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1

Inheritance of grain fill rate in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain fill rate is an important characteristic influencing productivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in northern areas of production. This study was conducted to determine the inheritance of grain fill rate and its relationship to other agronomic traits. Thirty?three doubled haploid lines and parents from two crosses were evaluated for three years at Palmer, Alaska. The distribution of lines for

Stephen M. Dofing

1998-01-01

2

Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inoculants, or a Chemical Additive on the Fermentation, Aerobic Stability, and Nutritive Value of Crimped Wheat Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preservation of crimped wheat grains by three bacterial inoculants or a chemical additive was com- pared. Crimped wheat grain (56.8 g dry matter (DM)\\/kg) was conserved in 1.75-kg plastic bag, mini-silos without treatment, with 4L\\/tonne of Crimpstore (CS; an additive containing a mixture of ammonium formate, propionate, ethyl benzoate, and benzoate, SAS Kelvin Cave, Ltd., UK) or 1 ×

A. T. Adesogan; M. B. Salawu; A. B. Ross; D. R. Davies; A. E. Brooks

2003-01-01

3

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy  

PubMed Central

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment.

2012-01-01

4

Allele-Dependent Barley Grain ?-Amylase Activity1  

PubMed Central

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high ?-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and ?-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high ?-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the ?-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the ?-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct ?-amy1 alleles. Two of these ?-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain ?-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated ?-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of ?-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed.

Erkkila, Maria J.; Leah, Robert; Ahokas, Hannu; Cameron-Mills, Verena

1998-01-01

5

Variation for Grain Fill Characteristics in Northern-Adapted Spring Barley Cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rate and duration of grain fill determine maturity and grain yield in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars. We assessed grain fill characteristics and agronomic performance of northern-adapted spring barley cultivars for two years at Palmer and Fairbanks, Alaska. Rapid grain fill rate was associated with high kernel weight, but not with grain fill duration. Cultivars with longer grain fill duration

S. M. Dofing; C. W. Knight

1994-01-01

6

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley.

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, S?ren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

7

Genetic impacts of the hull on barley grain quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley hull plays an important role in malt and feed quality and processing. In this study we measured the variation in hull con-tent along with other grain quality traits namely, kernel discolouration and degree of pre-harvest sprouting, in a single map-ping population. There were significant (p < 0.05) genetic as well as environment effects. In addition, heritability was calculated for

Glen P Fox; Alison M Kelly; Mehmet Cakir; Gary Bloustein; David ME Poulsen; P Andrew Inkerman; Robert J Henry

2006-01-01

8

Cadmium translocation and accumulation in developing barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination has posed a serious problem for safe food production and become a potential agricultural and\\u000a environmental hazard worldwide. In order to study the transport of Cd into the developing grains, detached ears of two-rowed\\u000a barley cv. ZAU 3 were cultured in Cd stressed nutrient solution containing the markers for phloem (rubidium) and xylem (strontium)\\u000a transport. Cd

Fei Chen; Feibo Wu; Jing Dong; Eva Vincze; Guoping Zhang; Fang Wang; Youzhong Huang; Kang Wei

2007-01-01

9

Identification of barley genotypes with low grain Cd accumulation and its interaction with four microelements.  

PubMed

The variation in grain cadmium (Cd) concentrations was evaluated among 600 barley genotypes grown in the same field condition to select low Cd accumulating genotypes. The results showed that there is considerable genotypic variation in grain Cd concentrations in barley grain samples, with the mean concentration of 0.16 mg kg(-1) DW and the variation of 0 (not detected) to 1.21 mg kg(-1) DW, and 47.2% of the grain samples exceeded the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) for Cd in cereal grains. In addition, differences between genotypes over the two years were fairly consistent, and Beitalys and Shang 98-128 showed the lowest grain Cd concentration, being 97.5% lower than that in the two highest Cd accumulators E-barley 6 and Zhenong 8 in the second harvest year. The great genotypic differences in Cd concentrations indicated that it is possible to lower Cd content of barley through cultivar selection and breeding for use at sites where Cd concentration in grain exceeds the MPC. Significant genotypic difference was also found in microelement concentrations. Correlation analysis showed that only Mn accumulation is synergetic with Cd accumulation, despite slightly positive relationship between Cd and Zn, Cu, or Fe in accumulation in barley grains. PMID:17257649

Chen, Fei; Dong, Jing; Wang, Fang; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Guoming; Chen, Zhefeng; Chen, Jingxing; Wei, Kang

2007-05-01

10

Acrylamide in roasted barley grains: presence, correlation with colour and decrease during storage.  

PubMed

We investigated the presence of acrylamide in roasted barley grains, and assessed the correlation between acrylamide concentration and colour, and also examined acrylamide decrease during storage. Acrylamide concentrations in 45 commercially available roasted barley grains were analysed. The mean and standard deviation were 0.24 and 0.08 mg kg(-1), respectively. The CIE colour parameter a* value had little correlation with acrylamide concentration in roasted barley grains; however, the L* and b* values showed correlations with acrylamide concentration in the grains, yielding a correlation coefficient of 0.42 and 0.40, respectively. Darker-coloured roasted barley grains with lower L* values may contain lower amounts of acrylamide. Although acrylamide concentration decreased by 40% in the grains, and decreased by 36% in the milled grains (teabag form) after 309 days of storage at room temperature a significant difference in the rate of acrylamide decrease was not observed between the grain and teabag forms. The data obtained in this study are of importance to the risk assessment and management of acrylamide exposure in Japan. PMID:24761965

Mizukami, Yuzo; Yoshida, Mitsuru; Isagawa, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Kumiko; Ono, Hiroshi

2014-06-01

11

Predicting Preharvest Sprouting Susceptibility in Barley: A Model Based on Temperature during Grain Filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

ally (i.e., within weeks) while others remain dormant for several months (Benech-Arnold, 2001). In malting Preharvest sprouting (PHS) susceptibility in cereals is a conse- barley, a low dormancy level at harvest is a desirable quence of low grain dormancy before harvest. Dormancy loss rate depends on genotype and may also be affected by environmental characteristic so the grain can be

M. Veronica; Rodrõ “ guez; Martõ “ n Margineda; Juan F. Gonzalez-Martõ; Pedro Insausti; Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

12

A novel late embryogenesis abundant protein and peroxidase associated with black point in barley grains.  

PubMed

Black point of barley grain is a disorder characterised by a brown-black discolouration at the embryo end of the grain. Black point is undesirable to the malting industry and results in significant economic loss annually. To identify proteins associated with barley black point we utilised a proteomic approach with 2-DE to compare proteins from whole grain samples of black pointed and healthy grain. From this comparison two condition-specific proteins were identified: a novel 75 kDa late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein and a barley grain peroxidase 1 (BP1) that were specifically more abundant in healthy grain and black pointed grain, respectively. Although LEA protein was less abundant in black pointed grain, LEA gene expression was greater suggesting protein degradation had possibly occurred in black pointed grain. Similarly, the increase in BP1 in black pointed grain could not be explained by gene expression. Western blot analysis also revealed that the identified LEA protein is biotinylated in vivo. The role that each of these proteins might have in black point development is discussed. PMID:17853513

March, Timothy J; Able, Jason A; Schultz, Carolyn J; Able, Amanda J

2007-10-01

13

Factors affecting the concentrations of lead in British wheat and barley grain.  

PubMed

The entry of Pb into the food chain is of concern as it can cause chronic health problems. The concentration of Pb was determined in cereal grain samples collected representatively from British Cereal Quality Surveys in 1982 and 1998 (n = 176, 250 and 233 for wheat collected in 1982 and 1998, and barley in 1998, respectively). In addition, paired soil and grain samples were collected from 377 sites harvested across Britain in 1998-2000. Wheat grain Pb ranged from below the analytical detection limit (0.02 mg kg(-1) dry weight, DW) to 1.63 mg kg(-1) DW, and barley grain Pb from <0.02 to 0.48 mg kg(-1) DW. The vast majority of samples (>99% for both wheat and barley, excluding Scottish barley samples collected in 2000) were well below the newly introduced EU limit for the maximum permissible concentration of Pb in cereals (0.2 mg kg(-1) fresh weight, equivalent to 0.235 mg kg(-1) DW). There was a significant reduction in wheat grain Pb in the 1998 survey compared with the 1982 survey. However, 40 barley samples collected from Scotland in 2000 in the paired soil and crop survey showed anomalously high concentrations of Pb, with 10 samples exceeding the EU limit. Washing experiments demonstrated that surface contamination, introduced during grain harvest and/or storage, was the main reason for the high concentrations in these samples. In the paired soil and crop surveys, there were no significant correlations between grain Pb concentrations with total soil Pb and other soil properties, indicating low bioavailability of Pb in the soils and limited uptake and transport of Pb to grain. The Pb in cereal grain is likely to originate mainly from atmospheric deposition and other routes of surface contamination during harvest and storage. PMID:15261410

Zhao, F J; Adams, M L; Dumont, C; McGrath, S P; Chaudri, A M; Nicholson, F A; Chambers, B J; Sinclair, A H

2004-10-01

14

Predicting cadmium concentrations in wheat and barley grain using soil properties.  

PubMed

The entry of Cd into the food chain is of concern as it can cause chronic health problems. To investigate the relationship between soil properties and the concentration of Cd in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and harley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain, we analyzed 162 wheat and 215 barley grain samples collected from paired soil and crop surveys in Britain, and wheat and barley samples from two long-term sewage sludge experiments. Cadmium concentrations were much lower in barley grain than in wheat grain under comparable soil conditions. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil total Cd and pH were the significant factors influencing grain Cd concentrations. Significant cultivar differences in Cd uptake were observed for both wheat and barley. Wheat grain Cd concentrations could be predicted reasonably well from soil total Cd and pH using the following model: log(grain Cd) = a + b log(soil Cd) - c(soil pH), with 53% of the variance being accounted for. The coefficients obtained from the data sets of the paired soil and crop surveys and from long-term sewage sludge experiments were similar, suggesting similar controlling factors of Cd bioavailability in sludge-amended or unamended soils. For barley, the model was less satisfactory for predicting grain Cd concentration (22% of variance accounted for). The model can be used to predict the likelihood of wheat grain Cd exceeding the new European Union (EU) foodstuff regulations on the maximum permissible concentration of Cd under different soil conditions, particularly in relation to the existing Directive and the proposed new Directive on land applications of sewage sludge. PMID:15074804

Adams, M L; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P; Nicholson, F A; Chambers, B J

2004-01-01

15

CoulArray electrochemical evaluation of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in barley, oat and spelt grains.  

PubMed

Hexane extracts obtained from Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Avena sativa L. (oat), Triticum spelta Schrank and Triticum dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler (spelt or emmer) whole grains, were examined for their tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol) content. The analyses were carried out on fatty extracts by means of HPLC coupled with a coulometric array electrochemical detector (ECD). Due to the specific high selectivity of the detector, the sample can be directly injected without any preliminary treatment (e.g., saponification). Eight tocochromanol isomers have been detected in barley grains. Different barley cultivars examined showed a tocochromanol content ranging from 1620 to 1852 ng/g caryopses. Oat grains contained ca. 45 ng/g caryopses and Triticum species ca.1070 ng/g caryopses. The results are considered in view of a potential use of vitamin E derivatives as human health enhancer and as sources of antioxidants for food lipid preservation. PMID:19370933

Colombo, Maria L; Marangon, Katia; Bugatti, Carlo

2009-02-01

16

Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats  

PubMed Central

Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.

Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

2011-01-01

17

cis-trans-Isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids during /?-irradiation of barley grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-irradiating barley grains with doses of 10-100 kGy, a dose dependent isomerization of the naturally occurring cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, cis-vaccenic, linoleic and also of linolenic acid was found. Whereas the effect was negligible up to 10 kGy, at 50 kGy the trans-fatty acid level became comparable to that of other natural products like butter fat which means that there is no essential nutrition danger. The cis-trans-isomerization found in barley grains is explained mainly by a thiyl radical driven process rather than direct isomerization.

Geißler, Christian; Brede, Ortwin; Reinhardt, Jürgen

2003-06-01

18

Determination of ontogenetic selection criteria for grain yield in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) by path- coefficient analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

-2 , kernel number per spike, average kernel weight) and some phenological characteristics (duration and growing degree-days of vegetative and grain-filling periods) in spring barley genotypes in 2004-2005. Grain yield depended mainly on spike number per m -2 and kernel number per spike; average kernel weight had a negligible effect on grain yield in spring barley genotypes. Grain yield was

Bilal Deniz; Zuhal Kavurmaci; Mehmet Topal

19

Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with

J Olsson; T Börjesson; T Lundstedt; J Schnürer

2002-01-01

20

Grain Development Mutants of Barley ([alpha]-Amylase Production during Grain Maturation and Its Relation to Endogenous Gibberellic Acid Content).  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Himalaya) mutants with altered grain morphology were isolated to investigate whether defects in grain development, possibly involving gibberellins (GAs) and abscisic acid, would lead to altered patterns of [alpha]-amylase gene expression. Following treatment with sodium azide, 75 mutants, typically showing grain shriveling, were identified. At grain maturity 15 of the 75 mutants had higher [alpha]-amylase activities in shriveled grains compared with either phenotypically normal grains that developed on the same heterozygous plant or with grains of cv Himalaya. Studies of four of these mutants demonstrated increased levels of both high- and low-isoelectric point [alpha]-amylase isozymes midway through grain development. This category of mutant has been designated pga, for premature grain [alpha]-amylase. One such mutant (M326) showed an endosperm-determined inheritance pattern. When crossed into a (GA-deficient) dwarfing background there was a 10- to 20-fold reduction in [alpha]-amylase activity, suggesting a requirement for GA biosynthesis. Endogenous GAs and abscisic acid were quantified by combined gas chromatography-specific ion monitoring in normal and mutant grains of heterozygous M326 plants during the period of [alpha]-amylase accumulation. Mutant grains had significantly higher (5.8-fold) levels of the bioactive GA1 compared with normal grains but much lower (approximately 10-fold) levels of the 2[beta]-hydroxylated ("inactive") GAs, typical of developing barley grains (e.g. GA8, GA34, GA48). We propose that a reduced extent of 2[beta]-hydroxylation in the mutant grains results in an increased level of GA1, which is responsible for premature [alpha]-amylase gene expression.

Green, L. S.; Faergestad, E. M.; Poole, A.; Chandler, P. M.

1997-01-01

21

Comparatiave analysis of the grain proteome fraction in barley genotypes with contrasting salinity tolerance during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we based a search for candidates underlying different levels of salinity tolerance during germination in the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population (DOM × REC) by proteomic profiling of the mature grain of lines showing differing levels of salinity tolerance. By contrasting the parents DOM and REC, displaying divergent stress responses, and two tolerant and two sensitive

KATJA WITZEL; ANNETTE WEIDNER; GIRIDARA-KUMAR SURABHI; RAJEEV K. VARSHNEY; GOTTHARD KUNZE; GERHARD H. BUCK-SORLIN; A. Börner; HANS-PETER MOCK

2010-01-01

22

Dormancy of Arabidopsis seeds and barley grains can be broken by nitric oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. and grains of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) were used to characterize the affects of nitric oxide (NO) on seed dormancy. Seeds of the C24 and Col-1 ecotypes of Arabidopsis are almost completely dormant when freshly harvested, but dormancy was broken by stratification for 3 days at 4°C or by imbibition of seeds with the

Paul C. Bethke; Frank Gubler; John V. Jacobsen; Russell L. Jones

2004-01-01

23

Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with protein expression variation in barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal crop grown for both the feed and malting industries. Hence, there is great interest to gain deeper\\u000a insight into the determinants of grain nutritional quality in order to improve the assessment of new traits. Two-dimensional\\u000a gel electrophoresis was employed for the characterization of the grain proteome of doubled-haploid introgression lines (IL)\\u000a representing a

Katja Witzel; Christof Pietsch; Marc Strickert; Andrea Matros; Marion S. Röder; Winfriede Weschke; Ulrich Wobus; Hans-Peter Mock

2011-01-01

24

Tissue-specific localization of aspartic proteinase in developing and germinating barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting seeds of several plant species, including barley grains, have been reported to contain aspartic proteinase (EC 3.4.23) activity. Here, the expression of the Hordeum vulgare L. aspartic proteinase (HvAP) was studied in developing and germinating grains by activity measurements as well as by immunocytochemical and in-situ hybridization techniques. Southern blotting suggests the presence of one to two HvAP-encoding genes

Kirsi Törmäkangas; Jukka Kervinen; Anne Östman; Teemu Teeri

1994-01-01

25

Natural variation in grain selenium concentration of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, populations from Israel.  

PubMed

Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, is an important genetic resource for cereal improvement. Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral for humans and animals with antioxidant, anticancer, antiarthropathy, and antiviral effects. In the current study, the grain Se concentration (GSeC) of 92 H. spontaneum genotypes collected from nine populations representing different habitats in Israel was investigated in the central area of Guizhou Province, China. Remarkable variations in GSeC were found between and within populations, ranging from 0 to 0.387 mg kg(-1) among the 92 genotypes with an average of 0.047 mg kg(-1). Genotype 20_C from the Sede Boqer population had the highest GSeC, while genotype 25_1 from the Atlit population had the lowest. The mean value of GSeC in each population varied from 0.010 to 0.105 mg kg(-1). The coefficient of variation for each population ranged from 12% to 163%. Significant correlations were found between GSeC and 12 ecogeographical factors out of 14 studied. Habitat soil type also significantly affected GSeC. The wild barley exhibited wider GSeC ranges and greater diversity than its cultivated counterparts. The higher Se grain concentrations found in H. spontaneum populations suggest that wild barley germplasm confer higher abilities for Se uptake and accumulation, which can be used for genetic studies of barley nutritional value and for further improvement of domesticated cereals. PMID:20652650

Yan, Jun; Wang, Fang; Qin, Haibo; Chen, Guoxiong; Eviatar, Nevo; Fahima, Tzion; Cheng, Jianping

2011-09-01

26

Determination of grain protein content by near-infrared spectrometry and multivariate calibration in barley.  

PubMed

Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant in barley. This research aimed to explore the relationship between GPC and diffuse reflectance spectra in barley. The results indicate that normalizing, and taking first-order derivatives can improve the class models by enhancing signal-to-noise ratio, reducing baseline and background shifts. The most accurate and stable models were obtained with derivative spectra for GPC. Three multivariate calibrations including least squares support vector machine regression (LSSVR), partial least squares (PLS), and radial basis function (RBF) neural network were adopted for development of GPC determination models. The Lin_LSSVR and RBF_LSSVR models showed higher accuracy than PLS and RBF_NN models. Thirteen spectral wavelengths were found to possess large spectrum variation and show high contribution to calibration models. From the present study, the calibration models of GPC in barley were successfully developed and could be applied to quality control in malting, feed processing, and breeding selection. PMID:24874350

Lin, Chen; Chen, Xue; Jian, Lei; Shi, Chunhai; Jin, Xiaoli; Zhang, Guoping

2014-11-01

27

Effects of phlorotannins from Ascophyllum nodosum (brown seaweed) on in vitro ruminal digestion of mixed forage or barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of terrestrial tannins in livestock nutrition has been extensively investigated, but information on effects of tannins from marine sources on nutrient utilization is limited. This study investigated effect(s) of phlorotannins (PT) from the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on ruminal fermentation of mixed forage or barley grain. In 125-ml serum vials, buffered ruminal fluid inoculum (40ml) was added to barley

Y. Wang; Z. Xu; S. J. Bach; T. A. McAllister

2008-01-01

28

Differences in Grain Ultrastructure, Phytochemical and Proteomic Profiles between the Two Contrasting Grain Cd-Accumulation Barley Genotypes  

PubMed Central

To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low- grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2), trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars.

Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Nanbo; Zhang, Mian; Mosaddek Ahmed, Imrul; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2013-01-01

29

A role for barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in light regulation of grain dormancy and germination.  

PubMed

It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8'-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

Barrero, Jose M; Downie, A Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

2014-03-01

30

Gene expression in a starch synthase IIa mutant of barley: changes in the level of gene transcription and grain composition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barley shrunken grain mutant M292 has a novel high-amylose starch phenotype caused by a mutation in the starch synthase\\u000a IIa gene (SsIIa) located at the starch excess-6 (sex6) locus on chromosome 7H of barley. The loss of SSIIa enzyme activity leads to a decrease\\u000a in amylopectin synthesis to less than 20% of the levels found in wild-type grains. Detailed

B. Clarke; R. Liang; M. K. Morell; A. R. Bird; C. L. D. Jenkins; Z. Li

2008-01-01

31

Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb

2005-01-01

32

Tubing crimping pliers  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

Lindholm, G.T.

1981-02-27

33

Transcriptome Assembly and Analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) Developing Grains, with Emphasis on Quality Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and ?-glucan) were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. Conclusions/Significance We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1–3;1–4)-?-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley.

Chen, Xin; Long, Hai; Gao, Ping; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Liang, Junjun; Tang, Yawei; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

2014-01-01

34

Comparison of manual and automatic sampling for monitoring ochratoxin A in barley grain  

PubMed Central

Automatic and manual sampling for ochratoxin A (OTA) in barley grain was compared under industrial conditions considering sampling uncertainty as well as practical and technical aspects. Ten tonnes of barley inoculated with Penicillium verrucosum were incubated until the OTA concentration reached approximately 15 ?g kg?1 and sampled with manual and automatic sampling. A nested experimental design and ANOVA was used to estimate variance components from sampling, sample reduction, sample preparation and analysis. Manual sampling resulted in a high sampling uncertainty and OTA concentrations in aggregate samples ranged from 2 to 80 ?g kg?1. When aggregate samples were formed by automatic sampling the uncertainty arising from nugget effects and spatial distribution was practically eliminated. Results from this study show that an automatic sampler mounted after a mixer or conveyer can provide representative samples of OTA from a moving stream of barley. Automatic sampling might present a practical and economical alternative to manual sampling for feed mill operators when monitoring low levels of mycotoxins in grain or other commodities. Despite careful precautions, sample preparation and analysis resulted in a relative uncertainty of ±40% (p = 0.95), which was attributed to the sub-sampling following the two grinding steps. Size fractionation of the coarsely ground barley showed that 40% of the total amount of OTA was present in a small fraction of fine particles with a strong tendency to aggregate or stick to equipment and containers. Thus, in order to take advantage of the automatic sampling, it is crucial to apply an appropriate sub-sampling to prevent segregation of particles which may affect the OTA measurements.

Andersson, M.G.; Reiter, E.V.; Lindqvist, P.-A.; Razzazi-Fazeli, E.

2011-01-01

35

Effects of Substituting Barley Grain with Corn on Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics, Milk Yield, and Milk Composition of Holstein Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of corn or barley, or the equal mixture of both, on digestion characteristics and dairy cow per- formance was evaluated in metabolic and production experiments. Three rumen-cannulated early-lactation cows were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design experi- ment to study the effect on ruminal fermentation char- acteristics and whole-tract digestion of substituting barley grain with

G. R. Khorasani; E. K. Okine; J. J. Kennelly

2001-01-01

36

Developing selection criteria based on an ontogenetic path analysis approach to improve grain yield in barley.  

PubMed

We used correlation and path coefficient analysis based on an ontogenetic approach to develop selection criteria in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for an early production system in Ethiopia. A total of 100 genotypes using 10 x 10-simple lattices with two replications were used to perform the experiment at Ambo and Asasa. The combined analysis of the measured traits showed significant differences among genotypes for all traits. A positive correlation was observed between grain yield and spike/m(2), kernel number/spike, and 1000-kernel weight. The path analysis showed that spike/m(2), 1000-kernel weight, and kernel number per spike had significant positive direct effects on grain yield, which shows that these traits can be used as selection criteria to improve grain yield. The significant positive correlation of spike/ m(2), 1000-kernel weight, and grain-filling period and the positive direct effect on grain yield indicated the potential of these traits as indirect selection criteria to improve grain yield in the early production system in Ethiopia. This study also showed that the path coefficient analysis based on an ontogenetic model was efficient and produced results that can be interpreted clearly. PMID:25036513

Setotaw, T A; Belayneh, S G; Gwinner, R; Ferreira, J L

2014-01-01

37

Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.  

PubMed

In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Franēoise; Leymarie, Juliette

2013-04-01

38

Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation  

PubMed Central

In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature.

Leymarie, Juliette

2013-01-01

39

Root colonization by Piriformospora indica enhances grain yield in barley under diverse nutrient regimes by accelerating plant development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes roots of a broad range of mono- and dicotyledonous plants. It confers enhanced growth, improves resistance against\\u000a biotic and tolerance to abiotic stress, and enhances grain yield in barley. To analyze mechanisms underlying P. indica-induced improved grain yield in a crop plant, the influence of different soil nutrient levels and enhanced biotic stress\\u000a were

Beate Achatz; Sibylle von Rüden; Diana Andrade; Elke Neumann; Jörn Pons-Kühnemann; Karl-Heinz Kogel; Philipp Franken; Frank Waller

2010-01-01

40

Comparative analysis of the grain proteome fraction in barley genotypes with contrasting salinity tolerance during germination.  

PubMed

In the present paper, we based a search for candidates underlying different levels of salinity tolerance during germination in the Oregon Wolfe Barley mapping population (DOM x REC) by proteomic profiling of the mature grain of lines showing differing levels of salinity tolerance. By contrasting the parents DOM and REC, displaying divergent stress responses, and two tolerant and two sensitive segregants, six protein spots were identified that showed a differential abundance between the tolerant and the sensitive lines. The tolerant lines expressed a higher level of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and glucose/ribitol dehydrogenase (Glc/RibDH). Both proteins were heterologously over-expressed in an osmo-sensitive yeast strain and over-expression of Glc/RibDH resulted in an enhanced ability of yeast transformants to grow on salt containing media. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of the population germinating at different salt concentrations led to the identification of two chromosome regions on 5H and one on 7H associated with salt stress response. A dense barley transcript map was employed to map the genomic region of all identified proteins. Two of these, heat-shock protein 70 and Glc/RibDH, co-localized with the identified QTL on chromosome 5H. The putative functional role of the candidates is discussed. PMID:19906151

Witzel, Katja; Weidner, Annette; Surabhi, Giridara-Kumar; Varshney, Rajeev K; Kunze, Gotthard; Buck-Sorlin, Gerhard H; Börner, Andreas; Mock, Hans-Peter

2010-02-01

41

A proteomic analysis of 14-3-3 binding proteins from developing barley grains.  

PubMed

14-3-3 proteins are important eukaryotic regulatory proteins. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 14-3-3A was over-expressed, immobilised and used to affinity purify 14-3-3 binding proteins from developing barley grains. Binding was shown to be phosphorylation-dependent. These proteins were fractionated by PAGE and identified by MALDI-TOF MS. In total, 54 14-3-3 binding proteins were identified, 49 of these interactions are novel to plants. These proteins fell into a number of functional categories. The largest category was for carbohydrate metabolism, including plastidic enzymes for starch synthesis and modification. 14-3-3 was shown to be present in isolated plastids. Four of five enzymes involved in sucrose biosynthesis from triose phosphates were identified, suggesting co-ordinated regulation of this pathway. Invertase and sucrose synthase, which break down sucrose to hexoses, were found. Sucrose synthase activity was shown to be inhibited by exogenous 14-3-3 in a dosage-dependent manner. The second-largest functional group was for proteins involved in stress and defence responses; for example, RGH2A, closely related to the MLA powdery mildew resistance protein, was found. This work illustrates the broad range of processes in which 14-3-3 may be involved, and augments previous data demonstrating key roles in carbohydrate metabolism and plant defence. PMID:16470656

Alexander, Ross D; Morris, Peter C

2006-03-01

42

Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency. PMID:24869769

Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

2014-06-25

43

Feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulates rumen fermentation patterns and increases milk fat content in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present in vivo and in situ trials were to evaluate whether feeding barley grain steeped in lactic acid (LA) would affect rumen fermentation patterns, in situ dry matter (DM) degradation kinetics, and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The in vivo trial involved 8 rumen-fistulated Holstein cows fed once daily a total mixed ration containing rolled barley grain (27% in DM) steeped for 48 h in an equal quantity of tap water (CTR) or in 0.5% LA (TRT) in a 2 x 2 crossover design. The in situ trials consisted of incubation of untreated rolled barley grain in cows fed CTR or TRT diets and of incubation of 3 different substrates including CTR or barley grain steeped in 0.5% or 1.0% LA (TRT1 and TRT2, respectively) up to 72 h in the rumen. Results of the in vivo trial indicated that cows fed the TRT diet had greater rumen pH during most intensive fermentation phases at 10 and 12 h post-feeding. The latter effect was associated with a shorter duration in which rumen pH was below 5.8 for cows fed the TRT diet (2.4 h) compared with CTR diet (3.9 h). Furthermore, cows fed the TRT diet had lower concentrations of volatile fatty acids at 2 and 4 h post-feeding. In addition, concentrations of preprandial volatile fatty acids were lower in the rumen fluid of cows fed the TRT diet. Results also showed that molar proportion of acetate was lower, whereas propionate tended to increase by feeding cows the TRT diet. Cows fed the TRT diet demonstrated greater rumen in situ lag time of substrate DM degradation and a tendency to lower the fractional degradation rate. Other in situ results indicated a quadratic effect of LA on the effective rumen degradability of substrates whereby the latter variable was decreased from CTR to TRT1 but increased for TRT2 substrate. Although the diet did not affect actual milk yield, fat-corrected milk, percentages of milk protein, and lactose and concentration of milk urea nitrogen, cows fed the TRT diet increased milk fat content and tended to increase fat:protein ratio in the milk. In conclusion, results demonstrated that treatment of barley grain with LA lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis and maintained high milk fat content in late-lactating Holstein cows fed diets based on barley grain. PMID:19923605

Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Bertoni, G; Dunn, S M; Yang, W Z; Ametaj, B N

2009-12-01

44

Proteome Analysis of Grain Filling and Seed Maturation in Barley1  

PubMed Central

In monocotyledonous plants, the process of seed development involves the deposition of reserves in the starchy endosperm and development of the embryo and aleurone layer. The final stages of seed development are accompanied by an increase in desiccation tolerance and drying out of the mature seed. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for a time-resolved study of the changes in proteins that occur during seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare). About 1,000 low-salt extractable protein spots could be resolved on the two-dimensional gels. Protein spots were divided into six categories according to the timing of appearance or disappearance during the 5-week period of comparison. Nineteen different proteins or protein fragments in 36 selected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) or nano-electrospray tandem MS/MS. Some proteins were present throughout development (for example, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase), whereas others were associated with the early grain filling (ascorbate peroxidase) or desiccation (Cor14b) stages. Most noticeably, the development process is characterized by an accumulation of low-Mr ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, and enzymes involved in protection against oxidative stress. We present examples of proteins not previously experimentally observed, differential extractability of thiol-bound proteins, and possible allele-specific spot variation. Our results both confirm and expand on knowledge gained from previous analyses of individual proteins involved in grain filling and maturation.

Finnie, Christine; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

2002-01-01

45

A Role for Barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in Light Regulation of Grain Dormancy and Germination[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8’-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains.

Barrero, Jose M.; Downie, A. Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

2014-01-01

46

Predicting pre-harvest sprouting susceptibility in barley: Looking for “sensitivity windows” to temperature throughout grain filling in various commercial cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is common in cereals that lack grain dormancy if maturing grain is exposed to rain. This phenomenon leads to immediate loss of seed viability, and since the malting process requires germination, its occurrence is highly undesirable in malting barley crops. Dormancy release rate is genetically and environmentally controlled. We evaluated the effect of temperature during grain filling

Nicolįs A. Gualano; Roberto L. Benech-Arnold

2009-01-01

47

Expression of the gamma-zein protein of maize in seeds of transgenic barley: effects on grain composition and properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cDNA clone encoding the n-zein protein of maize was expressed in developing grain of barley using the starchy endosperm cell-specific promoter from the wheat Glu-1D-1 (HMW subunit 1Dx5) gene. Seven transgenic lines were recovered from 226 bombarded immature embryos, of which two were sterile and four tetraploid, while five were shown to express the n-zein protein based on western

Y. Zhang; H. Darlington; H. D. Jones; N. G. Halford; J. A. Napier; M. R. Davey; P. A. Lazzeri; P. R. Shewry

2003-01-01

48

Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4 L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. PMID:23992978

Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

2013-11-01

49

Barley mutants with low rates of endosperm starch synthesis have low grain dormancy and high susceptibility to preharvest sprouting.  

PubMed

• Studies of embryo dormancy in relation to preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals have focused on ABA and other hormones. The relationship between these phenomena and the rate of grain filling has not been investigated. • A collection of barley mutants impaired in starch synthesis was assessed for preharvest sprouting in the field. In subsequent glasshouse experiments, developing grains were assayed for germination index, sugars, abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects of temperature and exogenous ABA on germination. • Mutant lines displayed greater preharvest sprouting in the field than parental lines. In the glasshouse, nondeep physiological dormancy was reduced in developing grains of five lines with mutations affecting proteins involved in endosperm starch synthesis. Inhibition of germination by exogenous ABA and elevated temperature was decreased in developing mutant grains. Sugar concentrations were high but embryo and endosperm ABA contents were unaltered. • We reveal a direct connection between grain filling and the extent of grain dormancy. Impaired endosperm starch synthesis directly influences the acquisition of embryo dormancy, perhaps because endosperm sugar concentrations modulate the ABA responsiveness of the embryo. Thus environmental or genetic factors that reduce grain filling are likely to reduce dormancy and enhance susceptibility to PHS. PMID:22300545

Howard, Thomas P; Fahy, Brendan; Craggs, Alice; Mumford, Rachel; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Greenland, Andy; Smith, Alison M

2012-04-01

50

Doehlert matrix design for optimization of the determination of bound deoxynivalenol in barley grain with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA).  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an impediment to barley production in many regions of the world. Tricothecene toxins, associated with FHB-infected grain, particularly, deoxynivalenol (DON), pose a serious threat to human and animal health. Recent research has suggested that a portion of the DON present on grain is bound and escapes detection through conventional determination. The objective of this study was to optimize a method for determination of nonextractable DON in barley grain using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). A Doehlert matrix design was performed to determine the optimal conditions for time, temperature, and TFA concentration. These conditions were treated with 1.25 N TFA in 86:14 acetontrile/water for 54 min at 133 degrees C. Cleanup, derivatization, and determination of DON by a gas chromatography electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was as normal. Treatment of the test sample resulted in the release of an additional 58% DON under the optimized conditions and an increase of 9-88% in a set of verification samples. PMID:18004804

Zhou, Bing; Li, Yin; Gillespie, James; He, Guo-Qing; Horsley, Richard; Schwarz, Paul

2007-12-12

51

Analyses of composite insulators with crimped end-fittings: part II—Suitable crimping conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this research the mechanical behavior of composite suspension insulators with crimped end-fittings manufactured by NGK has been evaluated. Two issues have been addressed in this study. Insulators crimped with the standard, high, reversed and constant high stress conditions have been analyzed for their crimping deformations, and the two and three dimensional compression profiles for the four different crimping conditions

M Kumosa; D Armentrout; L Kumosa; Y Han; S. H Carpenter

2002-01-01

52

A Single Limit Dextrinase Gene Is Expressed Both in the Developing Endosperm and in Germinated Grains of Barley1  

PubMed Central

The single gene encoding limit dextrinase (pullulan 6-glucanohydrolase; EC 3.2.1.41) in barley (Hordeum vulgare) has 26 introns that range in size from 93 to 822 base pairs. The mature polypeptide encoded by the gene has 884 amino acid residues and a calculated molecular mass of 97,417 D. Limit dextrinase mRNA is abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers and in germinated grain. Gibberellic acid response elements were found in the promoter region of the gene. These observations suggest that the enzyme participates in starch hydrolysis during endosperm mobilization in germinated grain. The mRNA encoding the enzyme is present at lower levels in the developing endosperm of immature grain, a location consistent with a role for limit dextrinase in starch synthesis. Enzyme activity was also detected in developing grain. The limit dextrinase has a presequence typical of transit peptides that target nascent polypeptides to amyloplasts, but this would not be expected to direct secretion of the mature enzyme from aleurone cells in germinated grain. It remains to be discovered how the enzyme is released from the aleurone and whether another enzyme, possibly of the isoamylase group, might be equally important for starch hydrolysis in germinated grain.

Burton, Rachel A.; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Hrmova, Maria; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

1999-01-01

53

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

54

Tool for Crimping Flexible Circuit Leads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand tool has been developed for crimping leads in flexible tails that are parts of some electronic circuits -- especially some sensor circuits. The tool is used to cut the tails to desired lengths and attach solder tabs to the leads. For tailoring small numbers of circuits for special applications, this hand tool is a less expensive alternative to a commercially available automated crimping tool. The crimping tool consists of an off-the-shelf hand crimping tool plus a specialized crimping insert designed specifically for the intended application.

Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.

2009-01-01

55

Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

56

A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley  

PubMed Central

The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of storage products during the development of field-grown barley grains using a grain-specific microarray assembled in our laboratory. To identify co-regulated genes, a distance matrix was constructed which enabled the identification of three clusters corresponding to early, middle, and late grain development. The gene expression pattern associated with the clusters was investigated using pathway-specific analysis with specific reference to the temporal expression levels of a range of genes involved mainly in the photosynthesis process, amino acid and storage protein metabolism. It is concluded that the grain-specific microarray is a reliable and cost-effective tool for monitoring temporal changes in the transcriptome of the major metabolic pathways in the barley grain. Moreover, it was sensitive enough to monitor differences in the gene expression profiles of different homologues from the storage protein families. The study described here should provide a strong complement to existing knowledge assisting further understanding of grain development and thereby provide a foundation for plant breeding towards storage proteins with improved nutritional quality.

Hansen, Michael; Friis, Carsten; Bowra, Steve; Holm, Preben Bach; Vincze, Eva

2009-01-01

57

QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.  

PubMed

Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ?SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ?SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding purposes. PMID:23604470

Emebiri, Livinus C

2013-07-01

58

Energy state and its control on seed development: starch accumulation is associated with high ATP and steep oxygen gradients within barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of oxygen and energy state in development and storage activity of cereal grains is an important issue, but has remained largely uninvestigated due to the lack of appropriate analytical methods. Metabolic profiling, bioluminescence-based in situ imaging of ATP, and oxygen-sensitive microsensors were com- bined here to investigate barley seed development. For the first time temporal and spatial maps

Hardy Rolletschek; Winfriede Weschke; Hans Weber; Ulrich Wobus; Ljudmilla Borisjuk

2004-01-01

59

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in covered whole-grain flours of Norwegian barley varieties and in fractions obtained after pearling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic contents and corresponding antioxidant activities were studied in covered whole-grain flours of Norwegian barley varieties and in two different pearling fractions. In covered whole-grain flours the summarized amount of phenolics (?-P) ranged from 481–676 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)\\/100 g dry matter (DM) and the corresponding total antioxidant activities (?-FRAP) between 6.1–8.7 mmol Fe\\/100 g DM. About 50% of

Ann Katrin Holtekjųlen; Stefan Sahlstrųm; Svein Halvor Knutsen

2011-01-01

60

A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins  

PubMed Central

Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described

Diaz, Isabel

2012-01-01

61

Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H?-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field.  

PubMed

Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H?-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to null segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mM NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. PMID:24261956

Schilling, Rhiannon K; Marschner, Petra; Shavrukov, Yuri; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark; Roy, Stuart J; Plett, Darren C

2014-04-01

62

Metabolism of Ammonium Ion and Glutamate in Relation to Nitrogen Supply and Utilization during Grain Development in Barley 1  

PubMed Central

Changes in the activity of a number of enzymes concerned with amino acid synthesis and metabolism were recorded for the endosperm, testa pericarp, and embryo of developing barley (Hordeum distichum L.) grains. Both glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase activities were present in all tissues and at all ages examined. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity was largely confined to endosperm while glutamine synthetase activity was mainly in the testa pericarp. Ammonium ion concentration was maximal in endosperm by 20 days after anthesis. Glutamate concentration varied in endosperm and was in the range of 3.5 to 8.5 mm between 20 and 45 days after anthesis. Significant levels of ammonium ion and glutamate were also present in the testa pericarp over the major part of the developmental period.

Duffus, Carol M.; Rosie, Roberta

1978-01-01

63

Differential changes in grain ultrastructure, amylase, protein and amino acid profiles between Tibetan wild and cultivated barleys under drought and salinity alone and combined stress.  

PubMed

Grain phytochemical profiles were compared in Tibetan wild barley XZ5 (drought-tolerant), XZ16 (salinity/aluminum-tolerant) and cv CM72 (salinity-tolerant) in response to drought and salinity alone and combination (D+S) during anthesis. Total antioxidant capacity assessed by determining ferric-reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) in grains increased significantly as follows: D+S>drought>salinity, and XZ5>XZ16>CM72. A marked increase in the total phenol (TP) from individual and combined stresses was observed in XZ5, while a decrease occurred in CM72. Moreover, the activity of ?-/?-amylase in the grains under combined stress was 81.8%/16.9% in XZ5 and 48.6%/18.7% in XZ16 higher than that of CM72. Increases in amino acids, protein content and protein fractions of albumin, globulin, hordein and glutelin were maximised under D+S, with larger values in the Tibetan wild genotypes. Observation with a scanning electron microscopy showed a distinct genotypic difference under D+S; for example, XZ5 and XZ16 maintained a relatively integral starch granule with a greater protein deposit/matrix, while CM72 degraded by pitting. This research expands our understanding of barley drought and salt-tolerance mechanisms and provides possibility of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with both tolerance to drought and salinity. PMID:23871019

Ahmed, Imrul Mosaddek; Cao, Fangbin; Han, Yong; Nadira, Umme Aktari; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2013-12-01

64

Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

65

Partial replacement of barley grain and soybean meal by fleabane (Conyza bonariensis) in diets of growing Awassi lambs.  

PubMed

Effects of partial substitution of barley grain and soybean meal with fleabane (FB) Conyza bonariensis on growth performances and body compositions of 24 male local Awassi lambs were studied. All lambs were male with an average BW of 20.3 kg (s.d. = 2.0 kg) at the beginning of the experiment. Animals were randomly divided into four groups of six lambs each. Lambs in each group received individually their cereal-soybean-based total mixed rations with levels of FB: 0, 50, 100 and 150 g/kg dry matter (DM) diet, which replaced similar values of barley and soybean meal. All rations were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The fattening experiment lasted 9 weeks, after which all lambs were slaughtered. The composition of nutrients in the C. bonariensis were 89.6%, 15.0%, 28.0%, 30.0% and 10% for organic matter, CP, NDF, ADF and lignin, respectively. At the end of the experiment, lambs fed 100 and 150 g FB/kg DM diets gained more weight (P < 0.05) than those fed the control and 50 g FB/kg DM diets. The DM intake was lower in lambs fed the highest level of FB compared with intakes of lambs in other treatments. Diet content of FB had significant effect (P < 0.05) on weights of empty body, carcass, gut and external (hide, head and feet) among all animals. However, FB had no effects on lambs' thoracic organs (lungs and heart) and liver. Muscle, bone, omental and mesenteric fat, subcutaneous, intermuscular, pelvic and kidney fat weights (g/kg empty BW) were not affected by FB feeding. Carcass fat was decreased (P < 0.05) by the increase of FB. Total body fat was the same in all animals of the experiment. PMID:23031470

Abo Omar, J M; Omar, M

2012-07-01

66

A major grain protein content locus on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) chromosome 6 influences flowering time and sequential leaf senescence  

PubMed Central

Timing of various developmental stages including anthesis and whole-plant (‘monocarpic’) senescence influences yield and quality of annual crops. While a correlation between flowering/seed filling and whole-plant senescence has been observed in many annuals, it is unclear how the gene networks controlling these processes interact. Using near-isogenic germplasm, it has previously been demonstrated that a grain protein content (GPC) locus on barley chromosome 6 strongly influences the timing of post-anthesis flag leaf senescence, with high-GPC germplasm senescing early. Here, it is shown that the presence of high-GPC allele(s) at this locus also accelerates pre-anthesis plant development. While floral transition at the shoot apical meristem (SAM; determined by the presence of double ridges) occurred simultaneously, subsequent development was faster in the high- than in the low-GPC line, and anthesis occurred on average 5?d earlier. Similarly, sequential (pre-anthesis) leaf senescence was slightly accelerated, but only after differences in SAM development became visible. Leaf expression levels of four candidate genes (from a list of genes differentially regulated in post-anthesis flag leaves) were much higher in the high-GPC line even before faster development of the SAM became visible. One of these genes may be a functional homologue of Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 7, which has previously been implicated in the promotion of flowering. Together, the data establish that the GPC locus influences pre- and post-anthesis barley development and senescence, and set the stage for a more detailed analysis of the interactions between the molecular networks controlling these important life history traits.

Lacerenza, Joseph A.; Parrott, David L.; Fischer, Andreas M.

2010-01-01

67

S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5–44.5 and 9.2–11.3%, respectively, after 18–24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA.

Corbineau, FranCOise

2012-01-01

68

Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in stored barley grain in Spain and impact of PCR-based strategies to assess the occurrence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp.  

PubMed

Contamination of barley by moulds and mycotoxins results in quality and nutritional losses and represents a significant hazard to the food chain. The presence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in stored barley in Spain has been studied. Species-specific PCR assays were used for detection of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus, A. ochraceus, A. steynii, A. westerdijkiae, A. carbonarius and A. niger aggregate in mycotoxin-positive barley samples at different incubation times (0, 1 and 2 days). Classical enumeration techniques (CFU/g) in different culture media for evaluation of Aspergillus in sections Flavi, Circumdati and Nigri were also used. One hundred and five barley kernel samples were collected in Spanish grain stores from 2008 to 2010, and analyzed using a previously optimized method involving accelerated solvent extraction, cleanup by immunoaffinity column, liquid chromatographic separation, post-column derivatization with iodine and fluorescence detection. Twenty-nine samples were contaminated with at least one of the studied mycotoxins. AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, and OTA were detected in 12.4%, 2.9%, 4.8%, 2.9%, and 20% of the samples, respectively. Aflatoxins and OTA co-occurred in 4.8% of the samples. Maximum mycotoxin levels (ng/g) were 0.61 (AFB1), 0.06 (AFB2), 0.26 (AFG1), 0.05 (AFG2), and 2.0 (OTA). The results of PCR assays indicated the presence of all the studied species, except A. westerdijkiae. The PCR assays showed high levels of natural contamination of barley with the studied species of Aspergillus which do not correspond to the expected number of CFU/g in the cultures. These results suggest that a high number of non-viable spores or hyphae may exist in the samples. This is the first study carried out on the levels of aflatoxins and OTA in barley grain in Spain. Likewise, this is the first report on the presence of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic Aspergillus spp. in barley grain naturally contaminated with those mycotoxins using a species-specific PCR approach. PMID:21741104

Mateo, Eva M; Gil-Serna, Jéssica; Patińo, Belén; Jiménez, Misericordia

2011-09-15

69

Replacing Chopped Alfalfa Hay with Alfalfa Silage in Barley Grain and Alfalfa-Based Total Mixed Rations for Lactating Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of replacing chopped alfalfa hay with al- falfa silage in a fine barley grain and alfalfa-based total mixed ration (TMR) were evaluated. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 53.0% commercial energy supple- ment, 10.3% commercial protein supplement, and 9.7% corn silage. Diets varied in inclusion of chopped alfalfa hay and alfalfa silage, and contained either 20.0% chopped alfalfa hay

J. C. Plaizier

2004-01-01

70

Growth performance, behaviour, forestomach development and meat quality of veal calves provided with barley grain or ground wheat straw for welfare purpose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different feeding plans for veal calves were compared in the study: a traditional liquid diet supplemented with 250 g\\/calf\\/d of barley grain or with 250 g\\/calf\\/d of ground wheat straw. The two solid feeds had different chemical composi- tion but a similar particle size obtained by grinding the straw in a mill with an 8-mm mesh screen. Twenty-four Polish

Giulio Cozzi; Flaviana Gottardo; Franco Mutinelli; Barbara Contiero; Gianluca Fregolent; Severino Segato; Igino Andrighetto

2010-01-01

71

Effect of Cultivar, Year Grown, and Cropping System on the Content of Tocopherols and Tocotrienols in Grains of Hulled and Hulless Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a three-year period (2000–2002) total tocols (tocopherols and tocotrienols), content of vitamin E and its isomers (?-, ?+?-, ?-tocopherols and tocotrienols) were assessed in grain of 13 barley genotypes. The highest content of tocols (60.3–67.6 mg kg?1) and content of vitamin E (Vitamin E equivalent—18.0–20.1 mg kg?1) were determined in the waxy varieties Wanubet, Wabet, and Washonubet. Standard varieties, i.e. of a malting

J. Ehrenbergerovį; N. Belcrediovį; J. Prżma; K. Vaculovį; C. W. Newman

2006-01-01

72

Combining functional features of whole-grain barley and legumes for dietary reduction of cardiometabolic risk: a randomised cross-over intervention in mature women.  

PubMed

The usefulness of dietary strategies against cardiometabolic risk is increasingly being acknowledged. Legumes and whole grains can modulate risk markers associated with cardiometabolic diseases, but their possible additive/synergistic actions are unknown. The objective of the present study was to assess, in healthy subjects, the effect of a diet including specific whole-grain barley products and legumes with prior favourable outcomes on cardiometabolic risk parameters in semi-acute studies. A total of forty-six overweight women (50-72 years, BMI 25-33 kg/m² and normal fasting glycaemia) participated in a randomised cross-over intervention comparing a diet rich in kernel-based barley products, brown beans and chickpeas (D1, diet 1 (functional diet)) with a control diet (D2, diet 2 (control diet)) of similar macronutrient composition but lacking legumes and barley. D1 included 86 g (as eaten)/d brown beans, 82 g/d chickpeas, 58 g/d whole-grain barley kernels and 216 g/d barley kernel bread. Both diets followed the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations, providing similar amounts of dietary fibre (D1: 46·9 g/d; D2: 43·5 g/d), with wheat-based products as the main fibre supplier in D2. Each diet was consumed for 4 weeks under weight-maintenance conditions. Both diets decreased serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol levels, but D1 had a greater effect on total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels (P< 0·001 and P< 0·05, respectively). D1 also reduced apoB (P< 0·001) and ?-glutamyl transferase (P< 0·05) levels, diastolic blood pressure (P< 0·05) and the Framingham cardiovascular risk estimate (P< 0·05). D1 increased colonic fermentative activity, as judged from the higher (P< 0·001) breath hydrogen levels recorded. In conclusion, a specific barley/legume diet improves cardiometabolic risk-associated biomarkers in a healthy cohort, showing potential preventive value beyond that of a nutritionally well-designed regimen. PMID:24063257

Tovar, Juscelino; Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Maria; Björck, Inger

2014-02-01

73

Variation in the interaction between alleles of HvAPETALA2 and microRNA172 determines the density of grains on the barley inflorescence  

PubMed Central

Within the cereal grasses, variation in inflorescence architecture results in a conspicuous morphological diversity that in crop species influences the yield of cereal grains. Although significant progress has been made in identifying some of the genes underlying this variation in maize and rice, in the temperate cereals, a group that includes wheat, barley, and rye, only the dosage-dependent and highly pleiotropic Q locus in hexaploid wheat has been molecularly characterized. Here we show that the characteristic variation in the density of grains along the inflorescence, or spike, of modern cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) is largely the consequence of a perturbed interaction between microRNA172 and its corresponding binding site in the mRNA of an APELATA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, HvAP2. We used genome-wide association and biparental mapping to identify HvAP2. By comparing inflorescence development and HvAP2 transcript abundance in an extreme dense-spike mutant and its nearly isogenic WT line, we show that HvAP2 turnover driven by microRNA 172 regulates the length of a critical developmental window that is required for elongation of the inflorescence internodes. Our data indicate that this heterochronic change, an altered timing of developmental events caused by specific temporal variation in the efficiency of HvAP2 turnover, leads to the striking differences in the size and shape of the barley spike.

Houston, Kelly; McKim, Sarah M.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonar, Nicola; Druka, Ilze; Uzrek, Nicola; Cirillo, Elisa; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Collins, Nicholas C.; Halpin, Claire; Hansson, Mats; Dockter, Christoph; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie

2013-01-01

74

Effect of ensiling triticale, barley and wheat grains at different moisture content and addition of Lactobacillus plantarum (DSMZ 8866 and 8862) on fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestibility in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ensiling characteristics of barley, triticale and wheat grains at two different moisture levels, with and without the addition of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus plantarum DSMZ 8862 and 8866) were determined after a 50-day storage period. In addition, the impact of the different ensiling techniques on the nutritional value was determined in pigs. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, mature grains

R. Pieper; W. Hackl; U. Korn; A. Zeyner; W. B. Souffrant; B. Pieper

2011-01-01

75

The Application of Ultrasonic Inspection to Crimped Electrical Connections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The development of a prototype instrument, based on a modified, commercially available, crimp tool, is demonstrated for applying this technique when wire crimps are installed. The crimp tool has three separate crimping locations that accommodate the three different ferrule diameters. The crimp tool in this study is capable of crimping wire diameters ranging from 12 to 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG). A transducer design is presented that allows for interrogation of each of the three crimp locations on the crimp tool without reconfiguring the device. An analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse is shown to correlate to both crimp location in the tool and the AWG of the crimp/ferrule combination. The detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, is discussed. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2010-01-01

76

Formation of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins following the use of propionic acid as a grain preservative for storing damp barley.  

PubMed

The growth of storage moulds was studied in barley at 22% and approximately 28% moisture content treated with the recommended and reduced commercial doses of propionic acid over a 6 month storage period at 20°C. Experimental sample size was 5 kg barley per lot. Barley was fully protected against the growth ofA. flavus and aflatoxin formation when the recommended dose was applied. However, the treatment was less effective in controlling growth ofP. verrucosum and preventing ochratoxin A formation such that by 4 to 6 months of storage, the fungus had started to develop and toxin had formed even in some of the samples treated with propionic acid. The risk of the development of ochratoxin A during storage increased as the optimum dose was reduced, particularly for barley at 22% moisture content. PMID:23605070

Scudamore, K A; Banks, J N; Rizvi, R; Jennings, P

2004-06-01

77

The effect of free air carbon dioxide enrichment and nitrogen fertilisation on the chemical composition and nutritional value of wheat and barley grain.  

PubMed

A rising atmospheric CO2 concentration might influence the nutrient composition of feedstuffs and consequently the nutritional value for livestock. The present study investigates the effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on the chemical composition and nutritional value of winter wheat cv. "Batis" and winter barley cv. "Theresa". Both cereals were grown at two different atmospheric CO2 concentrations (ambient CO2 [AMBI]: 380 ppm and enriched CO2 [free air carbon dioxide enrichment, FACE]: 550 ppm) for two growing seasons. The influence of two different nitrogen (N) fertilisation levels (adequate N supply [N100] and nearly 50% of adequate N supply [N50]) were studied as well. A significant effect was observed for the crude protein content, which declined at FACE condition in a range of 8-16 g kg(-1) in wheat and of 10-20 g kg(-1) in barley. A reduced N fertilisation level resulted in a strong reduction of crude protein concentration in both cereal species. In wheat, a decrease in N supply significantly enhanced the concentration of starch and crude fibre. In barley, only the concentration of fructose increased under FACE condition and reduced N fertilisation. The FACE did not have major effects on the concentrations of minerals, while the influence of N fertilisation was different for both cereals. Whereas no effects could be observed for barley, a reduced N supply caused a significant reduction in concentrations of zinc, manganese and iron in wheat. Furthermore, an undirected effect of atmospheric CO2 and N fertilisation levels were found for the amino acid concentrations. Based on these results, future scenarios of climate change would have an impact on the nutritional value of cereal grains. PMID:23870025

Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

2013-08-01

78

Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers' Grains in Tibet  

PubMed Central

In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%.

Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

2012-01-01

79

Influence of Fe concentration in the medium on multicellular pollen grains and haploid plants induced by mannitol pretreatment in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

This study aims to clarify the short- and long-term effects of the iron concentration in the medium on androgenesis induced in barley by isolated microspore culture. The ultrastructural features and pectin composition of the intine wall were studied in the initial stages of androgenesis. The evolution of electron-dense iron deposits on the intine was analysed in multicellular pollen grains obtained by isolated microspore culture performed for 3, 6, and 9 days using various concentrations of FeNa(2) EDTA. Finally, the number of embryo-like structures and green plants obtained by microspore culture using different Fe concentrations was evaluated in order to estimate the optimum concentration for isolated microspore culture. PMID:16937061

Pulido, A; Bakos, F; Castillo, A; Vallés, M P; Barnabįs, B; Olmedilla, A

2006-08-01

80

Different Hormonal Regulation of Cellular Differentiation and Function in Nucellar Projection and Endosperm Transfer Cells: A Microdissection-Based Transcriptome Study of Young Barley Grains1[W  

PubMed Central

Nucellar projection (NP) and endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are essential tissues in growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, responsible for nutrient transfer from maternal to filial tissues, endosperm/embryo nutrition, and grain development. A laser microdissection pressure catapulting-based transcriptome analysis was established to study NP and ETC separately using a barley 12K macroarray. A major challenge was to isolate high-quality mRNA from preembedded, fixed tissue while maintaining tissue integrity. We show that probes generated from fixed and embedded tissue sections represent largely the transcriptome (>70%) of nonchemically treated and nonamplified references. In NP, the top-down gradient of cellular differentiation is reflected by the expression of C3HC4-type ubiquitin ligases and different histone genes, cell wall biosynthesis and expansin/extensin genes, as well as genes involved in programmed cell death-related proteolysis coupled to nitrogen remobilization, indicating distinct areas simultaneously undergoing mitosis, cell elongation, and disintegration. Activated gene expression related to gibberellin synthesis and function suggests a regulatory role for gibberellins in establishment of the differentiation gradient. Up-regulation of plasmalemma-intrinsic protein and tonoplast-intrinsic protein genes indicates involvement in nutrient transfer and/or unloading. In ETC, AP2/EREBP-like transcription factors and ethylene functions are transcriptionally activated, a response possibly coupled to activated defense mechanisms. Transcriptional activation of nucleotide sugar metabolism may be attributed to ascorbate synthesis and/or cell wall biosynthesis. These processes are potentially controlled by trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase, as suggested by expression of their respective genes. Up-regulation of amino acid permeases in ETC indicates important roles in active nutrient uptake from the apoplastic space into the endosperm.

Thiel, Johannes; Weier, Diana; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Weichert, Nicola; Melzer, Michael; Czauderna, Tobias; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede

2008-01-01

81

Effects of method of barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on duodenal nutrient flows, milk fatty acid profiles, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on ruminal nutrient digestion, duodenal nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles in dairy cows. Four Holstein cows (656 ± 28 kg of BW; 80 ± 12 d in milk) fitted with permanent ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of experimental treatments, in which barley was either dry-rolled (DRB) or pelleted (PB) and supplemented with full-fat canola seed (canola) or full-fat flaxseed (flaxseed). Cows fed DRB consumed 1.8 to 3.5 kg/d more dry matter compared with those fed PB. Mean ruminal pH was lower and the duration (min/d) and area (pH × min) of total ruminal acidosis (RA; ruminal pH <5.8), mild RA (5.8 >ruminal pH >5.5), and severe RA (5.5 >ruminal pH >5.2), and the duration of acute RA (ruminal pH <5.2) were greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Milk yield was unaffected by diet. Milk fat content and yield were greater in cows fed DRB than in cows fed PB. Cows fed PB had greater duodenal flows of C18:1 trans, C18:1 cis, C18:2 trans-9,trans-12, C18:2 trans-9,cis-12, C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, and C18:2 trans-10,cis-12 compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flows of C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans, total C18:1, C18:2n6, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola. Milk concentrations of C18:3n3 and total CLA tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. When compared with cows fed canola, milk concentrations of C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total CLA, and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed. Ruminal digestion of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was greater in cows fed DRB compared with those fed PB. Duodenal flow of ammonia-N tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flow of nonammonia nonmicrobial N was greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola; however, barley grain processing did not affect duodenal nonammonia nonmicrobial N flow. Duodenal flow of microbial nonammonia N and microbial efficiency were not affected by diet. In summary, barley grain processing and source of fat altered ruminal FA biohydrogenation, and this was reflected in changes in duodenal FA flow and milk FA profiles; however, ruminal microbial protein synthesis was unaltered. PMID:22863103

Mutsvangwa, T; Hobin, M R; Gozho, G N

2012-10-01

82

Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon.  

PubMed

Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed 'fibrillar crimps' and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P<0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165 degrees in stretched tendons vs. 148 degrees in relaxed tendons, P<0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the 'fibrillar crimps' are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the 'fibrillar crimp' may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon. PMID:17229278

Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

2007-01-01

83

Laboratory evaluation of adhesively crimped surgical ball hooks.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of sandblasting and/or dental adhesive on the stability of the crimpable hook when positioned and crimped onto surgical arch wires. Ninety crimpable ball hooks were divided into six test groups: crimp only; apply Panavia 21 and crimp; apply C & B Metabond and crimp; sandblast and crimp; sandblast, apply Panavia 21, and crimp; and sandblast, apply C & B Metabond, and crimp. Each hook was treated according to the criteria of the relevant test group and then crimped to the arch wire. The force required to dislodge each hook from the arch wire was measured. The results demonstrated that sandblasting caused a significant increase in the force required to dislodge the crimped hook. The addition of either Panavia 21 or C & B Metabond adhesives also resulted in a significant increase in the required dislodging force. The force required to dislodge the hook was increased by a factor of 10 where sandblasting and Panavia 21 were applied. The same increase was observed where C & B Metabond was applied, without sandblasting. However, it was concluded that the use of Panavia 21, together with an intraoral sandblasting machine, would be more appropriate in the clinical setting, primarily due to the ease of use associated with Panavia 21. PMID:9743650

Griffin, J T; Ferracane, J L

1998-01-01

84

Control of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) development and senescence by the interaction between a chromosome six grain protein content locus, day length, and vernalization.  

PubMed

Regulatory processes controlling traits such as anthesis timing and whole-plant senescence are of primary importance for reproductive success and for crop quality and yield. It has previously been demonstrated that the presence of alleles associated with high grain protein content (GPC) at a locus on barley chromosome six leads to accelerated leaf senescence, and to strong (>10-fold) up-regulation of several genes which may be involved in senescence control. One of these genes (coding for a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein termed HvGR-RBP1) exhibits a high degree of similarity to Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 7 (AtGRP7), which has been demonstrated to accelerate flowering under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, but not after vernalization. Development of near-isogenic barley lines, differing in the allelic state of the GPC locus, was compared from the seedling stage to maturity under both SD and LD and after vernalization under LD. Intriguingly, pre-anthesis plant development [measured by leaf emergence timing and pre-anthesis (sequential) leaf senescence] was enhanced in high-GPC germplasm. Differences were more pronounced under SD than under LD, but were eliminated by vernalization, associating observed effects with floral induction pathways. By contrast, differences in post-anthesis flag leaf and whole-plant senescence between low- and high-GPC germplasm persisted under all tested conditions, indicating that the GPC locus, possibly through HvGR-RBP1, impacts on both developmental stages. Detailed molecular characterization of this experimental system may allow the dissection of cross-talk between signalling pathways controlling early plant and floral development on one side, and leaf/whole-plant senescence on the other side. PMID:22090442

Parrott, David L; Downs, Eric P; Fischer, Andreas M

2012-02-01

85

Control of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) development and senescence by the interaction between a chromosome six grain protein content locus, day length, and vernalization  

PubMed Central

Regulatory processes controlling traits such as anthesis timing and whole-plant senescence are of primary importance for reproductive success and for crop quality and yield. It has previously been demonstrated that the presence of alleles associated with high grain protein content (GPC) at a locus on barley chromosome six leads to accelerated leaf senescence, and to strong (>10-fold) up-regulation of several genes which may be involved in senescence control. One of these genes (coding for a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein termed HvGR-RBP1) exhibits a high degree of similarity to Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 7 (AtGRP7), which has been demonstrated to accelerate flowering under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, but not after vernalization. Development of near-isogenic barley lines, differing in the allelic state of the GPC locus, was compared from the seedling stage to maturity under both SD and LD and after vernalization under LD. Intriguingly, pre-anthesis plant development [measured by leaf emergence timing and pre-anthesis (sequential) leaf senescence] was enhanced in high-GPC germplasm. Differences were more pronounced under SD than under LD, but were eliminated by vernalization, associating observed effects with floral induction pathways. By contrast, differences in post-anthesis flag leaf and whole-plant senescence between low- and high-GPC germplasm persisted under all tested conditions, indicating that the GPC locus, possibly through HvGR-RBP1, impacts on both developmental stages. Detailed molecular characterization of this experimental system may allow the dissection of cross-talk between signalling pathways controlling early plant and floral development on one side, and leaf/whole-plant senescence on the other side.

Parrott, David L.; Downs, Eric P.; Fischer, Andreas M.

2012-01-01

86

Differential gene expression for suicide-substrate serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) in vegetative and grain tissues of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proteins of the serpin superfamily (~43 kDa) from mature cereal grains are in vitro suicide-substrate inhibitors of specific mammalian serine proteinases of the chymotrypsin family. However, unlike the 'standard-mechanism' serine proteinase inhibitors (<25 kDa), the biological functions of plant serpins are unknown. Expression studies of genes encoding members of three subfamilies of serpins (BSZx, BSZ4 and BSZ7) in developing grain

Thomas H. Roberts; Salla Marttila; Sųren K. Rasmussen; Jųrn Hejgaard

2003-01-01

87

Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare?L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.  

PubMed

Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20?°C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10?°C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Franēoise

2014-06-01

88

Effects of yarn crimping on braided composite design allowables  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Braided composite materials are currently being evaluated for wing skin stiffeners on commercial aircraft. These carbon-fiber/epoxy materials allow for low-cost manufacturing while maintaining high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios. The proposed braid architecture consists of axial carbon fiber yarns and braider carbon fiber yarns making 60 deg to 70 deg angles with respect to the axial yarns. These 2-D triaxial braids are produced as long, continuous tubes, which are flattened, cut, and stacked to produce the desired part thickness and shape. When infiltrated with epoxy resin and cured under a compaction pressure, the fiber yarns become crimped, allowing for higher fiber packing. Although high fiber packing is desirable, yarn crimping (especially in the axial fiberyarns) is undesirable. Significant axial yarn crimp angles (greater than 10 deg) have been measured in braided composites. Comparable levels of crimping have been found to produce significant compressive strength reductions in laminated composites consisting of planar fiber sheets. Thus, axial yarn crimping is suspected of producing significant reductions in compressive strength allowables for braided composites. The objective of this research is to quantify the reduction in compressive strength as a function of axial yarn crimp severity. Since crimp severity can be reduced by lowering the compaction pressure during curing, the resulting compressive strengths may be used to determine optimum processing conditions. A 'cure-on-the-loom' manufacturing process was developed to produce braided composites with controlled levels of crimping. This method allowed for controlled levels of tension to be placed on the axial yarns and maintained during the curing process. With increasing tension, the crimp severity in the axial yarns was reduced. Thus, varying crimp severities were produced ranging from conventional levels (greater than 10 deg) to virtually straight axial yarns. Test results indicate that a 30% increase in compressive strength is obtainable by eliminating axial yarn crimping. Further compression testing is underway to quantify the relationship between crimp severity and compressive strength. Additional testing is planned to investigate the effect of crimping on the open-hole compressive strength, often considered a more significant design allowable.

Adams, Dan

1995-01-01

89

Quality control on crimping of large diameter welding pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crimping is used in production of large diameter submerged-arc welding pipes. Many researches are focused on crimping in certain manufacturing mode of welding pipe. The application scopes of research achievements become limited due to lack of uniformity in theoretical analysis. In order to propose a crimping prediction method in order to control forming quality, the theory model of crimping based on elastic-plastic mechanics is established. The main technical parameters are determined by theoretical analysis, including length of crimping, base radius of punch, terminal angle of punch, base radius of die, terminal angle of die and horizontal distance between punch and die. In addition, a method used to evaluate the forming quality is presented, which investigates the bending angle after springback, forming force, straight edge length and equivalent radius of curvature. In order to investigate the effects of technical parameters on forming quality, a two-dimensional finite element model is established by finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element model is verified in that its shapes error is less than 5% by comparable experiments, which shows that their geometric precision meets demand. The crimping characteristics is obtained, such as the distribution of stress and strain and the changes of forming force, and the relation curves of technical parameters on forming quality are given by simulation analysis. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects of length of crimping, technical parameters of punch on forming quality are significant. In particular, the data from simulation analysis are regressed by response surface method (RSM) to establish prediction model. The feasible technical parameters are obtained from the prediction model. This method presented provides a new thought used to design technical parameters of crimping forming and makes a basis for improving crimping forming quality.

Fan, Lifeng; Gao, Ying; Li, Qiang; Xu, Hongshen

2012-11-01

90

Tendon crimps and peritendinous tissues responding to tensional forces.  

PubMed

Tendons transmit forces generated from muscle to bone making joint movements possible. Tendon collagen has a complex supramolecular structure forming many hierarchical levels of association; its main functional unit is the collagen fibril forming fibers and fascicles. Since tendons are enclosed by loose connective sheaths in continuity with muscle sheaths, it is likely that tendon sheaths could play a role in absorbing/transmitting the forces created by muscle contraction. In this study rat Achilles tendons were passively stretched in vivo to be observed at polarized light microscope (PLM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). At PLM tendon collagen fibers in relaxed rat Achilles tendons ran straight and parallel, showing a periodic crimp pattern. Similarly tendon sheaths showed apparent crimps. At higher magnification SEM and TEM revealed that in each tendon crimp large and heterogeneous collagen fibrils running straight and parallel suddenly changed their direction undergoing localized and variable modifications. These fibril modifications were named fibrillar crimps. Tendon sheaths displayed small and uniform fibrils running parallel with a wavy course without any ultrastructural aspects of crimp. Since in passively stretched Achilles tendons fibrillar crimps were still observed, it is likely that during the tendon stretching, and presumably during the tendon elongation in muscle contraction, the fibrillar crimp may be the real structural component of the tendon crimp acting as shock absorber. The peritendinous sheath can be stretched as tendon, but is not actively involved in the mechanism of shock absorber as the fibrillar crimp. The different functional behaviour of tendons and sheaths may be due to the different structural and molecular arrangement of their fibrils. PMID:17703588

Franchi, M; Quaranta, M; De Pasquale, V; Macciocca, M; Orsini, E; Trirč, A; Ottani, V; Ruggeri, A

2007-01-01

91

Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.  

PubMed

Tendons are composed of longitudinally aligned collagen fibrils arranged in bundles with an undulating pattern, called crimp. The crimp structure is established during embryonic development and plays a vital role in the mechanical behaviour of tendon, acting as a shock-absorber during loading. However, the mechanism of crimp formation is unknown, partly because of the difficulties of studying tendon development in vivo. Here, we used a 3D cell culture system in which embryonic tendon fibroblasts synthesise a tendon-like construct comprised of collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Investigations using polarised light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed that tendon constructs contained a regular pattern of wavy collagen fibrils. Tensile testing indicated that this superstructure was a form of embryonic crimp producing a characteristic toe region in the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, contraction of tendon fibroblasts was the critical factor in the buckling of collagen fibrils during the formation of the crimp structure. Using these biological data, a finite element model was built that mimics the contraction of the tendon fibroblasts and monitors the response of the Extracellular matrix. The results show that the contraction of the fibroblasts is a sufficient mechanical impulse to build a planar wavy pattern. Furthermore, the value of crimp wavelength was determined by the mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils and inter-fibrillar matrix. Increasing fibril stiffness combined with constant matrix stiffness led to an increase in crimp wavelength. The data suggest a novel mechanism of crimp formation, and the finite element model indicates the minimum requirements to generate a crimp structure in embryonic tendon. PMID:21735243

Herchenhan, Andreas; Kalson, Nicholas S; Holmes, David F; Hill, Patrick; Kadler, Karl E; Margetts, Lee

2012-03-01

92

Germinated Barley Foodstuff Feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

A germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) contained glutamine-rich protein and the hemicellulose-rich fiber was made from brewer’s spent grain by physical isolation (milling and sieving). Both in vivo and in vitro studies demonstrated that the fiber fraction of GBF supports maintenance of epithelial cell populations, facilitates epithelial repair, and suppresses epithelial nuclear factor ?B-DNA binding activity through generating increased short-chain fatty

Osamu Kanauchi; Toshihiko Iwanaga; Keiichi Mitsuyama

2001-01-01

93

Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts - strategies, methods and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research.

Petersen, J?rgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

2013-01-01

94

Comparison of hull-less barley, barley, or corn for lactating cows: effects on extent of digestion and milk production.  

PubMed

Six lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design to compare the effects of hull-less barley with barley and corn on ruminal fermentation, rate of passage, flow of nutrients to the duodenum, and milk production. Diets consisted of 60% concentrate, 30% barley silage, and 10% alfalfa hay (dry matter basis). Concentrates contained steam-rolled grains: hull-less barley, barley, or corn. Dry matter intake was unaffected by grain source, but starch intake tended to be greatest when hull-less barley or corn was fed. The barley diet was more degradable in the rumen than was the hull-less barley or corn diet, and, therefore, flow of microbial organic matter to the duodenum was greatest for cows fed the barley diet. Flow of microbial N to the duodenum was greater (50 g/d) for cows fed the barley diet than for cows fed the other diets, and the flow of ruminally undegradable N was greater (43 and 28 g/d) for cows fed the hull-less barley and corn diets, respectively, than for cows fed the barley diet. As a result, flow of nonammonia N to the duodenum was unaffected by grain source. Total tract apparent digestibility was highest for cows fed the barley and corn diets. Despite its low digestibility, cows fed the hull-less barley diet produced a similar amount of milk as did cows fed the barley and corn diets. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of processing hull-less barley on its utilization by dairy cows. PMID:9361219

Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; Koenig, K M; Rode, L M

1997-10-01

95

Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.  

PubMed

Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar levels of growth and feed efficiency compared with a TMR. PMID:25006072

Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

2014-08-01

96

Biomechanical properties of the crimp grip position in rock climbers.  

PubMed

Rock climbers are often using the unique crimp grip position to hold small ledges. Thereby the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints are flexed about 90 degrees and the distal interphalangeal joints are hyperextended maximally. During this position of the finger joints bowstringing of the flexor tendon is applying very high load to the flexor tendon pulleys and can cause injuries and overuse syndromes. The objective of this study was to investigate bowstringing and forces during crimp grip position. Two devices were built to measure the force and the distance of bowstringing and one device to measure forces at the fingertip. All measurements of 16 fingers of four subjects were made in vivo. The largest amount of bowstringing was caused by the flexor digitorum profundus tendon in the crimp grip position being less using slope grip position (PIP joint extended). During a warm-up, the distance of bowstringing over the distal edge of the A2 pulley increased by 0.6mm (30%) and was loaded about 3 times the force applied at the fingertip during crimp grip position. Load up to 116N was measured over the A2 pulley. Increase of force in one finger holds by the quadriga effect was shown using crimp and slope grip position. PMID:11165286

Schweizer, A

2001-02-01

97

Kinetics of crimp and slope grip in rock climbing.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate differences of the kinetics of the crimp and the slope grip used in rock climbing. Nine cadaver fingers were prepared and fixated with the proximal phalanx in a frame. The superficial (FDS) and deep (FDP) flexor tendons were loaded selectively and together with 40 N in the crimp grip (PIP joint flexed 90°/DIP joint hyperextended) and the slope grip position (<25° flexed/50° flexed respectively). Five different grip sizes were tested and the flexion force which was generated to the grip was measured. In the crimp grip the FDP generated more flexion force in small sized holds whereas the FDS generated more force in the larger holds. During the slope grip the FDP was more effective than the FDS. While both tendons were loaded, the flexion force was always greater during crimp grip compared with the slope grip. The FDP seems to be most important for very small holds using the crimp grip but also during slope grip holds whereas the FDS is more important for larger flat holds. PMID:21576719

Schweizer, Andreas; Hudek, Robert

2011-05-01

98

Comparison of Grain Sources (Barley, White Corn, and Yellow Corn) for Swine Diets and Their Effects on Meat Quality and Production Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient pork production is a necessity for an economically viable swine industry. Number two yellow corn is considered the primary energy source for swine diets in the Midwest. Despite the low protein content, corn is considered one of the most economical feed stuffs available to the swine production system. Barley is a high fiber that has approximately 89% of the

Jay F. Lampe; John W. Mabry; Palmer J. Holden

2004-01-01

99

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrķzovį, Katarķna; Holaskovį, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrovį, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

100

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatases (MINPPs) are phytases expressed during grain filling and germination.  

PubMed

At present, little is known about the phytases of plant seeds in spite of the fact that this group of enzymes is the primary determinant for the utilization of the major phosphate storage compound in seeds, phytic acid. We report the cloning and characterization of complementary DNAs (cDNAs) encoding one of the groups of enzymes with phytase activity, the multiple inositol phosphate phosphatases (MINPPs). Four wheat cDNAs (TaPhyIIa1, TaPhyIIa2, TaPhyIIb and TaPhyIIc) and three barley cDNAs (HvPhyIIa1, HvPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb) were isolated. The open reading frames ranged from 1548 to 1554 bp and the level of homology between the barley and wheat proteins ranged from 90.5% to 91.9%. All cDNAs contained an N-terminal signal peptide encoding sequence, and a KDEL-like sequence, KTEL, was present at the C-terminal, indicating that the enzyme was targeted to and retained within the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression of TaPhyIIa2 and HvPhyIIb in Escherichia coli revealed that the MINPPs possessed a significant phytase activity with narrow substrate specificity for phytate. The pH and temperature optima for both enzymes were pH 4.5 and 65 degrees C, respectively, and the K(m) values for phytate were 246 and 334 microm for the wheat and barley recombinant enzymes, respectively. The enzymes were inhibited by several metal ions, in particular copper and zinc. The cDNAs showed significantly different temporal and tissue-specific expression patterns during seed development and germination. With the exception of TaPhyIIb, the cDNAs were present during late seed development and germination. We conclude that MINPPs constitute a significant part of the endogenous phytase potential of the developing and germinating barley and wheat seeds. PMID:17309687

Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben B; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

2007-03-01

101

A Method For The Verification Of Wire Crimp Compression Using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to assess quantitatively wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. To demonstrate the technique, the case of incomplete compression of crimped connections is ultrasonically tested, and the results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently predicts good crimps when the ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A quantitative measure of the quality of the crimped connection based on the ultrasonic energy transmitted is shown to respond accurately to crimp quality. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. A comparison of the results of two different instruments is presented and shows reproducibility between instruments within a 95% confidence bound.

Cramer, K. E.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William t.

2010-01-01

102

Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil  

DOEpatents

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

Wittel, deceased, Charles F. (late of Linden, NJ)

1986-01-01

103

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes.

Fischer, Jon E. (Concord, CA); Walmsley, Don (Livermore, CA); Wapman, P. Derek (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

104

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. 8 figs.

Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

1996-08-20

105

A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

106

Microbes in the Tailoring of Barley Malt Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malted barley (malt) is traditionally used in the production of beer and distilled spirits. In addition, it can be processed into ingredients for different areas of the food industry. Malting, the controlled germination of cereal grains, is a complex biol...

A. Laitila

2009-01-01

107

World Grain Situation and Outlook, February 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The February 1992 circular gives reports on rice, wheat, sorghum, coarse grains, and barley. The coarse grain import forecast for the republics of the former Soviet Union was raised by 1 million metric tons to reflect the increased purchases of barley und...

1992-01-01

108

The non-touching method of the malting barley quality evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first important stage of the malt production processes is the malting barley quality evaluation. Presented project was focused on the visual features of malting barley grains. The principal aim was to elaborate complete methodology to determine the level of grains contamination. The article describes the mechanisms of choosing parameters which can distinguish useful for the malt production grains from defects and impurities. Original computer system 'Hordeum v 3.1' helped obtain graphical data from images of contaminated barley samples. Research carried out in this area can improve the quality evaluation process of malting barley.

Raba, B.; Nowakowski, K.; Lewicki, A.; Przyby?, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Koszela, K.; Boniecki, P.; Mueller, W.

2014-04-01

109

Ultrasonics Equipped Crimp Tool: A New Technology for Aircraft Wiring Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of poor mechanical and electrical quality will result in low temporal output and will distort the spectrum into unique and predictable patterns, depending on crimp "quality". This inexpensive, real-time measurement system can provide certification of crimps as they are made and recertification of existing wire crimps currently in service. The measurements for re-certification do not require that the wire be disconnected from its circuit. No other technology exists to measure in-situ the condition of wire joints (no electrical currents through the crimp are used in this analytical technique). We discuss the signals obtained from this instrument, and correlate these signals with destructive wire pull tests.

Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, Elliott

2006-01-01

110

Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae isolates from barley grains produce new cereulide-like depsipeptides (paenilide and homopaenilide) that are highly toxic to mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg(-1) of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K(+) ions already at 4 mM [K(+)], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

Rasimus, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Teplova, Vera V; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-05-01

111

Collagen fibre arrangement and functional crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament in the rat knee.  

PubMed

Ligaments have been described as multifascicular structures with collagen fibres cross-connecting to each other or running straight and parallel also showing a waviness or crimping pattern playing as a shock absorber/recoiling system during joint motions. A particular collagen array and crimping pattern in different ligaments may reflect different biomechanical roles and properties. The aim of the study was to relate the 3D collagen arrangement in the crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) to its functional role. The MCL is one of the most injured ligaments during sports activities and an experimental model to understand the rate, quality and composition of ligaments healing. A deep knowledge of structure-function relationship of collagen fibres array will improve the development of rehabilitation protocols and more appropriate exercises for recovery of functional activity. The rat MCL was analysed by polarized light microscopy, confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that MCL crimps have a smaller base length versus other tendons. SEM observations demonstrated that collagen fibres showing few crimps were composed of fibrils intertwining and crossing one another in the outer region. Confocal laser analyses excluded a helical array of collagen fibres. By contrast, in the core portion, densely packed straight collagen fibres ran parallel to the main axis of the ligament being interrupted both by planar crimps, similar to tendon crimps, and by newly described right-handed twisted crimps. It is concluded that planar crimps could oppose or respond exclusively to tensional forces parallel to the main ligament axis, whereas the right-handed twisted crimps could better resist/respond to a complex of tensional/rotational forces within the ligament thus opposing to an external rotation of tibia. PMID:20182866

Franchi, Marco; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; Leonardi, Luisa; Ottani, Vittoria; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ruggeri, Alessandro

2010-12-01

112

The effect of partial replacement of barley grains by Prosopis juliflora pods on growth performance, nutrient intake, digestibility, and carcass characteristics of Awassi lambs fed finishing diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-one Awassi male lambs were used to evaluate the effect of replacing barely grains by Prosopis juliflora pods (PJP) on growth performance, digestibility, and carcass and meat characteristics. Lambs were fed finishing diets and assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments. Treatment diets were no PJP (CON; n=7), 100g\\/kg PJP (PJP100; n=7), and 200g\\/kg PJP (PJP200; n=7). Dry matter

Belal S. Obeidat; Abdullah Y. Abdullah; Fatima A. Al-Lataifeh

2008-01-01

113

Residual Stress Evaluation within a Crimped Splice Connector Assembly  

SciTech Connect

In power transmission, connectors play an important role in the efficiency and reliability of the system. Due to the increase of power demand and lack of new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than the original design criteria. However, this had led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors, which has been manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection of transmission lines operating at elevated temperatures. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increase in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reduction in the connector clamping strength, which ultimately results in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector has become the weakest link in the electric power transmission infrastructure. The compressive residual stresses induced by the crimping process within the splice provide the clamping forces to secure the conductor and therefore, the determination of the state of residual stresses in splice connectors is a necessary requirement to provide an accurate estimate of their service lifetime. This paper presents a protocol of utilizing finite-element analysis and neutron scattering experiments for evaluating the residual stress fields within a crimped single-stage splice connector assembly.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL; Graziano, Joe [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Chan, John [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

2006-01-01

114

The influence of textile vascular prosthesis crimping on graft longitudinal elasticity and flexibility.  

PubMed

Textile vascular prostheses are the principal substitute for the replacement of large vascular arteries. These prostheses undergo a thermal treatment of crimping inducing a wavy shape of the graft wall. Today mechanical properties of crimped vascular prostheses are not well known. After implantation, vascular prostheses are exposed to several longitudinal forces due to blood pressure, inducing their deformation during the cardiac cycle. In arteries that undergo large bending deformation, the flexibility is a necessary feature of vascular prostheses. In the present work, a longitudinal tensile model and a bending model of woven vascular prosthesis are numerically simulated. The obtained results provide a better understanding of the impact of the crimping parameters on the longitudinal elasticity and the bending stiffness of the textile vascular prosthesis. Mathematical predictive models of longitudinal elasticity and bending stiffness of the textile prosthesis have been developed, allowing relating the prosthesis elasticity and flexibility with the crimping parameters. PMID:23159512

Hajjaji, R; Abdessalem, S Ben; Ganghoffer, J F

2012-12-01

115

Development history of crimp shear tools. Item D11 Decommissioning Group.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report gives information on the continuing development of a range of crimp/shear tools aimed at separating items of radioactive plant, eg, gloveboxes, from a variety of service pipelines which could also be internally contaminated. (author). (Atomind...

A. K. Farmer G. V. Holden

1988-01-01

116

Genetic relationships between preharvest sprouting and dormancy in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Preharvest sprouting (PHS) and dormancy (DOR) can be problems in barley production and end use quality, especially for barley\\u000a used for seed and malting. Three crosses previously analyzed for DOR inheritance, were reanalyzed for PHS and DOR inheritance\\u000a using artificial rain to calculate sprout score (SSc) and measure alpha-amylase activity (AA). Germination percentage of untreated\\u000a grain for DOR was also

S. E. Ullrich; H. Lee; J. A. Clancy; I. A. del Blanco; V. A. Jitkov; A. Kleinhofs; F. Han; D. Prada; I. Romagosa; J. L. Molina-Cano

2009-01-01

117

Collagen fibre arrangement and functional crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament in the rat knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligaments have been described as multifascicular structures with collagen fibres cross-connecting to each other or running\\u000a straight and parallel also showing a waviness or crimping pattern playing as a shock absorber\\/recoiling system during joint\\u000a motions. A particular collagen array and crimping pattern in different ligaments may reflect different biomechanical roles\\u000a and properties. The aim of the study was to relate

Marco Franchi; Marilisa Quaranta; Maria Macciocca; Luisa Leonardi; Vittoria Ottani; Paolo Bianchini; Alberto Diaspro; Alessandro Ruggeri

2010-01-01

118

World Grain Situation and Outlook, June 1992.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In 1992/93, projected wheat imports by the smaller markets are expected to approach a level not seen in nearly a decade. The publication includes information on wheat, coarse grains, rice, barley, corn, and sorghum.

1992-01-01

119

Barley Helps Reduce Cholesterol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Barley's many roles, in brewing beer, in breakfast foods, and as feed for stock, may now be expanding to include lowering cholesterol in chickens and pigs. Scientist...

1983-01-01

120

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

121

Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

Carnes, J. G. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

122

Effects of Crimping on Mechanical Performance of Nitinol Stent Designed for Femoral Artery: Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitinol stents are used to minimize improper dynamic behavior, low twistability, and inadequate radial mechanical strength of femoral artery stents. In this study, finite element method is used to investigate the effect of crimping and Austenite finish temperature ( A f) of Nitinol on mechanical performance of Z-shaped open-cell femoral stent under crimping conditions. Results show that low A f Nitinol has better mechanical and clinical performance due to small chronic outward force, large radial resistive force, and appropriate superelastic behavior.

Nematzadeh, F.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

2013-11-01

123

Russian Federation: Grain and Feed. December Grain Update, 2008. GAIN Report Number RS8091.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post increased Russia's total grain production forecast by 2.1 MMT to 102.5 MMT. Logistics, financial problems, and tight competition in the foreign markets will limit grain exports to 14.0 MMT of wheat, 2.1 MMT of barley, 150,000 MT of corn. Grain prices...

M. E. Smith Y. Vassilieva

2008-01-01

124

Regulation of Dormancy in Barley by Blue Light and After-Ripening: Effects on Abscisic Acid and Gibberellin Metabolism1(W)  

Microsoft Academic Search

White light strongly promotes dormancy in freshly harvested cereal grains, whereas dark and after-ripening have the opposite effect. We have analyzed the interaction of light and after-ripening on abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) metabolism genes and dormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare 'Betzes'). Analysis of gene expression in imbibed barley grains shows that different ABA metabolism genes are targeted by

Frank Gubler; Trijntje Hughes; Peter Waterhouse; John Jacobsen

125

Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mechanical compression and tearing tests are carried out on crimped glass wool samples. The displacement field is determined by using digital image correlation based on images taken at different stages of the mechanical tests. A multiscale algorithm is used to resolve accurately fine details of the displacement field. This technique reveals strain heterogeneities and further localisation in compression tests well

Sandra Bergonnier; Francois Hild; S Roux

2005-01-01

126

Effect of surface?applied Ca amendments and N on solonetzic soil properties and composition of Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A field study was conducted on a black Solonetzic soil in east?central Alberta to determine the influence of surface applications of gypsum, lime, and ammonium nitrate, alone and in combinations, on soil chemical properties, grain yield, and chemical composition of barley. The Ca amendments were applied once in fall 1982; ammonium nitrate was applied each spring before sowing of barley

S. S. Malhi; D. W. McAndrew; M. R. Carter

1992-01-01

127

Quantifying the sensitivity of barley seed germination to oxygen, abscisic acid, and gibberellin using a population-based threshold model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds (grains) exhibit dormancy at maturity that is largely due to the presence of the glumellae (hulls) that reduce the availability of oxygen (O2) to the embryo. In addition, abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellins (GAS) interact with O2 to regulate barley seed dormancy. A popula- tion-based threshold model was applied to quantify the sensitivities of seeds

Kent J. Bradford; Roberto L. Benech-Arnold; Daniel Come; F. Corbineau

2008-01-01

128

Effect of feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms.  

PubMed

Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evaluation of alternative grain types for ruminant production systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between 2 feedings) consisting of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) hay pellets (40% of dry matter) and 1) ground corn, 2) hulled barley, or 3) hull-less barley concentrate (60% of dry matter) in each fermentor. Following an adaptation period of 5 d, culture samples were taken at 2 h after the morning feeding on d 6, 7, and 8 of each period for analysis. A second run of the fermentors followed the same treatment sequence to provide replication. Culture pH was reduced with corn (5.55) and did not differ between barley cultivars (average pH 5.89). Total volatile fatty acid concentration and acetate to propionate ratio were not different across grain type or barley cultivar with the exception of greater total volatile fatty acid concentrations with hull-less barley. Corn produced less methane (14.6 mmol/d) and ammonia-N (7.3 mg/100 mL) compared with barley (33.1 mmol/d and 22 mg/100 mL, respectively); methane was greater with hull-less barley but ammonia-N concentration was similar between the 2 barley cultivars. Hull-less barley had greater digestibility compared with hulled barley, and corn had reduced digestibility compared with barley. Concentrations of C18:0 were greater and those of C18:1 and C18:2 lesser in cultures fed hulled and hull-less barley compared with corn. Our data indicate that grain type and barley cultivar have an impact on ruminal fermentation. The lesser starch concentration of barley minimized the drop in culture pH and improved digestibility. PMID:18420625

Fellner, V; Burns, J C; Marshall, D S

2008-05-01

129

Validity of various physiological traits as screening criteria for salt tolerance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited knowledge of the physiological basis of the detrimental effects of soil salinity on growth and yield of barley and the consequent lack of suitable screening traits are two reasons for the limited success of plant breeding in saline environments. We assessed the relationships between grain yield, carbon isotope discrimination (?), canopy temperature, stomatal conductance, and grain ash content in

R. Isla; R. Aragüés; A. Royo

1998-01-01

130

Tocopherol and tocotrienol accumulation during development of caryopses from barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tocotrienols are lipophilic antioxidants belonging to the tocochromanols, better known as vitamin E. Although present in cereal grains in high quantities not much is known about their function in plants. In a detailed study the temporal and spatial accumulation of tocotrienols and tocopherols during grain development in two barley cultivars was analyzed. Tocochromanols and lipids accumulated in parallel until 80%

Jon Falk; Alice Krahnstöver; Thomas A. W. van der Kooij; Mark Schlensog; Karin Krupinska

2004-01-01

131

The wheat Lr34 gene provides resistance against multiple fungal pathogens in barley.  

PubMed

The Lr34 gene encodes an ABC transporter and has provided wheat with durable, broad-spectrum resistance against multiple fungal pathogens for over 100 years. Because barley does not have an Lr34 ortholog, we expressed Lr34 in barley to investigate its potential as a broad-spectrum resistance resource in another grass species. We found that introduction of the genomic Lr34 sequence confers resistance against barley leaf rust and barley powdery mildew, two pathogens specific for barley but not virulent on wheat. In addition, the barley lines showed enhanced resistance against wheat stem rust. Transformation with the Lr34 cDNA or the genomic susceptible Lr34 allele did not result in increased resistance. Unlike wheat, where Lr34-conferred resistance is associated with adult plants, the genomic Lr34 transgenic barley lines exhibited multipathogen resistance in seedlings. These transgenic barley lines also developed leaf tip necrosis (LTN) in young seedlings, which correlated with an up-regulation of senescence marker genes and several pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. In wheat, transcriptional expression of Lr34 is highest in adult plants and correlates with increased resistance and LTN affecting the last emerging leaf. The severe phenotype of transgenic Lr34 barley resulted in reduced plant growth and total grain weight. These results demonstrate that Lr34 provides enhanced multipathogen resistance early in barley plant development and implies the conservation of the substrate and mechanism of the LR34 transporter and its molecular action between wheat and barley. With controlled gene expression, the use of Lr34 may be valuable for many cereal breeding programmes, particularly given its proven durability. PMID:23711079

Risk, Joanna M; Selter, Liselotte L; Chauhan, Harsh; Krattinger, Simon G; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz; Viccars, Libby A; Richardson, Terese M; Buesing, Gabriele; Troller, Anna; Lagudah, Evans S; Keller, Beat

2013-09-01

132

Response of Six-Row Barley to Seeding Rate with or without Ethrel Spray in the Absence of Moisture Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

A two-year study was conducted in northern Jordan to detect the influence of varying seeding rate and ethrel application on yield and yield components of winter barley. Seeding rate of 120 kg ha-1 produced the maximum grain yield ha-1. At this density, it also exhibited the lowest spikes plant -1 , grains spike -1 and thousand grain weight. Whereas at

MUNIR A. TURK; ABDEL RAHMAN M. AL-TAWAHA; OLANI NIKUS; MOHAMMAD RIFAEE

133

Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains.

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2011-01-01

134

Effects of phenolic compounds on the browning of cooked barley.  

PubMed

Barley grain products undergo browning when cooked. To evaluate effects of phenolic compounds on browning, various amounts of (+)-catechin, proanthocyanidins, or related phenolic compounds were added to aqueous barley extracts or barley pastes, which were heated at 90 degrees C for 1 or 2 h, respectively. In barley extract, (+)-catechin, procyanidin B3 (PCB3), prodelphinidin B3 (PDB3), and a trimer of gallocatechin-gallocatechin-catechin (PDT1) dose-dependently elevated absorbance at 420 nm after heating. PDB3 caused browning faster than PCB3 and (+)-catechin. In barley paste, PDB3 and PDT1 decreased the L* value and increased the a* and b* values of the paste dose-dependently after heating and PCB3 and (+)-catechin did so to a lesser extent. Caffeic acid promoted the browning in both of the extract and paste, while protocatechuic acid, eriodictyol, and (+)-taxifolin promoted it in the extract and myricetin and quercetin promoted it in the paste. Compounds promoting browning have catechol or pyrogallol structures in common. PMID:19601672

Kohyama, Noriko; Fujita, Masaya; Ono, Hiroshi; Ohnishi-Kameyama, Mayumi; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Takayama, Toshiyuki; Murata, Masatsune

2009-07-22

135

Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared

I. Ma?ecka; A. Blecharczyk

2008-01-01

136

Dynamic capillary effects in liquid composite moulding with non-crimp fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique is presented to measure the capillary pressure drop ?P? during infiltration of non-crimp fabrics by a liquid matrix. Three types of liquids are used: polyethylene glycol (PEG) dissolved in water, a thermoset epoxy resin and a reactive thermoplastic system. Results show that epoxy resin behaves as a non-wetting liquid with a ?P? of 14kPa when injected under constant

J. Verrey; V. Michaud; J.-A. E. Månson

2006-01-01

137

Hot forming behavior of non-crimp fabric peek\\/c thermoplastic composites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hot forming behavior of four new non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite materials developed by using the thermoplastic resin PolyEtherEtherKetone (PEEK) was experimentally investigated. The quality of the hot formed parts was evaluated by means of C-Scan and optical microscopy analyses. In addition, the draping behavior of the NCFs was experimentally evaluated to assess the suitability of the developed NCF materials

B. C. Meyer; Ch. V. Katsiropoulos; Sp. G. Pantelakis

2009-01-01

138

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge.

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

139

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nųrgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

140

Separability study of wheat and small grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (principal investigators)

1978-01-01

141

Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands  

PubMed Central

Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area.

2011-01-01

142

Rapid LC-MS-based metabolomics method to study the Fusarium infection of barley.  

PubMed

Ultra high performance liquid chromatography with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to evaluate the potential of nontarget metabolomic fingerprinting in order to distinguish Fusarium-infected and control barley samples. First, the sample extraction and instrumental conditions were optimized to obtain the broadest possible representation of polar/medium-polar compounds occurring in extracts obtained from barley grain samples. Next, metabolomic fingerprints of extracts obtained from nine barley varieties were acquired under ESI conditions in both positive and negative mode. Each variety of barley was tested in two variants: artificially infected by Fusarium culmorum at the beginning of heading and a control group (no infection). In addition, the dynamics of barley infection development was monitored using this approach. The experimental data were statistically evaluated by principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering analysis, and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis. The differentiation of barley in response to F. culmorum infection was feasible using this metabolomics-based method. Analysis in positive mode provided a higher number of molecular features as compared to that performed under negative mode setting. However, the analysis in negative mode permitted the detection of deoxynivalenol and deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside considered as resistance-indicator metabolites in barley. PMID:24515453

Cajka, Tomas; Vaclavikova, Marta; Dzuman, Zbynek; Vaclavik, Lukas; Ovesna, Jaroslava; Hajslova, Jana

2014-04-01

143

INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN VPLYV SILĮŽNYCH ADITĶV NA FERMENTĮCIU VLHKÉHO MIAGANÉHO KUKURI?NÉHO ZRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi-experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C), and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A) and chemical (variant B) additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into

Gįlik Branislav; A. Hlinku

2008-01-01

144

Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna

2011-05-01

145

Monensin effects on digestion of corn or barley high-concentrate diets.  

PubMed

We conducted two experiments to determine the effects of monensin addition on digestion of high-concentrate diets based on corn or barley and to identify any interactions between grain source and monensin addition. A replicated in vitro experiment with a 2 x 4 factorial arrangement was used to evaluate monensin addition (0 or 72 mg/kg in vitro substrate) and grain source (corn, Gunhilde barley [GUN], Harrington barley [HAR], or Medallion barley [MED]). Triplicate tubes for each treatment were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, and 30 h. Rate and extent of IVDMD were determined. Four ruminally and abomasally cannulated steers were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of monensin addition (0 vs 270 mg x steer(-1) x d(-1)) and grain source (70% corn vs 80% Medallion barley). Diets were balanced to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. An interaction (P < .10) was found between monensin addition and grain source for IVDMD during 3 through 9 h of incubation. Monensin increased the IVDMD of GUN and MED, but it decreased the IVDMD of HAR. Corn IVDMD was not affected by monensin addition. Steers fed Medallion barley had greater (P < .05) microbial protein synthesis, rate of in situ DM and starch disappearance, ruminal and postruminal digestion of starch, ruminal total VFA concentrations, and total tract digestion of DM, OM, and starch compared with steers fed corn. Monensin addition decreased (P < .10) ruminal digestion of feed N and ruminal proportions of acetate and butyrate and increased (P < .001) the ruminal proportion of propionate. No monensin x grain source interactions were observed for the variables measured in vivo. PMID:9690651

Surber, L M; Bowman, J G

1998-07-01

146

Albinism in barley androgenesis.  

PubMed

Androgenesis is highly useful for plant breeding, significantly reducing breeding cycle times, as well as in a wide range of biological research. However, for widespread use this process must be efficient. Despite several decades of research on the phenomenon of androgenesis, many processes involved are obscure and there is much to be understood about androgenesis. One of the problems inherent in androgenesis, and reducing its efficiency, is albinism. This article reviews albinism in barley anthers and microspores in vitro cultures. Of special interest is the fate of plastids throughout androgenesis, which is important at several levels, including the genes responsible for driving the green-to-albino ratios. We also summarize the external factors that reduce the incidence of albino plants that are regenerated via androgenesis. PMID:24326697

Makowska, Katarzyna; Oleszczuk, Sylwia

2014-03-01

147

Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4) controls spikelet determinacy and row-type in barley  

PubMed Central

Inflorescence architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is common among the Triticeae species, which bear one to three single-flowered spikelets at each rachis internode. Triple spikelet meristem is one of the unique features of barley spikes, in which three spikelets (one central and two lateral spikelets) are produced at each rachis internode. Fertility of the lateral spikelets at triple spikelet meristem gives row-type identity to barley spikes. Six-rowed spikes show fertile lateral spikelets and produce increased grain yield per spike, compared with two-rowed spikes with sterile lateral spikelets. Thus, far, two loci governing the row-type phenotype were isolated in barley that include Six-rowed spike1 (Vrs1) and Intermedium-C. In the present study, we isolated Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4), a barley ortholog of the maize (Zea mays L.) inflorescence architecture gene RAMOSA2 (RA2). Eighteen coding mutations in barley RA2 (HvRA2) were specifically associated with lateral spikelet fertility and loss of spikelet determinacy. Expression analyses through mRNA in situ hybridization and microarray showed that Vrs4 (HvRA2) controls the row-type pathway through Vrs1 (HvHox1), a negative regulator of lateral spikelet fertility in barley. Moreover, Vrs4 may also regulate transcripts of barley SISTER OF RAMOSA3 (HvSRA), a putative trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase involved in trehalose-6-phosphate homeostasis implicated to control spikelet determinacy. Our expression data illustrated that, although RA2 is conserved among different grass species, its down-stream target genes appear to be modified in barley and possibly other species of tribe Triticeae.

Koppolu, Ravi; Anwar, Nadia; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Lundqvist, Udda; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Rutten, Twan; Seiler, Christiane; Himmelbach, Axel; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Youssef, Helmy Mohamad; Stein, Nils; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Komatsuda, Takao; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2013-01-01

148

Expression sites and developmental regulation of genes encoding (1?3,1?4)- ? -glucanases in germinated barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression sites of genes encoding (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan 4-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.73) have been mapped in germinated barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) by hybridization histochemistry. A32P-labelled cDNA (copy DNA) probe was hybridized to cryosections of intact barley grains to localize complementary mRNAs. No mRNA encoding (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase is detected in ungerminated grain. Expression of (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase genes is first detected in the scutellum after 1

G. I. McFadden; B. Ahluwalia; A. E. Clarke; G. B. Fincher

1988-01-01

149

Development of endosperm transfer cells in barley.  

PubMed

Endosperm transfer cells (ETCs) are positioned at the intersection of maternal and filial tissues in seeds of cereals and represent a bottleneck for apoplasmic transport of assimilates into the endosperm. Endosperm cellularization starts at the maternal-filial boundary and generates the highly specialized ETCs. During differentiation barley ETCs develop characteristic flange-like wall ingrowths to facilitate effective nutrient transfer. A comprehensive morphological analysis depicted distinct developmental time points in establishment of transfer cell (TC) morphology and revealed intracellular changes possibly associated with cell wall metabolism. Embedded inside the grain, ETCs are barely accessible by manual preparation. To get tissue-specific information about ETC specification and differentiation, laser microdissection (LM)-based methods were used for transcript and metabolite profiling. Transcriptome analysis of ETCs at different developmental stages by microarrays indicated activated gene expression programs related to control of cell proliferation and cell shape, cell wall and carbohydrate metabolism reflecting the morphological changes during early ETC development. Transporter genes reveal distinct expression patterns suggesting a switch from active to passive modes of nutrient uptake with the onset of grain filling. Tissue-specific RNA-seq of the differentiating ETC region from the syncytial stage until functionality in nutrient transfer identified a high number of novel transcripts putatively involved in ETC differentiation. An essential role for two-component signaling (TCS) pathways in ETC development of barley emerged from this analysis. Correlative data provide evidence for abscisic acid and ethylene influences on ETC differentiation and hint at a crosstalk between hormone signal transduction and TCS phosphorelays. Collectively, the data expose a comprehensive view on ETC development, associated pathways and identified candidate genes for ETC specification. PMID:24723929

Thiel, Johannes

2014-01-01

150

Effect of Feeding Corn, Hull-Less or Hulled Barley on Fermentation by Mixed Cultures of Ruminal Microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased demands for corn grain warrant the evalu- ationofalternativegraintypesforruminantproduction systems. This study was conducted to determine the effects of hulled and hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars compared with corn (Zea mays L.) as an alternative grain type on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fer- mentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided

V. Fellner; J. C. Burns; D. S. Marshall

2008-01-01

151

3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.

Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

152

Quantitative trait loci conferring resistance to Fusarium head blight in barley respond differentially to Fusarium graminearum infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB), primarily caused by Fusarium graminearum, reduces grain yield and quality in barley. Resistance to FHB is partial and quantitatively inherited. Previously, major\\u000a FHB resistant QTL were detected on barley chromosome 2H Bin 8 and 2H Bin 10, and another QTL for reduced deoxynivalenol (DON)\\u000a accumulation was identified on chromosome 3H Bin 6. To develop an understanding

Haiyan Jia; Benjamin P. Millett; Seungho Cho; Hatice Bilgic; Wayne W. Xu; Kevin P. Smith; Gary J. Muehlbauer

2011-01-01

153

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

1986-04-01

154

Two Stage Crimping Dies for Installing Size 8, 4, and 1/0 Electric Connector Contacts on Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design criteria for crimping dies to be used for installing size 8, 4, and 1/0 contacts on their respective wires were developed. The dies were designed to be installed and operated in an MS25441-1 hydraulic head. Developmental models of the dies were...

G. H. Kalen W. A. Ritchie

1970-01-01

155

Cloning and characterization of purple acid phosphatase phytases from wheat, barley, maize, and rice.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains. PMID:21220762

Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K; Holm, Preben B; Welinder, Karen G; Jųrgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

2011-07-01

156

Opportunities for manipulating the seed protein composition of wheat and barley in order to improve quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wheat and barley are the major temperate cereals, being used for food, feed and industrial raw material. However, in all cases the quality may be limited by the amount, composition and properties of the grain storage proteins. We describe how a combination of biochemical and molecular studies has led to an understanding of the molecular basis for breadmaking quality in

Peter R. Shewry; Arthur S. Tatham; Nigel G. Halford; Jackie H. A. Barker; Ulrich Hannappel; P. Gallois; M. Thomas; Martin Kreis

1994-01-01

157

Tocol composition and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids from barley pearling flour.  

PubMed

Samples of whole grain and 35% pearling flour of 20 different barley varieties grown in Alberta were analyzed for their lipid contents. Total lipid contents of whole grains were within 1.9% to 3.0% (w/w), whereas those of the 35% pearling flour were 4.3% to 7.9%. Lipids of 35% pearling flour fraction of Tercel barley were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) at different pressures (24, 45, and 58 MPa) and temperatures (40 and 60 °C) for 3 h. Lipid recoveries of 73% to 97% were achieved using SC-CO2 extraction under different operational conditions. Tocol contents and compositions of whole grain, 35% pearling flour, and SC-CO2 extracts were analyzed using HPLC. Tocol content of the whole grain was 53.8 to 124.9 ?g/g and that of the pearling flour was 195 to 363 ?g/g of flour. The hulless barley varieties were higher in tocols, with waxy, double waxy and Tercel varieties having the highest levels (P < 0.05). The ratios of total tocotrienols to total tocopherols varied within 1.6 to 3.9 range. Tocol concentrations of SC-CO2 extract fractions varied from 1171 to 4391 ?g/g extract depending on the operational conditions. Barley oil is a good natural source of different tocol isomers rich in tocotrienols. PMID:24245882

Temelli, F; Stobbe, K; Rezaei, K; Vasanthan, T

2013-11-01

158

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

2013-12-01

159

Barley leaf stripe disease.  

PubMed

Leaf stripe is one of the most important diseases of barley in Iran especially in Gorgan, Mazandran and near Tehran (Varamin). Most obvious symptoms of the disease are described. Long pale or yellow stripes become darker as the fungus sporulates on the leaf surface. Infected plants usually are stunted and produce sterile spikes, rarely a few seeds are produced. Infected spikes and late-forming tillers may produce fertile spikes. The fungus is seed brone and survives in the outer layers of infected seed. To study the seed-borne disease, we have used the different methods (ISTA). Coleoptiles of seedlings are infected by the fungus under cool, moist conditions, a soil temperature below 15 degrees C is necessary for seed infection. The fungus penetrates through coleoptiles and grows systemically within the plant, produces toxin and kills cells and discolors leaf tissue between veins, thus causing striped lesions. When conditions are wet or humid, spores are produced on the surface of leaves at above the time spikes of healthy plant. Morphological characteristics of the vegetative and reproductive structures of the fungus show that it is Drechslera graminea (Rabenh) Shoemaker. PMID:12701433

Zad, J; Aghakhani, M; Etebarian, R; Okhovat, M

2002-01-01

160

An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material. This is exhibited by the exotherm. Heating the so-cooled samples, in general, increases their melting point in almost all samples. Thus melting event is shifted towards higher temperature, except for one sample in which pre-twist level is appreciably high. Thus, DSC is a very useful technique to select and optimize the pre-twist level and may provide quite a significant insight into the thermal stability of the mechanical crimp textured yarn.

Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

2010-06-01

161

Sequence organization of barley centromeres  

PubMed Central

By sequencing, fingerprinting and in situ hybridization of a centromere-specific large insert clone (BAC 7), the sequence organization of centromeric DNA of barley could be elucidated. Within 23 kb, three copies of the Ty3/gypsy-like retroelement cereba were present. Two elements of ?7 kb, arranged in tandem, include long terminal repeats (LTRs) (?1 kb) similar to the rice centromeric retrotransposon RIRE 7 and to the cereal centromeric sequence family, the primer binding site, the complete polygene flanked by untranslated regions, as well as a polypurine tract 5? of the downstream LTR. The high density (?200 elements/centromere) and completeness of cereba elements and the absence of internally deleted elements and solo LTRs from the BAC 7 insert represent unique features of the barley centromeres as compared to those of other cereals. Obviously, the conserved cereba elements together with barley-specific G+C-rich satellite sequences constitute the major components of centromeric DNA in this species.

Hudakova, Sabina; Michalek, Wolfgang; Presting, Gernot G.; Hoopen, Rogier ten; Santos, Karla dos; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Schubert, Ingo

2001-01-01

162

In vitro effects of individual fatty acids on protozoal numbers and on fermentation products in ruminal fluid from cattle fed a high-concentrate, barley-based diet1,2  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to inves- tigate the effects of sodium salts of individual fatty acids on protozoal numbers and ruminal fermentation variables in vitro. Ruminal inoculum was obtained from two heifers fed a finishing diet consisting of (DM basis) 90% rolled barley grain, 4% barley silage, 5% soybean meal, and 1% mineralized salt. Fatty acids (FA) were

A. N. Hristov; M. Ivan; T. A. McAllister

2010-01-01

163

Genetics of Barley Hooded Suppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K ) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced

Cristina Roig; Carlo Pozzi; Luca Santi; Judith Muller; Yamei Wang; Maria Rosaria Stile; Laura Rossini; Michele Stanca; Francesco Salamini

2004-01-01

164

Retrospective analysis of the results of implanting Nitinol pistons with heat-crimping piston loops in stapes surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented here evaluates the hearing results after the implantation of a new nickel–titanium (Nitinol) prosthesis\\u000a in stapes surgery; on heating, this prosthesis crimps itself around the long process of the incus. In addition, we compare\\u000a the outcome with results published in the literature. The medical records of all patients who underwent surgery for otosclerosis\\u000a with implantation of a

Joachim Albert Hornung; Christoph Brase; Alessandro Bozzato; Johannes Zenk; Bernhard Schick; Heinrich Iro

2010-01-01

165

Mobile bag starch prececal disappearance and postprandial glycemic response of four forms of barley in horses.  

PubMed

To determine prececal starch digestibili-ty and estimate glucose uptake from the digestion of 4 forms of barley in the small intestine, 4 mature cecally fistulated geldings (449 ± 41 kg BW) fed a 62:38 (wt/wt) meadow hay:concentrate diet at 1.7 kg DM/100 kg BW were included in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment. During each period, horses received 80% DM of their concentrate as 1 of the 4 forms of a same batch of barley, whole grain, 2.5 mm ground, steam flaked, and pelleted. Hay was offered in 2 equal meals and concentrate in 2 unequal meals. The starch supply in the morning meal amounted 2.7 g starch/kg BW. At each period, mobile bag DM and starch disappearance was determined. Except for ground barley, each form of barley was 4 mm ground before being introduced in the bag. Nylon bags containing each substrate were intubated in the horse receiving the pelleted barley. Bags were collected in the cecum for 10 h postintubation. At each period, postprandial glycemia was measured on blood samples collected on the 4 horses via an indwelling jugular catheter just before the concentrate morning meal and for 8 h. No hay in the morning meal was given the day of the measurements. Whole blood glucose was analyzed with a portable blood glucose meter. Mobile bag prececal DM disappearance and starch disappearance depended (P < 0.01) on barley form. Prececal starch disappearance of whole barley was the lowest but no difference (P > 0.05) was detected among the 3 processed grains. No significant effect of barley form was found whatever the glycemic parameters. No significant correlation was reported between glycemic parameters and the amount of prececal mobile bag disappeared starch calculated as the starch intake in the morning meal by the mobile bag starch disappearance. To conclude, the whole form of barley exhibited the lowest prececal mobile bag starch disappearance whereas, in relationship with large individual variations, no significant variation has been shown in glycemic parameters. Further investigations should be performed to improve methods for estimating prececal starch digestion of processed cereals in the different digestive segments of horses. PMID:24668950

Philippeau, C; Varloud, M; Julliand, V

2014-05-01

166

Barley yellow rust in North America.  

PubMed

Yellow rust of barley is an invasive disease that was found in the past 10 years in North America. The causal agent, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, was introduced into Colombia, South America, from Europe in 1975. It spread to all major barley-producing areas in South America by 1982. In 1988 it was found in Mexico and in 1991 in Texas. Since then it has been found in all major barley-producing areas of the American West. Originally described as race (R) 24, barley yellow rust in North America is now known to be a very heterogeneous population. Resistance has been identified, evaluated, and is being introduced into commercial malting and other barley cultivars. Cultural and chemical controls are effective and available. An integrated approach using general field resistance and other tactics is described for sustainable management of barley yellow rust. PMID:11701870

Brown, W M; Hill, J P; Velasco, V R

2001-01-01

167

Rheological properties of barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health benefits of cereal ?-glucan are linked to its high viscosity. Although viscosity of ?-glucan gum solutions has been reported previously, there are conflicting reports about its behavior at elevated temperatures. Therefore, the viscosity behavior of barley ?-glucan gum obtained in a pilot plant (PP) or in a laboratory (LAB) was determined at different shear rates (1.29–129s?1) and temperatures (0.1–75°C)

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli

2005-01-01

168

Fermentation of barley by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: examination of barley as a feedstock for bioethanol production and value-added products.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Zijlstra, Ruurd T; Curtis, Jonathan M; Bressler, David C

2009-03-01

169

Structure of the Yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p reveals two wedges that crimp RNA.  

PubMed

The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF(3)(-), or ADP-AlF(4)(-). The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge alpha helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper. PMID:19748356

Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M

2009-09-11

170

Heat transfer characteristics of a new helically coiled crimped spiral finned tube heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the heat transfer characteristics in dry surface conditions of a new type of heat exchanger, namely a helically coiled finned tube heat exchanger, is experimentally investigated. The test section, which is a helically coiled fined tube heat exchanger, consists of a shell and a helical coil unit. The helical coil unit consists of four concentric helically coiled tubes of different diameters. Each tube is constructed by bending straight copper tube into a helical coil. Aluminium crimped spiral fins with thickness of 0.5 mm and outer diameter of 28.25 mm are placed around the tube. The edge of fin at the inner diameter is corrugated. Ambient air is used as a working fluid in the shell side while hot water is used for the tube-side. The test runs are done at air mass flow rates ranging between 0.04 and 0.13 kg/s. The water mass flow rates are between 0.2 and 0.4 kg/s. The water temperatures are between 40 and 50°C. The effects of the inlet conditions of both working fluids flowing through the heat exchanger on the heat transfer coefficients are discussed. The air-side heat transfer coefficient presented in term of the Colburn J factor is proportional to inlet-water temperature and water mass flow rate. The heat exchanger effectiveness tends to increase with increasing water mass flow rate and also slightly increases with increasing inlet water temperature.

Srisawad, Kwanchanok; Wongwises, Somchai

2009-02-01

171

Recombinant barley-produced antibody for detection and immunoprecipitation of the major bovine milk allergen, ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Recombinant allergens and antibodies are needed for diagnostic, therapeutic, food processing and quality verification purposes. The aim of this work was to develop a barley-based production system for ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) specific immunoglobulin E antibody (D1 scFv). The expression level in the best barley cell clone was 0.8-1.2 mg/kg fresh weight, and was constant over an expression period of 21 days. In the case of barley grains, the highest stable productivity (followed up to T2 grains) was obtained when the D1 scFv cDNA was expressed under a seed-specific Glutelin promoter rather than under the constitutive Ubiquitin promoter. Translational fusion of ER retention signal significantly improved the accumulation of recombinant antibody. Furthermore, lines without ER retention signal lost D1 scFv accumulation in T2 grains. Pilot scale purification was performed for a T2 grain pool (51 g) containing 55.0 mg D1 scFv/kg grains. The crude extract was purified by a two-step purification protocol including IMAC and size exclusion chromatography. The purification resulted in a yield of 0.47 mg of D1 scFv (31 kD) with high purity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that 29 % of the purified protein was fully functional. In immunoprecipitation assay the purified D1 scFv recognized the native 18 kD BLG in the milk sample. No binding was observed with the heat-treated milk sample, as expected. The developed barley-based expression system clearly demonstrated its potential for application in the processing of dairy milk products as well as in detecting allergens from foods possibly contaminated by bovine milk. PMID:24497085

Ritala, A; Leelavathi, S; Oksman-Caldentey, K-M; Reddy, V S; Laukkanen, M-L

2014-06-01

172

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the

Carin Jansen; Diter von Wettstein; Wilhelm Schäfer; Karl-Heinz Kogel; Angelika Felk; Frank J. Maier

2005-01-01

173

Transmission of Two Viruses that Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis graminum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference.

Stewart M. Gray; Marina C Caillaud; Mary Burrows; Dawn M. Smith

2007-01-01

174

Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: U.S. Feed Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feed grains (corn, sorghum, barley, and oats) lead all crops in terms of production value and acres planted. During 1988 their value of production totaled $15.3 billion, or 22% of all crops grown, while planted area totaled 101.6 million acres or 33% of p...

L. Hoffman M. Ash W. Lin S. Mercier

1990-01-01

175

Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently.

Lee, Choon Young; Yan, Lei; Wang, Tianfeng; Lee, Sang Ryong; Park, Cheol Woo

2011-06-01

176

Regions of the Genome that Affect Agronomic Performance in Two-Row Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) main effects and QTL by environ- ment (QTLxE) interactions for seven agronomic traits (grain yield, days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, lodging severity, kernel weight, and test weight) were investigated in a two-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cross, Barrington\\/TR306. A 127-point base map was constructed from markers (mostly RFLP) scored in 146 random double-haploid

N. A. Tinker; D. E. Mather; B. G. Rossnagel; K. J. Kasha; A. Kleinhofs; P. M. Hayes; D. E. Falk; T. Ferguson; L. P. Shugar; W. G. Legge; R. B. Irvine; T. M. Choo; K. G. Briggs; S. E. Ullrich; J. D. Franckowiak; T. K. Blake; R. J. Graf; S. M. Dofing; M. A. Saghai Maroof; G. J. Scoles; D. Hoffman; L. S. Dahleen; A. Kilian; F. Chen; R. M. Biyashev; D. A. Kudrna; B. J. Steffenson

1996-01-01

177

Interfibre Failure Characterisation of Unidirectional and Triax Glass Fibre Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-plane failure envelopes of unidirectional (UD) laminae in a UD and a Triax (0°, ±45°) laminate configuration have been investigated. The two laminate configurations have been characterised by testing off-axis specimens in uniaxial tension and compression at different angles relative to the fibre direction and further by Iosipescu shear tests. Strain gauge and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were used to measure the deformation states during loading, and to record the stress-strain responses to identify the initiation of failure and investigate the heterogeneity of the material and possible parasitic effects. A novel analysis methodology to determine the so-called `failure initiation strength' based on the second derivative of the stresses with respect to the strains has been adopted. The experimentally determined `failure initiation stresses' were compared with predictions from the commonly applied Maximum Stress, Tsai-Wu, and Puck failure criteria. From this work, a thorough comparison of the UD and Triax failure envelopes has been facilitated. It is shown that failure prediction for the Triax laminate based on the failure envelope derived from UD lamina tests may be too conservative in comparison with fitting a failure criterion directly to the Triax laminate test data. The latter approach implies that the Triax laminate is considered as a single lamina with homogenised properties, which in principle violates the theoretical background of the considered failure criteria, since these are established to predict failure for a UD lamina. However, the simple homogenisation is shown to be a useful design oriented approach for providing a simple estimation of the onset of failure in laminate configurations composed of e.g., multiple layers of Triax. Thus, a reliable and efficient approach is offered for the structural integrity assessment, which takes the non-crimp fabric configurations directly or `as delivered' into account.

Laustsen, S.; Lund, E.; Kühlmeier, L.; Thomsen, O. T.

2014-05-01

178

Chemical composition and microstructure of milled barley fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wholegrain barley and peeled and pearled barley were roller milled in a Bühler mill, each producing three fractions: endosperm,\\u000a middlings and bran. These fractions were compared and contrasted with one another and also with milled wheat fractions. Barley\\u000a endosperm had the highest total starch content in both wholegrain and peeled and pearled barley. Amylose-to-amylopectin ratios\\u000a (Am:Ap) were higher in barley

Paul Sullivan; John O’Flaherty; Nigel Brunton; Vivian L. Gee; Elke Arendt; Eimear Gallagher

2010-01-01

179

Genetic architecture of limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) activity in Tibetan wild barley  

PubMed Central

Background Limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) inhibits starch degradation in barley grains during malting because it binds with limit dextrinase (LD). There is a wide genetic variation in LDI synthesis and inactivation during barley grain development and germination. However, the genetic control of LDI activity remains little understood. Results In this study, association analysis was performed on 162 Tibetan wild accessions by using LDI activity, 835 Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene HvLDI encoding LDI. Two DArT markers, bpb-8347, bpb-0068, and 31 SNPs of HvLDI were significantly associated with LDI activity, explaining 10.0%, 6.6% and 13.4% of phenotypic variation, respectively. Bpb-8347 is located on chromosome 6H, near the locus of HvLDI, and bpb-0068 is located on 3H. Conclusions The current results confirmed the locus of the gene controlling LDI activity and identified a new DArT markers associated with LDI activity. The SNPs associated with LDI activity may provide a new insight into the genetic variation of LDI activity in barley grains.

2014-01-01

180

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-04-01

181

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-07-01

182

Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.  

PubMed

Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150?M thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150?M to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. PMID:23787153

Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

2013-10-01

183

Improved palatability and bio-functionality of super-hard rice by soaking in a barley-koji miso suspension.  

PubMed

Cooked grains of ae rice cultivars are too hard and non-sticky due to the presence of long-chain amylopectin, and ae rice cultivars are therefore called ``super-hard rice'' and cannot be used as table rice. However, they are promising in terms of their bio-functionality such as preventing diabetes. Miso (soybean paste) is a yeast-fermented food, made from steamed soybeans, salt, and inoculated cereals known as koji, made from rice, barley, or soybeans.We investigated the effects of soaking ae mutant rice cultivars in a miso suspension. Their chemical components, physical properties, and enzyme activities were measured under different conditions (milled rice before or after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension). Rice grains cooked after soaking in the miso suspension were less hard and more sticky than those cooked after soaking in water. Rice grains cooked after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension maintained high amounts of resistant starch and dietary fiber, and were fortified with polyphenols and isoflavones. Palatable and bio-functional ae rice could therefore be produced by cooking after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension. PMID:24317058

Nakamura, Sumiko; Nakano, Yohei; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

2013-01-01

184

Determination of phytic acid and inositolphosphates in barley.  

PubMed

Phytic acid (PA) and lower inositolphosphates (InsP(n) ) is the main storage form of phosphorus in grains or seeds. The content of PA and InsP(n) in different varieties of barley was analyzed by capillary isotachophoresis and online-coupled capillary isotachophoresis with CZE. The electrolytes (in demineralized water) for the isotachophoretic analysis consisted of 10?mM HCl, 14?mM glycylglycine, and 0.1% 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (leading) and 10?mM citric acid (terminating). The optimized electrolytes for the online coupling isotachophoresis with zone electrophoresis analysis were mixtures of 5?mM HCl, 7?mM glycylglycine, and 0.1% 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (leading), 20?mM citric acid, 10?mM glycylglycine, and 0.1% 2-hydroxyethylcellulose (background) and 10?mM citric acid (terminating). PA and all studied InsP(n) were separated within 25?min and detected by a conductivity detector. Simple sample preparation (acidic extraction), sufficient sensitivity, speed of analysis, and low running cost are important attributes of the electrophoretic methods. The method was used for the determination of PA and InsP(n) in barley varieties within an ongoing research project. PMID:21455911

Kvasni?ka, František; Copķkovį, Jana; Sev?ķk, Rudolf; Vįclavķkovį, Eliška; Synytsya, Andriy; Vaculovį, Kate?ina; Vold?ich, Michal

2011-04-01

185

Eating barley too frequently or in excess decreases lambs' preference for barley but sodium bicarbonate and lasalocid attenuate the response.  

PubMed

We conducted experiments to determine whether preference for barley was affected when lambs ate various amounts of barley and whether lambs ate more barley when it contained lasalocid and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), both of which attenuate acidosis. In Exp. 1, lambs were assigned to two treatments (six lambs/treatment). For 2 d, lambs in two treatments were offered either 400 or 1,200 g of rolled barley from 0600 to 0700 as a preload meal. A preference ratio [PR = barley ingested/(total amount of alfalfa + barley ingested)] was calculated based on lambs' intake when offered a choice of 200 g each of rolled barley and alfalfa pellets hourly from 0700 to 1100. After the preload meal, lambs in Treatment 1 (400 g preload) showed equal preference for barley (.52) and alfalfa (.48) for 4 h on d 1 (P > .05); their preference for barley was less after the meal of barley on d 1 (.52) than on d 2 (.72), but their preference for barley declined between h 3 (.81) and 4 (.55) of d 2 (P = .11). Lambs in Treatment 2 (1,200 g preload) showed a low preference for barley on d 1 (.29) and 2 (.19) (P < .001). In Exp. 2, lambs were assigned to four treatments (six lambs/treatment): 1) rolled barley + NaHCO3 (2%) + lasalocid (33 ppm); 2) rolled barley + NaHCO3 (2%); 3) rolled barley + lasalocid (33 ppm); or 4) rolled barley. Intake of barley by lambs offered NaHCO3 + lasalocid (Treatment 1) was greater (P = .07) than that by lambs offered NaHCO3 (Treatment 2), whereas intake by lambs offered lasalocid (Treatment 3) was similar (P > .05) to that by controls. We conclude that eating barley too frequently or in excess caused a decrease in lambs' preference for barley and that NaHCO3 and lasalocid attenuated the aversion. PMID:9655577

Phy, T S; Provenza, F D

1998-06-01

186

AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

Payne, R. W. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

187

Nucellain, a Barley Homolog of the Dicot Vacuolar-Processing Protease, Is Localized in Nucellar Cell Walls1  

PubMed Central

The nucellus is a complex maternal grain tissue that embeds and feeds the developing cereal endosperm and embryo. Differential screening of a barley (Hordeum vulgare) cDNA library from 5-d-old ovaries resulted in the isolation of two cDNA clones encoding nucellus-specific homologs of the vacuolar-processing enzyme of castor bean (Ricinus communis). Based on the sequence of these barley clones, which are called nucellains, a homolog from developing corn (Zea mays) grains was also identified. In dicots the vacuolar-processing enzyme is believed to be involved in the processing of vacuolar storage proteins. RNA-blot and in situ-hybridization analyses detected nucellain transcripts in autolysing nucellus parenchyma cells, in the nucellar projection, and in the nucellar epidermis. No nucellain transcripts were detected in the highly vacuolate endosperm or in the other maternal tissues of developing grains such as the testa or the pericarp. Using an antibody raised against castor bean vacuolar-processing protease, a single polypeptide was recognized in protein extracts from barley grains. Immunogold-labeling experiments with this antibody localized the nucellain epitope not in the vacuoles, but in the cell walls of all nucellar cell types. We propose that nucellain plays a role in processing and/or turnover of cell wall proteins in developing cereal grains.

Linnestad, Casper; Doan, Danny N.P.; Brown, Roy C.; Lemmon, Betty E.; Meyer, David J.; Jung, Rudolf; Olsen, Odd-Arne

1998-01-01

188

Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.  

PubMed

Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

2014-06-01

189

Germinated grains--sources of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Germination of seven selected commercially important grains was studied to establish its effects on the nutritional and chemical composition. The changes in the concentration of the nutrients, bioactive compounds and the inhibitory effect of extracts on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities were investigated. These were measured through proximate analysis, inhibition assays and HPLC. Germinated sorghum and rye extracts inhibited (p<0.05) ?-glucosidase activity, whereas barley and sorghum extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activities against ?-amylase. Germinated grains contained substantial amounts of total phenolics with rye having significantly higher content compared with the non-germinated grains. Radical scavenging activities of the phenolic extracts were between 13% and 73% for non-germinated and 14% and 53% for germinated. Inositol phosphate (InsP) 4, 5 and 6 were noted in all the grains, but InsP 6 was significantly lower in concentration. This study indicates the potential of germinated barley, sorghum and rye for the development of effective physiologically bioactive compounds for the reduction of the risk of diabetic agents and colon cancer. PMID:22953810

Donkor, O N; Stojanovska, L; Ginn, P; Ashton, J; Vasiljevic, T

2012-12-01

190

The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica requires host cell death for proliferation during mutualistic symbiosis with barley  

PubMed Central

Fungi of the recently defined order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) are involved in a wide spectrum of mutualistic symbioses (including mycorrhizae) with various plants, thereby exhibiting a unique potential for biocontrol strategies. The axenically cultivable root endophyte Piriformospora indica is a model organism of this fungal order. It is able to increase biomass and grain yield of crop plants. In barley, the endophyte induces local and systemic resistance to fungal diseases and to abiotic stress. To elucidate the lifestyle of P. indica, we analyzed its symbiotic interaction and endophytic development in barley roots. We found that fungal colonization increases with root tissue maturation. The root tip meristem showed no colonization, and the elongation zone showed mainly intercellular colonization. In contrast, the differentiation zone was heavily infested by inter- and intracellular hyphae and intracellular chlamydospores. The majority of hyphae were present in dead rhizodermal and cortical cells that became completely filled with chlamydospores. In some cases, hyphae penetrated cells and built a meshwork around plasmolyzed protoplasts, suggesting that the fungus either actively kills cells or senses cells undergoing endogenous programmed cell death. Seven days after inoculation, expression of barley BAX inhibitor-1 (HvBI-1), a gene capable of inhibiting plant cell death, was attenuated. Consistently, fungal proliferation was strongly inhibited in transgenic barley overexpressing GFP-tagged HvBI-1, which shows that P. indica requires host cell death for proliferation in differentiated barley roots. We suggest that the endophyte interferes with the host cell death program to form a mutualistic interaction with plants.

Deshmukh, Sachin; Huckelhoven, Ralph; Schafer, Patrick; Imani, Jafargholi; Sharma, Monica; Weiss, Michael; Waller, Frank; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2006-01-01

191

Interstellar grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interstellar extinction of starlight was observed and plotted as a function of inverse wavelength. Agreement with the calculated effects of the particle distribution is shown. The main kinds of grain distinguished are: (1) graphite spheres of radius 0.02 microns, making up 10% of the total grain mass; (2) small dielectric spheres of radius 0.04 microns making up 25%; and (3)

F. Hoyle; N. C. Wickramasinghe

1980-01-01

192

Effects of grain source and enzyme additive on site and extent of nutrient digestion in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Four lactating, cannulated Holstein cows were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of grain source and fibrolytic enzyme supplementation on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion in the rumen and in the intestine, and milk production. A 2 x 2 factorial arrangement was used; two grains (barley and hull-less barley) were combined with and without enzyme. The enzyme supplement (Pro-Mote; Biovance Technologies Inc., Omaha, NE) contained primarily cellulase and xylanase activities and was applied daily to the total mixed diet. Dry matter intake was not affected by diet, but starch intake was greatest when hull-less barley was fed. Starch from hull-less barley was more digestible in the rumen and in the total tract than was starch from barley, but opposite results occurred for fiber digestion, indicating that hull-less barley depressed fiber digestion. As a result, cows fed the hull-less barley diets tended to produce more milk with a higher milk lactose content than did cows fed the barley diets. Enzyme supplementation had minimal effects on ruminal digestion but increased nutrient digestibility in the total tract and the proportion of microbial N in nonammonia N. Consequently, cows fed diets supplemented with enzyme had a higher milk protein content and tended to produce more 4% fat-corrected milk than did control cows. These results indicate that the use of hull-less barley rather than barley increased the digestible energy intake of dairy cows, resulting in higher milk production. The use of a fibrolytic enzyme mixture enhanced feed digestibility and milk production. PMID:10068959

Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

1999-02-01

193

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Peiguo

2013-01-01

194

Biochemical and microbiological properties of a cereal mix fermented with whey, wet wheat distillers’ grain or water at different temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbiological and biochemical properties of three different liquid diets fermented at 10, 15 or 20°C were studied. The liquid diets consisted of a cereal grain mix of wheat, barley and triticale, blended with whey (diet WH), wet wheat distillers’ grain (diet WDG) or water (diet WAT). The diets were fermented for 5 days without disturbance, followed by 14 days of

K. Lyberg; M. Olstorpe; V. Passoth; J. Schnürer; J. E. Lindberg

2008-01-01

195

Association of HvLDI with limit dextrinase activity and malt quality in barley.  

PubMed

Limit dextrinase (LD) is a unique de-branching enzyme involved in starch mobilization of barley grains during malting, and closely related to malt quality. Genotypic variation of LD activity is controlled by genetic factors and also affected by environmental conditions. Correlation analysis between LD activity and four malt quality parameters showed that LD activity was positively correlated with diastatic power, Kolbach index and the quality of malt extract, while negatively correlated with viscosity. The structure-based association analysis demonstrated that HvLDI, a gene encoding limit dextrinase inhibitor, was a major determinant of LD activity and malt quality. The single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LD activity could be used in early generation selection for barley breeding. PMID:23264263

Jin, Xiaoli; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2013-04-01

196

The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

1983-01-01

197

Tocopherol and tocotrienol accumulation during development of caryopses from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Tocotrienols are lipophilic antioxidants belonging to the tocochromanols, better known as vitamin E. Although present in cereal grains in high quantities not much is known about their function in plants. In a detailed study the temporal and spatial accumulation of tocotrienols and tocopherols during grain development in two barley cultivars was analyzed. Tocochromanols and lipids accumulated in parallel until 80% of the final dry weight of the kernels was reached. Later on the tocochromanol content did not change while the lipid content decreased. Generally, only about 13% of the tocochromanols were found in the germ fraction, whereas the pericarp fraction contained about 50% and the endosperm fraction about 37% of the tocochromanols. Altogether, about 85% of the tocochromanols were tocotrienols in both cultivars. In case of the tocopherols about 80% were found in the germ fraction and the remaining 20% in the pericarp fraction. Tocotrienols were almost equally present in the pericarp and the endosperm fraction. Individual forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols accumulated with different kinetics during barley grain development. The differences in distribution and accumulation indicate different functions of the individual tocochromanols during grain development. PMID:15504432

Falk, Jon; Krahnstöver, Alice; van der Kooij, Thomas A W; Schlensog, Mark; Krupinska, Karin

2004-11-01

198

Grain boundaries  

SciTech Connect

The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

1991-01-01

199

Effect of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration on the protein composition of cereal grain.  

PubMed

The present study investigates effects of rising atmospheric CO2 concentration on protein composition of maize, wheat, and barley grain, especially on the fractions prolamins and glutelins. Cereals were grown at different atmospheric CO2 concentrations to simulate future climate conditions. Influences of two nitrogen fertilization levels were studied for wheat and barley. Enriched CO2 caused an increase of globulin and B-hordein of barley. In maize, the content of globulin, ?-zein, and LMW polymers decreased, whereas total glutelin, zein, ?-zein, and HMW polymers rose. Different N supplies resulted in variations of barley subfractions and wheat globulin. Other environmental influences showed effects on the content of nearly all fractions and subfractions. Variations in starch-protein bodies caused by different CO2 treatments could be visualized by scanning electron microscopy. In conclusion, climate change would have impacts on structural composition of proteins and, consequently, on the nutritional value of cereals. PMID:24976461

Wroblewitz, Stefanie; Hüther, Liane; Manderscheid, Remy; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Wätzig, Hermann; Dänicke, Sven

2014-07-16

200

The molecular characterization of a cDNA encoding the putative integral membrane protein, HvSec61?, expressed during early stage of barley kernel development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sec61 complex is essential for the translocation of both soluble proteins and integral membrane proteins into the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. To study the molecular events that occur during kernel development, the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method was performed using grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Karl at different developmental stages (14 DAF and 5 DAF). One

Cheol Seong Jang; Tong Geon Lee; Jae Yoon Kim; Jae Han Park; Dong Sub Kim; Jin Hee Park; Yong Weon Seo

2005-01-01

201

Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass) and grain sup- plement (oats vs. barley) on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk pro - duction. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four

Aila Vanhatalo; Tomas Gäddnäs; Terttu Heikkilä

2006-01-01

202

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of small grain cereal crops. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). DON inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and acts as a virulence factor during fungal pathogenesis, therefore resistance to DON is considered an important component of resistance against FHB. One mechanism of resistance to DON is conversion of DON to DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G). Previous studies showed that expression of the UDP-glucosyltransferase genes HvUGT13248 from barley and AtUGt73C5 (DOGT1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferred DON resistance to yeast. Over-expression of AtUGt73C5 in Arabidopsis led to increased DON resistance of seedlings but also to dwarfing of transgenic plants due to the formation of brassinosteroid-glucosides. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HvUGT13248, to test for phenotypic changes in growth habit, and the response to DON. Transgenic lines that constitutively expressed the epitope-tagged HvUGT13248 protein exhibited increased resistance to DON in a seed germination assay and converted DON to D3G to a higher extent than the untransformed wild-type. By contrast to the over-expression of DOGT1 in Arabidopsis, which conjugated the brassinosteriod castasterone with a glucoside group resulting in a dwarf phenotype, expression of the barley HvUGT13248 gene did not lead to drastic morphological changes. Consistent with this observation, no castasterone-glucoside formation was detectable in yeast expressing the barley HvUGT13248 gene. This barley UGT is therefore a promising candidate for transgenic approaches aiming to increase DON and Fusarium resistance of crop plants without undesired collateral effects.

Shin, Sanghyun; Torres-Acosta, Juan Antonio; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

2012-01-01

203

Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana expressing a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit resistance to the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a devastating disease of small grain cereal crops. FHB causes yield reductions and contamination of grain with trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). DON inhibits protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells and acts as a virulence factor during fungal pathogenesis, therefore resistance to DON is considered an important component of resistance against FHB. One mechanism of resistance to DON is conversion of DON to DON-3-O-glucoside (D3G). Previous studies showed that expression of the UDP-glucosyltransferase genes HvUGT13248 from barley and AtUGt73C5 (DOGT1) from Arabidopsis thaliana conferred DON resistance to yeast. Over-expression of AtUGt73C5 in Arabidopsis led to increased DON resistance of seedlings but also to dwarfing of transgenic plants due to the formation of brassinosteroid-glucosides. The objectives of this study were to develop transgenic Arabidopsis expressing HvUGT13248, to test for phenotypic changes in growth habit, and the response to DON. Transgenic lines that constitutively expressed the epitope-tagged HvUGT13248 protein exhibited increased resistance to DON in a seed germination assay and converted DON to D3G to a higher extent than the untransformed wild-type. By contrast to the over-expression of DOGT1 in Arabidopsis, which conjugated the brassinosteriod castasterone with a glucoside group resulting in a dwarf phenotype, expression of the barley HvUGT13248 gene did not lead to drastic morphological changes. Consistent with this observation, no castasterone-glucoside formation was detectable in yeast expressing the barley HvUGT13248 gene. This barley UGT is therefore a promising candidate for transgenic approaches aiming to increase DON and Fusarium resistance of crop plants without undesired collateral effects. PMID:22922639

Shin, Sanghyun; Torres-Acosta, Juan Antonio; Heinen, Shane J; McCormick, Susan; Lemmens, Marc; Paris, Maria Paula Kovalsky; Berthiller, Franz; Adam, Gerhard; Muehlbauer, Gary J

2012-08-01

204

Inheritance of the number and thickness of cell layers in barley aleurone tissue ( Hordeum vulgare L.): an approach using F2–F3 progeny  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aleurone tissue of cereal grains, nutritionally rich in minerals and vitamins, is an important target for the improvement\\u000a of cereals. Inheritance of the thickness and the number of cell layers in barley aleurone was studied on the F2–F3 progeny\\u000a of an Erhard Frederichen × Criolla Negra cross in which the parental lines have three or two aleurone layers, respectively.\\u000a F3 grain

Louis Jestin; Catherine Ravel; Sylvie Auroy; Bastien Laubin; Marie-Reine Perretant; Caroline Pont; Gilles Charmet

2008-01-01

205

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley.

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

206

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

2014-06-01

207

Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape  

PubMed Central

Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe.

Drea, Sinead

2012-01-01

208

Factors determining accumulation of mycotoxin producers in cereal grain during harvesting.  

PubMed

During the meteorologically contrasting period of 2003-2005, the contamination of winter wheat, malt barley and fodder barley grain with micromycetes during grain harvesting and preparation for storage was investigated. Micromycetes of over 70 species ascribed to 16 genera were isolated and identified, the density of their populations in grain was determined. Micromycetes with a population density of >50% were attributed to dominant species. Short biological characteristic, ecological peculiarities of the dominating micromycetes are provided; factors determining intensity of their development and abilities to synthesise and excrete toxic metabolites are indicated. The importance of grain drying for stabilisation of its contamination with micromycete propagules is highlighted. It is noted that in grain dried in shaft dryer using air at 90 degrees C the number of cfu (colony forming units) was reduced from 2.2 to 8.2 times. When active ventilation is applied, conditions favourable for the development of micromycetes remain longest in the upper layers of the mound. The airflow passing through the layer of damp grain inhibits the development of micromycetes, but an increase of comparative air flow for more than 500 m3x(txh)(-1) did not reduce the abundance of micromycete cfu. After drying Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, Penicillum verrucosum dominated in wheat grain; Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum in malts barley grain; Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum, Alternaria alternata in fodder barley grain. It has been determined that all micromycetes recorded on grain after drying are potential producers of toxic metabolites, i.e. are hazardous to human health. PMID:17655196

Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Railiene, Marija; Novosinskas, Henrikas

2007-01-01

209

Whole grain foods and health - a Scandinavian perspective  

PubMed Central

The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer.

Fr?lich, Wenche; Aman, Per; Tetens, Inge

2013-01-01

210

Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

2012-05-01

211

Variation in 8-ketotrichothecenes and zearalenone production by Fusarium graminearum isolates from corn and barley in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 214 Fusarium graminearum isolates were obtained from corn and barley which were collected from Kangwon province and the southern part of Korea, respectively,\\u000a and were tested for 8-ketotrichothecenes and zearalenone (ZEA) production on rice grains. The incidences of trichothecene\\u000a production by 105 isolates of F. graminearum from corn were 59.0% for deoxynivalenol (DON), 37.1% for 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol(15-ADON), 13.3%

Jeong-Ah Seo; Jin-Cheol Kim; Dong-Hyun Lee; Yin-Won Lee

1996-01-01

212

High (1?3,1?4)-?-Glucan Barley Fractions in Bread Making and their Effects on Human Glycemic Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley flour (BF) from whole naked grain and two (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan-enriched fractions, a sieved fraction (SF) and a water-extracted fraction (WF), were produced and mixed with bread wheat flour (BW), for bread-making quality evaluation. Bread was baked in a pilot plant and analysed for sensory properties, proximate composition and (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan content. Four kinds of bread were produced from different mixtures of

A. Cavallero; S. Empilli; F. Brighenti; A. M. Stanca

2002-01-01

213

Extrusion of barley and oat improves the bioaccessibility of dietary phenolic acids in growing pigs.  

PubMed

To evaluate the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in extruded and nonextruded cereal grains, an in vivo experiment was carried out using growing pigs as a model system. Four diets were prepared containing either whole grain barley (BU), dehulled oat (OU), or their respective extruded samples (BE, OE) according to the requirements for crude protein, mineral, and vitamin contents in pig diets. The total contents of free phenolic acids in the OE and BE diets were 22 and 10%, respectively, higher compared with the OU and BU diets, whereas the level of bound phenolic acids was 9% higher in OE than in OU and 11% lower in BE compared with BU. The total tract bioaccessibilities of bound phenolic acids were 29 and 14% higher for the extruded BE and OE diets, respectively, compared with the nonextruded diets. The results of this study indicate an improved bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in extruded cereal grains. PMID:23384149

Hole, Anastasia S; Kjos, Nils Petter; Grimmer, Stine; Kohler, Achim; Lea, Per; Rasmussen, Bård; Lima, Lene R; Narvhus, Judith; Sahlstrųm, Stefan

2013-03-20

214

Analysis of the arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase gene family in barley does not support their involvement in the remodelling of endosperm cell walls during development  

PubMed Central

Arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases (AXAHs) are family GH51 enzymes that have been implicated in the removal of arabinofuranosyl residues from the (1,4)-?-xylan backbone of heteroxylans. Five genes encoding barley AXAHs range in size from 4.6 kb to 7.1 kb and each contains 16 introns. The barley HvAXAH genes map to chromosomes 2H, 4H, and 5H. A small cluster of three HvAXAH genes is located on chromosome 4H and there is evidence for gene duplication and the presence of pseudogenes in barley. The cDNAs corresponding to barley and wheat AXAH genes were cloned, and transcript levels of the genes were profiled across a range of tissues at different developmental stages. Two HvAXAH cDNAs that were successfully expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves exhibited similar activities against 4-nitrophenyl ?-L-arabinofuranoside, but HvAXAH2 activity was significantly higher against wheat flour arabinoxylan, compared with HvAXAH1. HvAXAH2 also displayed activity against (1,5)-?-L-arabinopentaose and debranched arabinan. Western blotting with an anti-HvAXAH antibody was used to define further the locations of the AXAH enzymes in developing barley grain, where high levels were detected in the outer layers of the grain but little or no protein was detected in the endosperm. The chromosomal locations of the genes do not correspond to any previously identified genomic regions shown to influence heteroxylan structure. The data are therefore consistent with a role for AXAH in depolymerizing arabinoxylans in maternal tissues during grain development, but do not provide compelling evidence for a role in remodelling arabinoxylans during endosperm or coleoptile development in barley as previously proposed.

Laidlaw, Hunter K. C.; Lahnstein, Jelle; Burton, Rachel A.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Jobling, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

215

Genetics of barley hooded suppression.  

PubMed Central

The molecular basis of the barley dominant Hooded (K) mutant is a duplication of 305 bp in intron IV of the homeobox gene Bkn3. A chemical mutagenesis screen was carried out to identify genetical factors that participate in Bkn3 intron-mediated gene regulation. Plants from recurrently mutagenized KK seeds were examined for the suppression of the hooded awn phenotype induced by the K allele and, in total, 41 suK (suppressor of K) recessive mutants were identified. Complementation tests established the existence of five suK loci, and alleles suKB-4, suKC-33, suKD-25, suKE-74, and suKF-76 were studied in detail. All K-suppressed mutants showed a short-awn phenotype. The suK loci have been mapped by bulked segregant analysis nested in a standard mapping procedure based on AFLP markers. K suppressor loci suKB, B, E, and F all map in a short interval of chromosome 7H, while the locus suKD is assigned to chromosome 5H. A complementation test between the four suK mutants mapping on chromosome 7H and the short-awn mutant lks2, located nearby, excluded the allelism between suK loci and lks2. The last experiment made clear that the short-awn phenotype of suK mutants is due to a specific dominant function of the K allele, a function that is independent from the control on hood formation. The suK loci are discussed as candidate participants in the regulation of Bkn3 expression.

Roig, Cristina; Pozzi, Carlo; Santi, Luca; Muller, Judith; Wang, Yamei; Stile, Maria Rosaria; Rossini, Laura; Stanca, Michele; Salamini, Francesco

2004-01-01

216

Ribonucleic acids from barley leaves  

PubMed Central

1. The total RNA and the RNA present in 27000g pellet (probably composed of chloroplasts, nuclei and mitochondria) and in 27000g supernatant (probably composed of microsomes and soluble proteins) fractions (separated by centrifugation at 27000g of a leaf homogenate prepared in 0·5m-sucrose–0·02m-tris–HCl, pH7·6) of barley leaves were extracted by phenol–sodium lauryl sulphate and their elution profiles on Sephadex G-200 and on ECTEOLA-cellulose anion-exchanger were examined and their nucleotide compositions and the melting curves were determined. 2. The pellet and the supernatant fractions contained respectively about 55% and 20% of the total RNA, whereas 25% of the total RNA was lost during homogenization of the leaf tissue with sucrose–buffer. 3. The total RNA or the RNA from pellet or supernatant fractions, which by its behaviour on Sephadex G-200 columns was found to be predominantly of high molecular weight (i.e. of ribosomal origin), produced about 13 peaks on ECTEOLA-cellulose columns. The RNA species in the pellet and supernatant fractions probably resembled each other in molecular size or secondary structure or both. However, they were present in relatively different amounts in these fractions. 4. The Tm (i.e. the temperature at which 50% of the maximal increase in extinction had occurred) of total RNA and of RNA from pellet fraction was 64·5° whereas Tm of RNA from the supernatant fraction was 73°. The total RNA and the RNA from pellet fraction also resembled each other in nucleotide composition, and the RNA from the supernatant fraction in accordance with its high Tm had a high GMP+CMP content.

Srivastava, B. I. Sahai

1965-01-01

217

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community in stored barley in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community composition was studied in nonsterile barley grain. The experiments included following treatments: control barley without mites; barley containing 10 or 50 mites without preincubation on F. poae (Tp10 and Tp50); barley containing 10 or 50 mites after preincubation on F. poae (FTp10 and FTp50). The number of mites, successful transfer of F. poae, and changes in the fungal communities were examined after 21 d of experiment. Increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in the barley was chosen as a criterion of successful F. poae transfer. The preincubation of T. putrescentiae on F. poae increased DON level approximately to 800 and 300 ?g/kg of grain for FTp10 and FTp50, respectively. T. putrescentiae population growth in FTp10 was lower than in Tp10, while no difference was found between FTp50 and Tp50. Fungal communities were compared by amplification, cloning and sequencing of ITS fragments, and operational taxonomic units (OTU) analysis. The OTU analysis did not support the transfer of F. poae via mites. From the analyzed clones, only 13 cloned sequences clustered with F. poae in an OTU defined at distance level 0.07. The related clones originated from FTp10, Tp10, Tp50 and control treatments, but not from FTp50. However, the presence of F. poae in FTp50 was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers. The observation may be explained by different effect of mite population density, that is, in the high density, (FTp50 treatment) the fungus was overgrazed, while the lower population density (FTp10) supported F. poae transfer. PMID:23955921

Hubert, Jan; Nesvornį, Marta; Kopeckż, Jan

2014-02-01

218

Molecular survey of trichothecene genotypes of Fusarium graminearum species complex from barley in southern Brazil.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight is a disease of primary concern to small-grain cereals of Brazil, including barley. Its main causal agent, Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex)ø is able to produce mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV), that usually contaminate grain. Strains that produce DON may also produce its acetylated derivatives: 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON) and 15-acetyl-DON (15-ADON). Ninety two isolates were obtained from samplings of barley grain during three years (2007, 2008 and 2009) from several fields in both southern and northern production regions of Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil. These isolates were examined for polymerase chain-reaction-based (PCR) trichothecene genotype based on the amplification of portions of Tri3 and Tri12. There was no effect of year or region on the proportion of trichothecene genotypes. Overall, 66% of the strains (61/92) were 15-ADON, 4.4% (4/92) were 3-ADON and 29.3% (27/92) were NIV. The overall NIV/DON ratio estimated (0.41) was five times higher than that found in previous studies with strains from wheat grown in the same region. Species identification of nine strains representing the trichothecene genotypes, based on comparisons of DNA sequences of portions of the PHO, RED and URA genes with sequences from curated reference isolates of Fusarium from GenBank, revealed that they belong to F. graminearum sensu stricto (four 15-ADON and one 3-ADON strain), F. meridionale (three NIV strains) and F. austroamericanum (one 3-ADON strain). These results add to the current regional knowledge of trichothecene genotypes and species within the Fg complex affecting barley in the region. PMID:21665312

Astolfi, P; dos Santos, J; Schneider, L; Gomes, L B; Silva, C N; Tessmann, D J; Del Ponte, E M

2011-08-15

219

Association mapping of partitioning loci in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Association mapping, initially developed in human disease genetics, is now being applied to plant species. The model species Arabidopsis provided some of the first examples of association mapping in plants, identifying previously cloned flowering time genes, despite high population sub-structure. More recently, association genetics has been applied to barley, where breeding activity has resulted in a high degree of

James Cockram; Jon White; Fiona J Leigh; Vincent J Lea; Elena Chiapparino; David A Laurie; Ian J Mackay; Wayne Powell; Donal M O'Sullivan

2008-01-01

220

GREENING BARLEY SEEDLINGS UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The influence of heating on the structure and functional activity of photosynthetic membranes in greening barley seedlings was studied. It was observed that plants respond differently under different heat treatments (40, 45 and 500Ń). It was also observed that elevated temperature (400Ń) enhances the stability of thylakoid membrane, reducing overall membrane fluidity. Interaction and mutual regulation of xanthophyll cycle

Y. A. Maiseyenkava; N. L. Pshybytko; L. F. Kabashnikova

2005-01-01

221

Uptake of Bromacil by Isolated Barley Roots.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0....

C. Wickliff J. C. McFarlane H. Ratsch

1984-01-01

222

UPTAKE OF BROMACIL BY ISOLATED BARLEY ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg/l) of 0.64 microgram...

223

Liquid digestate from anaerobic treatment of source-separated household waste as fertilizer to barley.  

PubMed

This study examined the efficiency of different organic waste materials as NPK fertilizer, in addition to the risk for leaching losses related to shower precipitation in the first part of the growing season. The experiment was tested in a pot trial on a sandy soil in a greenhouse. Six organic fertilizers were evaluated: liquid anaerobic digestate (LAD) sourced from separated household waste, nitrified liquid anaerobic digestate (NLAD) of the same origin as LAD, meat and bone meal (MBM), hydrolysed salmon protein (HSP), reactor-composted catering waste (CW) and cattle manure (CM). An unfertilized control, calcium nitrate (CN) and Fullgjųdsel® 21-4-10 were used as reference fertilizers. At equal amounts of mineral nitrogen both LAD and Fullgjųdsel® gave equal yield of barley in addition to equal uptake of N, P, and K in barley grain. NLAD gave significantly lower barley yield than the original LAD due to leaching of nitrate-N after a simulated surplus of precipitation (28?mm) at Zadoks 14. There was significantly increased leaching of nitrate N from the treatments receiving 160?kg?N?ha(-1) of CN and NLAD in comparison with all the other organic fertilizers. In this study LAD performed to the same degree as Fullgjųdsel® NPK fertilizer and it was concluded that LAD can be recommended as fertilizer for cereals. Nitrification of the ammonium N in the digestate caused significantly increased nitrate leaching, and cannot be recommended. PMID:21746761

Haraldsen, Trond Knapp; Andersen, Uno; Krogstad, Tore; Sųrheim, Roald

2011-12-01

224

Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar ?-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

2011-09-01

225

Development of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines with altered starch granule size distribution.  

PubMed

Microscope analysis of starches prepared from 139 barley genotypes identified a Japanese genotype, Kinai Kyoshinkai-2 (KK-2), with altered starch granule size distribution. Compared to normal barley starch, KK-2 produced consistently higher volumes of starch granules with 5-15 ?m diameter and reduced volumes of starch granules with >15 ?m diameter when grown in different environments. A cross between KK-2 and normal starch cultivar CDC Kendall was made and led to the production of 154 F5 lines with alterations to the normal 7:3:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. Three F5 lines showed unimodal starch granule size distribution due to apparent lack of very small (<5.0 ?m diameter) C-type starch granules, but the phenotype was accompanied by reduced grain weight and total starch concentration. Five F5 lines produced a significantly larger population of large (>15 ?m diameter) A-type starch granules as compared to normal starch and showed on average a 10:4:1 distribution for A-:B-:C-type starch granule volumes. The unusual starch phenotypes displayed by the F5 lines confirm starch granule size distribution in barley can be genetically altered. PMID:24483248

Jaiswal, Sarita; Båga, Monica; Ahuja, Geetika; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

2014-03-12

226

Chemical composition and physicochemical properties of barley dietary fiber by chemical modification.  

PubMed

Chemical modification of dietary fiber (DF), extracted from whole grain barley, was carried out to obtain cross-linked (CL) DF, carboxymethyl (CM) DF, and hydroxypropyl (HP) DF. The DF components, physicochemical properties, and subsequent influence on the in vitro digestibility of wheat starch gels were comparatively investigated. The redistribution of fiber components from chemically modified DF was observed. An increase in the total DF (TDF) content of CL- and HP-DF was observed, which was mainly due to an increase of insoluble DF. Carboxymethylation led to an appreciable increase of soluble DF (1.17-6.20%) but TDF contents slightly decreased. Chemical modification of barley DF led to increases in arabinose (7.1-11.5%) and xylose (10.7-17.5%), but glucose contents decreased (67.4-79.9%). The treatments, especially carboxymethylation, effectively (P<0.05) increased hydration properties (e.g. water solubility, swelling power, and water absorption index). Substitution of 5% wheat starch with CL-, and HP-DF led to decreased in vitro digestibility in comparison to the control starch. Our results suggest that chemical modification improve the DF characteristics of barley and to exploit its potential application as a functional ingredient in fiber-rich products. PMID:23817090

Park, Ka Hwa; Lee, Kwang Yeon; Lee, Hyeon Gyu

2013-09-01

227

Retrospective analysis of the results of implanting Nitinol pistons with heat-crimping piston loops in stapes surgery.  

PubMed

The study presented here evaluates the hearing results after the implantation of a new nickel-titanium (Nitinol) prosthesis in stapes surgery; on heating, this prosthesis crimps itself around the long process of the incus. In addition, we compare the outcome with results published in the literature. The medical records of all patients who underwent surgery for otosclerosis with implantation of a Nitinol piston during the period 2004-2006 were evaluated retrospectively. 83 patients (58 women and 25 men), with a provisional diagnosis of otosclerosis that was confirmed during surgery in all but one of the cases, were treated by primary stapes surgery (85 ears). We were able to include 53 patients (55 ears) who had audiograms with air and bone conduction preoperatively and both 2-6 weeks and about 1 year after surgery. We found a mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 kHz (ABG4000) of 10.4 ± 5.5 dB after a mean postoperative follow-up period of 24.5 ± 16 days, and of 7.4 ± 3.7 dB after 462 ± 119 days. For the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz (ABG3000), the results were 9.1 ± 4.8 and 6.4 ± 3.9 dB. The differences in preoperative versus postoperative air-bone gap, referred to as ABGC, after 25 and 462 days, respectively, were 19.4 ± 8.9 and 22.3 ± 8.8 dB for AGB4000, and 19.5 ± 8.8 and 22.2 ± 8.9 for ABG3000. Very good results were achieved with a new nickel-titanium prosthesis that crimps itself around the long process of the incus, thus facilitating stapes surgery and at the same time stabilizing the high quality of the results. However, no long-term results after 10 years or more, which would allow a final judgment, are yet available. PMID:19466440

Hornung, Joachim Albert; Brase, Christoph; Bozzato, Alessandro; Zenk, Johannes; Schick, Bernhard; Iro, Heinrich

2010-01-01

228

Export Markets for U.S. Grain and Feed Commodities, March 1982.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Prospects for US grain and feed commodity exports in FY 1982 are down from a month ago, with total value as of March 11 forecast at $19.3 bil. Although wheat, sorghum, and barley tonnages are all forecast at record levels, expectations of continued large ...

1982-01-01

229

Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

1973-01-01

230

Improving drought resistance in small-grained cereals: A case study, progress and prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is a serious problem in many parts of the world where wheat, barley and other small-grained cereals are part of the staple diets. Even in parts of South-eastern Europe, seasonal rainfall for winter cereals has been falling gradually for many years. Thus, since 1981 across three sites in Yugoslavia (Novi Sad, Kragujevac and Zajecar), rainfall fell from a mean

Steve A. Quarrie; Jovanka Stojanovi?; Sofija Peki?

1999-01-01

231

Pulvereldning kol/roerflen/mald braenslekaerna. (Combustion of coal/grass/grain powder).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes two different tests, one with combustion of coal powder in mixture with beaten Reed Canary grass and another with coal powder together with beaten grains of barley. The tests have been carried out in a 186 MW dust fired combined power...

S. Stridsberg K. Segerud

1996-01-01

232

Russian Federation: Grain and Feed. December Monthly Update, 2007. GAIN Report Number RS7086.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

December's grain production estimate for Russia is 80.4 million metric tons (mmt). The wheat production estimate has been raised to 48.3 mmt (a 7.6-percent increase from the 2006 crop). The barley production estimate has been raised to 16.5 mmt, but still...

K. Svec Y. Vassilieva

2007-01-01

233

Russian Federation: Grain and Feed, November Monthly Update, 2007. GAIN Report Number RS7082.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

November's grain production estimate for Russia is 79.7 million metric tons (mmt). Wheat production forecast is raised to 48.1 mmt (7.1 percent increase from 2006 crop), while barley production forecast is decreased to 16.4 mmt (down 9.4 percent from 2006...

Y. Vassilieva

2007-01-01

234

The wheat Em promoter drives reporter gene expression in embryo and aleurone tissue of transgenic barley and rice.  

PubMed

The early methionine (Em) proteins are members of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) group of proteins that have been considered to be embryo specific. The ability of a 646-bp wheat Em promoter to control green fluorescent protein (gfp) expression was investigated in transgenic barley and rice. Seeds of transgenic plants expressed gfp in the developing embryo but also in the aleurone layer. The 646-bp Em promoter also directed strong gfp expression in cells comprising the junction between the endosperm transfer cells and cells of the aleurone layer. Em-gfp expression in transgenic barley showed differences in spatial and temporal control when compared with that observed in transgenic rice. Em-gfp expression was also detected in mature aleurone cells of transgenic barley and rice with and without abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results indicated the presence of Em and Em-homologous transcript in embryo, aleurone and endosperm tissues of wheat and of barley and rice, respectively. These results suggest that Em proteins may be expressed in both the embryo and aleurone during seed development, possibly providing protection against desiccation in these two tissues that survive seed drying. They may also have a similar role in these tissues during germination. The Em promoter from wheat may be useful in the expression of novel genes in cereal grains, as an embryo- and aleurone-specific promoter complementing other available endosperm- and pericarp-specific promoters to collectively increase the expression of transgenes in seeds. PMID:17173630

Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert James

2005-07-01

235

Whole Grains and Fiber  

MedlinePLUS

... peas, rice bran, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries and apple pulp. Insoluble fiber has been associated with decreased ... carrots, Brussels sprouts, turnips, caul if lower and apple skin. Many commercial oat bran and wheat bran ...

236

Barley arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolases: purification, characterization and determination of primary structures from cDNA clones.  

PubMed Central

A family 51 arabinoxylan arabinofuranohydrolase, designated AXAH-I, has been purified from extracts of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings by fractional precipitation with (NH(4))(2)SO(4) and ion-exchange chromatography. The enzyme has an apparent molecular mass of 65 kDa and releases L-arabinose from cereal cell wall arabinoxylans with a pH optimum of 4.3, a catalytic rate constant (k(cat)) of 6.9 s(-1) and a catalytic efficiency factor (k(cat)/K(m)) of 0.76 (ml x s(-1) x mg(-1)). Whereas the hydrolysis of alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues linked to C(O)3 of backbone (1-->4)-beta-xylosyl residues proceeds at the fastest rate, alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl residues on doubly substituted xylosyl residues are also hydrolysed, at lower rates. A near full-length cDNA encoding barley AXAH-I indicates that the mature enzyme consists of 626 amino acid residues and has a calculated pI of 4.8. A second cDNA, which is 81% identical with that encoding AXAH-I, encodes another barley AXAH, which has been designated AXAH-II. The barley AXAHs are likely to have key roles in wall metabolism in cereals and other members of the Poaceae. Thus the enzymes could participate in the modification of the fine structure of arabinoxylan during wall deposition, maturation or expansion, or in wall turnover and the hydrolysis of arabinoxylans in germinated grain.

Lee, R C; Burton, R A; Hrmova, M; Fincher, G B

2001-01-01

237

Grain Spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our fundamental knowledge of interstellar grain composition has grown substantially during the past two decades thanks to significant advances in two areas: astronomical infrared spectroscopy and laboratory astrophysics. The opening of the mid-infrared, the spectral range from 4000-400 cm(sup -1) (2.5-25 microns), to spectroscopic study has been critical to this progress because spectroscopy in this region reveals more about a materials molecular composition and structure than any other physical property. Infrared spectra which are diagnostic of interstellar grain composition fall into two categories: absorption spectra of the dense and diffuse interstellar media, and emission spectra from UV-Vis rich dusty regions. The former will be presented in some detail, with the latter only very briefly mentioned. This paper summarized what we have learned from these spectra and presents 'doorway' references into the literature. Detailed reviews of many aspects of interstellar dust are given.

Allamandola, L. J.

1992-01-01

238

The stress- and abscisic acid-induced barley gene HVA22: developmental regulation and homologues in diverse organisms.  

PubMed

Abscisic acid (ABA) induces the expression of a battery of genes in mediating plant responses to environmental stresses. Here we report one of the early ABA-inducible genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), HVA22, which shares little homology with other ABA-responsive genes such as LEA (late embryogenesis-abundant) and RAB (responsive to ABA) genes. In grains, the expression of HVA22 gene appears to be correlated with the dormancy status. The level of HVA22 mRNA increases during grain development, and declines to an undetectable level within 12 h after imbibition of non-dormant grains. In contrast, the HVA22 mRNA level remains high in dormant grains even after five days of imbibition. Treatment of dormant grains with gibberellin (GA) effectively breaks dormancy with a concomitant decline of the level of HVA22 mRNA. The expression of HVA22 appears to be tissue-specific with the level of its mRNA readily detectable in aleurone layers and embryos, yet undetectable in the starchy endosperm. The expression of HVA22 in vegetative tissues can be induced by ABA and environmental stresses, such as cold and drought. Apparent homologues of this barley gene are found in phylogenetically divergent eukaryotic organisms, including cereals, Arabidopsis, Caenorhabditis elegans, man, mouse and yeast, but not in any prokaryotes. Interestingly, similar to barley HVA22, the yeast homologue is also stress-inducible. These observations suggest that the HVA22 and its homologues encode a highly conserved stress-inducible protein which may play an important role in protecting cells from damage under stress conditions in many eukaryotic organisms. PMID:11292078

Shen, Q; Chen, C N; Brands, A; Pan, S M; Ho, T H

2001-02-01

239

Interstellar grains within interstellar grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five interstellar graphite spherules extracted from the Murchison carbonaceous meteorite are studied. The isotopic and elemental compositions of individual particles are investigated with the help of an ion microprobe, and this analysis is augmented with structural studies of ultrathin sections of the grain interiors by transmission electron microscopy. As a result, the following procedure for the formation of the interstellar graphite spherule bearing TiC crystals is inferred: (1) high-temperature nucleation and rapid growth of the graphitic carbon spherule in the atmosphere of a carbon-rich star, (2) nucleation and growth of TiC crystals during continued growth of the graphitic spherule and the accretion of TiC onto the spherule, (3) quenching of the graphite growth process by depletion of C or by isolation of the spherule before other grain types could condense.

Bernatowicz, Thomas J.; Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst K.; Lewis, Roy S.

1991-01-01

240

Digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites in llama ( Lama glama) and alpaca ( lama pacos) fed barley or barley alfalfa diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effect of barley diets on digestibility, nitrogen balance, and blood metabolites, mature gelded llamas and alpacas (n=8; 4 llamas, 36±4 months, 90±10.7kg; 4 alpacas, 24–36 months, 50±4kg) were randomly fed 100% barley (B) and 20% alfalfa\\/80% barley (BA) hay. Animals were housed in metabolism crates and diets were fed for a 7 days adjustment period followed by

Heather L. Davies; T. F. Robinson; B. L. Roeder; M. E. Sharp; N. P. Johnston; A. C. Christensen; G. B. Schaalje

2007-01-01

241

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly.

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

242

Antioxidant Enzymes in Barley Green Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green biomass of young barley plants exhibited statistically significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\u000a catalase (CAT) at sampling I (in the phase of plant development DC 29) compared to the later sampling II (DC 31). Significant\\u000a effects of varieties, years and interactions of the studied factors on the activity of the studied antioxidants were determined.\\u000a During the experiment

J. Ehrenbergerovį; N. B?ezinovį Belcredi; J. Kopį?ek; L. Melišovį; P. Hrstkovį; S. Macuchovį; K. Vaculovį; I. Paulķ?kovį

2009-01-01

243

Zinc sulphate improved microspore embryogenesis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of ZnSO4 concentration on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) microspore embryogenesis was investigated using cultivars of different androgenetic response. Concentrations from 0 (control)\\u000a to 600 ?M in the stress pre-treatment medium alone or in combination with 30 (control) to 600 ?M in the embryo induction medium\\u000a were assayed in anther culture. Incorporation of Zn2+ in the pre-treatment medium itself did not

Begońa Echavarri; Mercedes Soriano; Luis Cistué; M. Pilar Vallés; Ana M. Castillo

2008-01-01

244

The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

1980-01-01

245

Gluten-free barley malt beers  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 75% of the barley proteins are gluten, with 50% prolamins and 25% glutenins. Gluten is related to gluten allergy and celiac disease. Malting and brewing processes removes much of the protein.More than 40 Belgian brewed commercial beers (gluten-free labeled, pils\\/lager, abbey, trappist, strong blond, amber, old brown, kriek and gueuze) and some foreign commercial beers are analyzed with R5

Anita Van Landschoot

2011-01-01

246

Association between Rdna Alleles and Quantitative Traits in Doubled Haploid Populations of Barley  

PubMed Central

Doubled haploids (DH) were generated from reciprocal F(1) hybrids which were heterozygous for alleles at the Nor-H3 locus on chromosome 5H of barley. The r-DNA alleles did not deviate significantly from the expected 1:1 ratio and the DH progenies were classified into two groups based on the allelic constitution of the Nor-H3 locus. The DHs were grown in a randomized, replicated field experiment and a range of agronomic and quality traits were recorded. The Nor-H3 locus was associated with a significant portion of the genetic variation for: yield, thousand corn weight, water sensitivity and milling energy requirement of the grain. However, the magnitude of the differences between groups was dependent on the direction of the cross. The milling energy requirement of the grain was consistently associated with alleles at the Nor-H3 locus. These results are presented in relation to the dynamics of rDNA evolution and variability. The potential of molecular markers in conjunction with doubled haploids to map quantitative traits in barley is also discussed.

Powell, W.; Thomas, WTB.; Thompson, D. M.; Swanston, J. S.; Waugh, R.

1992-01-01

247

Multielement determination in rice, wheat, and barley by instrumental neutron activation analysis.  

PubMed

INAA has been used for the determination of Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, and W in grains of rice, wheat, and barley, which were collected from different plant fields in Iraq. Samples and standards were irradiated in the IRT-5000 reactor, at neutron fluxes of 2 x 10(13) cm-2.s-1 and 3.2 x 10(11) cm-2.s-1. Interferences of photopeaks with each other were considered, and reaction interferences were calculated and determined experimentally. Accuracy of our method was assessed by the analysis of IAEA standards Wheat Flour and Bovine liver. A good agreement has been achieved between the present results and recommended values. The precision and detection limit were determined for all elements in all types of grain. PMID:1704772

al-Jobori, S M; Shihab, K M; Jalil, M; Saad, A; Mohsin, A

1990-01-01

248

Comparative feeding value of hulless vs covered barley for feedlot cattle.  

PubMed

One hundred twenty medium-frame crossbred steers (364 kg) were used in a 106-d feedlot trial to compare the feeding value of Condor, a hulless barley (HB), with Leduc, a conventional covered barley (CB). Dietary treatments consisted of a finishing diet containing 77% grain (DM basis) as 1) steam-flaked corn (SFC); 2) dry-rolled HB (DRB-H); 3) steam-flaked HB (SFB-H); 4) dry-rolled CB (DRB-C); and 5) steam-flaked CB (SFB-C). Feed intake was lower (8.6%, P < .01) for HB than for CB. Diet NE was greater for HB than for CB (P < .01) and for SFB than for DRB (P < .01). Incidence of liver abscess was greater for DRB than for SFB (239%, P < .05) and for HB than for CB (167%, P < .10). Diet NE were greater (P < .10) for SFC than for barley treatments. Treatment effects on characteristics of digestion were evaluated using five Holstein steers (202 kg) with cannulas in the rumen and proximal duodenum. There were barley variety x grain processing interactions on ruminal digestion of OM (P < .10), ADF (P < .05), and starch (P < .05). Ruminal OM digestion increased (9.0%) with steam flaking HB and decreased slightly (1.9%) with steam flaking CB. Ruminal digestion of starch was enhanced more dramatically (21.5 vs 8.4%, respectively) with steam flaking HB than with CB. Steam flaking decreased ruminal ADF digestion of HB only slightly (6.2%), whereas with CB the decrease was more dramatic (54.3%). Ruminal degradable N was greater (P < .10) for CB than for HB and for DRB than for SFB (19.8%, P < .05). Estimates of ruminal degradable N in DRB-H, SFB-H, DRB-C, and SFB-C were 69.7, 53.9, 78.5, and 65.0%, respectively. Postruminal digestion of OM (P < .01), starch (P < .05), and N (P < .10) were greater for HB than for CB. Steam flaking barley increased (P < .01) postruminal N digestibility. Total tract digestibility of OM (P < .01), ADF (P < .05), starch (P < .01), and energy (P < .01) were greater for HB than for CB. Digestibility of ADF in barley hulls was only 6.4%. Steam flaking increased (P < .01) total tract digestibility of starch. Ruminal digestibility of OM and feed N was lower (P < .01) for SFC than for barley diets. Ruminal pH was lower (P < .10) for HB than for CB and for SFB than for DRB (P < .01). Ruminal propionate was higher (24.1%, P < .01), and methane was lower (17.9%, P < .01) for HB than for CB. PMID:8791188

Zinn, R A; Montańo, M; Shen, Y

1996-06-01

249

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = -0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = -0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding "leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein" on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Sųren K

2014-01-01

250

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding.

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, S?ren K.

2014-01-01

251

Allelic Variations of a Light Harvesting Chlorophyll A/B-Binding Protein Gene (Lhcb1) Associated with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP) is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING). A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels) and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits.

Xia, Yanshi; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Li, Ronghua; Yan, Guijun; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Baum, Michael; Guo, Peiguo

2012-01-01

252

Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Da?kowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

Zieli?ski, H; Koz?owska, H

2000-06-01

253

Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products.  

PubMed

Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage ?-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of ?-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley ?-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48 ± 33 mmol · min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the ?-glucan dose alone (r(2)=0.48, P<0.0001) than to the ratio of ?-glucan to the available carbohydrate (r(2)=0.25, P<0.0001). For processed foods containing 4 g of ?-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27 ± 3 mmol · min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of ?-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose. PMID:23422921

Tosh, S M

2013-04-01

254

The USDA Barley Core Collection: Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Potential for Genome-Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait). Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define ‘mini-core’ sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These ‘mini-core’ sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ‘hull cover’, ‘spike row number’, and ‘heading date’ demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections.

Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonman, John M.; Bockelman, Harold E.; Chao, Shiaoman; Russell, Joanne; Waugh, Robbie; Hayes, Patrick M.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

2014-01-01

255

Differential Gene Expression in the Developing Barley Endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley prolamin storage proteins account for 50% of the seed proteins. They are encoded by small multigene families that are only expressed in the developing endosperm. Previous work has shown that the major prolamins in barley are characterized by the presence of two or more unrelated structural domains, one of which contains repeated sequences. The non-repetitive domain is homologous with

M. Kreis; M. S. Williamson; J. Forde; D. Schmutz; J. Clark; B. Buxton; J. Pywell; C. Marris; J. Henderson; N. Harris; P. R. Shewry; B. G. Forde; B. J. Miflin

1986-01-01

256

Functional Properties of Dietary Fibre Enriched Extrudates from Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Products with new functional and nutritional properties are a precondition for a higher acceptance of barley in human nutrition. Amylose can be partly converted into enzyme-resistant starch (RS) by technological treatments. Optimal conditions for generation of RS from barley using a single-screw laboratory extruder were the following: feed moisture approximately 20%, mass temperature approximately 150 °C, screw speed approximately 200

M. Huth; G. Dongowski; E. Gebhardt; W. Flamme

2000-01-01

257

Antenna chlorophyll a complexes in mutant and developing barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chlorophyll a antenna of photosystems I and II were each isolated after detergent treatment by gel electrophoresis or sucrose gradient centrifugation from a b-less mutant of barley grown in daylight and from wildtype barley developed in intermittent light. We identified each fraction by both its electrophoretic position and PS I activity (P700 content) in the case of the mutant,

Jeanette S. Brown; Jan M. Anderson; L. Horst Grimme

1982-01-01

258

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

259

Salicylic Acid Alleviates the Cadmium Toxicity in Barley Seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salicylic acid (SA) plays a key role in plant disease resistance and hypersensitive cell death but is also implicated in hardening responses to abiotic stressors. Cadmium (Cd) exposure increased the free SA contents of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by a factor of about 2. Cultivation of dry barley caryopses presoaked in SA-containing solution for onl y6ho rsingle transient addition of

Ashraf Metwally; Iris Finkemeier; Manfred Georgi; Karl-Josef Dietz

2003-01-01

260

Agronomic performance of crosses between Nordic and exotic barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic germplasm may be useful for the improvement of agronomic performance of barley breeding material. This study was conducted in order 1) to evaluate if it is possible to improve performance of Nordic barley breeding material by utilizing exotic germplasm sources (unadapted landraces and H. spontaneum), 2) to evaluate incorporation of exotic germplasm into a genetic base widely adapted to

Merja Veteläinen; Mia Suominen; Eero Nissilä

1997-01-01

261

Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance.

Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

2014-01-01

262

Competitive Functions of Components Crops in Some Barley Based Intercropping Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Behaviour of component crops in different barley based intercropping systems under different nutrient levels was investigated in a field study conducted for two consecutive years on a sandy-clay loam soil at the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The nutrient levels comprised 0-0-0 (control), 100-0-0, 100-75-0, 100-75-75 kg NPK ha-1 while intercropping systems were barley alone, barley+lentil, barley+gram, barley+methra, barley+linseed, barley+canola. The

INTKHAB HAZOOR WAHLA; RIAZ AHMAD; ASHFAQ AHMAD; ABDUL JABBAR

263

Wheat distillers grains in feedlot cattle diets: feeding behavior, growth performance, carcass characteristics, and blood metabolites.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate feed intake, ADG, carcass quality, eating behavior, and blood metabolites in feedlot beef steers fed diets that varied in proportion of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) replacing barley grain or barley silage. Two hundred crossbred steers (BW = 489 ± 30 kg) were blocked by BW and randomly allotted to 20 pens (5 pens per treatment). Steers were fed 1 of 4 diets: control without DDGS (CON), 25% (25DDGS), 30% (30DDGS), or 35% (35DDGS) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The CON diet consisted of 15% barley silage and 85% barley-based concentrate; the 3 wheat DDGS diets were formulated by substituting 20% barley grain and 5, 10, or 15% silage, respectively, with 25, 30, or 35% wheat DDGS so that the 35DDGS diet contained no silage. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Dry matter intake of steers fed 25DDGS was greater (P < 0.01), but final BW, ADG, and G:F were not different compared with steers fed CON diet. Carcass characteristics and liver abscess score were not different between CON and 25DDGS. Steers fed 25DDGS had longer eating time (min/d; P < 0.01), greater meal frequency (P < 0.04), but a slower eating rate (P < 0.04). Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P < 0.01) DMI. Final BW, ADG, and G:F were not affected by increasing amounts of wheat DDGS. Carcass traits were not different, whereas liver abscess scores linearly (P < 0.01) increased as more barley silage was replaced by wheat DDGS. Eating time (min/d) and duration of each meal linearly (P < 0.02) decreased, whereas eating rate (min/g of DM) linearly (P < 0.01) increased with increasing replacement of barley silage. Blood urea N was doubled (P < 0.01) compared with CON by inclusion of wheat DDGS. Results indicate that wheat DDGS can be used effectively in feedlot diets, decreasing the need for barley grain or silage without negatively affecting growth performance and carcass characteristics. A reduction in the amount of roughage required to maintain growth performance is a potential advantage in feedlot operations because forage is costly and often of limited availability. Thus, DDGS can be a possible alternative as long as they are available and cost effective; however, increased incidence of liver abscess and increased N content of manure need to be considered when greater amounts of wheat DDGS are included in finishing diets. PMID:22100591

Yang, W Z; Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; McKinnon, J J; Beauchemin, K A

2012-04-01

264

Lipid transfer proteins and protease inhibitors as key factors in the priming of barley responses to Fusarium head blight disease by a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strains of non-pathogenic pseudomonad bacteria, can elicit host defence responses against pathogenic microorganisms. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MKB158 can protect cereals from pathogenesis by Fusarium fungi, including Fusarium head blight which is an economically important disease due to its association with both yield loss\\u000a and mycotoxin contamination of grain. Using the 22 K barley Affymetrix chip, trancriptome studies were undertaken to determine

Carloalberto Petti; Mojibur Khan; Fiona Doohan

2010-01-01

265

Analysis of the chromosome 2(2H) region of barley associated with the correlated traits Fusarium head blight resistance and heading date  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a major disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that results in reduced grain yield and quality through the accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). Coincident\\u000a QTL for FHB severity, DON concentration, and heading date (HD) map to a region of chromosome 2(2H) designated Qrgz-2H-8. It\\u000a is unclear whether disease resistance at this locus is due

L. M. Nduulu; A. Mesfin; G. J. Muehlbauer; K. P. Smith

2007-01-01

266

Exotic barley germplasms in breeding for resistance to soil-borne viruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-borne mosaic inducing viruses, i.e., barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), and BaYMV-2, cause one of the most important diseases of winter barley in Western Europe. Since resistance of all commercial European barley cultivars is due to a single recessive gene (ym4) which is not effective against BaYMV-2, exotic barley germplasms (Hordeum vulgare L., H. spontaneum

Frank Ordon; Jens Weyen; Michael Korell; Wolfgang Friedt

1996-01-01

267

Uptake of bromacil by isolated barley roots.  

PubMed

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg l(-1)) of 0.64 ?g bromacil g(-1) fresh root hr(-1). A Q10 for the process was determined to be 1.5 and living roots were required for bromacil uptake. This procedure was judged to be a quick and inexpensive method to screen plant uptake of toxic chemicals. PMID:24259145

Wickliff, C; McFarlane, J C; Ratsch, H

1984-03-01

268

Abscisic acid, phaseic acid and gibberellin contents associated with dormancy and germination in barley.  

PubMed

Analyses of abscisic acid (ABA), ent-kaurenoids and gibberellins (GAs) showed that there were major changes in the contents of these compounds associated with germination of after-ripened barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Schooner and cv. Proctor) grain but not in hydrated dormant grain. Embryos from dormant and after-ripened dry grain contained similar amounts of ABA, of ent-kaurenoids and of GAs, determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring. In embryos of after-ripened grain, ABA content decreased rapidly after hydration and ABA appeared to be metabolized (inactivated) to phaseic acid (PA) rather than diffusing into the endosperm or the surrounding medium as previously thought. Similar changes in ABA occurred in hydrated dormant grain during germination in darkness. Accumulation of ent-kaurenoids and GAs, including GA1, the first biologically active GA in the early 13-hydroxylation biosynthetic pathway, occurred to a much greater extent in after-ripened than in dormant grain and these changes occurred mainly after 18 h of hydration when ABA had already decreased and germination was occurring. The block in ent-kaurenoid and GA synthesis in dormant grain appeared to occur prior to ent-kaurene in the biosynthetic pathway. These results are consistent with the view that ABA is the primary effector of dormancy and that after-ripening involves the development of the ability to reduce the amount of ABA quickly following hydration. Accumulation of GAs does not appear to be causally related to loss of dormancy but it does appear to be related to germination. PMID:12081536

Jacobsen, John V; Pearce, David W; Poole, Andrew T; Pharis, Richard P; Mander, Lewis N

2002-07-01

269

Differential regulation of 3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase and gramine in barley by both biotic and abiotic stress conditions.  

PubMed

The expression of NMT (3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.), involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid gramine, was investigated in aphid-infested barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). NMT is induced by methyl jasmonate and it was hypothesized that the gene would be more strongly upregulated in aphid-resistant barley. We examined the effects of feeding by three aphid species; Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko), rose-grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walker) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley genotypes with varying resistance characteristics. The barley genotypes selected included the cultivar Libra, known to upregulate gramine after feeding by Schizaphis graminum. Infestation by R. padi and M. dirhodum resulted in higher NMT expression in the doubled haploid line 5172-28:4 (DH28:4), which has moderate resistance against R. padi, but not in other aphid-barley combinations. None of the aphid-plant combinations had however increased gramine, suggesting that aphid-induction of gramine is specific to S. graminum. The increased abundance of NMT transcript in aphid-infested DH28:4 did not lead to higher amounts of NMT protein or NMT enzyme activity, neither did 200 times upregulation of NMT transcript in cotyledons incubated with methyl jasmonate, illustrating that even large differences measured at transcript level may have no metabolic consequences. Drought stress or treatments with abscisic acid did lead to higher gramine concentrations in several barley cultivars, but without any concomitant increase of NMT transcripts. Thus, the regulation of the biosynthetic pathway to gramine at transcript and metabolite level diverges during two different stress conditions. PMID:21074448

Larsson, Kristina A E; Saheed, Sefiu A; Gradin, Therese; Delp, Gabriele; Karpinska, Barbara; Botha, Christiaan E J; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

2011-01-01

270

Cloning and characterization of root-specific barley lectin  

SciTech Connect

Cereal lectins are a class of biochemically and antigenically related proteins localized in a tissue-specific manner in embryos and adult plants. To study the specificity of lectin expression, a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo cDNa library was constructed and a clone (BLc3) for barley lectin was isolated. BLc3 is 972 nucleotides long and includes an open reading frame of 212 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence contains a putative signal peptide of 26 amino acid residues followed by a 186 amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide has 95% sequence identity to the antigenically indistinguishable wheat germ agglutinin isolectin-B (WGA-B) suggesting that BLc3 encodes barley lectin. Further evidence that BLc3 encodes barley lectin was obtained by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products of BLc3 RNA transcripts and barley embryo poly(A{sup +}) RNA. In situ hybridizations with BLc3 showed that barley lectin gene expression is confined to the outermost cell layers of both embryonic and adult root tips. On Northern blots, BLc3 hybridizes to a 1.0 kilobyte mRNA in poly(A{sup +}) RNA from both embryos and root tips. We suggest, on the basis of immunoblot experiments, that barley lectin is synthesized as a glycosylated precursor and processed by removal of a portion of the carboxyl terminus including the single N-linked glycosylation site.

Lerner, D.R.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-09-01

271

Study of the prevalence of chronic, non-specific lung disease and related health problems in the grain-handling industry. Technical report  

SciTech Connect

A total of 310 grain handlers was studied, with attention to prevalence and characteristics of clinical, psychological, immunological, radiological, serological blood and urine parameters to determine any apparent effects from grain-dust exposure. Grain handlers had a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and signs than did the city workers who comprised the comparison group. Evidence of accumulative respiratory effect due to recurring exposures to grain dust was found. Acute and chronic airway reactions were induced by exposure to grain dust. Wheezing and dyspnea on exposure were related to length of employment. Grain fever syndrome was prevalent. Cases of acute recurrent conjunctivitis and rhinitis were found along with skin pruritus, mainly on exposure to barley dust. Pesticide exposure caused temporary disabling symptoms. Lung function was adversely affected by grain-dust exposure. Exposure to grain mites and insects in contaminated cereal grain caused a reaction among grain workers.

Rankin, J.; Bates, J.; Claremont, A.; Dennis, W.; doPico, G.A.

1986-10-01

272

A metabolomics approach to uncover the effects of grain diets on rumen health in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Dairy cows fed high-grain diets during early lactation have a high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) of how grain feeding causes disease is not clear. In an effort to understand how this diet transition alters the rumen environment and potentially leads to certain metabolic disorders in dairy cattle, we undertook a comprehensive, quantitative metabolomic analysis of rumen fluid samples from dairy cows fed 4 different diets. Using a combination of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and direct flow injection tandem mass spectroscopy, we identified and quantified 93 metabolites in rumen samples taken from 8 dairy cows fed graded amounts of barley grain (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of diet dry matter). We also studied temporal changes in the rumen by studying metabolite concentration differences between the first day and the last day of each diet phase following the diet adaptation period. Multivariate analysis showed that rumen metabolites arising from the diet containing 45% barley grain were clearly different from those containing 0, 15, and 30% barley grain. Likewise, a clear separation of the metabolic composition of the ruminal fluid was evident at the beginning and at the end of each diet phase-contrary to the belief that 11 d are suitable for the adaptation of cows to high-grain diets. High-grain diets (>30%) resulted in increased rumen fluid concentrations of several toxic, inflammatory, and unnatural compounds including putrescine, methylamines, ethanolamine, and short-chain fatty acids. Perturbations in several amino acids (phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, leucine, arginine, valine, and phenylacetylglycine) were also evident. The present study confirms and greatly extends earlier observations on dietary effects on rumen fluid composition and shows that the use of multiple metabolomic platforms permits a far more detailed understanding of metabolic causes and effects. These results may improve our understanding of diet-related rumen metabolism and the influence of grain on the overall health of dairy cattle. PMID:22959937

Saleem, F; Ametaj, B N; Bouatra, S; Mandal, R; Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S

2012-11-01

273

Barley ?-glucans extraction and partial characterization.  

PubMed

Barley is rarely used in the food industry, even though it is a main source of ?-glucans, which have important health benefits and a technological role in food. This work evaluated the humid extraction of barley ?-glucans and partially characterized them. The extraction was studied using surface response methodology with both temperature and pH as variables. The extracted ?-glucans were characterized by chemical and rheological analysis, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The effect on extraction of linear and quadratic terms of pH and temperature corresponding to the regression model was significant, and we obtained a maximum concentration of 53.4% at pH 7.56 and temperature 45.5°C, with protein and mainly starch contamination. The extracted ?-glucans presented a higher apparent viscosity than the commercial ones, the behavior of the commercial and extracted samples can be described as Newtonian and pseudoplastic, respectively. The results of infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were characteristic of commercial ?-glucans, indicating that this method is efficient for extracting ?-glucans. PMID:24518319

Limberger-Bayer, Valéria M; de Francisco, Alicia; Chan, Aline; Oro, Tatiana; Ogliari, Paulo J; Barreto, Pedro L M

2014-07-01

274

Structure-function analysis of the barley genome: the gene-rich region of chromosome 2HL.  

PubMed

A major gene-rich region on the end of the long arm of Triticeae group 2 chromosomes exhibits high recombination frequencies, making it an attractive region for positional cloning. Traits known to be controlled by this region include chasmogamy/cleistogamy, frost tolerance at flowering, grain yield, head architecture, and resistance to Fusarium head blight and rusts. To assist these cloning efforts, we constructed detailed genetic maps of barley chromosome 2H, including 61 polymerase chain reaction markers. Colinearity with rice occurred in eight distinct blocks, including five blocks in the terminal gene-rich region. Alignment of rice sequences from the junctions of colinear chromosome segments provided no evidence for the involvement of long (>2.5 kb) inverted repeats in generating inversions. However, reuse of some junction sequences in two or three separate evolutionary breakage/fusion events was implicated, suggesting the presence of fragile sites. Sequencing across 91 gene fragments totaling 107 kb from four barley genotypes revealed the highest single nucleotide substitution and insertion-deletion polymorphism levels in the terminal regions of the chromosome arms. The maps will assist in the isolation of genes from the chromosome 2L gene-rich region in barley and wheat by providing markers and accelerating the identification of the corresponding points in the rice genome sequence. PMID:18958509

Chen, Andrew; Brūlé-Babel, Anita; Baumann, Ute; Collins, Nicholas C

2009-02-01

275

Hormonal Regulation of Organic and Phosphoric Acid Release by Barley Aleurone Layers and Scutella.  

PubMed Central

The release of acid from the aleurone layer and scutellum of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) was investigated. Aleurone layers isolated from mature barley grains acidify the external medium by releasing organic and phosphoric acids. Gibberellic acid and abscisic acid stimulate acid release 2-fold over control tissue incubated in 10 mM CACl2. Gibberellic acid causes medium acidification by stimulating the release of phosphoric and citric acids, whereas abscisic acid stimulates the release of malic acid. The accumulation of these acids in the incubation medium buffers the medium against changes in pH, particularly between pH 4 and 5. The amounts of amino acids that accumulate in the medium are low (2-12 nmol/layer) compared to other organic and phosphoric acids (100-500 nmol/layer). The scutellum does not play a major role in medium acidification but participates in the uptake of organic acids. The organic acid composition of the starchy endosperm changes after 3 d of imbibition; malic, succinic, and lactic acids decrease, whereas citric and phosphoric acids remain unchanged or increase. These results indicate that during postgerminative growth, the acidity of the starchy endosperm is maintained by acid production by the aleurone layer.

Drozdowicz, Y. M.; Jones, R. L.

1995-01-01

276

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes.

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

277

Starch granule initiation and growth are altered in barley mutants that lack isoamylase activity.  

PubMed

Two mutant lines of barley, Risų 17 and Notch-2, were found to accumulate phytoglycogen in the grain. Like the sugary mutants of maize and rice, these phytoglycogen-accumulating mutants of barley lack isoamylase activity in the developing endosperm. The mutants were shown to be allelic, and to have lesions in the isoamylase gene, isa1 that account for the absence of this enzyme. As well as causing a reduction in endosperm starch content, the mutations have a profound effect on the structure, number and timing of initiation of starch granules. There are no normal A-type or B-type granules in the mutants. The mutants have a greater number of starch granules per plastid than the wild-type and, particularly in Risų 17, this leads to the appearance of compound starch granules. These results suggest that, as well as suppressing phytoglycogen synthesis, isoamylase in the wild-type endosperm plays a role in determining the number, and hence the form, of starch granules. PMID:12100486

Burton, Rachel A; Jenner, Helen; Carrangis, Luke; Fahy, Brendan; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Hylton, Chris; Laurie, David A; Parker, Mary; Waite, Darren; van Wegen, Sonja; Verhoeven, Tamara; Denyer, Kay

2002-07-01

278

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus.  

PubMed

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

279

The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases  

SciTech Connect

Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

1999-03-23

280

Barley Endosperm Development; A Functional Genomics Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell wall components make a relatively minor contribution to the total weight of cereal grains, but they can have a disproportionately large impact on grain technology, utilization and nutrition. Thus, in malting and brewing, wall polysaccharides can adversely affect the efficiency of malt extraction, filtration processes and the quality of the final beer. They can also have undesirable effects on

Rachel Burton; Neil Shirley; Andrew Harvey; Sarah Wilson; Monika Doblin; Edward Newbigin; Anthony Bacic; Geoffrey Fincher

281

Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains  

PubMed Central

A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined.

Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

1995-01-01

282

Effect of compost and manure soil amendments on nematodes and on yields of potato and barley: a 7-year study.  

PubMed

A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

Kimpinski, J; Gallant, C E; Henry, R; Macleod, J A; Sanderson, J B; Sturz, A V

2003-09-01

283

Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 ? Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (? -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of ? -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No difference in Chl a/b ratio between variants was observed. A process of photosynthetic apparatus formation was controlled by chlorophyll fluorescence. It was shown that after 24 to 48 hour greening maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was increased in result of maturation of pigment apparatus. Proportion of open PSII (qP) was higher in control plants, especially when intensity of actinic light exceeded growth intensity. Chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) was higher in control plants in comparison with clinorotated ones on a different level of actinic light. Thus clinorotation influences formation of photosynthetic machinery through slowing down pigment biosynthesis and affecting photochemical characteristics.

Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

284

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

285

Chloroplast DNA Diversity in Populations of Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

Chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) diversity was found within and among populations (245 accessions total) of wild barley, Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum Koch from Israel and Iran. Three polymorphic restriction sites (HindIII, EcoRI, BclI) which define three distinct cpDNA lineages were detected. One lineage is common to populations in the Hule Valley and Kinneret of northern Israel, and in Iran. The second lineage is found predominantly in the Lower Jordan Valley and Negev. The distribution of the third lineage is scattered but widespread throughout Israel. Sixty two accessions of cultivated barleys, H. vulgare L., were found, with two exceptions, to belong to just one cpDNA lineage of wild barley, indicating that the cpDNA of cultivated barley is less variable than its wild ancestor. These results demonstrate the need for assessing intraspecific cpDNA variability prior to choosing single accessions for phylogenetic constructions at the species level and higher.

Neale, D. B.; Saghai-Maroof, M. A.; Allard, R. W.; Zhang, Q.; Jorgensen, R. A.

1988-01-01

286

Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation) when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (? 5 ppm) in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201) were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare). DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

2011-01-01

287

Effect of growth irradiance on plastocyanin levels in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plastocyanin levels in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Boone) were found to be dependent on growth irradiance. An immunochemical assay was developed and used to measure the plastocyanin content of isolated thylakoid membranes. Barley grown under 600 µmole photons m-2s-1 contained two- to four-fold greater quantities of plastocyanin per unit chlorophyll compared with plants grown under 60 µmole photons m-2s-1. The

Kent O. Burkey

1993-01-01

288

Slender barley: A constitutive gibberellin-response mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta), slender (sln1) is a single-locus recessive mutation which causes a plant to appear as if it had been grown in sturating concentrations of gibberellin (GA). We have investigated two of the GA-mediated processes in slender barley, shoot elongation and the induction of hydrolytic enzymes in aleurone layers. Shoot elongation is severely retarded in

Michael B. Lanahan; Tuan-Hua David Ho

1988-01-01

289

Biochemical mutant in barley renders chemical stabilization of beer superfluous  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recessive mutantant-13 isolated from Foma barley after a mutagen treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate is shown to be blocked in the formation\\u000a of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (=anthocyanogens). The mutant has been propagated, malted on a pilot scale\\u000a and the malt used for pilot brews of beer. Foma barley has been malted and brewed for comparison. Malt, wort and beer

D. von Wettstein; Barbro Jende-Strid; B. Ahrenst-Larsen; J. A. Sųrensen

1977-01-01

290

Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence.

Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

2014-01-01

291

Subcellular volumes and metabolite concentrations in barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metabolite concentrations in subcellular compartments from mature barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Apex) leaves after 9 h of illumination and 5 h of darkness were determined by nonaqueous fractionation and by the stereological evaluation of cellular and subcellular volumes from light and electron micrographs. Twenty one-day-old primary leaves of barley with a total leaf volume of 902 µL per mg

Heike Winter; David G. Robinson; Hans Walter Heldt

1993-01-01

292

High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Silvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A

2008-01-01

293

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley Plastidial ADP-Glucose Transporter (HvBT1)  

PubMed Central

In cereals, ADP-glucose transporter protein plays an important role in starch biosynthesis. It acts as a main gate for the transport of ADP-glucose, the main precursor for starch biosynthesis during grain filling, from the cytosol into the amyloplasts of endospermic cells. In this study, we have shed some light on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of barley plastidial ADP-glucose transporter, HvBT1. Phylogenetic analysis of several BT1 homologues revealed that BT1 homologues are divided into two distinct groups. The HvBT1 is assigned to the group that represents BT homologues from monocotyledonous species. Some members of this group mainly work as nucleotide sugar transporters. Southern blot analysis showed the presence of a single copy of HvBT1 in barley genome. Gene expression analysis indicated that HvBT1 is mainly expressed in endospermic cells during grain filling; however, low level of its expression was detected in the autotrophic tissues, suggesting the possible role of HvBT1 in autotrophic tissues. The cellular and subcellular localization of HvBT1 provided additional evidence that HvBT1 targets the amyloplast membrane of the endospermic cells. Biochemical characterization of HvBT1 using E. coli system revealed that HvBT1 is able to transport ADP-glucose into E. coli cells with an affinity of 614.5 µM and in counter exchange of ADP with an affinity of 334.7 µM. The study also showed that AMP is another possible exchange substrate. The effect of non-labeled ADP-glucose and ADP on the uptake rate of [?-32P] ADP-glucose indicated the substrate specificity of HvBT1 for ADP-glucose and ADP.

Soliman, Atta; Ayele, Belay T.; Daayf, Fouad

2014-01-01

294

Effect of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, Puccinia hordei , on the yield of three barley cultivars  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three barley cultivars, Shyri, Clipper and Terįn, with different levels of partial resistance to barley leaf rust, caused\\u000a by Puccinia hordei, were exposed to six levels of the pathogen. These levels were obtained by 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 and 0 fungicide (Propiconazol) applications\\u000a respectively and occurred every 15 days starting at 66 days after sowing. No application served as

J. Ochoa; J. E. Parlevliet

2007-01-01

295

Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The starchy endosperm of cereals is a priori taken as a metabolically uniform tissue. By applying a noninvasive assay based on 13C/1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, we uncovered metabolic compartmentation in the endosperm. 13C-Suc feeding during grain filling showed that the primary site of Ala synthesis was the central region of the endosperm, the part of the caryopsis experiencing the highest level of hypoxia. Region-specific metabolism in the endosperm was characterized by flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolite profiling. FBA predicts that in the central region of the endosperm, the tricarboxylic acid cycle shifts to a noncyclic mode, accompanied by elevated glycolytic flux and the accumulation of Ala. The metabolic compartmentation within the endosperm is advantageous for the grain's carbon and energy economy, with a prominent role being played by Ala aminotransferase. An investigation of caryopses with a genetically perturbed tissue pattern demonstrated that Ala accumulation is a consequence of oxygen status, rather than being either tissue specific or dependent on the supply of Suc. Hence the 13C-Ala gradient can be used as an in vivo marker for hypoxia. The combination of MRI and metabolic modeling offers opportunities for the noninvasive analysis of metabolic compartmentation in plants.

Rolletschek, Hardy; Melkus, Gerd; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Fuchs, Johannes; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk; Jakob, Peter M.; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

2011-01-01

296

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses.

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

297

Analysis of pregerminated barley using hyperspectral image analysis.  

PubMed

Pregermination is one of many serious degradations to barley when used for malting. A pregerminated barley kernel can under certain conditions not regerminate and is reduced to animal feed of lower quality. Identifying pregermination at an early stage is therefore essential in order to segregate the barley kernels into low or high quality. Current standard methods to quantify pregerminated barley include visual approaches, e.g. to identify the root sprout, or using an embryo staining method, which use a time-consuming procedure. We present an approach using a near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging system in a mathematical modeling framework to identify pregerminated barley at an early stage of approximately 12 h of pregermination. Our model only assigns pregermination as the cause for a single kernel's lack of germination and is unable to identify dormancy, kernel damage etc. The analysis is based on more than 750 Rosalina barley kernels being pregerminated at 8 different durations between 0 and 60 h based on the BRF method. Regerminating the kernels reveals a grouping of the pregerminated kernels into three categories: normal, delayed and limited germination. Our model employs a supervised classification framework based on a set of extracted features insensitive to the kernel orientation. An out-of-sample classification error of 32% (CI(95%): 29-35%) is obtained for single kernels when grouped into the three categories, and an error of 3% (CI(95%): 0-15%) is achieved on a bulk kernel level. The model provides class probabilities for each kernel, which can assist in achieving homogeneous germination profiles. This research can further be developed to establish an automated and faster procedure as an alternative to the standard procedures for pregerminated barley. PMID:21932866

Arngren, Morten; Hansen, Per Waaben; Eriksen, Birger; Larsen, Jan; Larsen, Rasmus

2011-11-01

298

Malt in Combination with Lactobacillus rhamnosus Increases Concentrations of Butyric Acid in the Distal Colon and Serum in Rats Compared with Other Barley Products but Decreases Viable Counts of Cecal Bifidobacteria123  

PubMed Central

Several substances, including glutamine and propionic acid but in particular butyric acid, have been proposed to be important for colonic health. ?-Glucans lead to the formation of comparatively high amounts of butyric acid, and germinated barley foodstuff obtained from brewer’s spent grain (BSG), containing high amounts of ?-glucans and glutamine, has been reported to reduce the inflammatory response in the colon of patients with ulcerative colitis. The present study examines how 3 barley products, whole grain barley, malt, and BSG, affect SCFA in the hindgut and serum of rats and whether the addition of Lactobacillus rhamnosus 271 to each of these diets would have further effects. Amino acids in plasma and the cecal composition of the microbiota were also analyzed. The butyric acid concentration in the distal colon and serum was higher in the malt groups than in the other groups as was the serum concentration of propionic acid. The concentrations of propionic and butyric acids were higher in the cecum and serum of rats given L. rhamnosus than in those not given this strain. The proportion of plasma glutamine and the cecal number of bifidobacteria were lower in the malt groups than in the other groups. L. rhamnosus decreased the number of cecal bifidobacteria, whereas plasma glutamine was unaffected. We conclude that malt together with L. rhamnosus 271 had greater effects on propionic and butyric acid concentrations in rats than the other barley products. This is interesting when developing food with effects on colonic health.

Branning, Camilla E.; Nyman, Margareta E.

2011-01-01

299

Zinc and cadmium uptake by barley in field plots fertilized seven years with urban and suburban sludge  

SciTech Connect

Barley plants grown in 2.4- x 3.0-m field plots were fertilized annually with two sources of sewage sludge for 7 consecutive years. One sludge originating, from a suburban area, was composted and applied dry. The concentrations of N, Zn, and Cd were low and over the years averaged 1.1%, 496 mg kg/sup -1/, and 5.2 mg kg/sup -1/, respectively. The other sludge came from an industrial, urban area and was applied as a slurry. It had an N content three times as high, a Zn content that averaged 5 to 10 times as high, and a Cd content 5 to 20 times that of the suburban sludge. The applied sludge rates ranged from 0 to 225 metric tons (t) per hectare in increments of 45 t. Yields in each year peaked at 90 t with the suburban and at 45 t with the urban sludge. Yields increased during the first 4 years and remained stable for the last 3. No toxic effects were observed on any of the plants. During the first 2 years, little or no increase in concentrations of Zn and Cd in grain of barley was found with either sludge. In the last 4 years, Zn and Cd concentrations in grain and straw increased where urban sludge was used. In all cases, straw accumulated more Zn and Cd than did grain. A chemical fertilizer treatment of NPKS produced grain with Zn and Cd content comparable to that from an agronomic rate of suburban sludge over the entire 7-year period.

Vlamis, J.; Williams, D.E.; Corey, J.E.; Page, A.L.; Ganje, T.J.

1985-01-01

300

A putative role for amino acid permeases in sink-source communication of barley tissues uncovered by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of nitrogen accumulating in cereal grains originates from proteins remobilised from vegetative organs. However, interactions between grain filling and remobilisation are poorly understood. We used transcriptome large-scale pyrosequencing of flag leaves, glumes and developing grains to identify cysteine peptidase and N transporter genes playing a role in remobilisation and accumulation of nitrogen in barley. Results Combination of already known and newly derived sequence information reduced redundancy, increased contig length and identified new members of cysteine peptidase and N transporter gene families. The dataset for N transporter genes was aligned with N transporter amino acid sequences of rice and Arabidopsis derived from Aramemnon database. 57 AAT, 45 NRT1/PTR and 22 OPT unigenes identified by this approach cluster to defined subgroups in the respective phylogenetic trees, among them 25 AAT, 8 NRT1/PTR and 5 OPT full-length sequences. Besides, 59 unigenes encoding cysteine peptidases were identified and subdivided into different families of the papain cysteine peptidase clade. Expression profiling of full-length AAT genes highlighted amino acid permeases as the group showing highest transcriptional activity. HvAAP2 and HvAAP6 are highly expressed in vegetative organs whereas HvAAP3 is grain-specific. Sequence similarities cluster HvAAP2 and the putative transporter HvAAP6 together with Arabidopsis transporters, which are involved in long-distance transfer of amino acids. HvAAP3 is closely related to AtAAP1 and AtAAP8 playing a role in supplying N to developing seeds. An important role in amino acid re-translocation can be considered for HvLHT1 and HvLHT2 which are specifically expressed in glumes and flag leaves, respectively. PCA and K-means clustering of AAT transcript data revealed coordinate developmental stages in flag leaves, glumes and grains. Phloem-specific metabolic compounds are proposed that might signal high grain demands for N to distantly located plant organs. Conclusions The approach identified cysteine peptidases and specific N transporters of the AAT family as obviously relevant for grain filling and thus, grain yield and quality in barley. Up to now, information is based only on transcript data. To make it relevant for application, the role of identified candidates in sink-source communication has to be analysed in more detail.

2012-01-01

301

Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley?  

PubMed Central

The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high ?-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble ?-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total ?-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent.

Howard, Thomas P.; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M.

2014-01-01

302

Long-term hermetic storage of barley in PVC-covered concrete platforms under Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the bulk storage of barley in the open air under Mediterranean conditions was developed. A large (75 × 25 m) concrete platform with low walls was filled with barley and covered with a PVC overliner and a polyethylene underliner. The barley formed a pile of 4018 tonnes with a peak 7 m high and was stored for

A. Varnava; S. Navarro; E. Donahaye

1995-01-01

303

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102 Section...REGULATIONS Ā§ 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. United States...Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a...

2010-01-01

304

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. 457.102 Section...REGULATIONS Ā§ 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement. United States...Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage Endorsement (This is a...

2009-01-01

305

Structure and expression of the barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 messenger RNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barley stem rust resistance gene Rpg1 confers resistance to many pathotypes of the stem rust fungus Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Rpg1 was recently cloned by a map-based approach from the barley cultivar Morex. Haplotype sequencing and transformation of a susceptible barley cultivar were employed to prove its identity. As a first step in understanding the molecular mechanism of

Nils Rostoks; Brian J. Steffenson; Andris Kleinhofs

2004-01-01

306

Effects of barley straw ( Hordeum vulgare ) on freshwater and brackish phytoplankton and cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A short-term laboratory study was conductedto investigate the effect of barley strawin controlling several common phytoplanktonand cyanobacterial species. Following aone-month incubation of barley straw incoarsely filtered fresh Potomac River andbrackish Patuxent River waters, the growthof six autotrophic taxa was followed inculture. Barley straw slurry reduced theyield of three taxa (Ankistrodesmusfalcatus, Chlorella capsulata, Isochrysis sp.) in comparison withcultures not receiving the

Emily F. Brownlee; Stella G. Sellner; Kevin G. Sellner

2003-01-01

307

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants.

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Piston, Fernando; Martin, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

308

Enzymatic hydrogenation of trans-2-nonenal in barley.  

PubMed

Conversion of undesirable, taste-active compounds is crucial for using barley as a suitable raw material for beer production. Here, ALH1, a barley alkenal hydrogenase enzyme that reduced the alpha,beta-unsaturated double bond of aldehydes and ketones, was found to convert trans-2-nonenal (T2N), a major contributor to the cardboard-like flavor of aged beer. Although the physiological function of ALH1 in barley development remains elusive, it exhibited high specificity with NADPH as a cofactor in the conversion of several oxylipins-including T2N, trans-2-hexenal, traumatin, and 1-octen-3-one. ALH1 action represents a previously unknown mechanism for T2N conversion in barley. Additional experimental results resolved the genomic sequence for barley ALH1, as well as the identification of a paralog gene encoding ALH2. Interestingly, T2N was not converted by purified, recombinant ALH2. The possibility to enhance ALH1 activity in planta is discussed--not only with respect to the physiological consequences thereof--but also in relation to improved beer quality. PMID:16248576

Hambraeus, Gustav; Nyberg, Nils

2005-11-01

309

Marketing Farm Grain Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

Ridenour, Harlan E.

310

In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

2013-06-01

311

Variation in the effects of take-all disease on grain yield and quality of winter cereals in field experiments.  

PubMed

Relationships between take-all intensity and grain yield and quality were determined in field experiments on cereal crops using regression analyses, usually based on single-point disease assessments made during anthesis or grain-filling. Different amounts of take-all were achieved by different methods of applying inoculum artificially (to wheat only) or by using different cropping sequences (in wheat, triticale or barley) or sowing dates (wheat only) in crops with natural inoculum. Regressions of yield or thousand-grain weight on take-all intensity during grain filling were similar to those on accumulated disease (area under the disease progress curve) when these were compared in one of the wheat experiments. Regressions of yield on take-all intensity were more often significant in wheat than in the less susceptible crops, triticale and barley, even when a wide range of disease intensities was present in the latter crops. The regressions usually had most significance when there were plots in the severe disease category. Thousand-grain weight and hectolitre weight usually responded similarly to total grain yield. Decreased yield was often accompanied by a significant increase in the percentage of small grains. When severe take-all was present in wheat, regressions showed that nitrogen uptake was usually impaired. This was sometimes accompanied, however, by increased percentage nitrogen in the grain as a consequence of smaller grain size with decreased endosperm. Significant effects of take-all, both positive and negative, on Hagberg falling number in wheat sometimes occurred. Significant regressions of yield on take-all assessed earlier than usual, ie during booting rather than grain-filling in wheat and triticale and during anthesis/grain-filling rather than ripening in barley, had steeper slopes. This is consistent with observations that severe disease that develops early can be particularly damaging, whilst the crops, especially barley, can later express tolerance by producing additional, healthy roots. The regression parameters, including maximum potential yield (y-axis intercept) and the extrapolated maximum yield loss, also varied according to the different growing conditions, including experimental treatments and other husbandry operations. These differences must be considered when assessing the economic potential of a control measure such as fungicidal seed treatment. PMID:12587875

Gutteridge, Richard J; Bateman, Geoffrey L; Todd, Alan D

2003-02-01

312

Mapping-by-sequencing accelerates forward genetics in barley  

PubMed Central

Mapping-by-sequencing has emerged as a powerful technique for genetic mapping in several plant and animal species. As this resequencing-based method requires a reference genome, its application to complex plant genomes with incomplete and fragmented sequence resources remains challenging. We perform exome sequencing of phenotypic bulks of a mapping population of barley segregating for a mutant phenotype that increases the rate of leaf initiation. Read depth analysis identifies a candidate gene, which is confirmed by the analysis of independent mutant alleles. Our method illustrates how the genomic resources of barley together with exome resequencing can underpin mapping-by-sequencing.

2014-01-01

313

Chemical composition of teff (Eragrostis tef) compared with that of wheat, barley and grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of teff, analyzed from uncontaminated seeds, revealed the superiority of the species in mineral nutritive\\u000a value. Teff’s exceedingly high iron and calcium content was confirmed. The high iron content of teff reported by the Ethiopia\\u000a Nutrition Survey must have been due to certain inherent factors of the species, not only a result of contamination. The magnitude\\u000a of

Melak H. Mengesha

1966-01-01

314

CO 2 enrichment enhances flag leaf senescence in barley due to greater grain nitrogen sink capacity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Senescence is a highly regulated process which is under genetic control. In monocarpic plants, the onset of fruit development is the most important factor initiating the senescence process. During senescence, a large fraction of plant nutrients is reallocated away from vegetative tissues into generative tissues. Senescence may therefore be regarded as a highly effective salvage mechanism to save nutrients for

A Fangmeier; B Chrost; P Högy; K Krupinska

2000-01-01

315

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

2013-03-01

316

Mutants at the Slender1 Locus of Barley cv Himalaya. Molecular and Physiological Characterization  

PubMed Central

A dominant dwarf mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare) that resembles dominant gibberellin (GA) “-insensitive” or “-nonresponsive” mutants in other species is described. ?-Amylase production by endosperm half-grains of the mutant required GA3 at concentrations about 100 times that of the WT. The mutant showed only a slight growth response to GA3, even at very high concentrations. However, when additionally dwarfed, growth rate responded to GA3 over the normal concentration range, although only back to the original (dwarf) elongation rate. Genetic studies indicated that the dominant dwarf locus was either closely linked or identical to the Sln1 (Slender1) locus. A barley sequence related to Arabidopsis GAI/RGA was isolated, and shown to represent the Sln1 locus by the analysis of sln1 mutants. The dominant dwarf mutant was also altered in this sequence, indicating that it too is an allele at Sln1. Thus, mutations at Sln1 generate plants of radically different phenotypes; either dwarfs that are largely dominant and GA “-insensitive/-nonresponsive,” or the recessive slender types in which GA responses appear to be constitutive. Immunoblotting studies showed that in growing leaves, SLN1 protein localized almost exclusively to the leaf elongation zone. In mutants at the Sln1 locus, there were differences in both the abundance and distribution of SLN1 protein, and large changes in the amounts of bioactive GAs, and of their metabolic precursors and catabolites. These results suggest that there are dynamic interactions between SLN1 protein and GA content in determining leaf elongation rate.

Chandler, Peter Michael; Marion-Poll, Annie; Ellis, Marc; Gubler, Frank

2002-01-01

317

Supernova grains from meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primitive meteorites contain presolar grains that originated in stellar outflows and supernova ejecta. The isotopic compositions of some of these grains (low-density graphite grains, SiC grains of type X, and silicon nitride) indicate a supernova origin. In particular, the initial presence of 44Ti (now detected in the form of large 44Ca excesses) and 28Si excesses are proof that the carrier grains formed in supernova ejecta. The presence of these two isotopes, which are produced in the inner layers of the star, in carbonaceous grains is evidence for extensive mixing of different supernova layers in the explosion. Other isotopic signatures characteristic of supernova grains are 15N and 18O excesses, large inferred 26Al/27Al and 41Ca/40Ca ratios and excesses in 42Ca, 43Ca, and 49Ti. Mixing of supernova layers can explain most isotopic features but a few problems such as the association of 15N with 26Al in grains remain. The fact that all supernova grains identified so far are graphite, SiC and Si3N4 and no oxide grains with supernova signatures have been found remains a puzzle.

Amari, Sachiko; Zinner, Ernst

1997-03-01

318

Transmission of two viruses that cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is controlled by different loci in the aphid, Schizaphis graminum.  

PubMed

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0-100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of aphid genes. PMID:20302539

Gray, Stewart M; Caillaud, Marina C; Burrows, Mary; Smith, Dawn M

2007-01-01

319

Transmission of Two Viruses that Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis graminum  

PubMed Central

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0–100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of aphid genes.

Gray, Stewart M.; Caillaud, Marina C; Burrows, Mary; Smith, Dawn M.

2007-01-01

320

Diagnosis and Management of Grain-Induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder.

Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-01-01

321

Diagnosis and management of grain-induced asthma.  

PubMed

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder. PMID:24179680

Quirce, Santiago; Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-11-01

322

Grain Fragmentation: Dynamic Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular flow has long been recognised as the dominant process in many geological phenomena, from bedload sediment transport through debris flows to rock avalanches and fault motion. The high confining stresses occurring in large-scale geological phenomena cause intact grains in a grain-flow to fragment as they shear. Grain flow with fragmentation thus affects the dynamics of many large-scale geophysical phenomena.

T. R. Davies; C. J. Boulton; M. J. McSaveney; L. T. Bowman

2007-01-01

323

Transfection of germinating barley seed electrophoretically with exogenous DNA.  

PubMed

A method is described for transfection (genetic transformation) of barley caryopsis electrophoretically with DNA. ?-Glucuronidase activity was detected after the electrophoretic transfection with plasmid pBI221 DNA carrying the cauliflower mosaic virus promotor and bacterial ?-glucuronidase coding sequence. Electrophoretic transfection is evidently effective with pieces of callus and seeds of many plants. PMID:24232711

Ahokas, H

1989-04-01

324

Decline of pesticide residues from barley to malt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The fate of dinitroaniline herbicides (pendimethalin and trifluralin), organophosphous insecticides (fenitrothion and malathion), and pyrimidine (nuarimol) and triazole (myclobutanil and propiconazole) fungicides from barley to malt was determined. Several samples for residue analysis were taken after each stage of malting (steeping, germination and kilning). Pesticide residue analysis was carried out by GC\\/ITMS in selected ion monitoring mode. Pesticides decline along

S. Navarro; G. Pérez; G. Navarro; N. Vela

2007-01-01

325

Chromosome banding patterns in cultivated and wild barleys (Hordeum SPP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of seven species of wild barley and ten different forms of the cultivated species (H. vulgare) has revealed that all the species and cultivars have mostly procentric constitutive heterochromatin. Relatively smaller heterochromatic segments are found in intercalary and distal positions. Larger bands of varying sizes and reacting somewhat differently from the rest of the heterochromatin are generally found

Canio G Vosa

1976-01-01

326

Interaction between isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Some isolates of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) differing in vector transmission characteristics and in host plant reactions were studied in single and mixed inoculations in glass-house trials.2. The symptoms obtained depended on the isolate of BYDV, and the interval between the protective and test inoculation and the variety of host plant.3. Two of the isolates showed complete protection

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

327

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus in Australia 1963  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) in cereal crops in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania was carried out between 18 September and 4 October 1963.BYDV was identified by symptolllli in the field and confirmed in New Zealand by transmission tests with Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) fed on the leaf and stem samples of cereals and grasses collected

Harvey C. Smith

1964-01-01

328

THE OXYGEN EFFECT IN IRRADIATION OF DORMANT BARLEY SEEDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley seeds of two stralns, viz. the Moscow and Odessa 17, received ; 12,000 r of gamma rays from Coā¶Ā°. The seeds of the former strain were ; irradiated in air in the state of dormancy. Immediately after irradiation they ; were divided into three groups, and for further storage one group was transferred ; into N, the second in

N. I. Nuzhdin; R. L. Dozortseva

1961-01-01

329

Phytosiderophore release in relation to micronutrient metal deficiencies in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosiderophore release occurs under both iron and zinc deficiencies in representative Poaceae and has been speculated to be a general adaptive response to enhance the acquisition of micronutrient metals. To test this hypothesis, phytosiderophore (PS) release rates from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. CM72) subjected to deficiencies of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were compared using chelator-buffered nutrient solutions. PS release

Dirk Gries; Sylke Brunn; David E. Crowley; David R. Parker

1995-01-01

330

Resolution of Dual Mechanisms of Potassium Absorption by Barley Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the rates of absorption of K and Rb by barley ; roots and the concentration of these ions in the external solution, over the ; range 0.002 to 50 mM, is predictable on the assumption that two carrier sites ; bind and transport the ions. One of these operates at half-maximal velocity at a ; concentration of

Emanuel Epstein; D. W. Rains; O. E. Elzam

1963-01-01

331

Infection of Triticum monococcum Protoplasts with Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Protoplasts from a Triticum monococcum cell culture line were successfully infected with barley yellow dwarf virus. Both purified virions and extracted RNA were shown to be infectious using a polyethylene glycol inoculation procedure. Up to 209\\/00 of the protoplasts contained viral antigens as judged by immunofluorescence assay. ELISA analysis showed that virus antigen expression was both dose- and time-dependent.

M. J. Young; P. J. Larkin; W. A. Miller; P. M. Waterhouse; W. L. Gerlach

1989-01-01

332

Yield Limiting Factors to Food Barley Production in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies conducted to examine food barley production constraints in Ethiopia were single factor experiments and unsuitable to determine the relative importance of various factors and interactions among these factors. To develop sustainable food systems in regions with limited resources, it is essential to understand the relative importance of alternative production inputs and their interactions. A replicated 2 factorial

Amsal Tarekegne; Hailu Gebre; Charles A. Francis

1997-01-01

333

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone. Final technical report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca(sup 2+) in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretio...

R. L. Jones

1990-01-01

334

Protochlorophyllide b does not occur in barley etioplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) etioplasts were isolated, and the pigments were extracted with acetone. The extract was analyzed by HPLC. Only protochlorophyllide a and no protochlorophyllide b was detected (limit of detection <1% of protochlorophyllide a). Protochlorophyllide b was synthesized starting from chlorophyll b and incubated with etioplast membranes and NADPH. In the light, photoconversion to chlorophyllide b was observed,

Verena Scheumann; Harald Klement; Michael Helfrich; Ulrike Oster; Siegrid Schoch; Wolfhart Rüdiger

1999-01-01

335

Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP® is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.

2011-05-01

336

Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets. PMID:24763110

Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

2014-01-01

337

Varietal and chromosome 2H locus-specific frost tolerance in reproductive tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detected using a frost simulation chamber.  

PubMed

Exposure of flowering cereal crops to frost can cause sterility and grain damage, resulting in significant losses. However, efforts to breed for improved low temperature tolerance in reproductive tissues (LTR tolerance) has been hampered by the variable nature of natural frost events and the confounding effects of heading time on frost-induced damage in these tissues. Here, we establish conditions for detection of LTR tolerance in barley under reproducible simulated frost conditions in a custom-built frost chamber. An ice nucleator spray was used to minimize potential effects arising from variation in naturally occurring extrinsic nucleation factors. Barley genotypes differing in their field tolerance could be distinguished. Additionally, an LTR tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the long arm of barley chromosome 2H could be detected in segregating families. In a recombinant family, the QTL was shown to be separable from the effects of the nearby flowering time locus Flt-2L. At a minimum temperature of -3.5 degrees C for 2 h, detection of the LTR tolerance locus was dependent on the presence of the nucleator spray, suggesting that the tolerance relates to freezing rather than chilling, and that it is not the result of plant-encoded variation in ice-nucleating properties of the tiller surface. PMID:19484216

Chen, Andrew; Gusta, Lawrence V; Brūlé-Babel, Anita; Leach, Richard; Baumann, Ute; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Collins, Nicholas C

2009-08-01

338

Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets.

Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

2014-01-01

339

Grain destruction in interstellar shocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The destruction of interstellar grains by nonthermal sputtering, thermal sputtering, and grain-grain collisions is discussed. It is concluded that large grains are easily destroyed by shocks in the interstellar medium, but that small grains are much more persistent. Since the MRN model has many more small grains than large ones, this means that the total number of grains is not significantly reduced even when half or more of the grain material is returned to the gas phase. Thus, the small grains are always available as condensation cores for mantle formation or redepletion of refractory grain materials.

Seab, C. G.; Shull, J. M.

1984-01-01

340

Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment  

PubMed Central

Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment.

Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

2014-01-01

341

Origins of GEMS Grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the chemical compositions of GEMS grains are extremely heterogeneous and seem to rule out this possibility. Based on their solar isotopic compositions and their non-solar elemental compositions we propose that most GEMS grains formed in the nebula as late-stage non-equilibrium condensates.

Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

2012-01-01

342

Amino acid metabolism at the maternal-filial boundary of young barley seeds: a microdissection-based study.  

PubMed

The nucellar projection (NP)/endosperm transfer cell (ETC) complex represents the link between maternal and filial seed tissues in barley and mediates nutrient transfer into the endosperm. Cells of NP function as metabolic interface to precondition amino acid supply of the endosperm. The organ displays a top-down gradient of differentiation, with mitotically active, differentiating/elongating as well as disintegrating cells, characterized by proteolysis and nitrogen remobilization. To understand metabolism, interconversion and transfer of amino acids at the maternal-filial boundary, we applied a combined transcriptome and metabolite approach based on laser-assisted microdissection. Results suggest that amino acid degradation observed in NP largely occurs within mitochondria, consistent with their role in controlling amino acid homeostasis and metabolism. Differentially expressed genes and free amino acid levels associated with glutamate and glutamine metabolism indicate concerted action of glutamine dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase and alanine:glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 within a hypothetical cycle for glutamine and alanine degradation and re-synthesis of the preferred transport form glutamine. Stimulation of gene expression involved in methionine metabolism in NP suggests a pathway of regulated synthesis of S-methylmethionine and a possible mechanism for the transfer of reduced sulphur from maternal tissues into the endosperm. Thus, the established micromethods revealed strategies in NP of young barley grains for mobilization and metabolism of transient N and S reserves and transfer into the endosperm. PMID:19415324

Thiel, Johannes; Müller, Martin; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

2009-06-01

343

Flux Balance Analysis of Barley Seeds: A Computational Approach to Study Systemic Properties of Central Metabolism1[W  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of storage compounds is an important aspect of cereal seed metabolism. Due to the agronomical importance of the storage reserves of starch, protein, and oil, the understanding of storage metabolism is of scientific interest, with practical applications in agronomy and plant breeding. To get insight into storage patterning in developing cereal seed in response to environmental and genetic perturbation, a computational analysis of seed metabolism was performed. A metabolic network of primary metabolism in the developing endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model plant for temperate cereals, was constructed that includes 257 biochemical and transport reactions across four different compartments. The model was subjected to flux balance analysis to study grain yield and metabolic flux distributions in response to oxygen depletion and enzyme deletion. In general, the simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the main biochemical properties of barley seed storage metabolism. The predicted growth rate and the active metabolic pathway patterns under anoxic, hypoxic, and aerobic conditions predicted by the model were in accordance with published experimental results. In addition, the model predictions gave insight into the potential role of inorganic pyrophosphate metabolism to maintain seed metabolism under oxygen deprivation.

Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Schreiber, Falk; Koschutzki, Dirk; Junker, Bjorn H.

2009-01-01

344

Changes in cytokinin form and concentration in developing kernels correspond with variation in yield among field-grown barley cultivars.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to determine if relationships between cytokinin (CK) profiles and corresponding enzymatic regulation were consistent with differences in kernel yield among commercial barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, differing in parameters relating to productivity and grown under agronomically-relevant field conditions. Quantification of the CKs at six distinct stages of kernel development by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) revealed a significant increase in CKs, especially trans-zeatin (tZ), during the stage when grain filling occurs, with a greater CK concentration observed in the cultivar with the greatest number of kernels per spike, which was also the highest yielding cultivar. High levels of the cis-zeatin (cZ) CK form were observed at the first developmental stage, indicating a possible role in early embryo development and viability. Cytokinin oxidase (CKX; EC 1.5.99.12) activity was evaluated at each stage through a colorimetric assay, as the enzyme provides a primary mechanism for the irreversible degradation and, thus, regulation of CKs. However, no peaks in CKX activity were observed and no differences were detected at the particular stages examined. Isopentenyl transferase (IPT) gene expression was also examined and suggests that biosynthesis contributes to regulation of CK concentrations in developing barley kernels. PMID:23352907

Powell, Adrian F; Paleczny, Andrea R; Olechowski, Henry; Emery, R J Neil

2013-03-01

345

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection. PMID:16263921

Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J

2005-11-15

346

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection.

Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schafer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J.

2005-01-01

347

Effects of adlay, buckwheat, and barley on transit time and the antioxidative system in obesity induced rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined whether four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) affect the duration of food residence in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic enzyme activities in rats fed different combinations of the grains. The rats were raised for 4 weeks on a high fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into four groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the grains. Corresponding to the dietary fiber contents of the experimental grains, gut transit time was shortest in the rats fed GB and increased in the order of BW, AD, and WR. In addition, the accumulated shortest transit time occurred in the GB group. Gut transit time affected weight gain and major organ weight, as it was closely related to the absorption of nutrients. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver was higher in rats fed WR, AD, BW, and GB, indicating that the other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group. In conclusion, reduced colonic transit time has been implicated in reducing the incidence of colon cancer, as evidenced by populations consuming diets rich in fiber. Whole grains such as AD, BW, and GB may contribute to a significant supply of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress if they are consumed in large amounts.

Kim, Jung Yun; Son, Bo Kyung

2012-01-01

348

Genetic effects determining rice grain weight and grain density  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing grain weight is one means of increasing rice (Oryza sativa L.) grain yields. Selection for increased density of filled grains may offer an approach to increasing rice grain weight. Before rice breeding programs can begin effectively selecting for higher grain density, the nature and amount of the genetic variation present must be evaluated. A Design II mating plant with

K. A. Gravois

1992-01-01

349

The defective seed5 (des5) mutant: effects on barley seed development and HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1 gene regulation  

PubMed Central

Barley, one of the major small grain crops, is especially important in climatically demanding agricultural areas of the world, with multiple uses within food, feed, and beverage. The barley endosperm is further of special scientific interest due to its three aleurone cell layers, with the potential of bringing forward the molecular understanding of seed development and cell specification from Arabidopsis and maize. Work done in Arabidopsis and maize indicate the presence of conserved seed developmental pathways where Crinkly4 (Cr4), Defective kernel1 (Dek1), and Supernumerary aleurone layer1 (Sal1) are key players. With the use of microscopy, a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of the barley defective seed5 (des5) mutant is presented here. The analysis further extends to molecular quantification of gene expression changes in the des5 mutant by qRT-PCR. Moreover, full-length genomic sequences of the barley orthologues were generated and these were annotated as HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1. The most striking results in this study are the patchy reduction in number of aleurone cells, rudimentary anticlinal aleurone cell walls, and the specific change of HvCr4 expression compared to HvDek1 and HvSal1. The data presented support the involvement of Hvdes5 in establishing aleurone cells. Finally, how these results might affect the current model of aleurone and epidermal cell identity and development is discussed with a speculation regarding a possible role of Des5 in regulating cell division/ secondary cell wall building.

Olsen, Lene T.; Divon, Hege H.; Al, Ronald; Fosnes, Kjetil; Lid, Stein Erik; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

2008-01-01

350

The defective seed5 (des5) mutant: effects on barley seed development and HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1 gene regulation.  

PubMed

Barley, one of the major small grain crops, is especially important in climatically demanding agricultural areas of the world, with multiple uses within food, feed, and beverage. The barley endosperm is further of special scientific interest due to its three aleurone cell layers, with the potential of bringing forward the molecular understanding of seed development and cell specification from Arabidopsis and maize. Work done in Arabidopsis and maize indicate the presence of conserved seed developmental pathways where Crinkly4 (Cr4), Defective kernel1 (Dek1), and Supernumerary aleurone layer1 (Sal1) are key players. With the use of microscopy, a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of the barley defective seed5 (des5) mutant is presented here. The analysis further extends to molecular quantification of gene expression changes in the des5 mutant by qRT-PCR. Moreover, full-length genomic sequences of the barley orthologues were generated and these were annotated as HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1. The most striking results in this study are the patchy reduction in number of aleurone cells, rudimentary anticlinal aleurone cell walls, and the specific change of HvCr4 expression compared to HvDek1 and HvSal1. The data presented support the involvement of Hvdes5 in establishing aleurone cells. Finally, how these results might affect the current model of aleurone and epidermal cell identity and development is discussed with a speculation regarding a possible role of Des5 in regulating cell division/ secondary cell wall building. PMID:18791195

Olsen, Lene T; Divon, Hege H; Al, Ronald; Fosnes, Kjetil; Lid, Stein Erik; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

2008-01-01

351

The Genetics and Transcriptional Profiles of the Cellulose Synthase-Like HvCslF Gene Family in Barley1[OA  

PubMed Central

Cellulose synthase-like CslF genes have been implicated in the biosynthesis of (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucans, which are major cell wall constituents in grasses and cereals. Seven CslF genes from barley (Hordeum vulgare) can be divided into two classes on the basis of intron-exon arrangements. Four of the HvCslF genes have been mapped to a single locus on barley chromosome 2H, in a region corresponding to a major quantitative trait locus for grain (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan content. The other HvCslF genes map to chromosomes 1H, 5H, and 7H, and in two cases the genes are close to other quantitative trait loci for grain (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan content. Spatial and temporal patterns of transcription of the seven genes have been defined through quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In developing barley coleoptiles HvCslF6 mRNA is most abundant. Transcript levels are maximal in 4- to 5-d coleoptiles, at a time when (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan content of coleoptile cell walls also reaches maximal levels. In the starchy endosperm of developing grain, HvCslF6 and HvCslF9 transcripts predominate. Two peaks of transcription are apparent. One occurs just after endosperm cellularization, 4 to 8 d after pollination, while the second occurs much later in grain development, more than 20 d after pollination. Marked varietal differences in transcription of the HvCslF genes are observed during endosperm development. Given the commercial importance of cereal (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucans in human nutrition, in stock feed, and in malting and brewing, the observation that only two genes, HvCslF6 and HvCslF9, are transcribed at high levels in developing grain is of potential relevance for the future manipulation of grain (1,3;1,4)-?-d-glucan levels.

Burton, Rachel A.; Jobling, Stephen A.; Harvey, Andrew J.; Shirley, Neil J.; Mather, Diane E.; Bacic, Antony; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

2008-01-01

352

Quantitative and Qualitative Stem Rust Resistance Factors in Barley Are Associated with Transcriptional Suppression of Defense Regulons  

PubMed Central

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host–pathogen interaction with enhancement of R-gene mediated resistance.

Moscou, Matthew J.; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P.

2011-01-01

353

Molecular mapping of rsp1, rsp2, and rsp3 genes conferring resistance to septoria speckled leaf blotch in barley.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Septoria speckled leaf blotch (SSLB) caused by Septoria passerinii is a common disease in barley. SSLB resistance genes Rsp1, Rsp2, and Rsp3 have previously been identified in the United States Department of Agriculture National Small Grains collection accessions CIho 14300, CIho 4780, and CIho 10644, respectively. Populations of 100 to 120 F(2) individuals were evaluated for SSLB resistance in the greenhouse. Inheritance was evaluated in F(2:3)-derived families in the field. Partial molecular maps for three Rsp genes were constructed on F(2) and F(2:3) families derived from crosses between Robust and the resistant accessions CIho 14300, CIho 4780, and CIho 10644. The resistant locus Rsp1 was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3H with two flanking diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers, bPb-6978 (8.9 cM) and bPb-9945 (16.3 cM), and two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPC2(441R) (3.0 cM) and UBC285(158R) (4.3 cM). The genes Rsp2 and Rsp3 were positioned on the short arm of barley chromosome 1H with two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), six DArT, and three RAPD markers. An RFLP marker, MWG938, and an RAPD marker, OPAH5(545C), were tightly associated with Rsp2 at a distance of 0 cM. Five DArT markers spanning the short arm of 1H surrounded Rsp3 at a distance of 2.3 and 5.8 cM, while two RAPD markers-OPBA12(314C) (2.4 cM) in coupling and OPB17(451R) (3.5 cM) in repulsion-flanked Rsp3. Molecular marker data associated with Rsp2 and Rsp3 indicated that the two genes are closely linked on chromosome 1HS. A total of 17 of 154 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) tested were associated with Rsp genes on chromosome 1H and 3H, and they were also integrated into genetic linkage maps of the three F(2) Robust populations. Knowledge about the map position of Rsp genes on barley chromosomes will be useful for breeding for SSLB resistance in barley and eventual gene cloning. PMID:18944370

Lee, S H; Neate, S M

2007-02-01

354

Influence of grain topography on near infrared hyperspectral images.  

PubMed

Near infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) allows spatially resolved spectral information to be collected without sample destruction. Although NIR-HSI is suitable for a broad range of samples, sizes and shapes, topography of a sample affects the quality of near infrared (NIR) measurements. Single whole kernels of three cereals (barley, wheat and sorghum), with varying topographic complexity, were examined using NIR-HSI. The influence of topography (sample shape and texture) on spectral variation was examined using principal component analysis (PCA) and classification gradients. The greatest source of variation for all three grain types, despite spectral preprocessing with standard normal variate (SNV) transformation, was kernel curvature. Only 1.29% (PC5), 0.59% (PC6) and 1.36% (PC5) of the spectral variation within the respective barley, wheat and sorghum image datasets was explained within the principal component (PC) associated with the chemical change of interest (loss of kernel viability). The prior PCs explained an accumulated total of 91.18%, 89.43% and 84.39% of spectral variance, and all were influenced by kernel topography. Variation in sample shape and texture relative to the chemical change of interest is an important consideration prior to the analysis of NIR-HSI data for non-flat objects. PMID:22284484

Manley, Marena; McGoverin, Cushla M; Engelbrecht, Paulina; Geladi, Paul

2012-01-30

355

Rapid analysis of barley straw before and after dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment by photoluminescence.  

PubMed

The fluorescence intensities (FIs) of raw and pretreated barley straws were measured by fluorescence microscopy, and the difference in the fluorescence intensity of barley straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment was analyzed by investigation of the major compounds of barley straw. The difference in fluorescence intensity was due to the difference in xylan content. Barley straw was pretreated using dilute sulfuric acid at various conditions and the correlation between the fluorescence intensity and glucose yield of barley straw was investigated. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) of the correlation was found to be 72.28%. Also the calibration of fluorescence intensity with the xylan content was performed. In addition, the absorption and emission spectra of the raw and the pretreated barley straw were examined to verify the proposed method. The absorption and emission wave lengths were 550 nm and 665 nm, respectively. PMID:23972397

Kim, Sung Bong; Cui, Chunzhi; Lee, Ja Hyun; Lee, Sang Jun; Ahn, Dong June; Park, Chulhwan; Kim, Jun Seok; Kim, Seung Wook

2013-10-01

356

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process  

PubMed Central

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE – 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA.

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

357

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process.  

PubMed

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE - 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G

2014-01-01

358

CORN GRAIN PROCESSING AND DIGESTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Grains are fed to livestock primarily to supply energy, and the major energy source in cereal grains is starch. For maximum starch digestion, corn and sorghum grain must be processed. For non-ruminants, starch from finely ground grain is fully digested, but for ruminants fed concentrate diets, finely ground grain can cause metabolic diseases. Hence, steam rolling or flaking and

Fred Owens

359

Inheritance and chromosome locations of scald-resistance genes derived from Iranian and Turkish wild barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of advanced backcross barley lines derived from crosses between cv Clipper and different Iranian and Turkish wild barleys,\\u000a which are homozygous for particular isozyme-marked donor intervals, was screened for resistance to barley scald. Eight lines\\u000a that consistently exhibited scald resistance were identified, and genetic analysis indicated that single dominant genes encoded\\u000a resistance in five of the lines, single

D. F. Garvin; A. H. D. Brown; J. J. Burdon

1997-01-01

360

Influence of ? ?glucanase on feeding value of barley for poultry and moisture content of excreta  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The cause of the sticky droppings and poor performance that can occur when barley is fed to poultry was investigated.2. The problems could be overcome by water?treatment of the barley or by addition of ??glucanase.3. The problems appear to be caused by a viscous factor, which is hydrolysed by ??glucanase. Water?treatment allows hydrolysis by enzymes in the barley.4. Heat?treatment

B. Gohl; S. Aldén; K. Elwinger; S. Thomke

1978-01-01

361

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

362

Archaeogenetic Evidence of Ancient Nubian Barley Evolution from Six to Two-Row Indicates Local Adaptation  

PubMed Central

Background Archaeobotanical samples of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) found at Qasr Ibrim display a two-row phenotype that is unique to the region of archaeological sites upriver of the first cataract of the Nile, characterised by the development of distinctive lateral bracts. The phenotype occurs throughout all strata at Qasr Ibrim, which range in age from 3000 to a few hundred years. Methodology and Findings We extracted ancient DNA from barley samples from the entire range of occupancy of the site, and studied the Vrs1 gene responsible for row number in extant barley. Surprisingly, we found a discord between the genotype and phenotype in all samples; all the barley had a genotype consistent with the six-row condition. These results indicate a six-row ancestry for the Qasr Ibrim barley, followed by a reassertion of the two-row condition. Modelling demonstrates that this sequence of evolutionary events requires a strong selection pressure. Conclusions The two-row phenotype at Qasr Ibrim is caused by a different mechanism to that in extant barley. The strength of selection required for this mechanism to prevail indicates that the barley became locally adapted in the region in response to a local selection pressure. The consistency of the genotype/phenotype discord over time supports a scenario of adoption of this barley type by successive cultures, rather than the importation of new barley varieties associated with individual cultures.

Palmer, Sarah A.; Moore, Jonathan D.; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pamela; Allaby, Robin G.

2009-01-01

363

Volatile compound-mediated interactions between barley and pathogenic fungi in the soil.  

PubMed

Plants are able to interact with their environment by emitting volatile organic compounds. We investigated the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum. The volatile molecules emitted by each fungus, by non-infected barley roots and by barley roots infected with one of the fungi or the two of them were extracted by head-space solid phase micro extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were assessed by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. The results show that volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes, are newly emitted during the interaction between fungi and barley roots. The volatile molecules released by non-infected barley roots did not significantly affect fungal growth, whereas the volatile molecules released by pathogenic fungi decreased the length of barley roots by 19 to 21.5% and the surface of aerial parts by 15%. The spectrum of the volatiles released by infected barley roots had no significant effect on F. culmorum growth, but decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17%. This paper identifies the volatile organic compounds emitted by two pathogenic fungi and shows that pathogenic fungi can modify volatile emission by infected plants. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases. PMID:23818966

Fiers, Marie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Jijakli, M Haļssam

2013-01-01

364

Change of hydrolase activity in germinating seeds of trxS transgenic barley.  

PubMed

Genetic modification of barley variety can be an efficient way to improve beer quality. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of trxS gene on hydrolases activities in transgenic and non-transgenic barley seeds. The results showed that alpha-amylase, free beta-amylase and limit dextrinase activity were increased in transgenic seeds in comparison with non-transgenic seeds. Sulfhydryl content of protein in transgenic seeds was also higher than that in non-transgenic seeds, suggesting that trxS gene could express in barley seeds, which opens a new way for breeding new barley varieties to improve beer quality. PMID:19160832

Wei, Li; Kong, Weiwei; Yin, Jun

2008-09-01

365

Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

Schoeff, Robert W.

1973-01-01

366

Toxic micromycetes in grain raw material during its processing.  

PubMed

In 2003-2005 micromycetes were isolated and identified from wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat grain brought into mills or from processing enterprises. Contamination of the produced flour with micromycete propagules (cfu g(-1)), changes in micromycete diversity and abundance in the course of flour storage, preparation and baking of bread, production of groats or other food products and fodder were determined. Most attention was given to widely distributed micromycetes, known producers of toxins: Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus candidus, A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. oryzae, A. (=Eurotium) repens, Fusarium culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides, Penicillium brevicompactum, P. chrysogenum, P. cyclopium, P. daleae, P. expansum, P. funiculosum, P. roqueforti, P. urticae, P. verruculosum, P. viridicatum, Phoma exiqua, Rhizomucor pusillus, Rhizopus stolonifer, Trichothecium roseum. Abilities of these micromycetes to produce secondary toxic metabolites were determined as well as possible hazard caused to people consuming the contaminated products. PMID:16841886

Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Railiene, Marija; Raudoniene, Vita

2006-01-01

367

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

368

A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.  

PubMed

Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt tolerance in the tolerant genotypes and further field tests of these plants under stress conditions will help to verify their potential utility in crop-improvement programmes. PMID:22442423

Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

2012-06-01

369

Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance. PMID:24359826

Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

2014-02-01

370

Lipid transfer proteins and protease inhibitors as key factors in the priming of barley responses to Fusarium head blight disease by a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.  

PubMed

Strains of non-pathogenic pseudomonad bacteria, can elicit host defence responses against pathogenic microorganisms. Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MKB158 can protect cereals from pathogenesis by Fusarium fungi, including Fusarium head blight which is an economically important disease due to its association with both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination of grain. Using the 22 K barley Affymetrix chip, trancriptome studies were undertaken to determine the local effect of P. fluorescens strain MKB158 on the transcriptome of barley head tissue, and to discriminate transcripts primed by the bacterium to respond to challenge by Fusarium culmorum, a causal agent of the economically important Fusarium head blight disease of cereals. The bacterium significantly affected the accumulation of 1203 transcripts and primed 74 to positively, and 14 to negatively, respond to the pathogen (P = 0.05). This is the first study to give insights into bacterium priming in the Triticeae tribe of grasses and associated transcripts were classified into 13 functional classes, associated with diverse functions, including detoxification, cell wall biosynthesis and the amplification of host defence responses. In silico analysis of Arabidopsis homologs of bacterium-primed barley genes indicated that, as is the case in dicots, jasmonic acid plays a role in pseudomonad priming of host responses. Additionally, the transcriptome studies described herein also reveal new insights into bacterium-mediated priming of host defences against necrotrophs, including the positive effects on grain filling, lignin deposition, oxidative stress responses, and the inhibition of protease inhibitors and proteins that play a key role in programmed cell death. PMID:20526726

Petti, Carloalberto; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona

2010-11-01

371

Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.  

PubMed

Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability. PMID:24767088

Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

2014-09-15

372

Effect of ozone pretreatment on hydrogen production from barley straw.  

PubMed

Application of ozone technology to lignocellulosic biohydrogen production was explored with a barley straw. Ozone pretreatment effectively degraded the straw lignin and increased reducing sugar yield. A simultaneous enzyme hydrolysis and dark fermentation experiment was conducted using a mixed anaerobic consortium together with saccharification enzymes. Both untreated and ozonated samples produced hydrogen. Compared to the untreated group, hydrogen produced by the groups ozonated for 15, 30, 45 and 90 min increased 99%, 133%, 166% and 94%, respectively. Some inhibitory effect on hydrogen production was observed with the samples ozonated for 90 min, and the inhibition was on the fermentative microorganisms, not the saccharification enzymes. These results demonstrate that production of biohydrogen from barley straw, a lignocellulosic biomass, can be significantly enhanced by ozone pretreatment. PMID:23891834

Wu, Jiangning; Ein-Mozaffari, Farhad; Upreti, Simant

2013-09-01

373

Strength of cemented grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted compaction tests (isotropic drained loading) on randomly packed glass beads that were a) uncemented and b) cemented by epoxy at their contacts. In the latter case, the volume of the epoxy accounted for 10 percent of the pore space. Intensive crushing of grains was observed in the first case at about 50 MPa. In the second case, the cemented grains stayed intact, the failure being localized within the epoxy. Therefore, even small amounts of cement at contacts prevent the failure of grains. Theoretically, this effect follows from our theory of cemented granular materials: stress concentration is high at the contacts of uncemented grains, whereas even small amounts of relatively soft cement result in a more uniform stress distribution over a larger contact area.

Yin, Hezhu; Dvorkin, Jack

1994-05-01

374

On the enhanced grain growth in ultrafine grained metals  

SciTech Connect

The static grain growth has been investigated in ultrafine grain and copper with an initial grain size of 160 nm. It has been revealed that its kinetics follows to normal grain growth behavior, but a grain growth starts at a relatively low temperature (0.32 T{sub m}). Good fits with experimental data for several ultrafine grained metals have been obtain if the activation energy for grain boundary diffusion is assumed to be lower than for coarse grained materials, but increases during grain growth. It is suggested that this unusual behavior of the activation energy is caused by the presence of non-equilibrium grain boundaries in ultrafine grain materials and their recovery during heating.

Lian, J.; Valiev, R.Z.; Baudelet, B. [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Genie Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux] [Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Saint Martin d`Heres (France). Genie Physique et Mecanique des Materiaux

1995-11-01

375

Grain Fragmentation: Dynamic Implications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Granular flow has long been recognised as the dominant process in many geological phenomena, from bedload sediment transport through debris flows to rock avalanches and fault motion. The high confining stresses occurring in large-scale geological phenomena cause intact grains in a grain-flow to fragment as they shear. Grain flow with fragmentation thus affects the dynamics of many large-scale geophysical phenomena. Brittle grain fragmentation has been much studied in the context of shear band formation and fault motion, and recent 3D micromechanical simulations have succeeded in representing the kinematics of comminution, leading to successful reproduction of catacalastically deformed grains, shear localisation and fracture sets. In these simulations, however, the dynamics of fragmentation were investigated only in the context of acoustic emissions and induced seismicity. The kinetic energy arising from fragmentation was artificially and arbitrarily damped, decreasing the energy available for further deformation and obscuring the dynamic effects. We demonstrate that grain fragmentation under sufficiently high confining stress causes instantaneous local dispersive pressures in the GPa range. At sufficiently high strain rate the spatial concentration of fragmentation events can generate stresses sufficient to dominate the dynamics of grain flow; this leads to low intergranular effective stresses and correspondingly low frictional resistance at normal (Byerlee) values of friction coefficient. We also show that the spatial concentration of fragmentation is self-regulating to a calculable value. During coseismic rupture, high-velocity sliding generates strain rates high enough to produce dynamically-fragmenting grain flow in a localised principal slip zone; kinetic energy release within this zone quantitatively explains the observed low frictional resistance to shearing motion on the San Andreas and other large faults. It also satisfactorily explains the motion of the Heart Mountain and Waikaremoana blockslides and the Socompa volcanic debris avalanche.

Davies, T. R.; Boulton, C. J.; McSaveney, M. J.; Bowman, L. T.

2007-12-01

376

Sand Grain Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (on page 1 of the PDF), learners will use a magnifier to carefully examine samples of sand from different locations. They record their observations regarding the different grain characteristics to formulate their own explanations of where the sand came from, why the grains are jagged or smooth, and how they may have been sorted. Relates to the linked video, DragonflyTV GPS: Earthquakes.

Twin Cities Public Television, Inc.

2006-01-01

377

Interstellar grains in meteorites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Primitive meteorites contain grains of silicon carbide, graphite and diamond formed outside the Solar System and probably before its birth. The isotopic compositions of these grains provide a record of stellar nucleosynthesis and of condensation processes near carbon stars; the fact of their survival places constraints on conditions in the solar nebula and early Solar System. The search is now on for other surviving stellar condensates, such as nitrides and oxides.

Ott, U.

1993-07-01

378

Postulation of resistance genes to barley diseases in heterogeneous varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resistance to causal agents of diseases is an important varietal characteristic that influences the management practice of\\u000a crop plants and thus production costs of commodities. At present, almost all European barley varieties possess at least one\\u000a major gene for resistance to powdery mildew. After hybridizing selected parental varieties, resistance genes often segregate\\u000a in subsequent generations and, therefore, some varieties comprise

Antonķn Dreiseitl

2011-01-01

379

Aluminum tolerance in barley: Methods for screening and genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aluminum (Al) tolerance in roots of two cultivars of barley was studied using hematoxylin staining and root re-growth procedures.\\u000a This study was performed in two F2 segregating populations originated from crosses between the tolerant FM-404 and sensitive Harrington cultivars. The F2 progeny analysed with hematoxylin staining revealed a segregation ratio of 3 tolerant: 1 sensitive, showing that the Al tolerance

Cinara Lima Echart; José Fernandes Barbosa-Neto; David F. Garvin; Suzana Cavalli-Molina

2002-01-01

380

Accumulation of Sugars in Barley Seedlings on Very Acid Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

FOR a number of years it has been noticed at Woburn that seedling barley plants sown in soil too acid to allow normal growth (pH 4.3 or thereabouts) were very much more attractive to small birds (chaffinches and the like) than similar seedlings grown on a normal soil (pH 6.0-6.5) and that consequently a very large proportion of the growing

T. W. Barnes

1945-01-01

381

Control of barley yellow dwarf virus in cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is the most important disease affecting cereal crops in New Zealand.2. Losses from BYDV in the total wheat crop have been up to 25 per cent in recent years.3. Effective control of BYDV in autumn- and early winter-sown wheat in New Zealand has been achieved by 1 application of a good systemic organo-phosphate spray

Harvey C. Smith

1963-01-01

382

Production of Barley yellow dwarf virus antisera by DNA immunization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibodies were produced against the 22-kDa coat protein (CP) of Barley yellow dwarf virus strain PAV (BYDV-PAV) by DNA immunization. A cDNA sequence encoding the 22-kDa CP was cloned into a mammalian expression vector (pcDNA22K), entrapped in liposomes, and injected intramuscularly into BALB\\/c mice. To target the antigen to sites of immune induction and, thereby, enhance the immune response, the

Narinder Pal; Jae Sun Moon; Jagdeep Sandhu; Leslie L. Domier; Cleora J. DArcy

2000-01-01

383

Composition, Microstructure, Water Imbibition, and Thermal Properties of Abraded Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):677-685 Barley, nonwaxy hull (cvs. Crystal and Meltan) and waxy hull-less (cvs. Merlin and Waxbar), was abraded at 10, 20, and 40% of kernel weight on a laboratory scale and commercially abraded at two levels: fine and coarse. In 40% abraded kernels of Crystal, protein, ash, and free lipids contents decreased by 1.6, 1.4, and 1.4%, respectively, and

A. Klamczynski; B.-K. Baik; Z. Czuchajowska

1998-01-01

384

The nutritive value of new high-lysine barley mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new high-lysine barley mutants, the mother variety ‘Sultan’, and the cultivar ‘Lysimax’ with the high-lysine gene lys3a were grown in a field trial in 1992 at Riso, Denmark. Yield and 1000 kernel weights were measured. The material was analyzed for protein, fat, starch, soluble non-starch polysaccharides, insoluble non-starch polysaccharides, lignin, ?-glucans, sugars, energy and amino acids. The nutritive value

B. O Eggum; G Brunsgaard; J Jensen

1995-01-01

385

Mercurial-sensitive water transport in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

An isolated barley root was partitioned into the apical and basal part across the partition wall of the double-chamber osmometer.\\u000a Transroot water movement was induced by subjecting the apical part to a sorbitol solution, while the basal part with the cut\\u000a end was in artificial pond water. The rate of transroot osmosis was first low but enhanced by two means,

Masashi Tazawa; Eiji Ohkuma; Mineo Shibasaka; Susumu Nakashima

1997-01-01

386

Farmer participation in barley breeding in Syria, Morocco and Tunisia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper describes experiments on farmer participation in plant breeding conducted in three countries (Morocco, Syria and\\u000a Tunisia) on barley, which is the predominant annual rainfed crop in the most marginal areas of these countries. Trials with\\u000a different types and number of breeding material were planted both on research stations and in farmers' fields. Selection was\\u000a done by professional breeders

S. Ceccarelli; S. Grando; E. Bailey; A. Amri; M. El-Felah; F. Nassif; S. Rezgui; A. Yahyaoui

2001-01-01

387

Generation of Large Numbers of lndependently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic bar- ley (Hordeum vurgare 1.) plants is described. lmmature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total

Yuechun Wan; Peggy C. Lemaux

1994-01-01

388

Stabilization of emulsions and foams using barley ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley ?-glucan (BBG) is receiving increasing attention as a food hydrocolloid. Stability of foams and emulsions was assessed using whey protein concentrate (WPC) as an emulsifier and foaming agent, and BBG gum extracted at pilot plant or laboratory scale as a stabilizer. WPC had a significant lowering effect (P?0.05) on surface tension of water and water–oil interfacial tension, while the

Zvonko Burkus; Feral Temelli

2000-01-01

389

Transformation of barley by microinjection into isolated zygote protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley zygote protoplasts were mechanically isolated, embedded in agarose droplets, and microinjected with a rice actin promoter Act1–gusA-nos gene construct. On average 62% of the cells survived the injection and of these 55% continued development into embryo-like structures and eventually to plants. PCR screening for the presence of a 307-bp fragment in the middle of the gusA gene showed that

Preben Bach Holm; Ole Olsen; Martin Schnorf; Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Sųren Knudsen

2000-01-01

390

Characterization of the epidermis from barley primary leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cation and anion distribution between the epidermis and mesophyll of primary leaves of 10-d-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was studied in relation to growth conditions. A new method was employed to isolate epidermal protoplasts. The following observations were made: (i) Under standard hydroponic growth conditions, K+ was the dominant cation and NO33-the predominant anion, both in epidermal and

K. J. Dietz; M. Schramm; B. Lang; A. Lanzl-Schramm; C. Dürr; E. Martinoia

1992-01-01

391

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

392

Desorption from interstellar grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Different desorption mechanisms from interstellar grains are considered to resolve the conflict between the observed presence of gaseous species in molecular clouds and their expected depletion onto grains. The physics of desorption is discussed with particular reference to the process of grain heating and the specific heat of the dust material. Impulsive heating by X-rays and cosmic rays is addressed. Spot heating of the grains by cosmic rays and how this can lead to desorption of mantles from very large grains is considered. It is concluded that CO depletion on grains will be small in regions with A(V) less than five from the cloud surface and n(H) less than 10,000, in agreement with observations and in contrast to expectations from pure thermal equilibrium. Even in very dense and obscured regions and in the absence of internal ultraviolet sources, the classical evaporation of CO or N2 and O2-rich mantles by cosmic rays is important.

Leger, A.; Jura, M.; Omont, A.

1985-01-01

393

Nitrate Uptake into Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Evidence is presented that chlorate is an extremely good analog for nitrate during nitrate uptake by intact barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Fergus) roots. The depletion of ClO3? or NO3? from uptake media over 2 to 6 hours by seedlings was found to be dependent on combined NO3? plus ClO3? concentrations, and total anion uptake was equivalent at different NO3?/ClO3? ratios. After loading barley seedlings with 36ClO3? for 6 hours, kinetic parameters were derived from the analysis of efflux of [36Cl] chlorate into unlabeled solution. On the basis of this analysis, the half times for exchange for the cytoplasmic and vacuolar phases were 17 minutes and 20 hours, respectively. Data pooled from a number of different experiments were used to calculate kinetic constants (Km and Vmax) for 36ClO3? influx into barley roots at different external ClO3?/NO3? ratios, using short (10 minutes) influx times. There appeared to be no discrimination by the root cells between ClO3? and NO3?. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the interaction between nitrate and chlorate were characteristic of competitive inhibition at low nitrate concentrations (0-0.5 mm). At higher concentrations, in the range of >1 mm, similar interactions between these ions were evident.

Deane-Drummond, Celia E.; Glass, Anthony D. M.

1982-01-01

394

Pyramiding and dissecting disease resistance QTL to barley stripe rust.  

PubMed

Quantitative resistance (QR) to disease is usually more durable than qualitative resistance, but its genetic basis is not well understood. We used the barley/barley stripe rust pathosystem as a model for the characterization of the QR phenotype and associated genomic regions. As an intermediate step in the preparation of near-isogenic lines representing individual QTL alleles and combinations of QTL alleles in a homogeneous genetic background, we developed a set of QTL introgression lines in a susceptible background. These intermediate barley near-isogenic (i-BISON) lines represent disease resistance QTL combined in one-, two-, and three-way combinations in a susceptible background. We measured four components of disease resistance on the i-BISON lines: latent period, infection efficiency, lesion size, and pustule density. The greatest differences between the target QTL introgressions and the susceptible controls were for the latter three traits. On average, however, the QTL introgressions also had longer latent periods than the susceptible parent (Baronesse). There were significant differences in the magnitudes of effects of different QTL alleles. The 4H QTL allele had the largest effect, followed by the alleles on 1H and 5H. Pyramiding multiple QTL alleles led to higher levels of resistance in terms of all components of QR except latent period. PMID:16736138

Richardson, K L; Vales, M I; Kling, J G; Mundt, C C; Hayes, P M

2006-08-01

395

Freezing of Barley Studied by Infrared Video Thermography1  

PubMed Central

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s?1, and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s?1. Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below ?2°C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall.

Pearce, Roger S.; Fuller, Michael P.

2001-01-01

396

Characterization of a barley Rubisco activase gene promoter  

SciTech Connect

Barley Rubisco Activase (Rca) is a nuclear encoded chloroplast enzyme that activates Rubisco to catalytic competence. Rca mRNA accumulation in barley is light-regulated; the 5{prime}-flanking region of a highly expressed barley Rca gene (HvRca-1) contains several sequence motifs similar to those found in the promoter of other light-regulated, nuclear genes. We have characterized the cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1 by deletion analysis of the 5{prime} flanking region of a cloned gene. These constructs have been assayed in vitro by gel mobility shift assays, as well as by DNA footprinting. Putative regulatory sequences detected in vitro have also been tested in vivo by constructing chimeric genes consisting of deletion mutant promoters fused to a promoterless {beta}-glucuronidase reporter gene. Comparison of results obtained from complimentary parallel in vitro and in vivo assays of identical promoter deletions have provided information on cis-acting regulatory regions of HvRca-1.

Strickland, J.A.; Rundle, S.J.; Zielinski, R. (Univ. of Illinois, Urbana (USA))

1990-05-01

397

Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. ?-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in ?-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake.

Bernstein, Adam M.; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F.

2013-01-01

398

Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. ?-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in ?-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. PMID:23628720

Bernstein, Adam M; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F

2013-05-01

399

Influence of aphid species and barley yellow dwarf virus on soft red winter wheat yield.  

PubMed

Yield loss in soft red winter wheat, Triticum aestivum L., caused by aphid-transmitted barley yellow dwarf virus (family Luteoviridae, genus Luteovirus, BYDV) was measured over a 2-yr period in central Missouri. Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) was the most common and economically important species, accounting for > 90% of the total aphids. Schizaphis graminum (Rondani), Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch), and Sitobion avenae (F.) made up the remainder of the aphids. Aphid numbers peaked at wheat stem elongation in 2003 with 771 R. padi per meter-row. In the 2003-2004 growing season, aphid numbers averaged seven aphids per meter-row in the fall and peaked at 18 aphids per meter-row at jointing. Wheat grain yield was reduced 17 and 13% in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Thousand kernel weights were reduced 10 and 5% in the untreated plots compared with the treated control in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Padi avenae virus was the predominate strain, accounting for 81 and 84% of the symptomatic plots that tested positive for BYDV in 2003 and 2004. Our results indicate that economic thresholds for R. padi are 16 aphids per meter-row in the fall and 164 aphids per meter-row at jointing. PMID:16539127

Zwiener, C M; Conley, S P; Bailey, W C; Sweets, L E

2005-12-01

400

Variability in phenotypic traits in core and peripheral populations of wild barley Hordeum spontaneum Koch.  

PubMed

Populations of wild barley, H. spontaneum Koch., were collected in two countries, Israel and Turkmenistan, in environments representing two similar sharp clines of aridity. This allowed us to use the same criteria to define species core and periphery in two regions. Plants from 10 Israeli and 19 Turkmenian populations were grown in a field trial with three water treatments and compared for amount and structure of variation in phenological and morphological traits. Extent of variation was similar in populations at species border (periphery by aridity criterion) or at species border and near it (by habitat), and in populations inhabiting favorable environments away from the border (core). In contrast, two regions (Israel and Turkmenistan) exhibited different amount of variation in phenotypic traits. Israeli populations were more diverse than Turkmenian populations in all except one phenotypic traits and the variation was differently structured among regionally specific core and periphery. While Turkmenian core and periphery defined by either criterion did not differ for all except one trait, corresponding Israeli populations exhibited opposite patterns of variation for trait complexes. Israeli core (Mediterranean) populations were twice as variable than peripheral (desert) populations in parameters of reproductive growth (stem, spike and awn length) and grain filling (spikelet weight) and half as variable in the length of flag and penultimate leaves and onset of reproduction. Possible modes of regionally specific natural selection as a cause of regional/local variation in phenotypic triats are discussed. PMID:11433968

Volis, S; Mendlinger, S; Orlovsky, N

2000-01-01

401

The Importance of Barley Genetics and Domestication in a Global Perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Archaeological evidence has revealed that barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the oldest crops used by ancient farmers. Studies of the time and place of barley domestication may help in understanding ancient human civilization. Scope The studies of domesticated genes in crops have uncovered the mechanisms which converted wild and unpromising wild species to the most important food for humans. In addition to archaeological studies, molecular studies are finding new insights into the process of domestication. Throughout the process of barley domestication human selection on wild species resulted in plants with more harvestable seeds. One of the remarkable changes during barley domestications was the appearance of six-rowed barley. The gene associated with this trait results in three times more seed per spike compared with ancestral wild barley. This increase in number of seed resulted in a major dichotomy in the evolution of barley. The identification of the six-rowed spike gene provided a framework for understanding how this character was evolved. Some important barley domestication genes have been discovered and many are currently being investigated. Conclusions Identification of domestication genes in crops revealed that most of the drastic changes during domestication are the result of functional impairments in transcription factor genes, and creation of new functions is rare. Isolation of the six-rowed spike gene revealed that this trait was domesticated more than once in the domestication history of barley. Six-rowed barley is derived from two-rowed ancestral forms. Isolation of photoperiod-response genes in barley and rice revealed that different genes belonging to similar genetic networks partially control this trait.

Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Komatsuda, Takao

2007-01-01

402

RFLP mapping of three new loci for resistance genes to powdery mildew ( Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei ) in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new major, race-specific, resistance genes to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) were identified in three barley lines, RS42-6*O, RS137-28*E, and HSY-78*A, derived from crosses with wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). The resistance gene origining from wild barley in line RS42-6*O, showed a recessive mode of inheritance, whereas the other wild barley genes were (semi)-dominant. RFLP mapping

M. Schfinfeld; A. Ragni; G. Fischbeck; A. Jahoor

1996-01-01

403

The effect of ultrasound in combination with thermal treatment on the germinated barley’s alpha-amylase activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of ultrasound as emerging technology along with thermal treatment were investigated on the activity of barley’s\\u000a alpha-amylase after germination. All experiments were carried out at 20 kHz on an ultrasonic generator by considering the\\u000a three effective factors, temperature (30, 50 and 70°C) and ultrasonic intensities (20, 60 and 100% setting from total power\\u000a of device (460 W)) in

Maryam Yaldagard; Seyed. Ali. Mortazavi; Farideh. Tabatabaie

2008-01-01

404

Pattern of deposition of cell wall polysaccharides and transcript abundance of related cell wall synthesis genes during differentiation in barley endosperm.  

PubMed

Immunolabeling, combined with chemical analyses and transcript profiling, have provided a comprehensive temporal and spatial picture of the deposition and modification of cell wall polysaccharides during barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development, from endosperm cellularization at 3 d after pollination (DAP) through differentiation to the mature grain at 38 DAP. (1?3)-?-D-Glucan appears transiently during cellularization but reappears in patches in the subaleurone cell walls around 20 DAP. (1?3, 1?4)-?-Glucan, the most abundant polysaccharide of the mature barley grain, accumulates throughout development. Arabino-(1-4)-?-D-xylan is deposited significantly earlier than we previously reported. This was attributable to the initial deposition of the polysaccharide in a highly substituted form that was not recognized by antibodies commonly used to detect arabino-(1-4)-?-D-xylans in sections of plant material. The epitopes needed for antibody recognition were exposed by pretreatment of sections with ?-L-arabinofuranosidase; this procedure showed that arabino-(1-4)-?-D-xylans were deposited as early as 5 DAP and highlighted their changing structures during endosperm development. By 28 DAP labeling of hetero-(1?4)-?-D-mannan is observed in the walls of the starchy endosperm but not in the aleurone walls. Although absent in mature endosperm cell walls we now show that xyloglucan is present transiently from 3 until about 6 DAP and disappears by 8 DAP. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of transcripts for GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE, Cellulose Synthase, and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes were consistent with the patterns of polysaccharide deposition. Transcript profiling of some members from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes database glycosyl transferase families GT61, GT47, and GT43, previously implicated in arabino-(1-4)-?-d-xylan biosynthesis, confirms their presence during grain development. PMID:22510768

Wilson, Sarah M; Burton, Rachel A; Collins, Helen M; Doblin, Monika S; Pettolino, Filomena A; Shirley, Neil; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bacic, Antony

2012-06-01