Sample records for crimped barley grain

  1. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

  2. Grain protein content variation and its association analysis in barley

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant for barley used as malt, feed as well as food. It is controlled by a complex genetic system. GPC differs greatly among barley genotypes and is also variable across different environments. It is imperative to understand the genetic control of barley GPC and identify the genotypes with less variation under the different environments. Results In this study, 59 cultivated and 99 Tibetan wild barley genotypes were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis, in order to identify the molecular markers associated with GPC. Tibetan wild barley had higher GPC than cultivated barley. The significant correlation between GPC and diastatic power (DP), and malt extract confirmed the importance of GPC in determining malt quality. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers associated with barley GPC were detected by GWAS. In addition, GWAS revealed two HvNAM genes as the candidate genes controlling GPC. No association was detected between HvNAM1 polymorphism and GPC, while a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (798, P?barley. Conclusions The GWAS and candidate gene based-association study may be effectively used to determine the genetic variation of GPC in barley. The DArT markers and the polymorphism of HvNAM genes identified in this study are useful in developing high quality barley cultivars in the future. HvNAM genes could play a role in controlling barley GPC. PMID:23452582

  3. The associations between Vrs1 alleles and grain quality traits in spring barley Hordeum vulgare L.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley head row type is a major trait affecting end use quality. Six rowed forms emerged due to mutations in the Vrs1 gene in two rowed barleys. Whether barley is two (Vrs1) or six rowed (vrs1) directly affects a wide range of morphological traits related to seed yield and grain quality. Vrs1 has be...

  4. Uptake of proline by the scutellum of germinating barley grain

    SciTech Connect

    Vaeisaenen, E.; Sopanen, T.

    1986-04-01

    Scutella separated from germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) took up 1 millimolar L-(/sup 14/C)proline at an initial rate of about 6.5 micromoles gram/sup -1/ fresh weight hour/sup -1/ (pH 5, 30/sup 0/C). The uptake had a pH optimum at 5. The bulk of the uptake (93%) was via carrier-mediated active transport. All of the 19 L-amino acids tested at 10 millimolar concentration inhibited the mediated uptake of 1 millimolar proline, the inhibitions varying from 18 to 76%. By studying how large a fraction of the mediated uptake was inhibitable by asparagine, alanine, glutamine, and leucine, the mediated uptake was shown to be due to three components. Two of these are most probably attributable to the two nonspecific uptake systems proposed earlier to act in the uptake of glutamine and leucine. The third component was not inhibited by glutamine, asparagine, or alanine, but was inhibited by unlabeled proline and leucine. The uptake by this system was apparently carrier-mediated active transport. D-Proline inhibited this system as strongly as L-proline. Nine of the 16 L-amino tested at 50 millimolar concentrations did not inhibit the uptake of 1 millimolar proline by this system. Valine, leucine, isoleucine, and the basic amino acids were inhibitory, but in spite of this, they did not appear to be taken up by this system. It seems therefore that in addition to two nonspecific amino acid uptake systems the scutella have an uptake system which is specific for proline. It is likely that this proline-specific system accounts for the bulk of proline uptake in a germinating grain.

  5. Tubing crimping pliers

    DOEpatents

    Lindholm, G.T.

    1981-02-27

    The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

  6. Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...

  7. Contribution of stored pre-anthesis assimilate to grain yield in wheat and barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Bidinger; R. B. MUSGRAVE; R. A. FISCHER

    1977-01-01

    RESERVES of assimilate present in wheat and barley crops at flowering, and available for later translocation to the grains, could buffer grain yield against environmental stresses during grain filling. This so-called pre-anthesis assimilate contribution to grain yield can be expressed as a percentage of yield (P1). Archbold1, and later Thorne2, concluded that P1 was small, being no more than 20%2.

  8. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L; Mäkelä, Pirjo S A

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  9. Effects of Break Crops on Yield and Grain Protein Concentration of Barley in a Boreal Climate

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ling; Yli-Halla, Markku; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Mäkelä, Pirjo S. A.

    2015-01-01

    Rotation with dicotyledonous crops to break cereal monoculture has proven to be beneficial to successive cereals. In two fields where the soil had been subjected to prolonged, continuous cereal production, two 3-year rotation trials were established. In the first year, faba bean, turnip rape and barley were grown, as first crops, in large blocks and their residues tilled into the soil after harvest. In the following year, barley, buckwheat, caraway, faba bean, hemp and white lupin were sown, as second crops, in each block and incorporated either at flowering stage (except barley) or after harvest. In the third year, barley was grown in all plots and its yield and grain protein concentration were determined. Mineral N in the plough layer was determined two months after incorporation of crops and again before sowing barley in the following year. The effect of faba bean and turnip rape on improving barley yields and grain protein concentration was still detectable two years after they were grown. The yield response of barley was not sensitive to the growth stage of second crops when they were incorporated, but was to different second crops, showing clear benefits averaging 6-7% after white lupin, faba bean and hemp but no benefit from caraway or buckwheat. The effect of increased N in the plough layer derived from rotation crops on barley yields was minor. Incorporation of plants at flowering stage slightly increased third-year barley grain protein concentration but posed a great potential for N loss compared with incorporation of crop residues after harvest, showing the value of either delayed incorporation or using catch crops. PMID:26076452

  10. A recurrent selection programme for grain yield in winter barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Delogu; C. Lorenzoni; A. Marocco; P. Martiniello; M. Odoardi; A. M. Stanca

    1988-01-01

    The effect of a recurrent selection procedure was evaluated in a winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) population. Cycle zero (C0) was initiated by crossing six high yielding winter barley cultivars with the short straw cv ‘Onice’. The F1's were crossed according to a diallel scheme without reciprocals. A total of 750 S0 plants were derived and evaluated; 329 S0 plants

  11. Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Olsson; T Börjesson; T Lundstedt; J Schnürer

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with

  12. Factors affecting the concentrations of lead in British wheat and barley grain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J Zhao; M. L Adams; C Dumont; S. P McGrath; A. M Chaudri; F. A Nicholson; B. J Chambers; A. H Sinclair

    2004-01-01

    The entry of Pb into the food chain is of concern as it can cause chronic health problems. The concentration of Pb was determined in cereal grain samples collected representatively from British Cereal Quality Surveys in 1982 and 1998 (n=176, 250 and 233 for wheat collected in 1982 and 1998, and barley in 1998, respectively). In addition, paired soil and

  13. Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

  14. GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, P. W.

    1972-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

  15. Comparison of barley and sorghum grain processed at different densities for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Huber, J T; Theurer, C B; Swingle, R S; Wu, Z; Simas, J M; Chen, K H; Chan, S C; Santos, J; DePeters, E J

    1997-09-01

    To vary ruminally degradable starch, sorghum grain was dry-rolled or steam-flaked to different densities and compared with dry-rolled barley in total mixed diets fed to 40 lactating cows (111 d of lactation) assigned to five dietary treatments. Diets contained (percentage of dry matter) 35% alfalfa hay, 4.1% cottonseed hulls, 10% whole cottonseed, 2% fish meal, 4% soybean meal, and 4.9% of a molasses, mineral, and vitamin supplement. Treatments were 40% sorghum grain either dry-rolled or steam-processed at flake densities of 437, 360, and 283 g/L. A fifth diet containing 42% dry-rolled barley was fed. Cows were blocked according to pretreatment (14 d) milk yield and received experimental diets for 56 d. Increasing ruminal starch degradability by including steam-flaked sorghum grain or barley in the diet did not increase milk yield or milk protein percentage and yield, as was shown in eight previous studies. Steam-flaked sorghum or dry-rolled barley in the diet decreased dry matter intake, resulting in a 10 to 19% higher efficiency of conversion of feed dry matter to milk than that for dry-rolled sorghum. Milk urea N was decreased, and milk casein yield tended to be increased, by steam-flaking sorghum at the moderate density compared with dry-rolling or fine flaking. Dietary protein was more efficiently converted to milk protein and casein from flaked sorghum and dry-rolled barley than from dry-rolled sorghum. In this study, increasing ruminal starch degradability resulted in higher feed efficiency and lower feed intakes, bu optimal flake densities for steam-processed sorghum gain to maximize milk and milk protein yield were not clarified. PMID:9313152

  16. Genotype x environment interaction patterns for grain yield of spring barley in different regions of Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Turuspekov, Y; Sariev, B; Chudinov, V; Sereda, G; Tokhetova, L; Ortaev, A; Tsygankov, V; Doszhanov, M; Volis, S; Abugalieva, S

    2013-02-01

    Barley plays an important role in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan and it is grown in many different climate zones over 1.5 min hectares annually. Therefore development of optimal cultivars for specific environments is a major challenge for barley breeding community in Kazakhstan. One of the approaches to address this question is to test large collection of commercial cultivars and advanced lines over a number of environmental sites that reflect major spatial and temporal climate variations in the country. In this work 103 cultivars and advanced lines of spring barley bred in six different breeding stations of Kazakhstan were grown in different testing sites in seven regions over 2009-2011 years. The major tasks of this research were to evaluate genotype x x environment interactions and assess grain yield in associations with developmental stages of barley, such as heading date and seed maturation date. The results suggest that (i) heading and seed maturation dates are significantly correlated with grain yield in specific regions and may have opposite correlation indexes in response to environmental conditions; (ii) accessions of different bred origin vary in their ability to exhibit environmentally-dependent plastic responses; (iii) spatial variation was more important than temporal variation in GxE interactions; (iv) biplot analysis is effective approach in identification of best suitable and stable accessions for both broad and narrow environments. The obtained results are further contribution to understanding of complex mechanisms of genotype x environment interactions. PMID:23668088

  17. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.

    PubMed

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

    2010-12-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  18. Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants

    PubMed Central

    Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

  19. Barley Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

  20. Comparison of manual and automatic sampling for monitoring ochratoxin A in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, M.G.; Reiter, E.V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Razzazi-Fazeli, E.

    2011-01-01

    Automatic and manual sampling for ochratoxin A (OTA) in barley grain was compared under industrial conditions considering sampling uncertainty as well as practical and technical aspects. Ten tonnes of barley inoculated with Penicillium verrucosum were incubated until the OTA concentration reached approximately 15 ?g kg?1 and sampled with manual and automatic sampling. A nested experimental design and ANOVA was used to estimate variance components from sampling, sample reduction, sample preparation and analysis. Manual sampling resulted in a high sampling uncertainty and OTA concentrations in aggregate samples ranged from 2 to 80 ?g kg?1. When aggregate samples were formed by automatic sampling the uncertainty arising from nugget effects and spatial distribution was practically eliminated. Results from this study show that an automatic sampler mounted after a mixer or conveyer can provide representative samples of OTA from a moving stream of barley. Automatic sampling might present a practical and economical alternative to manual sampling for feed mill operators when monitoring low levels of mycotoxins in grain or other commodities. Despite careful precautions, sample preparation and analysis resulted in a relative uncertainty of ±40% (p = 0.95), which was attributed to the sub-sampling following the two grinding steps. Size fractionation of the coarsely ground barley showed that 40% of the total amount of OTA was present in a small fraction of fine particles with a strong tendency to aggregate or stick to equipment and containers. Thus, in order to take advantage of the automatic sampling, it is crucial to apply an appropriate sub-sampling to prevent segregation of particles which may affect the OTA measurements. PMID:21598140

  1. Post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in mycorrhizal barley plants.

    PubMed

    Criado, Maria V; H Gutierrez Boem, Flavio; Roberts, Irma N; Caputo, Carla

    2015-04-01

    An essential goal for modern agriculture is the simultaneous improvement of productivity efficiency and nutrient use efficiency. One way to achieve this goal in crops is to enhance nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition through the mycorrhizal association. This study examined the effect of mycorrhization on post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in barley. In addition, the efficiency of both N and P utilization and remobilization was evaluated. With those purposes, barley plants inoculated or not with Rhizophagus intraradices were grown in a soil poor in N and P under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with R. intraradices in barley enhanced both N and P content in grain and vegetative tissue and reduced phloem amino acid export rate. On the other hand, both N and P vegetative tissue content and phloem amino acid and P export rates decreased during grain filling, whereas N and P grain content increased in both treatments according to the senescence process. However, whereas N grain concentration decreased during grain filling, P grain concentration did not vary, thus suggesting a differential regulation on grain filling. Inoculation with R. intraradices improved the yield and grain quality, thus demonstrating that inoculation with R. intraradices in barley is beneficial, but mycorrhization caused a diminution in nutrient utilization efficiency. As the phloem remobilization rate of amino acids and P did not decrease during grain filling in R. intraradices-inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones, these results suggest that nutrient utilization efficiency is most probably regulated by sink strength rather by a mycorrhizal effect. PMID:25242016

  2. Cordova Barley.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.

    1953-01-01

    Cordova Barley Figure 1. Winter (left) and Cordova barley growinc in field plot trials at Denton. 1952. in cooperation with the UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIGEST This bulletin reports the development and characteristics of Cordova..., a superior new barley variety for the Rolling Plains and Central Texas. Cordova was developed in the cooperative small grain improvement program of the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and the Division of Cereal Crops and Diseases, Bureau...

  3. Tool for Crimping Flexible Circuit Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    A hand tool has been developed for crimping leads in flexible tails that are parts of some electronic circuits -- especially some sensor circuits. The tool is used to cut the tails to desired lengths and attach solder tabs to the leads. For tailoring small numbers of circuits for special applications, this hand tool is a less expensive alternative to a commercially available automated crimping tool. The crimping tool consists of an off-the-shelf hand crimping tool plus a specialized crimping insert designed specifically for the intended application.

  4. Monitoring Technology for Gamma-Aminobutyric acid Production in Polished Mochi Barley Grains using a Carbon Dioxide Sensor.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yasuo; Kawata, Kohki; Watanabe, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has many biological functions, including the inhibition of blood pressure increases and acceleration of growth hormone secretion. In this study, we discovered the utility of measuring the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dissolved in the reaction solution, for development of a real-time and convenient technique to estimate GABA production. In addition to mochi barley bran, we examined the polished grains of three species: mochi barley (a variant of hulless barley), barley, and Japanese millet, all soaked in l-glutamic acid (l-Glu) solution at pH 4.5. We found a positive correlation between GABA and CO2 concentrations, and the production of CO2 was suppressed in the absence of l-Glu at pH 4.5. These results suggest that GABA content can be easily predicted by measuring the aqueous CO2 content using a CO2 sensor, during the process of GABA production in polished mochi barley grains and bran. PMID:25916326

  5. Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

  6. Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-05-01

    Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

  7. The Role of ?-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J.; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of ?-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an ?-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, ?-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the ?-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process. PMID:21098673

  8. Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

    2014-09-01

    Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower ?-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower ?-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher ?-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of ?-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of ?-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification. PMID:25136990

  9. Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

  10. The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.

    PubMed

    Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muńoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

    2013-10-01

    Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P < 0.001); however, other grain components were found to interact with the traits. QTL for these traits were also found on different genomic regions, for example, grain density QTLs were found on chromosomes 2H and 6H, whereas endosperm hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci. PMID:23884598

  11. Crop identification studies using Landsat data Separation of barley from other spring small grains and corn and soybean decision logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dailey, C. L.; Register, D. T.; Abotteen, K. M.; Palmer, W. F.; Spikes, G. D.; Magness, E. R.; Wade, L. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two labeling procedures were developed which identify various agricultural crops through the use of Landsat data. One procedure separates barley from other spring small grains, and the other identifies corn and soybeans. For both procedures, a minimum data set (critical acquisition time) has been designated. Landsat data in both image format and various graphic displays were used along with ancillary data to obtain information which aided in labeling the spectral signatures. The corn and soybean procedure also employed a structured decision logic. Test results for the barley separation procedure emphasized the importance of obtaining a critical acquisition and showed some success especially in areas where spring crops followed the expected growth patterns. Two tests of the corn and soybean procedure produced good labeling accuracies. Problems with the procedure were easy to identify, and some solutions were implemented for the second test. Automation of various parts of the procedure and extension to other crops and regions were recommended.

  12. Caspase-Like Activities Accompany Programmed Cell Death Events in Developing Barley Grains

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Van; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Thiel, Johannes; Radchuk, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development. PMID:25286287

  13. Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains

    PubMed Central

    Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

  14. The Application of Ultrasonic Inspection to Crimped Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The development of a prototype instrument, based on a modified, commercially available, crimp tool, is demonstrated for applying this technique when wire crimps are installed. The crimp tool has three separate crimping locations that accommodate the three different ferrule diameters. The crimp tool in this study is capable of crimping wire diameters ranging from 12 to 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG). A transducer design is presented that allows for interrogation of each of the three crimp locations on the crimp tool without reconfiguring the device. An analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse is shown to correlate to both crimp location in the tool and the AWG of the crimp/ferrule combination. The detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, is discussed. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process.

  15. Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

  16. Prececal, postileal and total tract starch digestion in ponies fed corn, oats, barley or sorghum grain

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Fairfax Ferguson

    1982-01-01

    . Comparative nutritive value of Glacier and high smylose Glacier barleys. J. Anim, Sci. 47:448. 38 N. R. C. 1978. Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals. No. 6. Nu- trient Requirements of Horses. Pourth zevised ed. National Academy of Science ? National...

  17. Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR.

    PubMed Central

    Hatzack, F; Hübel, F; Zhang, W; Hansen, P E; Rasmussen, S K

    2001-01-01

    Inositol phosphates from barley low-phytate grain mutants and their parent variety were analysed by metal-dye detection HPLC and NMR. Compound assignment was carried out by comparison of retention times using a chemical hydrolysate of phytate [Ins(1,2,3,4,5,6)P(6)] as a reference. Co-inciding retention times indicated the presence of phytate, D/L-Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P(5), Ins(1,2,3,4,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,4,5,6)P(5), D/L-(1,2,3,4)P(4), D/L-Ins(1,2,5,6)P(4) and D/L-Ins(1,4,5,6)P(4) in PLP1B mutants as well as the parent variety. In grain extracts from mutant lines PLP1A, PLP2A and PLP3A unusual accumulations of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) were observed whereas phytate and the above-mentioned inositol phosphates were present in relatively small amounts. Assignment of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) was corroborated by precise co-chromatography with a commercial Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) standard and by NMR spectroscopy. Analysis of inositol phosphates during grain development revealed accumulation of phytate and D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4), which suggested the tetrakisphosphate compound to be an intermediate of phytate synthesis. This assumption was strengthened further by phytate degradation assays showing that D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) did not belong to the spectrum of degradation products generated by endogenous phytase activity. Metabolic scenarios leading to accumulation of D/L-Ins(1,3,4,5)P(4) in barley low-phytate mutants are discussed. PMID:11171128

  18. The genetic control of grain protein content variation in a doubled haploid population derived from a cross between Australian and North American two-rowed barley lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Emebiri; D. B. Moody; R. Horsley; J. Panozzo; B. J. Read

    2005-01-01

    Grain protein content (GPC) is a major determinant of malting quality in barley, as it influences many aspects of the malting and brewing processes. The objective of the present study was to apply a quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approach towards a dissection of the genetic factors involved in phenotypic trait expression. The mapping population comprised 180 doubled haploid lines

  19. QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.

    PubMed

    Emebiri, Livinus C

    2013-07-01

    Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ?SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ?SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding purposes. PMID:23604470

  20. (/sup 14/C)sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

    1984-01-01

    Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in (/sup 14/C)sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up (fructose-U-/sup 14/C)sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains.

  1. A peroxiredoxin antioxidant is encoded by a dormancy-related gene, Per1, expressed during late development in the aleurone and embryo of barley grains.

    PubMed

    Stacy, R A; Munthe, E; Steinum, T; Sharma, B; Aalen, R B

    1996-09-01

    Antioxidants can remove damaging reactive oxygen species produced as by-products of desiccation and respiration during late embryogenesis, imbibition of dormant seeds and germination. We have expressed a protein, PER1, encoded by the Balem (barley aleurone and embryo) transcript previously called B15C, and show it to reduce oxidative damage in vitro. PER1 shares high similarity to a novel group of thiol-requiring antioxidants, named peroxiredoxins, and represents a subgroup with only one conserved cysteine residue (1-Cys). PER1 is the first antioxidant belonging to the 1-Cys subgroup shown to be functionally active, and the first peroxiredoxin of any kind to be functionally described in plants. The steady state level of the transcript, Per1, homologous to a dormancy-related transcript (pBS128) from bromegrass (Bromus secalinus), increases considerably in imbibed embryos from dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains. Our investigations also indicate that Per1 transcript levels are dormancy-related in the aleurone layer of whole grains. In contrast to most seed-expressed antioxidants Per1 disappears in germinating embryos, and in the mature aleurone the transcript is down-regulated by the germinating embryo or by gibberellic acid (GA). Our data show that the barley seed peroxiredoxin is encoded by a single Per1 gene. Possible roles of the PER1 peroxiredoxin in barley grains during desiccation, dormancy and imbibition are discussed. PMID:8914536

  2. Expression of the gamma-zein protein of maize in seeds of transgenic barley: effects on grain composition and properties.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Darlington, H; Jones, H D; Halford, N G; Napier, J A; Davey, M R; Lazzeri, P A; Shewry, P R

    2003-04-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the gamma-zein protein of maize was expressed in developing grain of barley using the starchy endosperm cell-specific promoter from the wheat Glu-1D-1 (HMW subunit 1Dx5) gene. Seven transgenic lines were recovered from 226 bombarded immature embryos, of which two were sterile and four tetraploid, while five were shown to express the gamma-zein protein based on western blotting. Southern blot analysis showed the presence of between about three and twelve transgene insertions. Detailed comparative studies of five null and five homozygous transformed sub-lines from transgenic line A showed that gamma-zein accounted for over 4% of the total prolamin fraction, corresponding to about 1.9% of the total grain N. Comparison of the proteins present in the gel protein fraction demonstrated that the gamma-zein was incorporated into polymers, as in maize. However, there was no effect on grain hardness measured using the Perten Single Kernel Characterisation System or on the vitreousness measured by visual inspection. This contrasts with the situation in maize where a clear association with vitreousness has been reported. PMID:12671764

  3. Metabolite profiling of barley grain subjected to induced drought stress: responses of free amino acids in differently adapted cultivars.

    PubMed

    Lanzinger, Alexandra; Frank, Thomas; Reichenberger, Gabriela; Herz, Markus; Engel, Karl-Heinz

    2015-04-29

    To investigate cultivar-specific metabolite changes upon drought stress in barley grain, differently adapted cultivars were field-grown under drought conditions using a rain-out shelter and under normal weather conditions (2010-2012). The grain was subjected to a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling approach allowing the analyses of a broad spectrum of lipophilic and hydrophilic low molecular weight constituents. Multi- and univariate analyses demonstrated that there are grain metabolites which were significantly changed upon drought stress, either decreased or increased in all cultivars. On the other hand, for proteinogenic free amino acids increased concentrations were consistently observed in all seasons only in cultivars for which no drought resistance/tolerance had been described. Consistent decreases were seen only in the group of stress tolerant/resistant cultivars. These cultivar-specific correlations were particularly pronounced for branched-chain amino acids. The results indicate that free amino acids may serve as potential markers for cultivars differently adapted to drought stress. PMID:25867895

  4. Ultrasonic Inspection to Quantify Failure Pathologies of Crimped Electrical Connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that ultrasonic inspection provides a means of assessing electrical crimp quality that ensures the electrical and mechanical integrity of an initial crimp before the installation process is completed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination was shown to correlate with the results of destructive pull tests, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Of additional concern are crimps made at high speed assembly lines for wiring harnesses, which are used for critical applications, such as in aircraft. During high-speed assembly it is possible that many faulty crimps go undetected until long after assembly, and fail in service. The position and speed of the crimping jaw become factors as the high-speed crimp is formed. The work presented in this paper is designed to cover the more difficult and more subtle area of high-speed crimps by taking into account the rate change of the measurements. Building on the previous work, we present an analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse that is shown to correlate to the gauge of the crimp/ferrule combination and the position of the crimping jaw. Results demonstrating the detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, are presented. The ability of this technique to estimate crimp height, a mechanical measure of crimp quality, is discussed.

  5. Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shin Taketa; Satoko Amano; Yasuhiro Tsujino; Tomohiko Sato; Daisuke Saisho; Katsuyuki Kakeda; Mika Nomura; Toshisada Suzuki; Takashi Matsumoto; Kazuhiro Sato; Hiroyuki Kanamori; Shinji Kawasaki; Kazuyoshi Takeda

    2008-01-01

    In contrast to other cereals, typical barley cultivars have caryopses with adhering hulls at maturity, known as covered (hulled) barley. However, a few barley cultivars are a free-threshing variant called naked (hulless) barley. The covered\\/naked caryopsis is controlled by a single locus (nud) on chromosome arm 7HL. On the basis of positional cloning, we concluded that an ethylene response factor

  6. Prececal, postileal and total tract starch digestion in ponies fed corn, oats, barley or sorghum grain 

    E-print Network

    Arnold, Fairfax Ferguson

    1982-01-01

    intes- tine and 15. 4X disappeared in the hindgut. The lower postileal diges- tion coefficient for the barley diet was due to the one pony whose pre- cecal starch digestion was over 100X. Nonetheless, as the amount of starch presented to the hindgut...:931. Dorn, C. R. , H. E. Garner, J. R. Coffman, A. W. Hahn, and L. G. Tritschler. 1975. Castration and other factors affecting the risk of equine laminitis. Cornell Vet. 65:57. Garner, H. E. 1975. Pathophysiology of acute laminitis. Proc. Am. Assn...

  7. A History of Small Grain Crops in Texas: Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye 1582-1976.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1980-01-01

    on the excellent wheat grown at El Paso. Be11 (15) in 1854 observed that "Wheat yields a good crop and mills make as fine a flour as could be desired." Taylor (log), who went by horseback from San Antonio to El Paso and on to California in 1876, observed wheat..., he reports (1876) "Here are great crops of wheat, barley, corn, grapes, and vegetables, all irrigated from the h o Grande." Apparently wheat production in the El Paso area de- clined after 1850; the U.S. Agricultural Census of 1860 (1 18) shows...

  8. Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

    1999-07-01

    Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

  9. Barley Grain Maturation and Germination: Metabolic Pathway and Regulatory Network Commonalities and Differences Highlighted by New MapMan/PageMan Profiling Tools1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasulu, Nese; Usadel, Björn; Winter, Andreas; Radchuk, Volodymyr; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Weschke, Winfriede; Strickert, Marc; Close, Timothy J.; Stitt, Mark; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Plant seeds prepare for germination already during seed maturation. We performed a detailed transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain maturation, desiccation, and germination in two tissue fractions (starchy endosperm/aleurone and embryo/scutellum) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip. To aid data evaluation, Arabidopsis thaliana MapMan and PageMan tools were adapted to barley. The analyses allow a number of conclusions: (1) Cluster analysis revealed a smooth transition in transcription programs between late seed maturation and germination within embryo tissues, but not in the endosperm/aleurone. (2) More than 12,000 transcripts are stored in the embryo of dry barley grains, many of which are presumably activated during germination. (3) Transcriptional activation of storage reserve mobilization events occurs at an early stage of germination, well before radicle protrusion. (4) Key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis are already active during grain maturation at a time when abscisic acid peaks suggesting the formation of an endogenous store of GA in the aleurone. This GA probably acts later during germination in addition to newly synthesized GA. (5) Beside the well-known role of GA in gene activation during germination spatiotemporal expression data and cis-element searches in homologous rice promoters confirm an equally important gene-activating role of abscisic acid during this developmental period. The respective regulatory webs are linked to auxin and ethylene controlled networks. In summary, new bioinformatics PageMan and MapMan tools developed in barley have been successfully used to investigate in detail the transcriptome relationships between seed maturation and germination in an important crop plant. PMID:18281415

  10. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field. PMID:25505473

  11. Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field. PMID:25505473

  12. Barley Ant17, encoding flavanone 3-hydroxylase (F3H), is a promising target locus for attaining anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin-free plants without pleiotropic reduction of grain dormancy.

    PubMed

    Himi, Eiko; Taketa, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Preharvest sprouting is a serious problem in grain crop production because it causes quality deterioration and economic losses. It is well known that grain colour is closely associated with grain dormancy in wheat; white-grained lines without accumulating proanthocyanidins in testa tend to be more susceptible to preharvest sprouting than red ones. All available white-grained wheat lines are restricted to triple recessive mutations at the R loci (R-A1, R-B1, and R-D1), but barley is known to have 11 independent loci conferring the proanthocyanidin-free grain phenotype. In this study, we evaluated the dormancy levels of anthocyanin/proanthocyanidin-free ant17 mutants. Three ant17 mutants showed the same levels of dormancy as their respective wild types. Sequencing of three independent ant17 alleles detected a point mutation within the coding regions of flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H), which are predicted to cause a premature stop codon at different sites. The F3H locus completely cosegregated with the Ant17 position on the chromosome arm 2HL. Expression of the barley F3H gene was observed in pigmented tissues, but not in nonpigmented roots and stems. This result indicates that wheat F3H may be a promising new target locus for breeding white-grained lines with a practical level of preharvest sprouting resistance. PMID:25932661

  13. Effect of time and temperature on the hydration process of barley grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Jorge, Luiz Mario Matos; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos

    2015-03-01

    The barley behavior during hydration regarding to water absorption, density, volume variation, and solids loss is identified, as well as employ mathematical models such as diffusional, Peleg, Weibull distribution function and first order kinetics, in order to verify the effect of temperature on the process. Hydration was carried out over 32 h at six different temperatures: 35, 30, 25, 20, 15 and 10 °C. The hydration isotherms were divided into two phases, the first one comprising the first 8 h, with a high hydration rate, and the second one in which the moisture content increases slowly until it reaches the equilibrium moisture content. During the first hour of process, the solids loss at 35 °C was 3.95 % higher than at 10 °C. The effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 5.14 to 10.8 × 10-12 m2/s. The model of Peleg and the first order kinetics model best described the water absorption characteristics at the temperatures investigated.

  14. Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makiko Chono; Ichiro Honda; Shoko Shinoda; Tetsuo Kushiro; Yuji Kamiya; Eiji Nambara; Naoto Kawakami; Shigenobu Kaneko; Yoshiaki Watanabe

    2006-01-01

    To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 89-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo

  15. Barley Production in Texas. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Porter, K. B.

    1958-01-01

    killing of barley leaves or reduction ir stands. Late spring freezes may damage tll crop after jointing or heading starts. Barley is well adapted to this area, excer for the hazards of temperature just mentioned and the crop fits well into farming...IN COOPERATION WITH THE U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SUMMARY Barley is a relatively minor. crop in Texas, but it has a dual value to growers as a grain crop and as winter pasture for livestock. The use of barley as a winter pasture crop...

  16. Predicting Cadmium Concentrations in Wheat and Barley Grain Using Soil Properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. L. Adams; F. J. Zhao; S. P. McGrath; F. A. Nicholson; B. J. Chambers

    2004-01-01

    s the U.S. adult population was reported to receive about 20% of the FAO\\/WHO allowable daily intake of The entry of Cd into the food chain is of concern as it can cause Cd from the consumption of grain and cereal products chronic health problems. To investigate the relationship between soil properties and the concentration of Cd in wheat (Triticum

  17. Effects of feeding a high-fiber byproduct feedstuff as a substitute for barley grain on rumen fermentation and productivity of dairy cows in early lactation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Oba, M

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of partial substitution of dietary grain with wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on dry matter intake (DMI), sorting behavior, rumen fermentation, apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production of dairy cows in early lactation. Sixty-one Holstein cows, including 13 ruminally cannulated cows, were blocked by parity and calving date and assigned to 1 of 2 experimental diets immediately after calving until 12 wk in lactation. The control (CON) diet contained 43% barley silage, 17.3% dry-rolled barley grain, and 39.7% concentrate mix on a dry matter basis, and wheat DDGS replaced dry-rolled barley grain in the DDGS diet. Dietary starch content was 29.2 and 19.1% for CON and DDGS diets, respectively. Despite the 10-percentage-unit difference in dietary starch content, cows fed the DDGS diet did not increase ruminal pH. A significant treatment by parity interaction was observed for DMI; feeding the DDGS diet decreased DMI of multiparous cows compared with CON (20.1 vs. 21.3 kg/d) but increased that of primiparous cows (16.2 vs. 14.7 kg/d). Although milk yield was not affected by treatment, cows fed the DDGS diet had lower apparent total-tract digestibility of starch compared with CON (81.9 vs. 91.2%) and tended to have higher plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (173 vs. 143 mEq/L). High-fiber byproduct feedstuffs such as wheat DDGS can be used as a partial substitute for grains in diets of dairy cows in early lactation but the substitution may not mitigate rumen acidosis problems and may decrease energy intake of multiparous cows in early lactation. PMID:24418272

  18. Forage and grain production of four F? barley hybrids and their inbred parents

    E-print Network

    Van Dijk, Albert Heinrich

    1964-01-01

    was based on an observation made by Immer (11) in 1941 that heterosis made seed larger, Suneson observed that the seeds were even larger when produced on mals sterile plants because of incomplet, e seed- set on the spikes. Suneson therefore suggested..., and that maximum differences were found in mixed stands. Suneson concluded that tillering was the principal cause of the increased yield, Immer (11), who compared the yielding ability cf 6 F1 hybrids, found only one hybrid with a grain yield that wss...

  19. Microwave irradiation induced changes in protein molecular structures of barley grains: relationship to changes in protein chemical profile, protein subfractions, and digestion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaogang; Khan, Nazir A; Zhang, Fangyu; Yang, Ling; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-16

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate microwave irradiation (MIR) induced changes in crude protein (CP) subfraction profiles, ruminal CP degradation characteristics and intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded protein (RUP), and protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains. Samples from hulled (n = 1) and hulless cultivars (n = 2) of barley, harvested from four replicate plots in two consecutive years, were evaluated. The samples were either kept as raw or irradiated in a microwave for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). Compared to raw grains, MIR5 decreased the contents of rapidly degradable CP subfraction (from 45.22 to 6.36% CP) and the ruminal degradation rate (from 8.16 to 3.53%/h) of potentially degradable subfraction. As a consequence, the effective ruminal degradability of CP decreased (from 55.70 to 34.08% CP) and RUP supply (from 43.31 to 65.92% CP) to the postruminal tract increased. The MIR decreased the spectral intensities of amide 1, amide II, ?-helix, and ?-sheet and increased their ratios. The changes in protein spectral intensities were strongly correlated with the changes in CP subfractions and digestive kinetics. These results show that MIR for a short period (5 min) with a lower energy input can improve the nutritive value and utilization of CP in barely grains. PMID:24941451

  20. Comparison of Permeability for non-crimp fabricsComparison of Permeability for non crimp fabrics Jose Pariona-Lrtiga

    E-print Network

    Floreano, Dario

    from 63 mPa.s and 77 mPa.s. This uncertainty influenced also the permeability measurements. Kx Ky (80 °C) Ke (60 °C) ·Despite the difference in the fibre set-up, the fibre permeability measuredComparison of Permeability for non-crimp fabricsComparison of Permeability for non crimp fabrics

  1. Effects of yarn crimping on braided composite design allowables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Dan

    1995-01-01

    Braided composite materials are currently being evaluated for wing skin stiffeners on commercial aircraft. These carbon-fiber/epoxy materials allow for low-cost manufacturing while maintaining high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. The proposed braid architecture consists of axial carbon fiber yarns and braider carbon fiber yarns making 60 deg to 70 deg angles with respect to the axial yarns. These 2-D triaxial braids are produced as long, continuous tubes, which are flattened, cut, and stacked to produce the desired part thickness and shape. When infiltrated with epoxy resin and cured under a compaction pressure, the fiber yarns become crimped, allowing for higher fiber packing. Although high fiber packing is desirable, yarn crimping (especially in the axial fiberyarns) is undesirable. Significant axial yarn crimp angles (greater than 10 deg) have been measured in braided composites. Comparable levels of crimping have been found to produce significant compressive strength reductions in laminated composites consisting of planar fiber sheets. Thus, axial yarn crimping is suspected of producing significant reductions in compressive strength allowables for braided composites. The objective of this research is to quantify the reduction in compressive strength as a function of axial yarn crimp severity. Since crimp severity can be reduced by lowering the compaction pressure during curing, the resulting compressive strengths may be used to determine optimum processing conditions. A 'cure-on-the-loom' manufacturing process was developed to produce braided composites with controlled levels of crimping. This method allowed for controlled levels of tension to be placed on the axial yarns and maintained during the curing process. With increasing tension, the crimp severity in the axial yarns was reduced. Thus, varying crimp severities were produced ranging from conventional levels (greater than 10 deg) to virtually straight axial yarns. Test results indicate that a 30% increase in compressive strength is obtainable by eliminating axial yarn crimping. Further compression testing is underway to quantify the relationship between crimp severity and compressive strength. Additional testing is planned to investigate the effect of crimping on the open-hole compressive strength, often considered a more significant design allowable.

  2. The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.

    PubMed

    Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-08-01

    A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains. PMID:23870025

  3. Barley Production in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Gardenshire, J. H.; McDaniel, M. E.; Porter, K. B.

    1969-01-01

    - Z - TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY - Z - -- TEXAS AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION - - - 5 -- - H. 0. Kunkel, Acting Director, College Station, Texas Sumniary Barley is grown in Texas on a less extensive scale than wheat or oats, but it has unique... characteristics as a feed and winter pasture crop. The acreage is widely distributed, but the majority is grown in North ant1 Northwest Texas. All barley grown for grain is used for livestock feed, but large acreages are

  4. Transcatheter fiber heart valve: Effect of crimping on material performances.

    PubMed

    Khoffi, Foued; Heim, Frederic; Chakfe, Nabil; Lee, Jason T

    2014-11-29

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a popular alternative technique to surgical valve replacement. However, the biological valve tissue used in these devices appears to be fragile material in the long term particularly due being folded for low diameter catheter insertion purposes and when released in a calcified environment with irregular geometry. Textile polyester material is characterized by outstanding folding and strength properties combined with proven biocompatibility. It could therefore be considered as a replacement for biological valve leaflets in the TAVI procedure. The folding process associated with crimping, however, may degrade the filaments involved in the fibrous assembly and limit the durability of the device. The purpose of the present work is to study the effect of different crimping conditions on the mechanical performances of textile valve prototypes made from various fabric constructions. Results show that crimping generates some creases in the fabrics, which surface topography varies with fabric construction and crimping configuration. The mechanical properties of the crimped materials are globally slightly reduced. To determine how critical the modifications due to crimping are for prosthesis durability, more detailed long term in vitro and in vivo trials with crimped textile prototypes are needed in addition to this preliminary work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25448469

  5. Hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  6. Differential expression of two ß-amylase genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in developing and mature barley grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific (Bmy1) and ubiquitous (Bmy2) ß-amylase were studied during the late maturation phase of seed development in four genotypes. Sequencing of Bmy2 from genomic DNA revealed six polymorphisms in the introns and two synonymous SNPs in the coding region. Acc...

  7. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  8. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  9. 7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Grades and grade requirements for barley. 810.206 Section 810.206 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...206 Grades and grade requirements for barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  10. Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

    2012-01-01

    In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

  11. Barley and oats: underutilized nutrition sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and oats are two unique ancient crops. Their grains contain beta-glucan in substantial amounts, which can lower cholesterol levels and reduce glycemic response. Yet, food uses of barley and oats are rather limited due to lack of palatability of whole grain food or functionality of milled flou...

  12. Ultrasonic Device for Assessing the Quality of a Wire Crimp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A system for determining the quality of an electrical wire crimp between a wire and ferrule includes an ultrasonically equipped crimp tool (UECT) configured to transmit an ultrasonic acoustic wave through a wire and ferrule, and a signal processor in communication with the UECT. The signal processor includes a signal transmitting module configured to transmit the ultrasonic acoustic wave via an ultrasonic transducer, signal receiving module configured to receive the ultrasonic acoustic wave after it passes through the wire and ferrule, and a signal analysis module configured to identify signal differences between the ultrasonic waves. The signal analysis module is then configured to compare the signal differences attributable to the wire crimp to a baseline, and to provide an output signal if the signal differences deviate from the baseline.

  13. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D.; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed. PMID:26098946

  14. Investigation of Water Dynamics and the Effect of Evapotranspiration on Grain Yield of Rainfed Wheat and Barley under a Mediterranean Environment: A Modelling Approach.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kefeng; Bosch-Serra, Angela D; Boixadera, Jaume; Thompson, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Agro-hydrological models have increasingly become useful and powerful tools in optimizing water and fertilizer application, and in studying the environmental consequences. Accurate prediction of water dynamics in such models is essential for models to produce reasonable results. In this study, detailed simulations were performed for water dynamics of rainfed winter wheat and barley grown under a Mediterranean climate over a 10-year period. The model employed (Yang et al., 2009. J. Hydrol., 370, 177-190) uses easily available agronomic data, and takes into consideration of all key soil and plant processes in controlling water dynamics in the soil-crop system, including the dynamics of root growth. The water requirement for crop growth was calculated according to the FAO56, and the soil hydraulic properties were estimated using peto-transfer functions (PTFs) based on soil physical properties and soil organic matter content. Results show that the simulated values of soil water content at the depths of 15, 45 and 75 cm agreed with the measurements well with the root of the mean squared errors of 0.027 cm3 cm-3 and the model agreement index of 0.875. The simulated seasonal evapotranspiration (ET) ranged from 208 to 388 mm, and grain yield was found to correlate with the simulated seasonal ET in a linear manner within the studied ET range. The simulated rates of grain yield increase were 17.3 and 23.7 kg ha-l for every mm of water evapotranspired for wheat and barley, respectively. The good agreement of soil water content between measurement and simulation and the simulated relationships between grain yield and seasonal ET supported by the data in the literature indicates that the model performed well in modelling water dynamics for the studied soil-crop system, and therefore has the potential to be applied reliably and widely in precision agriculture. Finally, a two-staged approach using inverse modelling techniques to further improve model performance was discussed. PMID:26098946

  15. BLOOD PRESSURE REDUCED BY WHOLE GRAIN DIET CONTAINING BARLEY OR WHOLE WHEAT AND BROWN RICE IN MODERATELY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain foods have been reported to lower blood pressure, but results have been mixed. It has not been determined whether fiber content or type of fiber of the grains is responsible for this beneficial effect. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of predominantly insoluble fibe...

  16. Tendon and ligament fibrillar crimps give rise to left-handed helices of collagen fibrils in both planar and helical crimps

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Marco; Ottani, Vittoria; Stagni, Rita; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Collagen fibres in tendons and ligaments run straight but in some regions they show crimps which disappear or appear more flattened during the initial elongation of tissues. Each crimp is formed of collagen fibrils showing knots or fibrillar crimps at the crimp top angle. The present study analyzes by polarized light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy the 3D morphology of fibrillar crimp in tendons and ligaments of rat demonstrating that each fibril in the fibrillar region always twists leftwards changing the plane of running and sharply bends modifying the course on a new plane. The morphology of fibrillar crimp in stretched tendons fulfills the mechanical role of the fibrillar crimp acting as a particular knot/biological hinge in absorbing tension forces during fibril strengthening and recoiling collagen fibres when stretching is removed. The left-handed path of fibrils in the fibrillar crimp region gives rise to left-handed fibril helices observed both in isolated fibrils and sections of different tendons and ligaments (flexor digitorum profundus muscle tendon, Achilles tendon, tail tendon, patellar ligament and medial collateral ligament of the knee). The left-handed path of fibrils represents a new final suprafibrillar level of the alternating handedness which was previously described only from the molecular to the microfibrillar level. When the width of the twisting angle in the fibrillar crimp is nearly 180° the fibrils appear as left-handed flattened helices forming crimped collagen fibres previously described as planar crimps. When fibrils twist with different subsequent rotational angles (< 180°) they always assume a left-helical course but, running in many different nonplanar planes, they form wider helical crimped fibres. PMID:20070421

  17. Constitutive modeling of crimped collagen fibrils in soft tissues.

    PubMed

    Grytz, Rafael; Meschke, Günther

    2009-10-01

    A microstructurally oriented constitutive formulation for the hyperelastic response of crimped collagen fibrils existing in soft connective tissues is proposed. The model is based on observations that collagen fibrils embedded in a soft matrix crimp into a smooth three-dimensional pattern when unloaded. Following ideas presented by Beskos and Jenkins [Beskos, D., Jenkins, J., 1975. A mechanical model for mammalian tendon. ASME Journal of Applied Mechanics 42, 755-758] and Freed and Doehring [Freed, A., Doehring, T., 2005. Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils. Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 127, 587-593] the collagen fibril crimp is approximated by a cylindrical helix to represent the constitutive behavior of the hierarchical organized substructure of biological tissues at the fibrillar level. The model is derived from the nonlinear axial force-stretch relationship of an extensible helical spring, including the full extension of the spring as a limit case. The geometrically nonlinear solution of the extensible helical spring is carried out by an iterative procedure. The model only requires one material parameter and two geometrical parameters to be determined from experiments. The ability of the proposed model to reproduce the biomechanical response of fibrous tissues is demonstrated for fascicles from rat tail tendons, for porcine cornea strips, and for bovine Achilles tendons. PMID:19627859

  18. What Foods Are in the Grain Group?

    MedlinePLUS

    What foods are in the Grains Group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal ... whole grains and refined grains. How many grain foods are needed daily? The amount of grains you ...

  19. 2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2009 Central Montana Barley Variety Performance Evaluation By Dave Wichman Dry conditions in May was one of the driest in a hundred years at Moccasin. Continuous crop barley grain yields were near long/a. For many central Montana barley producers, 2009 will be remembered as a year with outstanding test weights

  20. Dual aphid resistance in hulless winter barley for ethanol production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

  1. A Method For The Verification Of Wire Crimp Compression Using Ultrasonic Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. E.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William t.

    2010-01-01

    The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to assess quantitatively wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. To demonstrate the technique, the case of incomplete compression of crimped connections is ultrasonically tested, and the results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently predicts good crimps when the ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A quantitative measure of the quality of the crimped connection based on the ultrasonic energy transmitted is shown to respond accurately to crimp quality. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. A comparison of the results of two different instruments is presented and shows reproducibility between instruments within a 95% confidence bound.

  2. Use of new EST markers to elucidate the genetic differences in grain protein content between European and North American two-rowed malting barleys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Moralejo; J. S. Swanston; P. Muńoz; D. Prada; M. Elía; J. R. Russell; L. Ramsay; L. Cistué; P. Codesal; A. M. Casas; I. Romagosa; W. Powell; J. L. Molina-Cano

    2004-01-01

    A population comprising 102 doubled haploid lines were produced from a cross between Beka, a barley cultivar widely grown in Spain, and Logan, a north American cultivar with inherently low protein content, a character considered to derive from the cultivar Karl. The intentions were to determine whether low-nitrogen malting barleys could be developed in Spain, and if genetic factors that

  3. Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil

    DOEpatents

    Wittel, deceased, Charles F. (late of Linden, NJ)

    1986-01-01

    A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

  4. Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

    1996-08-20

    An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. 8 figs.

  5. 76 FR 61287 - Request for Public Comment on the United States Standards for Barley

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...Comment on the United States Standards for Barley AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and...United States (U.S.) Standards for Barley under the United States Grain Standards...parties to comment on whether the current barley standards and grading practices need...

  6. Comparison of hull-less barley, barley, or corn for lactating cows: effects on extent of digestion and milk production.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M; Rode, L M

    1997-10-01

    Six lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare the effects of hull-less barley with barley and corn on ruminal fermentation, rate of passage, flow of nutrients to the duodenum, and milk production. Diets consisted of 60% concentrate, 30% barley silage, and 10% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Concentrates contained steam-rolled grains: hull-less barley, barley, or corn. Dry matter intake was unaffected by grain source, but starch intake tended to be greatest when hull-less barley or corn was fed. The barley diet was more degradable in the rumen than was the hull-less barley or corn diet, and, therefore, flow of microbial organic matter to the duodenum was greatest for cows fed the barley diet. Flow of microbial N to the duodenum was greater (50 g/d) for cows fed the barley diet than for cows fed the other diets, and the flow of ruminally undegradable N was greater (43 and 28 g/d) for cows fed the hull-less barley and corn diets, respectively, than for cows fed the barley diet. As a result, flow of nonammonia N to the duodenum was unaffected by grain source. Total tract apparent digestibility was highest for cows fed the barley and corn diets. Despite its low digestibility, cows fed the hull-less barley diet produced a similar amount of milk as did cows fed the barley and corn diets. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of processing hull-less barley on its utilization by dairy cows. PMID:9361219

  7. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  8. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  9. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  10. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  11. 7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United...

  12. Ultrasonics Equipped Crimp Tool: A New Technology for Aircraft Wiring Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, Elliott

    2006-01-01

    We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of poor mechanical and electrical quality will result in low temporal output and will distort the spectrum into unique and predictable patterns, depending on crimp "quality". This inexpensive, real-time measurement system can provide certification of crimps as they are made and recertification of existing wire crimps currently in service. The measurements for re-certification do not require that the wire be disconnected from its circuit. No other technology exists to measure in-situ the condition of wire joints (no electrical currents through the crimp are used in this analytical technique). We discuss the signals obtained from this instrument, and correlate these signals with destructive wire pull tests.

  13. Mechanical degradation of biological heart valve tissue induced by low diameter crimping: an early assessment.

    PubMed

    Khoffi, Foued; Heim, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become today an increasingly attractive procedure to relieve patients from aortic valve disease. However, the procedure requires crimping biological tissue within a metallic stent for low diameter catheter insertion purpose. This step induces specific stress in the leaflets especially when the crimping diameter is small. One concern about crimping is the potential degradations undergone by the biological tissue, which may limit the durability of the valve once implanted. The purpose of the present work is to study the effect of low diameter crimping on the mechanical performances of pericardium valve prototypes. The prototypes were compressed to a diameter of 1mm within braided stents for 20 min. SEM observations performed on crimped material show that crimped leaflets undergo degradations characterized by apparent surface defects. Moreover mechanical extension tests were performed on pericardium strips before and after crimping. The strips (15 mm long, 5mm wide) were taken from both crimped and native leaflets considering 2 different valve diameters, 19 and 21 mm. In order to prevent the premature drying of the pericardium tissue during the procedure, the biological tissue was kept in contact with a formaldehyde solution. Results show that the ultimate strength value decreases nearly by up to 50%. The modifications observed in the material may jeopardize the long term durability of the device. However, further tests are necessary with a larger amount of samples to confirm these early results. PMID:25621851

  14. Assessment and Calibration of a Crimp Tool Equipped with Ultrasonic Analysis Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method is provided for calibrating ultrasonic signals passed through a crimp formed with respect to a deformable body via an ultrasonically-equipped crimp tool (UECT). The UECT verifies a crimp quality using the ultrasonic signals. The method includes forming the crimp, transmitting a first signal, e.g., a pulse, to a first transducer of the UECT, and converting the first signal, using the first transducer, into a second signal which defines an ultrasonic pulse. This pulse is transmitted through the UECT into the crimp. A second transducer converts the second signal into a third signal, which may be further conditioned, and the ultrasonic signals are calibrated using the third signal or its conditioned variant. An apparatus for calibrating the ultrasonic signals includes a pulse module (PM) electrically connected to the first and second transducers, and an oscilloscope or display electrically connected to the PM for analyzing an electrical output signal therefrom.

  15. Device and Method for Connections Made Between a Crimp Connector and Wire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    An ultrasonic device and method obtains desirable crimp connections between a crimp connector and a wire, or bundle of wires, by assessing the desirability of connections made in a wire-to-wire connection and in other situations where two materials with good acoustic propagation characteristics are joined together via deformation. An embodiment of the device as a crimping tool comprises a compressing means, pulse-generating circuitry. at least one ultrasonic transmitting transducer, at least one ultrasonic receiving transducer, receiving circuitry, and a display. The user may return to a previously crimped connection and assess the desirability of the connection by compressing the device about the connection, sending an acoustic signal through the crimp, andco111paring the received signal to a signal obtained from known desirable connections.

  16. Contribution of glycosaminoglycans to the microstructural integrity of fibrillar and fiber crimps in tendons and ligaments.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; De Pasquale, Viviana; Martini, Désirée; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; Dionisi, Alessio; Ottani, Vittoria

    2010-01-01

    The biomechanical roles of both tendons and ligaments are fulfilled by the extracellular matrix of these tissues. In particular, tension is mainly transmitted and resisted by protein (collagen, elastin) fibers, whereas compression is opposed by water-soluble glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). GAGs spanning the interfibrillar spaces and interacting with fibrils through the interfibrillar proteoglycans also seem to play a part in transmitting and resisting tensile stresses. Both tendons and ligaments showing similar composition, but different functional roles and collagen array, exhibit periodic undulations of collagen fibers or crimps. Each crimp is composed of many knots of each single fibril or fibrillar crimps. Fibrillar and fiber crimps play a mechanical role in absorbing the initial loading during elongation of both tendons and ligaments, and in recoiling fibrils and fibers when tissues have to return to their original length. This study investigated whether GAGs covalently attached to proteoglycan core proteins directly affect the 3D microstructural integrity of fibrillar crimp regions and fiber crimps in both tendons and ligaments. Achilles tendons and medial collateral ligaments of the knee from eight female Sprague-Dawley rats (90 days old) incubated in a chondroitinase ABC solution to remove GAGs were observed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition, isolated fibrils of these tissues obtained by mechanical disruption were analyzed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both Achilles tendons and medial collateral ligaments of the rats after chemical or mechanical removal of GAGs still showed crimps and fibrillar crimps comparable to tissues with a normal GAG content. All fibrils in the fibrillar crimp region always twisted leftwards, thus changing their running plane, and then sharply bent, changing their course on a new plane. These data suggest that GAGs do not affect structural integrity or fibrillar crimp functions that seem mainly related to the local fibril leftward twisting and the alternating handedness of collagen from a molecular to a supramolecular level. PMID:20890582

  17. Differential RNA Expression of Two Barley ß-Amylase Genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in Developing Grains and Their Association with ß-Amylase Activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RNA expression from the barley ß-amylase1 (Bmy1) gene was determined during seed development in four genotypes (Legacy, Harrington, Ashqelon, and PI 296897). The Bmy1 transcript amount in Legacy and Harrington was not significantly different at 17, 19, or 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon Bmy...

  18. Strategy for catch crop development II. Screening of species undersown in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) with respect to catch crop growth and grain yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Rydberg; H. C. Becker; M. Umaerus

    1998-01-01

    Catch crops are recommended in Sweden as a way of decreasing nitrogen leaching from arable land. In six field trials a total of 118 accessions from 39 species of Poaceae, Fabaceae and “other”; families was tested as potential undersown catch crops. Barley yield was used as an indicator of competition. Establishment, height and green?matter production, after harvest of the main

  19. Barley yield increases with undersown Lepidium campestre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arnulf Merker; Dennis Eriksson; Nils-Ove Bertholdsson

    2010-01-01

    The potential new oil crop Lepidium campestre (field cress) was undersown with long and short row distances in spring barley in three-year trials with eight replications. Plots with no undersowing were used as controls. The purpose was to assess the effect on barley-grain yield of the oil crop and its seed-yield potential. In the plots without undersowing, with long and

  20. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (MINPPs) are phytases expressed during grain filling and germination.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2007-03-01

    At present, little is known about the phytases of plant seeds in spite of the fact that this group of enzymes is the primary determinant for the utilization of the major phosphate storage compound in seeds, phytic acid. We report the cloning and characterization of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding one of the groups of enzymes with phytase activity, the multiple inositol phosphate phosphatases (MINPPs). Four wheat cDNAs (TaPhyIIa1, TaPhyIIa2, TaPhyIIb and TaPhyIIc) and three barley cDNAs (HvPhyIIa1, HvPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb) were isolated. The open reading frames ranged from 1548 to 1554 bp and the level of homology between the barley and wheat proteins ranged from 90.5% to 91.9%. All cDNAs contained an N-terminal signal peptide encoding sequence, and a KDEL-like sequence, KTEL, was present at the C-terminal, indicating that the enzyme was targeted to and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of TaPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb in Escherichia coli revealed that the MINPPs possessed a significant phytase activity with narrow substrate specificity for phytate. The pH and temperature optima for both enzymes were pH 4.5 and 65 degrees C, respectively, and the K(m) values for phytate were 246 and 334 microm for the wheat and barley recombinant enzymes, respectively. The enzymes were inhibited by several metal ions, in particular copper and zinc. The cDNAs showed significantly different temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns during seed development and germination. With the exception of TaPhyIIb, the cDNAs were present during late seed development and germination. We conclude that MINPPs constitute a significant part of the endogenous phytase potential of the developing and germinating barley and wheat seeds. PMID:17309687

  1. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  2. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  3. Request for Support for Registration of HB379 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of HB379 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: 2-Row Hulless-phytate barley that has demonstrated good physical grain quality with average agronomic performance. If supported, HB379 would be the first commercially available low-phytate barley variety. HB379 is the result

  4. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  5. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    E-print Network

    Shelnutt, John A.

    The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases Barry and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears

  6. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  7. 7 CFR 810.205 - Grades and grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. 810.205 Section 810.205 Agriculture...FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Barley Principles Governing the Application...grade requirements for Two-rowed Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits of—...

  8. Request for Support for Registration of SR420 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of SR420 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Six resistance to the malting checks. Description: SR420 is a white aleurone six-rowed malting barley. It has out;Table 1a. Grain yield (kg/ha) for SR420 and checks from 2006 Western Cooperative Six-Row Barley

  9. CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION IN HUMANS FROM A B-GLUCAN-ENRICHED BARLEY IS REDUCED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Obese and diabetic patients may benefit from foodstuffs that are poorly absorbed and/or digested at a slower rate. Prowashonupana (PW) is a cultivar of barley, whose grains are enriched in beta-glucans, and thus may be less digestible than standard barley (barley cultivar (BZ) 594.35.e). To test thi...

  10. Phosphorus characterization in feces from broiler chicks fed low-phytate barley diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid grains in poultry diets can reduce P concentrations in feces, but the influence on feces P composition is relatively unknown. We analyzed feces from poultry fed one of four barley based diets. The barley varieties used to generate the diets consisted of wild-type barley (Copeland, ...

  11. 10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300-TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING PRESS. VIEW EAST ALSO SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  12. On the Origin and Domestication History of Barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Badr; K. Muller; R. Schafer-Pregl; H. El Rabey; S. Effgen; H. H. Ibrahim; C. Pozzi; W. Rohde; F. Salamini

    Remains of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains found at archaeological sites in the Fertile Crescent indicate that about 10,000 years ago the crop was domesticated there from its wild relative Hordeum spontaneum.The domestication history of barley is revisited based on the assumptions that DNA markers effectively measure genetic distances and that wild populations are genetically different and they have not undergone

  13. Differentiation of mixtures of co-product blend with barley grain based on Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection molecular spectroscopy: carbohydrate molecular spectral profiles and nutritive characteristics in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) differentiate mixtures of a co-product blend (70:30% mixture of wheat:corn before bioethanol fermentation) from bioethanol processing with barley grain based on Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection molecular spectroscopy with cluster analysis, (2) elucidate the effects of the co-product blend on the molecular structure spectral profile and nutritive characteristics of the hull-less barley carbohydrate (CHO) in dairy cattle, and (3) quantify the relationship between the CHO molecular structure spectral profiles and CHO nutritive characteristics of the mixtures in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed for CHO molecular structure spectral profiles included molecular spectral peak area and height intensities of lignin, structural CHO (STCHO), cellulosic compounds, and total CHO. The parameters assessed for CHO nutritive characteristics included the CHO nutrient profiles, CHO subfractions, energy values, and rumen-fermentable organic matter supply. Hull-less barley grains and the co-product blend were mixed according to the ratio of 100:0 (B100), 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 (BD100). The results showed that when the co-product blend was included at the different ratios, the predicted rumen-fermentable organic matter supply in the rumen was significantly decreased from 632 (B100) to 518 g/kg of dry matter (DM; BD100). The effective degradable dry matter in the rumen and the effective degradable starch in the rumen were also significantly decreased from 672 and 482 g/kg of DM (B100) to 475 and 43 g/kg of DM (BD100), respectively. By using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, we identified were significant changes in the spectral profiles of the CHO molecular structure in terms of lignin, STCHO, cellulosic compounds, and total CHO spectral peak area and height and their ratios. Pearson analysis results suggested strong correlations between lignin peak area, cellulosic compound area, and total CHO peak area and CHO nutrient profiles except energy values (net energy for lactation at 3 times maintenance intake, net energy for maintenance, and net energy for gain). No correlation was observed between STCHO peak area and CHO nutrient profiles in the mixture samples. PMID:22921618

  14. CEREALS/ GRAIN — QUALITY ATTRIBUTES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This encyclopedia chapter describes the quality attributes of the major cereal grains, including the important types of foods made from wheat; wheat flour quality end-product and component tests, and intrinsic quality of wheat grain and grain lots. Rice, maize, barley, sorghum and millets, oats, ry...

  15. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  16. Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance to barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

  17. A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

  18. Malting Barley Characteristics

    E-print Network

    Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary The brewing industry is evolving rapidly, and the barley malt supply chain should likewise evolve rapidly to meet the very different needs as a potential impediment to growing their brands. To produce all-malt beer brands, craft brewers seek barley

  19. Process for Nondestructive Evaluation of the Quality of a Crimped Wire Connector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Williams, Keith A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process and apparatus for collecting data for nondestructive evaluation of the quality of a crimped wire connector are provided. The process involves providing a crimping tool having an anvil and opposing jaw for crimping a terminal onto a stranded wire, moving the jaw relative to the anvil to close the distance between the jaw and the anvil and thereby compress the terminal against the wire, while transmitting ultrasonic waves that are propagated through the terminal-wire combination and received at a receiving ultrasonic transducer as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil, and detecting and recording the position of the jaw relative to the anvil as a function of time and detecting and recording the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave that is received at the receiving ultrasonic transducer as a function of time as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil.

  20. Effects of Crimping on Mechanical Performance of Nitinol Stent Designed for Femoral Artery: Finite Element Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, F.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

    2013-11-01

    Nitinol stents are used to minimize improper dynamic behavior, low twistability, and inadequate radial mechanical strength of femoral artery stents. In this study, finite element method is used to investigate the effect of crimping and Austenite finish temperature ( A f) of Nitinol on mechanical performance of Z-shaped open-cell femoral stent under crimping conditions. Results show that low A f Nitinol has better mechanical and clinical performance due to small chronic outward force, large radial resistive force, and appropriate superelastic behavior.

  1. The formulation of a nutraceutical bread mix using sorghum, barley, and flaxseed

    E-print Network

    Rudiger, Crystal Renee'

    2003-01-01

    are concentrated in the bran &acfions (Tlahn et al 1984) making it easy to incorporate them into a food product. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) flour, like oats, is a source of soluble fiber. The National Barley Foods Council reports that waxy hull-less barley... of Soluble Fiber Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is a member of the Triticeae group of cereals, which includes wheat, rye and triticale. It is a covered caryopsis grain mainly used in animal feeding or production of malt. For human consumption purposes, barley...

  2. Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

  3. MAPPING GENES FOR RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANCE IN BARLEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is one of the most serious pests of grain crops. Russian wheat aphid infestations reduce grain yield and malting quality of barley. Since it was first identified in Texas in 1986, RWA has caused more than $1 billion in losses in the Western Uni...

  4. Screening for Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  5. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  6. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  7. Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

  8. Solvolysis procedures for the determination of bound residues of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in fusarium species infected grain of two winter wheat cultivars preinfected with barley yellow dwarf virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Walker, Frank; Hoeglinger, Birgit; Buchenauer, Heinrich

    2005-08-24

    A trichloroacetic acid treatment at 140 degrees C for 40 min was successfully established as a suitable solvolysis procedure for the recovery of bound deoxynivalenol or its derivatives in Fusarium-infected plants. Deoxynivalenol itself was not decomposed in the procedure. The derivative 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol was chosen as a model compound for setting free deoxynivalenol in an acid-catalyzed deesterification reaction, developing the method. This is the first report using a trichloroacetic acid solvolysis procedure as a sample incubation step to free bound deoxynivalenol and determine free from bound deoxynivalenol in the sample. Between 13 and 63% of the total deoxynivalenol consisted of nonextractable deoxynivalenol. Deoxynivalenol contents in grain of the susceptible cultivar "Agent" infected with Fusarium spp. were 12-24 times higher when compared to those for the corresponding moderately resistant cultivar "Petrus". The highest deoxynivalenol amounts were determined in grain infected with Fusarium spp. as well as simultaneously infected with BYDV. This solvolysis procedure may be of importance for distinguishing between resistant and susceptible plants and their ability to immobilize (bound) mycotoxins as a plant defense mechanism. PMID:16104812

  9. Registration of 'Rasmusson' Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rasmusson’ (Reg. No. CV-345, PI 658495) is a spring, six-rowed, malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) released by the Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station in January 2008. It was named after Donald Rasmusson, who worked as a barley breeder at the University of Minnesota from 1958 to 2000. Rasmuss...

  10. Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    of storage/warming conditions and barley substitution (%) on moisture content of DMF tortillas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 18 Effect ofbarley substitution (%) on color of tortillas . . . . . . 63 vu1 FIGURE 19 Effects of SB 94912 (waxy) barley flour... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Effects of SB 94912 (waxy) barley flour substitution ('zo) over time on extensibility of tortillas stored at 4'C. . . . . . . . . . 22 Effect of barley variety on moisture content of fresh, 4'C and reheated tortillas, containing 20'zo barley...

  11. Characterisation of the malting barley transcriptome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica F White; Toni Pacey-Miller; Allison C Crawford; Peter C Bundock; Giovanni M Cordeiro; Robert J Henry

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of large-scale gene expression technologies such as serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) has provided the tools to significantly increase the amount of genetic data available. To characterise the transcriptional profile of grain during the malting process, eight LongSAGE libraries from Barley var. Tallon were constructed. One library was constructed from mature un-steeped seed and seven libraries were

  12. Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

  13. Transcriptional regulatory programs underlying barley germination and regulatory functions of Gibberellin and abscisic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley germination is a complex and multi-stage biological process important to plant development, plant evolution, and agricultural production. It is accompanied with concerted expression of many genes and biological pathways. Transcriptomic analysis of barley grains/seedlings representing six well...

  14. Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

  15. Comparison of barley seed proteomic profiles associated with fusarium head blight reaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Zantinge; K. Kumar; K. Xi; M. Johns; A. Murray; T. Jones; J. H. Helm; P. Juskiw

    2010-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a destructive disease that affects the quality and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain. At present, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in barley resistance against infection by and the spread of F. graminearum. The objective of the current study was to identify proteins

  16. A numerical model for delamination growth simulation in non-crimp fabric composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aniello Riccio; M. Zarrelli; N. Tessitore

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a novel finite-element tool, for the simulation of delamination growth in non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite materials, is presented. The proposed finite-element tool is based on the stiffness averaging method (SAM), on the modified virtual crack closure technique (MVCCT) and on the penalty method (PM); all these methods have been implemented in the research oriented B2000 finite-element code.

  17. Barley Production in Texas.

    E-print Network

    Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

    1941-01-01

    LIBRARY, A & M COLLEGE, TEXAS AG,RICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION A, B. CONNER, DIRECTOR College Station, Texas 1 BULLETIN NO. 605 SEPTEMBER 1941 1 BARLEY PRODUCTION IN TEXAS I. M. ATKINS and P. B. DUNKLE Division of Agronomy in coomration... Mildew 3 3 Summary _------- 33 BARLEY PRODUCTION IN TEXAS I. M. Atkins, Associate Agronomist, U.S.D.A., and P. B. DunkIe, Superintendent, Substation No. 6, Denton (Division of Agronomy, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, anil Bureau of Plant...

  18. Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. G. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

  19. Plant physiology Grain yield, carbon isotope discrimination

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    of 13 barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars. Plants were grown under rainfed and well-irrigated conditions dans les grains műrs a été examinée dans 13 cultivars d'orge (Hordeum vulgare L). Les plantes ont été

  20. Effects of Soil Drought and Atmospheric Humidity on Yield, Gas Exchange, and Stable Carbon Isotope Composition of Barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sánchez-Díaz; J. L. García; M. C. Antolín; J. L. Araus

    2002-01-01

    The combined effects of water status, vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and elevated temperature from heading to maturity were studied in barley. Plants growing at high VPD, either under well-watered or water deficit conditions, had higher grain yield and grain filling rate than plants growing at low VPD. By contrast, water stress decreased grain yield and individual grain dry matter at

  1. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  2. RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANT BARLEY-CULTIVAR AND GERMPLASM RELEASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    RWA continues to be a devastating pest of barley in the high and dry areas of the Western U.S.A. Screening of the entire National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, Idaho, by the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma, identified 115 accessions with some level of resistance ranging from 2 to 6 on Webst...

  3. Modification patterns in germinating barley—malting II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricky O’Brien; Nev Fowkes

    2005-01-01

    Modification refers to breaking down of cell walls and the conversion of starch-to-sugars in the endosperm of grains by the action of enzymes released from the aleurone layer and possibly the scutellum during germination. Experimentalists have observed two completely different modification patterns in germinating barley. Based on an enzyme reaction, strongly nonlinear diffusion model developed in Part I of this

  4. Small Grains Virginia Corn &

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    ............................................................................................................................................................. 1 Barley and Wheat Entries......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Section 1: Barley Varieties Dscusson.of.barley.varetes.and.summary.of.barley.performance.of.hulless.entres.n.the.Vrgna.Tech.Barley.Test.over.locatons,.2007.harvest

  5. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.

    PubMed

    Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested. PMID:25300832

  6. Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

  7. Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics

    SciTech Connect

    Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

  8. Quantitative and qualitative stem rust resistance factors in barley are associated with transcriptional suppression of defense regulons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known so...

  9. The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer

    SciTech Connect

    Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

    1997-01-01

    Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. REGISTRATION OF 'HERALD' BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...

  11. Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

  12. Registration of Endeavor Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

  13. Garden Barley Soup Ingredients

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    salt 1 zucchini 1 tomato 1 green pepper Directions 1. In a Dutch oven or stock pot, combine tomato the tomato together. Turn Ľ and slice again to dice. 4. Slice green pepper in half and remove stem and seeds heat. 6. Cover; simmer 15-20 minutes or until vegetables and barley are tender. Equipment: Stock pot

  14. Registration of ‘Lenetah’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Lenetah’ (reg. No. , PI ) two-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in December 2007. It was released due to its superior yield and test we...

  15. 852 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 18, NO. 3, JULY 2003 Mechanical Aspects of Crimped Glass Reinforced

    E-print Network

    Mobasher, Barzin

    Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) Rods B. Mobasher, D. Kingsbury, J. Montesinos, and R. S. Gorur Abstract as full-scale composite insulators. Different rod formulations (E-glass, E-CR glass fibers, resins made residual crimping force, tensile load due to the conductor weight and its tension, compression, and bending

  16. An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

    2010-06-01

    Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material. This is exhibited by the exotherm. Heating the so-cooled samples, in general, increases their melting point in almost all samples. Thus melting event is shifted towards higher temperature, except for one sample in which pre-twist level is appreciably high. Thus, DSC is a very useful technique to select and optimize the pre-twist level and may provide quite a significant insight into the thermal stability of the mechanical crimp textured yarn.

  17. Composition and Functional Lipid Profiles of Low-Phyate Barleys and Related Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, one of the earliest cultivated cereal grains in the world, is gaining renewed interest for use in food, feed and as a bioethanol feedstock. Like other grains, its high phytate content is undesirable since phytate affects mineral bioavailability and contributes to P pollution to environment....

  18. Status of greenhouse seedling screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous or virulifer...

  19. The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.

    PubMed

    Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

    2013-09-01

    The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability. PMID:23711079

  20. Physicochemical Properties of ?-Glucan from Acid Hydrolyzed Barley.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Kee Jong; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Tae Jip; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2015-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the content and purity, as well as physical characteristics of ?-glucan extracted from acid hydrolyzed whole grain barleys. Waxy and non-waxy barleys (Hordeum vulgare) were hydrolyzed with different concentrations of HCl (0.1~0.5 N) for 1 h. As the HCl concentration increased, the contents of total and soluble ?-glucan from acid hydrolyzed barley decreased. However the ratio of soluble/total ?-glucan content and purities of ?-glucan significantly increased. The ratio of ?-(1?4)/?-(1?3) linkages, molecular weight, and viscosity of soluble ?-glucan of raw barleys were 2.28~2.52, 6.0~7.0×10(5) g/mol, and 12.8~32.8 centipoise (cP). Those of isolated soluble ?-glucan were significantly decreased to 2.05~2.15, 6.6~7.8×10(3) g/mol, and 3.6~4.2 cP, respectively, with increasing acid concentration. The re-solubility of raw barley ?-glucan was about 50%, but increased to 97% with increasing acid concentration. Acid hydrolysis was shown to be an effective method to produce ?-glucan with high ratio of soluble ?-glucan content, purity, water solubility, and low viscosity. PMID:26175998

  1. Physicochemical Properties of ?-Glucan from Acid Hydrolyzed Barley

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Kim, Kee Jong; Lee, Mi Ja; Kim, Tae Jip; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate changes in the content and purity, as well as physical characteristics of ?-glucan extracted from acid hydrolyzed whole grain barleys. Waxy and non-waxy barleys (Hordeum vulgare) were hydrolyzed with different concentrations of HCl (0.1~0.5 N) for 1 h. As the HCl concentration increased, the contents of total and soluble ?-glucan from acid hydrolyzed barley decreased. However the ratio of soluble/total ?-glucan content and purities of ?-glucan significantly increased. The ratio of ?-(1?4)/?-(1?3) linkages, molecular weight, and viscosity of soluble ?-glucan of raw barleys were 2.28~2.52, 6.0~7.0×105 g/mol, and 12.8~32.8 centipoise (cP). Those of isolated soluble ?-glucan were significantly decreased to 2.05~2.15, 6.6~7.8×103 g/mol, and 3.6~4.2 cP, respectively, with increasing acid concentration. The re-solubility of raw barley ?-glucan was about 50%, but increased to 97% with increasing acid concentration. Acid hydrolysis was shown to be an effective method to produce ?-glucan with high ratio of soluble ?-glucan content, purity, water solubility, and low viscosity. PMID:26175998

  2. EFFECTIVE LIFETIME ESTIMATE OF CRIMPED POWERLINE SPLICE CONNECTOR OPERATED AT HIGH TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL] [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL] [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL] [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL] [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL] [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the thermal-mechanical properties and performance characteristics of full tension splice connectors under high temperature operation, in particular those used in overhead transmission and distribution lines. Due to the increase in power demand existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those originally considered for their design. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. The compressive residual stresses induced by the crimping process within the splice connector provide the clamping forces to secure the conductor and therefore, the determination of the state of compressive residual stresses in splice connectors is a necessary requirement to provide an accurate estimate of their service lifetime. This paper presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector assembly.

  3. Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.

  4. Spring Small Grains Area Estimation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

  5. Ochratoxin A in stored U.S. barley and wheat.

    PubMed

    Kuruc, Julie A; Schwarz, Paul; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

    2015-03-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of significant health concern that is present in a variety of cereal grains and other foods around the world. Although OTA contamination can occur prior to harvest, it is largely considered a storage issue that can be controlled through the implementation of proper storage practices. Barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples that had been stored for various lengths of time were collected (n = 262) over a period of 2 years by multiple commercial grain companies located in the northwestern and northern Great Plains regions of the United States. Samples were analyzed for OTA concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA was detected in 12.2% of the samples, and of those samples, 81.3% had been stored for ?6 months. One sample of barley and four samples of wheat exceeded 5 ng/g of OTA. PMID:25719887

  6. Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

  7. Effects of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen supply on growth and yield of winter barley cultivated in a crop rotation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Remy Manderscheid; Andreas Pacholski; Cathleen Frühauf; Hans-Joachim Weigel

    2009-01-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2] has been demonstrated to stimulate growth of C3 crops. Although barley is one of the important cereals of the world, little information exists about the effect of elevated [CO2] on grain yield of this crop, and realistic data from field experiments are lacking. Therefore, winter barley was grown within a crop rotation over

  8. Fatigue tensile behavior of carbon\\/epoxy composite reinforced with non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Karahan; Stepan V. Lomov; Alexander E. Bogdanovich; Ignaas Verpoest

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study of the in-plane tension–tension fatigue behavior of the carbon fiber\\/epoxy matrix composite reinforced with non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven fabric is presented. The results include pre-fatigue quasi-static test data, fatigue life diagrams, fatigue damage progression, and post-fatigue quasi-static test data for the warp- and fill-directional loading cases. It is revealed that the maximum cycle stress corresponding to at

  9. Effects of preservation method and beta-glucanase supplementation on ileal amino acid digestibility and feeding value of barley for poultry.

    PubMed

    Perttilä, S; Valaja, J; Partanen, K; Jalava, T; Kiiskinen, T; Palander, S

    2001-05-01

    1. Effects of preservation method (drying or air-tight storage of whole grain and ensiling of rolled high-moisture grain) and beta-glucanase supplementation (Econase) on apparent ileal amino acid digestibilities and metabolisable energy content of barley were evaluated with Ross broiler chickens. In addition, the effect of barley preservation method was assessed using Leghorn cockerels. 2. Birds were given either a semi-purified soyabean meal basal diet or a mixture of the basal diet and barley (50:50 on dry matter basis). Apparent ileal digestibilities (AID) of nutrients were assessed using the slaughter technique. AID of nutrients and nutrient digestibility measured using excreta (AED) were determined using chromium mordanted straw as an indigestible marker. 3. In broilers, AID of amino acids, dry matter and organic matter were lower for dried than air-tight stored barley, particularly for diets based on ensiled barley. In cockerels, barley preservation method had no effect on amino acid AID. The AED of nutrients and nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy content (AMEn) was highest for ensiled barley across both experiments. 4. beta-glucanase supplementation increased nutrient digestibility, phosphorus retention and AMEn content of air-tight stored and dried barley diets in particular but had only negligible effects on ensiled barley. Beta-glucanase improved the AID of amino acids in dried barley but not in air-tight stored or ensiled barley. 5. Amino acid digestibilities were lower in broilers than cockerels and the effect of barley preservation on feeding value of barley was different for broilers and cockerels. PMID:11421332

  10. Effects of Grain Source and Enzyme Additive on Site and Extent of Nutrient Digestion in Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. A. Beauchemin; W. Z. Yang; L. M. Rode

    1999-01-01

    Four lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of grain source and fibrolytic enzyme sup- plementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion in the rumen and in the intestine, and milk production. A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement was used; two grains (barley and hull-less barley) were com- bined with

  11. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (principal investigators)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  12. Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

    Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

  13. Barley variety identification using SSRs.

    PubMed

    Southworth, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    There is a current and developing need for rapid and accurate methods of barley varietal identification which go beyond traditional morphological analysis. Methods using DNA analysis have the capacity to fulfil this role with microsatellites being the current marker of choice. The majority of barley cultivars on the National List can be differentiated using 6 SSRs and bulk samples, using the methods described here. PMID:19301765

  14. Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4) controls spikelet determinacy and row-type in barley

    PubMed Central

    Koppolu, Ravi; Anwar, Nadia; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Lundqvist, Udda; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Rutten, Twan; Seiler, Christiane; Himmelbach, Axel; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Youssef, Helmy Mohamad; Stein, Nils; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Komatsuda, Takao; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Inflorescence architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is common among the Triticeae species, which bear one to three single-flowered spikelets at each rachis internode. Triple spikelet meristem is one of the unique features of barley spikes, in which three spikelets (one central and two lateral spikelets) are produced at each rachis internode. Fertility of the lateral spikelets at triple spikelet meristem gives row-type identity to barley spikes. Six-rowed spikes show fertile lateral spikelets and produce increased grain yield per spike, compared with two-rowed spikes with sterile lateral spikelets. Thus, far, two loci governing the row-type phenotype were isolated in barley that include Six-rowed spike1 (Vrs1) and Intermedium-C. In the present study, we isolated Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4), a barley ortholog of the maize (Zea mays L.) inflorescence architecture gene RAMOSA2 (RA2). Eighteen coding mutations in barley RA2 (HvRA2) were specifically associated with lateral spikelet fertility and loss of spikelet determinacy. Expression analyses through mRNA in situ hybridization and microarray showed that Vrs4 (HvRA2) controls the row-type pathway through Vrs1 (HvHox1), a negative regulator of lateral spikelet fertility in barley. Moreover, Vrs4 may also regulate transcripts of barley SISTER OF RAMOSA3 (HvSRA), a putative trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase involved in trehalose-6-phosphate homeostasis implicated to control spikelet determinacy. Our expression data illustrated that, although RA2 is conserved among different grass species, its down-stream target genes appear to be modified in barley and possibly other species of tribe Triticeae. PMID:23878219

  15. Potential for Production of Dryland Barley for Human Food: Quality and Agronomic Performance of Spring Habit Germplasm in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain ß-glucan percentage is the most important attribute for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties destined for the human food market. This trait is important because of the cholesterol-reducing properties of ß-glucan. High levels of grain protein, test weight and seed size may also add value. Seed...

  16. Nutrient retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys.

    PubMed

    Salarmoini, M; Campbell, G L; Rossnagel, B G; Raboy, V

    2008-05-01

    1. The experimental barley samples included 4 hulled and one hull-less low-phytate barley cultivars and two commercial barley varieties as controls. 2. The diets were provided in meal form, with the experimental barley samples constituting the cereal source. Two additional treatments were added for each of the control varieties in which intermediate and recommended levels of phosphorus were provided. 3. A completely randomised design was used with 5 replicates of 5 chicks per treatment. The chicks were grown from 2 to 14 d of age with excreta collected over the subsequent 3 d. 4. Although total phosphorus levels were similar for all barley samples, there were large differences in their phytate content, which ranged from less than 0.5 to 13.8 g/kg. M2 955 hulled barley exhibited the lowest phytate and the highest phosphorus solubility. 5. There was a negative linear relationship between grain phytate and weight gain and with bone ash. The low-phytate hulled barleys M2 955 and the low-phytate hull-less barley (lpa1-1H) gave better feed conversion (8%) than controls. The hull-less low-phytate barley gave significantly higher total phosphorus (18%) and soluble phosphorus retention (23%) than the hull-less control. The low-phytate samples tended to give lower excreta phosphorus levels (total and soluble), but the effect was significant only for the hull-less samples. Amino acid retention was significantly higher for the low-phytate hull-less barley than the control (4%). 6. Overall, the results suggest that using low-phytate barley can result in similar growth while using less supplemental phosphorus, reducing waste phosphorus by more than 50%. PMID:18568757

  17. Diurnal courses and factorial dependencies of leaf conductance and transpiration of differently potassium fertilized and watered field grown barley plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Lösch; C. R. Jensen; M. N. Andersen

    1992-01-01

    During the grain filling period we followed diurnal courses in leaf water potential (?1), leaf osmotic potential (??), transpiration (E), leaf conductance to water vapour transfer (g) and microclimatic parameters in field-grown spring barley\\u000a (Hordeum distichum L. cv. Gunnar). The barley crop was grown on a coarse textured sandy soil at low (50 kg ha?1) or high (200 kg ha?1)

  18. Responses of barley, pea, and maize to inoculation with different vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in irradiated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anni Jensen

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The efficiency of different VAM fungi was investigated by inoculating barley, pea, and maize with different VAM fungi in irradiated\\u000a soil in pots buried in the field. VAM frequency, growth and nutrient uptake were measured.\\u000a \\u000a In barleyGlomus epigaeus (CA) andG. macrocarpus (CA) were the most efficient out of 11 tested species and increased yield of grain by 24% and 21%,

  19. Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.

    PubMed

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jřrgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2011-07-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains. PMID:21220762

  20. Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus in Oats: A Field and Laboratory View

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses continue to be a major disease problem in the Midwest and Southeastern parts of the US. A number of lines developed in the small grains breeding programs at Purdue University and University of Illinois do have significant resistance to these viruses. However,...

  1. Influence of weed species and time of glyphosate application on Rhizoctonia root rot of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 causes root disease in wheat, barley, canola and other small grains in the dryland inland Pacific Northwest. The pathogen survives between crops on roots of volunteers and grassy weeds. Destroying this green bridge with herbicides such as glyphosate is a common tactic to cont...

  2. Original article Digestion of a dehydrated lucerne/barley diet (70:30)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    lower after feed intake as compared to defaunated animals; the energy charge was always higher/d), pelleted barley grain (300 g/d), grass hay (100 g/d) and wheat straw (50 g/d) in one daily meal. Isotricha between defaunated, monoinoculated and completely refaunated animals. The total adenylic nucleotide

  3. Characterization of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most serious diseases impacting the U.S. barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) industry. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the pathogen renders grain unmarketable if concentrations exceed threshold values set for end-use m...

  4. Characteristics of the active transport of peptides and amino acids by germinating barley embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Walker-Smith; J. W. Payne

    1984-01-01

    Use of two different assays involving either radioactively labelled substrates or a fluorescent-labelling procedure, gave good agreement for the rates of transport of peptides and amino acids into the scutellum of germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Maris Otter, Winter). However, evidence was obtained for the enzymic decarboxylation of transpored substrate, which can cause underestimates of transport rates when

  5. Potential and optimization of genomic selection for fusarium head blight resistance in six-row barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley, causing reductions in yield and quality. Marker-based selection for resistance to FHB and lowered deoxynivalenol (DON) grain concentration would save considerable costs and time associated with phenotyping. A comprehensive marker-based s...

  6. Drought Response in the Spikes of Barley: Gene Expression in the Lemma, Palea, Awn, and Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photosynthetic organs of the barley spike (lemma, palea, and awn) are considered resistant to drought. This is a beneficial trait because they can sustain grain-filling when drought occurs at the reproductive stage. However, there is little information about gene expression in the spike organs u...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER IN MILLED BARLEY USING NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMITTANCE SPECTROSCOPY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-grain milled barley (n=56) was scanned using a near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT)(850-1048nm) and total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined for each cultivar by AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method (Method 991.43). The validation statistics of PLS models using calibration (n=28) and v...

  8. A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON), a common contaminant of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States. New strategies to reduce the threat of DON need to be developed and implemented. Previous work has...

  9. Energy inputs and outputs of fuel-alcohol production. Appendices A and B. Ethanol from grain

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Estimates are developed of present energy requirements for producing five grains (corn, grain, sorghum, winter wheat, barley and oats) and of energy requirements for increasing production of two of these grains (corn and grain sorghum). Brief discussions are also included of the overall potential for increasing crop land and for increasing grain production for conversion to ethanol. The energy and materials consumption of both wet and dry milling technologies are considered for the conversion of grain to ethanol.

  10. [Features of alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines (Hordeum marinum subsp. gussoneanum)-triticum aestivum].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Belova, L I; Trubacheeva, N V; Arbuzova, V S; Kravtsova, L A

    2009-10-01

    Two alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution lines were studied: a line replaced at three pairs of chromosomes 1Hmr((IB), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D), and the disomic-substituted line 7Hma(7D). The lines were constructed on the basis of individual plants from BCIF8- and BC2F6 progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum Hudson (=H. geniculatum All.) (2n = 28) x T. aestivum L.) (2n = 42) (Pyrotrix 28), respectively. Moreover, the alloplasmic wheat-barley ditelosomic addition line 7HLma' isolated among plants from the BC1F6 progeny of a barley-wheat amphiploid was studied, which in this work corresponds to BC2F10 and BC2F11 progeny. It was ascertained that when grown in the field, these alloplasmic lines manifest stable self-fertility. Plants of the given lines are characterized by low height, shortened ears, the fewer number of stems and ears, and of spikelets in the ear, by decreased grain productivity and weight of 1000 grains, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28. The inhibition of trait expression in alloplasmic wheat-barley substitution and addition lines may be connected not only with the influence of wild barley chromosomes functioning in the genotypic environment of common wheat, but also with the effect of the barley cytoplasm. The alloplasmic line with substitution of chromosomes 1Hmar(1B), 5Hmar(5D), and 7Hmar(7D) or the alloplasmic line 7HLmar with ditelosomic addition have, in comparison with the common wheat cultivar Pyrotrix 28, an increased grain protein content, which is explained by the effect of wild barley H. marinum subsp. gussoneanum chromosomes. PMID:19947550

  11. Isozymes in wheat-barley hybrid derivative lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Powling; A. K. M. R. Islam; K. W. Shepherd

    1981-01-01

    Zymogram analysis was used to identify the barley chromosomes that carry the structural genes for particular isozymes. Wheat, barley, and wheatbarley hybrid derivative lines (which contained identified barley chromosomes) were tested by gel electrophoresis for isozymes of particular enzymes. It was found that barley chromosome 4 carries structural genes for acid phosphatase and ß amylase isozymes, barley chromosome 5 carries

  12. HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease remains the major health problem in the US. Consumption of soluble fiber, like that in oats, has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed...

  13. Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

  14. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  15. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  16. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  17. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  18. 7 CFR 801.3 - Tolerances for barley pearlers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Tolerances for barley pearlers. 801.3 Section 801.3 Agriculture...INSPECTION EQUIPMENT § 801.3 Tolerances for barley pearlers. The maintenance tolerances for barley pearlers used in performing official...

  19. EFFECT OF FEED PROCESSING ON IN SITU RUMINAL DEGRADATION OF CEREAL GRAINS AND ON THE DEGREE OF SYNCHRONY OF ORGANIC MATTER AND NITROGEN RELEASE IN THE RUMEN OF GRAZING LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Róbert TÓTHI; Johannes PIJNENBURG

    Three rumen-cannulated, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows grazed in a controlled experimental pasture and supplemented daily with concentrates were used to measure effects of different heat treatment of cereal grains (pelleted barley, toasted barley, pelleted maize, toasted maize) on in situ degradability of protein and starch and to estimate of the possible rumen synchrony after feeding processed cereal grains as a supplement

  20. Stable barley chromosomes without centromeric repeats

    PubMed Central

    Nasuda, S.; Hudakova, S.; Schubert, I.; Houben, A.; Endo, T. R.

    2005-01-01

    The satellite sequences (AGGGAG)n and Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons are known to localize at the barley centromeres. Using a gametocidal system, which induces chromosomal mutations in barley chromosomes added to common wheat, we obtained an isochromosome for the short arm of barley chromosome 7H (7HS) that lacked the barley-specific satellite sequence (AGGGAG)n. Two telocentric derivatives of the isochromosome arose in the progeny: 7HS* with and 7HS** without the pericentromeric C-band. FISH analysis demonstrated that both telosomes lacked not only the barley-specific centromeric (AGGGAG)n repeats and retroelements but also any of the known wheat centromeric tandem repeats, including the 192-bp, 250-bp, and TaiI sequences. Although they lacked these centromeric repeats, 7HS* and 7HS** both showed normal mitotic and meiotic transmission. Translocation of barley centromeric repeats to a wheat chromosome 4A did not generate a dicentric chromosome. Indirect immunostaining revealed that all tested centromere-specific proteins (rice CENH3, maize CENP-C, and putative barley homologues of the yeast kinetochore proteins CBF5 and SKP1) and histone H3 phosphorylated at serines 10 and 28 localized at the centromeric region of 7HS*. We conclude that the barley centromeric repeats are neither sufficient nor obligatory to assemble kinetochores, and we discuss the possible formation of a novel centromere in a barley chromosome. PMID:15998740

  1. Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.

    PubMed

    Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

  2. Wheat and Barley Genome Sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kellye Eversole; Andreas Graner; Nils Stein

    A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches\\u000a to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley\\u000a possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic\\u000a sequencing of

  3. Recombinant barley-produced antibody for detection and immunoprecipitation of the major bovine milk allergen, ?-lactoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Ritala, A; Leelavathi, S; Oksman-Caldentey, K-M; Reddy, V S; Laukkanen, M-L

    2014-06-01

    Recombinant allergens and antibodies are needed for diagnostic, therapeutic, food processing and quality verification purposes. The aim of this work was to develop a barley-based production system for ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) specific immunoglobulin E antibody (D1 scFv). The expression level in the best barley cell clone was 0.8-1.2 mg/kg fresh weight, and was constant over an expression period of 21 days. In the case of barley grains, the highest stable productivity (followed up to T2 grains) was obtained when the D1 scFv cDNA was expressed under a seed-specific Glutelin promoter rather than under the constitutive Ubiquitin promoter. Translational fusion of ER retention signal significantly improved the accumulation of recombinant antibody. Furthermore, lines without ER retention signal lost D1 scFv accumulation in T2 grains. Pilot scale purification was performed for a T2 grain pool (51 g) containing 55.0 mg D1 scFv/kg grains. The crude extract was purified by a two-step purification protocol including IMAC and size exclusion chromatography. The purification resulted in a yield of 0.47 mg of D1 scFv (31 kD) with high purity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that 29 % of the purified protein was fully functional. In immunoprecipitation assay the purified D1 scFv recognized the native 18 kD BLG in the milk sample. No binding was observed with the heat-treated milk sample, as expected. The developed barley-based expression system clearly demonstrated its potential for application in the processing of dairy milk products as well as in detecting allergens from foods possibly contaminated by bovine milk. PMID:24497085

  4. SURFACE ABRASION OF HULLED AND HULLESS BARLEY TO PRODUCE VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS: I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MILLED FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abrasion techniques were used to remove the hull and pericarp layers of grain kernels to obtain a smaller kernel, or kernel pieces that were enriched in endosperm. The objective of this study was to abrade and remove the outer layers of four barley varieties with two milling techniques, scarificati...

  5. Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

  6. Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

  7. DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grit Haseneyer; Silke Stracke; Hans-Peter Piepho; Sascha Sauer; Hartwig H Geiger; Andreas Graner

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL), validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding

  8. Effects on feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) type or corn (Zea mays L.) as a grain source on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between two feedings) consisting o...

  9. STATUS OF RWA-RESISTANT BARLEY GERMPLASM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a devastating pest on barley in the western U.S. First identified in the US in 1986 it spread throughout the intermountain regions of the western US and into Canada by 1988. All currently grown barley cultivars were highly susceptible to R...

  10. Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

  11. Fuel Ethanol Production from Barley Straw

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicelluloses, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomer...

  12. Health Management forHealth Management for Small Grains

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    ,Penicillium claveformis, Aspergillus flavus, Barley mild mosiac, Barley mosaic, Barley stripe mosaic, Barley yellow dwarf, Barley yellow streak mosiac, Barley yellow stripe, Brome mosaic, African cereal streak, Cereal tillering

  13. 2010 Barley Performance in Central Montana By Dave Wichman

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2010 Barley Performance in Central Montana By Dave Wichman The 2010 spring barley yields and test development lines topped the Moccasin barley trial, Goldeneye was the high yielding cultivar at both with the MSU-MAES barley breeder Dr. Tom Blake and assistant breeder, Stan Bates. Funding was provided

  14. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  15. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  16. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  17. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  18. 7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

  19. Abundant transcripts of malting barley identified by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica F White; Toni Pacey-Miller; Allison C Crawford; Giovanni M Cordeiro; Daniel Barbary; Peter C Bundock; Robert J Henry

    2006-01-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was applied to the major cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) to characterize the transcriptional profile of grain during the malting process. Seven SAGE libraries were generated from seed at different time points during malting, in addition to one library from dry mature seed. A total of 155,206 LongSAGE tags, representing 41,909 unique sequences, was

  20. Which malt barley cultivar for Western Australia after Hamelin and Baudin?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Blakely Paynter

    Small plot trial work suggests that WABAR2175 (if released by the Western Malting Barley Council) will offer growers a significant agronomic improvement relative to growing Stirling, Hamelin, Schooner, Baudin and Gairdner in almost all regions of Western Australia. WABAR2175 has the yield potential of Gairdner, Baudin and many of the best-feed cultivars, combined with the grain plumpness of Hamelin. WABAR2175

  1. Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.L.

    1990-02-21

    Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

  2. Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.

    PubMed

    Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

    2015-02-18

    Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods. PMID:25619974

  3. N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

    2012-04-01

    Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

  4. Plasma alkylresorcinois, biomarkers of whole-grain intake, are related to lower BMI in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found in the bran fraction of whole-grain wheat, rye, and barley. In intervention studies, plasma AR concentration increased in response to greater intakes of whole grain, wheat, and rye. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR...

  5. AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, R. W. (principal investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

  6. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley. PMID:22864927

  7. Abundant transcripts of malting barley identified by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE).

    PubMed

    White, Jessica; Pacey-Miller, Toni; Crawford, Allison; Cordeiro, Giovanni; Barbary, Daniel; Bundock, Peter; Henry, Robert

    2006-05-01

    Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was applied to the major cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) to characterize the transcriptional profile of grain during the malting process. Seven SAGE libraries were generated from seed at different time points during malting, in addition to one library from dry mature seed. A total of 155,206 LongSAGE tags, representing 41,909 unique sequences, was generated. This study reports an in-depth analysis of the most abundant transcripts from each of eight specific time points in a malting barley time course. The 100 most abundant tags from each library were analysed to identify the putative functional role of highly abundant transcripts. The largest functional groups included transcripts coding for stress response and cell defence, ribosomal proteins and storage proteins. The most abundant tag represented B22EL8, a barley metallothionein, which showed significant up-regulation across the malting time course. Considerable changes in the abundance profiles of some of the highly abundant tags occurred at 24 h post-steeping, indicating that it may be an important time point for gene expression changes associated with barley seed germination. PMID:17147635

  8. FEEDING VAI,U! OF BARLEY IN DIETS OF PIGLETS WEANED AT 21 DAYS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SUMMARY FEEDING VAI,U! OF BARLEY IN DIETS OF PIGLETS WEANED AT 21 DAYS Barley is well accepted the frequency of diarrhoea. The aim of the present study was to compare the feeding value of 3 types of barley (naked barley, malted barley, normal barley) in the early weaning diets (21 days) of 60 piglets reared

  9. Barley microsatellites: allele variation and mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Becker; M. Heun

    1995-01-01

    Microsatellites have developed into a powerful tool for mapping mammalian genomes and first reports about their use in plants have been published. A database search of 228 barley sequences from GenBank and EMBL was made to determine which simple sequence repeat (SSR) motif prevails in barley. Nearly all types of SSRs were found. The (A)n and (T)n SSRs occurred more

  10. Construction of an RFLP map of barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Graner; A. Jahoor; J. Schondelmaier; H. Siedler; K. Pillen; G. Fischbeck; G. Wenzel; R. G. Herrmann

    1991-01-01

    In order to construct an RFLP map of barley, two populations were analyzed using 251 genomic and cDNA markers: one population comprised 71 F1 antherderived double haploid (DH) individuals of an intraspecific cross (IGRI x FRANKA), and the other 135 individuals of an interspecific F2\\/F3 progeny (VADA x H. spontaneum). The distribution of nonrepetitive clones over the seven barley chromosomes

  11. A comparison of cadmium and zinc accumulation by four cultivars of barley grown in sludge-amended soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A.C. (Univ. of California, Riverside); Page, A.L.; Foster, K.W.; Jones, T.E.

    1982-07-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to compare the plant-tissue accumulation of Cd and Zn by four cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grown on three soils amended with 20 and 100 t/ha dried Imhoff tank sludges. Results indicated that metal uptakes by four cultivars of barley (Barsoy, Briggs, Florida 103, and Larker) were not significantly different when they were grown on both sludge-treated and non-sludge-treated (control) soils. The Cd and Zn concentrations of the plant tissue from sludge-treated soils, however, were significantly influenced by the sludge application and the soil type. For four cultivars of barley grown on the Ramona sandy loam soil, the Cd content of grain averaged <0.04 (<0.04-0.03) ..mu..g/g at the control and increased to 0.38 (0.19-0.53) ..mu..g/g at the 100-t/ha sludge treatment. Under the same conditions, the average Zn concentrations of barley grain were 41, 67, and 92 ..mu..g/g for the control, 20-t/ha, and 100-t/ha treatments, respectively. Both soil texture and pH influenced Cd and Zn contents of barley. Crops grown on the Domino loam soil (fine, mixed, thermic Xerollic Calciorthid) accumulated the least amounts of Cd and Zn. At heavy sludge applications, higher levels of plant-tissue Cd and Zn were often found in barley grown on soils of coarser texture (Ramona sandy loam (fine, mixed, thermic Typic Haploxeralf) and Greenfield sandy loam (coarse, mixed, thermic Typic Haploxeralf)) and lower pH (Ramona sand loam, pH = 6.0).

  12. Contrasting effects of ethylene perception and biosynthesis inhibitors on germination and seedling growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Locke, J M; Bryce, J H; Morris, P C

    2000-11-01

    The effects of the plant growth regulator ethylene, and of ethylene inhibitors, on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germination and seedling growth were investigated. Exogenous 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) at 100 microM enhanced ethylene production by barley seedlings and stimulated shoot growth, whereas both germination and seedling growth were inhibited by antagonists of ethylene perception (75 microM silver ions, 100 microM 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD)). In contrast, germination was unaffected by, and root and shoot growth of seedlings was strongly stimulated by inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis (10 microM cobalt chloride, 10 microM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG)). Since the ethylene and polyamine biosynthetic pathways are linked through S:-adenosylmethionine, this prompted further explorations into the role of polyamines in germination and seedling growth. Exogenous polyamines (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) at 1 microM concentration stimulated barley seedling growth in a similar fashion to the ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors. Both polyamines and ethylene biosynthetic inhibitors reversed the inhibitory effects of ethylene perception inhibitors on germination and seedling growth. Blocking endogenous ethylene production with aminoethoxyvinylglycine enhanced the free putrescine and spermidine content of germinating barley grains. Thus endogenous polyamines may play a complementary, growth-promotive, role to ethylene in the normal course of barley germination. Further, experiments that have been carried out using inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis may have to be re-evaluated to take the possible effect of polyamines into account. PMID:11113162

  13. Sugar Repression of a Gibberellin-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Barley Embryos.

    PubMed Central

    Perata, P.; Matsukura, C.; Vernieri, P.; Yamaguchi, J.

    1997-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that sugars can act as signals affecting plant metabolism and development. Some of the effects of sugars on plant growth and development suggest an interaction of sugar signals with hormonal regulation. We investigated the effects of sugars on the induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in barley embryos and aleurone layers. Our results show that sugar and hormonal signaling interact in the regulation of gibberellic acid-induced gene expression in barley grains. The induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in the aleurone layer is unaffected by the presence of sugars, but repression by carbohydrates is effective in the embryo. [alpha]-Amylase expression in the embryo is localized to the scutellar epithelium and is hormone and sugar modulated. The effects of glucose are independent from the effects of sugars on gibberellin biosynthesis. They are not due to an osmotic effect, they are independent of abscisic acid, and only hexokinase-phosphorylatable glucose analogs are able to trigger gene repression. Overall, the results suggest the existence of an interaction between the hormonal and metabolic regulation of [alpha]-amylase genes in barley grains. PMID:12237356

  14. GrainGenes, the genome database for small-grain crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Matthews; Victoria L. Carollo; Gerard R. Lazo; Olin D. Anderson

    2003-01-01

    GrainGenes, http:\\/\\/www.graingenes.org, is the inter- national database for the wheat, barley, rye and oat genomes. For these species it is the primary repository for information about genetic maps, mapping probes and primers, genes, alleles and QTLs. Documentation includes such data as primer sequences, polymorphism descriptions, genotype and trait scoring data, experimental protocols used, and photographs of marker polymorphisms, disease symptoms

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and their association with agronomic traits in barley.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yanshi; Li, Ronghua; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K; Guo, Peiguo

    2013-01-01

    Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley. PMID:23418603

  16. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions in barley glumes reveal a role as transitory resource buffers during endosperm filling

    PubMed Central

    Kohl, Stefan; Hollmann, Julien; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Riewe, David; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2015-01-01

    During grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Barke) reserves are remobilized from vegetative organs. Glumes represent the vegetative tissues closest to grains, senesce late, and are involved in the conversion of assimilates. To analyse glume development and metabolism related to grain filling, parallel transcript and metabolite profiling in glumes and endosperm were performed, showing that glume metabolism and development adjusts to changing grain demands, reflected by specific signatures of metabolite and transcript abundances. Before high endosperm sink strength is established by storage product accumulation, glumes form early, intermediary sink organs, shifting then to remobilizing and exporting source organs. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions occur at two phases: first, at the onset of endosperm filling, as a consequence of endosperm sink activity and assimilate depletion in endosperm and vascular tissues; second, at late grain filling, by developmental ageing and senescence. Regulation of and transition between phases are probably governed by specific NAC and WRKY transcription factors, and both abscisic and jasmonic acid, and are accompanied by changed expression of specific nitrogen transporters. Expression and metabolite profiling suggest glume-specific mechanisms of assimilate conversion and translocation. In summary, grain filling and endosperm sink strength coordinate phase changes in glumes via metabolic, hormonal, and transcriptional control. This study provides a comprehensive view of barley glume development and metabolism, and identifies candidate genes and associated pathways, potentially important for breeding improved grain traits. PMID:25617470

  17. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions in barley glumes reveal a role as transitory resource buffers during endosperm filling.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Stefan; Hollmann, Julien; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Riewe, David; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

    2015-03-01

    During grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Barke) reserves are remobilized from vegetative organs. Glumes represent the vegetative tissues closest to grains, senesce late, and are involved in the conversion of assimilates. To analyse glume development and metabolism related to grain filling, parallel transcript and metabolite profiling in glumes and endosperm were performed, showing that glume metabolism and development adjusts to changing grain demands, reflected by specific signatures of metabolite and transcript abundances. Before high endosperm sink strength is established by storage product accumulation, glumes form early, intermediary sink organs, shifting then to remobilizing and exporting source organs. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions occur at two phases: first, at the onset of endosperm filling, as a consequence of endosperm sink activity and assimilate depletion in endosperm and vascular tissues; second, at late grain filling, by developmental ageing and senescence. Regulation of and transition between phases are probably governed by specific NAC and WRKY transcription factors, and both abscisic and jasmonic acid, and are accompanied by changed expression of specific nitrogen transporters. Expression and metabolite profiling suggest glume-specific mechanisms of assimilate conversion and translocation. In summary, grain filling and endosperm sink strength coordinate phase changes in glumes via metabolic, hormonal, and transcriptional control. This study provides a comprehensive view of barley glume development and metabolism, and identifies candidate genes and associated pathways, potentially important for breeding improved grain traits. PMID:25617470

  18. Utilization of two sewage sludges on cropland: yield, nitrogen, and metal uptake in winter barley

    SciTech Connect

    Unger, M.

    1985-01-01

    Two municipal sludges, one from a highly industrialized city, Chicago, and another from a lesser industrialized, highly agricultural area, Tucson, are compared for barley production of Pima c 1 (Typic torrifluvent). Both sludges were responsible for highly significant additions of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and P to the soil each year at the rates of 100mt/ha single and 20mt/ha for 2 years. Nitrogen responses for barley straw and grain were observed from both sludges. Tucson sludge appears to be attractive as a potential fertilizer, not only as an NPK source, but also for its minimal amounts of heavy metals. The Chicago sludge with high levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd, appears unsuited as a fertilizer because of the plant's tendency to take up toxic levels of heavy metals.

  19. Physiological and biochemical response of soil-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rico, Cyren M; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Lee, Sang Chul; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-07-01

    A soil microcosm study was performed to examine the impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on the physiology, productivity, and macromolecular composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The plants were cultivated in soil treated with nCeO2 at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). Accumulation of Ce in leaves/grains and its effects on plant stress and nutrient loading were analyzed. The data revealed that nCeO2-H promoted plant development resulting in 331 % increase in shoot biomass compared with the control. nCeO2 treatment modified the stress levels in leaves without apparent signs of toxicity. However, plants exposed to nCeO2-H treatment did not form grains. Compared with control, nCeO2-M enhanced grain Ce accumulation by as much as 294 % which was accompanied by remarkable increases in P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Al. Likewise, nCeO2-M enhanced the methionine, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, arginine, and linolenic acid contents in the grains by up to 617, 31, 58, 141, 378, and 2.47 % respectively, compared with the rest of the treatments. The findings illustrate the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoceria in barley. Graphical Abstract ?. PMID:25735245

  20. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

  1. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare )-induced growth inhibition of algae: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daire Ó hUallacháin; Owen Fenton

    2010-01-01

    Many field and laboratory studies have attempted to explain the inhibitory effect of rotting barley on algae. Early field\\u000a studies lacked controls and replication and results depended on visual observations. Such studies offer information on barley\\u000a bale field construction and application rates. In the laboratory, discrepancies in the barley variety used, algal species\\u000a tested, barley liquor preparation and phenol extraction

  2. Stephen R. Barley School of Engineering 787 Mayfield Avenue

    E-print Network

    Prinz, Friedrich B.

    VITA Stephen R. Barley School of Engineering 787 Mayfield Avenue Management Science and Engineering and Innovation, University College London #12;Barley 2 2007-08 Visiting Professor Said Business School, Oxford Leonardi, P. M., D. E. Bailey and S. R. Barley. (Forthcoming) "The Lure of the Virtual." Organization

  3. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  4. Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Planting Rate

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Planting Rate Grant D. Jackson Western Triangle Ag Research Center, Conrad, MT Introduction Production of malting barley is expected to increase in non-traditional barley producing areas of north central Montana due to the expected increase

  5. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  6. Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Sulfur Fertilizer Rate

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Sulfur Fertilizer Rate Grant D. Jackson Western Triangle Ag Research Center, Conrad, MT Introduction Production of malting barley is expected to increase in non-traditional barley production areas of north central Montana due to the expected increase

  7. 7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Barley for the 2000 and succeeding crop years...

  8. N release from livestock waste compost pellets in barley fields

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Yan; Katsumi Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Yakushido

    2001-01-01

    N release patterns from dairy cattle, swine, and poultry waste compost pellets were studied using the buried glass filter paper method in barley fields. Field experiments with barley were also carried out to study the relationship between N release from pellets and N absorption by barley. Results showed that about 28, 36, 44% and of N were released from 3

  9. Rice-barley synteny and its application to saturation mapping of the barley Rpg1 region.

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, A; Kudrna, D A; Kleinhofs, A; Yano, M; Kurata, N; Steffenson, B; Sasaki, T

    1995-01-01

    In order to facilitate the map-based cloning of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1, we have demonstrated a high degree of synteny at a micro level between the telomeric region of barley chromosome 1P and rice chromosome 6. We have also developed and applied a simple and efficient method for selecting useful probes from large insert genomic YAC and cosmid clones. The gene order within the most terminal 6.5 cM of barley chromosome 1P was compared with the most terminal 2.7 cM of rice chromosome 6. Nine rice probes, previously mapped in rice or isolated from YAC or cosmid clones from this region, were mapped in barley. All, except one, were in synteny with the rice gene order. The exception, probe Y617R, was duplicated in barley. One copy was located on a different chromosome and the other in a non-syntenic position on barley chromosome 1P. The barley probes from this region could not be mapped to rice, but two of them were inferred to be in a syntenic location based on their position on a rice YAC. This work demonstrates the utility of applying the results of genetic and physical mapping of the small genome cereal rice to map-based cloning of interesting genes from large genome relatives. PMID:7651834

  10. Effects of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent of nutrient digestion in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

    1999-02-01

    Four lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of grain source and fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion in the rumen and in the intestine, and milk production. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used; two grains (barley and hull-less barley) were combined with and without enzyme. The enzyme supplement (Pro-Mote; Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE) contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities and was applied daily to the total mixed diet. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet, but starch intake was greatest when hull-less barley was fed. Starch from hull-less barley was more digestible in the rumen and in the total tract than was starch from barley, but opposite results occurred for fiber digestion, indicating that hull-less barley depressed fiber digestion. As a result, cows fed the hull-less barley diets tended to produce more milk with a higher milk lactose content than did cows fed the barley diets. Enzyme supplementation had minimal effects on ruminal digestion but increased nutrient digestibility in the total tract and the proportion of microbial N in nonammonia N. Consequently, cows fed diets supplemented with enzyme had a higher milk protein content and tended to produce more 4% fat-corrected milk than did control cows. These results indicate that the use of hull-less barley rather than barley increased the digestible energy intake of dairy cows, resulting in higher milk production. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme mixture enhanced feed digestibility and milk production. PMID:10068959

  11. Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

    2012-02-15

    The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

  12. Barley germplasm conservation and resources. Chapter 7 in barley: improvement, production, and uses. Blackwell Publishing, ED.S.E. Ullrich

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The history and current status of barley germplasm preservation activities is presented on a global scale and specifically for the United States. Total of barley germplasm holdings at 47 major barley collections (those with more than 500 accessions) worldwide is approximately 402,000 accessions. I...

  13. The effects of barley bran flour and barley oil on hypercholesterolemic men and women 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, Michael Clayton

    1992-01-01

    in both total and LDL-cholesterol. This effect was attributed solely to the soluble 5-glucan fraction because these results were reversed when beta-glucanase was introduced into the diet. Additionally, the cultivar with the rela- tively lower soluble... is the carbohydrate component better known as starch. The starch in barley is 74-78% amylopectin and 22-26% amylose (28-29). There are other barley cultivars that contain 0- 50% amylose in the starch portion. Barley also contains significant amounts of B-glucans...

  14. Availability of phosphorus and trace elements in low-phytate varieties of barley and corn for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shozo H Sugiura; Victor Raboy; Kevin A Young; Faye M Dong; Ronald W Hardy

    1999-01-01

    Approximately two-thirds of phosphorus in various grains is present as phytate, which is not well-utilized by fish and other monogastric species. Besides its low availability of phosphorus, phytate is reported to reduce the availability of other dietary nutrients to animals. Single-gene, non-lethal low phytic acid (lpa) mutations in corn and barley cause the seed to store most of the phosphorus

  15. High (1?3,1?4)-?-Glucan Barley Fractions in Bread Making and their Effects on Human Glycemic Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Cavallero; S. Empilli; F. Brighenti; A. M. Stanca

    2002-01-01

    Barley flour (BF) from whole naked grain and two (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan-enriched fractions, a sieved fraction (SF) and a water-extracted fraction (WF), were produced and mixed with bread wheat flour (BW), for bread-making quality evaluation. Bread was baked in a pilot plant and analysed for sensory properties, proximate composition and (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan content. Four kinds of bread were produced from different mixtures of

  16. Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

    2012-05-01

    The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

  17. Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

    Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

  18. Genetics of barley hooded suppression.

    PubMed Central

    Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Müller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression. PMID:15166167

  19. Barley stripe mosaic virus in the Western Australian barley germplasm collection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Shivas; P. M. Williamson; R. A. C. Jones

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus was detected using enzymelinked immunosorbent assay in the Western Australian barley germplasm\\u000a collection in accessions originally introduced from Mexico, New Zealand and USA. The virus was also intercepted in one accession\\u000a introduced from Japan into post-entry quarantine in the Australian Capital Territory. The extent to which the virus occurs\\u000a in Australian cereal germplasm collections and in

  20. lengths of their projections onto the plane increase [24]. We refer to these projected curves as fibers. Rather than model crimp explicitly, we proceed as in [1, 3] and instead model its

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a fiber or the characteristic length for spatial variations of the fiber stretches. In Sect. 2 we develop#12;lengths of their projections onto the plane increase [2­4]. We refer to these projected curves as fibers. Rather than model crimp explicitly, we proceed as in [1, 3] and instead model its effect; namely

  1. Grain processing effects on starch utilization by ruminants.

    PubMed

    Theurer, C B

    1986-11-01

    Starch utilization may be markedly enhanced by proper grain processing; however, extent of improvement is primarily dependent upon the ruminant species, grain source and method of processing. Grain processing has less impact on starch digestion by sheep than cattle. The magnitude of improvement is inverse to the starch digestion values for nonprocessed (or minimally processed) grains. Utilization of sorghum grain starch is improved most by extensive processing, and then corn, with little improvement in barley starch digestion. Studies comparing processing effects on barley or wheat starch utilization by cattle were not found. Steam-flaking consistently improves digestibility of starch by cattle fed corn- or sorghum grain-based diets over whole, ground or dry-rolled processes. Other extensive processing methods appear to enhance starch digestibility of corn and sorghum grain to a similar extent as steam-flaking, but comparative data are too limited to quantitate adequately effects of these methods. This improvement in starch utilization appears to be the primary reason for enhanced feed conversion of cattle fed diets high in these processed grains. The major site of cereal grain starch digestion is usually the rumen. Processing increases microbial degradation of starch in the rumen and decreases amounts of starch digested post-ruminally. Rates of in vitro amylolytic attack of starch in cereal grains by both ruminal microbial and pancreatic enzyme sources are improved by processing methods employing proper combinations of moisture, heat and pressure. In vitro and in situ studies suggest that much of the increase in ruminal starch fermentation with steam-flaking is due to changes in starch granular structure, which produces additive effects beyond those of decreasing particle size. Thus, efficiency of ruminal starch fermentation by cattle appears to be improved by proper processing of corn and sorghum grain. Processing and grain source studies both suggest that maximal total tract starch digestibility is positively related to the extent of digestion in the rumen. PMID:3539906

  2. Registration of ‘Muir’ spring feed barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Muir’ (Reg. No. CV-357, PI 674172) is a two-row, spring, hulled feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed and evaluated as 07WA-601.6, and released in 2013 by Washington State University (WSU). Muir was derived from the cross ‘Baronesse’/‘Bob’ and selected through singleseed descent from ...

  3. 2008 FHB Analysis of Transgenic Barley Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic lines have been developed with the goal of reducing FHB and DON in barley. Replicated field trials for FHB reaction of 48 Conlon transgenic lines were conducted in 2008 in Langdon, ND and Rosemount, MN. The Langdon trials consisted of three replicates in hill plots in an inoculated misted...

  4. HUMAN HEALTH BENEFITS FROM CONSUMPTION OF BARLEY.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley contains high amounts of soluble fiber but is not consumed as extensively as oats. Oat soluble fiber has been shown to lower blood lipids and glycemic parameters. Three studies found that hypercholesterolemic subjects had significantly lower total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations after cons...

  5. Registration of ‘Merem’ spring malting barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Merem’ is a two-rowed spring malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the USDA-ARS, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Merem has been tested in USDA-ARS, and all other cooperative trials as “02Ab17271”. ‘02Ab17271’ is a selection fro...

  6. Pasang Temba 1, Barley and Nawa

    E-print Network

    Loomis, Molly

    Pasang Temba explains the traditional system under which barley was planted in the Khumbu.These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking...

  7. Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

  8. EFFECTS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON BARLEY LEAF PIGMENTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...

  9. Studies on nitrite reductase in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. F. Bourne; B. J. Miflin

    1973-01-01

    Nitrite reductase from barley seedlings was purified 50–60 fold by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. No differences were established in the characteristics of nitrite reductases isolated in this way from either leaf or root tissues. The root enzyme accepted electrons from reduced methyl viologen, ferredoxin, or an unidentified endogenous cofactor. Enzyme activity in both tissues was markedly increased by

  10. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare). PMID:25577053

  11. Transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase gene has enhanced resistance against Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyun; Mackintosh, Caroline A.; Lewis, Janet; Heinen, Shane J.; Radmer, Lorien; Dill-Macky, Ruth; Baldridge, Gerald D.; Zeyen, Richard J.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB; scab), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of wheat worldwide. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grains with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The genetic variation in existing wheat germplasm pools for FHB resistance is low and may not provide sufficient resistance to develop cultivars through traditional breeding approaches. Thus, genetic engineering provides an additional approach to enhance FHB resistance. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase and to test the transgenic lines against F. graminearum infection under greenhouse and field conditions. A barley class II chitinase gene was introduced into the spring wheat cultivar, Bobwhite, by biolistic bombardment. Seven transgenic lines were identified that expressed the chitinase transgene and exhibited enhanced Type II resistance in the greenhouse evaluations. These seven transgenic lines were tested under field conditions for percentage FHB severity, percentage visually scabby kernels (VSK), and DON accumulation. Two lines (C8 and C17) that exhibited high chitinase protein levels also showed reduced FHB severity and VSK compared to Bobwhite. One of the lines (C8) also exhibited reduced DON concentration compared with Bobwhite. These results showed that transgenic wheat expressing a barley class II chitinase exhibited enhanced resistance against F. graminearum in greenhouse and field conditions. PMID:18467324

  12. Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in ?-oxidation.

    PubMed

    Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    In oilseed plants, peroxisomal ?-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of ?-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 ?M IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2? mutant for fatty acid ?-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

  13. Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas

    E-print Network

    Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

    2001-01-01

    , solubilizes part of the proteins that surround the starch granules, and softens the pericarp. Starch chains are changed due to high pH, helping to slow retrogradation and retain freshness of the tortillas (Rooney et al 1999). After cooking, the grain... together (development of cohesiveness). Starch granules are freed from the protein mantx, amylose-lipid complexes are formed, and amylose retrogrades into a firmer gel (Rooney et al 1999, Sema-Saldivar 1996). Masa is then sheeted, cut (Sema-Saldivar 1996...

  14. The Hydrogen Sulfide Donor NaHS Delays Programmed Cell Death in Barley Aleurone Layers by Acting as an Antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying-Xin; Hu, Kang-Di; Lv, Kai; Li, Yan-Hong; Hu, Lan-Ying; Zhang, Xi-Qi; Ruan, Long; Liu, Yong-Sheng; Zhang, Hua

    2015-01-01

    H2S is a signaling molecule in plants and animals. Here we investigated the effects of H2S on programmed cell death (PCD) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers. The H2S donor NaHS significantly delayed PCD in aleurone layers isolated from imbibed embryoless barley grain. NaHS at 0.25?mM effectively reduced the accumulation of superoxide anion (·O2?), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and malondialdehyde (MDA), promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), guaiacol peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and decreased those of lipoxygenase (LOX) in isolated aleurone layers. Quantitative-PCR showed that NaHS treatment of aleurone tissue led to enhanced transcript levels of the antioxidant genes HvSOD1, HvAPX, HvCAT1, and HvCAT2 and repressed transcript levels of HvLOX (lipoxygenase gene) and of two cysteine protease genes HvEPA and HvCP3-31. NaHS treatment in gibberellic acid- (GA-) treated aleurone layers also delayed the PCD process, reduced the content of ·O2?, and increased POD activity while decreasing LOX activity. Furthermore, ?-amylase secretion in barley aleurone layers was enhanced by NaHS treatment regardless of the presence or absence of GA. These data imply that H2S acted as an antioxidant in delaying PCD and enhances ?-amylase secretion regardless of the presence of GA in barley aleurone layers.

  15. Overexpression of Cytokinin Dehydrogenase Genes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Golden Promise) Fundamentally Affects Morphology and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Mrízová, Katarína; Jiskrová, Eva; Vyroubalová, Šárka; Novák, Ond?ej; Ohnoutková, Ludmila; Pospíšilová, Hana; Frébort, Ivo; Harwood, Wendy A.; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Barley is one of the most important cereal crops grown worldwide. It has numerous applications, but its utility could potentially be extended by genetically manipulating its hormonal balances. To explore some of this potential we identified gene families of cytokinin dehydrogenases (CKX) and isopentenyl transferases, enzymes that respectively irreversibly degrade and synthesize cytokinin (CK) plant hormones, in the raw sequenced barley genome. We then examined their spatial and temporal expression patterns by immunostaining and qPCR. Two CKX-specific antibodies, anti-HvCKX1 and anti-HvCKX9, predominantly detect proteins in the aleurone layer of maturing grains and leaf vasculature, respectively. In addition, two selected CKX genes were used for stable, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the barley cultivar Golden Promise. The results show that constitutive overexpression of CKX causes morphological changes in barley plants and prevents their transition to flowering. In all independent transgenic lines roots proliferated more rapidly and root-to-shoot ratios were higher than in wild-type plants. Only one transgenic line, overexpressing CKX under the control of a promoter from a phosphate transporter gene, which is expressed more strongly in root tissue than in aerial parts, yielded progeny. Analysis of several T1-generation plants indicates that plants tend to compensate for effects of the transgene and restore CK homeostasis later during development. Depleted CK levels during early phases of development are restored by down-regulation of endogenous CKX genes and reinforced de novo biosynthesis of CKs. PMID:24260147

  16. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  17. 7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407.10 Section 407.10 Agriculture Regulations...REGULATIONS § 407.10 Area risk protection insurance for barley. The barley crop insurance provisions for Area Risk...

  18. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  19. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  20. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  1. 7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

  2. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of ?-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the ?-glucan problem. First, ?-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the ?-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, ?-glucosidase was used to complete the ?-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While ?-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding ?-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis) or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) co-product had extremely low ?-glucan (below 0.2%) making it suitable for use in both ruminant and mono-gastric animal feeds. PMID:20426816

  3. Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw U San Vicente A de Vega C Castrillo JA Guada Departamento de Producción Animal y Ciencia de experiment alfalfa hay (A, 57.4 % DOM), barley straw (S, 40.2 % DOM) and ammonia-treated barley straw (TS, 51

  4. PlantGeneticsandBreeding The European barley powdery mildew virulence survey

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    PlantGeneticsandBreeding The European barley powdery mildew virulence survey and disease nurseryVII.Themaximumpercentageofleafareainfectedbypowderymildewoftestedbarleygenotypesatallsitesin1998and1999. 19981999 BarleyKnown

  5. Acute symptoms following exposure to grain dust in farming.

    PubMed Central

    Manfreda, J; Holford-Strevens, V; Cheang, M; Warren, C P

    1986-01-01

    History of acute symptoms (cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, fever, stuffy nose, and skin itching/rash) following exposure to grain dust was obtained from 661 male and 535 female current and former farmers. These symptoms were relatively common: 60% of male and 25% of female farmers reported at least one such symptom on exposure to grain dust. Association of cough, wheezing, shortness of breath, and stuffy nose with skin reactivity and capacity to form IgE is consistent with an allergic nature of these symptoms. Barley and oats dust were perceived as dust most often producing symptoms. On the other hand, grain fever showed a different pattern, i.e., it was not associated with either skin reactivity or total IgE. Smoking might modify the susceptibility to react to grain dust with symptoms. Only those who reported wheezing on exposure to grain dust may have an increased risk to develop chronic airflow obstruction. PMID:3709486

  6. Characteristics of cloned repeated DNA sequences in the barley genome

    SciTech Connect

    Anan'ev, E.V.; Bochkanov, S.S.; Ryzhik, M.V.; Sonina, N.V.; Chernyshev, A.I.; Shchipkova, N.I.; Yakovleva, E.Yu.

    1986-12-01

    A partial clone library of barley DNA fragments based on plasmid pBR325 was created. The cloned EcoRI-fragments of chromosomal DNA are from 2 to 14 kbp in length. More than 95% of the barley DNA inserts comprise repeated sequences of different complexity and copy number. Certain of these DNA sequences are from families comprising at least 1% of the barley genome. A significant proportion of the clones hybridize with numerous sets of restriction fragments of genome DNA and they are dispersed throughout the barley chromosomes.

  7. Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects on blood pressure of predominantly insoluble fiber (whole wheat and brown rice) and soluble fiber (barley) in a whole-grain diet. Subjects (seven men, nine premenopausal women, and nine postmenopausal women) consumed a controlled Step I diet for...

  8. Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

  9. Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effects of cereal grain phosphorus (P) source on faecal P composition, twenty crossbred barrows, weighing 35.8 plus or minus 3.09 kg, were fed one of five diets with four pigs assigned to each of the diets. The diets contained corn, wheat, high fat-low lignin oat, normal barley or l...

  10. The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

    1980-01-01

    Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

  11. The Potential of Hull-less Barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Bhatty

    1999-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 76(5):589-599 Hull-less barley (HB) has been investigated in many countries for use in feed, food, and industry since the publication of the last review in 1986. Literature published since 1990 on various aspects of HB u tiliza- tion, other than in monogastric feeds, has been reviewed. Several HB cultivars containing low or high ?-glucan, low or high extract

  12. Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunwell, Jim M.

    Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

  13. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

  14. Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdolrahman Rasoulnia; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Seyed Ali Peyghambari; Houshang Alizadeh; Afrasyab Rahnama

    Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers\\u000a a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate\\u000a protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as

  15. Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Sřren K.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

  16. Application of nontargeted metabolite profiling to discover novel markers of quality traits in an advanced population of malting barley.

    PubMed

    Heuberger, Adam L; Broeckling, Corey D; Kirkpatrick, Kaylyn R; Prenni, Jessica E

    2014-02-01

    The process of breeding superior varieties for the agricultural industry is lengthy and expensive. Plant metabolites may act as markers of quality traits, potentially expediting the appraisal of experimental lines during breeding. Here, we evaluated the utility of metabolites as markers by assessing metabolic variation influenced by genetic and environmental factors in an advanced breeding setting and in relation to the phenotypic distribution of 20 quality traits. Nontargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolite profiling was performed on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain and malt from 72 advanced malting barley lines grown at two distinct but climatically similar locations, with 2-row and 6-row barley as the main genetic factors. 27 420 molecular features were detected, and the metabolite and quality trait profiles were similarly influenced by genotype and environment; however, malt was more influenced by genotype compared with barley. An O2PLS model characterized molecular features and quality traits that covaried, and 1319 features associated with at least one of 20 quality traits. An indiscriminant MS/MS acquisition and novel data analysis method facilitated the identification of metabolites. The analysis described 216 primary and secondary metabolites that correlated with multiple quality traits and included amines, amino acids, alkaloids, polyphenolics and lipids. The mechanisms governing quality trait-metabolite associations were interpreted based on colocalization to genetic markers and their gene annotations. The results of this study support the hypothesis that metabolism and quality traits are co-influenced by relatively narrow genetic and environmental factors and illustrate the utility of grain metabolites as functional markers of quality traits. PMID:24119106

  17. Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-01-01

    Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical–structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular–structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical–structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P < 0.05) among the barley samples in terms of the peak ratio and peak area and height intensities of amides I (ca. 1650 cm?1) and II (ca. 1550 cm?1), cellulosic compounds (ca. 1240 cm?1), CHO component peaks (the first peak at the region ca. 1184–1132 cm?1, the second peak at ca. 1132–1066 cm?1, and the third peak at ca. 1066–950 cm?1). With the SFTIRM technique, the structural characteristics of the cereal seeds were illuminated among different cultivars at an ultraspatial resolution. The structural differences of barley seeds may be one reason for the various digestive behaviors and nutritive values in ruminants. The results show weak correlations between the functional groups’ spectral data (peak area, height intensities, and ratios) and rumen biodegradation kinetics (rate and extent of nutrient degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue. PMID:20524612

  18. An efficient method for flanking sequence isolation in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adapter ligation method was developed to determine native barley (Hordeum vulgare) sequences flanking Ds insertions and barley ESTs. This method is simple and efficient, with the majority of queries returning valid sequence information. This report describes the protocol in detail, quantifies its...

  19. Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

  20. A Simple Sequence Repeat-Based Linkage Map of Barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ramsay; M. Macaulay; K. MacLean; L. Cardle; J. Fuller; K. J. Edwards; S. Tuvesson; M. Morgante; A. Massari; E. Maestri; N. Marmiroli; T. Sjakste; M. Ganal; W. Powell; R. Waugh

    A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type,

  1. Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

  2. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE TO GIBBERELLIN AND ABSCISIC ACID IN BARLEY ALEURONE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    De-embryonated cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to study GA and ABA responses, and their interaction. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined mRNA accumulation of over 22,000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than...

  3. Genetic diversity in barley landraces from Syria and Jordan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; J. A. G. Leur

    1987-01-01

    Single-head progenies derived from barley landraces collected along the Fertile Crescent in Syria and Jordan were evaluated for agronomic, morphological, and quality traits in a typical barley growing area in Northern Syria. A large diversity was observed both between and within collection sites, and in most cases the variation was useful for breeding purposes. Single plant progenies were identified with

  4. BARLEY PROTEIN ISOLATE: THERMAL, FUNCTIONAL, RHEOLOGICAL AND SURFACE PROPERTIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley protein isolate (BPI) was prepared using hexane-defatted commercial barley flour. BPI was extracted in 0.05 N NaOH in a 10:1 ratio solvent:flour. The BPI was precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and freeze-dried. The thermal properties of the BPI were determined by Modulated Differentia...

  5. BARLEY DISEASES, GENETICS, AND GENOTYPING: FOR A FEW DOLLARS MORE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A brief overview of the barley-related research programs within the Cereal Crops Research Unit will be presented, followed by a brief overview of plans and progress in establishing an ARS Genotyping Laboratory. Topics covered will include research on virus diseases of barley, particularly research ...

  6. ELISA ANALYSIS FOR FUSARIUM IN BARLEY: APPLICATION IN FIELD NURSERIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously we described a system of quantifying Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in barley by ELISA. ELISA had lower variability (lower CV's) than visual scoring or deoxynivalenol (DON) analyses. Thus we tested ELISA, DON, and visual assessment of FHB in 1) selections from a barley doubled-haploid mappi...

  7. TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

  8. Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    that are susceptible to lodging and disease with resulting decreased yields and increased input costs. The potential are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter barley than for winter wheat. Excessive fall barley growth can occur and result in freeze injury to stems

  9. Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2014-01-01

    Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. PMID:24967651

  10. Transposable element junctions in marker development and genomic characterization of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley is a model plant in genomic studies of Triticeae species. A complete barley genome sequence will facilitate not only barley breeding programs, but also those for related species. However, the large genome size and high repetitive sequence content complicate the barley genome assembly. The ma...

  11. WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack

    E-print Network

    Goodman, Robert M.

    WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack of Revenue coverage for wheat and barley. Both have had Yield coverage available, but producers wanted to protect their revenue Coverage for wheat and barley! The prices for barley will be based on a percentage of the Chicago Board

  12. RESULTS OF THE 2004-05 UNIFORM WINTER BARLEY YIELD NURSERY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the Uniform Winter Barley Yield Trial (UWBYT) is to evaluate winter-habit (fall-sown) barley advanced lines for adaptation to those areas in the United States where winter barley is grown commercially. The entries in the 2004-05 UWBYT were submitted by public barley breeding programs...

  13. The International Barley Sequencing Consortium — At the Threshold of Efficient Access to the Barley Genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the genome of barley, an agriculturally and industrially important cereal crop and a useful diploid model for bread wheat, has become a realistic undertaking. Important steps have been initiated to improve genomics tools, build and anchor a physical map, develop a high-density genetic ma...

  14. THE COMPOSITION OF FUNCTIONAL LIPIDS IN HULLED AND HULLESS BARLEY, IN FRACTIONS OBTAINED BY SCARIFICATION AND IN BARLEY OIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two cultivars of hulled barley (Thoroughbred and Nomini) and two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of hull and/or pericarp. The resulting fine fractions were evaluated as potential sources of functional lipids (phytosterols, tocopherols and toc...

  15. Cereal planting dates as a tool in the management of Galeopsis tetrahit and associated weed species in spring barley and oat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Légčre

    1997-01-01

    The effects of delayed planting and herbicide treatments on populations of Galeopsis tetrahit and associated weed species, and on mid-season above-ground dry weight and grain yield of spring barley and oat were measured in field experiments conducted from 1989 to 1991, in La Pocatičre, Québec, Canada. Two crop planting dates were compared in 1989 and three dates in 1990–1991. The

  16. GrainGenes 2.0. An Improved Resource for the Small-Grains Community1

    PubMed Central

    Carollo, Victoria; Matthews, David E.; Lazo, Gerard R.; Blake, Thomas K.; Hummel, David D.; Lui, Nancy; Hane, David L.; Anderson, Olin D.

    2005-01-01

    GrainGenes (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov) is an international database for genetic and genomic information about Triticeae species (wheat [Triticum aestivum], barley [Hordeum vulgare], rye [Secale cereale], and their wild relatives) and oat (Avena sativa) and its wild relatives. A major strength of the GrainGenes project is the interaction of the curators with database users in the research community, placing GrainGenes as both a data repository and information hub. The primary intensively curated data classes are genetic and physical maps, probes used for mapping, classical genes, quantitative trait loci, and contact information for Triticeae and oat scientists. Curation of these classes involves important contributions from the GrainGenes community, both as primary data sources and reviewers of published data. Other partially automated data classes include literature references, sequences, and links to other databases. Beyond the GrainGenes database per se, the Web site incorporates other more specific databases, informational topics, and downloadable files. For example, unique BLAST datasets of sequences applicable to Triticeae research include mapped wheat expressed sequence tags, expressed sequence tag-derived simple sequence repeats, and repetitive sequences. In 2004, the GrainGenes project migrated from the AceDB database and separate Web site to an integrated relational database and Internet resource, a major step forward in database delivery. The process of this migration and its impacts on database curation and maintenance are described, and a perspective on how a genomic database can expedite research and crop improvement is provided. PMID:16219925

  17. Bread quality by substituting normal and waxy hull-less barley ( Hordeum Vulgare L.) flours

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Induck Choi; Mi-Ja Lee; Jae-Sung Choi; Jong-Nae Hyun; Ki-Hoon Park; Kee-Jong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Substitution of regular and waxy hull-less barley flour was evaluated in pan breads prepared from the blends of barley cvs.\\u000a Saessal (SSWB) and Saechalssal (SCWB) with wheat flour. Effect of barley type and barley flour level (10, 20, and 30%) was\\u000a investigated on compositions, dough development, and bread qualities. Compared to 100% wheat flour, increasing barley flour\\u000a increased ash from

  18. Differential regulation of 3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase and gramine in barley by both biotic and abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Kristina A E; Saheed, Sefiu A; Gradin, Therese; Delp, Gabriele; Karpinska, Barbara; Botha, Christiaan E J; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

    2011-01-01

    The expression of NMT (3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.), involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid gramine, was investigated in aphid-infested barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). NMT is induced by methyl jasmonate and it was hypothesized that the gene would be more strongly upregulated in aphid-resistant barley. We examined the effects of feeding by three aphid species; Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko), rose-grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walker) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley genotypes with varying resistance characteristics. The barley genotypes selected included the cultivar Libra, known to upregulate gramine after feeding by Schizaphis graminum. Infestation by R. padi and M. dirhodum resulted in higher NMT expression in the doubled haploid line 5172-28:4 (DH28:4), which has moderate resistance against R. padi, but not in other aphid-barley combinations. None of the aphid-plant combinations had however increased gramine, suggesting that aphid-induction of gramine is specific to S. graminum. The increased abundance of NMT transcript in aphid-infested DH28:4 did not lead to higher amounts of NMT protein or NMT enzyme activity, neither did 200 times upregulation of NMT transcript in cotyledons incubated with methyl jasmonate, illustrating that even large differences measured at transcript level may have no metabolic consequences. Drought stress or treatments with abscisic acid did lead to higher gramine concentrations in several barley cultivars, but without any concomitant increase of NMT transcripts. Thus, the regulation of the biosynthetic pathway to gramine at transcript and metabolite level diverges during two different stress conditions. PMID:21074448

  19. Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects

    SciTech Connect

    Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2011-05-04

    NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP registered is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

  20. Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.

    2011-05-01

    NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP® is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

  1. Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

  2. DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

  3. LUTEOVIRUS AND POLEROVIRUS FOUND IN SMALL GRAINS FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE MATANUSKA-SUSITNA REGION OF ALASKA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys for viruses belonging to the family Luteovirideae in small grains were conducted in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. In 2002, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativum) plants had an unusually high incidence of leaves with bright yellow or red leaves, respectively. These plants were targe...

  4. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

    1991-01-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

  5. Interstellar grains within interstellar grains

    SciTech Connect

    Bernatowicz, T.J.; Amari, S.; Zinner, E.K.; Lewis, R.S. (Washington University, Saint Louis, MO (USA) Chicago, University, IL (USA))

    1991-06-01

    Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense. 15 refs.

  6. Occurrence of type A, B and D trichothecenes in barley and barley products from the Bavarian market.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Jörg; Gottschalk, Christoph; Rapp, Martin; Berger, Matthias; Bauer, Johann; Meyer, Karsten

    2012-05-01

    Fifty-nine samples of barley and barley products were analysed for 18 trichothecene mycotoxins by a sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method (detection limits 0.062-0.70 ?g/kg) after sample extract clean-up on MycoSep®-226 columns. The samples were collected in 2009 from barley processing facilities (mills and malt houses) and at wholesale and retail stage from the Bavarian market. The predominant toxins were T-2 toxin (T-2), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and deoxynivalenol (DON). For all samples, the mean levels of T-2 and HT-2 were 3.0 ?g/kg and 6.8 ?g/kg with rates of contamination of 63% and 71%, respectively. The maximum values were 40 ?g/kg for T-2 and 47 ?g/kg for HT-2. The rate of contamination with DON was high (95%) with a low mean level of 23 ?g/kg. The DON levels ranged between 3.4 to 420 ?g/kg. For T-2 tetraol, a mean level of 9.2 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 51 ?g/kg with a rate of contamination of 71% were determined. NIV was detected in 69% of the samples with a mean level of 11 ?g/kg and a maximum level of 72 ?g/kg. Other type A and B trichothecenes were detected only in traces. Type D trichothecenes, fusarenon-X, verrucarol and 4,15-diacetylverrucarol were not detected in any sample. Winter barley and malting barley were the most contaminated groups of all samples in this study. In malting barley, the highest levels of contamination with type A trichothecenes were found. In contrast, winter barley showed the highest contamination with type B trichothecenes. The lowest mycotoxin concentrations were found in de-hulled and naked barley and in pearl barley. PMID:23606047

  7. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.

    PubMed

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

    2014-01-01

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

  8. The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases

    SciTech Connect

    Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

    1999-03-23

    Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

  9. A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

    2014-01-01

    The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

  10. Thermoregulatory response of dairy cows fed ergotized barley during summer heat stress.

    PubMed

    Al-Tamimi, Hosam J; Rottinghaus, George E; Spiers, Donald E; Spain, Jim; Chatman, Darryl; Eichen, Peggy A; Carson, Thomas L

    2003-07-01

    Claviceps purpurea infects the seed heads of cereal grains and grasses and produces ergopeptine alkaloids that cause hyperthermia and agalactia in cattle during periods of heat stress. A field experiment was undertaken to examine the effects of ergopeptine alkaloids found in barley on thermal status of dairy cattle during periods of heat stress. Production end points were also measured to identify the effect of the change in thermal status. Contaminated barley screenings containing known levels of ergopeptine alkaloids were fed to lactating Holstein cattle (10 microg total ergopeptine alkaloids/kg BW/day) for 10 days during summer heat stress. Air temperature increased 14.4 C during the first 8 days of treatment and then declined the same during the last 2 days. Extreme daily values for rectal temperature and respiration rate, using averages of all animals, showed maximum increases of 2.3 C and 56.8 breaths/minute, respectively, during this period. Group afternoon milk production decreased 2 kg/day during the heat stress period, with no measurable change in feed intake. A greater level of hyperthermia occurred in cattle consuming the diet with ergopeptine alkaloids, with only marginal symptoms of ergot toxicosis reflected in feed intake and milk production. Therefore, the ergopeptine alkaloid dose used in this study represents a level for minimal induction of the ergot toxicity response. PMID:12918817

  11. Grain dust fueled grain dryer. Quarterly report. [For grain elevators

    SciTech Connect

    Litt, R.D.; Gregorich, N.

    1985-07-12

    A grain dust combustor has been designed to use the available grain dust as fuel in an elevator handling 3 million bushels of grain per year and a 1000 bushel per hour grain dryer. Conventional fuel is still used to provide most of the energy required for drying. This grain dust combustor is a compact add-on system. Elevators handling more than 10 million bushels of grain per year are clearly in a favorable investment situation. Elevators handling between 5 to 10 million bushels of grain per year have a marginally favorable investment situation. The capital cost of adding a grain dust combustor to an existing system is estimated to be $50,000. This allows the grain elevator to reduce energy costs by $7500 per year. However, the total annual operating costs increase, making this an unattractive investment for the average elevator.

  12. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Ruijun; Xiong, Huiyan; Wang, Aidong; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley. PMID:26110389

  13. Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Hull-Caryopsis Adhesion/Separation Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis of Covered/Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Ruijun; Xiong, Huiyan; Wang, Aidong; Chen, Guoxiong

    2015-01-01

    The covered/naked caryopsis trait of barley is an important agronomic trait because it is directly linked to dietary use. The formation of covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by an NUD transcription factor, which is involved in pericarp cuticle development. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this trait remains so far largely unknown. In this study, comparative transcriptomes of grains three weeks after anthesis of Tibetan Hulless barley landrace Dulihuang and covered barley Morex were analyzed using RNA-seq technique. A total of 4031 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. The Nud gene was overexpressed in Morex, with trace expression in Dulihuang. Among seventeen cuticle related DEGs, sixteen were down regulated and one up regulated in Morex. These results suggest that the Nud gene in covered caryopsis might down regulate cuticle related genes, which may cause a permeable cuticle over pericarp, leading to a hull-caryopsis organ fusion. A functional cuticle covering the pericarp of naked caryopsis might be the result of deletion or low expression level of the Nud gene. The functional cuticle defines a perfect boundary to separate the caryopsis from the hull in naked barley. PMID:26110389

  14. Marker-based selection for the ym4 BaMMV-resistance gene in barley using RAPDs

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    between resistant (ym4) and susceptible commercial barley cultivars. Hordeum vulgare = barley / barley résistantes (ym4) et sensibles. Hordeum vulgare = orge / virus de la mosaďque modérée de l'orge (Ba

  15. Wholegrain barley ?-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

    2015-02-01

    Fermentation of oat and barley ?-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley ?-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% ?-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% ?-glucan) ?-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley ?-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. PMID:25622537

  16. Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

  17. "Upper Peninsula malting barley variety trial" Jim Islieb, Christian Kapp

    E-print Network

    : Growth in the microbrewery sector and specialty beers is driving interest in smaller scale, local malting by artisan brewers. Barley acreage is experiencing a decline nationally and larger scale malting companies

  18. Original article Screening barley germplasm for resistance to a new

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    .) Hordeum vulgare / barley yellow mosaic virus / resistance gene / germplasm / RFLP marker Résumé.) Hordeum vulgare / virus de la mosaďque jaune de l'orge / gčne de résistance / germoplasme / marqueurs RFLP

  19. Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia; )

    1984-06-11

    This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

  20. Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Mundy; IB Svendsen; Jřrn Hejgaard

    1983-01-01

    A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with barley malt ?-amylase 2 and co-purified with the ?-amylase by cycloheptaamylose\\u000a affinity chromatography of glycogen precipitates. The inhibitor

  1. Rgysa bzang Tibetan Village: The Origin of Barley (A Story)

    E-print Network

    G.yung, 'brug

    2008-01-01

    (include description/relationship if appropriate) Title of track Rgysa bzang Tibetan Village: The Origin of Barley (A Story) Translation of title Description (to be used in archive entry) G.yung ‘brung a naitve of Rgyas rdzong Village... , tells The Origin of Barley, a story. Genre or type (i.e. epic, song, ritual) Story Name of recorder (if different from collector) G.yung ‘brug Date of recording unknown Place of recording Rgysa bzang (Jizong), Kha mdo (Shuizi) Township, Rong...

  2. Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

    1993-01-01

    Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

  3. Biochemical mutant in barley renders chemical stabilization of beer superfluous

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. von Wettstein; Barbro Jende-Strid; B. Ahrenst-Larsen; J. A. Sřrensen

    1977-01-01

    The recessive mutantant-13 isolated from Foma barley after a mutagen treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate is shown to be blocked in the formation\\u000a of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (=anthocyanogens). The mutant has been propagated, malted on a pilot scale\\u000a and the malt used for pilot brews of beer. Foma barley has been malted and brewed for comparison. Malt, wort and beer

  4. PATHOTYPES OF COCHLIOBOLUS SATIVUS (SPOT BLOTCH) ON BARLEY IN SYRIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. E. Arabi; M. Jawhar

    2003-01-01

    SUMMARY In order to study the Syrian pathotype diversity of Cochliobolus sativus, the causal agent of barley spot blotch disease, a survey was conducted using 31 isolates and 13 barley genotypes. Four pathotypes (pt 1-4) were identified based on the lesion form and infection re- sponse of the genotypes with mean disease rating from 1.76 to 7.46. Pt 1 exhibited

  5. Serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase mutant of barley

    SciTech Connect

    Blackwell, R.; Murray, A.; Joy, K.; Lea, P.

    1987-08-01

    A photorespiratory mutant of barley (LaPr 85/84), deficient in both of the major peaks of serine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activity detected in the wild type, also lacks serine:pyruvate and asparagine:glyoxylate aminotransferase activities. Genetic analysis of the mutation demonstrated that these three activities are all carried on the same enzyme. The mutant, when placed in air, accumulated a large pool of serine, showed the expected rate (50%) of ammonia release during photorespiration but produced CO/sub 2/ at twice the wild type rate when it was fed (/sup 14/C) glyoxylate. Compared with the wild type, LaPr 85/84 exhibited abnormal transient changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence when the CO/sub 2/ concentration of the air was altered, indicating that the rates of the fluorescence quenching mechanisms were affected in vivo by the lack of this enzyme.

  6. Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

  7. KTP laser stapedotomy with a self-crimping, thermal shape memory Nitinol piston: follow-up study reporting intermediate-term hearing.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Imre; Bakó, Péter; Piski, Zalán; Révész, Péter; Ráth, Gábor; Karosi, Tamás; Lujber, László

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was an evaluation of the mid-term hearing results after the implantation of a self-crimping heat memory Nitinol piston in stapes surgery. The 12-month postoperative results were compared with those at a minimum of 3 years (maximum 6.7, average 4.4 years). The medical records of all 44 patients who underwent surgery with a Nitinol piston for stapes fixation between November 2005 and January 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The prostheses used in all cases measured either 4.5 or 4.75 × 0.6 mm. We hypothesized that the 12-month postoperative hearing results would be permanent after an average follow-up of 4.4 years. Thirty-two of the 44 consecutive patients were females and 12 were males. Their mean age was 40.4 years (range 27-69). All underwent a 12-month postoperative audiometric evaluation. 38 (30 females, 8 males, average age 45, range 28-77 years) of the 44 were available for mid-term 4.4-year (minimum 3 years, maximum 6.7 years) postoperative audiometric evaluation. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 12-month postoperative follow-up was 11 dB (SD 4.1) and that after an average 4.4-year postoperative evaluation was 6.4 dB (SD 3.6). The mean decrease in ABG after 12 months was 19.5 dB, and that after the average 4.4 years was 21.3 dB. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.2 % after 12 months and in 89.5 % after the average 4.4 years. No patient with an ABG > 20 dB was recorded after the average 4.4 years. The mean air conduction threshold at 4 kHz was examined pre and postoperatively so as to indicate any possible inner ear damage. At the 12-month follow-up, the difference between the pre and postoperative values was -2.5 dB, whereas after the average 4.4 years the difference was surprisingly +13 dB. The individual AC improvements were also demonstrated with the use of Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots (AHEPs). The Nitinol prosthesis allowed excellent intraoperative handling and no postoperative complication was reported. As compared with conventional stapes prostheses, the Nitinol-based SMart prosthesis is a safe and reliable stapes prosthesis. Our mid-term audiometric evaluations revealed that the audiometric parameters demonstrated a hearing improvement between the postoperative 12-month and average 4.4-year examinations. We consider the elimination of manual crimping and the use of a "non-touch" hand-held laser technique has a positive impact on the mid-term audiometric results. Most of the previous studies presented only relatively short-term (from 6 weeks up to 6-12 months) audiometric evaluations. Complications are rare, but a longer follow-up is needed to establish the long-term stability. PMID:24253384

  8. Selenium-containing peroxidases of germinating barley.

    PubMed

    Huang, K; Lauridsen, E; Clausen, J

    1994-01-01

    Germinating barley grown on an artificial medium was exposed to 75Se-selenite for 8 d. Then the leaves were homogenized and proteins were separated by means of Sephadex G-150 filtration, followed by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Each fraction collected was assayed for total protein, radioactivity, and peroxidase activity. In barley leaves, three protein peaks (peaks no. I, II, and III) with peroxidase activity could be separated by Sephadex G 150 filtration. Each fraction was then further separated on DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. Thus, peaks I and II were resolved by DEAE-Sepharose into one major and two minor peaks of radioactivity. However, only the major peak showed peroxidase activity. Peak III was resolved from the gel filtration on the DEAE-sepharose into one major and four minor peaks of radioactivity. The major and three of the minor radioactivity peaks contained peroxidase activity. The protein fractions were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular weights of separated proteins were estimated by means of molecular markers, and 75Se radioactivity was evaluated by autoradiography. Thus, gel filtration peak I contained four bands with mol wts of 128, 116, 100, and 89 kDa. Of these, the 89 kDa protein contained selenium. Peak II contained three protein bands with mol wts 79.4, 59.6, and 59.9. The 59.6 band was a selenoprotein. Peak III contained four protein bands (and some very weak bands). The four major bands had mol wts of 38.6, 31.6, 30.2, and 29.2 kDa. The last mentioned band was a selenoprotein. PMID:7888282

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of temperature responses of Aspergillus kawachii during barley koji production.

    PubMed

    Futagami, Taiki; Mori, Kazuki; Wada, Shotaro; Ida, Hiroko; Kajiwara, Yasuhiro; Takashita, Hideharu; Tashiro, Kosuke; Yamada, Osamu; Omori, Toshiro; Kuhara, Satoru; Goto, Masatoshi

    2015-02-01

    The koji mold Aspergillus kawachii is used for making the Japanese distilled spirit shochu. During shochu production, A. kawachii is grown in solid-state culture (koji) on steamed grains, such as rice or barley, to convert the grain starch to glucose and produce citric acid. During this process, the cultivation temperature of A. kawachii is gradually increased to 40 °C and is then lowered to 30 °C. This temperature modulation is important for stimulating amylase activity and the accumulation of citric acid. However, the effects of temperature on A. kawachii at the gene expression level have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of solid-state cultivation temperature on gene expression for A. kawachii grown on barley. The results of DNA microarray and gene ontology analyses showed that the expression of genes involved in the glycerol, trehalose, and pentose phosphate metabolic pathways, which function downstream of glycolysis, was downregulated by shifting the cultivation temperature from 40 to 30 °C. In addition, significantly reduced expression of genes related to heat shock responses and increased expression of genes related with amino acid transport were also observed. These results suggest that solid-state cultivation at 40 °C is stressful for A. kawachii and that heat adaptation leads to reduced citric acid accumulation through activation of pathways branching from glycolysis. The gene expression profile of A. kawachii elucidated in this study is expected to contribute to the understanding of gene regulation during koji production and optimization of the industrially desirable characteristics of A. kawachii. PMID:25501485

  10. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from cDNA library of Fusarium culmorum infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots.

    PubMed

    Tufan, Feyza; Uçarl?, Cüneyt; Gürel, Filiz

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium culmorum is one of the most common and globally important causal agent of root and crown rot diseases of cereals. These diseases cause grain yield loss and reduced grain quality in barley. In this study, we have analyzed an expressed sequence tag (EST) database derived from F. culmorum infected barley root tissues available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The 2294 sequences were assembled into 1619 non-redundant sequences consisting of 359 contigs and 1260 singletons using the program CAP3. BLASTX analysis for these sequences was conducted in order to find similar sequences in all databases. Gene Ontology search, enzyme search, KEGG mapping and InterProScan search were done using Blast2GO 3.0.7 tool. By BLASTX analysis, 41.7%, 7.7%, 3.2% and 47.4% of ESTs were categorized as annotated, unannotated, not mapping and without blast hits, respectively. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority of top hits were barley proteins (43.5%). Based on Gene Ontology classification, 38.3%, 31.3%, and 16% of ESTs were assigned to molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. Most abundant GO terms were as follows: 157 sequences were related to response to stress (biological process), 207 sequences were related to ion binding (molecular function), and 160 sequences were related to plastid (cellular component). Furthermore, based on KEGG mapping, 369 sequences could be assigned to 264 enzymes and 83 different KEGG pathways. According to Enzyme Commission (EC) distribution; 94 sequences were transferases (EC2) while 70 sequences were hydrolases (EC3). PMID:25780278

  11. Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.

    PubMed

    Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

    2014-04-01

    Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100 kg ha(-1) level. Application of 200 kg K ha(-1) resulted in a five-fold reduction in (137)Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in (137)Cs transfer to crops was correlated with (137)Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of (137)Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect. PMID:24412815

  12. Photoperiod and Temperature Interactions Regulate Low-Temperature-Induced Gene Expression in Barley1

    E-print Network

    Sarhan, Fathey

    Photoperiod and Temperature Interactions Regulate Low-Temperature-Induced Gene Expression in Barley is also developmentally regulated by PP response. The LT-tolerant, highly short-day (SD)-sensitive barley

  13. Regulation and mechanism of potassium release from barley roots: an in planta 42

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    Phytologist (2010) 188: 1028­1038 doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03436.x Key words: barley (Hordeum vulgare from roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in the context of recent discoveries in the molecular

  14. K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt tolerance

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    -8137.2009.03169.x Key words: barley (Hordeum vulgare), efflux, ion channels, membrane integrity, potassium transport- tional K+ -flux analysis at the root plasma membrane of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare), in response

  15. Molecular Characterization of Barley 3H Semi-Dwarf Genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haobing; Chen, Guangdeng; Yan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace ‘TX9425’ was crossed with the Australian barley variety ‘Franklin’ to generate a doubled haploid (DH) population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from ‘TX9425’ was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from ‘TX9425’ were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in ‘TX9425’ was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the ‘TX9425’-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the ‘TX9425’/‘Franklin’ DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs. PMID:25826380

  16. Performance of Small Grain Varieties in Texas 1949-57. 

    E-print Network

    Atkins, I. M.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Weibel, K. B.; Porter, K. B.; Lahr, K.A.

    1958-01-01

    3. 1949-57 Yield of grain, bushels per acre Test Date Date Plant Percent Variety Denton Green- Stephen- Average Number weight, first full height, leaf ville ville for area tests pounds head ripe inches rust Cordova 31.9 38.4 36.5 35.5 25 44.8 4..., 1954, 1955 and 1956. Cornpar- ville. Barley is well adapted to this growing area able yields and agronomic data fzr the area are since it fits well into rotations with other crops given in Table 5. . ,.. and is useful as a feed and winter pasture...

  17. Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

    2007-04-01

    A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

  18. Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains

    PubMed Central

    Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined. PMID:16534952

  19. Identification of wheat-barley addition lines with N-banding of chromosomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. K. M. R. Islam

    1980-01-01

    The seven chromosomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have been identified individually by their distinctive N-banding pattern. Furthermore all of the barley chromosome N-banding patterns were found to be recognizably different from those exhibited by wheat chromosomes, making it possible to identify individual barley chromosomes when present in a wheat background. N-banding has therefore been used to identify the individual barley

  20. Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley.

    PubMed

    Howard, Thomas P; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M

    2014-03-01

    The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high ?-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble ?-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total ?-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent. PMID:24748716

  1. Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley?

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Thomas P.; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high ?-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble ?-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total ?-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent. PMID:24748716

  2. MOLECULAR MAPPING OF A RECESSIVE BARLEY GENE FOR RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the south central and western United States of America. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a rec...

  3. Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) and barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV): 2, we made a comparison of the closely related barley yellow mosaic bymovirus (BaYMV) and wheat spindle. Leaves of BaYMV-infected winter barley and WSSMV-infected wheat typically showed similar symptoms

  4. MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline February 03, 2004 Several new wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties were approved during the January meeting new research lines of wheat, barley and specialty crops, approving some for release

  5. Fertilizer Facts: September 1992, Number 2 Nitrogen Utilization by Malting Barley Under Varying Moisture Regimes

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: September 1992, Number 2 Nitrogen Utilization by Malting Barley Under Varying barley under irrigated conditions based on preplant soil tests. Four irrigation treatments were. 'Klages' malting barley was seeded on 24 May 1991 and irrigation treatments commenced on 10 June 1991

  6. Slow vacuolar channels from barley mesophyll cells are regulated by 14-3-3 proteins

    E-print Network

    Schönknecht, Gerald

    Slow vacuolar channels from barley mesophyll cells are regulated by 14-3-3 proteins Paul W.J. van rights reserved. Key words: 14-3-3 protein; Barley mesophyll; Patch-clamp; Plant vacuole; Slow activating vacuolar Ca2 decreases single channel cur- rent in barley mesophyll vacuoles [7]. In Fava bean guard cell

  7. REGULAR PAPER Photosynthetic responses of sun-and shade-grown barley leaves

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    REGULAR PAPER Photosynthetic responses of sun- and shade-grown barley leaves to high light at Springerlink.com Abstract In this study, we have compared photosynthetic performance of barley leaves (Hordeum the shade and the sun barley leaves had similar Chl a/b and Chl/carotenoid ratios. The fluorescence

  8. RAPID COMMUNICATION Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Requires a Cap-Independent Translation Sequence

    E-print Network

    Miller, W. Allen

    RAPID COMMUNICATION Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Requires a Cap-Independent Translation Sequence that facilitates cap-independent translation is located near the 3 end of barley yellow dwarf luteovirus RNA. Here. Thus barley yellow dwarf virus differs from related viruses by having neither a genome-linked protein

  9. 2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    2007 Barley variety performance at Denton and Moccasin By Dave Wichman The 2007 central Montana through August quickly changed the yield potential of spring crops. The yield potential of later barley of winter wheat in central Montana. In some cases, late seeded barley can produce nice plump kernels

  10. Request for Support for Registration of SR425 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of SR425 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Six, scald and DON. Description: SR425 is a promising six-rowed malt barley that has performed well-Row Barley registration trials. Eastern Black Soils Western Black Soils Grey Wooded Soils Brown Soils Overall

  11. Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield and Quality

    E-print Network

    Lawrence, Rick L.

    Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield of fertilizer programs necessary for production of high quality malt barley. Quality, or the ability schemes for malt barley. Generally, kernel plumpness (plump) and protein content are the dominant quality

  12. MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS PROPOSAL SUBMISSION AND INSTRUCTIONS

    E-print Network

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY REQUEST FOR PROPOSALS PROPOSAL SUBMISSION AND INSTRUCTIONS NECESSARY and the MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY COMMITTEE (include MSU Extension Service if appropriate) I. TITLE: II. TIME HAS FUNDED THIS PROJECT: #12;PROPOSAL TO MONTANA WHEAT AND BARLEY COMMITTEE FROM MONTANA STATE

  13. Ammoniation of barley straw : effect on anatomical and physicochemical characteristics of the cell walls

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Ammoniation of barley straw : effect on anatomical and physicochemical characteristics of the cell was to investigate changes in chemical and structural features of the cell walls in barley straw (Hordium vulgare L capacity and swollen volume were also examined. Changes in chemical composition of barley straw following

  14. K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt tolerance

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    42 K analysis of sodium-induced potassium efflux in barley: mechanism and relevance to salt.1469-8137.2009.03169.x Key words: barley (Hordeum vulgare), efflux, ion channels, membrane integrity unidirec- tional K+ -flux analysis at the root plasma membrane of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare

  15. Request for Support for Registration of SR424 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of SR424 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Six-rowed malting barley that has performed well agronomically in both the 2007 and 2008 Western Cooperative Six-Row Barley registration trials. It has out yielded the malting checks in both years, has good malting quality

  16. Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley

    E-print Network

    Volis, Sergei

    Phenotypic selection and regulation of reproduction in different environments in wild barley S-off; trait correlations Abstract Plasticity of the phenotypic architecture of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum results demonstrate that not only is the character architecture in wild barley plastic and sensitive

  17. weekly intervals, for five weeks, the hay was progressively replaced by barley,

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    weekly intervals, for five weeks, the hay was progressively replaced by barley, such that the final diet contained 24% hay, 66% barley and 10% soyabean meal. Total anaerobic, amylolytic and lactate 16S rRNA-targeting probes. Results obtained with diets containing 0 and 66% barley are presented here

  18. Request for Support for Registration of HB402 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    E-print Network

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Request for Support for Registration of HB402 Crop: Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Type: Spring, Two in the Western Hulless Barley Cooperative Registration trial, and testing at the Crop Development Centre as SM Hulless Barley Cooperative Registration trials. Black Soil Zone Black & Grey Zone Brown Soil Zone Combined

  19. Original article Use of whole barley with a protein supplement to fatten

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Use of whole barley with a protein supplement to fatten lambs under different received a commercial fattening concentrate. The other two groups received whole barley with a protein (due to a lower proportion of stomach and digestive content) than those fed barley. The fat colour

  20. Allozyme Variation in Turkmenian Populations of Wild Barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch.

    E-print Network

    Volis, Sergei

    Allozyme Variation in Turkmenian Populations of Wild Barley, Hordeum spontaneum Koch. SERGEI VOLIS variation in 720 individuals representing 36 populations of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, from Central variation found in wild barley in the Middle East is less pronounced in populations from Central Asia where

  1. Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley

    E-print Network

    Britto, Dev T.

    Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley of potassium (K+ ) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley, electrophysiology, pharmacology, and mutant analysis. Comparisons were made between results from barley and five

  2. Development of simple sequence repeat DNA markers and their integration into a barley linkage map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z.-W. Liu; R. M. Biyashev; M. A. Saghai Maroof

    1996-01-01

    Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), or microsatellites, are a new class of PCR-based DNA markers for genetic mapping. The objectives of the present study were to develop SSR markers for barley and to integrate them into an existing barley linkage map. DNA sequences containing SSRs were isolated from a barley genomic library and from public databases. It is estimated that the

  3. 14-3-3 adaptor proteins are intermediates in ABA signal transduction during barley seed germination

    E-print Network

    Quatrano, Ralph S.

    14-3-3 adaptor proteins are intermediates in ABA signal transduction during barley seed germination that abscisic acid (ABA) affects both expression and protein levels of five 14-3-3 isoforms in embryonic barley under the control of ABA, but that they control ABA action as well. Keywords: 14-3-3, barley, ABA

  4. Genes for resistance in barley to Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Robinson; H. Lindqvist; M. Jalli

    1995-01-01

    Twenty Finnish isolates of Rhynchosporium secalis (Oud.) J.J. Davis, the causal agent of scald, were taken from infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants and inoculated on to seedlings of a differential series of barley containing a range of major genes for resistance to the fungus, as well as on to six Nordic 6-row spring barleys and three winter ryes (Secale

  5. Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

  6. Genetic and environmental analysis of NIR feed quality predictions on genotypes of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glen Fox; M. Gabriela Borgognone; Peter Flinn; David Poulsen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the use of NIR feed quality equations, developed from a multi-cereal calibration set, including barley, on barley breeding lines and commercial cultivars. The resultant predictions were then analysed to ascertain genetic and or environmental affects. The calibrations were developed by a third party, using a NIRSystems 6500 (master) instrument. The barley spectra we used were also from

  7. Transcript Differences Associated With Non-Acclimated Freezing Tolerance in Two Barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley periodically suffers from late spring freezes in area throughout the world, with significant losses to yield. To better understand the response of barley to spring freezes, we examined the response of Dicktoo and Keunal barley varieties in their jointing stage to non-acclimated freezing (NAF...

  8. Assessment of the degree and the type of restriction fragment length polymorphism in barley ( Hordeum vulgare )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Graner; H. Siedler; A. Jahoor; R. G. Herrmann; G. Wenzel

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the extent of polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare), DNA from 48 varieties was analyzed with 23 genomic, single-copy probes, distributed across all seven chromosomes. Upon hybridization to wheat-barley addition lines, the probes showed different degrees of homology compared to the wheat genome. Polymorphisms were detected in the barley genome at a frequency of 43% after digestion

  9. Effects of barley straw ( Hordeum vulgare ) on freshwater and brackish phytoplankton and cyanobacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emily F. Brownlee; Stella G. Sellner; Kevin G. Sellner

    2003-01-01

    A short-term laboratory study was conductedto investigate the effect of barley strawin controlling several common phytoplanktonand cyanobacterial species. Following aone-month incubation of barley straw incoarsely filtered fresh Potomac River andbrackish Patuxent River waters, the growthof six autotrophic taxa was followed inculture. Barley straw slurry reduced theyield of three taxa (Ankistrodesmusfalcatus, Chlorella capsulata, Isochrysis sp.) in comparison withcultures not receiving the

  10. Differential Susceptibilities of Wheat and Barley to Diphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jung Sup Choi; Hee Jae Lee; In Taek Hwang; Jong Yeong Pyon; Kwang Yun Cho

    1999-01-01

    Wheat is known to be relatively tolerant to diphenyl ether herbicides. Growth and physiological responses of wheat to diphenyl ether herbicide oxyfluorfen were examined in comparison with those of oxyfluorfensusceptible barley. Compared to barley, wheat was significantly less susceptible to the herbicide with preemergence and postemergence treatments. The differential susceptibilities of wheat and barley to the herbicide were more apparent

  11. Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies. PMID:25457306

  12. Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

  13. Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.

    PubMed

    Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

    2008-03-01

    Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

  14. Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important large-genome cereals with extensive ge-

    E-print Network

    Gill, Kulvinder

    Abstract Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most important large-genome cereals with extensive ge- netic resources available in the public sector. Studies of genome organization in barley have not be annotated. Keywords Barley · Genomic sequence · Gene density · Repeated sequences Introduction Barley

  15. Aspects of Applied Biology 92, 2009 The 2nd European Ramularia Workshop A new disease and challenge in barley production

    E-print Network

    Brown, James

    and challenge in barley production The effect of genetic variation in barley on responses to Ramularia collo.brown@bbsrc.ac.uk Summary The effect of mlo resistance to powdery mildew on the responses of barley seedlings to Ramularia, barley, mlo, oxidative stress. Introduction mlo resistance to powdery mildew appears to affect

  16. Influence of barley varieties on wort quality and performance.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Signe; Damgaard, Jacob; Petersen, Mikael A; Jespersen, Birthe M; Andersen, Mogens L; Lund, Marianne N

    2013-02-27

    Wort from the barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) Pallas, Fero, and Archer grown on the same location were investigated for their influence on oxidative stability and volatile profile during wort processing. Barley varieties had a small influence on radical formation, thiol-removing capacity, and volatile profile. Wort boiling with and without hops had a large influence on these same parameters. Potentially antioxidative thiols were oxidized in sweet wort, but reduction of thiols using tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine hydrochloride revealed that Archer wort had a significantly larger content of total thiols than Pallas and Fero. Oxidized thiols resulted in gel proteins and longer filtration time for Archer wort. Our study shows that wort processing to a large extent will eliminate variations in volatile profile and thiol levels in wort which otherwise might arise from different barley varieties. PMID:23368523

  17. Grain Grading and Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

    This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

  18. Grain Handling and Storage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

    This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

  19. Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, J.V. (CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)); Shaw, D.C. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

    1989-12-01

    ({sup 35}S)Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100{degree}C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered.

  20. Mapping-by-sequencing accelerates forward genetics in barley

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Mapping-by-sequencing has emerged as a powerful technique for genetic mapping in several plant and animal species. As this resequencing-based method requires a reference genome, its application to complex plant genomes with incomplete and fragmented sequence resources remains challenging. We perform exome sequencing of phenotypic bulks of a mapping population of barley segregating for a mutant phenotype that increases the rate of leaf initiation. Read depth analysis identifies a candidate gene, which is confirmed by the analysis of independent mutant alleles. Our method illustrates how the genomic resources of barley together with exome resequencing can underpin mapping-by-sequencing. PMID:24917130

  1. USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

  2. USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

  3. In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.

    PubMed

    Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

  4. Effects of grain processing, forage to concentrate ratio, and forage particle size on rumen pH and digestion by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Rode, L M

    2001-10-01

    Dietary factors that alter the intake of effective fiber were evaluated for their effects on rumen fermentation, digestion, and milk production using a double 4 x 4 quasi-Latin square design with a 2(3) factorial arrangement of treatments. The dietary factors were extent of barley grain processing, coarse (1.60 mm) or flat (1.36 mm); forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio, low (35:65) or high (55:45) (dry matter basis); and forage particle length, long (7.59 mm) or short (6.08 mm). Eight lactating cows with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were offered ad libitum access to a total mixed diet and milked twice daily. Dry matter intake was increased by increasing the extent of grain processing. Mean rumen pH was lower for cows fed flatly rolled barley than for cows fed coarsely rolled barley, whereas F:C ratio or forage particle size had no effect on rumen pH. Rumen pH was not correlated with effective NDF intake but tended to be correlated with digestibility of starch in the rumen. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, starch, and neutral detergent fiber were increased by feeding flatly rolled barley or low F:C ratio diets. Milk yield and milk protein content were higher in cows fed flatly rolled barley or low F:C ratio diets. Milk fat content tended to increase with high F:C ratio or long forage particle length but was reduced by feeding flatly rolled barley. In this study, extent of grain processing and intake of ruminal available starch were the most influential factors affecting milk production. Reducing the ratio of F:C improved total digestion and actual milk production. Forage particle length had minimal impact on digestibility and milk production. PMID:11699452

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY TISSUE-UBIQUITOUS B-AMYLASE2

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are two barley b-amylases genes, encoding important starch degrading enzymes. The endosperm-specific b-amylase (Bmy1), the more abundant isozyme in cereal seeds, has been thoroughly characterized. The lesser abundant b-amylase2 (Bmy2), has not been biochemically characterized from any cereal s...

  6. Registration of 'Clearwater' Low-Phytate Hulless Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Clearwater' is a spring two-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Clearwater was selected and released based on competitive agronomic performance in combination with low-phyta...

  7. Membranes in the miotic apparatus of barley cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PETER K. HEPLER

    1980-01-01

    Membranes in the mitotic apparatus have been investigated ultrastructurallyin dividing cellsof barley (Hordeum vulgare).After osmium tetroxide-potassium ferricyanide or ferrocyanide postfixation (OsFeCN) of material that had been fixed in glutaraldehyde in the presence of Ca\\

  8. Resolution of Dual Mechanisms of Potassium Absorption by Barley Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emanuel Epstein; D. W. Rains; O. E. Elzam

    1963-01-01

    The relationship between the rates of absorption of K and Rb by barley ; roots and the concentration of these ions in the external solution, over the ; range 0.002 to 50 mM, is predictable on the assumption that two carrier sites ; bind and transport the ions. One of these operates at half-maximal velocity at a ; concentration of

  9. Genetic variation in natural populations of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. H. D. Brown; E. Nevo; D. Zohary; O. Dagan

    1978-01-01

    In order to evaluate the potential genetic resources of the wild relatives of crop plants, allozyme variation at 28 loci was determined for 28 Israel populations of Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. Etectrophoretic properties of these loci and their variants are described. The enzyme loci exhibited a great range of polymorphism, from one to fifteen alleles per locus

  10. Sequence and expression of ferredoxin mRNA in barley

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinski, R.; Funder, P.M.; Ling, V. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We have isolated and structurally characterized a full-length cDNA clone encoding ferredoxin from a {lambda}gt10 cDNA library prepared from barley leaf mRNA. The ferredoxin clone (pBFD-1) was fused head-to-head with a partial-length cDNA clone encoding calmodulin, and was fortuitously isolated by screening the library with a calmodulin-specific oligonucleotide probe. The mRNA sequence from which pBFD-1 was derived is expressed exclusively in the leaf tissues of 7-d old barley seedlings. Barley pre-ferredoxin has a predicted size of 15.3 kDal, of which 4.6 kDal are accounted for by the transit peptide. The polypeptide encoded by pBFD-1 is identical to wheat ferredoxin, and shares slightly more amino acid sequence similarity with spinach ferredoxin I than with ferredoxin II. Ferredoxin mRNA levels are rapidly increased 10-fold by white light in etiolated barley leaves.

  11. Combined mapping of AFLP and RFLP markers in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jörg Becker; Pieter Vos; Martin Kuiper; Francesco Salamini; Manfred Heun

    1995-01-01

    AFLP marker technology allows efficient DNA fingerprinting and the analysis of large numbers of polymorphic restriction fragments on polyacrylamide gels. Using the doubled haploids from the F1 of the cross Proctor × Nudinka, 118 AFLP markers were mapped onto a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RFLP map, also including five microsatellite and four protein marker loci. The AFLP markers mapped to

  12. Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

  13. Decline of pesticide residues from barley to malt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Navarro; G. Pérez; G. Navarro; N. Vela

    2007-01-01

    The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt was determined. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination and kilning). Pesticide residue analysis was carried out by GC\\/ITMS in selected ion monitoring mode. Pesticides decline along

  14. Genetical Genomic Dissection of Stem Rust Infection in Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To identify breeding and biochemical targets that will mitigate a stem rust epidemic currently threatening barley and wheat crops worldwide, we have performed QTL and eQTL mapping experiments to connect genetic loci that confer stem rust resistance with gene expression networks that are responsive t...

  15. Initial proteome analysis of mature barley seeds and malt.

    PubMed

    Řstergaard, Ole; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

    2002-06-01

    Several barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars are used in the production of malt for brewing. The malt quality depends on the cultivar, its growth and storage conditions, and the industrial process. To enhance studies on malt quality, we embarked on a proteome analysis approach for barley seeds and malt. The proteome analysis includes two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics for identification of selected proteins. This project initially focused on proteins in major spots in the neutral isoelectric point range (pI 4-7) including selected spots that differ between four barley cultivars. The excellent malting barley cultivar Barke was used as reference. Cultivar differences in the 2-D gel spot patterns are observed both at the seed and the malt level. In seed extracts one of the proteins causing variations has been identified as an alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor. In malt extracts multiple forms of the alpha-amylase isozyme 2 have been identified in varying cultivar characteristic spot patterns. The present identification of proteins in major spots from 2-D gels includes 27 different proteins from 42 spots from mature seed extract, while only three specific proteins were identified by analysing 13 different spots from the corresponding malt extract. It is suggested that post-translational processing causes the same protein to occur in different spots. PMID:12112856

  16. The B-hordein prolamin family of barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spectrum of B-hordein prolamins and genes in the single barley cultivar Barke is described from an in silico analysis of 1452 B-hordein ESTs and available genomic DNA. Eleven unique B-hordein proteins are derived from EST contigs. Ten contigs encode apparent full-length B-hordeins and the ele...

  17. Random amplified polymorphic DNA and pedigree relationships in spring barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. A. Tinker; M. G. Fortin; D. E. Mather

    1993-01-01

    We investigated random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 27 inbred barley lines with varying amounts of common ancestry and in 20 doubled-haploid (DH) lines from a biparental cross. Of 33 arbitrary 10 base primers that were tested, 19 distinguished a total of 31 polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were scored as dominant genetic markers except for 1, where Southern analysis indicated the

  18. BARLEY PROMOTERS FOR ORGANS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB, or scab) is a fungal disease that causes significant seed yield and quality losses in barley and wheat worldwide. The fungus lowers yield and deposits toxic levels of mycotoxins. The pericarp and lemma/palea (hull) are readily infected by Fusarium graminearum. The restrict...

  19. Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread 

    E-print Network

    Gordon, Leigh Ann

    2001-01-01

    -25% of the wheat flour in the bread formula. The brans and barley flour were analyzed for dietary fiber, phenols, tannins, anthocyanins, and ORAC values. Effects of substitutions on bread qualities were evaluated and optimum levels of use were determined. All...

  20. BARLEY CONSUMPTION LOWERS CHOLESTEROL IN MEN AND OVERWEIGHT WOMEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heart disease continues to be the number one cause of death in the United States despite numerous plans to reduce its prevalence. Increasing soluble fiber from oats or psyllium has been reported to be effective in lowering cholesterol. Barley contains as much soluble fiber as oats, but it is not co...

  1. Systemic stem infection by Fusarium species in barley and wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Xi; T. K. Turkington; M. H. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium species, is an important disease of cereals in western Canada. There are conflicting results in the literature regarding the infection pathway leading to disease development. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential for systemic infection in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by artificially inoculating F. graminearum and F. pseudograminearum into the growth medium in

  2. Biotic stresses in barley: Insect problems and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter is an overview of the 5 major insects of barley, Russian wheat aphid, greenbug, bird cherry-oat aphid, Hessian fly, and cereal leaf beetle, with emphasis on research reported in the last 20 years. History, distribution, plant damage, yield losses, host plant resistance, biological...

  3. EYTHYLENE INFLUENCES GREEN PLANT REGENERATION FROM BARLEY CALLUS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...

  4. Advanced backcross QTL analysis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pillen; A. Zacharias; J. Léon

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the first advanced backcross-QTL (quantitative trait locus) project which utilizes spring barley as a model. A BC 2F 2 population was derived from the initial cross Apex ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare, hereafter abbreviated with Hv) × ISR101-23 ( H. v. ssp. spontaneum, hereafter abbreviated with Hsp). Altogether 136 BC 2F 2 individuals were genotyped with

  5. Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Skeffington; P. R. Shewry; P. J. Peterson

    1976-01-01

    Potassium chromate is more toxic to the growth of barley in solution culture than chromic chloride, though apparent uptake of the latter is much faster. Inhibitor studies indicate that CrO42- uptake is “active” whereas Cr3+ uptake is passive, demonstrating that the two forms do not share a common uptake mechanism. Studies on the form of Cr inside root cells show

  6. Genetical analysis of microspore derived plants of barley ( Hordeum vulgare )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Powell; E. M. Borrino; M. J. Allison; D. W. Griffiths; M. J. C. Asher; J. M. Dunwell

    1986-01-01

    From an F1 hybrid between the two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars ‘Golden Promise’ and ‘Mazurka’ a series of doubled haploid (DH) lines were generated both from microspores by anther culture and from immature zygotic embryos after hybridization withH. bulbosum. The DH lines from both sources were used to monitor the segregation of the five major genes, rachilla hair length,

  7. Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

  8. Wheat and barley exposure to nanoceria: Implications for agricultural productivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of man-made nanomaterials on agricultural productivity are not yet well understood. A soil microcosm study was performed to assess the physiological, phenological, and yield responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to nanoceria (n...

  9. EFFECT OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON DETACHED BARLEY LEAF SEGMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From histological observations of diseased tissues, we postulate that deoxynivalenol (DON) contributes to the necrotrophic phase of Fusarium head blight development. As a first step toward understanding effects of DON, we are using uninfected barley leaf segments to assess cytological and physiologi...

  10. A comparison of barley malt osmolyte concentrations and standard malt quality measurements as indicators of barley malt amylolytic enzyme activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt osmolyte concentrations (OC) would correlate better with malt a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase activities than do the standard malt quality measurements (malt extract [ME], diastatic power [DP], ASBC a-amylase activity, solub...

  11. iTAG Barley: A 9-12 curriculum to explore inheritance of traits and genes using Oregon Wolfe barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Segregating plants from the Informative & Spectacular Subset (ISS) of the Oregon Wolfe doubled haploid barley (OWB) population are easily grown on a lighted window bench in the classroom. These lines originate from a wide cross and have exceptionally diverse and dramatic phenotypes, making this an i...

  12. Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

    2014-08-26

    The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

  13. Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain

    PubMed Central

    Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

  14. Quantitative and Qualitative Stem Rust Resistance Factors in Barley Are Associated with Transcriptional Suppression of Defense Regulons

    PubMed Central

    Moscou, Matthew J.; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P.

    2011-01-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host–pathogen interaction with enhancement of R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:21829384

  15. Grain structure and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chapter 4 covers general information about structure and composition of cereal grains as well as the unique features of each cereal grain. Cereal grains are the fruits of cultivated grasses and members of Gramineae family. The fruit of a cereal is botanically known as caryopsis, featured by fusion...

  16. Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process.

    PubMed

    Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

    2014-01-01

    Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE - 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

  17. Yield and protein content of selected varieties of small grains and annual cool season grasses 

    E-print Network

    Khan, Mohammad Abdullah

    1951-01-01

    4th 1 Tox. Rescue 7 Clinton oats 1 st 2 Sup. wheat 8 Camel oats /'1 3 Seabr. wheat 9 Alber oats 2nc 5 Goliad barley 11 Stant. oats I. -. ? '-' I 4 Texan barley 10 f~ger oats 3rd week / 6 Inst. oats 12 Fultex oats week x '. I 5th week... t I x 1: t. ' ', I /'? ! /, / / / 'I / // /"/ / I ~ . 7 3 g 5 6 7 ~ - 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 7 1 3 1 4 1 5 1 6 1 7 I 8 7arictios 22 Table 3. H'ean number of tillers per plant of grass and small grains at weekly intervals ~ Variety Texas 46...

  18. Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Philip W.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

    1996-12-01

    Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

  19. Diagnosis and Management of Grain-Induced Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Perales, Araceli

    2013-01-01

    Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder. PMID:24179680

  20. Influence of ? ?glucanase on feeding value of barley for poultry and moisture content of excreta

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Gohl; S. Aldén; K. Elwinger; S. Thomke

    1978-01-01

    1. The cause of the sticky droppings and poor performance that can occur when barley is fed to poultry was investigated.2. The problems could be overcome by water?treatment of the barley or by addition of ??glucanase.3. The problems appear to be caused by a viscous factor, which is hydrolysed by ??glucanase. Water?treatment allows hydrolysis by enzymes in the barley.4. Heat?treatment

  1. Isolation and Cationization of Barley Starches at Laboratory and Pilot Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Vasanthan; R. S. Bhatty; R. T. Tyler; P. Chang

    1997-01-01

    Cereal Chem. 74(1):25-28 Prime barley starches were isolated in the laboratory by a conventional extraction procedure from regular (Condor), waxy (SB89528), and high amylose (Glacier) barleys; cationized; and evaluated as wet-end additives in papermaking. The cationized barley starches showed functionality (contribution to paper strength) comparable that of to a commercial grade cationic corn starch. The laboratory evaluation was followed by

  2. Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

    1984-01-01

    Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

  3. A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.

    PubMed

    Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

    2012-06-01

    Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt tolerance in the tolerant genotypes and further field tests of these plants under stress conditions will help to verify their potential utility in crop-improvement programmes. PMID:22442423

  4. Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment

    PubMed Central

    Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

  5. Constructing an alternative wheat karyotype using barley genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Icsó, Diána; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Linc, Gabriella

    2015-02-01

    The established karyotype was generated by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total barley genomic DNA as labelled probe on mitotic metaphase bread wheat chromosomes. GISH produced specific banding signals on 16 of the 21 chromosome pairs. The following chromosomes showed distinctive banding patterns: 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1D, 2D, 7D and all of the B chromosomes. The remaining chromosomes showed either faint bands or no hybridization signals at all. The in situ hybridization patterns corresponded to the GAA-satellite sequence, which is similar to the N-banding pattern in wheat. In situ hybridization by labelling total barley genomic DNA made it possible to identify most of the bread wheat chromosomes. The present paper describes a GISH-banding method for hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It is a valuable alternative method for fast chromosome selection without using FISH repetitive DNA clones. PMID:25027628

  6. Aluminum chloride and membrane potentials of barley root cells

    SciTech Connect

    Etherton, B.; Shane, M.

    1986-04-01

    Aluminum chloride at pH 4 hyperpolarizes the membrane potentials of barley root epidermal cells. The authors tested to see whether this hyperpolarization could be caused by an aluminum induced alteration of the permeability of the membrane to potassium or sodium ions by measuring the effect of .04 mM aluminum ions (the Ca/sup + +/ conc. was 0.1 mM) on the membrane potential changes induced by changing the potassium or sodium concentrations in the medium bathing the roots. Aluminum ions did not change the magnitude of potassium or sodium induced changes in membrane potentials but significantly altered the rates of potassium and sodium induced changes of the potential. The results indicate that aluminum ions did not change sodium or potassium ion permeabilities of barley root cells.

  7. Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Excised Barley Roots 1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, F. W.; Thompson, John F.

    1971-01-01

    When excised barley roots (Hordeum distichum L.) are appropriately pretreated, the level of nitrate reductase in the roots increases upon exposure to nitrate. Relatively low levels of nitrate (10 ?m) gave maximum induction of nitrate reductase. This increase was inhibited by inhibitors of protein and RNA synthesis, indicating that de novo protein synthesis is probably involved. Induction of nitrate reductase by nitrate is partially prevented by the inclusion of ammonium, an eventual product of nitrate reduction, in the incubation medium. Under the experimental conditions used, ammonium did not inhibit the uptake of nitrate by excised barley roots. It is concluded, therefore, that ammonium, or a product of ammonium metabolism, has a direct effect on the synthesis of nitrate reductase in this tissue. PMID:16657766

  8. Generation of Large Numbers of lndependently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuechun Wan; Peggy C. Lemaux

    1994-01-01

    A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic bar- ley (Hordeum vurgare 1.) plants is described. lmmature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total

  9. Homology of AFLP products in three mapping populations of barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Waugh; N. Bonar; E. Baird; B. Thomas; A. Graner; P. Hayes; W. Powell

    1997-01-01

    Segregation of 850 polymorphic AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) fragments was followed in three different doubled\\u000a haploid (DH) barley populations, Dicktoo?×?Morex (DM), Igri?×?Franka (IF) and Blenheim?×?E224\\/3 (BE), which had previously\\u000a been used to construct linkage maps using other molecular markers. The final maps consisted of 310, 655 and 474 markers, of\\u000a which 234, 194 and 376, respectively, were AFLPs. A

  10. Comparison of Gibberellins in Normal and Slender Barley Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Croker, Stephen J.; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R.; Stoddart, John L.

    1990-01-01

    Gibberellins A1, A3, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in leaf sheath segments of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise) seedlings grown at 20°C under long days. In a segregating population of barley, cv Herta (Cb 3014), containing the recessive slender allele, (sln 1) the concentration of GA1 and GA3 was reduced by 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, in rapidly growing homozygous slender, compared with normal, leaf sheath segments. However, the concentration of the C20 precursor, GA19, was nearly 2-fold greater in slender than in normal seedlings. There was little difference in the ABA content of sheath segments between the two genotypes. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, reduced the final sheath length of normal segregants (50% inhibition at 15 micromolar) but had no effect on the growth of slender seedlings at concentrations below 100 micromolar. There was a 15-fold and 4-fold reduction in GA1 and GA3, respectively, in sheath segments of 8-day-old normal seedlings following application of 10 micromolar paclobutrazol. The same treatment also reduced the already low concentrations of these gibberellins in slender segregants. The results show that the pool sizes of gibberellins A1 and A3 are small in slender barley and that leaf sheath extension in this genotype appears to be gibberellin-independent. The relationship between gibberellin status and tissue growth-rate in slender barley is contrasted with other gibberellin nonresponsive, but dwarf, mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). PMID:16667686

  11. Ethylene influences green plant regeneration from barley callus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajay K. Jha; Lynn S. Dahleen; Jeffrey C. Suttle

    2007-01-01

    The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating\\u000a ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve\\u000a plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), we investigated ethylene emanation using our improved system and investigated methods of manipulating ethylene to increase

  12. Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; E. Bailey; A. Amri; M. El-Felah; F. Nassif; S. Rezgui; A. Yahyaoui

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes experiments on farmer participation in plant breeding conducted in three countries (Morocco, Syria and\\u000a Tunisia) on barley, which is the predominant annual rainfed crop in the most marginal areas of these countries. Trials with\\u000a different types and number of breeding material were planted both on research stations and in farmers' fields. Selection was\\u000a done by professional breeders

  13. Physiological effects of sublethal atrazine on barley chloroplast thylakoid membranes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston Raul Torre; Kent Oliver Burkey

    1992-01-01

    This study was conducted to more clearly define the physiological effects of PS II herbicides on chloroplast thylakoid membrane activity and composition. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Boone) was grown in hydroponic culture at 20°C in a growth chamber with a light intensity of 500 µmole photons m-2 s-1. Atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-s-triazine), a Photosystem II herbicide, was supplied continuously via the

  14. RNA complementary to ?-amylase mRNA in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John C. Rogers

    1988-01-01

    Two experimental approaches demonstrate that different types of RNA complementary to a-amylase mRNA are present in barley. S1 nuclease assays identify an RNA that is complementary to essentially the full length of both the type A and type B a-amylase mRNAs. Complementarity, however, is imperfect: the S1 nuclease-resistant products can only be identified if they are electrophoresed as RNA-DNA hybrids.

  15. Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Ritala; E. H. Wahlström; H. Holkeri; A. Hafren; K. Mäkeläinen; J. Baez; K. Mäkinen; A. M. Nuutila

    2008-01-01

    The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100\\/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely

  16. Molecular analysis of barley mutants deficient in chloroplast glutamine synthetase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacqueline Freeman; Antonio J. Marquez; Roger M. Wallsgrove; Ritva Saarelainen; Brian G. Forde

    1990-01-01

    A barley leaf cDNA library has been screened with two oligonucleotide probes designed to hybridize to conserved sequences in glutamine synthetase (GS) genes from higher plants. Two GS cDNA clones were identified as hybridizing strongly to one or both probes. The larger clone (pcHvGS6) contained a 1.6 kb insert which was shown by primer extension analysis to be an almost

  17. Ethylene production and peroxidase activity in aphid-infested barley.

    PubMed

    Argandońa, V H; Chaman, M; Cardemil, L; Muńoz, O; Zúńiga, G E; Corcuera, L J

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate whether ethylene is involved in the oxidative and defensive responses of barley to the aphids Schizaphis graminum (biotype C) and Rhopalophum padi. The effect of aphid infestation on ethylene production was measured in two barley cultivars (Frontera and Aramir) that differ in their susceptibility to aphids. Ethylene evolution was higher in plants infested for 16 hr than in plants infested for 4 hr in both cultivars. Under aphid infestation, the production of ethylene was higher in cv. Frontera than in Aramir, the more aphid susceptible cultivar. Ethylene production also increases with the degree of infestation. Maximum ethylene evolution was detected after 16 hr when plants were infested with 10 or more aphids. Comparing the two species of aphids, Schizaphis graminum induced more ethylene evolution than Rhopalosiphum padi. Infestation with S. graminum increased hydrogen peroxide content and total soluble peroxidase activity in cv. Frontera, with a maximum level of H2O2 observed after 20 min of infestation and the maximum in soluble peroxidase activity after 30 min of infestation. When noninfested barley seedlings from cv. Frontera were exposed to ethylene, an increase in hydrogen peroxide and in total peroxidase activity was detected at levels similar to those of infested plants from cv. Frontera. When noninfested plants were treated with 40 ppm of ethylene, the maximum levels of H2O2 and soluble peroxidase activity were at 10 and 40 min, respectively. Ethylene also increased the activity of both cell-wall-bound peroxidases types (ionically and covalently bound), comparable with infestation. These results suggest that ethylene is involved in the oxidative responses of barley plants induced by infestation. PMID:11382067

  18. Inhibitory Activity by Barley Coffee Components Towards Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica Stauder; Adele Papetti; Maria Daglia; Luigi Vezzulli; Gabriella Gazzani; Pietro E. Varaldo; Carla Pruzzo

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was\\u000a found that the low molecular mass (<1,000 Da) fraction (LMM fraction) containing polyphenols, zinc and fluoride ions and,\\u000a above all, a high molecular mass (HMM > 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans.

  19. Somaclonal variation in the progeny of transgenic barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Bregitzer; S. E. Halbert; P. G. Lemaux

    1998-01-01

    Somaclonal variation (SCV) in transgenic plants may slow the incorporation of introduced genes into commercially competitive\\u000a cultivars. Somaclonal variation in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was assessed in one experiment by comparing the agronomic characteristics of 44 segregating transgenic lines in the T2 generation to their non-transformed parent (‘Golden Promise’). A second experiment examined the agronomic characteristics\\u000a of seven transgenic-derived,

  20. Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

    1990-01-01

    Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

  1. Effect of substitution of sugarbeet pulp for barley in diets for finishing rabbits on growth performance and on energy and nitrogen efficiency.

    PubMed

    Garcia, G; Galvez, J F; de Blas, J C

    1993-07-01

    One hundred forty New Zealand White x California weanling rabbits were used to study the influence of increasing dietary contents of digestible fiber replacing nonstructural carbohydrates on feed efficiency and growth performance. Four diets, formulated by replacing sugarbeet pulp (SBP) for barley grain, and two slaughter weights (2 or 2.5 kg) were used in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement. Inclusion of 15% SBP decreased dietary energy and CP digestibilities by 6% (P < .001), but nonsignificant effects were found on growth performance, empty body composition, and DE and digestible CP efficiencies for growth. Higher levels of SBP (35 and 50%) led to leaner animals and did not affect DE intake but greatly impaired (P < .001) DE and nitrogen efficiencies, NEg intake, growth rate, and dressing percentage in relation to the control diet. Inclusion of SBP increased the weight of gut contents (P < .001) and decreased cecal pH (P < .001), with no significant effect on mortality. Slaughter weight did not affect growth rate or energy efficiency but impaired (by 13%, P < .001) feed conversion rate. Higher (P < .001) energy content in live weight gain (12.5%) and dressing percentage (3.2%) were observed for rabbits slaughtered at 2.5 kg than for those slaughtered at 2 kg. Our data indicate that SBP can replace 15% of barley grain without decreasing growth performance, although energy and nitrogen efficiencies were impaired by 5%. PMID:8394306

  2. The physics of grain-grain collisions and gas-grain sputtering in interstellar shocks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. G. G. M. Tielens; C. F. McKee; C. G. Seab; D. J. Hollenbach

    1994-01-01

    Grain-grain collisions and ion sputtering destroy dust grains in interstellar shocks. An analytical theory is developed for the propagation of shock waves in solids driven by grain-grain collisions, which compares very favorably with detailed numerical calculations. This theory is used to determine the fraction of a grain vaporized by a grain-grain collision. Our results predict much less vaporization of colliding

  3. Fiber fractions from processing of barley in production and conservation of a biologic control agent.

    PubMed

    Tuomi, T; Heino, M; Nordström, K; Laakso, S

    2001-05-01

    Carriers are frequently used to overcome problems associated with microbial survival in soil after inoculation. Moreover, the use of carriers can prolong the shelf lives and lessen dusting of both biofungicides and biologic fertilizers. This study investigated the suitability of barley-based fiber fractions as growth media and immobilization matrices in the cultivation of a Streptomyces griseoviridis biologic control agent, as well as for the conservation of obtained biomass in dehydrated hydrogel capsules. The second main ingredient in all the examined carrier matrices was alginate. The aim was to find a hydrogel formulation suited for a production process in which all individual steps, including cultivation of the organism; downstream processing; and formulation, storage, and application of the product (i.e., biologic control agent), are carried out in the hydrogel matrix. Of the tested fractions, brewer's spent grain was the best choice, when considering the price vs the nutrient contents as well as the storage time and ease of processing of the crude and the finished products. It seems that cereal fibers can be replenished with cereal fractions less rich in fiber but having a higher content of utilizable nutrients and, hence, better suited for the production of biomass. A high content of water-insoluble fiber favorably influenced the appearance as well as the applicability of the products. PMID:11456292

  4. Characterization of a barley Rubisco activase gene promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Strickland, J.A.; Rundle, S.J.; Zielinski, R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Barley Rubisco Activase (Rca) is a nuclear encoded chloroplast enzyme that activates Rubisco to catalytic competence. Rca mRNA accumulation in barley is light-regulated; the 5{prime}-flanking region of a highly expressed barley Rca gene (HvRca-1) contains several sequence motifs similar to those found in the promoter of other light-regulated, nuclear genes. We have characterized the cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1 by deletion analysis of the 5{prime} flanking region of a cloned gene. These constructs have been assayed in vitro by gel mobility shift assays, as well as by DNA footprinting. Putative regulatory sequences detected in vitro have also been tested in vivo by constructing chimeric genes consisting of deletion mutant promoters fused to a promoterless {beta}-glucuronidase reporter gene. Comparison of results obtained from complimentary parallel in vitro and in vivo assays of identical promoter deletions have provided information on cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1.

  5. Structure and molecular characterization of barley nudix hydrolase genes.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Kihara, Makoto; Sugimoto, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    Putative nudix hydrolase (NUDX) genes, which encode amino acid sequences showing homology with those of Arabidopsis NUDXs and conserve nudix motif, were identified from barley. The 14 deduced barley NUDXs (HvNUDX1-14) were classified into established subfamilies, except for 8-oxo-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate (8-oxo-dGTP) pyrophosphohydrolase and mRNA decapping enzyme subfamilies, and three substrate-unknown subfamilies. Drought and UV-C stresses, respectively, up-regulated 7 and 4 HvNUDX genes, but some homologs of Arabidopsis NUDXs showed different responses to abiotic stress. HvNUDX12 gene, belonging to diadenosine tetraphosphates (Ap?A) pyrophosphohydrolase subfamily gene and up-regulated by UV-C, was expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant protein showed 8-oxo-dGTP, Ap?A, and guanosine-3',5'-tetraphosphate (ppGpp) pyrophosphohydrolase activities, and the suppression of the lacZ amber mutation in a mutT-deficient E. coli cells caused by the incorporation of 8-oxo-GTP into mRNA was prevented to a significant degree. These results suggest that barley NUDXs have unique constitution and response of NUDX to abiotic stress. PMID:25379607

  6. Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.

    PubMed

    Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

    2001-01-01

    Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

  7. Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.

    PubMed

    El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreńo, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

  8. Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

  9. Lysine Biosynthesis in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Mřller, Birger Lindberg

    1974-01-01

    Lysine biosynthesis in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following precursors into the endosperm of the seedlings: acetate-1-14C; acetate-2-14C; pyruvate-1-14C; pyruvate-2-14C; pyruvate-3-14C; alanine-1-14C; aspartic acid-1-14C; aspartic acid-2-14C; aspartic acid-3-14C; aspartic acid-4-14C; ?-aminoadipic acid-1-14C; and ?, ?-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C. The distribution of activity in the individual carbon atoms of lysine in the different biosynthetic experiments was determined by chemical degradation. The incorporation percentages and labeling patterns obtained are in agreement with the occurrence of the diaminopimelic acid pathway. The results do not fit the incorporation percentages and labeling patterns expected if the ?-aminoadipic acid pathway was operating. However, the results show that barley seedlings are able to convert a small part of the ?-aminoadipic acid administered directly to lysine. The labeling pattern of lysine was found to be symmetrical around carbon 4. This indicates that the biosynthetic pathway proceeds via a symmetrical intermediate like ll-?, ?-diaminopimelic acid, or includes compounds as 2, 3-dihydrodipicolinic acid or ?1-piperideine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid which probably isomerise with concomitant lack of asymmetry in the labeling. The percentages of incorporation show that both the mesoand ll-forms of ?, ?-diaminopimelic acid are metabolically convertible to lysine in seedlings of barley. PMID:16658942

  10. Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

  11. The 3 -Terminal Structure Required for Replication of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Contains an Embedded 3 End

    E-print Network

    Miller, W. Allen

    The 3 -Terminal Structure Required for Replication of Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus RNA Contains and secondary structures required for replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA in oat protoplasts

  12. Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

  13. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopic analysis of the effects of cereal type and variety within a type of grain on structural makeup in relation to rumen degradation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Walker, Amanda M; Yu, Peiqiang; Christensen, Colleen R; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J

    2009-08-12

    The objectives of this study were to use Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) to determine structural makeup (features) of cereal grain endosperm tissue and to reveal and identify differences in protein and carbohydrate structural makeup between different cereal types (corn vs barley) and between different varieties within a grain (barley CDC Bold, CDC Dolly, Harrington, and Valier). Another objective was to investigate how these structural features relate to rumen degradation kinetics. The items assessed included (1) structural differences in protein amide I to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC, starch) intensity and ratio within cellular dimensions; (2) molecular structural differences in the secondary structure profile of protein, alpha-helix, beta-sheet, and their ratio; (3) structural differences in NSC to amide I ratio profile. From the results, it was observed that (1) comparison between grain types [corn (cv. Pioneer 39P78) vs barley (cv. Harrington)] showed significant differences in structural makeup in terms of NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, and rumen degradation kinetics (degradation ratio, effective degradability of dry matter, protein and NSC) (P < 0.05); (2) comparison between varieties within a grain (barley varieties) also showed significant differences in structural makeup in terms of amide I, NSC, amide I to NSC ratio, alpha-helix and beta-sheet protein structures, and rumen degradation kinetics (effective degradability of dry matter, protein, and NSC) (P < 0.05); (3) correlation analysis showed that the amide I to NSC ratio was strongly correlated with rumen degradation kinetics in terms of the degradation rate (R = 0.91, P = 0.086) and effective degradability of dry matter (R = 0.93, P = 0.071). The results suggest that with the FTIRM technique, the structural makeup differences between cereal types and between different varieties within a type of grain could be revealed. These structural makeup differences were related to the rate and extent of rumen degradation. PMID:19588991

  14. Validation of rice blast resistance genes in barley using a QTL mapping population and near-isolines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are prior reports of Pyricularia grisea – the causal agent of blast of rice – causing disease in barley. In order to determine the specificity of this resistance in barley, we extended our previous mapping efforts to include blast isolates from barley and rice grown in Thailand and we assesse...

  15. Grazing of barley stubble by sheep in Syria: effect of stocking rate, supplement type and level on apparent

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Grazing of barley stubble by sheep in Syria: effect of stocking rate, supplement type and level) of barley or wheat crop is the main feed for sheep and goats in the Middle East. The stubble is practically of supplement feeding. There were three experiments (summers 1991, 1992, 1993). Areas of barley (Hordeum vulgare

  16. Studies of the effects of toxic preparations of Helminthosporium sativum P.K. and B. on barley

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Studies of the effects of toxic preparations of Helminthosporium sativum P.K. and B. on barley Gembloux (Belgique) SUMMARY Callus, Culture Selection, Barley, Wheat, Helminthosporium sativum, Culture inhibits the calli growth of wheat and barley, the root formation of calli and the embryo-survival of wheat

  17. Crystal Structure of a 16 kDa Double-headed Bowman-Birk Trypsin Inhibitor from Barley Seeds at

    E-print Network

    Suh, Se Won

    Crystal Structure of a 16 kDa Double-headed Bowman- Birk Trypsin Inhibitor from Barley Seeds at 1 The Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor from barley seeds (BBBI) consists of 125 amino acid residues with two trypsin inhibitor; BBBI, barley Bowman-Birk trypsin inhibitor; BBI, Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor; BPT

  18. Basic and applied aspects of the genetic analysis of the ym4 virus resistance locus in barley

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Basic and applied aspects of the genetic analysis of the ym4 virus resistance locus in barley E Genetics, D-85461 Grünbach, Germany (Received 15 May 1995; accepted 4 July 1995) Summary — The barley mosaic virus complex has become one of the major pathogens of cultivated winter barley in central Europe

  19. Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig diets

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig pens to compare several types of barley with variable contents of crude fibre components under the same conditions of protein and energy supply. A total of 7 batches of barley were compared in both trials

  20. Subgenomic RNA as a riboregulator: negative regulation of RNA replication by Barley yellow dwarf virus subgenomic RNA 2

    E-print Network

    Miller, W. Allen

    Subgenomic RNA as a riboregulator: negative regulation of RNA replication by Barley yellow dwarf June 2004 Available online 6 August 2004 Abstract Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) generates three 3V RNAs. D 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: sgRNA; Barley yellow dwarf virus; BTE

  1. Necrotrophic effector-triggered susceptibility (NETS) underlies the barley-Pyrenophora teres f. teres interaction specific to chromosome 6H

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley net form net blotch, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres, is a destructive foliar disease in barley-growing regions worldwide. Our overall understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the barley- P. teres f. teres interaction is limited. Intercellular wash fluids (IWF) from infected...

  2. Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

  3. [Penicillium-species fungi--producers of ochratoxin A in grain].

    PubMed

    L'vova, L S; Orlova, N Iu; Omel'chenko, V D

    1992-01-01

    The occurrence of ochratoxin A and ochratoxigenic fungi in the commercial batches of various domestic grains (wheat, rye, barley, corn and rice) has been studied. Penicillium cyclopium, P. viridicatum and P. chrysogenum isolated from grain synthesized on a sucrose-yeast medium predominantly patulin, penicillic and kojic acids. Only 4.4% of the fungal isolates were able to synthesize ochratoxin A. The concentration of the mycotoxin accumulated by the fungi was less than 500 micrograms/kg. 230 samples of wheat and 502 samples of corn were examined. The analysis showed that ochratoxin A was present in 0.9% and 0.1% of samples tested, respectively. The mycotoxin accumulated in grain mainly during its spontaneous heating and was concentrated in mold-damaged kernels. PMID:1494573

  4. Mineral composition of small-grain cultivars from a uniform test plot in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erdman, J.A.; Moul, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Seventy-five cultivated varieties (cultivars) of hard red spring wheat (HRS), hard red winter wheat (HRW), durum wheat, oats, and barley were harvested in 1974 from a small-grain trial plot in Harding County, SD, just north of Buffalo. Analysis of the grains reported here includes crude protein for only the wheat cultivars, ash yield, and 17 chemical elements, many of which are not commonly given in the literature (such as B, Cd, Mo, Ni, and Se). Differences in composition between the two classes of hard red wheat indicate that HRS is significantly higher (p < 0.05) than HRW in protein content, ash yield, Ca, K, Mg, Na, P, total S, Sr, and Zn; Cd is significantly higher in the HRW cultivars. For the most part, concentrations were quite uniform within all grain types. Only two cultivars were anomalous: cv. Hi Plains in HRW wheats and cv. Astro in the oat group.

  5. Effect of wide variation of the Waxy gene on starch properties in hull-less barley from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiao; Pan, Zhifen; Deng, Guangbing; Long, Hai; Li, Zhongyi; Deng, Xiaoqing; Liang, JunJun; Tang, Yawei; Zeng, Xingquan; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

    2014-11-26

    Granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSS I) plays an important role in the synthesis of amylose and in the determination of starch properties in barley grains. Genomic DNAs for the Waxy gene encoding GBSS I protein were sequenced from 34 barley accessions or lines from Qinghai-Tibet plateau in China, to identify Waxy gene nucleotide variations and study the roles of polymorphic sites of the Waxy gene on expression levels of Waxy transcripts and GBSS I proteins and on resulting starch properties. A total of 116 DNA polymorphic sites were identified within the barley Waxy gene, which divided the studied accessions into 11 haplotypes. Among 33 nucleotide polymorphic sites in coding regions, 5 SNPs in three exons were found to play different roles on the expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and on the amylose content and starch properties. One SNP G(3935)-to-T substitution in the 10th exon in the accession Z999 (HP II-2) caused a high expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and the amylose free phenotype. The other SNP alteration was a C(2453)-to-T in the fifth exon in the accession Z1191 (HP I-5), which drastically reduced the expression level of the Waxy transcript and the GBSS I protein and, finally, produced the amylose free phenotype. Three SNPs in the seventh exon in the accession Z1337 (HP I-6) did not significantly change the level of Waxy transcript, the GBSS I protein, and starch properties, except obviously reducing the breakdown value of starch viscosity and extending the peak time. A total of 84 DNA polymorphic sites were found in the noncoding regions. A 403 bp deletion at 5'UTR in the accession Z1979 (HP I-3) had low transcript level, low GBSS I protein level, and low amylose content due to the deletion of cis-acting DNA regulatory elements. A 191 bp insertion and a 15 bp insertion in the first intron and second exons, respectively, may be closely related to a higher transcript level of the Waxy gene and significant differences in some starch properties of the Waxy I DNA group as compared to the Waxy II DNA group. This study indicates the specific variations of the Waxy gene have a great effect on amylose synthesis and starch properties of hull-less barley, which could be very useful to produce new barley with variable starch properties. PMID:25345815

  6. Intestinal function and gut microflora of broiler chickens as influenced by cereal grains and microbial enzyme supplementation.

    PubMed

    Shakouri, M D; Iji, P A; Mikkelsen, L L; Cowieson, A J

    2009-10-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effect of the key cereal grains and a microbial enzyme supplement on broiler chicken performance, gut microflora and intestinal function. Ingestion of the barley-based diet was associated with low 28-day body weight, decreased feed intake and high FCR. The supplemental enzyme increased feed intake and weight gain of the chickens on a wheat-based diet. The pH of the gizzard and caecal contents varied with the grain type. Enzyme supplementation reduced ileal viscosity, particularly in birds that received the diet based on wheat. The birds on the barley-based diet had lower ileal digestibility of dry matter, protein and energy than those given maize and sorghum-based diets. The ileal digestibility of starch was increased by enzyme supplementation. Enzyme supplementation increased the number of total anaerobic bacteria in the gizzard of birds fed on sorghum and increased lactobacilli in the gizzard of those fed both sorghum and wheat. The birds fed the sorghum-based diet had the lowest counts of caecal total anaerobic bacteria and lactobacilli. Jejunal villus height and villus:crypt ratio of birds fed the barley-based diet were the lowest when compared with those fed the other diets. Enzyme application induced an increase in villus height and villus:crypt ratio of birds on wheat, crypt depth on barley and a reduction in crypt depth of chickens on the sorghum-based diets. The highest activity of maltase and the lowest activity of sucrase were observed in tissue from birds fed on maize and sorghum-based diets respectively. The differences in the performance of broilers on cereal grains could be explained by changes in intestinal morphology, enzyme activities and gut microflora as well as nutrient digestibility. The improved performance by supplemental enzyme in wheat-fed chickens was associated with beneficial changes in intestinal morphology and digesta viscosity. PMID:18700849

  7. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

  8. Minimizing Risk by Maximizing Production Through Barley as a Rotational Crop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A CD was produced that contained the presentations of the speakers, plus supplemental material. This was an effort at showing growers the benefits of rotating with barley, and educating growers in barley breeding, weeds, diseases, economics and government support programs. It was sponsored by the ...

  9. Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

    2002-01-01

    We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

  10. A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

  11. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

  12. Comparative study of direct and indirect evaluations of frost tolerance in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. T. Prášil; P. Prášilová; P. Ma?ík

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare different field, laboratory and physiological methods for the evaluation of frost tolerance in barley; as well as to show both the possibilities and limitations of these individual methods and approaches. The tolerances of 39 barley cultivars and breeding lines were evaluated by four direct methods (based on the exposure of plants to

  13. VIABILITY AND BAR EXPRESSION ARE NEGATIVELY CORRELATED IN OREGON WOLFE BARLEY DOMINANT HYBRIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression level of the selectable marker bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT), was negatively correlated with the viability of barley hybrids between 20 Golden Promise-derived transgenic lines (Ds-bar lines) and a specialized marker stock, Oregon Wolfe Barley Dominant (O...

  14. Bioethanol production from barley hull using SAA (soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Hyun Kim; Frank Taylor; Kevin B. Hicks

    2008-01-01

    Barley hull, a lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia, to be converted into ethanol. Barley hull was soaked in 15 and 30 wt.% aqueous ammonia at 30, 60, and 75°C for between 12h and 11 weeks. This pretreatment method has been known as “soaking in aqueous ammonia” (SAA). Among the tested conditions, the best pretreatment conditions observed were 75°C,

  15. Impacts of Crop Production Factors on Common Root Rot of Barley in Eastern Saskatchewan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Fernandez; R. P. Zentner; R. M. DePauw; D. Gehl; F. C. Stevenson

    2007-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has been spreading on the Cana- dian Prairies for the last decade. Fusarium spp. causing FHB can also cause crown and root rot of cereal crops. It is therefore of interest to determine the impact of agronomic practices on fungal populations associated with root rot of barley. From 1999 to 2001,

  16. Relative efficacy of organic manures in spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L. ) production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ofosu-Anim J; Leitch M

    The effect of organic sources of nutrients on the growth of spring barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was studied in a pot experiment in a heated glasshouse at the University of Wales, Aberyswyth from November 2006 to March 2007. Spring barley seeds were sown in 120 pots containing a mixture of peat and 180g dry weight of poultry manure, cowdung,

  17. FIGHTING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF BARLEY WITH MEMBERS OF THE THIONIN GENE FAMILY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops in the U.S. and elsewhere by causing scab (Fusarium head blight) and depositing mycotoxins such as DON. These make the harvest unsuitable for food, feed or malting. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusa...

  18. Beta-amylase degradation by serine endoproteinases from green barley malt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteolytic degradation of barley proteins is examined in green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Harrington. Zymographic analysis of the Harrington green malt extracts using commercial preparations of barley beta-amylase incorporated as a proteolytic substrate in 2-D SDS gels shows at least three di...

  19. MILLING ALTERNATIVES OF BARLEY TO PRODUCE ETHANOL AND VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New varieties are being developed to widen the applications of barley to nontraditional food and non-food value-added applications, such as ethanol production. The objective of this study was to fractionate a new hulless barley variety, Doyce, to produce starch rich fractions using two methods: (a) ...

  20. Fractionation of barley into value-added ingredients enriched with protein, beta-glucan or starch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley contains several valuable nutrients, including protein, beta-glucan (BG) and starch. Each has additional value when concentrated. Among reported studies on barley fractionation (dry or wet), most focused enriching one or two components in term of concentrations in resulting fractions but negl...