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1

Protein Composition of a High-Protein Barley Flour and Barley Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot air-dried, proteinaceous by-product from a barley starch pilot plant was compared with the raw material of the process, 10% dehulled barley grain. The by-product, high-protein barley flour, has been used for feeding pigs, cows, and sheep. The proportions of four protein fractions, isolated according to their solubility, and the nonprotein nitrogen content were evaluated. The polypeptide distribution of

R. LINKO; A. LAPVETELAINEN; P. LAAKSO

2

Thermodormancy and ABA metabolism in barley grains  

PubMed Central

Incubation of barley primary dormant grains at 30°C, a temperature at which they cannot germinate results in a reinforcement of their sensitivity to temperature, and in particular in a loss of their ability to germinate at 15–20°C.1 Incubation of the grains at 30°C in the presence of GA3 (1 mM) or of isolated embryos prevents this induction of secondary dormancy. In such a condition, embryo ABA content was lower than that measured in embryos of seeds incubated at 30°C on water. Expression of genes involved in ABA metabolism (HvABA8?OH1, HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) was studied in isolated embryos incubated on water and in the presence of GA3 (1 mM). Expression of HvABA8?OH1, HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 was discussed in relation with ABA content and germination ability at 30°C. PMID:19721750

Benech-Arnold, Roberto L; Farrant, Jill M; Corbineau, Francoise

2009-01-01

3

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy.  

PubMed

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

Nikkhah, Akbar

2012-01-01

4

Allele-Dependent Barley Grain ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high ?-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and ?-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high ?-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the ?-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the ?-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct ?-amy1 alleles. Two of these ?-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain ?-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated ?-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of ?-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkila, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

1998-01-01

5

The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.  

PubMed

The importance of ?-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an ?-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, ?-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the ?-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process. PMID:21098673

Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

2011-02-01

6

Tubing crimping pliers  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

Lindholm, G.T.

1981-02-27

7

cis-trans-Isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids during /?-irradiation of barley grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-irradiating barley grains with doses of 10-100 kGy, a dose dependent isomerization of the naturally occurring cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, cis-vaccenic, linoleic and also of linolenic acid was found. Whereas the effect was negligible up to 10 kGy, at 50 kGy the trans-fatty acid level became comparable to that of other natural products like butter fat which means that there is no essential nutrition danger. The cis-trans-isomerization found in barley grains is explained mainly by a thiyl radical driven process rather than direct isomerization.

Geißler, Christian; Brede, Ortwin; Reinhardt, Jürgen

2003-06-01

8

Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with

J Olsson; T Börjesson; T Lundstedt; J Schnürer

2002-01-01

9

Replacement of soybean meal and barley grain by chickpeas in lamb and kid fattening diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two trials, with 42 early-weaned male Chios lambs and 42 early-weaned Damascus kids, the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal and barley grain with chickpeas on weight changes and feed efficiency was studied. Within trial, animals were divided on the basis of age and liveweight into three groups that were randomly allocated to the concentrate mixtures containing three

M Hadjipanayiotou

2002-01-01

10

Hypoxia interferes with ABA metabolism and increases ABA sensitivity in embryos of dormant barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two mechanisms have been suggested as being re- sponsible for dormancy in barley grain: (i) ABA in the embryo, and (ii) limitation of oxygen supply to the embryo by oxygen fixation as a result of the oxidation of phenolic compounds in the glumellae. The aim of the present work was to investigate whether hypoxia imposed by the glumellae interferes with

Roberto L. Benech-Arnold; Nicolas Gualano; Juliette Leymarie

2006-01-01

11

Endogenous gibberellins and kauranoids identified from developing and germinating barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gibberellins (GAs) and kauranoids were identified in extracts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A partially purified acidic ethyl acetate extract from\\u000a 21-day postanthesis developing barley grain (cv. Proctor) contained GA1 (trace), GA4 (trace), GA8 (trace), GA12, GA17, GA20 (tentative) (trace), GA25, GA34, GA48, 18-hydroxy-GA4, 12?-hydroxy-GA9, and 18-hydroxy-GA34 (tentative). A hydrolyzed butanol extract contained

Paul Gaskin; Sarah Jane Gilmour; John R. Lenton; Jake MacMillan; Valerie M. Sponsel

1983-01-01

12

Differences in Grain Ultrastructure, Phytochemical and Proteomic Profiles between the Two Contrasting Grain Cd-Accumulation Barley Genotypes  

PubMed Central

To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low- grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2), trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars. PMID:24260165

Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Nanbo; Zhang, Mian; Mosaddek Ahmed, Imrul; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2013-01-01

13

A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.  

PubMed

It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

2014-03-01

14

Genotype x environment interaction patterns for grain yield of spring barley in different regions of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

Barley plays an important role in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan and it is grown in many different climate zones over 1.5 min hectares annually. Therefore development of optimal cultivars for specific environments is a major challenge for barley breeding community in Kazakhstan. One of the approaches to address this question is to test large collection of commercial cultivars and advanced lines over a number of environmental sites that reflect major spatial and temporal climate variations in the country. In this work 103 cultivars and advanced lines of spring barley bred in six different breeding stations of Kazakhstan were grown in different testing sites in seven regions over 2009-2011 years. The major tasks of this research were to evaluate genotype x x environment interactions and assess grain yield in associations with developmental stages of barley, such as heading date and seed maturation date. The results suggest that (i) heading and seed maturation dates are significantly correlated with grain yield in specific regions and may have opposite correlation indexes in response to environmental conditions; (ii) accessions of different bred origin vary in their ability to exhibit environmentally-dependent plastic responses; (iii) spatial variation was more important than temporal variation in GxE interactions; (iv) biplot analysis is effective approach in identification of best suitable and stable accessions for both broad and narrow environments. The obtained results are further contribution to understanding of complex mechanisms of genotype x environment interactions. PMID:23668088

Turuspekov, Y; Sariev, B; Chudinov, V; Sereda, G; Tokhetova, L; Ortaev, A; Tsygankov, V; Doszhanov, M; Volis, S; Abugalieva, S

2013-02-01

15

GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1972-01-01

16

A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer,

Birgitte Tauris; Sřren Borg; Per L. Gregersen; Preben B. Holm

2009-01-01

17

Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb

2005-01-01

18

Barley grain constituents, starch composition, and structure affect starch in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The relationship between starch physical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis was determined using ten different hulless barley genotypes with variable carbohydrate composition. The ten barley genotypes included one normal starch (CDC McGwire), three increased amylose starches (SH99250, SH99073, and SB94893), and six waxy starches (CDC Alamo, CDC Fibar, CDC Candle, Waxy Betzes, CDC Rattan, and SB94912). Total starch concentration positively influenced thousand grain weight (TGW) (r(2) = 0.70, p < 0.05). Increase in grain protein concentration was not only related to total starch concentration (r(2) = -0.80, p < 0.01) but also affected enzymatic hydrolysis of pure starch (r(2) = -0.67, p < 0.01). However, an increase in amylopectin unit chain length between DP 12-18 (F-II) was detrimental to starch concentration (r(2) = 0.46, p < 0.01). Amylose concentration influenced granule size distribution with increased amylose genotypes showing highly reduced volume percentage of very small C-granules (<5 ?m diameter) and significantly increased (r(2) = 0.83, p < 0.01) medium sized B granules (5-15 ?m diameter). Amylose affected smaller (F-I) and larger (F-III) amylopectin chains in opposite ways. Increased amylose concentration positively influenced the F-III (DP 19-36) fraction of longer DP amylopectin chains (DP 19-36) which was associated with resistant starch (RS) in meal and pure starch samples. The rate of starch hydrolysis was high in pure starch samples as compared to meal samples. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate both in meal and pure starch samples followed the order waxy > normal > increased amylose. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) increased with a decrease in amylose concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed a higher polydispersity index of amylose in CDC McGwire and increased amylose genotypes which could contribute to their reduced enzymatic hydrolysis, compared to waxy starch genotypes. Increased ?-glucan and dietary fiber concentration also reduced the enzymatic hydrolysis of meal samples. An average linkage cluster analysis dendrogram revealed that variation in amylose concentration significantly (p < 0.01) influenced resistant starch concentration in meal and pure starch samples. RS is also associated with B-type granules (5-15 ?m) and the amylopectin F-III (19-36 DP) fraction. In conclusion, the results suggest that barley genotype SH99250 with less decrease in grain weight in comparison to that of other increased amylose genotypes (SH99073 and SH94893) could be a promising genotype to develop cultivars with increased amylose grain starch without compromising grain weight and yield. PMID:21462932

Asare, Eric K; Jaiswal, Sarita; Maley, Jason; Bĺga, Monica; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

2011-05-11

19

Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.  

PubMed

In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

2013-04-01

20

Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation  

PubMed Central

In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

Leymarie, Juliette

2013-01-01

21

Root colonization by Piriformospora indica enhances grain yield in barley under diverse nutrient regimes by accelerating plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of a broad range of mono- and dicotyledonous plants. It confers enhanced growth, improves resistance against\\u000a biotic and tolerance to abiotic stress, and enhances grain yield in barley. To analyze mechanisms underlying P. indica-induced improved grain yield in a crop plant, the influence of different soil nutrient levels and enhanced biotic stress\\u000a were

Beate Achatz; Sibylle von Rüden; Diana Andrade; Elke Neumann; Jörn Pons-Kühnemann; Karl-Heinz Kogel; Philipp Franken; Frank Waller

2010-01-01

22

A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of storage products during the development of field-grown barley grains using a grain-specific microarray assembled in our laboratory.

Michael Hansen; Carsten Friis; Steve Bowra; Preben Bach Holm; Eva Vincze

2009-01-01

23

Spatio-temporal dynamics of fructan metabolism in developing barley grains.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development follows a series of defined morphological and physiological stages and depends on the supply of assimilates (mainly sucrose) from the mother plant. Here, spatio-temporal patterns of sugar distributions were investigated by mass spectrometric imaging, targeted metabolite analyses, and transcript profiling of microdissected grain tissues. Distinct spatio-temporal sugar balances were observed, which may relate to differentiation and grain filling processes. Notably, various types of oligofructans showed specific distribution patterns. Levan- and graminan-type oligofructans were synthesized in the cellularized endosperm prior to the commencement of starch biosynthesis, while during the storage phase, inulin-type oligofructans accumulated to a high concentration in and around the nascent endosperm cavity. In the shrunken endosperm mutant seg8, with a decreased sucrose flux toward the endosperm, fructan accumulation was impaired. The tight partitioning of oligofructan biosynthesis hints at distinct functions of the various fructan types in the young endosperm prior to starch accumulation and in the endosperm transfer cells that accomplish the assimilate supply toward the endosperm at the storage phase. PMID:25271242

Peukert, Manuela; Thiel, Johannes; Peshev, Darin; Weschke, Winfriede; Van den Ende, Wim; Mock, Hans-Peter; Matros, Andrea

2014-09-01

24

Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

25

The Role of ?-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The importance of ?-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an ?-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, ?-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the ?-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process. PMID:21098673

Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofia; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J.; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

2011-01-01

26

Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

Yu, Peiqiang

2012-05-01

27

Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.  

PubMed

Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower ?-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower ?-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher ?-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of ?-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of ?-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification. PMID:25136990

Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

2014-09-01

28

Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

29

Effects of Zn Fertilization on Hordein Transcripts at Early Developmental Stage of Barley Grain and Correlation with Increased Zn Concentration in the Mature Grain  

PubMed Central

Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers) which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization. PMID:25250985

Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Vincze, Eva

2014-01-01

30

Effects of zn fertilization on hordein transcripts at early developmental stage of barley grain and correlation with increased zn concentration in the mature grain.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers) which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization. PMID:25250985

Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Vincze, Eva

2014-01-01

31

Caspase-Like Activities Accompany Programmed Cell Death Events in Developing Barley Grains  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development. PMID:25286287

Tran, Van; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Thiel, Johannes; Radchuk, Volodymyr

2014-01-01

32

Effects of an exogenous enzyme, Roxazyme Ž G2, on intake, digestion and utilisation of sorghum and barley grain-based diets by beef steers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experiments were undertaken to determine effects of a mixed xylanase and endoglucanase exogenous enzyme (EE) product, RoxazymeŽ G2, on nutrient intake, digestion and feed conversion in beef steers fed sorghum or barley grain-based diets. Sixteen Bos indicus crossbred steers (314.2ą26.07kg) were allocated within stratified liveweight (LW) blocks to four treatments consisting of dry-rolled, sorghum or barley based

D. R. Miller; R. Elliott; B. W. Norton

2008-01-01

33

Doehlert matrix design for optimization of the determination of bound deoxynivalenol in barley grain with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an impediment to barley production in many regions of the world. Tricothecene toxins, associated with FHB-infected grain, particularly, deoxynivalenol (DON), pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Recent research has suggested that a portion of the DON present on grain is bound and escapes detection through conventional determination. The objective of this study was to optimize a method for determination of nonextractable DON in barley grain using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). A Doehlert matrix design was performed to determine the optimal conditions for time, temperature, and TFA concentration. These conditions were treated with 1.25 N TFA in 86:14 acetontrile/water for 54 min at 133 degrees C. Cleanup, derivatization, and determination of DON by a gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was as normal. Treatment of the test sample resulted in the release of an additional 58% DON under the optimized conditions and an increase of 9-88% in a set of verification samples. PMID:18004804

Zhou, Bing; Li, Yin; Gillespie, James; He, Guo-Qing; Horsley, Richard; Schwarz, Paul

2007-12-12

34

Rumen and post abomasal disappearance of amino acids and some nutrients of barley grain treated with sodium hydroxide, formaldehyde or urea in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Four rumen and duodenum cannulated, Holstein lactating cows were used in a change-over design to determine the effects of NaOH, Formaldehyde or Urea treated barley on disappearance of Dry Matter (DM), Crude Protein (CP), Amino Acids (AA), NDF, ADF, hemicelluloses and starch in rumen, Post Abomasal Tract (PAT) and total tract by mobile nylon bag technique. Experimental treatments were coarse milled barley, barley treated with 3.5% NaOH, barley treated with 0.4% formaldehyde and barley treated with 3.5% urea that all chemical treated barley milled coarse before feeding. NaOH Treatment reduced concentrations of Lysine and Cystine in the barley grain. All chemical treatments decreased rumen disappearances of barley CP but only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments also decrease total AA and some of the AA disappearances in the rumen. All chemical treatments increased DM, OM, CP, starch, NDF, ADF and hemicellulose disappearance of barley in the PAT. But only NaOH and Formaldehyde treatments increased total AA and most of AA disappearances in the PAT. Effect of chemical treatments on increase of disappearance of starch, Met and Gly in the total tract was significant (p < 0.05). Rumen disappearance of TAA was lower than CP but PAT disappearance of TAA was more than CP and finally total tract disappearance of TAA was more than CP. Individual AA in barley disappeared at different rates in the rumen and PAT. Consequently, the proportion of digesta CP and AA entering the intestine must be considered. PMID:19069969

Dehghan-Banadaky, M; Nikkhah, A; Amanlo, H; Mesgaran, M Danesh; Mansori, H

2007-05-01

35

Chromium supplementation and substitution of barley grain with corn: effects on metabolite and hormonal responses in periparturient dairy cows.  

PubMed

Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation and dietary grain source on metabolic indices throughout the periparturient period. Cows were fed a total mixed ration with the concentrate portion based on ground barley (barley based diet, BBD)--or ground corn (corn-based diet, CBD) from 21 days before anticipated calving through 28 days after calving. The Cr-Met was supplemented at dosages of 0 or 0.08 mg of Cr/kg of metabolic body weight throughout the experiment. Thus, treatments were in a 2 (Cr-Met) × 2 (grain sources) factorial arrangement. Plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), insulin, glucagon, cortisol and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were not affected by chromium supplementation on calving day (d 0). However, there was a trend for decreased ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and increased cholesterol on d 0 in cows fed the Cr supplemented diet. On d 21 postpartum (wk 3 p.p.), plasma glucagon concentration tended to be greater in cows fed the Cr supplemented diet. However, other plasma metabolite and hormone measures were not affected by Cr supplementation in wk 3 p.p. There was no effect of grain source on d 0 plasma metabolic and endocrine measures. In wk 3 p.p., a significant difference was found only for plasma concentration of glucagon that was higher for cows fed the BBD compared with the CBD. There was an interaction of Cr-Met supplementation and grain source in wk 3 p.p. plasma concentration of BUN to decrease in CBD and increase in BBD, supplemented with Cr-Met. No Cr by grain interactions were observed for other plasma metabolic variables on d 0 and in wk 3 p.p. These results indicate that Cr-Met supplementation and substituting barley grain with corn throughout the transition period have only moderate effects on metabolic and endocrine parameters. PMID:21438928

Sadri, H; Rahmani, H R; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Bruckmaier, R M

2012-04-01

36

Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains.  

PubMed

In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial-temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

2014-10-01

37

Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains  

PubMed Central

In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowska, Danuse; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

2014-01-01

38

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

39

The Application of Ultrasonic Inspection to Crimped Electrical Connections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The development of a prototype instrument, based on a modified, commercially available, crimp tool, is demonstrated for applying this technique when wire crimps are installed. The crimp tool has three separate crimping locations that accommodate the three different ferrule diameters. The crimp tool in this study is capable of crimping wire diameters ranging from 12 to 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG). A transducer design is presented that allows for interrogation of each of the three crimp locations on the crimp tool without reconfiguring the device. An analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse is shown to correlate to both crimp location in the tool and the AWG of the crimp/ferrule combination. The detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, is discussed. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2010-01-01

40

Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR.  

PubMed

Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference. Co-inciding retention times indicated the presence of phytate, D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,3,4)P(4), D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4) and D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P(4) in PLP1B mutants as well as the parent variety. In grain extracts from mutant lines PLP1A, PLP2A and PLP3A unusual accumulations of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) were observed whereas phytate and the above-mentioned inositol phosphates were present in relatively small amounts. Assignment of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) was corroborated by precise co-chromatography with a commercial Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) standard and by NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of inositol phosphates during grain development revealed accumulation of phytate and D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4), which suggested the tetrakisphosphate compound to be an intermediate of phytate synthesis. This assumption was strengthened further by phytate degradation assays showing that D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) did not belong to the spectrum of degradation products generated by endogenous phytase activity. Metabolic scenarios leading to accumulation of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) in barley low-phytate mutants are discussed. PMID:11171128

Hatzack, F; Hübel, F; Zhang, W; Hansen, P E; Rasmussen, S K

2001-03-01

41

QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.  

PubMed

Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ?SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ?SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding purposes. PMID:23604470

Emebiri, Livinus C

2013-07-01

42

Energy state and its control on seed development: starch accumulation is associated with high ATP and steep oxygen gradients within barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of oxygen and energy state in development and storage activity of cereal grains is an important issue, but has remained largely uninvestigated due to the lack of appropriate analytical methods. Metabolic profiling, bioluminescence-based in situ imaging of ATP, and oxygen-sensitive microsensors were com- bined here to investigate barley seed development. For the first time temporal and spatial maps

Hardy Rolletschek; Winfriede Weschke; Hans Weber; Ulrich Wobus; Ljudmilla Borisjuk

2004-01-01

43

(/sup 14/C)sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley  

SciTech Connect

Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in (/sup 14/C)sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up (fructose-U-/sup 14/C)sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains.

Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

1984-01-01

44

Energy value of wheat, barley, and wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.  

PubMed

The energy value of wheat, barley, and 2 samples of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (WDDGS) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 15 to 22 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 1 to 15 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. There were 5 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of each of the 2 WDDGS samples (experiment 1), wheat, or barley (experiment 2) that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg such that the same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of the WDDGS samples, wheat, and barley were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of WDDGS1, WDDGS2, wheat, and barley were 939, 947, 899, and 890 g/kg, respectively; the gross energies were 4,838; 4,825; 4,456; and 4,567 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of WDDGS to the RD in experiment 1 linearly decreased (P<0.01) ileal nitrogen and energy digestibilities, total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen, as well as ME and MEn of the TD. In experiment 2, IDE, ME, and MEn in the TD decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of barley in the diets, but wheat inclusion had no effect on the IDE, ME, and MEn of the diets. Wheat inclusion linearly improved (P<0.05) DM and energy utilization in TD. The DE, ME, and MEn of the test ingredients were determined by the regression method in which the test ingredient contribution to DE, ME, and MEn in kilocalories was regressed against the amount of test ingredient in grams. The IDE were 2,001 and 1,831 kcal/kg of DM for WDDGS1 and WDDGS2, respectively. The respective ME and MEn values were 2,644 and 2,464 kcal/kg of DM for WDDGS1 and 2,215 and 2,092 kcal/kg of DM for WDDGS2. The respective IDE, ME, and MEn of wheat for broiler chickens were 3,413; 3,713; and 3,372 kcal/kg of DM. The barley sample evaluated contained 2,364 kcal of IDE, 2,894 kcal of ME, and 2,841 kcal of MEn/kg of DM for broiler chickens. PMID:22802187

Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

2012-08-01

45

Differential changes in grain ultrastructure, amylase, protein and amino acid profiles between Tibetan wild and cultivated barleys under drought and salinity alone and combined stress.  

PubMed

Grain phytochemical profiles were compared in Tibetan wild barley XZ5 (drought-tolerant), XZ16 (salinity/aluminum-tolerant) and cv CM72 (salinity-tolerant) in response to drought and salinity alone and combination (D+S) during anthesis. Total antioxidant capacity assessed by determining ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) in grains increased significantly as follows: D+S>drought>salinity, and XZ5>XZ16>CM72. A marked increase in the total phenol (TP) from individual and combined stresses was observed in XZ5, while a decrease occurred in CM72. Moreover, the activity of ?-/?-amylase in the grains under combined stress was 81.8%/16.9% in XZ5 and 48.6%/18.7% in XZ16 higher than that of CM72. Increases in amino acids, protein content and protein fractions of albumin, globulin, hordein and glutelin were maximised under D+S, with larger values in the Tibetan wild genotypes. Observation with a scanning electron microscopy showed a distinct genotypic difference under D+S; for example, XZ5 and XZ16 maintained a relatively integral starch granule with a greater protein deposit/matrix, while CM72 degraded by pitting. This research expands our understanding of barley drought and salt-tolerance mechanisms and provides possibility of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with both tolerance to drought and salinity. PMID:23871019

Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Cao, Fangbin; Han, Yong; Nadira, Umme Aktari; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2013-12-01

46

Polymorphism in the barley granule bound starch synthase 1 (gbss1) gene associated with grain starch variant amylose concentration.  

PubMed

Granule bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1) accumulation within starch granules and structure of Gbss1 alleles were determined for nine barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes producing amylose-free (undetectable), near-waxy (1.6-4.5%), normal (25.8%), and increased (38.0-40.8%) amylose grain starches. Compared to normal starch granules, GBSS1 accumulation was severely reduced in three near-waxy, slightly reduced in two waxy, and slightly elevated in three increased amylose starches. Gbss1 nucleotide sequence analysis for the nine genotypes distinguished them into three Gbss1 groups with several single-nucleotide polymorphisms. A new unique Q312H substitution within GBSS1 was discovered in near-waxy genotype SB94912 with reduced amylose (1.6%) concentration relative to the other two near-waxy lines, CDC Rattan and CDC Candle (4.5%). The two waxy genotype GBSS1 showed a previously described D287V change for CDC Alamo and a new G513W change for CDC Fibar. Both amino acid alterations are conserved residues within starch synthase domains involved in glucan interaction. The increased amylose genotypes showed several unique nucleotide changes within the second and fourth Gbss1 introns, but only SB94893 GBSS1 showed a unique amino acid substitution, A250T in exon 6. The Gbss1 nucleotide differences were used to design genetic markers to monitor Gbss1 alleles in genotypes with various amylose grain starches. PMID:22950712

Asare, Eric K; Bĺga, Monica; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

2012-10-10

47

Partial replacement of barley grain and soybean meal by fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in diets of growing Awassi lambs.  

PubMed

Effects of partial substitution of barley grain and soybean meal with fleabane (FB) Conyza bonariensis on growth performances and body compositions of 24 male local Awassi lambs were studied. All lambs were male with an average BW of 20.3 kg (s.d. = 2.0 kg) at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six lambs each. Lambs in each group received individually their cereal-soybean-based total mixed rations with levels of FB: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) diet, which replaced similar values of barley and soybean meal. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening experiment lasted 9 weeks, after which all lambs were slaughtered. The composition of nutrients in the C. bonariensis were 89.6%, 15.0%, 28.0%, 30.0% and 10% for organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF and lignin, respectively. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 150 g FB/kg DM diets gained more weight (P < 0.05) than those fed the control and 50 g FB/kg DM diets. The DM intake was lower in lambs fed the highest level of FB compared with intakes of lambs in other treatments. Diet content of FB had significant effect (P < 0.05) on weights of empty body, carcass, gut and external (hide, head and feet) among all animals. However, FB had no effects on lambs' thoracic organs (lungs and heart) and liver. Muscle, bone, omental and mesenteric fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular, pelvic and kidney fat weights (g/kg empty BW) were not affected by FB feeding. Carcass fat was decreased (P < 0.05) by the increase of FB. Total body fat was the same in all animals of the experiment. PMID:23031470

Abo Omar, J M; Omar, M

2012-07-01

48

S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5-44.5 and 9.2-11.3%, respectively, after 18-24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

Gendreau, Emmanuel; Cayla, Thibaud; Corbineau, Françoise

2012-09-01

49

Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.  

PubMed

Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20?°C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10?°C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

2014-06-01

50

Prececal, postileal and total tract starch digestion in ponies fed corn, oats, barley or sorghum grain  

E-print Network

AND STARCH 12 5 APPARENT PRECECAL AND POSTILEAL DRY NATTER DIGESTION 6 APPARENT PRECECAL AND POSTILEAL STARCH DIGESTION 14 16 7 RELATIVE DIGESTION OF STARCH IN SMALL AND LARGE INTESTINE 8 AMYLOSE AND AMYLOPECTIN CONTENT OF GRAINS 18 20 LIST... large quantities of soluble carbohydrate in the large intestine may be the causative agent. The small intestine has the capability to absorb large quantities of carbohydrates. Roberts et sic , (1974) demonstrated the greatest dis- accharidase...

Arnold, Fairfax Ferguson

2012-06-07

51

Supplements of transgenic malt or grain containing (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase increase the nutritive value of barley-based broiler diets to that of maize.  

PubMed

1. A diet with addition to normal barley of malt from transgenic barley expressing a protein engineered, thermotolerant Bacillus (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination has previously been demonstrated to provide a broiler chicken weight gain comparable to maize diets. It also reduced dramatically the number of birds with adhering sticky droppings, but did not entirely eliminate sticky droppings. One of the objectives of the broiler chicken trials reported here was to determine if higher concentrations of transgenic malt could alleviate the sticky droppings. 2. Another aim was to investigate the feasibility of using mature transgenic grain containing the thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase as feed addition and to compare diets containing transgenic grain to a diet with the recommended amount of a commercial beta-glucanase-based product. 3. Inclusion of 75 or 151 g/kg transgenic malt containing 4.7 or 98 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase with 545 or 469 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize yielded a weight gain in Cornish Cross broiler chickens indistinguishable from presently used maize diets. The gene encoding the enzyme is expressed in the aleurone with a barley alpha-amylase gene promoter and the enzyme is synthesised with a signal peptide for secretion into the endosperm of the malting grain. 4. Equal weight gain was achieved, when the feed included 39 g/kg transgenic barley grain [containing 66 mg/kg thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase] and 581 g/kg non-transgenic barley instead of maize. In this case, the gene encoding the enzyme has been expressed with the D-hordein gene (Hor3-1) promoter during grain maturation. The enzyme is synthesised as a precursor with a signal peptide for transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and targeted into the storage vacuoles. Deposition of the enzyme in the prolamin storage protein bodies of the endosperm protects it from degradation during the programmed cell death of the endosperm in the final stages of grain maturation and provides extraordinary heat stability. The large amount of highly active (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase in the mature grain allowed the reduction of the transgenic grain ingredient to 0.2 g/kg diet, thus making the ingredient comparable to that of the trace minerals added to standard diets. 5. A direct comparison using transgenic grain supplement at the level of 1 g/kg of feed with the standard recommended addition of the commercial enzyme preparation Avizyme 1100 at 1 g/kg yielded equal weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency in birds fed a barley-based diet. 6. The production of sticky droppings characteristic of broilers fed on barley diets was avoided with all 9 experimental diets and reduced to the level observed with a standard maize diet by supplementation with transgenic barley. 7. The excellent growth and normal survival of the 400 broilers tested on barley diets supplemented with transgenic grain or malt showed the grain and malt not to be toxic. 8. The barley feed with added transgenic grain or malt containing thermotolerant (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase provides an environmentally friendly alternative to enzyme additives, as it uses photosynthetic energy for production of the enzyme in the grain and thus avoids use of non-renewable energy for fermentation. The deposition of the enzyme in the protein bodies of the grain in the field makes coating procedures for stabilisation of enzyme activity superfluous. 9. Barley feed with the small amount of transgenic grain as additive to normal barley provides an alternative for broiler feed in areas where grain maize cannot be grown for climatic reasons or because of unsuitable soil and thus has to be imported. PMID:12964628

Von Wettstein, D; Warner, J; Kannangara, C G

2003-07-01

52

Variation in the interaction between alleles of HvAPETALA2 and microRNA172 determines the density of grains on the barley inflorescence.  

PubMed

Within the cereal grasses, variation in inflorescence architecture results in a conspicuous morphological diversity that in crop species influences the yield of cereal grains. Although significant progress has been made in identifying some of the genes underlying this variation in maize and rice, in the temperate cereals, a group that includes wheat, barley, and rye, only the dosage-dependent and highly pleiotropic Q locus in hexaploid wheat has been molecularly characterized. Here we show that the characteristic variation in the density of grains along the inflorescence, or spike, of modern cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) is largely the consequence of a perturbed interaction between microRNA172 and its corresponding binding site in the mRNA of an APELATA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, HvAP2. We used genome-wide association and biparental mapping to identify HvAP2. By comparing inflorescence development and HvAP2 transcript abundance in an extreme dense-spike mutant and its nearly isogenic WT line, we show that HvAP2 turnover driven by microRNA 172 regulates the length of a critical developmental window that is required for elongation of the inflorescence internodes. Our data indicate that this heterochronic change, an altered timing of developmental events caused by specific temporal variation in the efficiency of HvAP2 turnover, leads to the striking differences in the size and shape of the barley spike. PMID:24065816

Houston, Kelly; McKim, Sarah M; Comadran, Jordi; Bonar, Nicola; Druka, Ilze; Uzrek, Nicola; Cirillo, Elisa; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Collins, Nicholas C; Halpin, Claire; Hansson, Mats; Dockter, Christoph; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie

2013-10-01

53

Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the nonlinear elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils in a fascicle have a three-dimensional structure at the micron scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this wave form allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form: all integrals become analytic. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendinece.

Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

2005-01-01

54

Elastic Response of Crimped Collagen Fibrils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils have a three-dimensional structure at the micrometer scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this waveform allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendineae

Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

2005-01-01

55

Hydraulic crimping: application to the assembly of tubular components  

Microsoft Academic Search

The crimping process using a polyurethane tool and hydraulic pressure can be used in the assembly of tubular components. This crimping operation was evaluated with the aid of the finite element method (FEM) and its application to the assembly of tubular components was investigated. The goal was to enhance the performance of the assembly by determining the optimum process and

Manas Shirgaokar; Gracious Ngaile; Taylan Altan; Jang-Horng Yu; John Balconi; Richard Rentfrow; W. J. Worrell

2004-01-01

56

The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.  

PubMed

A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains. PMID:23870025

Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

2013-08-01

57

Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination. PMID:23155447

Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela; Vincze, Eva; Mills, Rebecca F.; Borg, S?ren; M?ller, Annette; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Williams, Lorraine E.; Baekgaard, Lone; Holm, Preben Bach; Palmgren, Michael G.

2012-01-01

58

Effects of yarn crimping on braided composite design allowables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braided composite materials are currently being evaluated for wing skin stiffeners on commercial aircraft. These carbon-fiber/epoxy materials allow for low-cost manufacturing while maintaining high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. The proposed braid architecture consists of axial carbon fiber yarns and braider carbon fiber yarns making 60 deg to 70 deg angles with respect to the axial yarns. These 2-D triaxial braids are produced as long, continuous tubes, which are flattened, cut, and stacked to produce the desired part thickness and shape. When infiltrated with epoxy resin and cured under a compaction pressure, the fiber yarns become crimped, allowing for higher fiber packing. Although high fiber packing is desirable, yarn crimping (especially in the axial fiberyarns) is undesirable. Significant axial yarn crimp angles (greater than 10 deg) have been measured in braided composites. Comparable levels of crimping have been found to produce significant compressive strength reductions in laminated composites consisting of planar fiber sheets. Thus, axial yarn crimping is suspected of producing significant reductions in compressive strength allowables for braided composites. The objective of this research is to quantify the reduction in compressive strength as a function of axial yarn crimp severity. Since crimp severity can be reduced by lowering the compaction pressure during curing, the resulting compressive strengths may be used to determine optimum processing conditions. A 'cure-on-the-loom' manufacturing process was developed to produce braided composites with controlled levels of crimping. This method allowed for controlled levels of tension to be placed on the axial yarns and maintained during the curing process. With increasing tension, the crimp severity in the axial yarns was reduced. Thus, varying crimp severities were produced ranging from conventional levels (greater than 10 deg) to virtually straight axial yarns. Test results indicate that a 30% increase in compressive strength is obtainable by eliminating axial yarn crimping. Further compression testing is underway to quantify the relationship between crimp severity and compressive strength. Additional testing is planned to investigate the effect of crimping on the open-hole compressive strength, often considered a more significant design allowable.

Adams, Dan

1995-01-01

59

Water content: a key factor of the induction of secondary dormancy in barley grains as related to ABA metabolism.  

PubMed

Primary dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains germinate at 10-15°C but not at 30°C, and there exist a positive correlation between embryo ABA content after 24?h on water and the depth of dormancy. Incubation at 30°C results in a progressive loss of the ability to germinate at 15°C. This induction of a secondary dormancy is optimal after 3?days and requires an embryo water content higher than 0.50?g H?O g?š DW, this corresponding with activation of the cell cycle. There exists no correlation between ABA content after 3?days at 30°C and the induction of secondary dormancy. However, at high water content (1.60-1.87?g H?O g?š DW), secondary dormancy is associated with an high embryo ABA content after transfer to 15°C, resulting from an increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression and a decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Such changes are not observed at 0.45?g H?O g?š DW. Incubation at 30°C also results in an increase in expression of genes involved in GA catabolism (HvGA2ox1, HvGA2ox3 and HvGA2ox5) and synthesis (HvGA3ox2, HvGA20ox1 and HvGA20ox3). The HvGA3ox2/HvGA2ox3 transcript ratio remains low (0.27-0.37) at 30°C and after transfer to 15°C in secondary dormant seeds, but it is higher than two when secondary dormancy is not induced. Changes in HvExpA11 expression indicate that GA signaling decreases when a secondary dormancy is expressed. Our results clearly indicate that expression of genes involved in ABA and GA metabolism differs in primary and secondary dormancies and furthermore, their expression is related to embryo water content. PMID:23061651

Hoang, Hai Ha; Sotta, Bruno; Gendreau, Emmanuel; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

2013-06-01

60

The hydroxycinnamic acid content of barley and brewers' spent grain (BSG) and the potential to incorporate phenolic extracts of BSG as antioxidants into fruit beverages.  

PubMed

The hydroxycinnamic acid (HA) content of starting barley for brewers' spent grains (BSG), whole BSG and phenolic extracts from BSG was measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and correlated with antioxidant potential. The effect of BSG phenolic extracts on antioxidant activity of fruit beverages was also assessed (using the total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays). The concentration of HA present in barley extract and BSG was in the order of ferulic acid (FA), p-coumaric acid (p-CA) derivatives, FA derivatives, p-CA, caffeic acid (CA) and CA derivatives. Results suggested that brewing and roasting decreased the HA content. Antioxidant activity was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with caffeic acid (R(2)=0.8309) and total HA (R(2)=0.3942) concentrations. Addition of extracts to fruit beverages resulted in a significant (P<0.05) increase in antioxidant activity of cranberry juice, measured by the FRAP assay. In vitro digestion significantly (P<0.05) reduced TPC, DPPH and FRAP activity of the fruit beverages. PMID:23870996

McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Neugart, Susanne; Piggott, Charles O; Connolly, Alan; Jansen, Marcel A K; Krumbein, Angelika; Schreiner, Monika; FitzGerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

2013-12-01

61

Different Hormonal Regulation of Cellular Differentiation and Function in Nucellar Projection and Endosperm Transfer Cells: A Microdissection-Based Transcriptome Study of Young Barley Grains1[W  

PubMed Central

Nucellar projection (NP) and endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are essential tissues in growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, responsible for nutrient transfer from maternal to filial tissues, endosperm/embryo nutrition, and grain development. A laser microdissection pressure catapulting-based transcriptome analysis was established to study NP and ETC separately using a barley 12K macroarray. A major challenge was to isolate high-quality mRNA from preembedded, fixed tissue while maintaining tissue integrity. We show that probes generated from fixed and embedded tissue sections represent largely the transcriptome (>70%) of nonchemically treated and nonamplified references. In NP, the top-down gradient of cellular differentiation is reflected by the expression of C3HC4-type ubiquitin ligases and different histone genes, cell wall biosynthesis and expansin/extensin genes, as well as genes involved in programmed cell death-related proteolysis coupled to nitrogen remobilization, indicating distinct areas simultaneously undergoing mitosis, cell elongation, and disintegration. Activated gene expression related to gibberellin synthesis and function suggests a regulatory role for gibberellins in establishment of the differentiation gradient. Up-regulation of plasmalemma-intrinsic protein and tonoplast-intrinsic protein genes indicates involvement in nutrient transfer and/or unloading. In ETC, AP2/EREBP-like transcription factors and ethylene functions are transcriptionally activated, a response possibly coupled to activated defense mechanisms. Transcriptional activation of nucleotide sugar metabolism may be attributed to ascorbate synthesis and/or cell wall biosynthesis. These processes are potentially controlled by trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase, as suggested by expression of their respective genes. Up-regulation of amino acid permeases in ETC indicates important roles in active nutrient uptake from the apoplastic space into the endosperm. PMID:18784282

Thiel, Johannes; Weier, Diana; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Weichert, Nicola; Melzer, Michael; Czauderna, Tobias; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede

2008-01-01

62

Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize at high measurement temperatures. . The simplicity of these techniques makes it possible to attach thermocouples quickly. . These techniques can be used to attach thermocouples at locations where access is somewhat restricted by the surrounding objects.

Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

2006-01-01

63

Regulation of cell cycle activity in the embryo of barley seeds during germination as related to grain hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various studies indicate that cell division is a post- germination phenomenon, with radicle protrusion oc- curring by cell elongation, while others demonstrate that induction of the cell cycle occurs in osmo- conditioned seeds prior to radicle growth. The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to grain hydration, using:

Emmanuel Gendreau; S. Romaniello; S. Barad; J. Leymarie; R. Benech-Arnold; F. Corbineau

2008-01-01

64

Germinated Barley Foodstuff Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contained glutamine-rich protein and the hemicellulose-rich fiber was made from brewer’s spent grain by physical isolation (milling and sieving). Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the fiber fraction of GBF supports maintenance of epithelial cell populations, facilitates epithelial repair, and suppresses epithelial nuclear factor ?B-DNA binding activity through generating increased short-chain fatty

Osamu Kanauchi; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Keiichi Mitsuyama

2001-01-01

65

2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman  

E-print Network

2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman Dry conditions in May was one of the driest in a hundred years at Moccasin. Continuous crop barley grain yields were near long/a. For many central Montana barley producers, 2009 will be remembered as a year with outstanding test weights

Maxwell, Bruce D.

66

Chemical Reaction-Induced Multi-molecular Polarization (CRIMP).  

PubMed

Here we present a novel hyperpolarization method, Chemical Reaction-Induced Multi-molecular Polarization (CRIMP), which could be applied to the study of several in vivo processes simultaneously including glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis and pH mapping. Through the use of non-enzymatic decarboxylation, we generate four hyperpolarized imaging agents from hyperpolarized 1,2-(13)C pyruvic acid. PMID:25224323

Lee, Y; Zacharias, N M; Piwnica-Worms, D; Bhattacharya, P K

2014-10-01

67

Comparison of hull-less barley, barley, or corn for lactating cows: effects on extent of digestion and milk production.  

PubMed

Six lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare the effects of hull-less barley with barley and corn on ruminal fermentation, rate of passage, flow of nutrients to the duodenum, and milk production. Diets consisted of 60% concentrate, 30% barley silage, and 10% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Concentrates contained steam-rolled grains: hull-less barley, barley, or corn. Dry matter intake was unaffected by grain source, but starch intake tended to be greatest when hull-less barley or corn was fed. The barley diet was more degradable in the rumen than was the hull-less barley or corn diet, and, therefore, flow of microbial organic matter to the duodenum was greatest for cows fed the barley diet. Flow of microbial N to the duodenum was greater (50 g/d) for cows fed the barley diet than for cows fed the other diets, and the flow of ruminally undegradable N was greater (43 and 28 g/d) for cows fed the hull-less barley and corn diets, respectively, than for cows fed the barley diet. As a result, flow of nonammonia N to the duodenum was unaffected by grain source. Total tract apparent digestibility was highest for cows fed the barley and corn diets. Despite its low digestibility, cows fed the hull-less barley diet produced a similar amount of milk as did cows fed the barley and corn diets. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of processing hull-less barley on its utilization by dairy cows. PMID:9361219

Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M; Rode, L M

1997-10-01

68

of the exposed germ, which may reduce germination and emergence. Yields of current hulless barley lines  

E-print Network

of the exposed germ, which may reduce germination and emergence. Yields of current hulless barley barley until it is nearly mature. The glumes begin to separate from the seed when it is almost mature and become to- tally separated when the grain is combined. The grain of hulless barley looks more like wheat

Liskiewicz, Maciej

69

Differences in phytase activity and phytic acid content between cultivated and Tibetan annual wild barleys.  

PubMed

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau in China is considered to be one of the original centers of cultivated barley. At present, little is known about the phytase activity (Phy) or phytic acid content (PA) in grains of Tibetan annual wild barley. Phy and PA were determined in grains of 135 wild and 72 cultivated barleys. Phy ranged from 171.3 to 1299.2 U kg(-1) and from 219.9 to 998.2 U kg(-1) for wild and cultivated barleys, respectively. PA and protein contents were much higher in wild barley than in cultivated barley. Tibetan annual wild barley showed a larger genetic diversity in phytase activity and phytic acid and protein contents and is of value for barley breeding. There is no significant correlation between phytase activity and phytic acid or protein content in barley grains, indicating that endogenous phytase activity had little effect on the accumulation of phytic acid. PMID:21047062

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Xu, Yang; Cai, Shengguan; Qiu, Boyin; Zhang, Guoping

2010-11-24

70

Ultrasonics Equipped Crimp Tool: A New Technology for Aircraft Wiring Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of poor mechanical and electrical quality will result in low temporal output and will distort the spectrum into unique and predictable patterns, depending on crimp "quality". This inexpensive, real-time measurement system can provide certification of crimps as they are made and recertification of existing wire crimps currently in service. The measurements for re-certification do not require that the wire be disconnected from its circuit. No other technology exists to measure in-situ the condition of wire joints (no electrical currents through the crimp are used in this analytical technique). We discuss the signals obtained from this instrument, and correlate these signals with destructive wire pull tests.

Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, Elliott

2006-01-01

71

Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples  

E-print Network

soft materials such as mineral wool. So-called compression and tearing tests are two meansDigital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples Sandra Bergonnier Mechanical compression and tearing tests are carried out on crimped glass wool samples. The displacement

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

72

Collagen fibres of the spontaneously ruptured human tendons display decreased thickness and crimp angle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To study collagen fibre thickness and crimp formation in healthy and ruptured human tendons.Methods. The thickness, crimp angle and wavelength of the collagen fibres were analyzed by interference and polarization microscopy and the samples were studied by transmission and scanning electron microscopy in four different healthy human tendons (Achilles, Quadriceps, Biceps brachii and Extensor pollicis longus) and in 66

Tero A. H. Järvinen; Teppo L. N. Järvinen; Pekka Kannus; László Józsa; Markku Järvinen

2004-01-01

73

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

74

Repackaging of Two Bulged Crimp Sealed Cans Containing Plutonium Bearing Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cans containing plutonium bearing materials were found during radiography surveillance activities to be bulged. The cans had been stored in DOT 6M shipping containers at the Savannah River Site. The material in the first can (Item CZA96-179) was packaged can\\/bag\\/can configuration with the inner and outer cans being crimp sealed. The crimp sealed innermost can was clearly deformed from

2003-01-01

75

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...101 Grains for which standards are established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and...

2010-01-01

76

A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

77

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

for livestock. On the high plains area barley may be either fall or spring seeded. Fall seeding of IVintex or Tennessee winter types may be winter killed some seasons, but, if they survive, a~re more productive than spring seeded barley. In seasons of ample... Tennessee Winter as a group name includes many strains of barley which are grown in the winter barley area of the United States. In Texas, winter barley has been grown under the names of Tennessee Winter and Texas Winter for many years. The strains cannot...

Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1941-01-01

78

Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae Isolates from Barley Grains Produce New Cereulide-Like Depsipeptides (Paenilide and Homopaenilide) That Are Highly Toxic to Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg?1 of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K+ ions already at 4 mM [K+], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A.; Teplova, Vera V.; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-01-01

79

The effect of partial replacement of barley grains by Prosopis juliflora pods on growth performance, nutrient intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one Awassi male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of replacing barely grains by Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were fed finishing diets and assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments. Treatment diets were no PJP (CON; n=7), 100g\\/kg PJP (PJP100; n=7), and 200g\\/kg PJP (PJP200; n=7). Dry matter

Belal S. Obeidat; Abdullah Y. Abdullah; Fatima A. Al-Lataifeh

2008-01-01

80

The 3D structure of crimps in the rat Achilles tendon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of crimps of the Achilles tendon of rat, excised and processed in a slack condition, was investigated by atomic force microscopy in air, in fluid and by scanning electron microscopy and stereo reconstruction. The tendon was made of distinct fascicles, each comprising a succession of straight segments connected by sharp angles. The length of the segments and the

Mario Raspanti; Alessandro Manelli; Marco Franchi; Alessandro Ruggeri

2005-01-01

81

Mechanical properties of crimped mineral wools: Identication from digital image correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crimped mineral wools are characterized by a strongly anisotropic microstructure, whose local preferential orientation is highly heterogeneous. It is proposed to identify the local anisotropic elastic behavior through a combination of dieren t tools based on image analysis. First, the local orientation map is determined from a reference image. Second, a series of images captured at dieren t loading stages

Jean-Baptiste Rieunierx

82

Benefits of crimped and prestressed CFRP's over noncrimped fibres as reinforcement in machine elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a representative volume element consisted of a single wavy carbon fibre engulfed in a thermoplastic rectangular matrix is studied in order to examine the effect ofnon-crimped carbon fibre, and specifically its waviness, at the mechanical behavior. In order to quantify these influences and their nonlinear elastic behavior, a plane strain analysis of this model was simulated with finite elements.

Kanellopoulos, Ioannis; Vasileiou, Ioannis; Kitsos, Ioannis

2014-10-01

83

Adaptation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to harsh Mediterranean environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the low-rainfall environments of the Middle East, genetic progress in grain yield through direct selection is slow. This study was conducted to identify a combination of traits or plant ideotype in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conducive to adaptation to terminal drought-stressed low-rainfall Mediterranean environments. Thirty-six two-rowed barley entries, ranging from local landraces and breeding lines to European cultivars, were

E. J. Oosterom; E. Acevedo

1992-01-01

84

Barley Seed Son  

E-print Network

, selling fruit, raising and selling pigs, selling produce from greenhouses, driving tractors, and so on. Most families own cows for milk. ?????????????????????????????????????????????????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??... (Video) Barley Seed Son ‘Barley Seed Son’ was told by Rgyal mtshan in A mdo Tibetan. Rta rgyugs, a subdivision of Rka phug Administrative Village, is a farming village located in Khams ra Town, Gcan tsa County Town, Rma lho Tibetan...

Rdo rje don 'grub

2011-01-01

85

Mechanical Properties of Crimped Mineral Wools: Identification from Digital Image Correlation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral wool is usually used for thermal and acoustic insulation with no need for mechanical performances. However there are\\u000a some applications where this material must have a significant stiffness and strength to sustain mechanical loads. Crimping\\u000a is performed to enhance the mechanical properties of mineral wool. As this process is governed by a lot of parameters one\\u000a looks for ways

J.-F. Witz; F. Hild; S. Roux; J.-B. Rieunier

86

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

87

Nutritional value of sorghum grain after treatment with water and enzymes  

E-print Network

supplementation and water treatment for poultry feeds have been conducted with barley. For this reason, the literature on enzyme treat- ments of barley will be reviewed. The difference in nutritional value of' corn and barley for poultry has been recognized.... Water Treatment of Corn and Sorghum Grain A search of the literature revealed no studies on the reconstitution of sorghum grain for poultry feeds. Since reconstituted and. early harvested sorghum grain have been used for cattle, a literature review...

Silva, Paulo Carlos

2012-06-07

88

Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

Carnes, J. G. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

89

Strain heterogeneities and local anisotropy in crimped glass Sandra Bergonnier(1,2), Francois Hild(1), Jean-Baptiste Rieunier(3),  

E-print Network

1. Introduction Mineral wool is a naturally textured material, well-known for its thermalStrain heterogeneities and local anisotropy in crimped glass wool Sandra Bergonnier(1,2), Franc. A Digital Image Correlation method is used to study a compression test carried out on crimped glass wool

Paris-Sud XI, UniversitĂŠ de

90

INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN VPLYV SILÁŽNYCH ADITÍV NA FERMENTÁCIU VLHKÉHO MIAGANÉHO KUKURI?NÉHO ZRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi-experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C), and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A) and chemical (variant B) additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into

Gálik Branislav; A. Hlinku

2008-01-01

91

Characterizing Local Collagen Fiber Re-Alignment and Crimp Behavior Throughout Mechanical Testing in a Mature Mouse Supraspinatus Tendon Model  

PubMed Central

Background Collagen fiber re-alignment and uncrimping are two postulated mechanisms of tendon structural response to load. Recent studies have examined structural changes in response to mechanical testing in a postnatal development mouse supraspinatus tendon model (SST), however, those changes in the mature mouse have not been characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize collagen fiber realignment and crimp behavior throughout mechanical testing in a mature mouse SST. Method of Approach A tensile mechanical testing set-up integrated with a polarized light system was utilized for alignment and mechanical analysis. Local collagen fiber crimp frequency was quantified immediately following the designated loading protocol using a traditional tensile set up and a flash-freezing method. The effect of number of preconditioning cycles on collagen fiber re-alignment, crimp frequency and mechanical properties in midsubstance and insertion site locations were examined. Results Decreases in collagen fiber crimp frequency were identified at the toe-region of the mechanical test at both locations. The insertion site re-aligned throughout the entire test, while the midsubstance re-aligned during preconditioning and the test’s linear-region. The insertion site demonstrated a more disorganized collagen fiber distribution, lower mechanical properties and a higher cross-sectional area compared to the midsubstance location. Conclusions Local collagen fiber re-alignment, crimp behavior and mechanical properties were characterized in a mature mouse SST model. The insertion site and midsubstance respond differently to mechanical load and have different mechanisms of structural response. Additionally, results support that collagen fiber crimp is a physiologic phenomenon that may explain the mechanical test toe-region. PMID:22776688

Miller, Kristin S.; Connizzo, Brianne K.; Feeney, Elizabeth; Soslowsky, Louis J.

2012-01-01

92

Fermentation characteristics and ruminal ciliate protozoal populations in cattle fed medium- or high-concentrate barley-based diets.  

PubMed

Fermentation characteristics were measured and numbers and distribution by genera of ciliate protozoa were determined in ruminal fluid samples collected from 10 ruminally cannulated steers during the first 30 d of their being fed barley-based diets containing 62% (Medium Barley) or 95% (High Barley) barley grain (DM basis). Ruminal samples were collected at 5-d intervals over the 30-d periods beginning after adaptation (i.e., at the first full feeding of each diet). Ruminal pH and ammonia concentrations were lower (P < 0.001) with the High Barley than with the Medium Barley diet. Concentrations of total VFA and propionate and amylase activity of ruminal fluid were higher (P < 0.001) on High Barley than on Medium Barley. Total protozoal numbers in ruminal fluid were 42% lower (P < 0.05) on High Barley (470 x 10(3)/mL) than on Medium Barley (804 x 10(3)/mL). On Medium and High Barley diets, respectively, Entodinium spp. made up 89 and 91% of the ciliate protozoal populations. With the Medium Barley diet, relative proportions of Dasytricha, Ophryoscolex, Ostracodinium, Diplodinium, and Metadinium spp. in the total ciliate population were 4.5, 0.4, 0.5, 0.7, and 0.3%, respectively. When the High Barley diet was fed, these genera were not detected. In a subsequent survey, ruminal samples were collected from 200 finishing cattle at slaughter. Average protozoal population was 328 x 10(3)/mL, and Entodinium spp. constituted 97% of the total. These data demonstrate that a large population of Entodinium spp. can persist in the rumen of cattle fed high barley grain-based finishing diets. PMID:11219463

Hristov, A N; Ivan, M; Rode, L M; McAllister, T A

2001-02-01

93

Senescence, nutrient remobilization, and yield in wheat and barley.  

PubMed

Cereals including wheat and barley are of primary importance to ensure food security for the 21st century. A combination of lab- and field-based approaches has led to a considerably improved understanding of the importance of organ and particularly of whole-plant (monocarpic) senescence for wheat and barley yield and quality. A delicate balance between senescence timing, grain nutrient content, nutrient-use efficiency, and yield needs to be considered to (further) improve cereal varieties for a given environment and end use. The recent characterization of the Gpc-1 (NAM-1) genes in wheat and barley demonstrates the interdependence of these traits. Lines or varieties with functional Gpc-1 genes demonstrate earlier senescence and enhanced grain protein and micronutrient content but, depending on the environment, somewhat reduced yields. A major effort is needed to dissect regulatory networks centred on additional wheat and barley transcription factors and signalling pathways influencing the senescence process. Similarly, while important molecular details of nutrient (particularly nitrogen) remobilization from senescing organs to developing grains have been identified, important knowledge gaps remain. The genes coding for the major proteases involved in senescence-associated plastidial protein degradation are largely unknown. Membrane transport proteins involved in the different transport steps occurring between senescing organ (such as leaf mesophyll) cells and protein bodies in the endosperm of developing grains remain to be identified or further characterized. Existing data suggest that an improved understanding of all these steps will reveal additional, important targets for continued cereal improvement. PMID:24470467

Distelfeld, Assaf; Avni, Raz; Fischer, Andreas M

2014-07-01

94

"Upper Peninsula malting barley variety trial" Jim Islieb, Christian Kapp  

E-print Network

recommendation, weeds controlled with herbicide, and sprayed according to fungicide label instructions at heading to control fusarium and other fungal diseases. #12;3 MEAN 50.03 48.4 CV (%) 16.5 1.5 LSD0.05 ns ns Figure 5 in nitrogen fertility and use of fungicides to improve barley grain quality for malting are underway

95

Repackaging of Two Bulged Crimp Sealed Cans Containing Plutonium Bearing Materials  

SciTech Connect

Two cans containing plutonium bearing materials were found during radiography surveillance activities to be bulged. The cans had been stored in DOT 6M shipping containers at the Savannah River Site. The material in the first can (Item CZA96-179) was packaged can/bag/can configuration with the inner and outer cans being crimp sealed. The crimp sealed innermost can was clearly deformed from the radiography picture taken for surveillance purposes. This material had been stored in the shipping container since the mid 1970s. The second can (Item 50014440) contained plutonium bearing material of a different origin. The material had been repackaged at the Savannah River Site in the mid 1990's, and the repackaged can was stored in a 6M shipping drum. A special puncturing tool, which secured the can and allowed for a very controlled puncture of both outer and inner cans was used in a glovebox. The glovebox has a dry air system and an argon supply. The puncturing tool utilized a non-sparking punch and an argon purge. The cans were repackaged into filtered outer cans. A description of the puncturing tool, repackaging activities, and of the materials will be provided.

Watkins, R.W.

2003-04-29

96

3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.

Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

97

The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer  

SciTech Connect

Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

1997-01-01

98

Two Stage Crimping Dies for Installing Size 8, 4, and 1/0 Electric Connector Contacts on Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design criteria for crimping dies to be used for installing size 8, 4, and 1/0 contacts on their respective wires were developed. The dies were designed to be installed and operated in an MS25441-1 hydraulic head. Developmental models of the dies were...

G. H. Kalen, W. A. Ritchie

1970-01-01

99

An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material. This is exhibited by the exotherm. Heating the so-cooled samples, in general, increases their melting point in almost all samples. Thus melting event is shifted towards higher temperature, except for one sample in which pre-twist level is appreciably high. Thus, DSC is a very useful technique to select and optimize the pre-twist level and may provide quite a significant insight into the thermal stability of the mechanical crimp textured yarn.

Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

2010-06-01

100

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

101

Granary Trial of Protein-Enriched Pea Flour for the Control of Three Stored-Product Insects in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A granary trial was conducted to evaluate the efŢcacy of protein-enriched pea ßour against three common stored-grain insects, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). Six 30-t farm granaries were Ţlled with11 t of barley. The barley was either not treated, treated with protein-enriched pea ßour at 0.1% throughout the entire grain mass, or treated at 0.5%

Xingwei Hou; Paul G. Fields

2003-01-01

102

Spring Small Grains Area Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

1986-01-01

103

cDNA cloning, characterization and expression of an endosperm-specific barley peroxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley peroxidase (BP 1) of pI ca. 8.5 and Mr 37000 has been purified from mature barley grains. Using antibodies towards peroxidase BP 1, a cDNA clone (pcR7) was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The nucleotide sequence of pcR7 gave a derived amino acid sequence identical to the 158 C-terminal amino acid residues of mature BP 1. The

Sřren K. Rasmussen; Karen G. Welinder; Jřrn Hejgaard

1991-01-01

104

Effect of nickel deficiency on soluble anion, amino acid, and nitrogen levels in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. ‘Onda’) plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied either 0 (no Ni added), 0.6, or 1.0 ?M NiSO4. Plants supplied 0 ?M Ni developed Ni deficiency symptoms; Ni deficiency resulted in the disruption of nitrogen metabolism, and affected the concentration\\u000a of malate and various inorganic anions in roots, shoots, and grain of barley.\\u000a \\u000a The concentrations

Patrick H. Brown; Ross M. Welch; James T. Madison

1990-01-01

105

Genetic variation of Bmy1 alleles in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) investigated by CAPS analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ?-amylase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in the grain of malting barley and is encoded by the\\u000a gene Bmy1. To learn more about its structure and function, a total of 657 barley accessions including 541 Hordeum\\u000a vulgare ssp. vulgare (HV), and 116 H.\\u000a vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS) were selected for the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence

Wen Sheng Zhang; Xia Li; Jian Bing Liu

2007-01-01

106

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nřrgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

107

Effect of grain processing on in sacco digestibility and degradability in the rumen.  

PubMed

Effect on nylon-bag digestibility of rolling and steam-flaking as such or followed by grinding through a 1-mm screen was studied in wheat, barley and maize grains. Digestibilities of ground grains were not different, irrespective of rolling or steam-flaking, except flaked and ground barley, which was less digestible than ground barley. Rolled and flaked grains were less digestible than ground grains, except for rolled wheat which was not different from ground wheat. These results suggest that particle size due to grinding is more important than other methods of processing. Dry matter and protein degradabilities of steam-flaked grains were investigated by in sacco technique and compared with unprocessed grains. Dry matter degradability during incubation periods up to 24 h was reduced for steam-flaked wheat and barley, but increased for flaked maize. Protein degradability was lower for flaked grains. PMID:2175587

Fiems, L O; Cottyn, B G; Boucque, C V; Vanacker, J M; Buysse, F X

1990-08-01

108

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

is nrK greatlqdifferent from that of oats or wheat, it pow 1. Perrvton m14. Denton ! I l 2. Etter n 3. Bushland l 4. Wellington l 5. Plainview . 6. Lubbock n 7. Chillicothe n 8. Iowa Park n 9. Spur 010. Abilene e15. Sherman D16. Overton n... their nearest county agricultural agent for moreh tails. Fertilizer recommendations are found In Evta sion Service Fact Sheets. VARIETIES I Most barley varieties of commercial im?ortm in Texas are the common, six-row head type. Om exception is Tokak, a...

Atkins, I. M.; Gardenshire, J. H.; McDaniel, M. E.; Porter, K. B.

1969-01-01

109

Genetic diversity in Ethiopian barley in relation to altitude  

Microsoft Academic Search

A representative sample of the Ethiopian barley collection, maintained at the Ethiopian Plant Genetic Resources Centre (PGRC\\/E), was studied for its phenotypic diversity for some agronomic characters, i.e. kernel row number, spike density, spikelets per spike, caryopsis type, kernel colour, thousand grain weight, days to maturity and plant height. The diversity was estimated by using the Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H')

J. M. M. Engels

1994-01-01

110

Effects of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen supply on growth and yield of winter barley cultivated in a crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] has been demonstrated to stimulate growth of C3 crops. Although barley is one of the important cereals of the world, little information exists about the effect of elevated [CO2] on grain yield of this crop, and realistic data from field experiments are lacking. Therefore, winter barley was grown within a crop rotation over

Remy Manderscheid; Andreas Pacholski; Cathleen Frühauf; Hans-Joachim Weigel

2009-01-01

111

Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas  

E-print Network

-glucan content increased water absorption of the flours and moisture content of tortillas. Increased moisture gave softer and more extensible barley tortillas. Reheated and fresh tortillas had similar extensibilities. Reheated tortillas had less moisture...

Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

2012-06-07

112

Separability study of wheat and small grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (principal investigators)

1978-01-01

113

Rapid LC-MS-based metabolomics method to study the Fusarium infection of barley.  

PubMed

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to evaluate the potential of nontarget metabolomic fingerprinting in order to distinguish Fusarium-infected and control barley samples. First, the sample extraction and instrumental conditions were optimized to obtain the broadest possible representation of polar/medium-polar compounds occurring in extracts obtained from barley grain samples. Next, metabolomic fingerprints of extracts obtained from nine barley varieties were acquired under ESI conditions in both positive and negative mode. Each variety of barley was tested in two variants: artificially infected by Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of heading and a control group (no infection). In addition, the dynamics of barley infection development was monitored using this approach. The experimental data were statistically evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differentiation of barley in response to F. culmorum infection was feasible using this metabolomics-based method. Analysis in positive mode provided a higher number of molecular features as compared to that performed under negative mode setting. However, the analysis in negative mode permitted the detection of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside considered as resistance-indicator metabolites in barley. PMID:24515453

Cajka, Tomas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Dzuman, Zbynek; Vaclavik, Lukas; Ovesna, Jaroslava; Hajslova, Jana

2014-04-01

114

Evaluation of low-phytate corn and barley on broiler chick performance.  

PubMed

Grains produced by low-phytate barley and corn isolines homozygous for each species' respective low phytic acid 1-1 allele were compared to grain produced by near-isogenic normal or wild-type barley and corn in broiler chick feeds. Cobb x Cobb (384) chicks were used in a 10-d study. A randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement of 2 x 2 x 3 was used with 4 replicates (8 chicks / replicate) per treatment. Twelve isocaloric and isonitrogenous treatment diets were formulated to contain 2 types of grain (barley and corn), 2 levels of grain (40% and 60%), and 3 sources of available P (wild-type grain, wild-type P-supplemented grain, and low-phytate grain). Growth parameters, bone parameters, total bone mineral, and apparent digestibilities were measured. The mean growth and bone responses were 1) higher for barley diets compared to corn diets, 2) higher for 60% grain inclusion compared to 40%, 3) higher for low-phytate compared to wild-type grains, and 4) not different for low-phytate compared to P-supplemented wild-type grain diets. Chicks fed low-phytate-based diets excreted 33 and 43% less P than chicks fed wild-type and P-supplemented wild-type diets, respectively. Correlations between percentage bone ash, total bone ash, and bone strength indicated a strong relationship and appear to support the use of bone strength analysis as a simpler method than ash content determination as an indication of P status. Feeding low-phytate grains will reduce the need for supplemental P in chick diets. PMID:14717549

Jang, D A; Fadel, J G; Klasing, K C; Mireles, A J; Ernst, R A; Young, K A; Cook, A; Raboy, V

2003-12-01

115

Barley ?-glucan in poultry diets.  

PubMed

There has been an increased interest in the use of immunomodulators as substitutes for antibiotics in food animal production. Beta-glucans from yeast and fungi may be ideal substitutes because of their positive effects on the avian immune system without adversely affecting poultry performance. Barley ?-glucans, however, have not shown this potential due to the adverse effects dietary inclusion of barley has on poultry performance. PMID:25332996

Jacob, Jacqueline P; Pescatore, Anthony J

2014-02-01

116

Barley ?-glucan in poultry diets  

PubMed Central

There has been an increased interest in the use of immunomodulators as substitutes for antibiotics in food animal production. Beta-glucans from yeast and fungi may be ideal substitutes because of their positive effects on the avian immune system without adversely affecting poultry performance. Barley ?-glucans, however, have not shown this potential due to the adverse effects dietary inclusion of barley has on poultry performance. PMID:25332996

Pescatore, Anthony J.

2014-01-01

117

Albinism in barley androgenesis.  

PubMed

Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley anthers and microspores in vitro cultures. Of special interest is the fate of plastids throughout androgenesis, which is important at several levels, including the genes responsible for driving the green-to-albino ratios. We also summarize the external factors that reduce the incidence of albino plants that are regenerated via androgenesis. PMID:24326697

Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

2014-03-01

118

Testing of the Pole Face Winding crimpings Measurements carried out on the 100 PS main units before start up of the PS machine in 2007  

E-print Network

The crimpings of the Pole Face Windings (PFW), used to connect the rectangular copper conductor of the main windings with its supply cable, could have defects due to the manufacture process. They could lead to an extensive high electrical resistance. To locate these defects, the PFW are powered with 80 Ampere DC and the voltage drop over the electrical resistances of the crimping is measured. The measurements are done between the PFW current leads and the corresponding pick-up. By subtracting the resistance of the supply cable and the interconnection cable the crimping resistance is calculated. During the long shutdown 2005 and the annual shutdown 2006/2007 a total of 34 main units, and their PFWs, have been refurbished [1]. The refurbished main units are equipped with new PFW. On this PFW the crimping technique was improved and the defect of high crimping contact resistance should not appear. Nevertheless to have complete picture of the situation the 34 refurbished main units and the 66 none refurbished unit...

Hans, O

2007-01-01

119

Interfibre Failure Characterisation of Unidirectional and Triax Glass Fibre Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-plane failure envelopes of unidirectional (UD) laminae in a UD and a Triax (0°, ą45°) laminate configuration have been investigated. The two laminate configurations have been characterised by testing off-axis specimens in uniaxial tension and compression at different angles relative to the fibre direction and further by Iosipescu shear tests. Strain gauge and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were used to measure the deformation states during loading, and to record the stress-strain responses to identify the initiation of failure and investigate the heterogeneity of the material and possible parasitic effects. A novel analysis methodology to determine the so-called `failure initiation strength' based on the second derivative of the stresses with respect to the strains has been adopted. The experimentally determined `failure initiation stresses' were compared with predictions from the commonly applied Maximum Stress, Tsai-Wu, and Puck failure criteria. From this work, a thorough comparison of the UD and Triax failure envelopes has been facilitated. It is shown that failure prediction for the Triax laminate based on the failure envelope derived from UD lamina tests may be too conservative in comparison with fitting a failure criterion directly to the Triax laminate test data. The latter approach implies that the Triax laminate is considered as a single lamina with homogenised properties, which in principle violates the theoretical background of the considered failure criteria, since these are established to predict failure for a UD lamina. However, the simple homogenisation is shown to be a useful design oriented approach for providing a simple estimation of the onset of failure in laminate configurations composed of e.g., multiple layers of Triax. Thus, a reliable and efficient approach is offered for the structural integrity assessment, which takes the non-crimp fabric configurations directly or `as delivered' into account.

Laustsen, S.; Lund, E.; Kühlmeier, L.; Thomsen, O. T.

2014-05-01

120

Small Grains for Forage.  

E-print Network

oats in the Gulf (hag 1 area and South Texas. Abruzzi rye is adapted in the Norteast Texas area, and Bronco oats is adapted for late production for hay or silage. Several new varieties, including Gator and Elbon rye and Mid-South oat\\, show promise...'1,rilic is scetletl exclusively for I :i,l/i~lq than in the other Texas , II(,I\\ Oats and rye are the prin- 1 (I~J,~I \\1n;111 grain crops in East Tex- I,I[\\ ant1 barley on the Coast ic (~ntl Rio Grancle Plain and , ,,,,,,i~ ;~ntl oats in Central...

Holt, Ethan C.

1959-01-01

121

Nutrient retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys.  

PubMed

1. The experimental barley samples included 4 hulled and one hull-less low-phytate barley cultivars and two commercial barley varieties as controls. 2. The diets were provided in meal form, with the experimental barley samples constituting the cereal source. Two additional treatments were added for each of the control varieties in which intermediate and recommended levels of phosphorus were provided. 3. A completely randomised design was used with 5 replicates of 5 chicks per treatment. The chicks were grown from 2 to 14 d of age with excreta collected over the subsequent 3 d. 4. Although total phosphorus levels were similar for all barley samples, there were large differences in their phytate content, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 13.8 g/kg. M2 955 hulled barley exhibited the lowest phytate and the highest phosphorus solubility. 5. There was a negative linear relationship between grain phytate and weight gain and with bone ash. The low-phytate hulled barleys M2 955 and the low-phytate hull-less barley (lpa1-1H) gave better feed conversion (8%) than controls. The hull-less low-phytate barley gave significantly higher total phosphorus (18%) and soluble phosphorus retention (23%) than the hull-less control. The low-phytate samples tended to give lower excreta phosphorus levels (total and soluble), but the effect was significant only for the hull-less samples. Amino acid retention was significantly higher for the low-phytate hull-less barley than the control (4%). 6. Overall, the results suggest that using low-phytate barley can result in similar growth while using less supplemental phosphorus, reducing waste phosphorus by more than 50%. PMID:18568757

Salarmoini, M; Campbell, G L; Rossnagel, B G; Raboy, V

2008-05-01

122

Performance of two strains of laying hens fed ground and whole barley with and without access to insoluble grit.  

PubMed

The live performance from 19 to 43 wk of age of two strains of commercial White Leghorn hens fed two levels of whole barley (0 or 60%) and insoluble grit (0 or 4 g/bird per wk) was compared. The 0 and 60% whole barley diets differed only in feed form and were formulated to the same nutrient specifications. No dilution of nutrients or ingredients occurred. The 0% whole barley diet was fed in mash form. The 60% whole barley diet was fed as whole grain and mash concentrate blended into a complete diet and fed in the same feed trough. Feeding whole barley reduced egg production, feed efficiency, and egg specific gravity and increased feed intake, egg weight, and body weight gain. Access to insoluble grit had no effect on any of the production variables measured. The two strains of hens responded similarly to whole barley but differed in feed intake, feed efficiency, egg weight, egg specific gravity, and body weight gain. Feeding whole barley combined with a mash concentrate depressed hen performance compared to birds fed a similar diet in mash form. Strain of hen and access to insoluble grit did not alter the response to feeding whole barley. PMID:12580257

Bennett, C D; Classen, H L

2003-01-01

123

Comparison of black, purple, and yellow barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many barley landraces are purple-or black-seeded, but the chemical composition of these purple-and black- seeded barley is rarely examined. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine if the chemical composition of purple and black barleys differs from that of yellow barleys. Four sets of genetic materials were used for these studies: 96 doubled-haploid (DH) lines, 10 near-isogenic lines, 40 landraces, and

Thin Meiw Choo; Bernard Vigier; Keh Ming Ho; Salvatore Ceccarelli; Stefania Grando; Jerome D. Franckowiak

2005-01-01

124

Combining Ability of Waterlogging Tolerance in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waterlogging tolerance is one of the major objectives in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. To make the selection more efficient, an understanding of the genetic behavior of waterlogging tolerance in barley is needed. For this purpose, a 6 by 6 half diallel analysis was conducted in barley from crosses of three waterlog- ging tolerant Chinese cultivars and three susceptible

M. X. Zhou; H. B. Li; N. J. Mendham

2007-01-01

125

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-12-01

126

Characteristics of the active transport of peptides and amino acids by germinating barley embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of two different assays involving either radioactively labelled substrates or a fluorescent-labelling procedure, gave good agreement for the rates of transport of peptides and amino acids into the scutellum of germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Maris Otter, Winter). However, evidence was obtained for the enzymic decarboxylation of transpored substrate, which can cause underestimates of transport rates when

D. J. Walker-Smith; J. W. Payne

1984-01-01

127

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

1986-04-01

128

Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.  

PubMed

Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements. PMID:23194550

Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

2013-02-15

129

Isozymes in wheat-barley hybrid derivative lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymogram analysis was used to identify the barley chromosomes that carry the structural genes for particular isozymes. Wheat, barley, and wheatbarley hybrid derivative lines (which contained identified barley chromosomes) were tested by gel electrophoresis for isozymes of particular enzymes. It was found that barley chromosome 4 carries structural genes for acid phosphatase and ß amylase isozymes, barley chromosome 5 carries

A. Powling; A. K. M. R. Islam; K. W. Shepherd

1981-01-01

130

Chromosomal loci associated with endosperm hardness in a malting barley cross.  

PubMed

A breeding objective for the malting barley industry is to produce lines with softer, plumper grain containing moderate protein content (9-12%) as they are more likely to imbibe water readily and contain more starch per grain, which in turn produces higher levels of malt extract. In a malting barley mapping population, 'Arapiles' × 'Franklin', the most significant and robust quantitative trait locus (QTL) for endosperm hardness was observed on the short arm of chromosome 1H, across three environments over two growing seasons. This accounted for 22.6% (Horsham 2000), 26.8% (Esperance 2001), and 12.0% (Tarranyurk 2001) of the genetic variance and significantly increased endosperm hardness by 2.06-3.03 SKCS hardness units. Interestingly, Arapiles and Franklin do not vary in Ha locus alleles. Therefore, this region, near the centromere on chromosome 1H, may be of great importance when aiming to manipulate endosperm hardness and malting quality. Interestingly, this region, close to the centromere on chromosome 1H, in our study, aligns with the region of the genome that includes the HvCslF9 and the HvGlb1 genes. Potentially, one or both of these genes could be considered to be candidate genes that influence endosperm hardness in the barley grain. Additional QTLs for endosperm hardness were detected on chromosomes 2H, 3H, 6H and 7H, confirming that the hardness trait in barley is complex and multigenic, similar to many malting quality traits of interest. PMID:20830465

Walker, Cassandra K; Panozzo, J F; Ford, R; Eckermann, P; Moody, D; Lehmensiek, A; Appels, R

2011-01-01

131

Comparative expression analysis of dehydrins between two barley varieties, wild barley and Tibetan hulless barley associated with different stress resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought, salinity and cold are the major environmental factors impacting on survival and productivity of Tibetan hulless barley\\u000a in Tibetan Plateau of China. Tibetan hulless barley cultivar, Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1, has developed a strong tolerance and\\u000a adaptation to stresses in relation to the wild barley. The differences of dehydrin gene transcription and translation between\\u000a Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1 and

Jun-Bo DuShu; Shu Yuan; Yang-Er Chen; Xin Sun; Zhong-Wei Zhang; Fei Xu; Ming Yuan; Jing Shang; Hong-Hui Lin

2011-01-01

132

Transglycosylation by barley ?-amylase 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transglycosylation activity of barley ?-amylase 1 (AMY1) and active site AMY1 subsite mutant enzymes was investigated. We report here the transferase ability of the V47A, V47F, V47D and S48Y single mutants and V47K\\/S48G and V47G\\/S48D double mutant AMY1 enzymes in which the replaced amino acids play important role in substrate binding at subsites at ?3 through ?5. Although mutation

János A. Mótyán; Erika Fazekas; Haruhide Mori; Birte Svensson; Péter Bagossi; Lili Kandra; Gyöngyi Gyémánt

2011-01-01

133

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley.  

PubMed

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamč, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

134

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley  

PubMed Central

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talame, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

135

Adaptive climatic molecular evolution in wild barley at the Isa defense locus  

PubMed Central

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) represents a significant genetic resource for crop improvement in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and for the study of the evolution and domestication of plant populations. The Isa gene from barley has a putative role in plant defense. This gene encodes a bifunctional ?-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor that inhibits the bacterial serine protease subtilisin, fungal xylanase, and the plant's own ?-amylase. The inhibition of plant ?-amylases suggests this protein may also be important for grain quality from a human perspective. We identified 16 SNPs in the coding region of the Isa locus of 178 wild barley accessions from eight climatically divergent sites across Israel. The pattern of SNPs suggested a large number of recombination events within this gene, indicating that the low-outcrossing rate of wild barley is not a barrier to recombinant haplotypes becoming established in the population. Seven amino acid substitutions were present in the coding region. Genetic diversity for each population was calculated by using Nei's diversity index, and a Spearman rank correlation was carried out to test the association between gene diversity and 16 ecogeographical factors. Highly significant correlations were found between diversity at the Isa locus and key water variables, evaporation, rainfall, humidity, and latitude. The pattern of association suggests selective sweeps in the wetter climates, with resulting low diversity and weaker selection or diversifying selection in the dryer climates resulting in much higher diversity. PMID:17301230

Cronin, James K.; Bundock, Peter C.; Henry, Robert J.; Nevo, Eviatar

2007-01-01

136

Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars. All cultivars showed few isoenzymes in early germination. An increase in general activity ensued in the following days when new isoenzymes were detected and those already observed since early germination had their activity increased. All cultivars disclosed increase

J. E. Georg-Kraemer; E. C. Mundstock; S. Cavalli-Molina

2001-01-01

137

RAPD Analysis of Genetic Variation in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation between wild barley lines (Hordeum murinum, Hordeum bulbosum and Hordeum vulgare spontaneum) orig- inated from Turkey were investigated comparatively at the molecular level with the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Leaf DNAs extracted from different barley lines were amplified with randomly chosen primers in a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Rates of polymorphisms between the 23 lines were

Gülruh ALBAYRAK; Nermin GÖZÜKIRMIZI

1999-01-01

138

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the

Carin Jansen; Diter von Wettstein; Wilhelm Schäfer; Karl-Heinz Kogel; Angelika Felk; Frank J. Maier

2005-01-01

139

Transmission of Two Viruses that Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis graminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference.

Stewart M. Gray; Marina C Caillaud; Mary Burrows; Dawn M. Smith

2007-01-01

140

Stem rust, leaf rust, and stripe rust comprise a complex of diseases that reduces wheat and barley  

E-print Network

Stem rust, leaf rust, and stripe rust comprise a complex of diseases that reduces wheat and barley grain production. These rust diseases occur in nearly all areas of the United States and Canada with current wheat varieties, crop growth stage, and weather conditions. Stem rust has been present in North

Murray, Timothy D.

141

Transgenic barley expressing a protein-engineered, thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination.  

PubMed

The codon usage of a hybrid bacterial gene encoding a thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase was modified to match that of the barley (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene. Both the modified and unmodified bacterial genes were fused to a DNA segment encoding the barley high-pI alpha-amylase signal peptide downstream of the barley (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene promoter. When introduced into barley aleurone protoplasts, the bacterial gene with adapted codon usage directed synthesis of heat stable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase, whereas activity of the heterologous enzyme was not detectable when protoplasts were transfected with the unmodified gene. In a different expression plasmid, the codon modified bacterial gene was cloned downstream of the barley high-pI alpha-amylase gene promoter and signal peptide coding region. This expression cassette was introduced into immature barley embryos together with plasmids carrying the bar and the uidA genes. Green, fertile plants were regenerated and approximately 75% of grains harvested from primary transformants synthesized thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination. All three trans genes were detected in 17 progenies from a homozygous T1 plant. PMID:8622963

Jensen, L G; Olsen, O; Kops, O; Wolf, N; Thomsen, K K; von Wettstein, D

1996-04-16

142

Six-rowed barley originated from a mutation in a homeodomain-leucine zipper I-class homeobox gene.  

PubMed

Increased seed production has been a common goal during the domestication of cereal crops, and early cultivators of barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) selected a phenotype with a six-rowed spike that stably produced three times the usual grain number. This improved yield established barley as a founder crop for the Near Eastern Neolithic civilization. The barley spike has one central and two lateral spikelets at each rachis node. The wild-type progenitor (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum) has a two-rowed phenotype, with additional, strictly rudimentary, lateral rows; this natural adaptation is advantageous for seed dispersal after shattering. Until recently, the origin of the six-rowed phenotype remained unknown. In the present study, we isolated vrs1 (six-rowed spike 1), the gene responsible for the six-rowed spike in barley, by means of positional cloning. The wild-type Vrs1 allele (for two-rowed barley) encodes a transcription factor that includes a homeodomain with a closely linked leucine zipper motif. Expression of Vrs1 was strictly localized in the lateral-spikelet primordia of immature spikes, suggesting that the VRS1 protein suppresses development of the lateral rows. Loss of function of Vrs1 resulted in complete conversion of the rudimentary lateral spikelets in two-rowed barley into fully developed fertile spikelets in the six-rowed phenotype. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the six-rowed phenotype originated repeatedly, at different times and in different regions, through independent mutations of Vrs1. PMID:17220272

Komatsuda, Takao; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; He, Congfen; Azhaguvel, Perumal; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Perovic, Dragan; Stein, Nils; Graner, Andreas; Wicker, Thomas; Tagiri, Akemi; Lundqvist, Udda; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Matsuoka, Makoto; Matsumoto, Takashi; Yano, Masahiro

2007-01-23

143

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2014-01-01

144

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2013-01-01

145

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2012-01-01

146

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

Jones, R.L.

1990-02-21

147

Beta Amylase Activity and Thermostability in Two Mutants Derived from the Malting Barley cv. Triumph  

Microsoft Academic Search

The malting barley cultivar, Triumph, and two mutants derived from it with higher (TL9) and lower (TL43) dormancy, respectively, were grown in replicated trials at Lleida, Spain and Dundee, Scotland, in 1999. Measurement ofbeta -amylase in the mature grain showed both mutants to have higher enzyme activity than the parental type with Spanish-grown samples higher in beta -amylase than Scottish-grown.

J. S. Swanston; J. L. Molina-Cano

2001-01-01

148

Genetic analysis of heading date and other agronomic characters in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic analyses of heading date, tiller number, plant height, grain yield, kernel weight, and plump and thin kernels were\\u000a made in three six-rowed barley crosses (Hordeum vulgare L.) involving four cultivars. Six populations, P1 , P2 , F1 , F2 , BC1 , and BC2 , from each cross were grown and evaluated at Fargo and Prosper, North Dakota, 1982.

J. H. Esparza Martínez; A. E. Foster

1998-01-01

149

Genetic architecture of limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) activity in Tibetan wild barley  

PubMed Central

Background Limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) inhibits starch degradation in barley grains during malting because it binds with limit dextrinase (LD). There is a wide genetic variation in LDI synthesis and inactivation during barley grain development and germination. However, the genetic control of LDI activity remains little understood. Results In this study, association analysis was performed on 162 Tibetan wild accessions by using LDI activity, 835 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene HvLDI encoding LDI. Two DArT markers, bpb-8347, bpb-0068, and 31 SNPs of HvLDI were significantly associated with LDI activity, explaining 10.0%, 6.6% and 13.4% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Bpb-8347 is located on chromosome 6H, near the locus of HvLDI, and bpb-0068 is located on 3H. Conclusions The current results confirmed the locus of the gene controlling LDI activity and identified a new DArT markers associated with LDI activity. The SNPs associated with LDI activity may provide a new insight into the genetic variation of LDI activity in barley grains. PMID:24885294

2014-01-01

150

Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.  

PubMed

Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds. PMID:23777405

Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

2013-12-01

151

In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components.  

PubMed

Chemical composition and in vitro digestion properties of select whole grains, before and after processing, and their components were measured. Substrates included barley, corn, oat, rice, and wheat. In addition to whole grain flours, processed substrates also were tested as were corn bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and wheat germ. Processing of most substrates resulted in higher dry matter and digestible starch and lower resistant starch concentrations. Dietary fiber fractions varied among substrates with processing. Digestion profiles for most substrates correlated well with their chemical composition. Corn bran and rice substrates were the least fermentable. Extrusion rendered barley, corn, and wheat more hydrolytically digestible and barley and oat more fermentatively digestible. Except for corn bran, all components had greater or equal fermentability compared with their native whole grains. Understanding digestion characteristics of whole grains and their components will allow for more accurate utilization of these ingredients in food systems. PMID:18983157

Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

2008-11-26

152

Improved palatability and bio-functionality of super-hard rice by soaking in a barley-koji miso suspension.  

PubMed

Cooked grains of ae rice cultivars are too hard and non-sticky due to the presence of long-chain amylopectin, and ae rice cultivars are therefore called ``super-hard rice'' and cannot be used as table rice. However, they are promising in terms of their bio-functionality such as preventing diabetes. Miso (soybean paste) is a yeast-fermented food, made from steamed soybeans, salt, and inoculated cereals known as koji, made from rice, barley, or soybeans.We investigated the effects of soaking ae mutant rice cultivars in a miso suspension. Their chemical components, physical properties, and enzyme activities were measured under different conditions (milled rice before or after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension). Rice grains cooked after soaking in the miso suspension were less hard and more sticky than those cooked after soaking in water. Rice grains cooked after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension maintained high amounts of resistant starch and dietary fiber, and were fortified with polyphenols and isoflavones. Palatable and bio-functional ae rice could therefore be produced by cooking after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension. PMID:24317058

Nakamura, Sumiko; Nakano, Yohei; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

2013-01-01

153

Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.  

PubMed

Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley. PMID:22864927

Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

2012-10-01

154

Structure and chromosomal localization of the gene encoding barley seed peroxidase BP 2A.  

PubMed

A clone, lambda Prx6.1, coding for a barley seed peroxidase (BP; EC 1.11.1.7), was isolated from a genomic library using a cDNA coding for the barley seed peroxidase, BP 1, as a probe. The nucleotide sequence coded for a BP showing 73% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with BP 1 and less than 50% similarity with other sequenced plant peroxidases. The aa composition is 92% identical to that determined for BP 2 purified from mature barley grains, and therefore the gene product is named BP 2A. The alignment suggests that the coding region is interrupted by a 76-bp intron having the consensuses GT and AG, at the 5' and 3' ends, respectively. Alignment with BP 1 suggests that BP 2A has a leader peptide of 36 aa and the mature protein is 319 aa. Alanine and leucine account for 50% of the residues of the leader peptide. Of the codons used 90% have a C or G in the third position. The promoter shows a putative abscisic acid-response element, 5'-GTACGTGTC, 115 bp upstream from the start codon. The BP 2A-encoding gene was RFLP-mapped on barley chromosome 3, and we suggest for this peroxidase locus the name Prx6. PMID:1355062

Theilade, B; Rasmussen, S K

1992-09-10

155

Construction of an RFLP map of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to construct an RFLP map of barley, two populations were analyzed using 251 genomic and cDNA markers: one population comprised 71 F1 antherderived double haploid (DH) individuals of an intraspecific cross (IGRI x FRANKA), and the other 135 individuals of an interspecific F2\\/F3 progeny (VADA x H. spontaneum). The distribution of nonrepetitive clones over the seven barley chromosomes

A. Graner; A. Jahoor; J. Schondelmaier; H. Siedler; K. Pillen; G. Fischbeck; G. Wenzel; R. G. Herrmann

1991-01-01

156

Germanium accumulation and toxicity in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of germanium (Ge) by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. ‘Arivat') grown at various Ge and pH levels was investigated because Ge is an industrially important metal and bioaccumulation of Ge is a potentially useful means of concentrating this trace metal. Six?day?old barley seedlings were grown in perlite and nutrient solution adjusted to a pH of 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5

Stephen J. Halperin; Adam Barzilay; Matthew Carson; Cory Roberts; Jonathan Lynch; Sridhar Komarneni

1995-01-01

157

Characterization of relic DNA from barley genome  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-molecular-weight “relic” DNA fraction can be electrophoretically separated from the bulk of barley DNA digested with different restriction enzymes. We have cloned and analyzed a population of relic DNA fragments. The majority of AluI-relic DNA clones contained barley simple sequence satellite DNA and other families of repetitive DNA. One of these families, designated HvRT, has been analyzed in detail. This

D. A. Belostotsky; E. V. Ananiev

1990-01-01

158

A comparison of leaf thionin sequences of barley cultivars and wild barley species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf thionins of several barley cultivars and wild barley species were analysed. We found large differences in the numbers of leaf thionin genes in different Hordeum species. While, for instance, cultivars of Hordeum vulgare (Section Hordeum) contain more than 50 copies of thionin genes per haploid genome, the numbers are much lower in Hordeum species belonging to the sections Critesion

Susanna Bunge; Jörn Wolters; Klaus Apel

1992-01-01

159

Performance of Small Grain and Flax Varieties, 1958-1961.  

E-print Network

, 1952-61. The solid line indicates the seeded acreage and the broken line the harvested acreage. been a marked increase in acreage of barley, because ol favorable growing seasons, development of well- adapted varieties, use of the crop for winter... Rogers, Cordova, Pace and Texan have given ntl~ pasture. Barley is well adapted in this area and fits factory yields in this area. Cordova and Rogers n1 well into the rotations used. Late-spring freezes the recommended varieties for grain. Goliad m...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Pawlisch, Paul E.; Merkle, Owen G.; Gilmore, Earl C.; Lahr, K. A.

1962-01-01

160

Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare?  

PubMed

If, as hypothesized, neuroactive peptides from grain glutens are the major agents evoking schizophrenia in those with the genotype(s), it should be rare if grain is rare. To test this, we analyzed the results of our clinical examinations (e.g., kuru) and observations of anthropologists on peoples consuming little or no grain. Only two overtly insane chronic schizophrenics were found among over 65,000 examined or closely observed adults in remote regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG, 1950-1967) and Malaita , Solomon Islands (1980-1981), and on Yap , Micronesia (1947-1948). In preneuroleptic Europe over 130 would have been expected. When these peoples became partially westernized and consumed wheat, barley beer, and rice, the prevalence reached European levels. Our findings agree with previous epidemiologic and experimental results indicating that grain glutens are harmful to schizophrenics. PMID:6609726

Dohan, F C; Harper, E H; Clark, M H; Rodrigue, R B; Zigas, V

1984-03-01

161

Haplotyping, linkage mapping and expression analysis of barley genes regulated by terminal drought stress influencing seed quality  

PubMed Central

Background The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress. Results The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II) and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored. Conclusion The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought. PMID:21205309

2011-01-01

162

Fertility in barley flowers depends on Jekyll functions in male and female sporophytes.  

PubMed

• Owing to its evolutional plasticity and adaptability, barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the most widespread crops in the world. Despite this evolutionary success, sexual reproduction of small grain cereals is poorly investigated, making discovery of novel genes and functions a challenging priority. Barley gene Jekyll appears to be a key player in grain development; however, its role in flowers has remained unknown. • Here, we studied RNAi lines of barley, where Jekyll expression was repressed to different extents. The impact of Jekyll on flower development was evaluated based on differential gene expression analysis applied to anthers and gynoecia of wildtype and transgenic plants, as well as using isotope labeling experiments, hormone analysis, immunogold- and TUNEL-assays and in situ hybridization. • Jekyll is expressed in nurse tissues mediating gametophyte-sporophyte interaction in anthers and gynoecia, where JEKYLL was found within the intracellular membranes. The repression of Jekyll impaired pollen maturation, anther dehiscence and induced a significant loss of fertility. The presence of JEKYLL on the pollen surface also hints at possible involvement in the fertilization process. • We conclude that the role of Jekyll in cereal sexual reproduction is clearly much broader than has been hitherto realized. PMID:22269089

Radchuk, Volodymyr; Kumlehn, Jochen; Rutten, Twan; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Radchuk, Ruslana; Rolletschek, Hardy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

2012-04-01

163

Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 ?g/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

Castańares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

2014-06-01

164

Morphological and agronomical diversity patterns in the Spanish barley core collection.  

PubMed

Seven thousand years of barley cultivation under the environmental hardships typical of the Mediterranean climate have generated genetic singularity of the Spanish barleys, consistently reported in the literature. From the Spanish National Collection of 2289 accessions, a core subset with 159 landraces and 16 old varieties was constituted. Twenty-seven characters were evaluated for the core collection, to define the structure of the diversity. Several evaluation trials were carried out in 1999-2000, whereas yield trials were performed in earlier years. Phenotypic diversity was large for most of the characters studied. Comparisons of genetic diversity between the core and the original collections suggested that the core is a good representation of the existing diversity in the BNG. Comparisons with results of studies on Spanish materials from other collections seem to indicate that the Spanish diversity is not well represented in some world collections. Principal component analyses for quantitative and qualitative characters revealed a clear distinction between two- and six-row cultivars, and also between landraces and commercial varieties. Geographical origins of the landraces were correlated with grain yield, heading date, duration of grain filling period, and growth class. In relation to diseases, altitude played an important role on the resistance to powdery mildew and brown rust. For brown rust, all the resistant landraces came from low altitudes. These geographical gradients seemed consistent with prior knowledge about barley adaptation, and would confirm the agreement between passport data and true adaptive origin of these landraces from a geographical point of view. PMID:12152338

Lasa, J M; Igartua, E; Ciudad, F J; Codesal, P; García, E V; Gracia, M P; Medina, B; Romagosa, I; Molina-Cano, J L; Montoya, J L

2001-01-01

165

'Tocol-omic' diversity in wild barley, short communication.  

PubMed

Hordeum spontaneum, wild barley, is the direct progenitor of domestic barley, Hordeum vulgare, an economically important ingredient of animal feed, beer, soy sauce, and more recently, of nutraceuticals. Domestic barley has also been used in the past as a medicine. Barley is a rich source of tocotrienols, with ?-tocotrienol being the most prevalent. Wild barley seeds were harvested from ecogeographically diverse areas across the Fertile Crescent, and the tocopherol (?-?) and tocotrienol (?-?) contents were determined. Diversity differences in individual and total 'tocol' values were significant between and within specific countries, and were significantly correlated with temperature. Wild barley may be used in the future to improve functional qualities of domestic barley. 'Tocolome' and 'tocolomics' are proposed to encompass all tocols and potentially synergy-enhancing 'entourage' compounds that may occur in tocols' 'metabolomic neighborhoods', aiding the standardized manufacture of complex barley derivatives for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical functions. PMID:22162170

Shen, Yu; Lebold, Katie; Lansky, Ephraim Philip; Traber, Maret G; Nevo, Eviatar

2011-12-01

166

11:776:301 Grain Crops (3 credits) Instructor: Albert Ayeni, 2-9711 x211; ayeni@aesop.rutgers.edu  

E-print Network

" or "monocot" plants with fruit described as caryopsis) including wheat, rice, corn (maize), barley, sorghum, millet, triticale, rye, oats, etc.; grain legumes (soybean, black eyed pea) and pseudo grains (amaranth. Global job opportunities in the grain crops industry for the plant science graduate will also be explored

Chen, Kuang-Yu

167

Barley ( Hordeum vulgare )-induced growth inhibition of algae: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many field and laboratory studies have attempted to explain the inhibitory effect of rotting barley on algae. Early field\\u000a studies lacked controls and replication and results depended on visual observations. Such studies offer information on barley\\u000a bale field construction and application rates. In the laboratory, discrepancies in the barley variety used, algal species\\u000a tested, barley liquor preparation and phenol extraction

Daire Ó hUallacháin; Owen Fenton

2010-01-01

168

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley. PMID:23418603

Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Peiguo

2013-01-01

169

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1980-05-29

170

Subcritical Water Extraction of Barley to Produce a Functional Drink  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the effects of various temperatures between 150 and 280 C during subcritical water extraction of barley to make a barley tea-like extract, a popular summer beverage in Japan. Each barley extract was analyzed for sensory properties, antioxida- tive activity, and the amount of residual matter, which revealed 205 C to be the best extraction parameter. 5- Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde was

Aditya KULKARNI; Tadashi YOKOTA; Shin’ichi SUZUKI; Hideo ETOH

2008-01-01

171

Effects of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent of nutrient digestion in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Four lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of grain source and fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion in the rumen and in the intestine, and milk production. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used; two grains (barley and hull-less barley) were combined with and without enzyme. The enzyme supplement (Pro-Mote; Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE) contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities and was applied daily to the total mixed diet. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet, but starch intake was greatest when hull-less barley was fed. Starch from hull-less barley was more digestible in the rumen and in the total tract than was starch from barley, but opposite results occurred for fiber digestion, indicating that hull-less barley depressed fiber digestion. As a result, cows fed the hull-less barley diets tended to produce more milk with a higher milk lactose content than did cows fed the barley diets. Enzyme supplementation had minimal effects on ruminal digestion but increased nutrient digestibility in the total tract and the proportion of microbial N in nonammonia N. Consequently, cows fed diets supplemented with enzyme had a higher milk protein content and tended to produce more 4% fat-corrected milk than did control cows. These results indicate that the use of hull-less barley rather than barley increased the digestible energy intake of dairy cows, resulting in higher milk production. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme mixture enhanced feed digestibility and milk production. PMID:10068959

Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

1999-02-01

172

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

2014-06-01

173

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

174

Variation in 8-ketotrichothecenes and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum isolates from corn and barley in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 214 Fusarium graminearum isolates were obtained from corn and barley which were collected from Kangwon province and the southern part of Korea, respectively,\\u000a and were tested for 8-ketotrichothecenes and zearalenone (ZEA) production on rice grains. The incidences of trichothecene\\u000a production by 105 isolates of F. graminearum from corn were 59.0% for deoxynivalenol (DON), 37.1% for 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol(15-ADON), 13.3%

Jeong-Ah Seo; Jin-Cheol Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Yin-Won Lee

1996-01-01

175

Measurement of Beta -amylase in Malting Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.). II. The Effect of Germination and Kilning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level ofbeta-amylase in germinating barley grain and the kilned malt has been examined by assaying for activity, quantitative ELISA and immunoblotting using antibodies specific tobeta-amylase. During germination there is a substantial increase in combinedbeta-amylase activity; the sum ofbeta-amylase soluble in aqueous salt solutions and that extracted in the presence of ?-mercaptoethanol (ME). Although previous studies have attributed this increase

D. E. Evans; W. Wallace; R. C. M. Lance; L. C. MacLeod

1997-01-01

176

High (1?3,1?4)-?-Glucan Barley Fractions in Bread Making and their Effects on Human Glycemic Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley flour (BF) from whole naked grain and two (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan-enriched fractions, a sieved fraction (SF) and a water-extracted fraction (WF), were produced and mixed with bread wheat flour (BW), for bread-making quality evaluation. Bread was baked in a pilot plant and analysed for sensory properties, proximate composition and (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan content. Four kinds of bread were produced from different mixtures of

A. Cavallero; S. Empilli; F. Brighenti; A. M. Stanca

2002-01-01

177

Availability of phosphorus and trace elements in low-phytate varieties of barley and corn for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately two-thirds of phosphorus in various grains is present as phytate, which is not well-utilized by fish and other monogastric species. Besides its low availability of phosphorus, phytate is reported to reduce the availability of other dietary nutrients to animals. Single-gene, non-lethal low phytic acid (lpa) mutations in corn and barley cause the seed to store most of the phosphorus

Shozo H Sugiura; Victor Raboy; Kevin A Young; Faye M Dong; Ronald W Hardy

1999-01-01

178

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research\\u000a Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs\\/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs\\/female) or Harbu (12\\u000a eggs\\/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The

Muluken Goftishu; Tadele Tefera; Emana Getu

2009-01-01

179

Processing of wild cereal grains in the Upper Palaeolithic revealed by starch grain analysis.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum monococcum L. and Triticum turgidum L.) were among the principal 'founder crops' of southwest Asian agriculture. Two issues that were central to the cultural transition from foraging to food production are poorly understood. They are the dates at which human groups began to routinely exploit wild varieties of wheat and barley, and when foragers first utilized technologies to pound and grind the hard, fibrous seeds of these and other plants to turn them into easily digestible foodstuffs. Here we report the earliest direct evidence for human processing of grass seeds, including barley and possibly wheat, in the form of starch grains recovered from a ground stone artefact from the Upper Palaeolithic site of Ohalo II in Israel. Associated evidence for an oven-like hearth was also found at this site, suggesting that dough made from grain flour was baked. Our data indicate that routine processing of a selected group of wild cereals, combined with effective methods of cooking ground seeds, were practiced at least 12,000 years before their domestication in southwest Asia. PMID:15295598

Piperno, Dolores R; Weiss, Ehud; Holst, Irene; Nadel, Dani

2004-08-01

180

Genetic Dissection of Photoperiod Response Based on GWAS of Pre-Anthesis Phase Duration in Spring Barley  

PubMed Central

Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions), comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1) to long-day (LD) through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH) conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ?20/?16°C day/night). Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS). GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1) and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY) genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley. PMID:25420105

Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Sharma, Rajiv; Pasam, Raj K.; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2014-01-01

181

Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen

1987-01-01

182

Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of

James Cockram; Jon White; Fiona J Leigh; Vincent J Lea; Elena Chiapparino; David A Laurie; Ian J Mackay; Wayne Powell; Donal M O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

183

Pasang Temba 1, Barley and Nawa  

E-print Network

Pasang Temba explains the traditional system under which barley was planted in the Khumbu.These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking...

Loomis, Molly

184

?-amylase Variation in Wild Barley Accessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polymorphisms of ?-amylase among 19 species (27 taxa, 337 accessions) of wild barley, including Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum (174 accessions), H. bulbosum (33), H. murinum (81), H. marinum (28), H. brachyantherum (4), H. jubatum (2), H. chilense (2) and H. roshevitzii (2) were studied using both isoelectric focusing (IEF) and thermostability analysis. Wide genetic variations were found. In general, the

Wensheng Zhang; Takafumi Kaneko; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2004-01-01

185

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community in stored barley in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community composition was studied in nonsterile barley grain. The experiments included following treatments: control barley without mites; barley containing 10 or 50 mites without preincubation on F. poae (Tp10 and Tp50); barley containing 10 or 50 mites after preincubation on F. poae (FTp10 and FTp50). The number of mites, successful transfer of F. poae, and changes in the fungal communities were examined after 21 d of experiment. Increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in the barley was chosen as a criterion of successful F. poae transfer. The preincubation of T. putrescentiae on F. poae increased DON level approximately to 800 and 300 ?g/kg of grain for FTp10 and FTp50, respectively. T. putrescentiae population growth in FTp10 was lower than in Tp10, while no difference was found between FTp50 and Tp50. Fungal communities were compared by amplification, cloning and sequencing of ITS fragments, and operational taxonomic units (OTU) analysis. The OTU analysis did not support the transfer of F. poae via mites. From the analyzed clones, only 13 cloned sequences clustered with F. poae in an OTU defined at distance level 0.07. The related clones originated from FTp10, Tp10, Tp50 and control treatments, but not from FTp50. However, the presence of F. poae in FTp50 was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers. The observation may be explained by different effect of mite population density, that is, in the high density, (FTp50 treatment) the fungus was overgrazed, while the lower population density (FTp10) supported F. poae transfer. PMID:23955921

Hubert, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Kopecký, Jan

2014-02-01

186

Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape  

PubMed Central

Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe. PMID:23081982

Drea, Sinead

2012-01-01

187

Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar ?-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

2011-09-01

188

Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in ?-oxidation.  

PubMed

In oilseed plants, peroxisomal ?-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of ?-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 ?M IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2? mutant for fatty acid ?-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

2014-09-01

189

Genome-wide association mapping for kernel and malting quality traits using historical European barley records.  

PubMed

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Matthies, Inge E; Malosetti, Marcos; Röder, Marion S; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

190

Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in ?-oxidation  

PubMed Central

In oilseed plants, peroxisomal ?-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of ?-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 ?M IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2? mutant for fatty acid ?-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernandez, Jose; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R.; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

2014-01-01

191

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records  

PubMed Central

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Roder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

192

Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.  

PubMed

This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and FullgjřdselŽ 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and FullgjřdselŽ gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28?mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160?kg?N?ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as FullgjřdselŽ NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended. PMID:21746761

Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sřrheim, Roald

2011-12-01

193

Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective  

PubMed Central

The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

Frřlich, Wenche; Ĺman, Per; Tetens, Inge

2013-01-01

194

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.  

PubMed

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley. PMID:24594308

Hymřller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

2014-05-01

195

Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility  

PubMed Central

Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX) and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK) plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs. PMID:24260147

Mrizova, Katarina; Jiskrova, Eva; Vyroubalova, Sarka; Novak, Ondrej; Ohnoutkova, Ludmila; Pospisilova, Hana; Frebort, Ivo; Harwood, Wendy A.; Galuszka, Petr

2013-01-01

196

Effect of supplementation of ewes with barley or maize during the last week of pregnancy on colostrum production.  

PubMed

The experiment tested the hypothesis that short-term feeding of barley just before lambing would be as effective as maize in stimulating early production of colostrum. Both grains are high in starch, and should provide a substrate for lactose which, in turn, promotes lactogenesis. Thirty-five Corriedale ewes bearing single foetuses and 25 bearing twin-foetuses from a synchronised mating were fed on pasture during most of gestation. Fourteen days before the expected time of lambing the single- and twin-bearing ewes were allocated to three treatments and fed (1) a basal diet of lucerne hay to meet their nutrient requirements, (2) the basal diet plus a supplement of whole barley; or (3) the basal diet plus a supplement of cracked maize. The twin-bearing control ewes accumulated more colostrum than the single-bearing control ewes at birth (292 v. 190 g). However, supplementation with barley or maize increased the colostrum at birth to 360 and 541 g in singles and 648 and 623 g in twins. We conclude that barley is a good alternative to maize to stimulate production of colostrum especially in twin-bearing ewes whose lambs are the most likely to benefit from the supplement. PMID:22444419

Banchero, G E; Quintans, G; Vazquez, A; Gigena, F; La Manna, A; Lindsay, D R; Milton, J T B

2007-05-01

197

Effect of grain source and exogenous phytase on phosphorus digestibility in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to determine P digestibility in lactating dairy cows fed corn or barley as grain sources. The first experiment utilized a replicated incomplete 5 x 4 Latin square design with 8 lactating Holstein cows fed diets containing either corn alone or corn in combination with one of 4 barley varieties that differed in chemical composition. Total tract digestibility of P ranged from 11 to 29% for diets containing the barley varieties and was approximately 35% for the corn diet. A second experiment compared P digestibility in cows fed diets containing corn or barley when exogenous phytase was added to the diets. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 16) were arranged in 4 replications of a Latin square with 2 grains (barley or corn), fed separately or with added exogenous phytase (427 phytase units/kg of total mixed ration and 4 periods of 21 d. Phytate P comprised about 50% of the total P (0.46% P) in the total mixed ration. The concentration of serum inorganic P was higher in cows fed diets with exogenous phytase (5.8 vs. 6.5 mg/dL in cows fed barley diets and 5.5 vs 6.0 mg/dL in cows fed corn diets). Using acid detergent lignin as an internal marker, hydrolysis of phytate P was increased by the exogenous phytase, and total P digestibility tended to be increased. In contrast to Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 there was no effect of grain source on P digestibility and total fecal P. Dry matter intake and efficiency of milk production were not affected by exogenous phytase or grain type. Although phytase activity occurs in the rumen, physical properties of the diet and ruminal passage rates may prevent total hydrolysis of phytate in the rumen of lactating cows. Thus, exogenous dietary phytase might improve P digestibility in dairy cows in some dietary situations. PMID:16027204

Kincaid, R L; Garikipati, D K; Nennich, T D; Harrison, J H

2005-08-01

198

Barley doubled-haploid production by uniparental chromosome elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniparental elimination of chromosomes, which occurs in interspecific crosses between Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. bulbosum (bulbous barley grass), is a process which can be used to produce doubled-haploid barley plants in breeding programs. We\\u000a review the procedure of haploid production and the mechanism underlying selective elimination of one of the genomes during\\u000a the early development of species hybrid embryos.

Andreas Houben; Maryam Sanei; Richard Pickering

2011-01-01

199

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley.  

PubMed

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-09-16

200

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-01-01

201

Lysine Catabolism in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Lysine catabolism in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following tracers into the endosperm of the seedlings: aspartic acid-3-14C, 2-aminoadipic acid-1-14C, saccharopine-14C, 2,6-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C, and lysine-1-14C. Labeled saccharopine was formed only after the administration of either labeled 2,6-diaminopimelic acid or labeled lysine to the seedlings. The metabolic fate of the other tracers administered also supported a catabolic lysine pathway via saccharopine, and apparently proceeding by a reversal of some of the biosynthetic steps of the 2-aminoadipic acid pathway known from lysine biosynthesis in most fungi. Pipecolic acid seems not to be on the main pathway of l-lysine catabolism in barley seedlings. PMID:16659552

M?ller, Birger Lindberg

1976-01-01

202

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.  

PubMed

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

2014-01-01

203

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vazquez, Susana C.; Diaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, Maria D.

2014-01-01

204

Characteristics of amino acid uptake in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have the ability to take up organic nitrogen (N) but this has not been thoroughly studied in agricultural plants. A\\u000a critical question is whether agricultural plants can acquire amino acids in a soil ecosystem. The aim of this study was to\\u000a characterize amino acid uptake capacity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from a mixture of amino acids at concentrations

Sandra Jämtgĺrd; Torgny Näsholm; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2008-01-01

205

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly. PMID:21151718

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

206

Whole Grains and Fiber  

MedlinePLUS

... rice bran, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries and apple pulp. Insoluble fiber has been associated with decreased cardiovascular ... You Guide to Lowering Your Cholesterol with TLC - Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes Making Healthy Food and Lifestyle Choices ...

207

Grain Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

Allamandola, L. J.

1992-01-01

208

Expression sites and developmental regulation of genes encoding (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanases in germinated barley.  

PubMed

Expression sites of genes encoding (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) have been mapped in germinated barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) by hybridization histochemistry. A(32)P-labelled cDNA (copy DNA) probe was hybridized to cryosections of intact barley grains to localize complementary mRNAs. No mRNA encoding (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase is detected in ungerminated grain. Expression of (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase genes is first detected in the scutellum after 1 d and is confined to the epithelial layer. At this stage, no expression is apparent in the aleurone. After 2 d, levels of (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase mRNA decrease in the scutellar epithelium but increase in the aleurone. In the aleurone layer, induction of (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase gene expression, as measured by mRNA accumulation, progresses from the proximal to distal end of the grain as a front moving away from, and parallel to, the face of the scutellum. PMID:24226687

McFadden, G I; Ahluwalia, B; Clarke, A E; Fincher, G B

1988-12-01

209

Wild and cultivated barleys show similar affinities for mineral nitrogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of net ammonium influx were very similar among several cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and several accessions of the wild taxa H.v. spontaneum and H. jubatum. For net nitrate influx, variation was greater among accessions than among species; accessions from warmer climates had faster rates than those from colder climates. These data indicate that domestication of barley has

Arnold J. Bloom

1985-01-01

210

Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread  

E-print Network

White, brown, and black sorghum brans, wheat bran, and a waxy barley flour were each substituted for 0-30% of wheat flour in a bread formula. Each of the brans were then combined with the barley flour and substituted for a total of 20...

Gordon, Leigh Ann

2012-06-07

211

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for onl y6ho rsingle transient addition of

Ashraf Metwally; Iris Finkemeier; Manfred Georgi; Karl-Josef Dietz

2003-01-01

212

Microgeographic edaphic differentiation in hordein polymorphisms of wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded by two loci, Hor1 and Hor2, was analyzed electrophoretically in seeds from 123 individual plants of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. The test was conducted in two topographically different 100 meter transects in Israel, each equally divided into basalt and terra rossa soil types. Altogether 15 Hor1 and

E. Nevo; A. Beiles; N. Storch; H. Doll; B. Andersen

1983-01-01

213

Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s21, and simultaneously spreading laterally

Roger S. Pearce; Michael P. Fuller

2001-01-01

214

The USDA barley core collection: genetic diversity, population structure, and potential for genome-wide association studies.  

PubMed

New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait). Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define 'mini-core' sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These 'mini-core' sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of 'hull cover', 'spike row number', and 'heading date' demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections. PMID:24732668

Muńoz-Amatriaín, María; Cuesta-Marcos, Alfonso; Endelman, Jeffrey B; Comadran, Jordi; Bonman, John M; Bockelman, Harold E; Chao, Shiaoman; Russell, Joanne; Waugh, Robbie; Hayes, Patrick M; Muehlbauer, Gary J

2014-01-01

215

Antioxidant vitamins in barley green biomass.  

PubMed

Two malting hulled varieties (Sebastian, Malz) and one nonmalting hull-less variety (AF Lucius) were used to assess vitamins C and E in the green biomass of young plants of spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in three stages of growth and development (BBCH 29, 31, 32-33). The samples from sampling I (BBCH 29) had statistically significantly higher vitamin C content and vitamin E activity compared to sampling I (BBCH 31). The highest average vitamin content was determined in the malting variety Sebastian (vitamin C, 520 mg 100 g(-1) DM; vitamin E, 73.06 mg kg(-1) DM) compared to the varieties Malz (501 mg 100 g(-1) DM; 61.84 mg kg(-1) DM) and AF Lucius (508 mg 100 g(-1) DM; 67.81 mg 100 g(-1) DM). The locality Krome?r?i?z? (Czech Republic, CR), with vitamin C and E contents of 524 mg 100 g(-1) DM and 68.74 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively, proved to be more suitable for growing green biomass compared to the locality Z?abc?ice (CR) (content of vitamins C and E, 477 mg 100 g(-1) DM and 66.39 mg kg(-1) DM, respectively). During the research period (2005-2007), it was determined that the green mass of young plants of spring barley was a significant source of vitamins C and E in the growth stage BBCH 29; in later samplings (BBCH 32-33) the vitamin levels dropped (by as much as 48%). These vitamins are important antioxidants for human health. Therefore, "green barley" can be recommended for the preparation of natural dietary supplements and is preferred to synthetic vitamin preparations. PMID:20973533

Brezinová Belcredi, Natálie; Ehrenbergerová, Jaroslava; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; B?láková, Sylvie; Vaculová, Katerina

2010-11-24

216

Systemic signalling in barley through action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using apoplastic voltage- and ion selective microprobes, in barley leaves action potentials (APs) have been measured, which\\u000a propagate acropetally as well as basipetally from leaf to leaf or from root to leaf following the application of mild salt\\u000a stress (e.g. 30–50 mM KCl or NH4Cl) or amino acids (e.g. 1 mM glutamic acid or 5 mM GABA). Voltage changes were biphasic, followed an

Hubert H. Felle; Matthias R. Zimmermann

2007-01-01

217

Genome analysis of intergeneric hybrids of apomictic and sexual Australian Elymus species with wheat, barley and rye: implication for the transfer of apomixis to cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four hybrids were obtained between three Australian Elymus taxa and three cereal grains: wheat, rye, and barley. Mean meiotic metaphase-I configurations were 41.14 I, 0.42 rod II, 0.003 ring II, and 0.01 III for E. scabrus var ‘plurinervis’ x Triticum aestivum (1 hybrid plant), 22.27 I, 2.63 rod II, 0.06 ring II, and 0.12 III for E. scabrus var ‘scabrus’

J. Torabinejad; R. J. Mueller

1993-01-01

218

Influence of soil tillage methods on the weediness and yields of spring wheat, spring barley and field pea in organic crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of different soil tillage methods - (1) reduced tillage without soil inversion, 8-10 cm (RT), (2) ploughing only 18-25 cm (P) and (3) stubble cultivation, 8-10 cm and ploughing, 18-25 cm (SC+P) on the weediness and yield of grain crops are analysed in this paper. The studies were made in an organic crop rotation: spring barley with undersown

K. Sepp; J. Kanger; M. Särekanno

219

Whole grain consumption has a modest effect on the development of diabetes in the Goto-Kakisaki rat.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence suggests that whole grain intake is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. However, studies of individual whole grains on the prevention of type 2 diabetes are lacking. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of different whole grains on type 2 diabetes in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakisaki (GK) rat. GK rats were fed either a basal diet or a whole grain-containing diet for 5 months. Whole grain diets contained 65 % whole grain flours of wheat, barley, oats or maize. After 2 months of feeding, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were lower in the wheat, barley and oats groups, compared with the basal group, whereas glycated Hb was significantly greater in the wheat group compared with other groups. Feeding of whole barley and maize increased plasma C-peptide concentrations compared with whole wheat at 2 months. There was a trend in the improvement of insulin resistance with a consumption of barley and oats diets at 2 months (P = 0ˇ06) compared with the basal diet. Oxidative stress markers, urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-isoprostane, did not improve with whole grain intake at 2 months. At 5 months, whole grain diets did not differ from the basal diet in glycaemic control, insulin secretion, oxidative stress and preservation of pancreatic ?-cell mass. These results suggest that the consumption of whole grains may offer modest benefit early in the development of type 2 diabetes, but this benefit is lost with further development of the disease. PMID:21733309

Youn, Moonyeon; Csallany, A Saari; Gallaher, Daniel D

2012-01-01

220

Inducers of Glycinebetaine Synthesis in Barley1  

PubMed Central

Glycinebetaine is an osmoprotectant accumulated by barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants in response to high levels of NaCl, drought, and cold stress. Using barley seedlings in hydroponic culture, we characterized additional inducers of glycinebetaine accumulation. These included other inorganic salts (KCl, MgCl2, LiCl, and Na2SO4), oxidants (H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide), and organic compounds (abscisic acid, polymixin B, n-butanol, salicylic acid, and aspirin). Stress symptoms brought on by high NaCl and other inducers, and not necessarily correlated with glycinebetaine accumulation, include wilting, loss of chlorophyll, and increase in thiobarbituric acid reacting substances. For NaCl, Ca2+ ions at 10 to 20 mm decrease these stress symptoms without diminishing, or even increasing, glycinebetaine induction. Abscisic acid induces glycinebetaine accumulation without causing any of the stress symptoms. NaCl, KCl, and H2O2 (but not other inducers) induce glycinebetaine at concentrations below those needed for the other stress symptoms. Mg2+ at 10 to 20 mm induces both stress symptoms and glycinebetaine, but only at low (0.2 mm) Ca2+. Although illumination is needed for optimal induction, a significant increase in the leaf glycinebetaine level is found in complete darkness, also. PMID:11743126

Jagendorf, Andre T.; Takabe, Tetsuko

2001-01-01

221

Barley ?-glucans extraction and partial characterization.  

PubMed

Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of ?-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley ?-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted ?-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted ?-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial ?-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting ?-glucans. PMID:24518319

Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

2014-07-01

222

Subcritical water extraction of barley to produce a functional drink.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of various temperatures between 150 and 280 degrees C during subcritical water extraction of barley to make a barley tea-like extract, a popular summer beverage in Japan. Each barley extract was analyzed for sensory properties, antioxidative activity, and the amount of residual matter, which revealed 205 degrees C to be the best extraction parameter. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde was found to be the major antioxidative component in the 205 degrees C extract, along with the formation of several important amino acids. PMID:18175903

Kulkarni, Aditya; Yokota, Tadashi; Suzuki, Shin'ichi; Etoh, Hideo

2008-01-01

223

Occurrence of type A, B and D trichothecenes in barley and barley products from the Bavarian market.  

PubMed

Fifty-nine samples of barley and barley products were analysed for 18 trichothecene mycotoxins by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (detection limits 0.062-0.70 ?g/kg) after sample extract clean-up on MycoSepŽ-226 columns. The samples were collected in 2009 from barley processing facilities (mills and malt houses) and at wholesale and retail stage from the Bavarian market. The predominant toxins were T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON). For all samples, the mean levels of T-2 and HT-2 were 3.0 ?g/kg and 6.8 ?g/kg with rates of contamination of 63% and 71%, respectively. The maximum values were 40 ?g/kg for T-2 and 47 ?g/kg for HT-2. The rate of contamination with DON was high (95%) with a low mean level of 23 ?g/kg. The DON levels ranged between 3.4 to 420 ?g/kg. For T-2 tetraol, a mean level of 9.2 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 51 ?g/kg with a rate of contamination of 71% were determined. NIV was detected in 69% of the samples with a mean level of 11 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 72 ?g/kg. Other type A and B trichothecenes were detected only in traces. Type D trichothecenes, fusarenon-X, verrucarol and 4,15-diacetylverrucarol were not detected in any sample. Winter barley and malting barley were the most contaminated groups of all samples in this study. In malting barley, the highest levels of contamination with type A trichothecenes were found. In contrast, winter barley showed the highest contamination with type B trichothecenes. The lowest mycotoxin concentrations were found in de-hulled and naked barley and in pearl barley. PMID:23606047

Barthel, Jörg; Gottschalk, Christoph; Rapp, Martin; Berger, Matthias; Bauer, Johann; Meyer, Karsten

2012-05-01

224

The quantum mixed-spin heme state of barley peroxidase: A paradigm for class III peroxidases.  

PubMed Central

Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, at both room temperature and 20 K, are reported, together with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species coexists with 6- and 5-cHS hemes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the currently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling may be necessary for the QS state. PMID:10388773

Howes, B D; Schiodt, C B; Welinder, K G; Marzocchi, M P; Ma, J G; Zhang, J; Shelnutt, J A; Smulevich, G

1999-01-01

225

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.  

PubMed

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

226

Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 ? Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (? -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of ? -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No difference in Chl a/b ratio between variants was observed. A process of photosynthetic apparatus formation was controlled by chlorophyll fluorescence. It was shown that after 24 to 48 hour greening maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was increased in result of maturation of pigment apparatus. Proportion of open PSII (qP) was higher in control plants, especially when intensity of actinic light exceeded growth intensity. Chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) was higher in control plants in comparison with clinorotated ones on a different level of actinic light. Thus clinorotation influences formation of photosynthetic machinery through slowing down pigment biosynthesis and affecting photochemical characteristics.

Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

227

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

228

KTP laser stapedotomy with a self-crimping, thermal shape memory Nitinol piston: follow-up study reporting intermediate-term hearing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was an evaluation of the mid-term hearing results after the implantation of a self-crimping heat memory Nitinol piston in stapes surgery. The 12-month postoperative results were compared with those at a minimum of 3 years (maximum 6.7, average 4.4 years). The medical records of all 44 patients who underwent surgery with a Nitinol piston for stapes fixation between November 2005 and January 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The prostheses used in all cases measured either 4.5 or 4.75 × 0.6 mm. We hypothesized that the 12-month postoperative hearing results would be permanent after an average follow-up of 4.4 years. Thirty-two of the 44 consecutive patients were females and 12 were males. Their mean age was 40.4 years (range 27-69). All underwent a 12-month postoperative audiometric evaluation. 38 (30 females, 8 males, average age 45, range 28-77 years) of the 44 were available for mid-term 4.4-year (minimum 3 years, maximum 6.7 years) postoperative audiometric evaluation. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 12-month postoperative follow-up was 11 dB (SD 4.1) and that after an average 4.4-year postoperative evaluation was 6.4 dB (SD 3.6). The mean decrease in ABG after 12 months was 19.5 dB, and that after the average 4.4 years was 21.3 dB. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.2 % after 12 months and in 89.5 % after the average 4.4 years. No patient with an ABG > 20 dB was recorded after the average 4.4 years. The mean air conduction threshold at 4 kHz was examined pre and postoperatively so as to indicate any possible inner ear damage. At the 12-month follow-up, the difference between the pre and postoperative values was -2.5 dB, whereas after the average 4.4 years the difference was surprisingly +13 dB. The individual AC improvements were also demonstrated with the use of Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots (AHEPs). The Nitinol prosthesis allowed excellent intraoperative handling and no postoperative complication was reported. As compared with conventional stapes prostheses, the Nitinol-based SMart prosthesis is a safe and reliable stapes prosthesis. Our mid-term audiometric evaluations revealed that the audiometric parameters demonstrated a hearing improvement between the postoperative 12-month and average 4.4-year examinations. We consider the elimination of manual crimping and the use of a "non-touch" hand-held laser technique has a positive impact on the mid-term audiometric results. Most of the previous studies presented only relatively short-term (from 6 weeks up to 6-12 months) audiometric evaluations. Complications are rare, but a longer follow-up is needed to establish the long-term stability. PMID:24253384

Gerlinger, Imre; Bakó, Péter; Piski, Zalán; Révész, Péter; Ráth, Gábor; Karosi, Tamás; Lujber, László

2014-12-01

229

Mapping of quantitative trait loci controlling barley flour pasting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pasting properties are important characteristics of barley starch from a processing standpoint. A shorter time to peak viscosity\\u000a and lower pasting temperature are favorable to both malting and food processing. This study was conducted to identify quantitative\\u000a trait loci (QTLs) determining pasting properties of barley flour using a doubled haploid population of 177 lines from the\\u000a cross between six-rowed Yerong

Junmei Wang; Jianming Yang; David McNeil; Meixue Zhou

2010-01-01

230

Analysis of durable resistance to stem rust in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1940's, barley cultivars grown in the northern Great Plains of the USA and Canada have been resistant to stem rust caused byPuccinia graminis f. sp.tritici. This durable resistance is largely conferred by a single gene,Rpg1, derived from a single plant selection of the cultivar Wisconsin 37 and an unimproved Swiss cultivar. At the seedling stage, barley genotypes withRpg1

Brian J. Steffenson

1992-01-01

231

Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with barley malt ?-amylase 2 and co-purified with the ?-amylase by cycloheptaamylose\\u000a affinity chromatography of glycogen precipitates. The inhibitor

John Mundy; IB Svendsen; Jřrn Hejgaard

1983-01-01

232

Effect of Compost and Manure Soil Amendments on Nematodes and on Yields of Potato and Barley: A 7-Year Study  

PubMed Central

A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

Kimpinski, J.; Gallant, C. E.; Henry, R.; Macleod, J. A.; Sanderson, J. B.; Sturz, A. V.

2003-01-01

233

Effect of compost and manure soil amendments on nematodes and on yields of potato and barley: a 7-year study.  

PubMed

A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

Kimpinski, J; Gallant, C E; Henry, R; Macleod, J A; Sanderson, J B; Sturz, A V

2003-09-01

234

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri x H. brevisubulatum) x 'Gull' (2n=7-30) and (H. jubatum x H. lechleri) x 'Gull' (2n=20-22). The first combination invariably had a full complement of seven barley chromosomes plus an additional chromosome no. 7, but a varying number of chromosomes (19-22) of the wild-species hybrid. The second combination had a full set of barley chromosomes. The meiotic pairing was low in both combinations. PMID:24226012

von Bothmer, R; Claesson, L; Flink, J; Linde-Laursen, I

1989-12-01

235

[Pneumopleurocutaneous fistula after inhalation of an ear of barley (Hordeum murinum)].  

PubMed

A 16-month-old boy developed a cutaneous swelling at the base of the right hemithorax with fever. The chest film showed evidence of a very slight pleural effusion and the xerography disclosed subcutaneous emphysema opposite the swelling. Three weeks earlier, the child had been found in a field with an ear of grain in his hand and apparently exhibited a transient episode of choking. An article published several years ago by an anglo saxon author, T.R. Cavens, on pneumocutaneous fistulas secondary to the inhalation of grasses suggested that our patient had a similar condition. The abscess was opened and an ear of barley (Hordeum murinum) was found. Less than ten comparable observations have been published in the literature. We recall a number of botanical facts explaining why an ear of Hordeum murinum can migrate only in the forward direction. PMID:2400189

Dutau, G

1990-06-01

236

Purification of malted-barley endo-beta-D-glucanases by ion-exchange chromatography: some properties of an endo-barley-beta-D-glucanase.  

PubMed

Two endo-beta-D-glucanases which act, respectively, on (1 leads to 3)-beta-D-glucans and barley beta-D-glucan have been isolated from malted barley, and purified by ion-exchange chromatography. The latter enzyme is highly specific for barley beta-D-glucan, and has no action on either (1 leads to 3)- or (1 leads to 4)-beta-D-glucans. It will also act on dyed barley-beta-D-glucan. Certain group-specific reagents inhibit the endo-barley-beta-D-glucanase and the endo-(1 leads to 3)-beta-D-glucanase to similar extents. PMID:947540

Manners, D J; Wilson, G

1976-06-01

237

Protein and hordein fraction content in barley seeds as affected by sowing date and their relations to malting quality*  

PubMed Central

The effect of sowing date on grain protein, hordein fraction content and malting quality of two-rowed spring barley was investigated by using ten commercial cultivars with different grain protein content and the relationships among these traits were examined. The results showed that grain protein content and B hordein content increased as the sowing date postponed and were significantly affected by sowing date, while C and D hordein contents were less influenced by sowing date. There were significant differences in grain protein and hordein fraction content among the ten cultivars. The coefficient of variation of D hordein content was much larger than that of B and C hordein contents, suggesting its greater variation caused by different sowing dates. Beta-amylase activity and diastatic power were also significantly affected by sowing date, with malt extract being less affected. Significant differences in measured malt quality were found among the ten cultivars. Grain protein was significantly correlated with B hordein and malt extract positively and negatively, respectively. There was no significant correlation between beta-amylase activity or diastatic power and grain protein content. B hordein was negatively and significantly correlated with malt extract, but no significant correlations between C hordein, D hordein and malting quality traits. PMID:16252340

Qi, Jun-cang; Chen, Jin-xin; Wang, Jun-mei; Wu, Fei-bo; Cao, Lian-pu; Zhang, Guo-ping

2005-01-01

238

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley Plastidial ADP-Glucose Transporter (HvBT1)  

PubMed Central

In cereals, ADP-glucose transporter protein plays an important role in starch biosynthesis. It acts as a main gate for the transport of ADP-glucose, the main precursor for starch biosynthesis during grain filling, from the cytosol into the amyloplasts of endospermic cells. In this study, we have shed some light on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of barley plastidial ADP-glucose transporter, HvBT1. Phylogenetic analysis of several BT1 homologues revealed that BT1 homologues are divided into two distinct groups. The HvBT1 is assigned to the group that represents BT homologues from monocotyledonous species. Some members of this group mainly work as nucleotide sugar transporters. Southern blot analysis showed the presence of a single copy of HvBT1 in barley genome. Gene expression analysis indicated that HvBT1 is mainly expressed in endospermic cells during grain filling; however, low level of its expression was detected in the autotrophic tissues, suggesting the possible role of HvBT1 in autotrophic tissues. The cellular and subcellular localization of HvBT1 provided additional evidence that HvBT1 targets the amyloplast membrane of the endospermic cells. Biochemical characterization of HvBT1 using E. coli system revealed that HvBT1 is able to transport ADP-glucose into E. coli cells with an affinity of 614.5 ľM and in counter exchange of ADP with an affinity of 334.7 ľM. The study also showed that AMP is another possible exchange substrate. The effect of non-labeled ADP-glucose and ADP on the uptake rate of [?-32P] ADP-glucose indicated the substrate specificity of HvBT1 for ADP-glucose and ADP. PMID:24892865

Soliman, Atta; Ayele, Belay T.; Daayf, Fouad

2014-01-01

239

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses. PMID:23033493

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

240

Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The starchy endosperm of cereals is a priori taken as a metabolically uniform tissue. By applying a noninvasive assay based on 13C/1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, we uncovered metabolic compartmentation in the endosperm. 13C-Suc feeding during grain filling showed that the primary site of Ala synthesis was the central region of the endosperm, the part of the caryopsis experiencing the highest level of hypoxia. Region-specific metabolism in the endosperm was characterized by flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolite profiling. FBA predicts that in the central region of the endosperm, the tricarboxylic acid cycle shifts to a noncyclic mode, accompanied by elevated glycolytic flux and the accumulation of Ala. The metabolic compartmentation within the endosperm is advantageous for the grain's carbon and energy economy, with a prominent role being played by Ala aminotransferase. An investigation of caryopses with a genetically perturbed tissue pattern demonstrated that Ala accumulation is a consequence of oxygen status, rather than being either tissue specific or dependent on the supply of Suc. Hence the 13C-Ala gradient can be used as an in vivo marker for hypoxia. The combination of MRI and metabolic modeling offers opportunities for the noninvasive analysis of metabolic compartmentation in plants. PMID:21856793

Rolletschek, Hardy; Melkus, Gerd; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Fuchs, Johannes; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk; Jakob, Peter M.; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

2011-01-01

241

In situ rumen degradation and in vitro gas production of some selected grains from Turkey.  

PubMed

An investigation of the dry matter degradability (DMD) and effective dry matter degradability (EDDM) was performed for barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oat samples, using the Nylon-bag technique. Gas production (GP), metabolizable energy (ME) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD) were also studied by using Hohenheim gas test. The DM from barley, wheat, rye and triticale was digested rapidly in the rumen, and, at the 48 h of incubation, degradability was found to be approximately about 80%. The higher degradability observed for these grains than for oats and corn was attributable to the structure of these grains. In contrast, DM of corn and oats was degraded very slowly and reached 66.7 and 66.5 at 48 h, respectively. Effective degradability values of barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oats were determined to be 61.4, 69.0, 64.0, 41.7, 66.7 and 58.6% in 5% rumen outflow rate, respectively. At the end of the 48 h incubation, total gas productions in barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oats were estimated to be 83.6, 87.2, 87.5, 83.5, 85.8 and 63.9 ml/200 mg DM, respectively. The mean ME values of these grains calculated from cumulative gas amount at 24 h incubation were 11.8, 12.1, 12.3, 10.9, 12.4 and 10.2 MJ/kg DM, respectively. In vitro digestible organic matter of barley, wheat, rye, corn, triticale and oats were estimated to be 85.0, 87.3, 88.2, 79.5, 89.0 and 72.6%. Percentage overall EDDM (k=5%) of barley, wheat, rye, triticale and oats was positively correlated with in vitro GP at 6 h, cumulative GP at 24 h and total GP at 48 h (p<0.05). As a result, in situ dry matter degradation of grains showed great differences depending on the chemical compositions. In situ EDDM of grains may be predicted from in vitro gas production parameters. PMID:12452970

Umucalilar, H D; Co?kun, B; Gül?en, N

2002-10-01

242

Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains  

PubMed Central

A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined. PMID:16534952

Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

1995-01-01

243

Small Grains and Rye Grass for Winter Pasture.  

E-print Network

t I B?!,!?Y, cl :I oct~E:;E, CAJTPUS R69-237-12m TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A. B. CONNER, DIRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS - - BULJAFA~IN NO. 539 APRIL, 1937 DIVISION OF AGRONOMY SMALL GRAIN AND RYE GRASS... FOR WINTER PASTURE C1 IEI RVCRX; A@cultaral R bchaniml Co!le~~ af Texas AGRICULTURAL AND MECHANICAL COLLEGE OF TEXAS T. 0. WALTON, President Wheat, rye, barley, oats, and rye grass are proving to be valuable for vinter pasture in Texas and worthy of pl...

Stansel, R. H. (Roy Harrison); Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Jones, D. L. (Don L.)

1937-01-01

244

Influence of corn size distribution on the diastatic power of malted barley and its impact on other malt quality parameters.  

PubMed

Detailed studies were carried out on the influence of corn size distribution on the values obtained for diastatic power (DP) of commercially malted barley. Malted barley was screened using a screening box, and the DP activities of the different corns retained on the different compartments of the screening box were determined. The malt samples retained on the 2.8 mm screen had the highest DP activity, whereas the small corns (grains retained on each screen, the results obtained were very similar to those obtained from the mixed, unscreened malt samples. The results indicate that the higher the percentage of large corns in a malt sample, the higher the levels of DP found in the malts. In malt samples from both the Decanter and Maresi varieties/cultivars, regression analysis showed that large corns accounted for 87% of the variation in DP. These studies confirmed that corn size distribution is a very important factor in determining the DP level of malted barley. The study is of commercial significance because within a variety, with a similar range of nitrogen, large corns produce malt of higher DP. When the percentage of large corns is high, this should give extract with improved fermentability (yield of fermentable sugars). The gelatinization properties of different grain size fractions, some of which were malted individually, were also studied using a rapid visco analyzer (RVA), and this showed that kernel size had an important impact on the physical properties and malting performance. PMID:17394341

Agu, R C; Brosnan, J M; Bringhurst, T A; Palmer, G H; Jack, F R

2007-05-01

245

Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.  

PubMed

Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100 kg ha(-1) level. Application of 200 kg K ha(-1) resulted in a five-fold reduction in (137)Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in (137)Cs transfer to crops was correlated with (137)Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of (137)Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect. PMID:24412815

Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

2014-04-01

246

Structure and tissue-specific regulation of genes encoding barley (1----3, 1----4)-beta-glucan endohydrolases.  

PubMed

Two genes encode (1----3, 1----4)-beta-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) isoenzymes in barley. A gene for isoenzyme EI has been isolated from a barley genomic library and the nucleotide sequence of a 4643 bp fragment determined. The gene is located on barley chromosome 5 while the gene for (1----3, 1----4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII is carried on chromosome 1. The isoenzyme EI gene contains a single 2514 bp intron that is inserted in codon 25 of a sequence encoding a signal peptide of 28 amino acids. The coding region of the mature enzyme is characterized by a high G+C content, which results from an extreme bias towards the use of these nucleotides in the wobble base position of codons. Determination of the nucleotide sequence of the gene has enabled the complete primary structure of the enzyme to be deduced: isoenzyme EI shows 92% positional identity with the primary sequence of (1----3, 1----4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII at both the nucleotide and amino acid level. However, the nucleotide sequences of the two genes diverge markedly in their 3' untranslated regions. Expression sites of the two genes were defined by Northern analysis using oligonucleotide probes specific for these 3' untranslated regions and by amplifying specific cDNAs through the polymerase chain reaction. In the tissues examined, transcription of the isoenzyme EII gene is restricted to the aleurone layer of germinated grain. In contrast, the gene for isoenzyme EI is transcribed at relatively high levels in young leaves, but also in the scutellum and aleurone of germinated grain. PMID:2266947

Slakeski, N; Baulcombe, D C; Devos, K M; Ahluwalia, B; Doan, D N; Fincher, G B

1990-12-01

247

[Determination of the percentage of grain whisky in commercial whiskies by isotopic mass spectrometry].  

PubMed

Commercial whisky is generally a blend between malt whisky and grain whisky. Corn is one of the main sources of grain and it is now well known that in corn the carbon dioxide assimilation proceeds through carboxylation of phosphoenolpyruvate but in many other plants like barley atmospheric carbon dioxide is fixed on ribulose 1,5 diphosphate. Each pathway of carbon dioxide assimilation is characterized by a fractionation factor of carbon isotopes. Consequently, the organic matter and also the fermentation alcohol of corn or barley show different 13C/12C ratio. The determination of the 13C/12C ratio in the alcohol of blended whisky allows the determination of the percentage of corn whisky. PMID:754596

Koziet, J; Bricout, J; Azoulay, N

1978-01-01

248

Identification of wheat-barley addition lines with N-banding of chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven chromosomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have been identified individually by their distinctive N-banding pattern. Furthermore all of the barley chromosome N-banding patterns were found to be recognizably different from those exhibited by wheat chromosomes, making it possible to identify individual barley chromosomes when present in a wheat background. N-banding has therefore been used to identify the individual barley

A. K. M. R. Islam

1980-01-01

249

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Piston, Fernando; Martin, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

250

A putative role for amino acid permeases in sink-source communication of barley tissues uncovered by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of nitrogen accumulating in cereal grains originates from proteins remobilised from vegetative organs. However, interactions between grain filling and remobilisation are poorly understood. We used transcriptome large-scale pyrosequencing of flag leaves, glumes and developing grains to identify cysteine peptidase and N transporter genes playing a role in remobilisation and accumulation of nitrogen in barley. Results Combination of already known and newly derived sequence information reduced redundancy, increased contig length and identified new members of cysteine peptidase and N transporter gene families. The dataset for N transporter genes was aligned with N transporter amino acid sequences of rice and Arabidopsis derived from Aramemnon database. 57 AAT, 45 NRT1/PTR and 22 OPT unigenes identified by this approach cluster to defined subgroups in the respective phylogenetic trees, among them 25 AAT, 8 NRT1/PTR and 5 OPT full-length sequences. Besides, 59 unigenes encoding cysteine peptidases were identified and subdivided into different families of the papain cysteine peptidase clade. Expression profiling of full-length AAT genes highlighted amino acid permeases as the group showing highest transcriptional activity. HvAAP2 and HvAAP6 are highly expressed in vegetative organs whereas HvAAP3 is grain-specific. Sequence similarities cluster HvAAP2 and the putative transporter HvAAP6 together with Arabidopsis transporters, which are involved in long-distance transfer of amino acids. HvAAP3 is closely related to AtAAP1 and AtAAP8 playing a role in supplying N to developing seeds. An important role in amino acid re-translocation can be considered for HvLHT1 and HvLHT2 which are specifically expressed in glumes and flag leaves, respectively. PCA and K-means clustering of AAT transcript data revealed coordinate developmental stages in flag leaves, glumes and grains. Phloem-specific metabolic compounds are proposed that might signal high grain demands for N to distantly located plant organs. Conclusions The approach identified cysteine peptidases and specific N transporters of the AAT family as obviously relevant for grain filling and thus, grain yield and quality in barley. Up to now, information is based only on transcript data. To make it relevant for application, the role of identified candidates in sink-source communication has to be analysed in more detail. PMID:22935196

2012-01-01

251

Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley/Pea Intercropping Chengci Chen1  

E-print Network

planted adjacent to four rows of pea (4x4); 2) two rows of barley planted adjacent to two rows of pea (2x2Row Configuration and Nitrogen Application for Barley/Pea Intercropping Chengci Chen1 , Malvern) fertilizer N on forage yield, protein content, and LER of barley/pea intercropping systems. Methods A 3-yr

Maxwell, Bruce D.

252

Genes for resistance in barley to Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale

J. Robinson; H. Lindqvist; M. Jalli

1995-01-01

253

High capacity of plant regeneration from callus of interspecific hybrids with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus was induced from hybrids between cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and ten species of wild barley (Hordeum L.) as well as from one backcross line ((H. lechleri x H. vulgare) x H. vulgare). Successful callus induction and regeneration of plants were achieved from explants of young spikes on the barley medium J 25–8. The capacity for plant

R. B. Jřrgensen; C. J. Jensen; B. Andersen; R. Bothmer

1986-01-01

254

Tissue culture increases meiotic pairing of regenerants for barley x Canada wild rye hybrids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Canada wild rye (CWR; Elymus canadensis L.) expresses traits such as barley yel- low dwarf virus resistance, winter hardiness, and drought resistance. Hybrids be- tween CWR and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are sterile, precluding transfer of these traits into barley. Callus cultures were initiated from these hybrids to promote chro- mosome recombination and possibly restore fertility. The objectives of this

L. S. Dahleen

1999-01-01

255

Assessment of the degree and the type of restriction fragment length polymorphism in barley ( Hordeum vulgare )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to determine the extent of polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare), DNA from 48 varieties was analyzed with 23 genomic, single-copy probes, distributed across all seven chromosomes. Upon hybridization to wheat-barley addition lines, the probes showed different degrees of homology compared to the wheat genome. Polymorphisms were detected in the barley genome at a frequency of 43% after digestion

A. Graner; H. Siedler; A. Jahoor; R. G. Herrmann; G. Wenzel

1990-01-01

256

Use of Fusarium graminearum transformed with gfp to follow infection patterns in barley and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum attacks the seed spikes of barley and wheat, causing sterility, reduced seed weight and accumulation of mycotoxins. To explore infection patterns in barley and in the Arabidopsis model system, the green fluorescent protein gene (gfp) was used to transform F. graminearum. Inoculation of intact barley spikes resulted in rapid colonization of the brush hairs (ovary

Ronald W Skadsen; Thomas M Hohn

2004-01-01

257

Seasonal variations in salinity of soils supporting different levels of barley grass (Hordeum murinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of soil salinity taken throughout the year from barley grass sites and nearby areas showed that salinity levels tend to be high in soils where barley grass occurs and that sahmty vanes conSIderably dunng the year, reaching particular high levels In the late summer on barley grass sites.It is suggested that this high sahmty senously affects the survival of

A. I. Popay; P. Sanders

1982-01-01

258

Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley?  

PubMed Central

The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high ?-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble ?-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total ?-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent. PMID:24748716

Howard, Thomas P.; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M.

2014-01-01

259

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity.  

PubMed

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as a salt-sensitive genotype. The seeds of two genotypes were sown in pot under controlled condition of greenhouse, using a factorial experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications. Salt stress was imposed at seedling stage and leaves were collected from control and salt-stressed plant. The Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in leaves changed significantly in response to short-term stress. About 850 spots were reproducibly detected and analyzed on 2-DE gels. Of these, 117 proteins showed significant change under salinity condition in at least one of the genotypes. Mass spectrometry analysis using MALDI-TOF/TOF led to the identification some proteins involved in several salt responsive mechanisms which may increase plant adaptation to salt stress including higher constitutive expression level and upregulation of antioxidant, upregulation of protein involved in signal transduction, protein biosynthesis, ATP generation and photosynthesis. These findings may enhance our understanding of plant molecular response to salinity. PMID:21181273

Rasoulnia, Abdolrahman; Bihamta, Mohammad Reza; Peyghambari, Seyed Ali; Alizadeh, Houshang; Rahnama, Afrasyab

2011-11-01

260

Allelic Variations of a Light Harvesting Chlorophyll A/B-Binding Protein Gene (Lhcb1) Associated with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP) is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING). A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels) and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits. PMID:22662173

Xia, Yanshi; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Li, Ronghua; Yan, Guijun; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Baum, Michael; Guo, Peiguo

2012-01-01

261

Effects of ionophores, vitamin B 6 and distiller's grains on in vitro tryptophan biosynthesis from indolepyruvic acid, and production of other related compounds by ruminal bacteria and protozoa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tryptophan (Trp) is an essential amino acid (AA) and it may be limiting to ruminants when feed rations are based on corn (maize). Distiller's grains (DGs) from barley are the dried residue remaining after the starch fraction of corn is fermented using selected yeasts and enzymes to produce alcohol. DG is a rich source of nutrients, because it contains polyphenol,

Nazimuddin Mohammed; Ryoji Onodera; Hisao Itabashi; Zeenat Ara Lila

2004-01-01

262

Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Synchrotron-Based Infrared  

SciTech Connect

Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P < 0.05) among the barley samples in terms of the peak ratio and peak area and height intensities of amides I (ca. 1650 cm{sup -1}) and II (ca. 1550 cm{sup -1}), cellulosic compounds (ca. 1240 cm{sup -1}), CHO component peaks (the first peak at the region ca. 1184-1132 cm{sup -1}, the second peak at ca. 1132-1066 cm{sup -1}, and the third peak at ca. 1066-950 cm{sup -1}). With the SFTIRM technique, the structural characteristics of the cereal seeds were illuminated among different cultivars at an ultraspatial resolution. The structural differences of barley seeds may be one reason for the various digestive behaviors and nutritive values in ruminants. The results show weak correlations between the functional groups spectral data (peak area, height intensities, and ratios) and rumen biodegradation kinetics (rate and extent of nutrient degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

Liu, N.; Yu, P

2010-01-01

263

miRNA regulation in the early development of barley seed  

PubMed Central

Background During the early stages of seed development many genes are under dynamic regulation to ensure the proper differentiation and establishment of the tissue that will constitute the mature grain. To investigate how miRNA regulation contributes to this process in barley, a combination of small RNA and mRNA degradome analyses were used to identify miRNAs and their targets. Results Our analysis identified 84 known miRNAs and 7 new miRNAs together with 96 putative miRNA target genes regulated through a slicing mechanism in grain tissues during the first 15?days post anthesis. We also identified many potential miRNAs including several belonging to known miRNA families. Our data gave us evidence for an increase in miRNA-mediated regulation during the transition between pre-storage and storage phases. Potential miRNA targets were found in various signalling pathways including components of four phytohormone pathways (ABA, GA, auxin, ethylene) and the defence response to powdery mildew infection. Among the putative miRNA targets we identified were two essential genes controlling the GA response, a GA3oxidase1 and a homolog of the receptor GID1, and a homolog of the ACC oxidase which catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. We found that two MLA genes are potentially miRNA regulated, establishing a direct link between miRNAs and the R gene response. Conclusion Our dataset provides a useful source of information on miRNA regulation during the early development of cereal grains and our analysis suggests that miRNAs contribute to the control of development of the cereal grain, notably through the regulation of phytohormone response pathways. PMID:22838835

2012-01-01

264

The effects of barley bran flour on colonic physiology  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis JANET LOUISE MORIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990... Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis by JANET LOUISE MORIN Approved as to style and content by: OM A l I M/ Joanne R. Lupton (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) John D. Williams...

Morin, Janet Louise

2012-06-07

265

Aspergillus clavatus tremorgenic neurotoxicosis in cattle fed sprouted grains.  

PubMed

Beef and dairy cattle from four different herds in southern and central Queensland fed hydroponically-produced sprouted barley or wheat grain heavily infested with Aspergillus clavatus developed posterior ataxia with knuckling of fetlocks, muscular tremors and recumbency, but maintained appetite. A few animals variously had reduced milk production, hyperaesthesia, drooling of saliva, hypermetria of hind limbs or muscle spasms. Degeneration of large neurones was seen in the brain stem and spinal cord grey matter. The syndrome was consistent with A clavatus tremorgenic mycotoxicosis of ruminants. The cases are the earliest known to be associated with this fungus in Australia. They highlight a potential hazard of hydroponic fodder production systems, which appear to favour A clavatus growth on sprouted grain, exacerbated in some cases by equipment malfunctions that increase operating temperatures. PMID:15887390

McKenzie, R A; Kelly, M A; Shivas, R G; Gibson, J A; Cook, P J; Widderick, K; Guilfoyle, A F

2004-10-01

266

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

2013-03-01

267

Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation and variation in the proportion of barley and sugar beet pulp on growth performance and rumen, blood and carcass characteristics of young entire male lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight Suffolk×Mule entire male lambs (22.3kg average live weight, two months old) were used to study the effects of addition of sodium bicarbonate and increasing quantities of molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP) to diets based on barley grain (780gkg?1 fresh weight and approximately iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous). Measurements were made of dry matter (DM) intake, growth, some ruminal and blood plasma

P. Mandebvu; H. Galbraith

1999-01-01

268

Presolar Grains in Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about presolar grains. It discusses what they are, how to identify them, the different kinds, and what can be learned from presolar grains. If you need more information there are additional links to go to.

Nittler, Larry R.

2010-07-21

269

Presolar Grains in Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about presolar grains. It discusses what they are, how to identify them, the different kinds, and what can be learned from presolar grains. If you need more information there are additional links to go to.

Nittler, Larry R.

2005-06-07

270

Forage and grain production of four F? barley hybrids and their inbred parents  

E-print Network

:181? 182. 1960. d' 1'tl 1. 1 111 f ' f' 1 g 1' ldf' dl'pp' gl. Rllg Rtt', 1' 1963-64. Source of variation Degrees of freedom (Pounds per s. cre) Sum of scuares Mean squares F value ~R Observed 05 01 Replication Varieties and hybrids Error Tots... of f'reedom (Pounds per s. cre) Sum of squares F value ERR ' d Mean squares Observed . 05 . 01 Means oi' Varieties and Hybrids (Duncan's new multiple range test) ?' (1) (6) (4) (10) (3) (9) (7) (5) (8) (12) (2) (11) 2981*1 3138, 6 3512*1 3525...

Van Dijk, Albert Heinrich

2012-06-07

271

A History of Small Grain Crops in Texas: Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye 1582-1976.  

E-print Network

deep. The irrigation ditch which ran to Mission San Francisco de la Espada is still in use, 140 years later (Figure 2C). An aqueduct carrying the Espada ditch over Piedra Creek is shown in Figure 2D. Bolton (18) translated the records of three... deep. The irrigation ditch which ran to Mission San Francisco de la Espada is still in use, 140 years later (Figure 2C). An aqueduct carrying the Espada ditch over Piedra Creek is shown in Figure 2D. Bolton (18) translated the records of three...

Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1980-01-01

272

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-01-01

273

In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

2013-06-01

274

Characterization of Nubet and Franubet barley starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Franubet, a mutant of Nubet, had grains of smaller weight, less starch, but greater protein content than did Nubet. Nubet starch had simple granules with bimodal granule size distribution (diameters of 9–22 and 1.2–4 ?m for the A and B granules, respectively), whereas Franubet starch had smaller (diameters of 1–4 ?m) and irregular-shaped granules, and some displayed compound starch granules.

Dong Soon Suh; Tamara Verhoeven; Kay Denyer; Jay-lin Jane

2004-01-01

275

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

276

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

277

Marketing Farm Grain Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

Ridenour, Harlan E.

278

Transmission of two viruses that cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is controlled by different loci in the aphid, Schizaphis graminum.  

PubMed

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0-100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of aphid genes. PMID:20302539

Gray, Stewart M; Caillaud, Marina C; Burrows, Mary; Smith, Dawn M

2007-01-01

279

Transmission of Two Viruses that Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis graminum  

PubMed Central

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0–100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of aphid genes. PMID:20302539

Gray, Stewart M.; Caillaud, Marina C; Burrows, Mary; Smith, Dawn M.

2007-01-01

280

BIOLOGICAL PROTECTION OF SPRING BARLEY AGAINST FUNGAL DISEASES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We used biopreparations Supresivit (based on Trichoderma harzianum), Ibefungin (based on Bacillus subtilis) or Polyversum (based on Pythium oligandrum) applied as the mixture with mineral fertilizer (ammonium sulphate) before sowing of spring barley, seed-treatment or the spraying of the crop. There was ascertained a higher yield (about 3-5 %) after the treatment with biopreparations and the occurrence of the

Josef HÝSEK; Milan VACH; Jana BRO OVÁ

281

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus in Australia 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in cereal crops in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania was carried out between 18 September and 4 October 1963.BYDV was identified by symptolllli in the field and confirmed in New Zealand by transmission tests with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) fed on the leaf and stem samples of cereals and grasses collected

Harvey C. Smith

1964-01-01

282

Interaction between isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

283

The isolation of endoplasmic reticulum from barley aleurone layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques for the isolation and purification of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were assessed. Neither differential centrifugation nor density gradient centrifugation of a homogenate separate the ER or other organelles of this tissue from the lipidcontaining spherosomes. Isopycnic sucrose gradient centrifugation of organelles first purified by molecular sieve chromatography on Sepharose 4B, however, results

Russell L. Jones

1980-01-01

284

Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

in Fig. 1. A crop that is planted on time for a particular location germinates, emerges, and tillers-available N at seed- ing is necessary to promote root growth and moderate tiller- ing of winter barley prior are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter

Liskiewicz, Maciej

285

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with

R. von Bothmer; L. Claesson; J. Flink; I. Linde-Laursen

1989-01-01

286

Extension Bulletin GMI-035 New July 2014 Malting Barley Production  

E-print Network

for thousands of years for feed, food and production of beer. Its ability to thrive in adverse conditions makes we eat to the beer we drink, barley, produced for malt, is being revisited as a potential crop to become beer is put through a process called malting, which essentially germinates and then dries

287

Fertile transgenic barley by particle bombardment of immature embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transgenic, fertile barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from the Finnish elite cultivar Kymppi was obtained by particle bombardment of immature embryos. Immature embryos were bombarded to the embryonic axis side and grown to plants without selection. Neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII) activity was screened in small plantlets. One out of a total of 227 plants expressed the transferred nptII gene. This plant

Anneli Ritala; Kristian Aspegren; Ulrika Kurtén; Marjatta Salmenkallio-Marttila; Leena Mannonen; Riitta Hannus; Veli Kauppinen; Teemu H. Teeri; Tor-Magnus Enari

1994-01-01

288

Parallel expression profiling of barley–stem rust interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 confers resistance to many but not all pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Transformation of Rpg1 into susceptible cultivar Golden Promise rendered the transgenic plants resistant to Pgt pathotype MCC but not to Pgt pathotype QCC. Our objective was to identify genes that are induced\\/repressed during

Ling Zhang; Claudia Castell-Miller; Stephanie Dahl; Brian Steffenson; Andris Kleinhofs

2008-01-01

289

Effects of water deficits on evapotranspiration from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley crop grown under an automatic rainout shelter was subjected to varying timings and durations of water stress to develop a range of timings and severities of drought. Considerable variation in water use among treatments was induced. The control treatment was irrigated each week to replace the previous week's evapotranspiration (Ea). Other treatments had irrigation withdrawn for varying periods

P. D. Jamieson; G. S. Francis; D. R. Wilson; R. J. Martin

1995-01-01

290

Calmodulin mRNA in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1  

PubMed Central

Calmodulin is encoded by a 650-nucleotide mRNA in higher plants. This messenger was identified in barley and pea by a combination of in vitro translation and blot hybridization experiments using anti-sense RNA produced from an eel calmodulin cDNA probe. In all plant tissues tested, calmodulin mRNA represents between 0.01 and 0.1% of the total translatable mRNA population. Calmodulin mRNA levels are three- to fourfold higher in the meristematic zone of the first leaf of barley. At all other stages of leaf cell differentiation, calmodulin mRNA levels are nearly identical. During light-induced development in barley leaves, the relative proportion of translatable calmodulin mRNA declines about twofold. Cytoplasmic mRNAs that may encode calmodulin-like proteins were also detected. The levels of several of these putative Ca2+-binding protein mRNAs are modulated during the course of light-induced barley leaf cell development. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665547

Zielinski, Raymond E.

1987-01-01

291

Androgenesis in anther culture of Lithuanian spring barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The method of anther culture was used for the production of doubled hap- loids in Lithuanian spring barley cultivars. Two methods, (i) regeneration from callus (Szarjeko's method) and (ii) direct regeneration from embryoids (Caredda's method) were applied to determine the androgenic potential accor- ding to the green regenerant yield and other morphogenetic factors. Green double haploid regenerants were obtained in

R. Asakavi

292

A simple sequence repeat-based linkage map of barley.  

PubMed Central

A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type, or map position. Of the 568 SSRs developed, 242 were genetically mapped, 216 with 37 previously published SSRs in a single doubled-haploid population derived from the F(1) of an interspecific cross between the cultivar Lina and Hordeum spontaneum Canada Park and 26 SSRs in two other mapping populations. A total of 27 SSRs amplified multiple loci. Centromeric clustering of markers was observed in the main mapping population; however, the clustering severity was reduced in intraspecific crosses, supporting the notion that the observed marker distribution was largely a genetical effect. The mapped SSRs provide a framework for rapidly assigning chromosomal designations and polarity in future mapping programs in barley and a convenient alternative to RFLP for aligning information derived from different populations. A list of the 242 primer pairs that amplify mapped SSRs from total barley genomic DNA is presented. PMID:11102390

Ramsay, L; Macaulay, M; degli Ivanissevich, S; MacLean, K; Cardle, L; Fuller, J; Edwards, K J; Tuvesson, S; Morgante, M; Massari, A; Maestri, E; Marmiroli, N; Sjakste, T; Ganal, M; Powell, W; Waugh, R

2000-01-01

293

Regional Subdivision in Wild Barley Allozyme Variation: Adaptive or Neutral?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the adaptive importance of allozyme variation in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum). The test involved a nested sampling design with four population groups, each representing a different environment, and a comparison of observed allozyme variation with that expected under the assumption that allozymes are not neutral. Measurements of plant fitness in indigenous and alien environments in reciprocal introductions of

S. Volis; I. SHULGINA; D. WARD; S. MENDLINGER

2003-01-01

294

Investigation of a His-rich arabinogalactan-protein for micronutrient biofortification of cereal grain.  

PubMed

The micronutrient content of most cereal grains is low and responsible for malnutrition deficiencies in millions of people who rely on grains as their primary food source. Any strategy that can increase the micronutrient content of grain will have significant benefits to world health. We identified a gene from barley encoding a cell wall protein with multiple histidine (His)-rich motifs interspersed with short arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) domains and have called it Hordeum vulgare His-rich AGP (HvHRA1). Sequence analysis shows that His-rich AGPs are rare in plants and that the number of His-rich and AGP domains differ between cereals and dicots. The barley and wheat encoded proteins have more than 13 His-rich domains, whereas the putative rice orthologue has only 5 His-rich regions. His-rich motifs are well-established metal-binding motifs; therefore, we developed transgenic (Tx) rice plants that constitutively overexpress barley HvHRA1. There was no significant effect on plant growth or grain yield in Tx plants. Purification of AGPs from wild-type and Tx plants showed that only Tx plants contained detectable levels of a His-rich AGP. Calcein assay shows that the AGP fraction from Tx plants had increased binding affinity for Cu(2+) . Micronutrient analysis of brown and white rice showed that the grain nutrient yield for Fe, Zn and Cu was higher in two Tx lines compared to their respective nulls, although the differences were not statistically significant. This approach highlights the potential of the plant apoplast (cell wall) for storage of key nutrients through overexpression of genes for metal-binding proteins. PMID:21707638

Aizat, Wan M; Preuss, James M; Johnson, Alexander A T; Tester, Mark A; Schultz, Carolyn J

2011-11-01

295

Varietal and chromosome 2H locus-specific frost tolerance in reproductive tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detected using a frost simulation chamber.  

PubMed

Exposure of flowering cereal crops to frost can cause sterility and grain damage, resulting in significant losses. However, efforts to breed for improved low temperature tolerance in reproductive tissues (LTR tolerance) has been hampered by the variable nature of natural frost events and the confounding effects of heading time on frost-induced damage in these tissues. Here, we establish conditions for detection of LTR tolerance in barley under reproducible simulated frost conditions in a custom-built frost chamber. An ice nucleator spray was used to minimize potential effects arising from variation in naturally occurring extrinsic nucleation factors. Barley genotypes differing in their field tolerance could be distinguished. Additionally, an LTR tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the long arm of barley chromosome 2H could be detected in segregating families. In a recombinant family, the QTL was shown to be separable from the effects of the nearby flowering time locus Flt-2L. At a minimum temperature of -3.5 degrees C for 2 h, detection of the LTR tolerance locus was dependent on the presence of the nucleator spray, suggesting that the tolerance relates to freezing rather than chilling, and that it is not the result of plant-encoded variation in ice-nucleating properties of the tiller surface. PMID:19484216

Chen, Andrew; Gusta, Lawrence V; Brűlé-Babel, Anita; Leach, Richard; Baumann, Ute; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Collins, Nicholas C

2009-08-01

296

GC-MS quantification of gibberellin A 20-13- O-glucoside and gibberellin A 8-2- O-glucoside in developing barley caryopses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellin A20-13-O-glucoside (GA20-13-O-Glc) and GA8-2-O-Glc were identified by GC-MS as permethylated derivatives in mature grains of both barley varieties Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Himalaya and cv. Salome.Changes of the pool size of these GA conjugates together with those of the parent GA20 and GA8 were estimated during seed ripening by internal standard quantification. The pools of GA20 and GA8 were

Bianca Senns; Petra Fuchs; Gernot Schneider

1998-01-01

297

Cytogenetic hazards from agricultural chemicals. 4. Sequential screening in the barley progeny test for cytogenetic activity of some systemic fungicides and a metabolite.  

PubMed

Four systemic fungicides and a metabolite: Benomyl, Carbendazim, Thiophanate-methyl, Dexon and dimethyl phenylenediamine were screened in the barley progeny test for cytogenetic activity. All affected germination, seedling growth, mitotic and meiotic activity, pollen fertility and seedset in the M1 generation to different degrees; however, no chlorophyll mutations were induced and the M1 effect were much reduced in the M2 progeny. Though the results compare well with those from studies on mammalian cells, the use of these fungicides may not affect the plant breeder and the user of grain. PMID:7080085

Behera, B N; Sahu, R K; Sharma, C B

1982-02-01

298

Primary structure of the (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D-glucan 4-glucohydrolase from barley aleurone.  

PubMed

During germination of barley grains, the cell walls of the starchy endosperm are degraded by (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.73) secreted from the aleurone and scutellar tissues. The complete sequence of the aleurone (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme II comprises 306 amino acids and was determined by sequencing nine tryptic peptides (110 residues) and aligning them with the amino acid sequence deduced from a cDNA clone encoding the 291 NH(2)-terminal residues. Although no amino acid sequence homology with a bacterial (1-->3)(1-->4)-beta-glucanase is apparent, close to 50% homology is found with two large regions of a (1-->3)-beta-glucanase from tobacco pith tissue. The gene for barley (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme II shares with that for the alpha-amylase isoenzyme 1 a strongly preferred use of codons with G and C in the wobble position (94% and 90%, respectively). Both enzymes are secreted from the aleurone cells during germination. Such one-sided codon usage is not characteristic for the gene encoding the (1-->3)-beta-glucanase of tobacco pith tissue or the hor2-4 gene encoding the B(1) hordein storage protein in the endosperm. PMID:16593676

Fincher, G B; Lock, P A; Morgan, M M; Lingelbach, K; Wettenhall, R E; Mercer, J F; Brandt, A; Thomsen, K K

1986-04-01

299

Effects of adlay, buckwheat, and barley on transit time and the antioxidative system in obesity induced rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined whether four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) affect the duration of food residence in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic enzyme activities in rats fed different combinations of the grains. The rats were raised for 4 weeks on a high fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into four groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the grains. Corresponding to the dietary fiber contents of the experimental grains, gut transit time was shortest in the rats fed GB and increased in the order of BW, AD, and WR. In addition, the accumulated shortest transit time occurred in the GB group. Gut transit time affected weight gain and major organ weight, as it was closely related to the absorption of nutrients. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver was higher in rats fed WR, AD, BW, and GB, indicating that the other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group. In conclusion, reduced colonic transit time has been implicated in reducing the incidence of colon cancer, as evidenced by populations consuming diets rich in fiber. Whole grains such as AD, BW, and GB may contribute to a significant supply of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress if they are consumed in large amounts. PMID:22808344

Kim, Jung Yun; Son, Bo Kyung

2012-01-01

300

Grain-rich diets differently alter ruminal and colonic abundance of microbial populations and lipopolysaccharide in goats.  

PubMed

High grain feeding has been associated with ruminal pH depression and microbial dysbiosis in cattle. Yet, the impact of high grain feeding on the caprine rumen and hindgut microbial community and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) release is largely unknown. Therefore, the objective was to investigate the effect of increasing dietary levels of barley grain on the microbial composition and LPS concentrations in the rumen and colon of goats. Effects were compared with respect to the responses of ruminal and colonic pH and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) generation. Growing goats (n = 5-6) were fed diets containing 0, 30, or 60% coarsely ground barley grain for 6 weeks. Ruminal ciliate protozoa were counted with Bürker counting chamber, and quantitative PCR was used to compare bacterial populations. Increasing dietary grain level linearly increased (P < 0.05) ruminal numbers of entodiniomorphids. With the 60% grain diet, there was a reduction in ruminal abundance of the genus Prevotella and Fibrobacter succinogenes, whereas the ruminal abundance of Lactobacillus spp. increased compared to the 0 and 30% grain diets (P < 0.05). In the colon, abundance of the genus Prevotella and F. succinogenes increased (P < 0.05) in goats fed the 60% grain diet compared to those fed the other diets. Colonic abundance of Clostridium cluster I was related to the presence of grain in the diet. Ruminal LPS concentration decreased (P < 0.05) in response to the 60% grain diet, whereas its colonic concentration increased in response to the same diet (P < 0.05). Present results provide first insight on the adaptive response of rumen protozoa and rumen and colonic bacterial populations to increasing dietary levels of grain in goats. Although luminal pH largely affects microbial populations, fermentable substrate flow to the caprine hindgut may have played a greater role for colonic bacterial populations in the present study. PMID:23474085

Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Podstatzky-Lichtenstein, Leopold; Wagner, Martin; Zebeli, Qendrim

2013-04-01

301

Supernova grains from meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primitive meteorites contain presolar grains that originated in stellar outflows and supernova ejecta. The isotopic compositions of some of these grains (low-density graphite grains, SiC grains of type X, and silicon nitride) indicate a supernova origin. In particular, the initial presence of 44Ti (now detected in the form of large 44Ca excesses) and 28Si excesses are proof that the carrier grains formed in supernova ejecta. The presence of these two isotopes, which are produced in the inner layers of the star, in carbonaceous grains is evidence for extensive mixing of different supernova layers in the explosion. Other isotopic signatures characteristic of supernova grains are 15N and 18O excesses, large inferred 26Al/27Al and 41Ca/40Ca ratios and excesses in 42Ca, 43Ca, and 49Ti. Mixing of supernova layers can explain most isotopic features but a few problems such as the association of 15N with 26Al in grains remain. The fact that all supernova grains identified so far are graphite, SiC and Si3N4 and no oxide grains with supernova signatures have been found remains a puzzle.

Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst

1997-03-01

302

Quantitative and Qualitative Stem Rust Resistance Factors in Barley Are Associated with Transcriptional Suppression of Defense Regulons  

PubMed Central

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host–pathogen interaction with enhancement of R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:21829384

Moscou, Matthew J.; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P.

2011-01-01

303

Isolate-specific QTLs of resistance to leaf stripe (Pyrenophora graminea) in the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' spring barley cross.  

PubMed

Leaf stripe caused by the fungus Pyrenophora graminea represents a serious threat to grain yield in organically grown barley and in conventional Nordic and Mediterranean districts, for which resistant cultivars are necessary. A medium-density, molecular marker map derived from a 'Steptoe' (partially resistant) x 'Morex' (susceptible) spring barley cross and its derived doubled-haploid mapping population inoculated with the fungus made it possible to identify QTLs of resistance to leaf stripe. In order to investigate isolate-specificity of partial resistance, the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' segregating population was inoculated with two highly virulent P. graminea isolates, Dg2 and Dg5. The present study demonstrates that partial resistance to leaf stripe of cv 'Steptoe' is governed in part by shared loci and in part by isolate-specific ones. One QTL is common to the resistance for the two isolates, on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2H), two QTLs are linked on chromosome 3 (3H), and the remaining two are isolate-specific, respectively for isolate Dg2 on chromosome 2 (2H) and for isolate Dg5 on chromosome 7 (5H). The QTL in common is that with the major effect on the resistance for each isolate, explaining 18.3% and 30.9% R(2) respectively for Dg2 and Dg5. The isolate-specific QTLs mapped in the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' barley reference map support the assumption of Parlevliet and Zadoks (1977) that partial resistance may be due to minor gene-for-minor-gene interactions. Map comparisons of the QTLs with the known qualitative resistance genes to leaf stripe, Rdg1 (2H) and Rdg2 (7H), as well as with other QTLs of partial resistance in barley, show that the QTL for resistance to both isolates mapped on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2H) does not coincide with the qualitative Rdg1 gene but is linked to it at about 30 cM. One isolate-specific QTL of resistance to P. graminea, mapped on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2H), is coincident with a QTL for resistance to Pyrenophora teres previously mapped in the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' cross. PMID:12595996

Arru, L; Francia, E; Pecchioni, N

2003-02-01

304

Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of wheat and barley spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production respectively was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540°C using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460°C leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent

Aimaro Sanna; Sujing Li; Rob Linforth; Katherine A. Smart; John M. Andrésen

2011-01-01

305

Genome-wide association studies for agronomical traits in a world wide spring barley collection  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) provide a promising tool for the detection and fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying complex agronomic traits. In this study we explored the genetic basis of variation for the traits heading date, plant height, thousand grain weight, starch content and crude protein content in a diverse collection of 224 spring barleys of worldwide origin. The whole panel was genotyped with a customized oligonucleotide pool assay containing 1536 SNPs using Illumina's GoldenGate technology resulting in 957 successful SNPs covering all chromosomes. The morphological trait "row type" (two-rowed spike vs. six-rowed spike) was used to confirm the high level of selectivity and sensitivity of the approach. This study describes the detection of QTL for the above mentioned agronomic traits by GWAS. Results Population structure in the panel was investigated by various methods and six subgroups that are mainly based on their spike morphology and region of origin. We explored the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) among the whole panel for all seven barley chromosomes. Average LD was observed to decay below a critical level (r2-value 0.2) within a map distance of 5-10 cM. Phenotypic variation within the panel was reasonably large for all the traits. The heritabilities calculated for each trait over multi-environment experiments ranged between 0.90-0.95. Different statistical models were tested to control spurious LD caused by population structure and to calculate the P-value of marker-trait associations. Using a mixed linear model with kinship for controlling spurious LD effects, we found a total of 171 significant marker trait associations, which delineate into 107 QTL regions. Across all traits these can be grouped into 57 novel QTL and 50 QTL that are congruent with previously mapped QTL positions. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that the described diverse barley panel can be efficiently used for GWAS of various quantitative traits, provided that population structure is appropriately taken into account. The observed significant marker trait associations provide a refined insight into the genetic architecture of important agronomic traits in barley. However, individual QTL account only for a small portion of phenotypic variation, which may be due to insufficient marker coverage and/or the elimination of rare alleles prior to analysis. The fact that the combined SNP effects fall short of explaining the complete phenotypic variance may support the hypothesis that the expression of a quantitative trait is caused by a large number of very small effects that escape detection. Notwithstanding these limitations, the integration of GWAS with biparental linkage mapping and an ever increasing body of genomic sequence information will facilitate the systematic isolation of agronomically important genes and subsequent analysis of their allelic diversity. PMID:22284310

2012-01-01

306

Diagnosis and Management of Grain-Induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder. PMID:24179680

Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-01-01

307

The Genetics and Transcriptional Profiles of the Cellulose Synthase-Like HvCslF Gene Family in Barley1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cellulose synthase-like CslF genes have been implicated in the biosynthesis of (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucans, which are major cell wall constituents in grasses and cereals. Seven CslF genes from barley (Hordeum vulgare) can be divided into two classes on the basis of intron-exon arrangements. Four of the HvCslF genes have been mapped to a single locus on barley chromosome 2H, in a region corresponding to a major quantitative trait locus for grain (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan content. The other HvCslF genes map to chromosomes 1H, 5H, and 7H, and in two cases the genes are close to other quantitative trait loci for grain (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan content. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription of the seven genes have been defined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In developing barley coleoptiles HvCslF6 mRNA is most abundant. Transcript levels are maximal in 4- to 5-d coleoptiles, at a time when (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan content of coleoptile cell walls also reaches maximal levels. In the starchy endosperm of developing grain, HvCslF6 and HvCslF9 transcripts predominate. Two peaks of transcription are apparent. One occurs just after endosperm cellularization, 4 to 8 d after pollination, while the second occurs much later in grain development, more than 20 d after pollination. Marked varietal differences in transcription of the HvCslF genes are observed during endosperm development. Given the commercial importance of cereal (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucans in human nutrition, in stock feed, and in malting and brewing, the observation that only two genes, HvCslF6 and HvCslF9, are transcribed at high levels in developing grain is of potential relevance for the future manipulation of grain (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan levels. PMID:18258691

Burton, Rachel A.; Jobling, Stephen A.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Shirley, Neil J.; Mather, Diane E.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

2008-01-01

308

Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

Winter, Philip W.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

1996-12-01

309

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process.  

PubMed

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE - 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

310

Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment.  

PubMed

Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

Shaik, Shahnoor S; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas

2014-06-01

311

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

312

Comparison of Water Absorption Patterns in Two Barley Cultivars, Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(6):792-795 Two barley cultivars, Excel and Prisma (six-row and two-row types, respectively), were obtained from the 1993 harvest at Crookston, MN. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to follow water imbibition in single, large seeds of Excel and Prisma barley. A comparison of mois- ture distribution on longitudinal sections of Prisma and Excel barley during early hours of

E. McEntyre; R. Ruan; R. G. Fulcher

1998-01-01

313

Quantitative resistance to barley leaf stripe ( Pyrenophora graminea ) is dominated by one major locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major gene underlying quantitative resistance of barley against Pyrenophora graminea, a seedborne pathogen causing leaf stripe, was mapped with molecular markers in a barley doubled haploid (DH) population derived from the cross Proctor x Nudinka. This quantitative trait locus (QTL) accounts for r\\u000a2= 58.5% and was mapped on barley chromosome 1, tightly linked to the naked gene. A

N. Pecchioni; P. Faccioli; H. Toubia-Rahme; G. Valč; V. Terzi

1996-01-01

314

Morphological, Thermal, Pasting, and Rheological Properties of Barley Starch and Their Blends  

Microsoft Academic Search

Native barley starch, as well as its blends with corn, wheat, and rice starch at different ratios of 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 were examined in terms of morphology, thermal, pasting, rheological, and retrogradation properties. Amylose content varied between 10.9–41.4% in rice, corn, wheat, and barley while it ranged from 18.02–38.40% in blends of barley starch with rice, corn, and wheat. A

Mahesh Gupta; Amarinder Singh Bawa; Anil Dutt Semwal

2009-01-01

315

Genetic and geographic variation of bulbous barley ( Hordeum bulbosum L.) assessed by RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic relationships among 21 barley accessions (17 of bulbous barley H. bulbosum L. and 4 of cultivated barley (H. vulgare L.) collected from different part of Turkey were investigated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). Eleven informative\\u000a primers amplified 111 markers of which 98 (89.8%) were polymorphic. A dendogram was constructed using the UPGMA method based\\u000a on the RAPD markers.

A. Okumus; F. Uzun

2007-01-01

316

Estimating Corn Grain Yields  

E-print Network

to potential crop insurance claims, ? A corn crop for harvest as silage during the milk stage (R3), and ? Grain yields of corn at the dent (R5) or physiological maturity (R6) stage of development when planning harvest and post-harvest grain storage needs... to potential crop insurance claims, ? A corn crop for harvest as silage during the milk stage (R3), and ? Grain yields of corn at the dent (R5) or physiological maturity (R6) stage of development when planning harvest and post-harvest grain storage needs...

Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

2009-06-12

317

QTLs affecting kernel size and shape in a two-rowed by six-rowed barley cross.  

PubMed

The suitability of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain for malting depends on many criteria, including the size, shape and uniformity of the kernels. Here, image analysis was used to measure kernel size and shape attributes (area, perimeter, length, width, F-circle and F-shape) in grain samples of 140 doubled-haploid lines from a two-rowed (cv Harrington) by six-rowed (cv Morex) barley cross. Interval mapping was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting the means and within-sample standard deviations of these attributes using a 107-marker genome map. Regions affecting one or more kernel size and shape traits were detected on all seven chromosomes. These included one near the vrs1 locus on chromosome 2 and one near the int-c locus on chromosome 4. Some, but not all, of the QTLs exhibited interactions with the environment and some QTLs affected the within-sample variability of kernel size and shape without affecting average kernel size and shape. When QTL analysis was conducted using data from only the two-rowed lines, the region on chromosome 2 was not detected but QTLs were detected elsewhere in the genome, including some that had not been detected in the analysis of the whole population. Analysis of only the six-rowed lines did not detect any QTLs affecting kernel size and shape attributes. QTL alleles that made kernels larger and/or rounder also tended to improve malt quality and QTL alleles that increased the variability of kernel size were associated with poor malt quality. PMID:12582525

Ayoub, M.; Symons, J.; Edney, J.; Mather, E.

2002-08-01

318

Molecular marker analysis of hypoploid regenerants from cultures of barley x Canada wild rye.  

PubMed

Canada wild rye (CWR, Elymus canadensis L., 2n = 4x = 28) is a potential source of genes for disease resistance and environmental tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x = 14). Tissue cultures were initiated from immature inflorescences of CWR x 'Betzes' barley hybrids to promote CWR introgression into barley through possible tissue culture induced chromosome breakage and exchange. Among the plants regenerated, some were missing one (2n = 20) or part of one (2n = 20 + telo) chromosome. The objective of this study was to identify the missing chromosome or chromosome arm in these regenerants through the analysis of molecular (RFLP) markers that previously had been mapped in barley. Forty-six hypoploid regenerants that traced to 30 separate explants obtained from 10 interspecific hybrid plants were evaluated. DNA was digested with the restriction enzyme HindIII, Southern blotted, and probed with 39 genomic and cDNA barley clones that identified sequences polymorphic between barley and CWR. Eight of these probes identified band loss patterns that separated the regenerants into two groups. One group, all with barley cytoplasm, were missing a CWR chromosome homoeologous to barley chromosome 3; a second group, all with CWR cytoplasm, were missing a CWR chromosome homoelogous to barley chromosome 7. These results indicated that chromosome elimination in culture was not random. The two cytoplasm groups were further differentiated by probes that identified band shifts. These band shifts were caused by differences in DNA methylation. Key words : Hordeum vulgare, aneuploidy, Elymus canadensis, tissue culture. PMID:18469900

Dahleen, L S

1996-04-01

319

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-? component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments. PMID:21118486

2010-01-01

320

Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

321

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

322

Control of barley yellow dwarf virus in cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the most important disease affecting cereal crops in New Zealand.2. Losses from BYDV in the total wheat crop have been up to 25 per cent in recent years.3. Effective control of BYDV in autumn- and early winter-sown wheat in New Zealand has been achieved by 1 application of a good systemic organo-phosphate spray

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

323

Association mapping of spot blotch resistance in wild barley  

PubMed Central

Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important foliar disease of barley. The disease has been controlled for over 40 years through the deployment of cultivars with durable resistance derived from the line NDB112. Pathotypes of C. sativus with virulence for the NDB112 resistance have been detected in Canada; thus, many commercial cultivars are vulnerable to spot blotch epidemics. To increase the diversity of spot blotch resistance in cultivated barley, we evaluated 318 diverse wild barley accessions comprising the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) for reaction to C. sativus at the seedling stage and utilized an association mapping (AM) approach to identify and map resistance loci. A high frequency of resistance was found in the WBDC as 95% (302/318) of the accessions exhibited low infection responses. The WBDC was genotyped with 558 Diversity Array Technology (DArTŽ) and 2,878 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and subjected to structure analysis before running the AM procedure. Thirteen QTL for spot blotch resistance were identified with DArT and SNP markers. These QTL were found on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 3H, 5H, and 7H and explained from 2.3 to 3.9% of the phenotypic variance. Nearly half of the identified QTL mapped to chromosome bins where spot blotch resistance loci were previously reported, offering some validation for the AM approach. The other QTL mapped to unique genomic regions and may represent new spot blotch resistance loci. This study demonstrates that AM is an effective technique for identifying and mapping QTL for disease resistance in a wild crop progenitor. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11032-010-9402-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20694035

Roy, Joy K.; Smith, Kevin P.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Chao, Shiaoman; Close, Timothy J.

2010-01-01

324

A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson

2003-01-01

325

Inhibitory Activity by Barley Coffee Components Towards Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was\\u000a found that the low molecular mass (<1,000 Da) fraction (LMM fraction) containing polyphenols, zinc and fluoride ions and,\\u000a above all, a high molecular mass (HMM > 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans.

Monica Stauder; Adele Papetti; Maria Daglia; Luigi Vezzulli; Gabriella Gazzani; Pietro E. Varaldo; Carla Pruzzo

2010-01-01

326

Calcium and proton transport in membrane vesicles from barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ca{sup 2+} uptake by membrane fractions from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv CM72) roots was characterized. Uptake of ⁴⁾Ca{sup 2+} was measured in membrane vesicles obtained from continuous and discontinuous sucrose gradients. A single, large peak of Ca{sup 2+} uptake coincided with the peak of proton transport by the tonoplast H{sup +}-ATPase. Depending on the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in

F. M. DuPont; J. J. Windle; D. S. Bush; R. L. Jones

1990-01-01

327

Composition, Microstructure, Water Imbibition, and Thermal Properties of Abraded Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):677-685 Barley, nonwaxy hull (cvs. Crystal and Meltan) and waxy hull-less (cvs. Merlin and Waxbar), was abraded at 10, 20, and 40% of kernel weight on a laboratory scale and commercially abraded at two levels: fine and coarse. In 40% abraded kernels of Crystal, protein, ash, and free lipids contents decreased by 1.6, 1.4, and 1.4%, respectively, and

A. Klamczynski; B.-K. Baik; Z. Czuchajowska

1998-01-01

328

Primary structure of A B1 hordein gene from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 873 base pair coding region of a Hor-2 gene of barley and the adjacent 550 base pair upstream and 413 base pair downstream\\u000a regions were sequenced. The gene is devoid of introns and encodes a 271 amino acid long B1 hordein polypeptide containing\\u000a a putative 19 amino acid signal peptide. The remaining part of the coding sequence can be

Anders Brandt; Alain Montembault; Verena Cameron-Mills; Sřren K. Rasmussen

1985-01-01

329

Barley mutants with defects in photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide fixation by leaf pieces from 12 different chloroplast mutants and wild type barley has been analysed. In the\\u000a light leaf pieces from wild type seedlings fixed14CO2 at a rate of approximately 80 ?moles per gram fresh weight per hour, or 40 ?moles per mg chlorophyll per hour. Fixation of14CO2 in darkness occurred at one to four per cent

Bodil Carlsen

1977-01-01

330

Stabilization of emulsions and foams using barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley ?-glucan (BBG) is receiving increasing attention as a food hydrocolloid. Stability of foams and emulsions was assessed using whey protein concentrate (WPC) as an emulsifier and foaming agent, and BBG gum extracted at pilot plant or laboratory scale as a stabilizer. WPC had a significant lowering effect (P?0.05) on surface tension of water and water–oil interfacial tension, while the

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli

2000-01-01

331

Plant regeneration from protoplasts of wild barley ( Hordeum murinum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced a large number of plants regenerated from protoplasts originally isolated from embryo-derived cell suspensions of wild barley, Hordeum murinum L.. Suspensions initially allowed protoplast isolation and culture 5.5 to 9 months from the date of callus initiation. Colony formation efficiencies ranged from 1.5 to 3.0 % and from 0.1 to 1.4 % for protoplast cultures with and

Xiao-Hui Wang; Horst Lörz

1994-01-01

332

A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley  

PubMed Central

Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na+, Cl–, and K+ at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at ECe 7.2 [Spearman’s rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and ECe 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na+ (rs=0.72) and Cl– (rs=0.82) concentrations at ECe 7.2 dS m?1. This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt tolerance in the tolerant genotypes and further field tests of these plants under stress conditions will help to verify their potential utility in crop-improvement programmes. PMID:22442423

Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

2012-01-01

333

Structural and functional characterization of a winter malting barley.  

PubMed

The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge. To obtain an understanding of the relationship between loci controlling winter hardiness and malt quality and to assess the potential for breeding winter malting barley varieties, we structurally and functionally characterized the six-row accession "88Ab536", a cold-tolerant line with superior malting quality characteristics that derives from the cross of NE76129/Morex//Morex. We used 4,596 SNPs to construct the haplotype structure of 88Ab536 on which malting quality and winter hardiness loci reported in the literature were aligned. The genomic regions determining malting quality and winter hardiness traits have been defined in this founder germplasm, which will assist breeders in targeting regions for marker-assisted selection. The Barley1 GeneChip array was used to functionally characterize 88Ab536 during malting. Its gene expression profile was similar to that of the archetypical malting variety Morex, which is consistent with their similar malting quality characteristics. The characterization of 88Ab536 has increased our understanding of the genetic relationships of malting quality and winter hardiness, and will provide a genetic foundation for further development of more cold-tolerant varieties that have malt quality characteristics that meet or exceed current benchmarks. PMID:19960335

Muńoz-Amatriaín, María; Cistué, L; Xiong, Y; Bilgic, H; Budde, A D; Schmitt, M R; Smith, K P; Hayes, P M; Muehlbauer, G J

2010-03-01

334

Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.  

PubMed

Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreńo, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

2015-02-01

335

Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.  

PubMed

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

2001-01-01

336

Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography1  

PubMed Central

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s?1, and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s?1. Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below ?2°C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, Roger S.; Fuller, Michael P.

2001-01-01

337

Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance. PMID:24359826

Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

2014-02-01

338

Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

2014-01-01

339

Variability in phenotypic traits in core and peripheral populations of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum Koch.  

PubMed

Populations of wild barley, H. spontaneum Koch., were collected in two countries, Israel and Turkmenistan, in environments representing two similar sharp clines of aridity. This allowed us to use the same criteria to define species core and periphery in two regions. Plants from 10 Israeli and 19 Turkmenian populations were grown in a field trial with three water treatments and compared for amount and structure of variation in phenological and morphological traits. Extent of variation was similar in populations at species border (periphery by aridity criterion) or at species border and near it (by habitat), and in populations inhabiting favorable environments away from the border (core). In contrast, two regions (Israel and Turkmenistan) exhibited different amount of variation in phenotypic traits. Israeli populations were more diverse than Turkmenian populations in all except one phenotypic traits and the variation was differently structured among regionally specific core and periphery. While Turkmenian core and periphery defined by either criterion did not differ for all except one trait, corresponding Israeli populations exhibited opposite patterns of variation for trait complexes. Israeli core (Mediterranean) populations were twice as variable than peripheral (desert) populations in parameters of reproductive growth (stem, spike and awn length) and grain filling (spikelet weight) and half as variable in the length of flag and penultimate leaves and onset of reproduction. Possible modes of regionally specific natural selection as a cause of regional/local variation in phenotypic triats are discussed. PMID:11433968

Volis, S; Mendlinger, S; Orlovsky, N

2000-01-01

340

Molecular phylogeography of domesticated barley traces expansion of agriculture in the Old World.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) was first cultivated 10,500 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and is one of the founder crops of Eurasian agriculture. Phylogeographic analysis of five nuclear loci and morphological assessment of two traits in >250 domesticated barley accessions reveal that landraces found in South and East Asia are genetically distinct from those in Europe and North Africa. A Bayesian population structure assessment method indicates that barley accessions are subdivided into six clusters and that barley landraces from 10 different geographical regions of Eurasia and North Africa show distinct patterns of distribution across these clusters. Using haplotype frequency data, it appears that the Europe/North Africa landraces are most similar to the Near East population (F ST = 0.15) as well as to wild barley (F ST = 0.11) and are strongly differentiated from all other Asian populations (F ST = 0.34-0.74). A neighbor-joining analysis using these F ST estimates also supports a division between European, North African, and Near East barley types from more easterly Asian accessions. There is also differentiation in the presence of a naked caryopsis and spikelet row number between eastern and western barley accessions. The data support the differential migration of barley from two domestication events that led to the origin of barley--one in the Fertile Crescent and another farther east, possibly at the eastern edge of the Iranian Plateau--with European and North African barley largely originating from the former and much of Asian barley arising from the latter. This suggests that cultural diffusion or independent innovation is responsible for the expansion of agriculture to areas of South and East Asia during the Neolithic revolution. PMID:17947416

Saisho, Daisuke; Purugganan, Michael D

2007-11-01

341

Chromosomal Location of Genes Encoding Barley (1-->3, 1-->4)-beta-Glucan 4-Glucanohydrolases.  

PubMed

Preparations of DNA from wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv Chinese Spring), barley (Hordeum vulgare, cv Betzes) and six euplasmic wheat-barley addition lines were digested to completion with restriction endonucleases and the products probed by Southern blot analysis using a cDNA-encoding barley (1-->3, 1-->4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme II. It is shown that one of the barley (1-->3, 1-->4)-beta-glucanase genes is located on chromosome 1. PMID:16666137

Loi, L; Ahluwalia, B; Fincher, G B

1988-06-01

342

Grain rearrangements during superplastic deformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current models for obtaining large superplastic flow without change of grain size are two-dimensional; they therefore involve rearrangement of grains without increasing the surface area of the specimen as it deforms. A new model is proposed in which grainboundary sliding (GBS) in a group of grains is accommodated by a grain emerging from the next layer of grains, giving the

R. C. Gifkins

1978-01-01

343

Grain rotation mediated by grain boundary dislocations in nanocrystalline platinum  

PubMed Central

Grain rotation is a well-known phenomenon during high (homologous) temperature deformation and recrystallization of polycrystalline materials. In recent years, grain rotation has also been proposed as a plasticity mechanism at low temperatures (for example, room temperature for metals), especially for nanocrystalline grains with diameter d less than ~15?nm. Here, in tensile-loaded Pt thin films under a high-resolution transmission electron microscope, we show that the plasticity mechanism transitions from cross-grain dislocation glide in larger grains (d>6?nm) to a mode of coordinated rotation of multiple grains for grains with d<6?nm. The mechanism underlying the grain rotation is dislocation climb at the grain boundary, rather than grain boundary sliding or diffusional creep. Our atomic-scale images demonstrate directly that the evolution of the misorientation angle between neighbouring grains can be quantitatively accounted for by the change of the Frank–Bilby dislocation content in the grain boundary. PMID:25030380

Wang, Lihua; Teng, Jiao; Liu, Pan; Hirata, Akihiko; Ma, En; Zhang, Ze; Chen, Mingwei; Han, Xiaodong

2014-01-01

344

Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

1982-01-01

345

Pattern of Deposition of Cell Wall Polysaccharides and Transcript Abundance of Related Cell Wall Synthesis Genes during Differentiation in Barley Endosperm1  

PubMed Central

Immunolabeling, combined with chemical analyses and transcript profiling, have provided a comprehensive temporal and spatial picture of the deposition and modification of cell wall polysaccharides during barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development, from endosperm cellularization at 3 d after pollination (DAP) through differentiation to the mature grain at 38 DAP. (1?3)-?-d-Glucan appears transiently during cellularization but reappears in patches in the subaleurone cell walls around 20 DAP. (1?3, 1?4)-?-Glucan, the most abundant polysaccharide of the mature barley grain, accumulates throughout development. Arabino-(1-4)-?-d-xylan is deposited significantly earlier than we previously reported. This was attributable to the initial deposition of the polysaccharide in a highly substituted form that was not recognized by antibodies commonly used to detect arabino-(1-4)-?-d-xylans in sections of plant material. The epitopes needed for antibody recognition were exposed by pretreatment of sections with ?-l-arabinofuranosidase; this procedure showed that arabino-(1-4)-?-d-xylans were deposited as early as 5 DAP and highlighted their changing structures during endosperm development. By 28 DAP labeling of hetero-(1?4)-?-d-mannan is observed in the walls of the starchy endosperm but not in the aleurone walls. Although absent in mature endosperm cell walls we now show that xyloglucan is present transiently from 3 until about 6 DAP and disappears by 8 DAP. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of transcripts for GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE, Cellulose Synthase, and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes were consistent with the patterns of polysaccharide deposition. Transcript profiling of some members from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes database glycosyl transferase families GT61, GT47, and GT43, previously implicated in arabino-(1-4)-?-d-xylan biosynthesis, confirms their presence during grain development. PMID:22510768

Wilson, Sarah M.; Burton, Rachel A.; Collins, Helen M.; Doblin, Monika S.; Pettolino, Filomena A.; Shirley, Neil; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Bacic, Antony

2012-01-01

346

Protective role of exogenous nitric oxide against oxidative-stress induced by salt stress in barley ( Hordeum vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To probe into the potential of relieving the oxidative damage of salt stress, we investigated the protective role of nitric oxide on barley under salt stress. Salt stress resulted in increased ion leakage, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in barley leaves. Simultaneous treatments of barley leaves with 50?M sodium nitroprusside, a nitric oxide donor, alleviated the damage of salt stress,

Qiao-Yun Li; Hong-Bin Niu; Jun Yin; Meng-Ben Wang; Hong-Bo Shao; De-Zhi Deng; Xiao-Xia Chen; Jiang-Ping Ren; Yong-Chun Li

2008-01-01

347

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Ĺman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

348

Small Grains in 2006 Table Of Contents  

E-print Network

. 13 Table 9. Summary of performance of hulless entries in the Virginia Tech Barley Test Planted no-till entries in the Virginia Tech Barley Test Planted no-till at the Eastern Virginia AREC, Warsaw, Va., 2006 planted no-till at the Tidewater AREC, Holland, Va., 2005 harvest. 51 Table 28. Summary of performance

Liskiewicz, Maciej

349

Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Aluminum Tolerance in Cultivated and Tibetan Wild Barley  

PubMed Central

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement. PMID:23922796

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

350

Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

2007-01-01

351

Anaerobic carbohydrate metabolism in wheat and barley, two anoxia-intolerant cereal seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereals such as barley and wheat are unable to ger- minate under anoxic conditions. Data are presented on the utilization of the soluble sugars present in the dry seed of wheat and barley kept under strict anoxia, together with the status of the enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates . The amount of glucose, fructose, and sucrose decreases during

Pierdomenico Perata; Lorenzo Guglielminetti; Amedeo Alpi

1996-01-01

352

Genetic Diversity in the Batini Barley Landrace from Oman: II. Response to Salinity Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few native plant species other than barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) are currently available as animal Understanding the diversity for salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum feed. Introduced forage species not fully adapted to vulgare L.) landraces will facilitate their use in genetic improvement. Our objectives were to screen a collection of 2308 accessions in seven the climatic and edaphic conditions in

A. A. Jaradat; M. Shahid; A. Al-Maskri

353

Morphological and anatomical modifications in winter barley culm after late plant growth regulator treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the major factors limiting yield production in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been its poor straw strength. Consequently, a greater stiffness of the upper part of the culm was desirable. So, a late application of plant growth regulator could be interesting for weak-strawed barley cultivars. The objective of these experiments was to investigate the effect of a late

Patricia Sanvicente; Sviatoslav Lazarevitch; André Blouet; Armand Guckert

1999-01-01

354

Cytokinin enhancement of the light induction of nitrate reductase transcript levels in etiolated barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) on the level of NR transcript was studied in etiolated barley leaves using a barley NR cDNA as a probe. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly (A)+ RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of

Jia-ling Lu; John R. Ertl; Chong-maw Chen

1990-01-01

355

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley  

E-print Network

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley of potassium (K+ ) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley genotypes of Arabidopsis, including single and double knockout mutants for the high-affinity transporter, At

Britto, Dev T.

356

2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman  

E-print Network

with good test weights because of it lower yield potential. The 2007 no-till continuous crop nursery;Table 1 2007 Moccasin spring barley variety performance under a no-till continuous crop system. Exp2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman The 2007 central Montana

Maxwell, Bruce D.

357

Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically lsolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from m75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the

Preben B. Holm; Peter Mouritzen; Diana Negri; Finn L. OIsen; Catherine Roue

1994-01-01

358

INTERACTIVE EFFECTS OF SALINITY AND PHOSPHORUS NUTRITION ON PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF TWO BARLEY SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity is one of the most important agricultural problems in Iran. The effect of different levels of salinity and phosphorus on shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, nutrient elements (sodium (Na), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and chloride (Cl), proline and soluble sugar contents of barley were investigated. Two cultivars of barley, Hordeum murinum (wild resistant germplasm) and

N. A. Khosh Kholgh Sima; S. Tale Ahmad; R. A. Alitabar; Arezoo Mottaghi; Mohammad Pessarakli

2012-01-01

359

Efficacy of imidacloprid for control of cereal leaf beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in barley.  

PubMed

The toxicity of imidacloprid to the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus (L.), was measured under laboratory and field conditions. Insect mortality and plant damage were determined from artificial and natural infestations of O. melanopus applied to various growth stages of barley. All rates of imidacloprid formulated and applied as a seed treatment caused >90% mortality to cereal leaf beetle larvae when barley was infested with eggs at the 4-leaf stage, but were ineffective when barley was infested with eggs at the early tillering or flag-leaf stages of barley. This window of susceptibility influenced results obtained in field trials where peak larval emergence did not occur until the early tillering stage of barley. The resulting mortality in plants from treated seeds never exceeded 40% in the field. Foliar imidacloprid, however, caused >90% mortality in the field, and may be another option in the management of the cereal leaf beetle. PMID:14658509

Tharp, C; Blodgett, S L; Johnson, G D

2000-02-01

360

Fine Grained Robotics  

E-print Network

Fine grained robotics is the idea of solving problems utilizing multitudes of very simple machines in place of one large complex entity. Organized in the proper way, simple machines and simple behaviors can lead to emergent ...

Flynn, Anita M.

361

Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant.  

PubMed

The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analysing a collection of 896 wild barley accessions (Barley1K) from Israel and all available Israeli H. vulgare accessions from the Israeli gene bank. We compared the performance of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker data genotyped over a core collection in estimating population parameters. Estimates of gene flow rates with SSR markers indicated a high level of introgression from cultivated barley into wild barley. After removing accessions from the wild barley sample that were recently admixed with cultivated barley, the inference of population structure improved significantly. Both SSR and SNP markers showed that the genetic population structure of wild barley in Israel corresponds to the three major ecogeographic regions: the coast, the Mediterranean north and the deserts in the Jordan valley and the South. Gene flow rates were estimated to be higher from north to south than in the opposite direction. As has been observed in other crop species, there is a significant exchange of alleles between the wild species and domesticated varieties that needs to be accounted for in the population genetic analysis of domestication. PMID:22256891

Hübner, Sariel; Günther, Torsten; Flavell, Andrew; Fridman, Eyal; Graner, Andreas; Korol, Abraham; Schmid, Karl J

2012-03-01

362

Elevated Phosphorus Impedes Manganese Acquisition by Barley Plants  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH2PO4 rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn–P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn2+ had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

Pedas, Pai; Husted, S?ren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

2011-01-01

363

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance.  

PubMed

Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from the cross CDC Dolly (susceptible)/TR251 (resistant) were screened as seedlings in controlled environments with net-form net blotch (NFNB) isolates WRS858 and WRS1607 and spot-form net blotch (SFNB) isolate WRS857. The population was also screened at the adult-plant stage for NFNB resistance in the field in 2005 and 2006. A high-density genetic linkage map of 90 DH lines was constructed using 457 DArT and 11 SSR markers. A major NFNB seedling resistance QTL, designated QRpt6, was mapped to chromosome 6H for isolates WRS858 and WRS1607. QRpt6 was associated with adult-plant resistance in the 2005 and 2006 field trials. Additional QTL for NFNB seedling resistance to the more virulent isolate WRS858 were identified on chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A seedling resistance QTL (QRpts4) for the SFNB isolate WRS857 was detected on chromosome 4H as was a significant QTL (QRpt7) on chromosome 7H. Three QTL (QRpt6, QRpts4, QRpt7) were associated with resistance to both net blotch forms and lines with one or more of these demonstrated improved resistance. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers tightly linked to QRpt6 and QRpts4 were identified and validated in an unrelated barley population. The major 6H QTL, QRpt6, may provide adequate NFNB field resistance in western Canada and could be routinely selected for using molecular markers in a practical breeding program. PMID:18071668

Grewal, T S; Rossnagel, B G; Pozniak, C J; Scoles, G J

2008-02-01

364

The effect of stored barley cultivars, temperature and humidity on population increase of Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.  

PubMed

The rate of population increase of three mite species, Acarus siro (L.), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), was studied on various types of barley and at various combinations of temperature and humidity. The mites were added into the chambers and incubated for 21 days on seven different kinds of barley coming from four sites, including six cultivars and a mixture. The population increase of all species was higher on the mixture than on any other cultivar, except for Sebastian and Calgary. The increase of mites was studied at constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 35 °C and relative humidity (RH) ranging from 50 to 90 %. Positive rate of increase was found above 70 % RH for all species. The optimal humidity was at 85 % RH for A. siro and L. destructor and at 90 % RH for T. putrescentiae. As concerns the temperature, positive rate of increase was found at temperatures higher than 10, 15 and 20 °C for A. siro, L. destructor and T. putrescentiae, respectively. The temperature optima were at 23, 25, and 30 °C for A. siro, L. destructor and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Model estimated on laboratory data was then fitted to temperature and humidity records from August to November in the Czech grain store. Estimated population rate of increase was rarely positive: for A. siro it was for 24 %, for L. destructor for only 1 % and for T. putrescentiae for only 7 % days of the study period. It is concluded that in the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic the population increase of three mite pests is negligible during autumn and winter. PMID:23192331

Hubert, Jan; Pekár, Stano; Aulický, Radek; Nesvorná, Marta; Stejskal, Václav

2013-06-01

365

The scutellar vascular bundle-specific promoter of the wheat HD-Zip IV transcription factor shows similar spatial and temporal activity in transgenic wheat, barley and rice.  

PubMed

An HD-Zip IV gene from wheat, TaGL9, was isolated using a Y1H screen of a cDNA library prepared from developing wheat grain. TaGL9 has an amino acid sequence distinct from other reported members of the HD-Zip IV family. The 3' untranslated region of TaGL9 was used as a probe to isolate a genomic clone of the TaGL9 homologue from a BAC library prepared from Triticum durum L. cv. Langdon. The full-length gene containing a 3-kb-long promoter region was designated TdGL9H1. Spatial and temporal activity of TdGL9H1 was examined using promoter-GUS fusion constructs in transgenic wheat, barley and rice plants. Whole-mount and histochemical GUS staining patterns revealed grain-specific expression of TdGL9H1. GUS expression was initially observed between 3 and 8?days after pollination (DAP) in embryos at the globular stage and adjacent to the embryo fraction of the endosperm. Expression was strongest in the outer cell layer of the embryo. In developed wheat and barley embryos, strong activity of the promoter was only detected in the main vascular bundle of the scutellum, which is known to be responsible for the uptake of nutrients from the endosperm during germination and the endosperm-dependent phase of seedling development. Furthermore, this pattern of GUS staining was observed in dry seeds several weeks after harvesting but quickly disappeared during imbibition. The promoter of this gene could be a useful tool for engineering of early seedling vigour and protecting the endosperm to embryo axis pathway from pathogens during grain desiccation and storage. PMID:21689369

Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Wu, Wei; Eini, Omid; Bazanova, Natalia; Pallotta, Margaret; Shirley, Neil; Singh, Rohan; Ismagul, Ainur; Eliby, Serik; Johnson, Alexander; Langridge, Peter; Lopato, Sergiy

2012-01-01

366

The distribution of transgene insertion sites in barley determined by physical and genetic mapping.  

PubMed Central

The exact site of transgene insertion into a plant host genome is one feature of the genetic transformation process that cannot, at present, be controlled and is often poorly understood. The site of transgene insertion may have implications for transgene stability and for potential unintended effects of the transgene on plant metabolism. To increase our understanding of transgene insertion sites in barley, a detailed analysis of transgene integration in independently derived transgenic barley lines was carried out. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to physically map 23 transgene integration sites from 19 independent barley lines. Genetic mapping further confirmed the location of the transgenes in 11 of these lines. Transgene integration sites were present only on five of the seven barley chromosomes. The pattern of transgene integration appeared to be nonrandom and there was evidence of clustering of independent transgene insertion events within the barley genome. In addition, barley genomic regions flanking the transgene insertion site were isolated for seven independent lines. The data from the transgene flanking regions indicated that transgene insertions were preferentially located in gene-rich areas of the genome. These results are discussed in relation to the structure of the barley genome. PMID:15280249

Salvo-Garrido, Haroldo; Travella, Silvia; Bilham, Lorelei J; Harwood, Wendy A; Snape, John W

2004-01-01

367

Effects of barley chromosome addition to wheat on behavior and development of Locusta migratoria nymphs  

PubMed Central

Locusta migratoria feeds on various Poaceae plants but barley. Barley genes related to feeding deterrence may be useful for developing novel resistant crops. We investigated the effects of barley cultivar Betzes, wheat cultivar Chinese Spring (CS), and six barley chromosome disomic addition lines of wheat (2H–7H) on locomotor activity, feeding behavior, survival and development of L. migratoria nymphs. Locomotor activity was similar in nymphs kept with wheat and 2H–7H in an actograph, whereas it was generally high in those kept with barely. No-choice and choice feeding tests suggested that barley genes related to inhibition of feeding by L. migratoria are located on barley chromosomes 5H and 6H and those related to the palatability of plants on chromosomes 2H, 5H and 6H. Rearing experiments suggested the presence of barley genes negatively affecting the survival and growth of locust nymphs on chromosomes 5H and 2H, respectively, and the effects are phase-dependent. PMID:23999457

Suematsu, Shunji; Harano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Seiji; Kawaura, Kanako; Ogihara, Yasunari; Watari, Yasuhiko; Saito, Osamu; Tokuda, Makoto

2013-01-01

368

Translocation of Carbon in Powdery Mildewed Barley 1  

PubMed Central

This paper compares translocation in healthy and powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei, race CR3) infected barley (Hordeum vulgare, variety Manchuria). The sink-like properties of the powdery mildew infection were used to determine what effect imposing a sink in the midst of normal source tissue (mature primary leaf) had on the translocation process. The pattern of translocation was determined by monitoring the movement of 14C which was photosynthetically incorporated from 14C either by the primary or second leaf. In the healthy primary leaf of barley, 14C fixed in the tip section of the blade was preferentially translocated to the root, whereas 14C fixed in the basal section was primarily translocated to the shoot. When a sporulating powdery mildew infection was present in the mid-section of the primary leaf, 14C fixed in that section or in the acropetal healthy tip section readily accumulated in the infection area. Labeled carbon fixed in the healthy basal section was translocated into the other parts of the plant with only a small fraction moving acropetally into the infected mid-section. The 14C fixed by the second leaf was translocated to the root and younger shoot with very little entering the primary leaf. The presence of the mildew infection did not alter this pattern. PMID:16657616

Edwards, H. H.

1971-01-01

369

Dynamics of Nuclear DNA Quantities during Zygote Development in Barley.  

PubMed Central

Quantities of DNA were estimated in the nuclei of mechanically isolated egg and zygote protoplasts in two cultivars of barley using 4[prime],6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining and microfluorometry. Unlike many previous studies on DNA amounts within the sex cells of flowering plants, we obtained consistent and unambiguous results indicating that the egg and sperm nuclei are at the 1C DNA level (basic haploid amount) at the time of karyogamy. Karyogamy was initiated within 60 min postpollination, and the male chromatin became completely integrated into the egg nucleus within 6 to 7 hr postpollination (hpp). Zygotic nuclear DNA levels began to increase at ~9 to 12 hpp in cultivar Alexis and at 12 to 15 hpp in cultivar Igri. The 4C DNA complement was reached in most zygotes by 22 to 26 hpp in cultivar Alexis and by 23 to 29 hpp in cultivar Igri. These data are fundamental to a better understanding of fertilization and zygote maturation in flowering plants. They are also relevant to studies in which the timing of zygotic DNA replication is of interest, such as ongoing investigations on genetic transformations in barley using the microinjection technique. PMID:12242375

Mogensen, H. L.; Holm, P. B.

1995-01-01

370

Parallel expression profiling of barley-stem rust interactions.  

PubMed

The dominant barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 confers resistance to many but not all pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt). Transformation of Rpg1 into susceptible cultivar Golden Promise rendered the transgenic plants resistant to Pgt pathotype MCC but not to Pgt pathotype QCC. Our objective was to identify genes that are induced/repressed during the early stages of pathogen infection to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and role of Rpg1 in defense. A messenger ribonucleic acid expression analysis using the 22K Barley1 GeneChip was conducted in all pair-wise combinations of two isolines (cv. Golden Promise and Rpg1 transgenic line G02-448F-3R) and two Pgt pathotypes (MCC and QCC) across six time points. Analysis showed that a total of 34 probe sets exhibited expression pattern differences between Golden Promise (susceptible) and G02-448F-3R (resistant) infected with Pgt-MCC. A total of 14 probe sets exhibited expression pattern differences between Pgt-MCC (avirulent) and Pgt-QCC (virulent) inoculated onto G02-448F-3R. These differentially expressed genes were activated during the early infection process, before the hypersensitive response or fungal growth inhibition occurred. Our analysis provides a list of candidate signaling components, which can be analyzed for function in Rpg1-mediated disease resistance. PMID:18196301

Zhang, Ling; Castell-Miller, Claudia; Dahl, Stephanie; Steffenson, Brian; Kleinhofs, Andris

2008-08-01

371

Gut microbiome composition is linked to whole grain-induced immunological improvements  

PubMed Central

The involvement of the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders, and the ability of whole grains to affect both host metabolism and gut microbial ecology, suggest that some benefits of whole grains are mediated through their effects on the gut microbiome. Nutritional studies that assess the effect of whole grains on both the gut microbiome and human physiology are needed. We conducted a randomized cross-over trial with four-week treatments in which 28 healthy humans consumed a daily dose of 60?g of whole-grain barley (WGB), brown rice (BR), or an equal mixture of the two (BR+WGB), and characterized their impact on fecal microbial ecology and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. All treatments increased microbial diversity, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and the abundance of the genus Blautia in fecal samples. The inclusion of WGB enriched the genera Roseburia, Bifidobacterium and Dialister, and the species Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia faecis and Roseburia intestinalis. Whole grains, and especially the BR+WGB treatment, reduced plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and peak postprandial glucose. Shifts in the abundance of Eubacterium rectale were associated with changes in the glucose and insulin postprandial response. Interestingly, subjects with greater improvements in IL-6 levels harbored significantly higher proportions of Dialister and lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae. In conclusion, this study revealed that a short-term intake of whole grains induced compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in host physiological measures related to metabolic dysfunctions in humans. PMID:23038174

Martinez, Ines; Lattimer, James M; Hubach, Kelcie L; Case, Jennifer A; Yang, Junyi; Weber, Casey G; Louk, Julie A; Rose, Devin J; Kyureghian, Gayaneh; Peterson, Daniel A; Haub, Mark D; Walter, Jens

2013-01-01

372

Seasonal abundance of aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) in wheat and their role as barley yellow dwarf virus vectors in the South Carolina coastal plain.  

PubMed

Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) seasonal flight activity and abundance in wheat, Triticum aestivum L., and the significance of aphid species as vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus were studied over a nine-year period in the South Carolina coastal plain. Four aphid species colonized wheat in a consistent seasonal pattern. Greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), and rice root aphid, Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (Sasaki), colonized seedlingwheat immediately after crop emergence, with apterous colonies usually peaking in December or January and then declining for the remainder of the season. These two aphid species are unlikely to cause economic loss on wheat in South Carolina, thus crop managers should not have to sample for the subterranean R. rufiabdominalis colonies. Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), was the second most abundant species and the most economically important. Rhopalosiphum padi colonies usually remained below 10/row-meter until peaking in February or March. Barley yellow dwarf incidence and wheat yield loss were significantly correlated with R. padi peak abundance and aphid-day accumulation on the crop. Based on transmission assays, R. padi was primarily responsible for vectoring the predominant virus serotype (PAV) we found in wheat. Pest management efforts should focus on sampling for and suppressing this aphid species. December planting reduced aphid-day accumulation and barley yellow dwarf incidence, but delayed planting is not a practical management option. English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.), was the last species to colonize wheat each season, and the most abundant. Sitobion avenae was responsible for late-season virus transmission and caused direct yield loss by feeding on heads and flag leaves during an outbreak year. PMID:11332833

Chapin, J W; Thomas, J S; Gray, S M; Smith, D M; Halbert, S E

2001-04-01

373

Grain optical properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

Hanner, Martha

1988-01-01

374

[Genetic control of virulence of Pyrenophora teres drechs, the causative agent of net blotch in barley].  

PubMed

The genetic control of virulence was studied in four isolates of the fungus Pyrenophora teres f. teres, originating from various geographic regions in experiments with nine barley accessions, possessing known resistance genes. Experiments were performed with the ascospore progeny of two crosses. The results of segregation for virulence in the progeny of direct crosses were confirmed by analysis of backcrosses and sib crosses. One to four genes for avirulence toward various barley genotypes were found in the isolates under study. It is suggested that dominant suppressor genes are involved in the genetic control of avirulence toward four barley genotypes. PMID:16396454

Mironenko, N V; Afanasenko, O S; Filatova, O A; Kopahnke, D

2005-12-01

375

A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) in barley and corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration. Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22.6, 16.2, 14.4 and 14.2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17.0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs. These dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) are very

Timothy J. Close; Alexander A. Kortt; Peter M. Chandler

1989-01-01

376

Interstellar Grain Surface Chemistry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chemistry on grain surfaces plays an Important role in the formation of interstellar Ices, It can also influence the composition of the gas phase through outgassing near luminous, newly formed stars. This paper reviews the chemical processes taking place on Interstellar grain surfaces with the emphasis on those transforming CO into other hydrocarbons. At low, molecular cloud temperatures (approximately equal to 10K), physisorption processes dominate interstellar grain surface chemistry and GO is largely hydrogenated through reactions with atomic H and oxidized through reactions with atomic O. The former will lead to the formation of H2CO and CH3OH ices, while the latter results in CO2 ice. The observational evidence for these ices in molecular clouds will be discussed. Very close to protostars, the gas and grain temperatures are much higher (approximately equal to 500K) and chemisorption processes, including catalytic surface reactions, becomes important. This will be illustrated based upon our studies of the Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis of CH4 from CO on metallic surfaces. Likely, this process has played an important role in the early solar nebula. Observational consequences will be pointed out.

Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

1995-01-01

377

Grain Boundaries, Misorientation Distributions,  

E-print Network

in the transmission electron microscope. #12;Reading ¡ Pages 3-25 of Sutton & Balluffi ¡ Pages 307-346 of Howe. 3 #12://jolisfukyu.tokai-sc.jaea.go.jp/fukyu/tayu/ACT02E/06/0603.htm In most crystalline solids, a grain boundary is very thin (one/two atoms). Disorder

Rollett, Anthony D.

378

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-print Network

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

379

Grass and grain seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

380

Using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy to detect effects of blend DDGS inclusion level on the molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics of the proteins in hulless barley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of inclusion of a bioethanol co-product of blend DDGS (wheat:corn = 70%:30%) on protein molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics in hulless barley-based feed using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Hulless barley grain with the blend DDGS were mixed in the five ratios. The results showed that when blend DDGS was included at an increased ratio, predicted truly absorbed protein supply was highly and linearly increased (P < 0.05) from 98 to 245 g kg-1 DM and degraded protein balance was increased (P < 0.05) from -1 to 75 g kg-1 DM. The ratio of amide I to II peak area was increased (P < 0.05) in the original combination samples but decreased (P < 0.05) in the in situ 48 h residue samples. The ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet peak height was quadratically changed with increasing inclusion rate of blend DDGS in the original samples, but no difference among the in situ 48 h residue samples, indicating completion of protein degradation. No correlation was found between protein 2nd structures and protein nutrient profiles not only for the original combination samples (except NPN) but also for in situ 48 h residue samples. This study may provide information on how protein molecular structure and metabolic characteristic changes after feed combination and how more effectively utilize hulless barley and blend co-products for dairy and beef cattle.

Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

2012-09-01

381

Chemical profile, rumen degradation kinetics, and energy value of four hull-less barley cultivars: comparison of the zero-amylose waxy, waxy, high-amylose, and normal starch cultivars.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare three new Canadian hull-less barley cultivars with altered starch characteristics (zero-amylose waxy, CDC Fibar; waxy, CDC Rattan; and high-amylose, HB08302) with conventional normal starch hull-less barley (HB) cultivar (CDC McGwire) in terms of ruminant feed value. The study revealed that altered starch HB cultivars possessed several desirable feed characteristics, distinct from conventional normal starch HB, although they were similar in some respects: (1) basic chemical and carbohydrate subfraction profiles varied; (2) starch degradation kinetics showed altered starch HB containing higher soluble starch, rumen undegraded starch, lower degradable starch, and slower degradation rate; (3) all altered starch HB cultivars had similar soluble and degradable starch, different from that of conventional normal starch HB; (4) two waxy HB cultivars were lower, whereas the high-amylose cultivar was similar in effective degradability of the starch as compared to conventional normal starch HB; (5) zero-amylose waxy HB had the greater effective degradability of protein among HB cultivars; and (6) amylopectin in HB had a positive relationship with protein supply (increasing amylopectin was correlated with increased effective degradability of protein). Overall, these results demonstrate that the alteration of starch structure in granule affects not only starch fermentation and utilization but also protein value in hull-less barley. In summary, the HB cultivars with modified starch might be a better feed grain for ruminants than the normal starch HB. PMID:20828153

Damiran, Daalkhaijav; Yu, Peiqiang

2010-10-13

382

Effect of low-phytate barley or phytase supplementation to a barley-soybean meal diet on phosphorus retention and excretion by grower pigs.  

PubMed

Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of diets containing low-phytate barley or supplemented with phytase on P balance and excretion in grower pigs. In Exp. 1, eight 32-kg barrows were assigned to a repeated, 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed 4 diets that contained 96% barley: normal-phytate hulled barley (HB), low-phytate hulled barley (LPHB), normal-phytate hull-less barley (HLB), and low-phytate hull-less barley (LPHLB). The barley cultivars contained 0.16, 0.05, 0.24, and 0.03% phytate, respectively. Inorganic P (iP) was added to the HB and HLB diets to meet the 1998 National Research Council recommendation of available P (aP, 0.23%), whereas LPHB and LPHLB contained sufficient aP. The diets were fed at 2.5 times the maintenance requirement for ME. The apparent total tract digestibilities (ATTD) of P did not differ between the hulled and hull-less barley diets, but P retention (%) and excretion were greater in pigs fed the hull-less barley diets (P < 0.05). The ATTD of P was greater and P excretion was 35% lower in pigs fed the low-phytate compared with the normal-phytate diets (P < 0.001). The amount of P retained (g/d) was greater (P < 0.001) in pigs fed low-phytate barley, reflecting an ATTD of P of 65 and 49% for low-phytate and normal-phytate barley, respectively (P < 0.001). In Exp. 2, eight 21-kg barrows were assigned to a repeated, 4 x 4 Latin square design and fed 4 diets based on barley and soybean meal (SBM): HB-SBM, HB-SBM + iP, HB-SBM + phytase, and LPHB-SBM. The HB-SBM and HB-SBM + phytase diets were deficient in aP, whereas the HB-SBM + iP and LPHB-SBM diets had adequate aP. The feeding regimen was similar to that of Exp. 1. Adding iP to the HB-SBM diet did not affect the ATTD but increased the amount of P retained (g/d) and excreted (P < 0.001). The ATTD and amount of P retained (g/d) did not differ among pigs fed the HB-SBM + iP, HB-SBM + phytase, and LPHB-SBM diets. However, pigs fed the HB-SBM + phytase and LPHB-SBM diets excreted 32 and 29% less P, respectively, than pigs fed the HB-SBM + iP diet (P < 0.05), confirming that low-phytate barley is as effective as supplemental phytase in improving P digestibility and utilization and decreasing P excretion in grower pigs. PMID:17591717

Htoo, J K; Sauer, W C; Yáńez, J L; Cervantes, M; Zhang, Y; Helm, J H; Zijlstra, R T

2007-11-01

383

Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively,?HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV wavelength, and UV-C induced 4 genes of HvNUDX.

Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

384

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such ‘weather response diversity’ within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3–7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3–4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

HAKALA, K.; JAUHIAINEN, L.; HIMANEN, S. J.; ROTTER, R.; SALO, T.; KAHILUOTO, H.

2012-01-01

385

Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

2012-12-01

386

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2013-01-01

387

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2014-01-01

388

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic engineering of blocking further xylitol and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria e

Qin, Wensheng

389

Proteinaceous Metabolites from Pyrenophora teres Contribute to Symptom Development of Barley Net Blotch.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Pyrenophora teres, the causal agent of net blotch of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), induces a combination of necrosis and extensive chlorosis in susceptible barley cultivars. Cell-free filtrates from both net and spot forms of P. teres; P. teres f. sp. teres, and P. teres f. sp. maculata were found to contain phytotoxic low molecular weight compounds (LMWCs) and proteinaceous metabolites which appear to be responsible for different components of the symptoms induced by the two forms of the pathogen in a susceptible cultivar of barley (cv. Sloop). Proteins induced only brown necrotic spots or lesions similar to those induced by the pathogens 72 h after inoculation. In contrast, LMWCs induced general chlorosis seen 240 h after inoculation but not the localized necrosis. Neither hydrolyzed or heat- or protease-treated proteinaceous metabolites induced the symptoms. This is the first report of the involvement of proteins produced by P. teres in symptom development during net blotch disease of barley. PMID:18943630

Sarpeleh, Abolfazl; Wallwork, Hugh; Catcheside, David E A; Tate, Max E; Able, Amanda J

2007-08-01

390

The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.  

PubMed

Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

2005-11-01

391

Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Simkova, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubalakova, Marie; Suchankova, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-01-01

392

Effect of phytase supplementation on phosphorus digestibility in low-phytate barley fed to finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Forty crossbred barrows (Camborough 15 Line female x Canabred sire) weighing an average of 79.6 +/- 8.0 kg were used in a factorial design experiment (5 barleys x 2 enzyme levels) conducted to determine the effects of phytase supplementation on nutrient digestibility in low-phytate barleys fed to finishing pigs. The pigs were assigned to one of 10 dietary treatments comprised of a normal 2-rowed, hulled variety of barley (CDC Fleet, 0.26% phytate) or 2 low-phytate hulled genotypes designated as LP422 (0.14% phytate) and LP635 (0.09% phytate). A normal, hulless barley (CDC Dawn, 0.26% phytate) and a hulless genotype designated as LP422H (0.14% phytate) were also included. All barleys were fed with and without phytase (Natuphos 5000 FTU/kg). The diets fed contained 98% barley, 0.5% vitamin premix, 0.5% trace mineral premix, 0.5% NaCl and 0.5% chromic oxide but no supplemental phosphorus. The marked feed was provided for a 7-day acclimatization period, followed by a 3-day faecal collection. In the absence of phytase, phosphorus digestibility increased substantially (P < 0.05) as the level of phytate in the barley declined. For the hulled varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 12.9% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 35.3 and 39.8% for the two low-phytate genotypes (0.14 and 0.09% phytate respectively). For the hulless varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 9.2% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 34.7% for the hulless variety with 54% of the normal level of phytate (0.14% phytate). In contrast, when phytase was added to the diet, there was little difference in phosphorus digestibility between pigs fed normal barley and those fed the low-phytate genotypes (significant barley x enzyme interaction, P = 0.01). For the hulled varieties, phosphorus digestibility was 50.1% for the barley with the normal level of phytate (0.26% phytate) compared with 51.1 and 52.4% for the varieties with 54 and 35% of the normal level of phytate (0.14 and 0.09% phytate respectively). For the hulless varieties, phosphorus digestibility increased from 47.1% for the normal barley (0.26% phytate) to 54.4% for the hulless variety with 54% of the normal level of phytate (0.14% phytate). In conclusion, both supplementation with phytase and selection for low-phytate genotypes of barley were successful in increasing the digestibility of phosphorus for pigs. Unfortunately, the effects did not appear to be additive. Whether or not swine producers will choose low-phytate barley or supplementation with phytase as a means to improve phosphorus utilization, will likely depend on the yield potential of low-phytate barley and the additional costs associated with supplementation with phytase. PMID:15085965

Thacker, P A; Rossnagel, B G; Raboy, V

2004-02-01

393

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2012-01-01

394

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2010-01-01

395

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged kernels....

2011-01-01

396

Scaling Behavior of Grain-Rotation-Induced Grain Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of grain growth in nanocrystalline materials have revealed a new growth mechanism: grain-rotation-induced grain coalescence. Based on a simple model employing a stochastic theory and using computer simulations, here we investigate the coarsening of a polycrystalline microstructure due solely to the grain-rotation coalescence mechanism. Our study demonstrates that this mechanism exhibits power-law growth with a universal scaling exponent.

Dorel Moldovan; Vesselin Yamakov; Dieter Wolf; Simon R. Phillpot

2002-01-01

397

Grains charges in interstellar clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The charge of cosmic grains could play an important role in many astrophysical phenomena. It probably has an influence on the coagulation of grains and more generally on grain-grain collisions, and on interaction between charged particles and grains which could lead to the formation of large grains or large molecules. The electrostatic charge of grains depends mainly on the nature of constitutive material of the grain and on the physical properties of its environment: it results from a delicate balance between the plasma particle collection and the photoelectron emission, both of them depending on each other. The charge of the grain is obtained in two steps: (1) using the numerical model the characteristics of the environment of the grain are computed; (2) the charge of a grain which is embedded in this environment is determined. The profile of the equilibrium charge of some typical grains through different types of interstellar clouds is obtained as a function of the depth of the cloud. It is shown that the grain charge can reach high values not only in hot diffuse clouds, but also in clouds with higher densities. The results are very sensitive to the mean UV interstellar radiation field. Three parameters appear to be essential but with different levels of sensitivity of the charge: the gas density, the temperature, and the total thickness of the cloud.

Bel, N.; Lafon, J. P.; Viala, Y. P.

1989-01-01

398

Cadmium-induced microsomal membrane-bound peroxidases mediated hydrogen peroxide production in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of cadmium on microsomal membrane-bound peroxidases and their involvement in hydrogen peroxide production was studied\\u000a in barley roots. One anionic and two cationic peroxidases were detected, which were strongly activated by Cd treatment. Positive\\u000a correlation was found between root growth inhibition and increased peroxidase, NADH oxidase activity and H2O2 generation in root microsomal membrane fraction of Cd-treated barley

Ladislav Tamás; Jana Huttová; Igor Mistrík; Marta Ollé

2006-01-01

399

Fine mapping and syntenic integration of the semi-dwarfing gene sdw3 of barley.  

PubMed

The barley mutant allele sdw3 confers a gibberellin-insensitive, semi-dwarf phenotype with potential for breeding of new semi-dwarfed barley cultivars. Towards map-based cloning, sdw3 was delimited by high-resolution genetic mapping to a 0.04 cM interval in a "cold spot" of recombination of the proximal region of the short arm of barley chromosome 2H. Extensive synteny between the barley Sdw3 locus (Hvu_sdw3) and the orthologous regions (Osa_sdw3, Sbi_sdw3, Bsy_sdw3) of three other grass species (Oryza sativa, Sorghum bicolor, Brachypodium sylvaticum) allowed for efficient synteny-based marker saturation in the target interval. Comparative sequence analysis revealed colinearity for 23 out of the 38, 35, and 29 genes identified in Brachypodium, rice, and Sorghum, respectively. Markers co-segregating with Hvu_sdw3 were generated from two of these genes. Initial attempts at chromosome walking in barley were performed with seven orthologous gene probes which were delimiting physical distances of 223, 123, and 127 kb in Brachypodium, rice, and Sorghum, respectively. Six non-overlapping small bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone contigs (cumulative length of 670 kb) were obtained, which indicated a considerably larger physical size of Hvu_sdw3. Low-pass sequencing of selected BAC clones from these barley contigs exhibited a substantially lower gene frequency per physical distance and the presence of additional non-colinear genes. Four candidate genes for sdw3 were identified within barley BAC sequences that either co-segregated with the gene sdw3 or were located adjacent to these co-segregating genes. Identification of genic sequences in the sdw3 context provides tools for marker-assisted selection. Eventual identification of the actual gene will contribute new information for a basic understanding of the mechanisms underlying growth regulation in barley. PMID:20464438

Vu, Giang T H; Wicker, Thomas; Buchmann, Jan P; Chandler, Peter M; Matsumoto, Takashi; Graner, Andreas; Stein, Nils

2010-11-01

400

Genetic and environmental variation in the diastatic power of australian barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in the diastatic power of Australian barley, and the relationships between diastatic power and the starch-degrading enzymes contributing to diastatic power, were investigated in 11 cultivars of barley grown at six diverse locations in Australia. Diastatic power varied with genotype and location, with the levels ranging from 3ˇ1 to 16ˇ5 U\\/kg. For alpha-amylase activity, levels across cultivar and location

A. M. Arends; G. P. Fox; R. J. Henry; R. J. Marschke; M. H. Symons

1995-01-01

401

Starch Pasting Properties and Amylose Content from 17 Waxy Barley Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 83(4):354-357 Starch pasting properties and amylose content from 17 waxy barley lines (waxy gene originating from indigenous lines and an artificial mutant) were analyzed using rapid viscosity analysis (Rapid Visco Analyser (RVA)). Amylose contents varied from 0% (Shikoku-hadaka 97) to 9.5% (Shikoku-hadaka 96) compared with 30% for normal barley. Eight parameters were obtained from RVA profiles of these

T. Yanagisawa; E. Domon; M. Fujita; C. Kiribuchi-Otobe; T. Takayama

2006-01-01

402

A role for ethylene in barley plants responding to soil water shortage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of water shortage and ethylene (ethephon) application on ear fertility and tillering of barley plants were compared.\\u000a In both cases, highest sensitivity was observed during jointing and pre-anthesis (Feekes 7–9). The ear initial with the surrounding\\u000a tissue was identified as the site of ethylene action. Treating this region of barley plants with AVG before wilting partly\\u000a prevented drought

C. Bergner; C. Teichmann

1993-01-01

403

Biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins in barley: Genetic control of the conversion of dihydroquercetin to catechin and procyanidins  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of dihydroquercetin to catechin and procyanidin was studied in maturing wild type barley (Hordeum vulgare L.,\\u000a cv. Nordal) seeds and proanthocyanidin free mutants blocked in four different genes,ant 13, ant 17, ant 18 andant 19. In the wild type barley grown under controlled conditions, maximal rate of synthesis of catechin, procyanidin B3 and procyanidin\\u000a C2 occurred 8–16 days

Klaus Nyegaard Kristiansen

1984-01-01

404

Effects of germinated barley foodstuff on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF), derived from the aleurone and scutellum fractions of germinated barley, is rich in glutamine\\u000a and low-lignified hemicellulose, and increases mucosal protein, RNA, and DNA content in the intestine when fed to normal rats.\\u000a The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding GBF or germinated gramineous seeds on experimental ulcerative\\u000a colitis. Sprague-Dawley

Osamu Kanauchi; Tomohiko Nakamura; Kazue Agata; Keiichi Mitsuyama; Toshihiko Iwanaga

1998-01-01

405

Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

406

Developmental and organ-specific expression of an ABA and stress-induced protein in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

An mRNA species, HVA1, has been shown to be rapidly induced by abscisic acid (ABA) in barley aleurone layers (Hong, Uknes and Ho, Plant Mol Biol 11: 495–506, 1988). In the current work we have investigated the expression of HVA1 in other organs of barley plants. In developing seeds, HVA1 mRNA is not detected in starchy endosperm cells, yet it

Bimei Hong; Rivka Barg; Tuan-hua David Ho

1992-01-01

407

Response of barley and pea crops to supplementary UV-B radiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Four cultivars of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and two cultivars of combining pea (Pisum sativum L.) were grown in the field in the UK (52? N) and irradiated under banks of UV-B lamps in 1994}95 (barley) and 1996 (pea). Supplementary UV-B radiation was applied to treated plots as a proportional addition to the UV-B dose received under a

J. STEPHEN; R. WOODFIN; J. E. CORLETT; N. D. PAUL; H. G. JONES; P. G. AYRES

1999-01-01

408

Detection of seed dormancy QTL in multiple mapping populations derived from crosses involving novel barley germplasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seed dormancy is one of the most important traits in germination process to control malting and pre-harvest sprouting in barley\\u000a (Hordeum vulgare L.). EST based linkage maps were constructed on seven recombinant inbred (RI) and one doubled haploid (DH) populations derived\\u000a from crosses including eleven cultivated and one wild barley strains showing the wide range of seed dormancy levels. Seed

Kiyosumi Hori; Kazuhiro Sato; Kazuyoshi Takeda

2007-01-01

409

QTLs for chlorophyll and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in barley under post-flowering drought  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the major factors limiting barley yields in many developing countries worldwide. The identification of molecular\\u000a markers linked to genes controlling drought tolerance in barley is one way to improve breeding efficiency. In this study,\\u000a we analyzed the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in 194 recombinant\\u000a inbred lines (RILs) developed from the

Peiguo Guo; Michael Baum; Rajeev K. Varshney; Andreas Graner; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli

2008-01-01

410

Physiological effects and transport of 24-epibrassinolide in heat-stressed barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a study of the metabolic response (dark respiration intensity, photosystem II efficiency, metabolic activity)\\u000a and the yield of barley treated with 24-epibrassinolide and subjected to high-temperature stress. Transport of exogenously\\u000a applied 24-epibrassinolide in barley and changes in the profile of brassinosteroids that may occur in tissues after 24-epibrassinolide\\u000a application were also studied. The water solution of 24-epibrassinolide

Anna Janeczko; Jana Okleš?ková; Ewa Pociecha; Janusz Ko?cielniak; Magdalena Mirek

2011-01-01

411

Genetic diversity among elite Bulgarian barley varieties evaluated by RFLP and RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic variation among five elite winter barley cultivars (H. vulgare L.) currently grown in Bulgaria was assessed at the molecular level using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)\\u000a and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. The present study sampled RFLPs in four well characterized multigene\\u000a families in barley: the seed storage protein loci; the 18S, 5.8S and 26S ribosomal DNA loci;

Elena Todorovska; Adelina Trifonova; Atanas Atanassov

2003-01-01

412

Tissue Culture Response from Seedling Explants of Commercial Barley Cultivars Grown in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only a few studies have been conducted in which regenerability of barley has been examined. In the current study, 17 barley genotypes (nine two-row malting type: Aster, Emon, Ruen, Jubiley, PV101, Körten, Krassi 2, Perun and Igri, and eight six-row feed types: Karnobat, Hemus, Jerun, Veslets, Aheloi 2, Diana, Panagon, and Izrgev) were evaluated for tissue-culture response from seedlings during

Nabil Abumhadi; Kunka Kamenarova; Georgi Dimov; Elena Todorovska; Adelina Trifonova; Kostadin Gecheff; Atanas Atanassov

2006-01-01

413

Effect of 2,4-D precultivation on regeneration capacity of cultivated barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A reliable protocol for regeneration of barley from seedling explants including leaf bases with the complete apical meristem has been developed. Callus induction and shoot regeneration was only achieved when 28 days-old-seedlings were grown in the presence of high concentrations of 2,4-D. The Bulgarian barley variety Ruen commercially important for brewery industry was used as a model. The regeneration response

Z. Vitanova; V. Vitanov; A. Trifonova; D. Savova; A. Atanassov

1995-01-01

414

Transformation of recalcitrant barley cultivars through improvement of regenerability and decreased albinism  

Microsoft Academic Search

During selection for transformed tissue, in vitro-cultured barley material rapidly loses regenerability or gives rise to albino plants, and this has caused difficulty in developing successful transformation technologies for important North American barley cultivars. Callus from three spring cultivars, Golden Promise (GP), Galena (GL), and Harrington (HT), was initiated from immature scutellar tissue and grown on callus-induction medium containing 2.5

Myeong-Je Cho; Wen Jiang; Peggy G. Lemaux

1998-01-01

415

Dialect-I, species-specific repeated DNA sequence from barley, Hordeum vulgare  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dialect-1, species-specific repetitive DNA sequence of barley Hordeum vulgare, was cloned and analysed by Southern blot and in situ hybridization. Dialect-1 is dispersed through all barley chromosomes with copy number 5,000 per genome. Two DNA fragments related to Dialect-1 were revealed in ? phage library, subcloned and mapped. All three clones are structurally heterogenous and it is suggested that the

N. V. Sonina; A. A. Lushnikova; A. P. Tihonov; E. V. Ananiev

1989-01-01

416

Genomic diversity of germinating scutellum specific gene P23k in barley and wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

P23k is a 23 kDa protein involved in sugar translocation in the scutellum of germinating barley seeds. The present study was carried\\u000a out to provide the genomic characterization for P23k gene in terms of copy number, chromosome mapping, genetic mapping and expression analysis in germinating sculletum in two\\u000a major Triticeae crops, barley and wheat, and their relatives. Southern blotting showed that

Hiro Kouzaki; Shin-ichiro Kidou; Hideho Miura; Kiyoaki Kato

2009-01-01

417

Biomechanics of Wheat/Barley Straw and Corn Stover  

SciTech Connect

The lack of understanding of the mechanical characteristics of cellulosic feedstocks is a limiting factor in economically collecting and processing crop residues, primarily wheat and barley stems and corn stover. Several testing methods, including compression, tension, and bend have been investigated to increase our understanding of the biomechanical behavior of cellulosic feedstocks. Biomechanical data from these tests can provide required input to numerical models and help advance harvesting, handling, and processing techniques. In addition, integrating the models with the complete data set from this study can identify potential tools for manipulating the biomechanical properties of plant varieties in such a manner as to optimize their physical characteristics to produce higher value biomass and more energy efficient harvesting practices.

Christopher T. Wright; Peter A. Pryfogle; Nathan A. Stevens; Eric D. Steffler; J. Richard Hess; Thomas H. Ulrich

2005-03-01

418

Selection screen for novel photorespiratory mutants of barley  

SciTech Connect

Selfed seed from a catalase mutant of barley (RPr 79/4) was treated with the mutagen N-nitroso-N-methyl urea, which is known to induce mutations in both chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Treated seed was grown to maturity at 0.8% CO/sub 2/, until the second leaf emerged, then plants were transferred to air under high light intensity for 5 days. Those plants which did not show the characteristic phenotype of the catalase mutant, silvering of the leaves, were selected and maintained in high CO/sub 2/. These should include plants with mutations upstream catalase (i.e. non-producers of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/); for example, those affecting glycollate oxidase, phosphoglycollate phosphatase and RuBP oxygenase, in addition to catalase revertants. Preliminary experiments showed a high (7%) frequency of pigment mutations and one plant was selected for further study.

Hall, N.P.; Kendall, A.C.; Turner, J.C.; Wallsgrove R.M.; Keys, A.J.

1987-04-01

419

Epigenetic chromatin modifications in barley after mutagenic treatment.  

PubMed

In addition to their normal developmental processes, plants have evolved complex genetic and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms to cope with various environmental stresses. It has been shown that both DNA methylation and histone modifications are involved in DNA damage response to various types of stresses. In this study, we focused on the involvement of two mutagenic agents, chemical (maleic acid hydrazide; MH) and physical (gamma rays), on the global epigenetic modifications of chromatin in barley. Our results indicate that both mutagens strongly influence the level of histone methylation and acetylation. Moreover, we found that gamma irradiation, in contrast to MH, has a more robust influence on the DNA methylation level. This is the first study that brings together mutagenic treatment along with its impact at the level of epigenetic modifications examined using the immunohistochemical method. PMID:24939040

Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka; Tylikowska, Marta; Kwasniewska, Jolanta; Szymanowska-Pulka, Joanna

2014-11-01

420

Alkylguanidines as Inhibitors of K+ Transport in Isolated Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

It has been shown that plants can accumulate K+ through an energy-dependent process. The effect of alkylguanidines, in particular octylguanidine on the uptake of 86Rb+ by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare var. Apizaco LV-72), has been studied. 86Rb+ was used as tracer of K+. The uptake of 86Rb+ which is linear with time and shows saturation kinetics is inhibited by octylguanidine. Half-maximal inhibition of 86Rb+ uptake is attained at 50 ?M octylguanidine. Octylguanidine induces a decrease in the Vmax of the process and increases the Km of the system for Rb+. When the effects of various alkylguanidines were studied, the following order of effectiveness was encountered; octylguanidine = hexilguanidine > butylguanidine > ethylguanidine > guanidine. This suggests that guanidines inhibit Rb+ uptake by interacting through its positively charged guanidinium group with a Rb+ carrier while the alkyl chain interacts with the hydrophobic milieu of the membrane. PMID:16659325

Lepe, Beatriz Gomez; Avila, Epifanio Jimenez

1975-01-01