanie; Moe, Jeffry L.; Dupuy, Paula J.; Cox, Jane A.; Ventura, Lois A.; Williamson, Celia; Benjamin, Barbaranne J.; Lambert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the mental health (MH) needs of mothers in the criminal justice system using qualitative methods. Identified needs included counseling to help mothers recover from trauma, to define sense of self, and to link them with external support systems. This study confirms and extends the knowledge base regarding the MH status and…

  10. Pathways into the Criminal Justice System for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raina, Poonam; Arenovich, Tamara; Jones, Jessica; Lunsky, Yona

    2013-01-01

    Background: Studies focusing on pathways in the criminal justice system for individuals with intellectual disability are limited in that they only study individuals once they are involved in the system and do not consider the pathways into it. The purpose of this study is to examine predisposing factors that lead to various outcomes for…

  11. Expenditure and Employment Data for the Criminal Justice System, 1969-70.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice (Dept. of Justice/LEAA), Washington, DC.

    Specific data relating to public expenditure and employment for the criminal justice system in the United States are presented in tabular form in this annual survey report. Comprehensive data are supplied in 29 tables for the Federal Government, each of the 50 state governments, city, county, and other local subdivisions of government. Data are…

  12. Clinical Education: Use of Criminal Justice Act Appointments at the University of Mississippi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyel, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    A new course of clinical education at the University of Mississippi is described. A member of the teaching faculty was appointed under the Criminal Justice Act to represent indigent defendants with the assistance of student interns. Goals for the future and possible implementation at other law schools are discussed. (MLW)

  13. Evaluation of the Student Engagement Process in a Criminal Justice Program at a Technical College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totzke, Martin W.

    2007-01-01

    This applied dissertation was an evaluation of the student engagement practices offered to students in a criminal justice program at a Midwestern technical college. The problem was that an evaluation of the practices had not been conducted to provide data to indicate whether the current practices were effective. The researcher developed an…

  14. An Evaluation of a Service-Learning Model for Criminal Justice Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy Beth; Simons, Lori; Kenyon, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A triangulation mixed-methods design was used to measure differences in service-learning outcomes for 32 students enrolled in criminal justice courses during the academic years 2003 (n = 16) and 2005 (n = 16). Results show that service-learners increase their political awareness and course value but experience a decrease in problem-solving skills…

  15. Crime and Control: Syllabi and Instructional Materials for Criminology and Criminal Justice. Resource Materials for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.

    One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…

  16. Applying Threshold Concepts Theory to an Unsettled Field: An Exploratory Study in Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimshurst, Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…

  17. A Comparative Analysis of Service Learning in Social Work and Criminal Justice Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madden, Elissa E.; Davis, Jaya; Cronley, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    The current study sought input from a national sample of social work (SW) and criminal justice (CJ) educators ("N" = 276) to explore characteristics of those who use service learning in the two disciplines, differences in the conceptions of and beliefs about service learning, and distinctions in how it is used and implemented. This study…

  18. Academic Politics and the History of Criminal Justice Education. Contributions in Criminology and Penology, No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morn, Frank

    This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education, 1910-1935"; (3)…

  19. Variables Associated with Repeated Suicide Attempt in a Criminal Justice Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakansson, Anders; Bradvik, Louise; Schlyter, Frans; Berglund, Mats

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with repeated suicide attempts among criminal justice clients examined for substance abuse using the Addiction Severity Index. Among suicide attempters (n = 1,404), repeaters (two or more attempts, n = 770) were compared to nonrepeaters. In logistic regression, repetition was associated with…

  20. 28 CFR 50.2 - Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil proceedings. 50.2 Section 50.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.2 Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating...

  1. 28 CFR 50.2 - Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating to criminal and civil proceedings. 50.2 Section 50.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STATEMENTS OF POLICY § 50.2 Release of information by personnel of the Department of Justice relating...

  2. Renegotiating forensic cultures: between law, science and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Paul

    2013-03-01

    This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law. PMID:23022585

  3. Prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system: Relationships with treatment retention and outcome among cocaine users

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Serafini, Kelly; Malin-Mayor, Bo; Babuscio, Theresa A.; Nich, Charla; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives A substantial portion of individuals entering treatment for substance use have been referred by the criminal justice system, yet there are conflicting reports regarding treatment engagement and outcome differences compared to those not referred. This study examined baseline characteristic and treatment outcome differences among cocaine-dependent individuals participating in cocaine treatment randomized trials. Methods This secondary analysis pooled samples across five completed randomized controlled trials, resulting in 434 participants. Of these, 67 (15%) were prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system. Results This subsample of criminal justice prompted (CJP) individuals did not differ from those not prompted by the criminal justice system in terms of gender, race/ethnicity, marital status, or age. However, the CJP group reported more years of regular cocaine use, more severe employment and legal problems, as well as less readiness to change prior to treatment. Treatment outcomes did not differ significantly from those without a criminal justice prompt, and on some measures the outcomes for CJP group were better (e.g., percentage of days cocaine abstinent, number of therapy sessions attended). Discussion and Conclusions These findings suggest that being prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system may not lead to poorer treatment engagement or substance use outcomes for individuals participating in randomized controlled treatment trials. Scientific Significance Despite some baseline indicators of poorer treatment prognosis, individuals who have been prompted to treatment by the criminal justice system have similar treatment outcomes as those presenting to treatment voluntarily. PMID:25809378

  4. Computer Crime: Criminal Justice Resource Manual (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Donn B.

    This advanced training and reference manual is designed to aid investigators and prosecutors in dealing with white collar computer crime. The first five sections follow the typical order of events for prosecutors handling a criminal case: classifying the crime, computer abuse methods and detection, experts and suspects using information systems,…

  5. A Rasch Model Analysis of Evidence-Based Treatment Practices Used in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    This study used item response theory (IRT) to examine the extent to which criminal justice facilities and community-based agencies are using evidence-based substance abuse treatment practices (EBPs), which EBPs are most commonly used, and how EBPs cluster together. The study used data collected from wardens, justice administrators, and treatment directors as part of the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey (NCJTP; Taxman et al., 2007a), and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results of Rasch modeling demonstrated that a reliable measure can be formed to gauge the extent to which juvenile and adult correctional facilities, and community treatment agencies serving offenders, have adopted various treatment practices supported by research. We also demonstrated the concurrent validity of the measure by showing that features of the facilities’ organizational contexts were associated with the extent to which facilities were using EBPs, and which EBPs they were using. Researchers, clinicians, and program administrators may find these results interesting not only because they show the program factors most strongly related to EBP use, but the results also suggest that certain treatment practices are generally clustered together, which may help stakeholders plan and prioritize the adoption of new EBPs in their facilities. The study has implications for future research focused on understanding the adoption and implementation of EBPs in correctional environments. PMID:18029116

  6. Predictors of Criminal Justice Outcomes Among Mental Health Courts Participants: The Role of Perceived Coercion and Subjective Mental Health Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Yanos, Philip T.; Kopelovich, Sarah L.; Koerner, Joshua; Alexander, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, one effort to reduce the number of people with serious mental illness (SMI) in jails and prisons is the development of Mental Health Courts (MHC). Research on MHCs to date has been disproportionately focused on the study of recidivism and re-incarceration over the potential of these problem-solving courts to facilitate mental health recovery and affect the slope or gradient of opportunity for recovery. Despite the strong conceptual links between the MHC approach and the recovery-orientation in mental health, the capacity for MHCs to facilitate recovery has not been explored. This user-informed mental health and criminal justice (MH/CJ) community based participatory (CBPR) study assesses the extent to which MHC practices align with recovery-oriented principles and may subsequently affect criminal justice outcomes. We report on the experiences and perceptions of 51 MHC participants across four metropolitan Mental Health Courts. Specifically, the current study assesses: 1) how defendants’ perceptions of court practices, particularly with regard to procedural justice and coercion, relate to perceptions of mental health recovery and psychiatric symptoms, and, 2) how perceptions of procedural justice and mental health recovery relate to subsequent criminal justice outcomes. The authors hypothesized that perceived coercion and mental health recovery would be inversely related, that perceived coercion would be associated with worse criminal justice outcomes, and perceptions of mental health recovery would be associated with better criminal justice outcomes. Results suggest that perceived coercion in the MHC experience was negatively associated with perceptions of recovery among MHC participants. Perceptions of “negative pressures,” a component of coercion, were important predictors of criminal justice involvement in the 12 month period following MHC admission, even when controlling for other factors that were related to criminal justice outcomes, and

  7. Addressing Hate Crimes: Six Initiatives That Are Enhancing the Efforts of Criminal Justice Practitioners. Hate Crimes Series. Bureau of Justice Assistance Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wessler, Stephen

    This publication focuses on initiatives that are designed to address hate crimes by enhancing efforts of the criminal justice system. After discussing the pivotal role of law enforcement in this effort, the paper describes six Bureau of Justice Assistance-funded initiatives, which include: the International Association of Chiefs of Police Summit:…

  8. Improving Access To Care And Reducing Involvement In The Criminal Justice System For People With Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Kennedy-Hendricks, Alene; Huskamp, Haiden A; Rutkow, Lainie; Barry, Colleen L

    2016-06-01

    People with mental illness make up a disproportionate share of the criminal justice-involved population. The passage of critical new reforms affecting health care for vulnerable populations under the Affordable Care Act and the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 presents unique opportunities to transform systems of care and avert criminal justice involvement. In addition, state and local jurisdictions have implemented a number of strategies to divert people with mental illness from the criminal justice system and reduce recidivism. In this article we summarize current knowledge about the involvement of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system and consider the recent opportunities presented by national and local policies that aim to lower the proportion of such people who are incarcerated. PMID:27269025

  9. An integrated public health and criminal justice approach to gangs: What can research tell us?

    PubMed

    Gebo, Erika

    2016-12-01

    There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence. PMID:27547719

  10. Integrated Multisystem Analysis in a Mental Health and Criminal Justice Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  11. State criminal justice telecommunications (STACOM). Volume 4: Network design software user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    A user's guide to the network design program is presented. The program is written in FORTRAN V and implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer under the EXEC-8 operating system which enables the user to construct least-cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A complete description of program features, inputs, processing logic, and outputs is presented, and a sample run and a program listing are included.

  12. Integrated multisystem analysis in a mental health and criminal justice ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Falconer, Erin; El-Hay, Tal; Alevras, Dimitris; Docherty, John; Yanover, Chen; Kalton, Alan; Goldschmidt, Yaara; Rosen-Zvi, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Patients with a serious mental illness often receive care that is fragmented due to reduced availability of or access to resources, and inadequate, discontinuous, and uncoordinated care across health, social services, and criminal justice organizations. These gaps in care may lead to increased mental health disease burden and relapse, as well as repeated incarcerations. Further, the complex health, social service, and criminal justice ecosystem within which the patient may be embedded makes it difficult to examine the role of modifiable risk factors and delivered services on patient outcomes, particularly given that agencies often maintain isolated sets of relevant data. Here we describe an approach to creating a multisystem analysis that derives insights from an integrated data set including patient access to case management services, medical services, and interactions with the criminal justice system. We combined data from electronic systems within a US mental health ecosystem that included mental health and substance abuse services, as well as data from the criminal justice system. We applied Cox models to test the associations between delivery of services and re-incarceration. Using this approach, we found an association between arrests and crisis stabilization services in this population. We also found that delivery of case management or medical services provided after release from jail was associated with a reduced risk for re-arrest. Additionally, we used machine learning to train and validate a predictive model linking non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors and outcomes. A predictive model, constructed using elastic net regularized logistic regression, and considering age, past arrests, mental health diagnosis, as well as use of a jail diversion program, outpatient, medical and case management services predicted the probability of re-arrests with fair accuracy (AUC=.67). By modeling the complex interactions between risk factors, service delivery and

  13. The Treatment of Women Within the Criminal Justice System: An Inquiry into the Social Impact of the Women's Rights Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbrun, Alfred B., Jr.; Heilbrun, Mark R.

    1986-01-01

    Examines the possible impact of the feminist movement upon criminal justice decisions relating to women. One body of data confirmed a trend away from indiscriminate leniency in the punishment of female criminals during the women's movement. The second set of data disclosed that an increased seriousness was accorded to the crime of rape as feminism…

  14. Postcode Criminals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiett, Sandra; Kushner, Joann

    2013-01-01

    Postcode Criminals was the second phase of an international participatory community arts project challenging negative stereotypes of urban youth. Concerned with the impact of zero tolerance community policing strategies in the UK and USA, artists Joann Kushner and Dread Scott developed an art-based project with a social justice agenda. To give…

  15. Integrating the American criminal justice and mental health service systems to focus on victimization.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Gover, Angela R; Piquero, Alex R

    2011-12-01

    Although most research and policy in the mental health and criminal justice arenas have operated independently of one another, there is a growing consensus suggesting the need for an integration of these two disparate, yet complementary systems. Furthermore, in light of the adverse mental health consequences that often accompany victimization experiences, it is apparent that these two systems should develop and foster overlapping services for crime victims. The research reviewed herein provides an examination of issues such as these, identifies some of the barriers that stand in the way of a successful integration of the two systems, and attempts to provide some guidance and direction for future integrated mental health and criminal justice system approaches. An outline of research gaps and directions for future study are offered for the integration of criminal justice and mental health systems, as such collaborations are likely to alleviate some of the deleterious mental health outcomes evident among crime victims and at the same time reduce the occurrence of repeat victimization. PMID:22114170

  16. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the "Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law." This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that "[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV." As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  17. Ending overly broad HIV criminalization: Canadian scientists and clinicians stand for justice

    PubMed Central

    Kazatchkine, Cécile; Bernard, Edwin; Eba, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    In Canada, people living with HIV who do not disclose their HIV status prior to sexual acts risk prosecution for aggravated sexual assault even if they have sex with a condom or while having a low (or undetectable) viral load, they had no intent to transmit HIV, and no transmission occurred. In 2013, six distinguished Canadian HIV scientists and clinicians took ground-breaking action to advance justice by co-authoring the “Canadian consensus statement on HIV and its transmission in the context of the criminal law.” This effort was born out of the belief that the application of criminal law to HIV non-disclosure was being driven by a poor appreciation of the science of HIV. More than 75 HIV scientists and clinicians Canada-wide have now endorsed the statement, agreeing that “[they] have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret current medical and scientific evidence regarding HIV.” As some 61 countries have adopted laws that specifically allow for HIV criminalization, and prosecutions for HIV non-disclosure, exposure and transmission have been reported in at least 49 countries, the authors hope that others around the world will take similar action. PMID:26194348

  18. Understanding the sustainability of implementing HIV services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Visher, Christy A; Yang, Yang; Mitchell, Shannon G; Patterson, Yvonne; Swan, Holly; Pankow, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background In the growing field of implementation science, sustainability is a critical component of the implementation process of moving evidence-based treatments to regular practice. This paper is intended to extend our understanding of factors that influence the sustainability of HIV services in correctional settings following an organization-level intervention designed to implement improvements in preventing, detecting, or treating HIV for persons under correctional supervision. Methods Using semi-structured interviews to elicit perceptions from the principal researcher and executive sponsor at each of nine participating sites, this study explores the variations in the sustainability of HIV services in these criminal justice settings following the experimental implementation intervention. Results In six of the nine sites, changes in HIV services implemented as a result of the organizational intervention were sustained six to nine months following the end of project implementation. Organizational endorsement at multiple levels is likely the principal factor that facilitates sustainability. Conclusions The factors that result in the sustainability of changes to health services in correctional organizations include elements internal and external to the organization. Implementation strategies, such as the change team model strategy used in this study, are also sustainable and can be used to identify other changes that could be made, or improve other aspects of service delivery. PMID:25893155

  19. Memory Interventions in the Criminal Justice System: Some Practical Ethical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories. PMID:26715046

  20. Juvenile penalty or leniency: Sentencing of juveniles in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Kareem L; McNeal, Brittani A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of being juvenile on sentencing in the criminal justice system. More specifically, youth transferred to criminal court are compared to adults in terms of likelihood of incarceration, jail length, and prison length. In this study, 2 national data sets are merged. The juvenile sample includes 3,381 convicted offenders, and the adult sample is comprised of 6,529 convicted offenders. The final sample is 9,910 offenders across 36 U.S. counties. The key independent variable is juvenile status, and the dependent variables are incarceration, jail length, and prison length. Because of the multilevel nature of the data, hierarchical linear modeling is used across all models. Juveniles are punished less severely in the jail incarceration decision. However, when youth are actually sentenced to incarceration (either jail or prison), they are given longer confinement time than adults. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26974365

  1. Forensic psychiatric expert witnessing within the criminal justice system in Germany.

    PubMed

    Konrad, Norbert; Völlm, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the number of occupied beds in German forensic-psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. There are no specific diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. The assessments of responsibility as well as risk are the core tasks of forensic-psychiatric expert witnessing in Germany. Recommendations of an interdisciplinary working group serve as a guide to operationalize this forensic-psychiatric task. These recommendations list formal minimum requirements for expert reports on the question of criminal responsibility and risk assessment as well as minimum standards regarding content and in writing the report. PMID:24268458

  2. "Coming Out" of Prison: An Exploratory Study of LGBT Elders in the Criminal Justice System.

    PubMed

    Maschi, Tina; Rees, Jo; Klein, Eileen

    2016-09-01

    This two-phase qualitative study explores the experiences of 10 formerly incarcerated LGBT elders' experiences prior to, during, and after release from prison. A core theme of self and the social mirror emerged from the data that represented LGBT elders ongoing coming-out process of unearthing their "true selves" despite managing multiple stigmatized identities or social locations, such as being LGBT, elderly, HIV positive, formerly incarcerated, and a racial/ethnic minority. These findings further our awareness of an overlooked population of LGBT who are older and involved in the criminal justice system. Recommendations that incorporate suggestions from formerly incarcerated LGBT elders for services and policy reform are presented. PMID:27232373

  3. Military Veterans in the Criminal Justice System: Partner Violence and the Impact of Relationships With Fathers.

    PubMed

    Schaffer, Bradley J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the health characteristics of military veterans identified through the Criminal Justice System (CJS) with partner violence and their relationships with their fathers. The 282 veterans involved in the CJS participated to complete a psycho-social assessment which included partner violence and ascertained their relationships with their fathers. The mean age of the men in the study was 44.9 years old. The majority were divorced, Caucasian, had a high school education, and served in the Army. This sample shows the benefit of integrating partner violence and relationships with fathers into the assessment process and highlights the need for more research. PMID:25976170

  4. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey: Multilevel survey methods and procedures⋆

    PubMed Central

    Taxman, Faye S.; Young, Douglas W.; Wiersema, Brian; Rhodes, Anne; Mitchell, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices (NCJTP) survey provides a comprehensive inquiry into the nature of programs and services provided to adult and juvenile offenders involved in the justice system in the United States. The multilevel survey design covers topics such as the mission and goals of correctional and treatment programs; organizational climate and culture for providing services; organizational capacity and needs; opinions of administrators and staff regarding rehabilitation, punishment, and services provided to offenders; treatment policies and procedures; and working relationships between correctional and other agencies. The methodology generates national estimates of the availability of programs and services for offenders. This article details the methodology and sampling frame for the NCJTP survey, response rates, and survey procedures. Prevalence estimates of juvenile and adult offenders under correctional control are provided with externally validated comparisons to illustrate the veracity of the methodology. Limitations of the survey methods are also discussed. PMID:17383548

  5. The influence of anogenital injury on women's willingness to engage with the criminal justice process after rape.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bonnie Sue; Kaplan, Alyssa; Budescu, Mia; Fargo, Jamison; Tiller, Deborah; Everett, Janine; Sommers, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Medical-legal-social science research has documented that nongenital and/or anogenital injuries play a significant role throughout the criminal justice system from victims reporting to judges determining the length of a sentence. What remains an open question is whether the documentation of anogenital injury influences women's willingness to engage in the criminal justice system. A sample of women age 21 years and older residing in an urban area were asked about willingness to report to police, file charges, and work with the courts to prosecute after rape. Questions were framed with a qualifying statement about the forensic examination being able to detect injury related to forced sexual intercourse. Results show that women had a high willingness to act if the examination could detect anogenital injury and women with and without a history of forced sexual intercourse had significant differences in their responses to these questions. Implications for health care, criminal justice system, and future research are discussed. PMID:24547675

  6. Information and Communication Technology to Link Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Ann; Kuo, Irene; Bazerman, Lauri; Beckwith, Curt G.

    2013-01-01

    The United States has the world's highest prison population, and an estimated one in seven HIV-positive persons in the USA passes through a correctional facility annually. Given this, it is critical to develop innovative and effective approaches to support HIV treatment and retention in care among HIV-positive individuals involved in the criminal justice (CJ) system. Information and communication technologies (ICTs), including mobile health (mHealth) interventions, may offer one component of a successful strategy for linkage/retention in care. We describe CARE+ Corrections, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) study now underway in Washington, that will evaluate the combined effect of computerized motivational interview counseling and postrelease short message service (SMS) text message reminders to increase antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and linkage and retention in care among HIV-infected persons involved in the criminal justice system. In this report, we describe the development of this ICT/mHealth intervention, outline the study procedures used to evaluate this intervention, and summarize the implications for the mHealth knowledge base. PMID:23984054

  7. Adapting needs assessment methodologies to build integrated health pathways for people in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    de Viggiani, N

    2012-09-01

    Criminal justice health services should be underpinned with good public health evidence about the population's health needs. Health needs assessment methodologies can provide valuable intelligence for commissioners to evaluate the quality of services and innovate according to need. However, health needs assessment can be limited if it takes a conventional epidemiological approach, focussing on individuals' healthcare needs in criminal justice settings. Techniques used to measure health and social need could be more widely applied and appropriately employed in the planning of health and social care services, especially if the intention is to be effective in reducing social exclusion and tackling health inequalities. Assessment tools are available that capture individual, social and environmental risk factors and determinants predisposing people to health and criminogenic risks. Good evidence gathering can mean that public health practitioners not only improve health, reduce inequalities and tackle social exclusion, but contribute to reducing re-offending. This paper suggests a new approach to assessment that integrates the full range of assessment methodologies available to practitioners. An integrated approach may be the way to enhance and enrich the public health function in providing evidence to improve the quality of local public services. PMID:22770740

  8. Addressing the Aging Crisis in U.S. Criminal Justice Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brie A.; Goodwin, James S.; Baillargeon, Jacques; Ahalt, Cyrus; Walter, Louise C.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. criminal justice population is aging at a significantly more rapid rate than the overall U.S. population: the population of older adults in prison has more than tripled since 1990. This increase is at the root of a prison healthcare crisis that is spilling into communities and public healthcare systems as nearly 95% of prisoners are eventually released. The graying prison population is also straining state and local budgets. In prison, older prisoners cost approximately three times as much as younger prisoners to incarcerate, largely due to healthcare costs. In the community, older former prisoners present the least risk of recidivism yet are vulnerable to serious and costly social and medical challenges such as housing instability, poor employability, multiple chronic health conditions, and health-related mortality. Older current and former prisoners, however, are largely ignored in the current geriatrics evidence base. Knowledge about the health, functional and cognitive status of older prisoners is limited, with even less known about risk factors for long term poor health outcomes during and after incarceration. This article provides an overview of aging in the criminal justice system. It then describes how geriatric models of care could be adapted to address the mounting older prisoner healthcare crisis and identifies areas where additional research is needed to explore prison-specific models of care for older adults. PMID:22642489

  9. Case studies from three states: breaking down silos between health care and criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Bechelli, Matthew J; Caudy, Michael; Gardner, Tracie M; Huber, Alice; Mancuso, David; Samuels, Paul; Shah, Tanya; Venters, Homer D

    2014-03-01

    The jail-involved population-people with a history of arrest in the previous year-has high rates of illness, which leads to high costs for society. A significant percentage of jail-involved people are estimated to become newly eligible for coverage through the Affordable Care Act's expansion of Medicaid, including coverage of substance abuse treatment and mental health care. In this article we explore the need to break down the current policy silos between health care and criminal justice, to benefit both sectors and reduce unnecessary costs resulting from lack of coordination. To draw attention to the hidden costs of the current system, we review three case studies, from Washington State, Los Angeles County in California, and New York City. Each case study addresses different aspects of care needed by or provided to the jail-involved population, including mental health and substance abuse, emergency care, and coordination of care transitions. Ultimately, bending the cost curve for health care and criminal justice will require greater integration of the two systems. PMID:24590948

  10. The identification and management of ADHD offenders within the criminal justice system: a consensus statement from the UK Adult ADHD Network and criminal justice agencies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN) was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) within the National Health Service (NHS). UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH), Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS) will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs), whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards individual's rights, improves

  11. Theories on Criminality and Mental Retardation Project CAMIO, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskins, Jimmy R.; Friel, Charles M.

    This historical review of theories on criminality and mental retardation is part of Project CAMIO (Correctional Administration and the Mentally Incompetent Offender), a Texas study to determine the incidence of criminal incarceration of the mentally retarded (MR) and to identify laws, procedures, and practices which affect the prosecution and…

  12. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.

    1992-12-31

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  13. Justice and the Human Genome Project

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.F.; Lappe, M.

    1992-01-01

    Most of the essays gathered in this volume were first presented at a conference, Justice and the Human Genome, in Chicago in early November, 1991. The goal of the, conference was to consider questions of justice as they are and will be raised by the Human Genome Project. To achieve its goal of identifying and elucidating the challenges of justice inherent in genomic research and its social applications the conference drew together in one forum members from academia, medicine, and industry with interests divergent as rate-setting for insurance, the care of newborns, and the history of ethics. The essays in this volume address a number of theoretical and practical concerns relative to the meaning of genomic research.

  14. Delphi in Criminal Justice Policy: A Case Study on Judgmental Forecasting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social trends. The…

  15. Unfit for Human Consumption: The Problem of Flawed Writing in Criminal Justice and What to Do about It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Don C.

    1995-01-01

    Provides an account of the processes that are involved in the production of "Crime and Delinquency." Asserts that flawed writing in criminology and criminal justice appears to be a systemic rather than an individual one. Suggests to authors or prospective authors ways in which writing can be improved. (LKS)

  16. Still Excluded? An Update on the Status of African American Scholars in the Discipline of Criminology and Criminal Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste

    2004-01-01

    This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…

  17. Young People with Learning Disabilities Who Sexually Harm Others: The Role of Criminal Justice within a Multi-Agency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fyson, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    This paper outlines the key findings from a recent study of statutory service responses to young people with learning disabilities who show sexually inappropriate or abusive behaviours, with a particular focus on the involvement of criminal justice agencies. The study found that although inappropriate sexual behaviours were commonplace in special…

  18. 5 CFR 733.102 - Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal Division of the United States Department of Justice. 733.102 Section 733.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN...

  19. An Exploration of How Women Probation and Parole Officers Learn to Negotiate Power and Interest in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varner, Barbara Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this narrative inquiry was to explore the ways women probation and parole officers learn to negotiate power and interests in the criminal justice system. The women are considered officers of the courts and work within the constraints of the court system. The framework that informed this study was a critical feminist lens on the…

  20. Limitations and Potential in Current Research on Services for People with Mental Illness in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draine, Jeffrey; Wilson, Amy Blank; Pogorzelski, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    Intervention at the intersection of the mental health and criminal justice systems has followed a small set of service models with limited success and a narrow impact on the quality of treatment available to people with mental illness who experience arrest, court processing, incarceration, and release. In reviewing research on police, court, and…

  1. Substance-Abusing Parents in the Criminal Justice System: Does Substance Abuse Treatment Improve Their Children's Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…

  2. Wrongful Conviction: Perceptions of Criminal Justice Professionals Regarding the Frequency of Wrongful Conviction and the Extent of System Errors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Robert J.; Frank, James

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on a sample of 798 Ohio criminal justice professionals (police, prosecutors, defense attorneys, judges), the authors examine respondents' perceptions regarding the frequency of system errors (i.e., professional error and misconduct suggested by previous research to be associated with wrongful conviction), and wrongful felony conviction.…

  3. Systematic Outcomes Research for Corrections-Based Treatment: Implications from the Criminal Justice Kentucky Treatment Outcome Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staton-Tindall, Michele; McNees, Erin; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Walker, Robert; Thompson, LaDonna; Pangburn, Kevin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last four years, the Kentucky correctional system has expanded corrections-based modified therapeutic community treatment from 6 programs to 24 programs. To examine the effectiveness of these programs, the state initiated a systematic treatment outcome study known as the Criminal Justice Kentucky Treatment Outcome Study (CJKTOS). The…

  4. Community College Students with Criminal Justice Histories and Human Services Education: Glass Ceiling, Brick Wall, or a Pathway to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Lisa Hale

    2015-01-01

    In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…

  5. Comparison of Race-Gender, Urban-Suburban Criminal Justice College Students Satisfaction of the Police Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…

  6. Victim Satisfaction With the Criminal Justice System and Emotional Recovery: A Systematic and Critical Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Maarten; Popelier, Lieke; Varekamp, Ellen

    2015-07-01

    The current study systematically and critically reviewed the empirical literature to evaluate the association between satisfaction with the criminal justice system and adult crime victims' emotional recovery. Despite the widely accepted notion that involvement in the criminal justice system may impact recovery from crime victimization--either beneficially or maliciously--a systematic review of empirical studies that addresses this topic has never been conducted. Electronic literature databases (ISI Web of Knowledge [including Web of Science and MEDLINE], EBSCO host [including PsychInfo, CINAHL, Criminal Justice Abstracts, ERIC, PsychARTICLES, and Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection], and ProQuest [including PILOTS, Social Services Abstracts, and Sociological Abstracts]) were searched to identify relevant quantitative studies. The Cambridge Quality Checklists were used to evaluate the quality of selected studies. These checklists can be used to assess the quality of risk and protective factors in criminal justice research. In this study they were used to explore the impact of victim satisfaction on crime victims' emotional and cognitive states post-victimization. The review process revealed mixed results, with some studies suggesting a healing impact of victim satisfaction and others not. More consistent were findings regarding the existence of an association between victim satisfaction and (alterations in) positive cognitions. However, since the majority of studies suffered from severe methodological shortcomings, definite conclusions cannot be drawn yet. PMID:25352031

  7. The Effectiveness of Virtual Learning Tools for Millennial Generation Students in a Community College Criminal Justice Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement and multiyear analysis of pretest/posttest scores in introductory criminal justice courses revealed there was a systemic decline in student engagement and achievement. Because of this analysis, a commercial virtual learning tool (CJI) that purported great success in…

  8. An Attitudinal Explanation of Biases in the Criminal Justice System: An Empirical Testing of Defensive Attribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives, supported by empirical evidence, have consistently argued that the judicial treatment of offenders by criminal justice agents is sometimes biased by extralegal factors, such as offenders' sociodemographic characteristics. According to defensive attribution theory, individuals tend to protect themselves against unfortunate…

  9. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    PubMed

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. PMID:26004454

  10. Attitudes toward hiring applicants with mental illness and criminal justice involvement: the impact of education and experience.

    PubMed

    Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. PMID:24629567

  11. Persons with intellectual disabilities in the criminal justice system: review of issues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jessica

    2007-12-01

    Although the vast majority of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are law-abiding citizens, there is a small percentage with offending behaviour that is considered antisocial, socially inappropriate, or defined as illegal. It has long been recognised that individuals with ID or mental-health needs who break the law should be dealt with differently from the general population. There have been an increasing number of empirical studies in this area; however, these have been plagued by various definitional and methodological issues. Prevalence estimates of offenders with ID are complicated by diagnostic variations and inconsistencies in the criminal justice process. International studies have shown a large range, from 2% to 40%, depending on methodological approaches. The following review will highlight the salient issues including prevalence of offending, characteristics of offenders, vulnerabilities within the legal system, assessment, and a brief overview of intervention and treatment approaches. PMID:17636203

  12. Opportunities to Diagnose, Treat, and Prevent HIV in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Beckwith, Curt G.; Zaller, Nickolas D.; Fu, Jeannia J.; Montague, Brian T.; Rich, Josiah D.

    2010-01-01

    Persons involved with the criminal justice system are at risk for HIV and other transmissible diseases due to substance use and related risk behaviors. Incarceration provides a public health opportunity to test for HIV, viral hepatitis, and other sexually transmitted infections, provide treatment such as highly active antiretroviral therapy, and link infected persons to longitudinal comprehensive HIV care upon their release for such comorbidities as addiction and mental illness. Delivering health interventions inside prisons and jails can be challenging, yet the challenges pale in comparison to the benefits of interventions for inmates and their communities. This article reviews the current state of delivering HIV testing, prevention, treatment, and transition services to incarcerated populations in the United States. It concludes with summary recommendations for research and practice to improve the health of inmates and their communities. PMID:21045600

  13. Explaining homeless youths' criminal justice interactions: childhood trauma or surviving life on the streets?

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jamie Rae; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Haffejee, Badiah

    2014-02-01

    Homeless youth are at increased risk for involvement in the criminal justice system. This study investigated childhood trauma as a risk factor for arrest or jail among a sample of youth seeking services at drop in, shelter, and transitional housing settings, while controlling for more established risk factors including: substance use, peer deviance, and engagement in survival behaviors. Standardized and researcher developed measures collected quantitative data through face-to-face interviews with youth (N = 202). Two sequential logic regression models identified significant predictors of arrest and jail, with a particular interest in the effects of childhood maltreatment. Youth with a history of physical abuse were nearly twice as likely to be arrested and to be jailed compared to non-abused youth, controlling for the significant influence of drug use and survival behaviors. These findings suggest the need for trauma screening and trauma-informed services for homeless youth at risk of illegal behavior. PMID:24337524

  14. Youth with Disabilities in the Criminal Justice System: Considerations for Transition and Rehabilitation Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, David; Malloy, JoAnne M.; Mazzone, Melanie W.; Cormier, Gail M.

    2008-01-01

    Transition-age students with disabilities under the jurisdiction of the juvenile justice system face serious transition and rehabilitation challenges as they reenter the community from youth detention. This article presents the initial outcomes of a demonstration project utilizing the Rehabilitation, Empowerment, Natural supports, Education and…

  15. DNA in the Criminal Justice System: The DNA Success Story in Perspective.

    PubMed

    Mapes, Anna A; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Poot, Christianne J

    2015-07-01

    Current figures on the efficiency of DNA as an investigative tool in criminal investigations only tell part of the story. To get the DNA success story in the right perspective, we examined all forensic reports from serious (N = 116) and high-volume crime cases (N = 2791) over the year 2011 from one police region in the Netherlands. These data show that 38% of analyzed serious crime traces (N = 384) and 17% of analyzed high-volume crime traces (N = 386) did not result in a DNA profile. Turnaround times (from crime scene to DNA report) were 66 days for traces from serious crimes and 44 days for traces from high-volume crimes. Suspects were truly identified through a match with the Offender DNA database of the Netherlands in 3% of the serious crime cases and in 1% of the high-volume crime cases. These data are important for both the forensic laboratory and the professionals in the criminal justice system to further optimize forensic DNA testing as an investigative tool. PMID:25845542

  16. One Country, Two Cultures: Are Hong Kong Mock Jurors "Mainlandized" by the Predominant Chinese Criminal Justice Concept of Confession?

    PubMed

    Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing

    2015-09-01

    Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. PMID:24670371

  17. Associations among state and local organizational contexts: Use of evidence-based practices in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Craig E.; Young, Douglas W.; Farrell, Jill; Taxman, Faye S.

    2016-01-01

    This study used hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to examine the extent to which the organizational characteristics of state corrections agencies and local criminal justice facilities interacted in their associations with the extent to which local facilities are using evidence-based substance abuse treatment practices (EBPs). The study used data collected from two nationally representative surveys – one of state executives and the other of local prison wardens, justice administrators, and treatment directors – which were conducted as part of the National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices survey [NCJTP; Taxman, F.S., Young, D., Wiersema, B., Mitchell, S., Rhodes, A.G., 2007. The National Criminal Justice Treatment Practices Survey: Multi-level survey methods and procedures. J. Subst. Abuse Treat. 32, 225–238], and includes both adult criminal and juvenile justice samples. Results indicated that several state organizational characteristics were either associated with more EBP use or interacted with local organizational characteristics in associations with EBP use, including: (1) systems integration at the state level was associated with greater EBP use; (2) state staffing adequacy and stability accentuated the association between local training and resources for new programs and EBP use (i.e., in states with better staffing, the relationship between training/resources and EBP use in local facilities was stronger); and (3) state executives’ attitudes regarding the missions and goals of corrections tended to diminish the extent to which corresponding local administrator attitudes were associated with EBP use. The study has implications for future research focused on EBP diffusion and implementation in correctional environments, particularly attempts to influence EBP use by working through state agencies. PMID:19174321

  18. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M; Frisman, Linda K; Swartz, Marvin S

    2015-09-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  19. Influence of Criminal Justice Involvement and Psychiatric Diagnoses on Treatment Costs Among Adults With Serious Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Allison G.; Swanson, Jeffrey W.; Lin, Hsiuju; Easter, Michele M.; Frisman, Linda K.; Swartz, Marvin S.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of criminal justice involvement and clinical characteristics on the cost of public treatment services for adults with serious mental illnesses is unknown. The authors examined differential effects of justice involvement on behavioral health treatment costs by primary psychiatric diagnosis (schizophrenia or bipolar disorder) and also by substance use diagnosis among 25,133 adult clients of Connecticut’s public behavioral health system in fiscal years 2006 and 2007. Justice-involved adults with schizophrenia had the highest costs, strongly driven by forensic hospitalizations. Addressing the cross-system burdens of forensic hospitalizations may be a sensible starting point in the effort to reduce costs in both the public behavioral health and justice systems. PMID:25975893

  20. Principles of Social Justice Education: The Social Justice Education in Schools Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Lenore Reilly; Jackson, Bailey W.; George, Alison

    2006-01-01

    In this article, The Social Justice Education in Schools (SJES) Project integrates field-based study and existing research to identify five key Principles of Social Justice Education in Schools. An outgrowth of the federally funded Massachusetts Coalition for Teacher Quality and Student Achievement, the SJES Project seeks to positively impact…

  1. EVIDENCE-BASED TREATMENT PRACTICES FOR DRUG-INVOLVED ADULTS IN THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Peter D.; Taxman, Faye S.; Henderson, Craig E.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To estimate the extent and organizational correlates of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in correctional facilities and community-based substance abuse treatment programs that manage drug-involved adult offenders. METHODS Correctional administrators and treatment program directors affiliated with a national sample of 384 criminal justice and community-based programs providing substance abuse treatment to adult offenders in the United States were surveyed in 2004. Correctional administrators reported the availability of up to 13 specified EBPs and treatment directors up to 15. The sum total of EBPs indicates their extent. Linear models regress the extent of EBPs on variables measuring structure and leadership, culture and climate, administrator attitudes and network connectedness of the organization. RESULTS Most programs offer fewer than 60% of the specified EBPs to drug-involved offenders. In multiple regression models, offender treatment programs that provided more EBPs were community-based, accredited, and network-connected; with a performance-oriented, non-punitive culture, more training resources; and leadership with a background in human services, a high regard for the value of substance abuse treatment and an understanding of EBPs. CONCLUSIONS The use of EBPs among facility- and community-based programs that serve drug-involved adult offenders has room for improvement. Initiatives to disseminate EBPs might target these institutional and environmental domains, but further research is needed to determine whether such organization interventions can promote the uptake of EBPs. PMID:17383551

  2. Considerations in HIV Prevention for Women Affected by the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Comfort, Megan

    2011-01-01

    Within the national dialogue of HIV prevention strategies, relatively little consideration is given to the millions of women and girls affected by the criminal justice system either through their own incarceration or that of their partners. Yet statistics indicate that these women and girls are disproportionately infected or at risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections and much of this risk is directly related to the dynamics and circumstances that led to their incarceration or relationships with incarcerated men. As we look for the link between public health and correctional health within our National HIV/AIDS Strategy, it is imperative that the risks, obstacles, and opportunities facing women and girls affected by incarceration are brought into the discussion. Gender responsive HIV prevention policies and practices must be developed to address the unique risks and opportunities for these women and girls. This paper presents data on HIV risk and other health issues specific to this community of women and girls, discusses key factors for consideration when developing gender-responsive HIV strategies for these communities, and makes recommendations for inclusion in the National HIV/AIDS Strategy and other state and local HIV prevention efforts. PMID:21782463

  3. Factors associated with probation officers' use of criminal justice coercion to mandate alcohol treatment.

    PubMed

    Polcin, Douglas L; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2003-08-01

    Alcohol problems are widespread among individuals in county criminal justice probation systems. However, it is unclear why only a small fraction of these problem drinkers receive treatment. In this study, self-administered questionnaires were mailed to 145 probation officers in nine California counties to identify factors that predicted probation officers' use of coercion to mandate alcohol treatment. The questionnaire measured characteristics of probation officers, characteristics of their caseloads, and perceptions about their departments. Principle components analysis combined some of the items into six factor-based scales. Multiple regression analyses identified two significant predictors of use of coercion into treatment: a belief that treatment was effective and a belief that one's peers in the department were using coercion frequently. Implications for increasing treatment entry of probationers with drinking problems include educating probation officers about the effectiveness of substance abuse treatment in general and about coerced treatment in particular. Probation departments are encouraged to develop management styles that facilitate shared normative beliefs about assessing and managing alcohol problems among probationers. PMID:14510045

  4. To Blame or to Forgive? Reconciling Punishment and Forgiveness in Criminal Justice

    PubMed Central

    Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    What do you do when faced with wrongdoing—do you blame or do you forgive? Especially when confronted with offences that lie on the more severe end of the spectrum and cause terrible psychological or physical trauma or death, nothing can feel more natural than blame. Indeed, in the UK and the USA, increasingly vehement and righteous public expressions of blame and calls for vengeance have become commonplace; correspondingly, contemporary penal philosophy has witnessed a resurgence of the retributive tradition, in the modern form usually known as the ‘justice’ model. On the other hand, people can and routinely do forgive others, even in cases of severe crime. Evolutionary psychologists argue that both vengeance and forgiveness are universal human adaptations that have evolved as alternative responses to exploitation, and, crucially, strategies for reducing risk of re-offending. We are naturally endowed with both capacities: to blame and retaliate, or to forgive and seek to repair relations. Which should we choose? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, we offer an account of forgiveness and argue that the choice to blame, and not to forgive, is inconsistent with the political values of a broadly liberal society and can be instrumentally counter-productive to reducing the risk of future re-offending. We then sketch the shape of penal philosophy and criminal justice policy and practice with forgiveness in place as a guiding ideal. PMID:26937059

  5. Health as a mediator of change in the trajectory of young people in contact with the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Cathrine; Matthews, Richard; Rosina, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Health care services in Juvenile Detention Centres have historically been provided by the criminal justice system. These health services have focused on assessment and treatment of presenting health problems and have been hampered by the lack of clinical algorithms and standardised protocols expected of health run services. There is now comprehensive information on the health needs and prevalence of ill health, both physical and mental, for the population of adolescents in contact with the criminal justice system. This information has led to a greater understanding of the causative relationship between disadvantage, trauma, ill health and behaviour judged to be criminal as well an understanding of the need for a population health approach to underpin intervention. Young people in contact with the criminal justice system in New South Wales were found to come from disadvantaged backgrounds, have significant physical and mental health problems as well as increased risk behaviours and their associated health sequelae. This prevalence data can be used to plan service delivery and shape a model of delivery. Paradoxically incarceration offers an opportunity to target high prevalence health presentations and to screen for emerging physical and mental health problems. The potential to ameliorate life long conditions that impact on personal quality of life, and personal and system economic costs are of importance. There is the potential for some health interventions, such as mental illness and drug and alcohol to have an impact on the trajectory and lethality of recidivist behaviour. More research is required to examine health interventions with the potential to positively impact on long-term health outcomes as well as re-offending. PMID:17937143

  6. Technology Use in Linking Criminal Justice Reentrants to HIV Care in the Community: A Qualitative Formative Research Study

    PubMed Central

    PETERSON, JAMES; COTA, MICHELLE; GRAY, HOLLY; BAZERMAN, LAURI; KUO, IRENE; KURTH, ANN; BECKWITH, CURT

    2014-01-01

    Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. Twenty-four qualitative interviews were conducted in Rhode Island (12) and Washington DC (12) among HIV infected persons recently incarcerated to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants’ perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants’ successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be utilized to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting. PMID:25529057

  7. A need for closer examination of FASD by the criminal justice system: has the call been answered?

    PubMed

    Gagnier, Karina Royer; Moore, Timothy E; Green, Melvyn

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with FASD exhibit deficits in many domains that can include memory, learning, behavioural inhibition, executive functioning, interpersonal skills, and language. These deficits have serious implications for affected persons when they become engaged in the legal system. In 2004, Moore and Green reviewed case law and psychological literature which suggested that FASD-related deficits placed affected individuals at a significant disadvantage in the justice system. According to them, this disadvantage stemmed from the limited awareness and knowledge of FASD demonstrated by key players in the justice system, as well as the scarcity of effective interventions in place to rehabilitate affected defendants. The aim of the current paper is to assess the extent to which awareness of FASD-related issues in the Canadian justice system has advanced since the publication of Moore and Green's conclusions. First, the deficits associated with FASD and their implications for the justice system are described. Next, recent case law and psychological evidence are reviewed as we consider issues of witness reliability and false confessions. The significance of FASD for sentencing, fitness to stand trial, and the Not Criminally Responsible by Reason of Mental Disorder defence are also briefly discussed. Finally, emerging system wide responses to FASD-related issues are presented. Overall, it appears that the call for closer examination of FASD by the justice system has been answered, but a need for increased education and awareness remains. PMID:21900706

  8. Effect of criminal justice mandate on drug treatment completion among women

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug and alcohol abuse among women is a growing problem in the United States. Drug treatment is an effective way to manage the psychological, biological, financial, and social cost of drug abuse. Prior research has identified criminal justice referrals or coercion as a predictor of treatment completion among men but questions remain about the same effect in women. Objectives This study uses the Treatment Episodes Datasets Discharge 2006–2008 (TEDS-D) to explore the association between coercion and treatment completion among women. Methods Analysis compared primary treatment episodes of coerced women to those who entered treatment voluntarily. A logistic model of the odds of treatment success was performed controlling for race/ethnicity, age, education, employment, primary substance of abuse, number of substances reported at admission, referral source, treatment setting, and treatment duration. Results 582,671 primary treatment episodes were analyzed comparing women with coercion referrals (n=196,660) to those who entered treatment voluntarily (n=390,054). Results of multivariable logistic modeling showed that coerced women had better odds of completion or transfer than women who entered voluntarily. However, this association was modified by treatment setting with better odds in ambulatory (OR=1.49 (1.47, 1.51)) than in inpatient (OR=1.06 (1.03, 1.10)) and worst outcomes in detoxification (OR=0.89 (0.84, 0.96)). Conclusion These results dispute the broad effectiveness of legal mandates across all drug treatment settings among women. They show the need for further recognition of female specific characteristics that can affect motivation and treatment success to better inform healthcare and judicial policies on drug treatment services for women. PMID:24528184

  9. Exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing - evaluation in criminal justice settings.

    PubMed

    Beck, Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exhaled breath is being developed as a possible specimen for drug testing based on the collection of aerosol particles originating from the lung fluid. The present study was aimed to evaluate the applicability of exhaled breath for drugs of abuse testing in criminal justice settings. Particles in exhaled breath were collected with a new device in parallel with routine urine testing in two Swedish prisons, comprising both genders. Urine screening was performed according to established routines either by dipstick or by immunochemical methods at the Forensic Chemistry Laboratory and confirmations were with mass spectrometry methods. A total of 247 parallel samples were studied. Analysis of exhaled breath samples was done with a sensitive mass spectrometric method and identifications were made according to forensic standards. In addition tested subjects and personnel were asked to fill in a questionnaire concerning their views about drug testing. In 212 cases both the urine and breath testing were negative, and in 22 cases both urine and breath were positive. Out of 6 cases where breath was negative and urine positive 4 concerned THC. Out of 7 cases where, breath was positive and urine negative 6 concerned amphetamine. Detected substances in breath comprised: amphetamine, methamphetamine, THC, methylphenidate, buprenorphine, 6-acetylmorphine, cocaine, benzoylecgonine, diazepam and tramadol. Both the prison inmates and staff members reported breath testing to be preferable due to practical considerations. The results of this study documented that drug testing using exhaled breath provided as many positives as urine testing despite an expected shorter detection window, and that the breath sampling procedure was well accepted and provided practical benefits reported both by the prison inmates and testing personnel. PMID:24438778

  10. Incarceration history relative to health, substance use, and violence in a sample of vulnerable South African women: implications for health services in criminal justice settings

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Carney, Tara; Kline, Tracy; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2012-01-01

    International research has suggested that women in the criminal justice system carry a higher burden of many illnesses than women in the community, especially mental health disorders, substance use disorders, sexually transmitted infections, and a history of violent victimization. Knowledge of these health disparities is often used to advocate for relevant screening and treatment services for women passing through criminal justice custody within US and European settings. However, almost all criminal justice health research has taken place in high-income countries, with little or no research taking place in other countries, especially in South Africa. This baseline analysis compares the health, substance use, and violent victimization of women who have ever been incarcerated to those who have not, in a cross-sectional sample of 720 young, vulnerable, substance-using women in Cape Town, South Africa. Results of univariate tests indicated that women who had ever been incarcerated had worse health, mental health, and sexually transmitted infection indicators and were more likely to report use of substances and to have been victims of physical and sexual assault than women who had never been incarcerated. Passing through the criminal justice system appears to be a marker for a variety of current and/or future health service needs among vulnerable South African women, suggesting that screening, prevention, and treatment referral efforts at the time of intersection with the criminal justice system may reduce health burden for these women. PMID:24474876

  11. A Review of Opportunities to Improve the Health of People Involved in the Criminal Justice System in the United States.

    PubMed

    Freudenberg, Nicholas; Heller, Daliah

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, many constituencies have questioned the efficacy, cost, and unintended consequences of mass incarceration in the United States. Although substantial evidence now demonstrates that US incarceration policies have had unintended adverse health consequences, we know less about the strategies and policies that can prevent or reduce these problems for justice-involved individuals and how the criminal justice system (CJS) can contribute to the Healthy People 2020 national goal of eliminating inequities in health. This review examines strategies that have been used to improve the health of people at various stages of CJS involvement, including diversion from jail and prison stays into community settings, improvements to the social and physical environments within correctional facilities, provision of health and other services to inmates, assistance for people leaving correctional facilities to make the transition back to the community, and systems coordination and integration. PMID:26789388

  12. HIV Prevention for Adults With Criminal Justice Involvement: A Systematic Review of HIV Risk-Reduction Interventions in Incarceration and Community Settings

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32 271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12 629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  13. HIV prevention for adults with criminal justice involvement: a systematic review of HIV risk-reduction interventions in incarceration and community settings.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Kristen; Dumont, Dora; Operario, Don

    2014-11-01

    We summarized and appraised evidence regarding HIV prevention interventions for adults with criminal justice involvement. We included randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated an HIV prevention intervention, enrolled participants with histories of criminal justice involvement, and reported biological or behavioral outcomes. We used Cochrane methods to screen 32,271 citations from 16 databases and gray literature. We included 37 trials enrolling n = 12,629 participants. Interventions were 27 psychosocial, 7 opioid substitution therapy, and 3 HIV-testing programs. Eleven programs significantly reduced sexual risk taking, 4 reduced injection drug risks, and 4 increased testing. Numerous interventions may reduce HIV-related risks among adults with criminal justice involvement. Future research should consider process evaluations, programs involving partners or families, and interventions integrating biomedical, psychosocial, and structural approaches. PMID:25211725

  14. Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Disorder: A New Approach for the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Admire, David S.

    2007-01-01

    As a judge, the author was continually confronted with offenders whose behavior was unexpected and surprising. This was observed not only during their criminal activity but during their travel through the criminal process. This behavior did not appear to be intentional, but rather an inappropriate response to the circumstances that existed at the…

  15. Criminal Justice Involvement, Trauma, and Negative Affect in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…

  16. The (near) irrelevance of Daubert to criminal justice and some suggestions for reform.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Daubert v Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc should have an extraordinary impact on criminal litigation, because there is rarely a criminal trial that does not rely on some form of expert testimony. In fact, it is almost irrelevant. Despite the frequency of prosecution proffered scientific and expert testimony in criminal cases, Daubert is rarely invoked to challenge it. In civil cases, when expert testimony is challenged in criminal proceedings, the outcome could not be more different. Because most violent crimes are committed by the poor, their court appointed advocates--overworked and under-financed--are not up to the challenge. In the absence of a system of effective representation, Daubert will not improve scientific evidence in criminal cases. The only way to guard against the misapplication of forensic science is to impose controls and reforms long before the cases come to court. PMID:16030325

  17. Forced withdrawal from methadone maintenance therapy in criminal justice settings: a critical treatment barrier in the United States.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jeannia J; Zaller, Nickolas D; Yokell, Michael A; Bazazi, Alexander R; Rich, Josiah D

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization classifies methadone as an essential medicine, yet methadone maintenance therapy remains widely unavailable in criminal justice settings throughout the United States. Methadone maintenance therapy is often terminated at the time of incarceration, with inmates forced to withdraw from this evidence-based therapy. We assessed whether these forced withdrawal policies deter opioid-dependent individuals in the community from engaging methadone maintenance therapy in two states that routinely force inmates to withdraw from methadone (N = 205). Nearly half of all participants reported that concern regarding forced methadone withdrawal during incarceration deterred them engaging methadone maintenance therapy in the community. Participants in the state where more severe methadone withdrawal procedures are used during incarceration were more likely to report concern regarding forced withdrawal as a treatment deterrent. Methadone withdrawal policies in the criminal justice system may be a broader treatment deterrent for opioid-dependent individuals than previously realized. Redressing this treatment barrier is both a health and human rights imperative. PMID:23433809

  18. HIV, Alcohol Dependence and the Criminal Justice System: A Review and Call for Evidence-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Sandra A.; Azar, Marwan M.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2011-01-01

    People with both HIV and alcohol use disorders are disproportionately concentrated within the U.S. criminal justice system; approximately one-quarter of all people with HIV cycle through the system each year. HIV-infected prisoners with alcohol problems face many obstacles as they transition back to the community. Specifically, although they have impressive HIV treatment outcomes during the period of incarceration while they are free from alcohol, upon release, however, they face inordinate challenges including relapse to alcohol use resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Randomized controlled trials affirm the role of pharmacotherapy using naltrexone (NTX) as the therapeutic option conferring the best treatment outcome for alcohol use disorders within the community. Absent from these trials were inclusion of prisoners or HIV-infected individuals. Relapse to alcohol use among HIV-infected prisoners is associated with reduced retention in care, poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy with consequential poor HIV treatment outcomes and higher levels of HIV risk behaviors. Untreated alcohol dependence, particularly for released HIV-infected prisoners, has both negative consequences for the individual and society and requires a concentrated effort and rethinking of our existing approaches for this vulnerable population. The specific aim of this manuscript is to review the existing literature regarding the relationship of HIV and treatment for alcohol use disorders in criminal justice populations in an effort to determine “best practices” that might effectively result in improved treatment of HIV and alcohol disorders for released prisoners. PMID:21171933

  19. Criminal Justice Involvement, Behavioral Health Service Use, and Costs of Forensic Assertive Community Treatment: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Joseph P.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Prins, Annabel; Williams, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs. At 12 months, FACT vs. TAU participants had fewer jail bookings, greater outpatient contacts, and fewer hospital days than did TAU participants. Results of zero-inflated negative binomial regression found that FACT participants had a higher probability of avoiding jail, although once jailed, the number of jail days did not differ between groups. Increased outpatient costs resulting from FACT outpatient services were partially offset by decreased inpatient and jail costs. The findings for the 24 month period followed the same pattern. These findings provide additional support for the idea that providing appropriate behavioral health services can reduce criminal justice involvement. PMID:20217230

  20. Criminal justice involvement, behavioral health service use, and costs of forensic assertive community treatment: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Karen J; Morrissey, Joseph P; Cuddeback, Gary S; Prins, Annabel; Williams, David M

    2010-08-01

    Jail diversion and forensic community treatment programs have proliferated over the past decade, far outpacing evidence regarding their efficacy. The current study reports findings from a randomized clinical trial conducted in California for frequent jail users with serious mental illness that compares a forensic assertive community treatment (FACT) intervention with treatment as usual (TAU). Outcomes are reported at 12 and 24 months post-randomization for criminal justice outcomes, behavioral health services and costs. At 12 months, FACT vs. TAU participants had fewer jail bookings, greater outpatient contacts, and fewer hospital days than did TAU participants. Results of zero-inflated negative binomial regression found that FACT participants had a higher probability of avoiding jail, although once jailed, the number of jail days did not differ between groups. Increased outpatient costs resulting from FACT outpatient services were partially offset by decreased inpatient and jail costs. The findings for the 24 month period followed the same pattern. These findings provide additional support for the idea that providing appropriate behavioral health services can reduce criminal justice involvement. PMID:20217230

  1. "Drugs and AIDS--reaching for help": a videotape on AIDS and drug abuse prevention for criminal justice populations.

    PubMed

    Gross, M; DeJong, W; Lamb, D; Enos, T; Mason, T; Weitzman, E

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the development of a videotape targeted at persons under supervision of the criminal justice system. The videotape seeks to encourage those who use illicit drugs to enter drug treatment and to motivate those at risk for exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to alter behaviors that may transmit infection. The criminal justice system presents an important opportunity to deliver such messages, particularly to a large population of persons briefly detained in a jail or lockup and released without subsequent incarceration. Evidence suggests that, even in this audience, knowledge of how to prevent exposure to HIV is widespread, yet those at risk often fail to take appropriate precautions: motivating behavior change demands more than imparting information. In order to shape this videotape, we analyzed the target audience and developed a drama-based approach that applies the framework of social learning theory, the health belief model, and principles of social marketing. This article describes the integration of that theoretical framework into the production process, content, and strategy of the videotape. PMID:8046547

  2. Help-seeking patterns among women experiencing intimate partner violence: do they forgo the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes are not met?

    PubMed

    Cerulli, Catherine; Kothari, Catherine; Dichter, Melissa; Marcus, Steve; Kim, Tae Kuen; Wiley, Jim; Rhodes, Karin V

    2015-01-01

    Following a criminal case disposition, an intimate partner violence (IPV) victim's willingness to seek future police and prosecutorial assistance may depend on her prior experiences within the system. This longitudinal study examines the relationship between IPV victims' future help-seeking based on past experiences. We hypothesized women would return to the criminal justice system if their adjudication wishes corresponded with prosecutors' actions. Contrary to the hypothesis, results suggest women return to the criminal system and other venues even if prosecutors' actions do not correspond to their earlier stated wishes. This has important policy implications given pro-prosecution protocols that encourage adjudication regardless of a woman's participation. PMID:25774412

  3. The concentration of substance use, criminal justice involvement, and HIV/AIDS in the families of drug offenders.

    PubMed

    Barreras, Ricardo E; Drucker, Ernest M; Rosenthal, David

    2005-03-01

    Substance use (SU), criminal justice involvement (CJI), and HIV/AIDS co-occur in many urban families, but little is known about their intergenerational prevalence and the impact of their conjunction on these families. We determined lifetime prevalence of SU, CJI, and HIV/AIDS in 62 families with a member (the index case) on parole or probation for a drug offense and enrolled in the direct service arm of Family Justice, La Bodega de La Familia--a community support program in New York City's Lower East Side. Among these families, index cases are 94% male, and 97% Latino, with a median age of 37. Records of 80% of open cases, in months March through May, in 2003 (N = 62) were reviewed, and the family maps or "genograms," were analyzed and coded (by age, sex, and relationship to the index) to identify all significant members with histories of SU, CJI, and HIV/AIDS. Of the 62 families (with a total of 592 individuals) 82% had at least one other member besides the index case with a history of SU, 62% had two or more, and 40% had three or more; 72% had one other member with a history of CJI, 45% had two or more, and 24% had three or more. At least one member had HIV/AIDS in 49% of the families, 16% had two or more, and 10% had three or more. Of the 105 family members who reported a history of CJI, 88% had a history of substance use. These data demonstrate the extent to which many families in communities such as this are struggling with the burdens associated with having multiple relatives involved in the criminal justice system, largely related to drug use and frequently with HIV and AIDS. These data point to an important role for family-focused interventions to ameliorate the consequences of high rates of familial drug use, incarceration and other forms of CJI, and HIV/AIDS. PMID:15738327

  4. The Prevalence of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders in the Criminal Justice System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheely, Catherine A.; Carpenter, Laura A.; Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Nicholas, Joyce S.; Charles, Jane; King, Lydia B.

    2012-01-01

    Past surveys have reported high rates of youth with disabilities in the juvenile justice system, however, little research has examined the frequency with which youth with Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are in contact with law enforcement. Using records linkage with the Department of Juvenile Justice and the South Carolina Law Enforcement Division…

  5. Gaols or De Facto Mental Institutions? Why Individuals with a Mental Illness Are Over-Represented in the Criminal Justice System in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Corinne

    2007-01-01

    The over-representation of people with mental illness in the criminal justice system highlights the need for legislative reform and the implementation of programs breaking the cycle of mental illness, poverty, unemployment and substance abuse across Australia. Whilst there is no inherent association between mental illness and crime, there is a…

  6. Climbing down the steps from the ivory tower: how UK academics and criminal justice practitioners need to work together on alcohol studies.

    PubMed

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-09-12

    Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier. PMID:27548015

  7. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  8. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  9. Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona. The Pinal County Domestic-Violence Court Some Early but Encouraging Results. Issue 3, August 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison Institute for Public Policy, Arizona State University, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This brief, the third issue in the "Criminal Justice Issues for Arizona" series, reveals that Pinal County's specialized court for domestic-violence cases offers some promising results for dealing with this common and complex offense. This report contains an analysis of data collected in the Pinal County Domestic Violence Database, which as of…

  10. Second Annual Evaluation of DCJS Funded School Resource Officer Programs. Report of the Department of Criminal Justice Services, Fiscal Year 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuiteman, John G.

    This evaluation report is the second publication from the Virginia Department of Criminal Justice Services' (DCJS) ongoing evaluation of the Virginia School Resource Officer (SRO) program. The findings are based on data submitted by 78 local SRO programs, all of which were awarded grants of federal or state monies from DCJS. The findings are…

  11. Revisiting the Association Between Television Viewing in Adolescence and Contact With the Criminal Justice System in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph A; Beaver, Kevin M

    2016-09-01

    A substantial number of previous studies have reported significant associations between television viewing habits and a host of detrimental outcomes including increased contact with the criminal justice system. However, it remains unclear whether the results flowing from this literature are generalizable to other samples and whether previously observed associations are confounded due to uncontrolled genetic influences. The current study addresses these limitations using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). The results of the preliminary models, which do not include controls for genetic influences, produced a pattern of results similar to those previously reported in the extant literature. The results of the genetically informed models revealed that the associations between television viewing and antisocial outcomes are not causal, but rather are driven by uncontrolled genetic influences. Further replication is required, but these findings suggest that results drawn from the extant literature may not be trustworthy. PMID:25818861

  12. Treatment at the front end of the criminal justice continuum: the association between arrest and admission into specialty substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Arfken, Cynthia L; Swartz, James A; Koch, Alison L

    2006-01-01

    Background To reduce criminal recidivism and drug use, it has been proposed that the substance abuse treatment delivery system cut across different components of the criminal justice continuum. Arrest, at the front end of this continuum, may represent a critical moment to motivate people with substance use disorders (SUD) to seek treatment but is often over looked as an intervention point. We used data from the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) to compare treatment need and recent treatment admission for participants with no criminal justice (CJ) involvement in the past year, past-year arrest, and CJ supervision (i.e., probation or parole status). Results Of those arrested, 44.8% met criteria for an SUD. However, only 14% of those arrested with an SUD received treatment in the year of their arrest. In multivariate modelling, arrest was an independent predictor of treatment admission (odds ratio (OR) = 8.74) similar in magnitude to meeting criteria for an SUD (OR = 8.22). Those further along the continuum – under supervision – were most likely to receive treatment (OR = 22.62). Conclusion Arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system. The NSDUH suggests that nearly 6 million individuals in the US experience an arrest annually and that nearly half meet criteria for an SUD. Although arrest involves the largest number of individuals entering the criminal justice system, it is also the most fleeting point as individuals can move in and out rather quickly. Minimally, arrest imposes contact between the individual and a law enforcement person and can be an opportunity for early intervention strategies such as pre-arraignment diversion into treatment or brief intervention strategies. Using brief intervention at this early point in the continuum may motivate a greater number of individuals to seek treatment or decrease drug and alcohol use. Training and procedural shifts at this point of contact could have

  13. Walking a Policy Tightrope: Balancing Educational Opportunity and Criminal Justice in Federal Student Financial Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II; Lane, Jason E.; Rogers, Kimberly R.

    2002-01-01

    The Higher Education Act's Drug-Free Student Aid Provision denies federal aid to anyone convicted of possessing or selling controlled substances. The criminalization of certain offenses and exclusion of others appears to accompany unstated racial and socioeconomic biases. Because minority and poor people are more likely to be convicted of drug…

  14. A Review of Pre-Release Programs. Criminal Justice Monograph Vol. I. No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabry, James E.; And Others

    The most serious problem confronting correctional institutions is recidivism, the proneness of many criminals to continue a life of crime. A recent study estimated that 30 to 75 percent of the offenders leaving prison would return within 5 years. Data were collected by a literature review, correspondence with administrators of prerelease programs,…

  15. Sex-Related Disparities in Criminal Justice and HIV Treatment Outcomes: A Retrospective Cohort Study of HIV-Infected Inmates

    PubMed Central

    Cepeda, Javier; Taxman, Faye S.; Altice, Frederick L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated sex-related differences in HIV and criminal justice (CJ) outcomes. Methods. We quantified sex-related differences in criminal offenses, incarcerations, and HIV outcomes among all HIV-infected inmates on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Connecticut (2005–2012). Computed criminogenic risk scores estimated future CJ involvement. Stacked logistic regression models with random effects identified significant correlates of HIV viral suppression on CJ entry, reflecting preceding community-based treatment. Results. Compared with 866 HIV-infected men on ART (1619 incarcerations), 223 women (461 incarcerations) were more likely to be younger, White, and medically insured, with shorter incarceration periods (mean = 196.8 vs 368.1 days), mostly for public disorder offenses. One third of both women and men had viral suppression on CJ entry, correlating positively with older age and having treated comorbidities. Entry viral suppression inversely correlated with incarceration duration for women and with criminogenic risk score for men. Conclusions. In the largest contemporary cohort of HIV-infected inmates on ART, women’s higher prevalence of nonviolent offenses and treatable comorbidities supports alternatives to incarceration strategies. Sex-specific interventions for CJ populations with HIV effectively align public health and safety goals. PMID:26180958

  16. Reducing the harmful effects of alcohol misuse: the ethics of sobriety testing in criminal justice.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David; McCluskey, Karyn; Linden, Will; Goodall, Christine

    2012-11-01

    Alcohol use and abuse play a major role in both crime and negative health outcomes in Scotland. This paper provides a description and ethical and legal analyses of a novel remote alcohol monitoring scheme for offenders which seeks to reduce alcohol-related harm to both the criminal and the public. It emerges that the prospective benefits of this scheme to health and public order vastly outweigh any potential harms. PMID:22518048

  17. The YouthARTS Development Project. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clawson, Heather J.; Coolbaugh, Kathleen

    The arts enrich the culture and individual lives immeasurably, but what impact do arts-based programs have in preventing juvenile delinquency? To address this question, the YouthARTS Development Project, with the technical assistance of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP), brought together Federal agencies, national…

  18. Achieving Public Health Goals Through Medicaid Expansion: Opportunities in Criminal Justice, Homelessness, and Behavioral Health With the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act

    PubMed Central

    Klingenmaier, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    States are currently discussing how (or whether) to implement the Medicaid expansion to nondisabled adults earning less than 133% of the federal poverty level, a key aspect of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act. Those experiencing homelessness and those involved with the criminal justice system—particularly when they struggle with behavioral health diagnoses—are subpopulations that are currently uninsured at high rates and have significant health care needs but will become Medicaid eligible starting in 2014. We outline the connection between these groups, assert outcomes possible from greater collaboration between multiple systems, provide a summary of Medicaid eligibility and its ramifications for individuals in the criminal justice system, and explore opportunities to improve overall public health through Medicaid outreach, enrollment, and engagement in needed health care. PMID:24148039

  19. MAPIT: Development of a Web-Based Intervention Targeting Substance Abuse Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Ondersma, Steven J.; Ingersoll, Karen; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2013-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30 days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system. PMID:23954392

  20. MAPIT: development of a web-based intervention targeting substance abuse treatment in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Walters, Scott T; Ondersma, Steven J; Ingersoll, Karen S; Rodriguez, Mayra; Lerch, Jennifer; Rossheim, Matthew E; Taxman, Faye S

    2014-01-01

    Although drug and alcohol treatment are common requirements in the U.S. criminal justice system, only a minority of clients actually initiate treatment. This paper describes a two-session, web-based intervention to increase motivation for substance abuse treatment among clients using illicit substances. MAPIT (Motivational Assessment Program to Initiate Treatment) integrates the extended parallel process model, motivational interviewing, and social cognitive theory. The first session (completed near the start of probation) targets motivation to complete probation, to make changes in substance use (including treatment initiation), and to obtain HIV testing and care. The second session (completed approximately 30days after session 1) focuses on goal setting, coping strategies, and social support. Both sessions can generate emails or mobile texts to remind clients of their goals. MAPIT uses theory-based algorithms and a text-to-speech engine to deliver custom feedback and suggestions. In an initial test, participants indicated that the program was respectful, easy to use, and would be helpful in making changes in substance use. MAPIT is being tested in a randomized trial in two large U.S. probation agencies. MAPIT addresses the difficulties of many probation agencies to maximize client involvement in treatment, in a way that is cost effective and compatible with the existing service delivery system. PMID:23954392

  1. Fairness decisions in response to emotions: a functional MRI study among criminal justice-involved boys with conduct disorder.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Aghajani, Moji; Boon, Albert E; van der Wee, Nic J A; Popma, Arne; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Colins, Olivier F

    2016-04-01

    Research suggests that individuals with conduct disorder (CD) are marked by social impairments, such as difficulties in processing the affective reactions of others. Little is known, though, about how they make decisions during social interactions in response to emotional expressions of others. In this study, we therefore investigated the neural mechanisms underlying fairness decisions in response to communicated emotions of others in aggressive, criminal justice-involved boys with CD (N = 32) compared with typically developing (TD) boys (N = 33), aged 15-19 years. Participants received written emotional responses (angry, disappointed or happy) from peers in response to a previous offer and then had to make fairness decisions in a version of the Dictator Game. Behavioral results showed that CD boys did not make differential fairness decisions in response to the emotions, whereas the TD boys did show a differentiation and also responded more unfair to happy reactions than the CD boys. Neuroimaging results revealed that when receiving happy vs disappointed and angry reactions, the CD boys showed less activation than the TD boys in the temporoparietal junction and supramarginal gyrus, regions involved in perspective taking and attention. These results suggest that boys with CD have difficulties with processing explicit emotional cues from others on behavioral and neural levels. PMID:26926604

  2. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the Bureau of Justice Assistance within 30 days after the award of a subgrant, an initial project report...

  3. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the Bureau of Justice Assistance within 30 days after the award of a subgrant, an initial project report...

  4. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the Bureau of Justice Assistance within 30 days after the award of a subgrant, an initial project report...

  5. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the Bureau of Justice Assistance within 30 days after the award of a subgrant, an initial project report...

  6. 28 CFR 33.71 - Initial project report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE BUREAU OF JUSTICE ASSISTANCE GRANT PROGRAMS Criminal Justice Block Grants Reports § 33.71 Initial project report. States are required to provide to the Bureau of Justice Assistance within 30 days after the award of a subgrant, an initial project report...

  7. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 1: Context and Methods

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Côté, Gilles; Charette, Yanick; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    The National Trajectory Project examined longitudinal data from a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) to assess the presence of provincial differences in the application of the law, to examine the characteristics of people with serious mental illness who come into conflict with the law and receive this verdict, and to investigate the trajectories of NCRMD–accused people as they traverse the mental health and criminal justice systems. Our paper describes the rationale for the National Trajectory Project and the methods used to collect data in Quebec, Ontario, and British Columbia, the 3 most populous provinces in Canada and the 3 provinces with the most people found NCRMD. PMID:25886685

  8. Association between non-fatal opioid overdose and encounters with healthcare and criminal justice systems: Identifying opportunities for intervention

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karla D.; Liu, Lin; Davidson, Peter J.; Cuevas-Mota, Jazmine; Armenta, Richard F.; Garfein, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Accidental overdose, driven largely by opioids, is a leading cause of death among people who inject drugs (PWIDs). We conducted secondary analysis of data from a cohort of PWIDs to identify venues where high-risk PWID could be targeted by overdose education/naloxone distribution (OEND) programs. Methods 573 PWIDs completed a quantitative survey between June, 2012 and January, 2014, which was analyzed using multivariable logistic regression. The dependent variable was a dichotomous indicator of experiencing a heroin/opioid-related overdose in the past six months. Independent variables included: demographics, drug use behavior, and encounters with two venues – the health care and criminal justice systems – that could serve as potential venues for OEND programs. Results Almost half (41.5%) reported ever experiencing a heroin/opioid overdose, and 45 (7.9%) reported experiencing at least one heroin/opioid overdose in the past six months. In the final multivariable model, receiving care in a hospital in the past six months (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR] 4.08, 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 2.07 -- 8.04, p<0.001) and being arrested for drug possession in the past six months (AdjOR 5.17, 95% C.I. 2.37 – 11.24, p<0.001) were associated with experiencing an opioid overdose in the past six months. Conclusions Identifying venues outside of those that traditionally target services to PWIDs (i.e., syringe exchange programs) will be critical to implementing OEND interventions at a scale sufficient to address the growing epidemic of heroin/opioid related deaths. Clinical settings, such as hospitals, and drug-related encounters with law enforcement officers are promising venues for the expansion of OEND programs. PMID:26091751

  9. A Study of the Relationship between Military Service in the Armed Forces and Criminality. Criminal Justice Monograph Vol. III, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Robert G.; And Others

    To determine the effects of military service on subsequent criminal behavior, especially violent crimes, this study compared veteran and non-veteran felons incarcerated at the Texas Department of Corrections. Available programed data on inmates born since 1930 were supplemented by interview and questionnaire data on 200 veterans concerning…

  10. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on.... Private consulting firms which commonly assist criminal justice agencies in information systems... Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, Report on the Criminal Justice System;......

  11. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on.... Private consulting firms which commonly assist criminal justice agencies in information systems... Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, Report on the Criminal Justice System;......

  12. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on.... Private consulting firms which commonly assist criminal justice agencies in information systems... Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, Report on the Criminal Justice System;......

  13. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on.... Private consulting firms which commonly assist criminal justice agencies in information systems... Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, Report on the Criminal Justice System;......

  14. 28 CFR Appendix to Part 20 - Commentary on Selected Sections of the Regulations on Criminal History Record Information Systems

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Pt. 20, App. Appendix to Part 20—Commentary on.... Private consulting firms which commonly assist criminal justice agencies in information systems... Advisory Commission on Criminal Justice Standards and Goals, Report on the Criminal Justice System;......

  15. Effective Faith-Based Treatment Programs. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (May 23, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Reform.

    This document presents witness testimonies from a hearing discussing two issues critical to the House of Representatives, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources: insuring government support for effective programs to reduce the demand for illegal drugs, and facilitating the inclusion of faith-based providers in the…

  16. Sale of Children in Interstate and Foreign Commerce. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice of the Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    These Congressional Hearings consist of public testimony before the House Judiciary Committee's Subcommittee on Criminal Justice concerning proposed legislation designed to prohibit the sale of children in interstate and foreign commerce. Much of the testimony focuses on the increasingly widespread, marginally legal practices of selling infants…

  17. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION... and the FIRS may be made available: (1) To criminal justice agencies for criminal justice purposes, which purposes include the screening of employees or applicants for employment hired by criminal...

  18. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION... and the FIRS may be made available: (1) To criminal justice agencies for criminal justice purposes, which purposes include the screening of employees or applicants for employment hired by criminal...

  19. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION... and the FIRS may be made available: (1) To criminal justice agencies for criminal justice purposes, which purposes include the screening of employees or applicants for employment hired by criminal...

  20. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION... and the FIRS may be made available: (1) To criminal justice agencies for criminal justice purposes, which purposes include the screening of employees or applicants for employment hired by criminal...

  1. 28 CFR 20.33 - Dissemination of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION... and the FIRS may be made available: (1) To criminal justice agencies for criminal justice purposes, which purposes include the screening of employees or applicants for employment hired by criminal...

  2. Alcohol, Intercourse, and Condom Use Among Women Recently Involved in the Criminal Justice System: Findings from Integrated Global-Frequency and Event-Level Methods.

    PubMed

    Weir, Brian W; Latkin, Carl A

    2015-06-01

    The scientific literature on alcohol and sexual risk behavior is marked by multiple theoretical perspectives and inconsistent findings from global-frequency and event-level studies. Multilevel measures of alcohol use and multiple sexual risk outcomes can be used to evaluate these perspectives and resolve these inconsistencies. Among women recently involved in the criminal justice system in Portland, Oregon, daily alcohol use and sexual behavior were measured during four 30-day intervals over one year. In mixed effects models, person-level, month-level, and day-level alcohol use were significantly associated with the occurrence of intercourse but not with the use of condoms during intercourse. Findings are also reported for main, casual, and exchange partners. The relationships between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior are complex: No single theoretical perspective is sufficient to account for the study findings, and increased risk may be mediated through changes in intercourse rather than through changes in condom use. PMID:25100052

  3. Intimate partner violence: the effect of gender and contextual factors on community perceptions of harm, and suggested victim and criminal justice responses.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Susan M; Thompson, Carleen M

    2011-01-01

    Using a vignette to depict physical violence by an intimate partner, a 2 (perpetrator gender) X 2 (participant gender) X 2 (frequency) X 2 (intent to cause harm) between subjects factorial design was used to examine under what circumstances individuals perceive: an incident should be illegal, the extent of harm, and appropriate victim and criminal justice responses. There were 868 participants from the Brisbane (Australia) community (48.5% males). The actions of male perpetrators were viewed more seriously and the victims were recommended to seek more forms of assistance when the perpetrator was male. There were few differences in perceptions of violence according to participant gender. The frequency of the violence affected the participant's responses but the intentions of the perpetrator did not. Results are discussed in terms of stereotypes of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the implications for help-seeking behavior by victims. PMID:21846022

  4. The impact of prison hospice: collaboration among social workers and other professionals in a criminal justice setting that promotes care for the dying.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, Laura R; Wright, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This study reports on a qualitative national telephone survey with coordinators of 14 prison hospice programs in 11 states. The rationale behind the survey was to learn about interdisciplinary collaboration between social work and criminal justice, using prison hospice as an exemplar of this collaboration. In addition to learning that all prison hospices in the study operate using an interdisciplinary team model and that most report high quality collaboration on the hospice team, the following additional five themes emerged: administrators and wardens are very supportive while correctional staff provides mixed support to team and program; greater collaboration with those outside prison hospice is critical; collaboration through prison hospice has a positive impact on dying prisoners; collaboration through prison hospice has a positive impact on prisoner volunteers; and, collaboration through prison hospice has a positive impact on the entire culture of the prison. PMID:17387096

  5. Alcohol, Intercourse, and Condom Use Among Women Recently Involved in the Criminal Justice System: Findings from Integrated Global-Frequency and Event-Level Methods

    PubMed Central

    Latkin, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    The scientific literature on alcohol and sexual risk behavior is marked by multiple theoretical perspectives and inconsistent findings from global-frequency and event-level studies. Multilevel measures of alcohol use and multiple sexual risk outcomes can be used to evaluate these perspectives and resolve these inconsistencies. Among women recently involved in the criminal justice system in Portland, Oregon, daily alcohol use and sexual behavior were measured during four 30-day intervals over one year. In mixed effects models, person-level, month-level, and day-level alcohol use were significantly associated with the occurrence of intercourse but not with the use of condoms during intercourse. Findings are also reported for main, casual, and exchange partners. The relationships between alcohol use and sexual risk behavior are complex: No single theoretical perspective is sufficient to account for the study findings, and increased risk may be mediated through changes in intercourse rather than through changes in condom use. PMID:25100052

  6. 75 FR 13305 - Notice of Cancellation of the Environmental Impact Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... Alien Requirement 9 AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons. ACTION: Notice of... Statement (EIS) for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 project (CAR 9). This notice briefly describes the... contractor's to house up to 1,889 federal, low-security, adult male, non-U.S. citizen, criminal aliens...

  7. Psychologists in Partnership with Criminal Justice in American Public Schools: A Match Made in Heaven or a Marriage from Hell?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy-Tucker, Sherri; Waters, Thomas Franklin; Little, Augustus

    This report describes the impact of a professional development workshop, Five Keys to Successfully Managing Classrooms, designed to help teachers work with at-risk students and better manage problem behaviors in the classroom. The activity was led by an interdisciplinary team of experts in psychology, instructional leadership, and criminal justice…

  8. FEDERAL JUSTICE STATISTICS RESOURCE CENTER (FJSRC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), through its Federal Justice Statistics Program (FJSP), compiles comprehensive information describing suspects and defendants processed in the Federal criminal justice system. The goal of FJSP is to provide uniform case processing statistics...

  9. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking. PMID:17957457

  10. The Social Justice, Peace, and Environmental Education Standards Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrzejewski, Julie

    2005-01-01

    Inspired by the Alaska Native Knowledge Network's "Standards for Culturally Responsive Schools," members of fourteen social justice, peace, and environmental education (SJPEE) special interest groups (SIGs) from the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and several other prominent organizations have been involved in drafting SJPEE…

  11. 28 CFR 20.21 - Preparation and submission of a Criminal History Record Information Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.21... dedicated or shared, which support criminal justice information systems, operate in accordance with... terminal other than criminal justice system terminals which are so designated. (c) The destruction...

  12. 28 CFR 20.21 - Preparation and submission of a Criminal History Record Information Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.21... dedicated or shared, which support criminal justice information systems, operate in accordance with... terminal other than criminal justice system terminals which are so designated. (c) The destruction...

  13. 28 CFR 20.21 - Preparation and submission of a Criminal History Record Information Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.21... dedicated or shared, which support criminal justice information systems, operate in accordance with... terminal other than criminal justice system terminals which are so designated. (c) The destruction...

  14. 28 CFR 20.21 - Preparation and submission of a Criminal History Record Information Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.21... dedicated or shared, which support criminal justice information systems, operate in accordance with... terminal other than criminal justice system terminals which are so designated. (c) The destruction...

  15. 28 CFR 20.21 - Preparation and submission of a Criminal History Record Information Plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.21... dedicated or shared, which support criminal justice information systems, operate in accordance with... terminal other than criminal justice system terminals which are so designated. (c) The destruction...

  16. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  17. Extended-Release Naltrexone To Prevent Relapse Among Opioid Dependent, Criminal Justice System Involved Adults: Rationale and Design of a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joshua D.; Friedmann, Peter D.; Boney, Tamara Y.; Hoskinson, Randall A.; McDonald, Ryan; Gordon, Michael; Fishman, Marc; Chen, Donna T.; Bonnie, Richard J.; Kinlock, Timothy W.; Nunes, Edward V.; Cornish, James W.; O’Brien, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX, Vivitrol® Alkermes Inc.) is an injectable monthly sustained-release mu opioid receptor antagonist. XR-NTX is a potentially effective intervention for opioid use disorders and as relapse prevention among criminal justice system (CJS) populations. Methods This 5-site open-label randomized controlled effectiveness trial examines whether XR-NTX reduces opioid relapse compared with treatment as usual (TAU) among community dwelling, non-incarcerated volunteers with current or recent CJS involvement. The XR-NTX arm receives 6 monthly XR-NTX injections at Medical Management visits; the TAU group receives referrals to available community treatment options. Assessments occur every 2 weeks during a 24-week treatment phase and at 12- and 18-month follow-ups. The primary outcome is a relapse event, defined as either self-report or urine toxicology evidence of ≥10 days of opioid use in a 28-day (4 week) period, with a positive or missing urine test counted as 5 days of opioid use. Results We describe the rationale, specific aims, and design of the study. Alternative design considerations and extensive secondary aims and outcomes are discussed. Conclusions XR-NTX is a potentially important treatment and relapse prevention option among persons with opioid dependence and CJS involvement. PMID:25602580

  18. Rural Australian women's legal help seeking for intimate partner violence: women intimate partner violence victim survivors' perceptions of criminal justice support services.

    PubMed

    Ragusa, Angela T

    2013-03-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change. PMID:22929344

  19. The interface between forensic science and technology: how technology could cause a paradigm shift in the role of forensic institutes in the criminal justice system

    PubMed Central

    Kloosterman, Ate; Mapes, Anna; Geradts, Zeno; van Eijk, Erwin; Koper, Carola; van den Berg, Jorrit; Verheij, Saskia; van der Steen, Marcel; van Asten, Arian

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the importance of modern technology in forensic investigations is discussed. Recent technological developments are creating new possibilities to perform robust scientific measurements and studies outside the controlled laboratory environment. The benefits of real-time, on-site forensic investigations are manifold and such technology has the potential to strongly increase the speed and efficacy of the criminal justice system. However, such benefits are only realized when quality can be guaranteed at all times and findings can be used as forensic evidence in court. At the Netherlands Forensic Institute, innovation efforts are currently undertaken to develop integrated forensic platform solutions that allow for the forensic investigation of human biological traces, the chemical identification of illicit drugs and the study of large amounts of digital evidence. These platforms enable field investigations, yield robust and validated evidence and allow for forensic intelligence and targeted use of expert capacity at the forensic institutes. This technological revolution in forensic science could ultimately lead to a paradigm shift in which a new role of the forensic expert emerges as developer and custodian of integrated forensic platforms. PMID:26101289

  20. National record linkage study of mortality for a large cohort of opioid users ascertained by drug treatment or criminal justice sources in England, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Matthias; Bird, Sheila M.; Hickman, Matthew; Millar, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, opioid drug use is an important cause of premature mortality. In many countries, opioid using populations are ageing. The current study investigates mortality in a large cohort of opioid users; with a focus on testing whether excess mortality changes with age. Methods 198,247 opioid users in England were identified from drug treatment and criminal justice sources (April, 2005 to March, 2009) and linked to mortality records. Mortality rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated by age-group and gender. Results There were 3974 deaths from all causes (SMR 5.7, 95% Confidence Interval: 5.5 to 5.9). Drug-related poisonings (1715) accounted for 43% of deaths. Relative to gender-and-age-appropriate expectation, mortality was elevated for a range of major causes including: infectious, respiratory, circulatory, liver disease, suicide, and homicide. Drug-related poisoning mortality risk continued to increase beyond 45 years and there were age-related increases in SMRs for specific causes of death (infectious, cancer, liver cirrhosis, and homicide). A gender by age-group interaction revealed that whilst men have a greater drug-related poisoning mortality risk than women at younger ages, the difference narrows with increasing age. Conclusion Opioid users’ excess mortality persists into old age and for some causes is exacerbated. This study highlights the importance of managing the complex health needs of older opioid users. PMID:25454405

  1. Environmental justice: a criminological perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.

  2. Boldness and its relation to psychopathic personality: Prototypicality analyses among forensic mental health, criminal justice, and layperson raters.

    PubMed

    Sörman, Karolina; Edens, John F; Smith, Shannon Toney; Clark, John W; Kristiansson, Marianne; Svensson, Olof

    2016-06-01

    Research on psychopathic personality has been dominated by a focus on criminality and social deviance, but some theoretical models argue that certain putatively adaptive features are important components of this construct. In 3 samples (forensic mental health practitioners, probation officers and a layperson community sample), we investigated adaptive traits as conceptualized in the Triarchic model of psychopathy (Patrick et al., 2009), specifically the relevance of boldness to construals of psychopathic personality. Participants completed prototypicality ratings of psychopathic traits, including 3 items created to tap components of boldness (Socially bold, Adventurous, Emotionally stable), and they also rated a series of attitudinal statements (e.g., perceived correlates of being psychopathic, moral judgments about psychopaths). The composite Boldness scale was rated as moderately to highly prototypical among forensic mental health practitioners and probation officers and positively associated with other theoretically relevant domains of psychopathy. Across samples, higher composite Boldness ratings predicted greater endorsement of adaptive traits (e.g., social skills) as characteristic of psychopathy. For the individual items, Socially bold was rated as highly prototypical and was associated with theoretically relevant correlates. Adventurous also was seen as prototypical, though to a lesser degree. Only forensic mental health practitioners endorsed Emotionally stable as characteristic of psychopathy. Our results provide partial support for the contention that the boldness concept is viewed as an important component of psychopathy, particularly among professionals who work directly with offender populations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26844911

  3. Criminal history systems: new technology and new directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatte, James

    1997-02-01

    Many forces are driving states to improve their current Criminal History and On-Line Criminal Justice Information Systems. The predominate factors compelling this movement are (1) the deterioration and cost of supporting older legacy systems, (2) current generation high performance, low cost hardware and system software, and (3) funding programs, such as the National Criminal History Improvement Program, which are targeted specifically at improving these important systems. In early 1996, SAIC established an Internal Research and Development project devoted to Computerized Criminal History Systems (CCH). This project began with an assessment of current hardware, operating system, and relational database technology. Application software design and development approaches were then reviewed with a focus on object-oriented approaches, three tier client server architectures, and tools that enable the `right sizing' of systems. An operational prototype of a State CCH system was established based on the results of these investigations.

  4. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 4: Criminal Recidivism

    PubMed Central

    Charette, Yanick; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Salem, Leila; Nicholls, Tonia L; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine criminal recidivism rates of a large sample of people found not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD) in Canada’s 3 most populous provinces, British Columbia, Ontario, and Quebec. Public concern about the dangerousness of people found NCRMD has been fed by media attention on high-profile cases. However, little research is available on the rate of reoffending among people found NCRMD across Canadian provinces. Method: Using data from the National Trajectory Project, this study examined 1800 men and women in British Columbia (n = 222), Ontario (n = 484), and Quebec (n = 1094) who were found NCRMD between May 2000 and April 2005 and followed until December 2008. Results: Recidivism was relatively low after 3 years (17%). There were interprovincial differences after controlling for number of prior criminal offences, diagnosis, seriousness of the index offence, and supervision by the review boards. British Columbia (10%) and Ontario (9%) were similar, whereas Quebec had almost twice the recidivism (22%). People who had committed severe violent index offences were less likely to reoffend than those who had committed less severe offences. People from the sample were less likely to reoffend when under the purview of review boards, across all 3 provinces. Conclusion: The results of this study, along with other research on processing differences, suggest systemic differences in the trajectories and outcomes of persons found NCRMD need to be better understood to guide national policies and practices. PMID:25886688

  5. Crimes and Criminal Justice, Students Book. The Lavinia and Charles P. Schwartz Citizenship Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassiouni, M. Cherif

    This curriculum unit for citizenship education describes the due process of law as specified in the Constitution, interpreted by the courts, and evolved by practical experience. Its purpose is to inform high school students of their rights so that they may participate more effectively in the U.S. governmental system. It is hoped that the unit…

  6. Renewing Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macallair, Daniel; Males, Mike; Enty, Dinky Manek; Vinakor, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    The Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) was commissioned by Sierra Health Foundation to critically examine California's juvenile justice system and consider the potential role of foundations in promoting systemic reform. The information gathered by CJCJ researchers for this report suggests that foundations can perform a key leadership…

  7. Defendants' Rights in Criminal Trials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)

  8. 78 FR 5757 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    ... Strategy and Systems Unit, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS... add tribal criminal justice agencies to those entities authorized to receive information in connection with the issuance of a firearm-related permit or license; to authorize access for criminal...

  9. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  10. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. 0.57 Section 0.57 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney...

  11. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  12. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  13. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  14. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  15. 28 CFR 20.34 - Individual's right to access criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.34... may obtain a copy of his or her identification record from a state or local criminal justice...

  16. Prescription drug abuse: what is being done to address this new drug epidemic? Testimony before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy and Human Resources.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2006-10-01

    This comprehensive health policy review of the prescription drug abuse epidemic is based on the written and oral testimony of witnesses at a July 26, 2006 Congressional Hearing, including that of Laxmaiah Manchikanti, MD, the chief executive officer of the American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians and additions from review of the literature. Honorable Mark E. Souder, chairman of the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, introduced the issue as follows: "Prescription drug abuse today is second only to marijuana abuse. In the most recent household survey, initiates to drug abuse started with prescription drugs (especially pain medications) more often than with marijuana. The abuse of prescription drugs is facilitated by easy access (via physicians, the Internet, and the medicine cabinet) and a perception of safety (since the drugs are FDA approved). In addition to the personal toll of drug abuse using prescription drugs, indirect costs associated with prescription drug abuse and diversion include product theft, commission of other crimes to support addiction, law enforcement costs, and encouraging the practice of defensive medicine." The Administration witnesses, Bertha Madras, Nora D. Volkow, MD, Sandra Kweder, MD, and Joe Rannazzisi reviewed the problem of drug abuse and discussed what is being done at the present time as well as future strategies to combat drug abuse, including prescription drug monitoring programs, reducing malprescriptions, public education, eliminating Internet drug pharmacies, and the development of future drugs which are not only tamper-resistant but also non-addictive. The second panel, consisting of consumers and advocates, included Misty Fetco, Linda Surks, and Barbara van Rooyan, all of whom lost their children to drugs, presented their stories and strategies to prevent drug abuse, focusing on education at all levels, development of resistant drugs, and non-opioid treatment of chronic pain. Mathea

  17. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division and his Deputy Assistant Attorneys General are each authorized...

  18. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division and his Deputy Assistant Attorneys General are each authorized...

  19. 28 CFR 0.57 - Criminal prosecutions against juveniles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal prosecutions against juveniles... JUSTICE Criminal Division § 0.57 Criminal prosecutions against juveniles. The Assistant Attorney General in charge of the Criminal Division and his Deputy Assistant Attorneys General are each authorized...

  20. 77 FR 69604 - Applications for New Awards; Model Demonstration Projects on Promoting Reentry Success Through...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    .... Keeler, E. Jane Costello, & Adrian Angold. 2006. ``Disentangling the Risks: Parent Criminal Justice.... 2006. ``Disentangling the Risks: Parent Criminal Justice Involvement and Children's Exposure to...

  1. [The mind on the stage of justice: the formation of criminal psychology in the 19th century and its interdisciplinary research].

    PubMed

    Vec, Milos

    2007-09-01

    Criminal psychology emerges at the end of the 18th century as a new academic discipline in lectures and publications. It has recently been investigated by a considerable number of contributions from researchers of different academic backgrounds. In many respects criminal psychology can be seen as a predecessor of criminology. Its subject is the analysis of the origins of crime and its causes and determinants in the human mind. Criminal psychology embraced at that time philosophical, medical, legal and biological aspects. The latter increase in importance in the second half of the 19th century. The conditions of individual responsibility were generally codified in penal law, but had to be individually investigated in crucial cases through expertise in court. There a conflict emerged between medical experts and judges about their ability and competence to decide. At the end of the 19th century criminal psychology is used to fulfil the needs and interests of a criminal law which understands itself as increasingly utilitarian. Force and new instruments of treatment of offenders were legitimized by scientists who were very optimistic about their own epistemological abilities. PMID:18173066

  2. Restorative Justice: A Changing Community Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…

  3. The Use of Criminal History Information in College Admissions Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.

    2014-01-01

    To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to…

  4. 14 CFR 13.23 - Criminal penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal penalties. 13.23 Section 13.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES... Department of Justice for criminal prosecution of the offender. If such an inspector or other...

  5. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  6. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  7. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  8. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  9. 28 CFR 16.91 - Exemption of Criminal Division Systems-limited access, as indicated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: (1) Central Criminal Division, Index File and Associated Records System of Records (JUSTICE/CRM-001...)(2), (k)(1) and (k)(2). (r) Because this system contains Department of Justice civil and criminal law... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Criminal Division...

  10. End of an era. Justice Department ends nine-year criminal probe of Columbia/HCA executives, but company recovery began earlier.

    PubMed

    Galloro, Vince

    2002-07-29

    The longest, costlest criminal healthcare fraud probe in U.S. history is finally over, but its ripple effects are likely to continue. The Columbia/HCA Healthcare Corp. case raised questions about healthcare accounting practices long before the current wave of corporate scandals. But the consensus is that the most crucial step in retooling HCA's image was restoring Thomas First Jr. (left) as chairman and CEO. PMID:12195670

  11. Preventing School Violence: Plenary Papers of the 1999 Conference on Criminal Justice Research and Evaluation--Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research, Volume 2. National Institute of Justice Research Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellam, Sheppard G.; Prinz, Ron; Sheley, Joseph F.

    This booklet contains conference presentations from the 1999 National Institute of Justice's research forum on preventing school violence. The theme of the conference was "Enhancing Policy and Practice through Research." Three researchers were asked to speak on topics of school violence since effective preventive policy and practices are…

  12. 8 CFR 1003.41 - Evidence of criminal conviction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... repository of criminal justice records, that indicates the following: The charge or section of law violated... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41... Evidence of criminal conviction. In any proceeding before an Immigration Judge, (a) Any of the...

  13. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  14. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  15. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  16. The Inextricable Link between Age and Criminal History in Sentencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison

    2007-01-01

    In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…

  17. Investigating U.S. Links to Nazi War Criminals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    The list of United States government connections with Nazi war criminals is a long one. We must ensure that Nazi war criminals living in America are brought to justice. And we must both explore and expunge the history of our government's relations with Nazi war criminals. (CS)

  18. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  19. 28 CFR 83.625 - Criminal drug statute.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal drug statute. 83.625 Section 83.625 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENT-WIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Definitions § 83.625 Criminal drug statute. Criminal drug statute means...

  20. 77 FR 32998 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by the...

  1. 77 FR 64548 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... of Justice Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by...

  2. 28 CFR 0.90 - Office of Justice Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... information to Federal, State, local, and private agencies and organizations on criminal justice matters, and... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Justice Programs. 0.90 Section 0.90 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  3. 28 CFR 0.90 - Office of Justice Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... information to Federal, State, local, and private agencies and organizations on criminal justice matters, and... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Justice Programs. 0.90 Section 0.90 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  4. 28 CFR 0.94-1 - Bureau of Justice Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... criminal justice systems. The Director also administers the Public Safety Officers' Death Benefits Program... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Assistance. 0.94-1 Section 0.94-1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  5. 28 CFR 0.94-1 - Bureau of Justice Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criminal justice systems. The Director also administers the Public Safety Officers' Death Benefits Program... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Assistance. 0.94-1 Section 0.94-1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  6. 28 CFR 0.94-1 - Bureau of Justice Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... criminal justice systems. The Director also administers the Public Safety Officers' Death Benefits Program... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Assistance. 0.94-1 Section 0.94-1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  7. 28 CFR 0.90 - Office of Justice Programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... information to Federal, State, local, and private agencies and organizations on criminal justice matters, and... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Justice Programs. 0.90 Section 0.90 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  8. 28 CFR 0.94-1 - Bureau of Justice Assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... criminal justice systems. The Director also administers the Public Safety Officers' Death Benefits Program... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bureau of Justice Assistance. 0.94-1 Section 0.94-1 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE...

  9. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder. Part 5: How Essential Are Gender-Specific Forensic Psychiatric Services?

    PubMed Central

    Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men’s and women’s treatment and management needs are different. Method: Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. Results: There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Conclusions: Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder–accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services. PMID:25886689

  10. 77 FR 32999 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated six (6) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Bureau of Justice Assistance; Quality and Protection of Science; and...

  11. The Hunters Point cogeneration project: Environmental justice in power plant siting

    SciTech Connect

    Kosloff, L.H.; Varanini, E.E. III

    1997-12-31

    The recent Hunters Point, San Francisco power plant siting process in California represents the first time that environmental justice has arisen as a major power plant siting issue. Intervenors argued that the siting process was racially and economically biased and were supported by leading environmental justice activists at the Golden Gate Law School`s Environmental Justice Clinic, a leading thinker in this field. The applicant argued that environmental justice charges cannot realistically be made against a modern natural-gas energy facility with state-of-the-art environmental controls. The applicant also argued that environmental justice concerns were fully addressed through the extensive environmental and socioeconomic review carried out by California Energy Commission staff. After extensive testimony and cross-examination, the Commission agreed with the applicant. This case has important lessons for companies that could be charged with environmental justice violations and environmental justice activists who must decide where to most effectively target their efforts. This paper reviews the proceeding and its lessons and makes recommendations regarding future applicability of environmental justice issues to the power generation sector. The authors represented the applicant in the facility siting proceeding.

  12. Now We Know: Assessing Sexual Assault Criminal Justice Case Processing in an Urban Community Using the Sexual Assault Nurse Practitioner Evaluation Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Julie L; Shaw, Jessica; Lark, Alyssa; Campbell, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    Campbell and colleagues developed an evaluation Toolkit for use by sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs) to assess criminal case outcomes in adult sexual assault cases seen by SANE programs (Campbell, Townsend, Shaw, Karim, & Markowitz, 2014; Campbell, Bybee, et al., 2014). The Toolkit provides step-by-step directions and an easy-to-use statistical program. This study describes implementation of the Toolkit in Salt Lake County, the first site outside the pilot sites to utilize the program. The Toolkit revealed that, in Salt Lake County from 2003 to 2011, only 6% of adult sexual assault cases were successfully prosecuted. These findings prompted multiple community discussions, media attention, and a call to action to improve the investigation and prosecution of adult sexual assault cases. The primary purpose of this case report is to encourage other SANE teams and communities to use the Toolkit by sharing the successful experience of Salt Lake County in implementing the Toolkit.Video Abstract available for additional insights from Dr. Valentine (see Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JFN/A19). PMID:27496646

  13. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  14. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  15. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  16. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  17. 25 CFR 11.435 - Obstructing justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if,...

  18. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be retained by the Department of Justice) of the arrest and any subsequent criminal proceedings... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.76 Exemption of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management...

  19. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be retained by the Department of Justice) of the arrest and any subsequent criminal proceedings... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.76 Exemption of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management...

  20. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... be retained by the Department of Justice) of the arrest and any subsequent criminal proceedings... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.76 Exemption of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management...

  1. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... be retained by the Department of Justice) of the arrest and any subsequent criminal proceedings... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.76 Exemption of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management...

  2. 28 CFR 16.76 - Exemption of Justice Management Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be retained by the Department of Justice) of the arrest and any subsequent criminal proceedings... MATERIAL OR INFORMATION Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act § 16.76 Exemption of Justice... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exemption of Justice Management...

  3. Seeking a Justice Reform Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dervarics, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the legislation proposed by Senator Jim Webb which authorizes a blue-ribbon commission of experts who would undertake an 18-month review of the nation's criminal justice system, including issues such as the disproportionate share of minorities--particularly African-Americans--in the U.S. prisons. Webb said that the U.S. has…

  4. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  5. Some perspectives on criminalization.

    PubMed

    Lamb, H Richard; Weinberger, Linda E

    2013-01-01

    In recently published articles, there has been an underemphasis on the role serious mental illness (SMI) plays in causing persons to be in the criminal justice system. Increasing attention has been paid to other factors, including criminogenic needs. While these needs may be present and contribute to criminal behavior, persons with SMI who are at greatest risk of criminalization are those who are not receiving adequate treatment, structure, social control, and, when necessary, 24-hour care in the mental health system. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been used to reduce recidivism for prisoners, including those with SMI, but persons impaired by their untreated psychotic symptoms may not be able to profit from it. The importance of psychiatric treatment must not be underestimated. Moreover, given their current constraints, correctional systems may not be able to continue accepting large numbers of persons with SMI. Many offenders with serious mental illness pose difficult and expensive problems in treatment and management, such as nonadherence to medication, potential for violence, and substance abuse. The mental health system needs to be given more funding and to take more responsibility for these challenging individuals. PMID:23771942

  6. The interaction of criminal procedure and outcome.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony

    2014-01-01

    Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. PMID:24656217

  7. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... criminal proceedings. 0.46 Section 0.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... matters not otherwise assigned, and shall employ foreign counsel to represent before foreign...

  8. 77 FR 64547 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... Regulation Implementing 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department published final... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Federal Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice...

  9. 77 FR 24517 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-24

    ....S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department published final regulations that... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, Department of Justice by...

  10. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... criminal proceedings. 0.46 Section 0.46 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... the scope of § 0.45, direct all other civil litigation including claims by or against the...

  11. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  12. Socially Just Research for Social Justice: Negotiating Consent and Safety in a Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePalma, Renee

    2010-01-01

    This contribution explores what it means to pursue equality and social justice through equitable and just collaborative research methodologies, with a particular focus on two issues: the creation of safe spaces for research participants in the context of a "dangerous" research topic, and the generation of ethically viable research consent. The…

  13. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  14. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  15. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  16. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  17. 28 CFR 115.71 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.71 Section 115.71 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Adult Prisons and Jails Investigations § 115.71 Criminal...

  18. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  19. 28 CFR 115.371 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.371 Section 115.371 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Juvenile Facilities Investigations § 115.371 Criminal...

  20. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  1. 28 CFR 115.171 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.171 Section 115.171 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Lockups Investigations § 115.171 Criminal and...

  2. 76 FR 79220 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated five (5) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Quality and Protection of Science; and Evidence Translation/Integration....

  3. 76 FR 31991 - Meeting of the Office of Justice Programs' Science Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... activities in criminal and juvenile justice. To this end, the Board has designated five (5) subcommittees: National Institute of Justice (NIJ); Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS); Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP); Quality and Protection of Science; and Evidence Translation/Integration....

  4. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  5. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  6. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  7. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  8. 28 CFR 906.2 - Third party handling of criminal history record information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Third party handling of criminal history... of criminal history record information. (a) Except as prohibited in paragraph (b) of this section, criminal history record information obtained from the III System for noncriminal justice purposes may...

  9. Counseling between Recognition, Justice and Difference: The Significance of Power Asymmetries, Communicative Projects and Unintended Consequences in Career Counseling of Immigrants in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hertzberg, Fredrik; Sundelin, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. First we present an ongoing Swedish research project, "Counseling between recognition, justice and difference". The aims of the project are presented, along with an outline of the political and professional questions that motivate it and the theories which inform it. In the second part, an account of…

  10. Criminal exposure.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    A 39-year-old man who had sex with a 16-year-old boy, was sentenced to five years in prison. The defendant pleaded guilty to statutory rape and criminal exposure to HIV. The boy discovered that the man was taking HIV medications, and the man subsequently disclosed his treatment after being arrested. PMID:11367003

  11. National Criminal Justice Commission Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Deutch, Theodore E. [D-FL-21

    2013-02-01

    02/28/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2014-03-27

    03/27/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1822-1830) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Criminal Justice Education Directory, 1978-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Judi, Ed.

    This directory, a result of questionnaires circulated by the Behavioral Research Division of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, provides information on the types of programs and number of degree granting institutions that exist in the field of police science in the United States. The introduction traces the growth of police…

  14. Criminal Justice. Occupational Competency Analysis Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This Occupational Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) contains a competency list verified by expert workers and developed through a modified DACUM (Developing a Curriculum) involving business, industry, labor, and community agency representatives from Ohio. This OCAP identifies the occupational, academic, and employability skills (competencies)…

  15. Avoiding criminal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, J.W. ); Bramble, G.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Armed with more than 120 investigative agents, the US Environmental Protection Agency, through its attorneys at the Dept. of Justice, charges 5 to 10 engineers and business people with criminal violations of the nation's environmental regulations in any given week. There are some 10,000 pages of federal (let alone state) environmental regulations. The rules apply to large and small companies alike. As a practical matter, the sheer scope and complexity of environmental regulatory programs make 100% compliance virtually unattainable for most industrial enterprises. Where it is no longer a defense to claim lack of knowledge of one's regulatory obligations, and where courts allow the inference of criminal knowledge based on what the defendant should have known, what is a company to do The environmental audit provides a solution to this problem. Progressive audit programs are established with three goals in mind: to ensure that programs and practices at facilities are in compliance with applicable rules and regulations; to affirm that management systems are in place at the facilities to support ongoing compliance; and to identify needs or opportunities where it may be desirable to go beyond compliance to protect human health and the environment. This paper discusses the implementation of an audit program.

  16. The Juvenile Justice System: Where Pretense and Reality Clash.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Arnold

    1979-01-01

    Outlines the history of juvenile justice from the Bible to the present time. At present neither offending children nor society are getting a fair return. The result is a tendency to treat young criminals exactly as adult criminals, and to limit the range of behaviors subject to court jurisdiction. (Author/CK)

  17. [The physician in criminal court].

    PubMed

    Durigon, Michel

    2002-04-01

    A physician may find himself in front of a criminal court in the context of a number of situations: as a spectator, a witness, the accused, the victim, or as an expert witness. These different situations provoke variable reactions where the problem of medical confidence, the public nature of the debate, and their inherent contradiction arise. The physician is little used to these situations. In the concern for justice and the protection of victims, he must know the rules of this court. PMID:12032961

  18. Does Social Justice Ground Democracy in Education or Does Democracy Ground Social Justice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser-Burgess, Sheron

    2013-01-01

    The author examines one particular systematic and normative theorization of social justice in Barry Bull's "Social Justice in Education." Bull embarks on a timely and ambitious theory-to-practice project of grounding an educational theory of social justice in Rawls's seminal, liberal, distributive justice tome. The author…

  19. Navajo Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazzie, Robert

    2000-01-01

    The Navajo Nation has eliminated jail time for 79 offenses and required traditional peacemaking in criminal cases, primarily involving family violence. Peacemaking entails examination of the criminal act by all involved, family responsibility for its members, and symbolic restitution. The change promotes prevention and child protection by breaking…

  20. Self-Sufficiency in Northern Justice Issues. Proceedings of the Northern Justice Society Meeting (5th, Sitka, Alaska, April 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Curt Taylor, Ed.

    As indigenous peoples in the Arctic move closer to sovereignty, self-sufficiency in the realm of criminal justice assumes paramount importance. This book outlines initiatives and strategies to improve the delivery of justice services to aboriginal peoples in Canada, Alaska, and Greenland. Topics include: social and spiritual causes of alcoholism…

  1. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  2. Restorative Mediation: The Application of Restorative Justice Practice and Philosophy to Clergy Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…

  3. The National Trajectory Project of Individuals Found Not Criminally Responsible on Account of Mental Disorder in Canada. Part 2: The People Behind the Label

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Anne G; Nicholls, Tonia L; Seto, Michael C; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles; Caulet, Malijai

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the psychosocio-criminological characteristics of not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder (NCRMD)–accused people and compare them across the 3 most populous provinces. In Canada, the number of people found NCRMD has risen during the past 20 years. The Criminal Code is federally legislated but provincially administered, and mental health services are provincially governed. Our study offers a rare opportunity to observe the characteristics and trajectories of NCRMD–accused people. Method: The National Trajectory Project examined 1800 men and women found NCRMD in British Columbia (n = 222), Quebec (n = 1094), and Ontario (n = 484) between May 2000 to April 2005, followed until December 2008. Results: The most common primary diagnosis was a psychotic spectrum disorder. One-third of NCRMD–accused people had a severe mental illness and a concomitant substance use disorder, with British Columbia having the highest rate of dually diagnosed NCRMD–accused people. Most accused people (72.4%) had at least 1 prior psychiatric hospitalization. Two-thirds of index NCRMD offences were against the person, with a wide range of severity. Family members, followed by professionals, such as police and mental health care workers, were the most frequent victims. Quebec had the highest proportion of people with a mood disorder and the lowest median offence severity. There were both interprovincial differences and similarities in the characteristics of NCRMD–accused people. Conclusions: Contrary to public perception, severe violent offenses such as murder, attempted murder or sexual offences represent a small proportion of all NCRMD verdict offences. The results reveal a heterogeneous population regarding mental health and criminological characteristics in need of hierarchically organized forensic mental health services and levels of security. NCRMD–accused people were well known to civil psychiatric services prior to being found NCRMD

  4. Standards for Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flicker, Barbara

    1977-01-01

    The Juvenile Justice Standards Project at New York University has proposed a plan to restructure family court procedure. These standards, outlined here by a former project director, cover significant aspects of the relationship of juveniles to social institutions. (Editor/RK)

  5. Expanding a Community's Justice Response to Sex Crimes Through Advocacy, Prosecutorial, and Public Health Collaboration: Introducing the RESTORE Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Mary P.; Bachar, Karen J.; Hopkins, C. Quince; Carlson, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address…

  6. The Image of Justice: Chandler v. Florida.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesson, Charles R.; Koblenz, Andrew D.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the constitutionality of televising criminal trials without the defendant's consent. Analyzes the circumstances which led to different Supreme Court decisions concerning the effect of televised trials on the image of justice, in the cases of Estes v Texas (1965) and Chandler v Florida (1981). (Author/MJL)

  7. Organizational Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Travis

    2013-01-01

    Helping principals understand the importance of organizational justice is the first step in enhancing learning outcomes for all learners, regardless of their social class, race, abilities, sex, or gender. In schools, organizational justice may be defined as teachers' perceptions of fairness, respect, and equity that relate to their…

  8. Forensic aerial photography: projected 3-D exhibits facilitating rapid environmental justice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, Robert A.

    2009-02-01

    Forensic stereoscopic analysis of historical aerial photography is successfully identifying the causes of environmental degradation, including erosion and unlawful releases of hazardous wastes into the environment. The photogrammetric evidence can successfully pinpoint the specific locations of undocumented hazardous waste landfills and other types of unlawful releases of chemicals and wastes into the environment, providing location data for targeted investigation, characterization, and subsequent remediation. The findings of these studies are being effectively communicated in a simple, memorable, and compelling way by projecting the three-dimensional (3-D) sequences of historical aerial photography utilizing polarized 3-D presentation methods.

  9. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Prisoners and Parolees § 2.30 False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. If... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE,...

  10. 78 FR 16867 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... 18 U.S.C. 1162(d) On December 6, 2011, 76 FR 76037 the Department published final regulations that... Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction... Federal Criminal Jurisdiction recently submitted to the Office of Tribal Justice, ] Department of...

  11. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  12. 75 FR 52027 - Violent Criminal Apprehension Program: Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Violent Criminal Apprehension Program: Agency Information Collection... review: Revision of a currently approved collection due to expire 10/31/2010 Violent Criminal... investigating violent crimes. Established by the Department of Justice in 1985, ViCAP serves as the...

  13. 75 FR 35087 - Violent Criminal Apprehension Program; Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation Violent Criminal Apprehension Program; Agency Information Collection... review: Revision of a currently approved collection due to expire 10/31/2010, Violent Criminal... investigating violent crimes. Established by the Department of Justice in 1985, ViCAP serves as the...

  14. Peace and Justice Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Articles in this issue of "Current Issues in Catholic Higher Education" concern the results of pilot projects in peace and justice education at several colleges and universities, along with initiatives made at other institutions. In "Report on ACCU's Pilot Programs," David Johnson provides an overview of the experiences of the seven institutions…

  15. The Afro-American before the Burger Court, 1976-1978: Justice Granted or Justice Denied?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Robert Lewis

    1978-01-01

    Supreme Court rulings during 1976-78 on capital punishment; criminal justice and prisoner rights; busing and school desegregation; discrimination in housing and employment; rights of illegitimates and family relations; abortion, voting rights, tenant landlord relations; and "reverse discrimination" have had a significant impact on Black Americans.…

  16. Enhancing the Career Development of Individuals Who Have Criminal Records

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cummings, Devon L.

    2010-01-01

    Large numbers of individuals are involved in the criminal justice system. Upon release, most have difficulty finding employment and stabilizing economic resources, which contribute to recidivism. To date, the role of work in the lives of ex-offenders has virtually been ignored in the vocational literature. The purpose of this article is to…

  17. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2...

  18. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2...

  19. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2...

  20. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2...

  1. 28 CFR 3.2 - Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (See also 28 CFR 0.55(i).) (28 U.S.C. 509 and 510) ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistant Attorney General, Criminal Division. 3.2 Section 3.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE GAMBLING DEVICES § 3.2...

  2. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  3. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  4. 28 CFR 115.271 - Criminal and administrative agency investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criminal and administrative agency investigations. 115.271 Section 115.271 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) PRISON RAPE ELIMINATION ACT NATIONAL STANDARDS Standards for Community Confinement Facilities Investigations §...

  5. National Conference on New Juvenile Justice Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ter Haar, Alice C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the standards on rights of minors, abuse and neglect, non-criminal behavior, and schools and education which were adopted at the National Conference on New Juvenile Justice Standards, Washington, D.C., 1977. (Author)

  6. Criminal typology of veterans entering substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Schultz, Nicole R; Blonigen, Daniel; Finlay, Andrea; Timko, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Criminal justice involvement among veterans is a critical and timely concern, yet little is known about criminal histories and clinical characteristics among veterans seeking treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs). The present study examined criminal typology, clinical characteristics, treatment utilization, and 12-step mutual-help group (MHG) participation among veterans (N = 332) at intake to SUD treatment at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), and 6 months and 1 year post-intake. Cluster analysis yielded three types of criminal histories mild-(78.9%), moderate (13.6%), and severe (7.5%)-distinguished by type of offense, number of convictions, and number of months incarcerated. At intake, participants with mild criminal histories reported more alcohol problems and fewer legal and employment problems than participants with moderate and severe criminal histories. Participants with severe criminal histories were most likely to attend a 12-step MHG meeting in the year post-intake, but all groups had high attendance. When only participants who had attended at least one meeting in the year post-intake were compared, participants with mild criminal histories worked more steps and were more involved in 12-step practices. All groups improved between baseline and follow-up and did not differ at follow-ups on substance use or other clinical outcomes. Multiple regressions identified treatment utilization and MHG attendance, but not baseline criminal history, as significant predictors of improved substance use problem severity at follow-up. Outpatient treatment and 12-step MHG attendance appear to be important components of recovery for veterans with varying criminal histories. Clinicians in SUD treatment programs should screen for criminal histories at treatment intake to ensure appropriate treatment planning. PMID:25661518

  7. Using child advocacy center tracking data to examine criminal disposition times.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Wendy A; Jones, Lisa M; Swiecicki, Carole C

    2014-01-01

    Given the difficulty of obtaining criminal justice data on child abuse cases, information from child advocacy centers could be an important resource for answering questions about criminal justice outcomes for child abuse cases. In this exploratory study, we use data from one child advocacy center (N = 632) to examine the feasibility of using NCAtrak, a national computerized, Web-based case tracking system, to examine criminal disposition timeframes in child abuse cases. The system data indicated that the time frame for the cases to be criminally resolved varied widely. About one in four child physical and sexual abuse cases with adult offenders took more than one year to reach a final disposition. About 11% of child sexual abuse cases with juvenile offenders took more than one year to reach a criminal disposition. We encourage child advocacy centers using computer-based data systems to think of additional ways they might use this potentially rich source of data. PMID:24512437

  8. [Penal aspects of psychiatric intervention: management modes and impact of new criminal legislation].

    PubMed

    Laberge, D; Morin, D; Robert, M

    1995-01-01

    Psychiatry and criminal justice have been closely related for a long time. Traces of such ties can already be found during the 19th century through the establishment of the contemporary systems of social control. Various questions that will mark the development of policies in this domain were important objects of discussion and analysis: Is mental illness a cause of criminality? Should the "insane" be held responsible for their crimes? What are the appropriate measures to heal, reform, control? In other words, should we consider the individual as sick or as criminal? If these questions are formulated differently nowadays they haven't lost any of their relevance. In this article, we will briefly present the forms of intervention available to the criminal justice system when dealing with persons suffering from mental health problems. This presentation is based on recent studies conducted in Montreal, elsewhere in Canada, as well as in the United States. The main stages of the criminal justice process will be examined, taking into account the recent modifications to the Canadian Criminal Code and its impact on the relations between the courts and psychiatric facilities. This type of situation is not without impact on community mental health for two main reasons. First, with the diminishing public funding of various health services there seems to be a growing practice of criminalization of persons suffering from mental health problems, especially the most vulnerable segments of this population. Secondly, there is a growing trend, in the criminal justice system, of requiring support from community groups or facilities to deal with these criminalized individuals. In the coming years criminalization will constitute an increasing and complex challenge for community mental health. PMID:10150906

  9. The Unique Predisposition to Criminal Violations in Frontotemporal Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Mario F.

    2011-01-01

    Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility. PMID:20852216

  10. A Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Respondents in Campus-Based Restorative Justice Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meagher, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this dissertation was the use of restorative justice practices in the collegiate setting. Some have expressed concern with the legal nature of campus conduct processes. Restorative practices have been implemented in criminal justice and K-12 settings and are seen by some as an antidote to overly legalistic campus conduct processes.…

  11. 41 CFR 105-70.040 - Stays ordered by the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-70.040 Section 105-70.040 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Stays ordered by the Department of Justice. If at any time the Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney... adversely affect any pending or potential criminal or civil action related to such claim or statement,...

  12. 41 CFR 105-70.040 - Stays ordered by the Department of Justice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Department of Justice. 105-70.040 Section 105-70.040 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... Stays ordered by the Department of Justice. If at any time the Attorney General or an Assistant Attorney... adversely affect any pending or potential criminal or civil action related to such claim or statement,...

  13. Restorative Justice in Schools: The Influence of Race on Restorative Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Allison Ann; Welch, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    Schools today are more frequently using punitive discipline practices to control student behavior, despite the greater effectiveness of community-building techniques on compliance that are based on restorative justice principles found in the criminal justice system. Prior research testing the racial threat hypothesis has found that the racial…

  14. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  15. Restorative Justice, Reintegration, and Race: Reclaiming Collective Identity in the Postracial Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utheim, Ragnhild

    2014-01-01

    Restorative justice has gained ascendancy within both judicial systems and educational settings through which court-involved youth are resocialized as part of reintegration intervention. This article explores the conflict over collective representation at the intersections among public education, criminal justice, and restorative intervention. The…

  16. Indian Justice: A Research Bibliography. Council of Planning Librarians Exchange Bibliography 1134, October 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Vincent J.

    Compiled for educators, social workers, police officers, planners, and others interested in the problem of criminal justice for Native Americans, this bibliography cites 911 materials pertaining to American Indian justice. Covering the period from 1966 to 1975, citations were extracted from the following indices and abstracts: Readers' Guide to…

  17. Restorative mediation: the application of restorative justice practice and philosophy to clergy sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Noll, Douglas E; Harvey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law violations, allowing all aspects of an offense to be addressed in one process. Unlike retributive justice prevalent in the traditional legal system, restorative justice seeks to make things right while focusing on healing for the victim-survivor and offender and accountability by the church representatives. PMID:19042607

  18. The Impact of Acceptance of Electronic Evidence before and after the 2006 Federal Rules of Evidence on Criminal Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borrego, Jesus

    2010-01-01

    Legal scholars have established that the U.S. Department of Justice's 2004 Federal Rules of Evidence (FRE) has created confusion in legal rulings on criminal cases involving digital evidence, resulting in conflicting verdicts. With the 2006 FRE update, the Department of Justice attempted to correct the problem. The conceptual framework for this…

  19. The School Age Criminal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgenstern, Robert

    School age crime has increased a great deal in recent decades and a review of types of school age criminals may help school officials develop policies and programs to handle the problem. Both increased crime and improved news coverage have made the general public more concerned about school crime and school age criminals. A comparison of crime…

  20. Justice-Treatment Interface; A Cross-Discipline Training Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faegre, Christopher L.; And Others

    This manual is designed to assist those helping professionals who work with drug abusing offenders, either as counselors or mental health aides from drug abuse treatment systems or probation officers or jailers from the criminal justice system. This course first provides a conceptual framework or "Perspectives" on the subject area in Unit I,…

  1. Parents in Prison: Justice Literacy and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Laura; Baille, Daphne

    2011-01-01

    With the highest incarceration rate in the world, the United States has set an inauspicious precedent. More than 1.7 million American children--one in every 43--have a parent in jail or prison. The generational effects of incarceration are deep and lasting and include vastly increased risks of criminal justice involvement among the children of…

  2. A Call for Restorative Justice in Higher Education Judicial Affairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to provide support for post-secondary institutions' exploring and implementing restorative justice in their judicial practices. Although restorative principles have been employed successfully across the globe in criminal proceedings and K-12 education, most colleges and universities have not yet embraced this practice. By exploring…

  3. Restorative justice as social justice for victims of gendered violence: a standpoint feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    van Wormer, Katherine

    2009-04-01

    This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice. PMID:19366159

  4. Underage Drinking: Information on Federal Funds Targeted at Prevention. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources, House Committee on Government Reform, and to Representative John L. Mica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stana, Richard M.

    This document describes a project undertaken to identify the nature and extent of Federal efforts related to the prevention of underage drinking to assist Congress in its deliberations on whether additional attention to alcohol use is needed. The report specifically aims to identify the amount of appropriated fiscal year 2000 Federal funds that…

  5. Youth for Justice. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nessel, Paula A.

    Youth for Justice uses the power of active learning to teach youth practical information about the law while addressing the risks associated with being young in the United States today. This unique initiative is a law-related education (LRE) program supported by the United States Department of Justice's Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency…

  6. Cultural consequences of miscarriages of justice.

    PubMed

    Cole, Simon A

    2009-01-01

    Social science scholarship has tended to focus more on the causes than the consequences of miscarriages of justice. Within the literature on consequences, the overwhelming emphasis has been on individual consequences: psychological and material impacts on the wrongly convicted individual and, in some cases, other indirectly impacted individuals such as family members of the wrongly convicted and victims of the true perpetrator's future crimes. Some attention has been devoted to social harms, the impact of miscarriages of justice on the broader society within which they are situated, such as the undermining of the legitimacy of the criminal justice system. This paper focuses on what are called here cultural consequences of miscarriages of justice: the way in which some high-profile miscarriages of justice can shape the public's beliefs about some of the most basic "facts" about crime, such as the nature, prevalence, or even existence of certain categories of crime and the types of individual who tend to perpetrate particular types of crime. In this way, the paper argues, miscarriages of justice may have hitherto underexplored consequences: reshaping, based on false premises, the public's belief about the very nature of crime itself. This paper discusses three cases studies of miscarriages of justice that for varying periods of time created widespread false beliefs about the nature of crime in large segments of the public. The paper concludes by noting that the "righting" of these false beliefs was in most cases fortuitous. This suggests that unexposed miscarriages of justice may still be shaping popular beliefs about the nature of crime, and aspects of the public's current conception of crime may yet be based on false premises. PMID:19402029

  7. The perfect match: Do criminal stereotypes bias forensic evidence analysis?

    PubMed

    Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah

    2016-08-01

    This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27149288

  8. THE CRIMINAL PSYCHOPATH: HISTORY, NEUROSCIENCE, TREATMENT, AND ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    Kiehl, Kent A.; Hoffman, Morris B.

    2014-01-01

    The manuscript surveys the history of psychopathic personality, from its origins in psychiatric folklore to its modern assessment in the forensic arena. Individuals with psychopathic personality, or psychopaths, have a disproportionate impact on the criminal justice system. Psychopaths are twenty to twenty-five times more likely than non-psychopaths to be in prison, four to eight times more likely to violently recidivate compared to non-psychopaths, and are resistant to most forms of treatment. This article presents the most current clinical efforts and neuroscience research in the field of psychopathy. Given psychopathy’s enormous impact on society in general and on the criminal justice system in particular, there are significant benefits to increasing awareness of the condition. This review also highlights a recent, compelling and cost-effective treatment program that has shown a significant reduction in violent recidivism in youth on a putative trajectory to psychopathic personality. PMID:24944437

  9. Teaching Criminal Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Sandy

    1989-01-01

    Presents learning activities and resources for teaching senior level criminal law courses. Topics covered include arrest, search and seizure, bail, trial procedures, sentencing, and prisons. Objective is to encourage students to address societal issues. (LS)

  10. Criminality and climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rob

    2016-08-01

    The impacts of climate change imply a reconceptualization of environment-related criminality. Criminology can offer insight into the definitions and dynamics of this behaviour, and outline potential areas of redress.

  11. Concepts Shaping Juvenile Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Rob White's paper explores ways in which community building can be integrated into the practices of juvenile justice work. He provides a model of what can be called "restorative social justice", one that builds upon the juvenile conferencing model by attempting to fuse social justice concerns with progressive juvenile justice practices.

  12. The criminalization of domestic violence: what social workers need to know.

    PubMed

    Danis, Fran S

    2003-04-01

    Domestic violence is a crosscutting issue that affects clients seeking social work services. The criminalization of domestic violence refers to efforts to address domestic violence through the passage and enforcement of criminal and civil laws. This article reviews the social science, legal, and criminal justice literature regarding interventions used to stop domestic violence. The theoretical foundations and effectiveness of police interventions, the use of protective orders, prosecution and victim advocacy, court responses, batterers' intervention as a condition of probation, and coordinated community responses to domestic violence are examined. Implications for social work practice are given, along with basic information for assisting clients who are victims of violence in their own homes. PMID:12718419

  13. Criminal Rehabilitation Through Medical Intervention: Moral Liability and the Right to Bodily Integrity.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not. PMID:25009441

  14. Paradigms of Justice and Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Patick H.

    This paper examines the philosophy behind the Pulse Program of Boston College and its attempt at integrating theory and practice and transforming student's paradigms of justice and love. The basic idea of the program, begun in the fall of 1969, is that students receive academic credit for participation in off-campus field projects which have a…

  15. The Criminal Corpse, Anatomists and the Criminal Law: Parliamentary Attempts to Extend the Dissection of Offenders in Late Eighteenth-Century England

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    In the later eighteenth century two schemes were introduced in Parliament for extending the practice of handing over the bodies of executed offenders to anatomists for dissection. Both measures were motivated by the needs of anatomy — including the improvement of surgical skill, the development of medical teaching in the provinces, and for conducting public anatomical demonstrations. Yet both failed to pass into law due to concerns about the possibly damaging effects in terms of criminal justice. Through a detailed analysis of the origins and progress of these two parliamentary measures — a moment when the competing claims of anatomy and criminal justice vied for supremacy over the criminal corpse — the following article sheds light on judicial attitudes to dissection as a method of punishment and adds to our understanding of why the dread of dissection would come to fall upon the dead poor (rather than executed offenders) in the nineteenth century. PMID:25821241

  16. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if... threatens to: (1) Commit any criminal offense; or (2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or (3) Take...

  17. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if... threatens to: (1) Commit any criminal offense; or (2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or (3) Take...

  18. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if... threatens to: (1) Commit any criminal offense; or (2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or (3) Take...

  19. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if... threatens to: (1) Commit any criminal offense; or (2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or (3) Take...

  20. 25 CFR 11.406 - Criminal coercion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Criminal coercion. 11.406 Section 11.406 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.406 Criminal coercion. (a) A person is guilty of criminal coercion if, with purpose...: (1) Commit any criminal offense; or (2) Accuse anyone of a criminal offense; or (3) Take or...

  1. Criminal prosecution of suicide attempt survivors in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Adinkrah, Mensah

    2013-12-01

    Recently, there have been calls for the decriminalization (or depenalization) of nonfatal suicidal behavior (attempted suicide) in Ghana, India, Uganda, and other societies that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. Despite this, there is a dearth of systematic studies that examine the extent, nature, and characteristics of attempted suicide prosecutions in countries that currently criminalize nonfatal suicidal behavior. The current study, therefore, explores the phenomenon of criminal prosecution and punishment for suicide attempters in Ghana, one among several countries where nonfatal suicidal behavior is a crime. Drawing from data extracted from local Ghanaian print and electronic news media articles, the study examines the sociodemographic characteristics of suicide attempt survivors, the patterns of nonfatal suicidal behavior, as well as the criminal justice outcomes of the criminal prosecutions. The findings indicate that the majority of defendants pled guilty to or were found guilty of the charge and sentenced to penalties ranging from monetary fines to incarceration. The results are discussed with regard to their implications for reducing nonfatal suicidal behavior in Ghana. PMID:22923775

  2. "What Happened to Our Sense of Justice?" Tracing Agency and Critical Engagement in a Youth Participatory Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giraldo-García, Regina J.; Galletta, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Tracing the nature of critical engagement and agency among youth in a participatory action research (PAR) collective, the study attends to the manner in which critical engagement and agency developed over time for the youth researchers. The focus of the project was to conduct a survey among ninth grade students concerning their early high school…

  3. Crime, Delinquency and Criminal Justice Services in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, H. Wayne

    1978-01-01

    Contrary to its image, rural America has both crime and delinquency. While there are services for families and individuals involved in deviant behavior, opportunities abound for additional rural programs such as group homes for juveniles, career development program, and in-home or family-based care. (JC)

  4. 78 FR 76860 - Contraband Screening for Criminal Justice Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... system/device: Fixed, Portable, or Handheld. 4. Physical Dimensions of the system/device. 5. Weight of... dimensions/features (indicate Not Applicable for a system/device that only provides a detection alarm and...

  5. Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    MedlinePlus

    ... sentenced for drug offenses were incarcerated for drug trafficking. [v] Simple possession is even less of a ... in your area. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ...

  6. Criminal Justice and Forensic Science Reform Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S195-202) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Effective Administration of Criminal Justice Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Leahy, Patrick J. [D-VT

    2012-06-21

    06/21/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4422) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Optimal Timing for Group Therapy in the Criminal Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Joan V.

    1989-01-01

    Describes group therapy as appropriate and effective vehicle or learning and maintaining prosocial behavior. Notes that outcome measures and studies have indicated that participation in group therapy in prison may result in inmate adaptation to free society. Proposes that structured, intensive group therapy be initiated as the inmate prepares to…

  9. Evaluating Human Rights Advocacy on Criminal Justice and Sex Work.

    PubMed

    Amon, Joseph; Wurth, Margaret; McLemore, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Between October 2011 and September 2013, we conducted research on the use, by police and/or prosecutors, of condom possession as evidence of intent to engage in prostitution-related offenses. We studied the practice in five large, geographically diverse cities in the U.S. To facilitate our advocacy on this issue, conducted concurrent to and following our research, we developed an advocacy framework consisting of six dimensions: (1) raising awareness, (2) building and engaging coalitions, (3) framing debate, (4) securing rhetorical commitments, (5) reforming law and policy, and (6) changing practice. Using a case study approach, we describe how this framework also provided a basis for the evaluation of our work, and discuss additional considerations and values related to the measurement and evaluation of human rights advocacy. PMID:26204588

  10. Under construction: Brain formation, culpability, and the criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Burke, Alison S

    2011-01-01

    Should adolescents be held as culpable for their behavior as adults? Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of change and transformation. This paper examines the development of brain functions and cognitive capabilities of teenagers. It explores the effect of alcohol use on brain development and the fundamental cognitive differences between adolescents and adults. This knowledge, coupled with the assessment of developmental perspective, suggests that the adultification of youth (or waiver to adult court) is unduly harsh for youth whose brains have not fully formed. PMID:22115609

  11. The Effects of Incarceration: Myth-Busting in Criminal Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wormith, J. Stephen

    Nowhere is myth more commonplace than in the correctional setting. With its foundation firmly implanted in tradition and folklore, a great deal of prison management is based on intuitive principles. Moreover, the popular theoretical positions concerning the impact of incarceration have been equally intuitive, or at best ideologically based in the…

  12. 32 CFR 635.25 - Submission of criminal history data to the CJIS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CJIS. No variances are authorized. Results of summary court-martial will not be reported to the FBI. (3...) Standard FBI fingerprint cards will be used to submit criminal history data to CJIS. FBI Form FD 249... on the FBI Department of Justice (DOJ) Form R-84 (Final Disposition Report). The R-84...

  13. 77 FR 27080 - Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Solicitation of Comments on Request for United States Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction; Hoopa Valley Tribe Correction In notice document 2012-09731 beginning on page 24517 the issue of...

  14. Predictors of Criminal Charges for Youth in Public Mental Health during the Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pullmann, M. D.

    2010-01-01

    Dual involvement with the mental health system and justice system is relatively frequent for young adults with mental health problems, yet the research on factors predictive of dual involvement is incomplete. This study extends past research on predictors of criminal charges for people in the public mental health system in four ways. First, this…

  15. The Criminalization of Domestic Violence: What Social Workers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Fran S.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the social science, legal, and criminal justice literature regarding interventions used to stop domestic violence. Examines the theoretical foundations and effectiveness of police interventions, the use of protective orders, prosecutions and victim advocacy, court responses, and coordinated community responses to domestic…

  16. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certain civil litigation and foreign... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... the scope of § 0.45, direct all other civil litigation including claims by or against the...

  17. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Certain civil litigation and foreign... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... the scope of § 0.45, direct all other civil litigation including claims by or against the...

  18. 28 CFR 0.46 - Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Certain civil litigation and foreign... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Civil Division § 0.46 Certain civil litigation and foreign criminal proceedings. The... the scope of § 0.45, direct all other civil litigation including claims by or against the...

  19. 76 FR 69287 - National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency Information Collection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation National Instant Criminal Background Check System Section Agency... in accordance with Title 5, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Sec. 1320.10. If you have...

  20. Screening for Malingering in a Criminal-Forensic Sample with the Personality Assessment Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccaccini, Marcus T.; Murrie, Daniel C.; Duncan, Scott A.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined how overreporting of psychopathology indices on the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; L. C. Morey, 1991) performed as screening measures for malingering in a sample of 166 defendants undergoing pretrial court-ordered evaluations in the federal criminal justice system. Using results from the Structured…

  1. Justice and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-07-20

    Justice, in the sense of fair adjudication between conflicting claims, is held to be relevant to a wide range of issues in medical ethics. Several differing concepts of justice are briefly described, including Aristotle's formal principle of justice, libertarian theories, utilitarian theories, Marxist theories, the theory of John Rawls, and the view--held, for example, by W.D. Ross--that justice is essentially a matter of reward for individual merit. PMID:3926121

  2. Juvenile Justice & Youth Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, James C.

    Youth violence and the juvenile justice system in the United States are explored. Part 1 takes stock of the situation. The first chapter discusses the origins and evaluation of the juvenile justice system, and the second considers the contributions of the Federal Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act to the existing juvenile justice…

  3. Temporal discounting and criminal thinking: understanding cognitive processes to align services.

    PubMed

    Varghese, Femina P; Charlton, Shawn R; Wood, Mara; Trower, Emily

    2014-05-01

    Temporal discounting is an indicator of impulsivity that has consistently been found to be associated with risky behaviors such as substance abuse and compulsive gambling. Yet, although criminal acts are clearly risky choice behaviors, no study has examined temporal discounting in the criminal attitudes and behaviors of adult offenders. Yet, such investigations have potential to understand the cognitive processes that underlie various criminal patterns of thinking and may help distinguish between high and low risk offenders. Therefore, the current study endeavored to fill this gap in the literature using 146 male inmates within 5 months of release. Results found that temporal discounting is correlated with reactive criminal thinking but was not correlated with proactive criminal thinking. In addition, inmates with higher rates of incarceration were also more likely to have higher rates of temporal discounting. Results shed light on the different cognitive processes that may underlie different styles of criminal thinking as well as potential differences in the discounting rates depending on history of incarcerations. This finding has implications for service delivery in criminal justice settings as those with reactive criminal thinking may benefit from specialized treatments for temporal discounting. PMID:24635040

  4. Borderline Personality and Criminality

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder is characteristically associated with a broad variety of psychiatric symptoms and aberrant behaviors. In this edition of The Interface, we discuss the infrequently examined association between borderline personality disorder and criminality. According to our review of the literature, in comparison with the rates of borderline personality disorder encountered in the general population, borderline personality disorder is over-represented in most studies of inmates. At the same time, there is considerable variation in the reported rates of this Axis II disorder in prison populations, which may be attributed to the methodologies of and populations in the various studies. Overall, female criminals appear to exhibit higher rates of borderline personality disorder, and it is oftentimes associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse, perpetration of impulsive and violent crimes, comorbid antisocial traits, and incarceration for domestic violence. PMID:20011575

  5. Criminal thinking styles among people with serious mental illness in jail.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amy Blank; Farkas, Kathleen; Ishler, Karen J; Gearhart, Michael; Morgan, Robert; Ashe, Melinda

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the investigation of criminal thinking of persons with mental illness beyond prison and community settings to a jail setting. Participants consisted of 122 individuals incarcerated in a county jail who were diagnosed with a severe mental illness, including schizophrenia spectrum and major mood disorders. Results indicated that people with mental illness in this sample of jail inmates presented with thinking styles that support a criminal lifestyle, and have criminal thinking styles that follow a pattern that is very similar to a sample of prison inmates with serious mental illness. These findings support the need for therapeutic programs for justice-involved persons with serious mental illness to develop a multipronged treatment approach that integrates interventions for individuals' criminal thinking and antisocial attitudes with treatment for their mental illness and substance abuse issues. PMID:24707911

  6. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.410 Criminal mischief. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if... another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat. (b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if...

  7. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.410 Criminal mischief. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if... another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat. (b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if...

  8. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.410 Criminal mischief. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if... another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat. (b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if...

  9. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU OF... Criminal Offenses § 11.410 Criminal mischief. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if he or she: (1... pecuniary loss by deception or threat. (b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if the actor purposely...

  10. 25 CFR 11.410 - Criminal mischief.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Criminal mischief. 11.410 Section 11.410 Indians BUREAU... ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.410 Criminal mischief. (a) A person is guilty of criminal mischief if... another to suffer pecuniary loss by deception or threat. (b) Criminal mischief is a misdemeanor if...

  11. Age and criminal poisonings.

    PubMed

    Stankova, Evgenia; Gesheva, Margarita; Hubenova, Aneta

    2005-01-01

    We present a series of 8 cases of acute combined poisonings, occurred in an identical way in patients over 70 years of age for a period of 6 months. The way of exposure, characteristic of the clinical presentation, complications and the outcome of the intoxications, as well as the therapeutic approach is described. In all of the cases combined drug intoxication with benzodiazepines and opiates have been proved. The impact of the combination of two toxic substances: the first causing rapid and brief suppression of the consciousness and the second, causing prolonged continuation of the already suppressed consciousness, on the clinical course is discussed. The similarities in the circumstances of the exposure, clinical course of the poisonings, the identified toxic substances, lead to the consideration of criminal characteristic of the poisonings. The contact with the corresponding authorities brought off the disclosure of a group of criminals, committed the intentional intoxications with the aim of robbery. Age, with all its various characteristics, has been discussed as a factor for occurrence of criminal poisonings. PMID:16225098

  12. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Community Justice Programs. (5) Special Criminal Justice Projects. (6) Office of Planning and Evaluation. (7... Justice Programs. (4) Office of Operations (including Information Technology and Forensic Toxicology...

  13. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Community Justice Programs. (5) Special Criminal Justice Projects. (6) Office of Planning and Evaluation. (7... Justice Programs. (4) Office of Operations (including Information Technology and Forensic Toxicology...

  14. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Community Justice Programs. (5) Special Criminal Justice Projects. (6) Office of Planning and Evaluation. (7... Justice Programs. (4) Office of Operations (including Information Technology and Forensic Toxicology...

  15. 28 CFR 800.5 - Agency components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Community Justice Programs. (5) Special Criminal Justice Projects. (6) Office of Planning and Evaluation. (7... Justice Programs. (4) Office of Operations (including Information Technology and Forensic Toxicology...

  16. Justice and Negotiation.

    PubMed

    Druckman, Daniel; Wagner, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    This review article examines the literature regarding the role played by principles of justice in negotiation. Laboratory experiments and high-stakes negotiations reveal that justice is a complex concept, both in relation to attaining just outcomes and to establishing just processes. We focus on how justice preferences guide the process and outcome of negotiated exchanges. Focusing primarily on the two types of principles that have received the most attention, distributive justice (outcomes of negotiation) and procedural justice (process of negotiation), we introduce the topic by reviewing the most relevant experimental and field or archival research on the roles played by these justice principles in negotiation. A discussion of the methods used in these studies precedes a review organized in terms of a framework that highlights the concept of negotiating stages. We also develop hypotheses based on the existing literature to point the way forward for further research on this topic. PMID:26273898

  17. Factors associated with experts' opinions regarding criminal responsibility in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Barendregt, Marko; Muller, Eline; Nijman, Henk; de Beurs, Edwin

    2008-01-01

    In many jurisdictions, offenders need to have freely chosen to commit their crimes in order to be punishable. A mental defect or disorder may be a reason for diminished or total absence of criminal responsibility and may remove culpability. This study aims to provide an empirically based understanding of the factors on which experts base their judgements concerning criminal responsibility. Clinical, demographic and crime related variables, as well as MMPI-2 profiles, were collected from final reports concerning defendants of serious crime submitted to the observation clinic of the Dutch Ministry of Justice for a criminal responsibility assessment. Criminal responsibility was expressed along a five-point scale corresponding to the Dutch legal practice. Results showed that several variables contributed independently to experts' opinions regarding criminal responsibility: diagnosis (Axis I and II), cultural background, type of weapon used in committing the crime, and whether the defendant committed the crime alone or with others. In contract to jurisdictions involving a sane/insane dichotomy, the Dutch five-point scale of criminal responsibility revealed that Axis II personality disorders turned out to be mostly associated with a diminished responsibility. MMPI-2 scores also turned out to have a small contribution to experts' opinions on criminal responsibility, independently of mere diagnostic variables. These results suggest that experts base their judgements not only on the presence or absence of mental disorders, but also on cultural and crime related characteristics, as well as dimensional information about the defendant's personality and symptomatology. PMID:18788082

  18. Does substance misuse moderate the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism?

    PubMed Central

    Caudy, Michael S.; Folk, Johanna B.; Stuewig, Jeffrey B.; Wooditch, Alese; Martinez, Andres; Maass, Stephanie; Tangney, June P.; Taxman, Faye S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Some differential intervention frameworks contend that substance use is less robustly related to recidivism outcomes than other criminogenic needs such as criminal thinking. The current study tested the hypothesis that substance use disorder severity moderates the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism. Methods The study utilized two independent criminal justice samples. Study 1 included 226 drug-involved probationers. Study 2 included 337 jail inmates with varying levels of substance use disorder severity. Logistic regression was employed to test the main and interactive effects of criminal thinking and substance use on multiple dichotomous indicators of recidivism. Results Bivariate analyses revealed a significant correlation between criminal thinking and recidivism in the jail sample (r = .18, p < .05) but no significant relationship in the probation sample. Logistic regressions revealed that SUD symptoms moderated the relationship between criminal thinking and recidivism in the jail-based sample (B = −.58, p < .05). A significant moderation effect was not observed in the probation sample. Conclusions Study findings indicate that substance use disorder symptoms moderate the strength of the association between criminal thinking and recidivism. These findings demonstrate the need for further research into the interaction between various dynamic risk factors. PMID:25598559

  19. Criminal Careers and Cognitive Scripts: An Investigation into Criminal Versatility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavin, Helen; Hockey, David

    2010-01-01

    "Criminal careers" denotes ways in which offenders develop specialisms and versatility, but studies linking delinquency to social skills deficits have not attempted to explore cognitive, internalised processes by which such "careers" might be chosen. This study investigated criminal minds via script theory: "internal" scripts are used to guide…

  20. Standards Relating to Schools and Education. Juvenile Justice Standards Project [of the] Institute of Judicial Administration [and the] American Bar Association. Tentative Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    [Buss, William; Goldstein, Stephen

    The standards and commentary in this volume are part of a series designed to cover the juvenile justice system and its relationship to the rights and responsibilities of juveniles. This volume on public education is addressed to legislators, courts, lawyers, educators, parents, students, and the general public. The volume proposes standards…

  1. Advocating for Social Justice: The Context for Change in School Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Margaret R.; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.

    2008-01-01

    Inequalities and disparities abound in U.S. society. Research studies reveal that across the contexts of people's lives--in the workplace, the home, churches, banking and lending, health care, criminal justice system, and schools--unevenness and disparities exist across racial, gender, sexual orientation, language background, ability, and…

  2. School Problems and Learning about Crime and Justice Systems: Principals' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartsch, Robert A.; Cheurprakobkit, Sutham

    2002-01-01

    Examines the attitudes of Texas junior high/middle school and high school principals (n=207). Focuses on the severity of four school problems and the possibility of five criminology and criminal justice concepts. States that these are important for students to learn about to deter school crime. Includes references. (CMK)

  3. Reducing the Harm of Criminal Victimization: The Role of Restitution.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Stacy Hoskins; Cares, Alison C; Ruback, R Barry

    2015-01-01

    Restitution is a court-ordered payment by offenders to their victims to cover the victims' economic losses resulting from the crime. These losses can be substantial and can harm victims and victims' families both directly and indirectly. But most victims do not receive reparation for their injuries, both because judges do not always impose restitution and because of problems with collecting restitution payments, even if there is a court order to do so. In this article, we review the literature on restitution and suggest that this compensatory mechanism is necessary to restore victims to where they were before the crime occurred. But monetary restitution alone is not sufficient. Making victims whole requires not only financial compensation from the offender but also procedural, informational, and interpersonal justice from the criminal justice system. PMID:26118266

  4. [The pedophilic criminal].

    PubMed

    Heim, M; Morgner, J

    1985-02-01

    After a review of the literature dealing with pedophilia, the results of an analysis of 100 forensic psychiatric reports dealing with pedophile criminals are described. They show that, except for a few homosexual pedophiles, pedophilia is a pseudoperversion originating from different developmental conditions and, in individual cases, verifiable personality traits. The authors discuss problems involved in the forensic-psychiatric assessment of these delinquents. Attention is drawn to the necessity of purposeful, coordinated further education in this respect to enable the existing considerable discrepancies between forensic-psychiatric evaluation of these and other sexual deviants to be overcome. PMID:3991810

  5. An Assessment for Criminal Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Kevin; Garner, Bryan R.; Simpson, D. Dwayne; Morey, Janis T.; Flynn, Patrick M.

    2006-01-01

    Risk assessments generally rely on actuarial measures of criminal history. However, these static measures do not address changes in risk as a result of intervention. To this end, this study examines the basic psychometric properties of the TCU Criminal Thinking Scales (TCU CTS), a brief (self-rating) instrument developed to assess cognitive…

  6. A criminal offender introspective report.

    PubMed

    Barnett, O; Barnett, D J

    1975-08-01

    The development of a new scale suitable for research with the criminal offender was described. Based on the factor analysis of an item pool delineating sociopathic personality traits, five factors were derived to compose an 80-item criminal offender introspective report (COIR). PMID:1195092

  7. At a Loss for Words: Nosological Impotence in the Search for Justice.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J

    2016-03-01

    The assessment and trial of Norwegian mass-murderer Anders Breivik, including disparate opinions about his sanity, raise questions about distinguishing "bad" from "mad." Although he was ultimately found criminally responsible, the tenacity and pervasiveness of his beliefs suggested delusional thinking. The author reflects on the difficulty psychiatrists have with nomenclature generally and on the application of imprecise classification to criminal justice. Ideally, a classification system should "carve nature at its joints." Barring that, psychiatry needs operational definitions to appreciate the differences between idiosyncratic, psychotic thinking, and shared subcultural beliefs or ideologies. The concept of extreme overvalued belief provides a basis for making this distinction, when applied in the criminal justice context. PMID:26944742

  8. Imagining Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArdle, Felicity; Knight, Linda; Stratigos, Tina

    2013-01-01

    This article examines how creativity and the arts can assist teachers who teach from a social justice perspective, and how knowledge built through meaningful experiences of difference can make a difference. Just as imagining is central to visual arts practice, so too is the capacity to imagine a necessity for social justice. The authors ask what…

  9. Counseling and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunsaker, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author expands on "The Scandal of Social Work Education," a National Association of Scholars study documenting the commitment to left-wing "social justice" in social work programs at ten major public institutions. He presents a critical exploration of social justice ideology in academic and professional mental health training…

  10. Justice and Lecturer Professionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    Presents a conceptual framework for debating the ethics of pedagogy. The concepts of procedural, retributive, remedial, and distributive justice are presented as a means of incorporating many of the key ethical challenges that confront lecturers new to higher education. Recommends this justice framework as a means of encouraging practitioners to…

  11. Rethinking Conceptual Definitions of the Criminal Career and Serial Criminality.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Arnon

    2016-01-01

    Since Cesare Lombroso's days, criminology seeks to define, explain, and categorize the various types of criminals, their behaviors, and motives. This aim has theoretical as well as policy-related implications. One of the important areas in criminological thinking focuses chiefly on recidivist offenders who perform large numbers of crimes and/or commit the most dangerous crimes in society (rape, murder, arson, and armed robbery). These criminals have been defined as "habitual offenders," "professional criminals," "career criminals," and "serial offenders." The interest in these criminals is a rational one, given the perception that they present a severe threat to society. The main challenge in this area of research is a conceptual problem that has significant effects across the field. To this day, scholars have reused and misused titles to define and explain different concepts. The aim of this article is 3-fold. First, to review the concepts of criminal career, professional crime, habitual offenses, and seriality with a critical attitude on confusing terms. Second, to propose the redefinition of concepts mentioned previously, mainly on the criminal career. Third, to propose a theoretical model to enable a better understanding of, and serve as a basis for, further research in this important area of criminology. PMID:25573845

  12. Relational Restorative Justice Pedagogy in Educator Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaandering, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    What would a professional development experience rooted in the philosophy, principles, and practices of restorative justice look and feel like? This article describes how such a professional development project was designed to implement restorative justice principles and practices into schools in a proactive, relational and sustainable manner by…

  13. New Labour, Social Justice and Disabled Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Tinklin, Teresa; Wilson, Alastair

    2005-01-01

    This article draws on findings from an Economic and Social Research Council funded research project entitled "Disabled Students and Multiple Policy Innovations in Higher Education"(R000239069). It begins with a brief review of theories of social justice and their implications for widening access policies for disabled students. Social justice may…

  14. Art and Social Justice Education: Culture as Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Therese M., Ed.; Ploof, John, Ed.; Hochtritt, Lisa J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Art and Social Justice Education" offers inspiration and tools for educators to craft critical, meaningful, and transformative arts education curriculum and arts integration projects. The images, descriptive texts, essays, and resources are grounded within a clear social justice framework and linked to ideas about culture as commons. Essays and a…

  15. Justice in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Vyskocilová, Jana; Hruby, Radovan; Slepecky, Milos; Latalova, Klara; Prasko, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Justice is one of the fundamental concepts of right ordering of human relationships. Justice is a regulative idea for the arrangement of society preceding the law and already seen in animals; the sense of justice is observed as early as in young children. The ability to altruistic behavior, sense of fairness, reciprocity and mutual help are probably genetically determined as a disposition, which may further develop or be deformed by education. Although justice issues are common in psychotherapy, they may not be reflected and processed in the course of therapy. In psychotherapy, justice issues appear directly in what the client says (mostly about injustice), but more frequently the issues are implicitly contained in complaints and stories against a background of conflicts and problems. They may be related to the client's story, his or her problems with other people, and the therapeutic process itself, including client´s selection of therapy, therapeutic relationship, and therapeutic change strategies. By increasing receptiveness to the issue of justice, the therapist may help improve the therapeutic process. Problems with justice between the therapist and the client may be revealed by honest therapist self-reflection or high-quality supervision. PMID:26812291

  16. 9 CFR 329.9 - Criminal offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal offenses. 329.9 Section 329.9... CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.9 Criminal offenses. The Act contains criminal provisions with respect to numerous offenses specified in the Act, including but not limited...

  17. 9 CFR 381.218 - Criminal offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criminal offenses. 381.218 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.218 Criminal offenses. The Act contains criminal provisions with respect to numerous...

  18. 9 CFR 329.9 - Criminal offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criminal offenses. 329.9 Section 329.9... CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.9 Criminal offenses. The Act contains criminal provisions with respect to numerous offenses specified in the Act, including but not limited...

  19. 9 CFR 381.218 - Criminal offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criminal offenses. 381.218 Section 381... CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Detention; Seizure and Condemnation; Criminal Offenses § 381.218 Criminal offenses. The Act contains criminal provisions with respect to numerous...

  20. 9 CFR 329.9 - Criminal offenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criminal offenses. 329.9 Section 329.9... CERTIFICATION DETENTION; SEIZURE AND CONDEMNATION; CRIMINAL OFFENSES § 329.9 Criminal offenses. The Act contains criminal provisions with respect to numerous offenses specified in the Act, including but not limited...