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1

Location of the proanthocyanidins in the barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A vanillin-HCl staining has been used to locate the proanthocyanidins in mature barley grains. These flavanoids were found\\u000a to be concentrated in the seed coat (testa) just outside the aleurone layer in the 7 varieties with yellow coloured grains\\u000a investigated. The seed coats of 10 proanthocyanidin-free barley mutants belonging to 4 different gene loci did not stain with\\u000a vanillin-HCl.

Sten Aastrup; Henrik Outtrup; Kenneth Erdal

1984-01-01

2

Grain composition of Virginia winter barley and implications for use in feed, food, and biofuels production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain compositional components impacting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) use in food, feed and fuel products, must be combined with improved agronomic traits to produce a commercially viable barley cultivar. Little current information is available on grain composition and variability among winter barley genotypes. This study was conducted to determine the variability among modern hulled and hulless winter barley genotypes in

Carl Griffey; Wynse Brooks; Michael Kurantz; Wade Thomason; Frank Taylor; Don Obert; Robert Moreau; Rolando Flores; Miryeong Sohn; Kevin Hicks

2010-01-01

3

Grain protein content variation and its association analysis in barley  

PubMed Central

Background Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant for barley used as malt, feed as well as food. It is controlled by a complex genetic system. GPC differs greatly among barley genotypes and is also variable across different environments. It is imperative to understand the genetic control of barley GPC and identify the genotypes with less variation under the different environments. Results In this study, 59 cultivated and 99 Tibetan wild barley genotypes were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis, in order to identify the molecular markers associated with GPC. Tibetan wild barley had higher GPC than cultivated barley. The significant correlation between GPC and diastatic power (DP), and malt extract confirmed the importance of GPC in determining malt quality. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers associated with barley GPC were detected by GWAS. In addition, GWAS revealed two HvNAM genes as the candidate genes controlling GPC. No association was detected between HvNAM1 polymorphism and GPC, while a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (798, P?barley. Conclusions The GWAS and candidate gene based-association study may be effectively used to determine the genetic variation of GPC in barley. The DArT markers and the polymorphism of HvNAM genes identified in this study are useful in developing high quality barley cultivars in the future. HvNAM genes could play a role in controlling barley GPC.

2013-01-01

4

Allele-dependent barley grain beta-amylase activity.  

PubMed

The wild ancestor of cultivated barley, Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) A. & Gr. (H. spontaneum), is a source of wide genetic diversity, including traits that are important for malting quality. A high beta-amylase trait was previously identified in H. spontaneum strains from Israel, and transferred into the backcross progeny of a cross with the domesticated barley cv Adorra. We have used Southern-blot analysis and beta-amy1 gene characterization to demonstrate that the high beta-amylase trait in the backcross line is co-inherited with the beta-amy1 gene from the H. spontaneum parent. We have analyzed the beta-amy1 gene organization in various domesticated and wild-type barley strains and identified three distinct beta-amy1 alleles. Two of these beta-amy1 alleles were present in modern barley, one of which was specifically found in good malting barley cultivars. The third allele, linked with high grain beta-amylase activity, was found only in a H. spontaneum strain from the Judean foothills in Israel. The sequences of three isolated beta-amy1 alleles are compared. The involvement of specific intron III sequences, in particular a 126-bp palindromic insertion, in the allele-dependent expression of beta-amylase activity in barley grain is proposed. PMID:9625721

Erkkilä, M J; Leah, R; Ahokas, H; Cameron-Mills, V

1998-06-01

5

Fibrolytic Enzyme Treatment of Barley Grain and Source of Forage in High-Grain Diets Fed to Growing Cattle1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a study to determine the effects of treating barley grain with a fibrolytic enzyme mixture on chewing activities, ruminal fer- mentation, and total tract digestibility in cattle. We also investigated the potential benefits of using barley straw rather than barley silage as a roughage source in high-grain diets for feedlot cattle. Steers were given ad libitum access to

M. Krause; K. A. Beauchemin; L. M. Rode; B. I. Farr; P. Nørgaard

6

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley.

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, S?ren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

7

Effects of Barley Grain Processing on Extent of Digestion and Milk Production of Lactating Cows1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of barley processing on site and extent of di- gestion and milk production in dairy cows were evalu- ated in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with four lactating cows with ruminal and duodenal cannulas. Barley grain was steam-rolled to four thicknesses: coarse, medium, medium-flat, and flat. The processing index (PI), mea- sured as volume weight of barley

W. Z. Yang; K. A. Beauchemin; L. M. Rode

2000-01-01

8

The production of recombinant proteins in transgenic barley grains  

PubMed Central

The grain of the self-pollinating diploid barley species offers two modes of producing recombinant enzymes or other proteins. One uses the promoters of genes with aleurone-specific expression during germination and the signal peptide code for export of the protein into the endosperm. The other uses promoters of the structural genes for storage proteins deposited in the developing endosperm. Production of a protein-engineered thermotolerant (1, 3–1, 4)-?-glucanase with the D hordein gene (Hor3–1) promoter during endosperm development was analyzed in transgenic plants with four different constructs. High expression of the enzyme and its activity in the endosperm of the mature grain required codon optimization to a C+G content of 63% and synthesis as a precursor with a signal peptide for transport through the endoplasmic reticulum and targeting into the storage vacuoles. Synthesis of the recombinant enzyme in the aleurone of germinating transgenic grain with an ?-amylase promoter and the code for the export signal peptide yielded ?1 ?g?mg?1 soluble protein, whereas 54 ?g?mg?1 soluble protein was produced on average in the maturing grain of 10 transgenic lines with the vector containing the gene for the (1, 3–1, 4)-?-glucanase under the control of the Hor3–1 promoter.

Horvath, Henriette; Huang, Jintai; Wong, Oi; Kohl, Elizabeth; Okita, Thomas; Kannangara, C. Gamini; von Wettstein, Diter

2000-01-01

9

The role of alpha-glucosidase in germinating barley grains.  

PubMed

The importance of ?-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an ?-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, ?-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the ?-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process. PMID:21098673

Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofía; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A; Smith, Alison M

2010-11-23

10

Effects of partially replacing barley silage or barley grain with dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation and milk production of lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) has been commonly used as a dietary protein source for lactating dairy cows. However, there is a paucity of data evaluating the use of DDGS as a partial replacement of forage or grain. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of partially replacing barley silage or barley grain with corn/wheat-based DDGS on dry matter intake (DMI), chewing activity, rumen fermentation, and milk production. Six ruminally cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Cows were fed the control diet (CON: 45% barley silage, 5% alfalfa hay, and 50% concentrate mix), a low forage (LF) diet or a low grain (LG) diet, in which barley silage or barley grain was replaced by DDGS at 20% of dietary dry matter, respectively. All diets were formulated to contain 18% crude protein and fed as total mixed rations. Compared with CON, cows fed the LF diet had greater DMI (26.0 vs. 22.4 kg/d), yields of milk (36.4 vs. 33.0 kg/d), milk protein (1.18 vs. 1.05 kg/d), and milk lactose (1.63 vs. 1.46 kg/d), but milk fat yield was not affected. The LF diet decreased chewing time compared with the CON diet (29.7 vs. 39.1 min/kg of DMI), but did not affect rumen pH and duration of rumen pH below 5.8. Compared with CON, feeding the LG diet tended to increase minimum and maximum rumen pH, but did not affect DMI, milk yield, and milk composition in this study. These results indicate that a partial replacement of barley silage with DDGS can improve the productivity of lactating dairy cows without negatively affecting rumen fermentation and milk fat production. Barley grain can also be partially replaced by DDGS in diets for lactating dairy cows without causing negative effects on productivity. PMID:20630239

Zhang, S Z; Penner, G B; Yang, W Z; Oba, M

2010-07-01

11

Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with

J Olsson; T Börjesson; T Lundstedt; J Schnürer

2002-01-01

12

Hepatoprotective effect of feeding celery leaves mixed with chicory leaves and barley grains to hypercholesterolemic rats  

PubMed Central

Celery, chicory leaves, and barley grains are valuable in weight loss diets and regulate lipid metabolism. They may reduce risk of fatty liver. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of diet supplementation with celery, chicory, and barley powder on liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats fed with cholesterol-enriched diet. This study used four groups of rats fed with 3% cholesterol were supplemented diet to induce hypercholesterolemia and one group was fed on cholesterol-free basal diet. The dry powder of celery leaves, chicory leaves, and barley grains was separately added to the basal diet at 10% concentration or in combination of three plants at 15% for four weeks. Biochemical analyses of serum liver enzymes and blood lipids as well as histopathological examination of liver were performed. Feeding of diet supplemented with 10% of celery, 10% chicory, and 10% of barley lowered the elevated serum level of liver enzymes and blood lipids in rats. Feeding plant combination of celery, chicory, and barley at 15% concentration (5% from each) was more effective in decreasing the elevation of liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) and blood lipids. The histopathological lesions seen in the livers of hypercholesterolemic rats were ameliorated by feeding this plant mixture. This study recommends that dietary intake of plant mixture of celery; chicory, and barley at 15% (5% of each) concentration can be beneficial to patients suffering from hypercholesterolemia and liver diseases.

Abd El-Mageed, Nehal M.

2011-01-01

13

Grain quality and yield of spring barley in field trials under variable growing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful growing of spring barley for malting purposes depends on many factors. The yield and its stability as well as grain quality are of great im- portance to growers. A critical role is ascribed to the previous crop and besides, time and method of its harvest, soil tillage and the method used to manage organic matter from the preceding harvest.

M. Vá?ová; S. Palík; J. Hajšlová; I. Burešová

14

Replacement of soybean meal and barley grain by chickpeas in lamb and kid fattening diets  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two trials, with 42 early-weaned male Chios lambs and 42 early-weaned Damascus kids, the effect of partial replacement of soybean meal and barley grain with chickpeas on weight changes and feed efficiency was studied. Within trial, animals were divided on the basis of age and liveweight into three groups that were randomly allocated to the concentrate mixtures containing three

M Hadjipanayiotou

2002-01-01

15

Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with protein expression variation in barley grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal crop grown for both the feed and malting industries. Hence, there is great interest to gain deeper\\u000a insight into the determinants of grain nutritional quality in order to improve the assessment of new traits. Two-dimensional\\u000a gel electrophoresis was employed for the characterization of the grain proteome of doubled-haploid introgression lines (IL)\\u000a representing a

Katja Witzel; Christof Pietsch; Marc Strickert; Andrea Matros; Marion S. Röder; Winfriede Weschke; Ulrich Wobus; Hans-Peter Mock

2011-01-01

16

Endogenous gibberellins and kauranoids identified from developing and germinating barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gibberellins (GAs) and kauranoids were identified in extracts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A partially purified acidic ethyl acetate extract from\\u000a 21-day postanthesis developing barley grain (cv. Proctor) contained GA1 (trace), GA4 (trace), GA8 (trace), GA12, GA17, GA20 (tentative) (trace), GA25, GA34, GA48, 18-hydroxy-GA4, 12?-hydroxy-GA9, and 18-hydroxy-GA34 (tentative). A hydrolyzed butanol extract contained

Paul Gaskin; Sarah Jane Gilmour; John R. Lenton; Jake MacMillan; Valerie M. Sponsel

1983-01-01

17

Critical period for grain number establishment of near isogenic lines of two- and six-rowed barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barley no studies have attempted to pinpoint the critical period for grain number determination, and it is frequently stated that the critical period is similar to that of wheat. However, there are important differences between the species and among barley genotypes (i.e. two- and six-rowed types) suggesting that this assumption requires testing. The objectives of this paper were (i)

Sebastián Arisnabarreta; Daniel J. Miralles

2008-01-01

18

Effects of phlorotannins from Ascophyllum nodosum (brown seaweed) on in vitro ruminal digestion of mixed forage or barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of terrestrial tannins in livestock nutrition has been extensively investigated, but information on effects of tannins from marine sources on nutrient utilization is limited. This study investigated effect(s) of phlorotannins (PT) from the seaweed Ascophyllum nodosum on ruminal fermentation of mixed forage or barley grain. In 125-ml serum vials, buffered ruminal fluid inoculum (40ml) was added to barley

Y. Wang; Z. Xu; S. J. Bach; T. A. McAllister

2008-01-01

19

Supplementation of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose into yeast leavened all-whole grain barley bread potentiates cholesterol-lowering effect.  

PubMed

We investigated in Syrian Golden hamsters the biological impact and its underlying mechanism of single whole grain breads supplemented with 2-3% hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), a semisynthetic viscous soluble dietary fiber (SDF) as a substitute for gluten. Hamsters were fed high-fat diets supplemented with 48-65% (w/w) differently ground, freeze-dried single grain breads including whole grain wheat, barley, barley supplemented with HPMC, debranned oat, and oat supplemented with HPMC which were compared to a diet containing microcrystalline cellulose (control). All single grain breads significantly lowered plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations compared to the control. Enrichment with HPMC further lowered plasma and hepatic cholesterol concentrations. Despite the reduced molecular weight of naturally occurring soluble (1--->3),(1--->4)-?-d-glucan (?-glucan) caused by the bread-making process, whole grain barley breads downregulated hepatic expression of CYP7A1 and HMG-CoAR genes that are responsible for bile acid and cholesterol synthesis, suggesting a possible role of bioactive compounds such as short-chain fatty acids and phenolic compounds from barley bread. Barley bread enriched with HPMC downregulated expression of ABCG5 gene. Taken together, it appears that distinctive modulation of synthesis and excretion of hepatic cholesterol and bile acid contributes to the cholesterol-lowering properties of whole grain barley breads and breads enriched with HPMC. These data suggests that alternative whole grain breads supplemented with HPMC may provide consumers with a staple food that can assist in cholesterol management. PMID:21671634

Kim, Hyunsook; Turowski, Maciej; Anderson, W H Kerr; Young, Scott A; Kim, Yookyung; Yokoyama, Wallace

2011-06-23

20

Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch

Natalia Schroeder; Daniel D. Gallaher; Elizabeth A. Arndt; Len Marquart

2009-01-01

21

Effect of dilute acid pretreatment on the conversion of barley straw with grains to fermentable sugars.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of pretreatment conditions, dilute sulfuric acid concentration and treatment time, on the carbohydrate solubility of a mixture of barley straw and grain. The conditions were expressed as combined severity (CS) to evaluate sugar recovery from pretreated samples. Enzymatic hydrolysates from the lignocellulose pretreatment residues were also included to the results. CS was positively correlating with glucose recovery in all conditions, but in higher acid concentrations CS did not predict xylose recovery. It appeared that the residual xylan better indicate the xylose release. An optimal fermentable sugar yield from the mixture of barley straw and grain was obtained by maintaining the CS at around 1.38, corresponding to an overall glucose yield of 96% and a xylose yield of 57%. PMID:23955092

Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

2013-07-30

22

THE EFFECT OF LOW-PHYTATE MUTANT-M 995 BARLEY GRAIN ON PHYTATE DEGRADATION AND MINERAL DIGESTION IN SHEEP FED HIGH-GRAIN DIETS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objectives for this study were to determine the extent of phytate degradation and mineral digestion in wethers fed high-grain diets consisting of either a normal- or low-phytate barley grain. In two separate experiments, mature Columbia wethers (n = 7) fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulas an...

23

Influence of whole grain barley, whole grain wheat, and refined rice-based foods on short-term satiety and energy intake.  

PubMed

This study compared the effect of whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat and refined rice-based foods on energy intake and satiety. Forty-seven healthy subjects consumed a breakfast of hot cereal and a snack mix containing either barley, wheat, or refined rice, followed by an ad libitum smorgasbord lunch using a crossover design. Energy intake was measured at the lunch using plate waste. Hunger, fullness, desire to eat, amount of food consumed, and thirst were assessed using a modified Visual Analog Scale (VAS) before and after the breakfast, snack and lunch. Energy intake at lunch did not differ among products. There were no differences in the area under the time curve in modified VAS scores among products for any parameter. However, subjects reported significantly less hunger before lunch compared to their hunger before breakfast when consuming the barley, but there was no significant reduction in hunger before lunch after consumption of wheat or rice. In conclusion, intake of a whole grain high-fiber barley, whole grain wheat, or refined rice breakfast and snack did not decrease energy intake acutely, but consumption of whole grain high-fiber barley foods significantly decreased hunger whereas whole wheat and refined rice foods did not. PMID:19643157

Schroeder, Natalia; Gallaher, Daniel D; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Marquart, Len

2009-07-28

24

Accumulation of mixed linkage (1 ? 3) (1 ? 4)-?- d-glucan during grain filling in barley: A vibrational spectroscopy study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of mixed linkage barley (1?3) (1?4)-?-d-glucan (BG) during grain filling at eight stages was studied using standard reference methods and infrared spectroscopy. Two mutant barley genotypes having higher (starch mutant lys5f) and lower (high lysine mutant lys3a) BG content than the normal control Cork were studied. The Cork and lys3a genotypes showed a linear BG accumulation throughout the

Helene Fast Seefeldt; Andreas Blennow; Birthe Møller Jespersen; Bernd Wollenweber; Søren Balling Engelsen

2009-01-01

25

Field tests of the method of selecting barley in an artificial light culture for maximum grain number per spike  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individual selection of plants for spike size is carried out under controlled conditions at a high intensity of photosynthetically\\u000a active radiation and 24-h irradiation. Barley lines singled out during growing in the field for 3 years were considerably\\u000a more productive than the initial specimens due to an increased grain number per spike and 1000 grain weight. They did not\\u000a differ

V. I. Polonskiy; N. A. Surin; S. A. Gerasimov

2008-01-01

26

A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of storage products during the development of field-grown barley grains using a grain-specific microarray assembled in our laboratory.

Michael Hansen; Carsten Friis; Steve Bowra; Preben Bach Holm; Eva Vincze

2009-01-01

27

Overexpression of thioredoxin h leads to enhanced activity of starch debranching enzyme (pullulanase) in barley grain  

PubMed Central

Biochemically active wheat thioredoxin h has been overexpressed in the endosperm of transgenic barley grain. Two DNA constructs containing the wheat thioredoxin h gene (wtrxh) were used for transformation; each contained wtrxh fused to an endosperm-specific B1-hordein promoter either with or without a signal peptide sequence for targeting to the protein body. Twenty-two stable, independently transformed regenerable lines were obtained by selecting with the herbicide bialaphos to test for the presence of the bar herbicide resistance gene on a cotransformed plasmid; all were positive for this gene. The presence of wtrxh was confirmed in 20 lines by PCR analysis, and the identity and level of expression of wheat thioredoxin h was assessed by immunoblots. Although levels varied among the different transgenic events, wheat thioredoxin h was consistently highly expressed (up to 30-fold) in the transgenic grain. Transgenic lines transformed with the B1-hordein promoter with a signal peptide sequence produced a higher level of wheat thioredoxin h on average than those without a signal sequence. The overexpression of thioredoxin h in the endosperm of germinated grain effected up to a 4-fold increase in the activity of the starch debranching enzyme, pullulanase (limit dextrinase), the enzyme that specifically cleaves ?-1,6 linkages in starch. These results raise the question of how thioredoxin h enhances the activity of pullulanase because it was found that the inhibitor had become inactive before the enzyme showed appreciable activity.

Cho, Myeong-Je; Wong, Joshua H.; Marx, Corina; Jiang, Wen; Lemaux, Peggy G.; Buchanan, Bob B.

1999-01-01

28

Spatiotemporal Profiling of Starch Biosynthesis and Degradation in the Developing Barley Grain1[W  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains synthesize starch as the main storage compound. However, some starch is degraded already during caryopsis development. We studied temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes coding for enzymes of starch synthesis and degradation. These profiles coupled with measurements of selected enzyme activities and metabolites have allowed us to propose a role for starch degradation in maternal and filial tissues of developing grains. Early maternal pericarp functions as a major short-term starch storage tissue, possibly ensuring sink strength of the young caryopsis. Gene expression patterns and enzyme activities suggest two different pathways for starch degradation in maternal tissues. One pathway possibly occurs via ?-amylases 1 and 4 and ?-amylase 1 in pericarp, nucellus, and nucellar projection, tissues that undergo programmed cell death. Another pathway is deducted for living pericarp and chlorenchyma cells, where transient starch breakdown correlates with expression of chloroplast-localized ?-amylases 5, 6, and 7, glucan, water dikinase 1, phosphoglucan, water dikinase, isoamylase 3, and disproportionating enzyme. The suite of genes involved in starch synthesis in filial starchy endosperm is much more complex than in pericarp and involves several endosperm-specific genes. Transient starch turnover occurs in transfer cells, ensuring the maintenance of sink strength in filial tissues and the reallocation of sugars into more proximal regions of the starchy endosperm. Starch is temporally accumulated also in aleurone cells, where it is degraded during the seed filling period, to be replaced by storage proteins and lipids.

Radchuk, Volodymyr V.; Borisjuk, Ludmilla; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Merx, Kathleen; Mock, Hans-Peter; Rolletschek, Hardy; Wobus, Ulrich; Weschke, Winfriede

2009-01-01

29

Proteome Analysis of Grain Filling and Seed Maturation in Barley1  

PubMed Central

In monocotyledonous plants, the process of seed development involves the deposition of reserves in the starchy endosperm and development of the embryo and aleurone layer. The final stages of seed development are accompanied by an increase in desiccation tolerance and drying out of the mature seed. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for a time-resolved study of the changes in proteins that occur during seed development in barley (Hordeum vulgare). About 1,000 low-salt extractable protein spots could be resolved on the two-dimensional gels. Protein spots were divided into six categories according to the timing of appearance or disappearance during the 5-week period of comparison. Nineteen different proteins or protein fragments in 36 selected spots were identified by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MS) or nano-electrospray tandem MS/MS. Some proteins were present throughout development (for example, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase), whereas others were associated with the early grain filling (ascorbate peroxidase) or desiccation (Cor14b) stages. Most noticeably, the development process is characterized by an accumulation of low-Mr ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitors, serine protease inhibitors, and enzymes involved in protection against oxidative stress. We present examples of proteins not previously experimentally observed, differential extractability of thiol-bound proteins, and possible allele-specific spot variation. Our results both confirm and expand on knowledge gained from previous analyses of individual proteins involved in grain filling and maturation.

Finnie, Christine; Melchior, Sabrina; Roepstorff, Peter; Svensson, Birte

2002-01-01

30

The Role of ?-Glucosidase in Germinating Barley Grains1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The importance of ?-glucosidase in the endosperm starch metabolism of barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings is poorly understood. The enzyme converts maltose to glucose (Glc), but in vitro studies indicate that it can also attack starch granules. To discover its role in vivo, we took complementary chemical-genetic and reverse-genetic approaches. We identified iminosugar inhibitors of a recombinant form of an ?-glucosidase previously discovered in barley endosperm (ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE97 [HvAGL97]), and applied four of them to germinating grains. All four decreased the Glc-to-maltose ratio in the endosperm 10 d after imbibition, implying inhibition of maltase activity. Three of the four inhibitors also reduced starch degradation and seedling growth, but the fourth did not affect these parameters. Inhibition of starch degradation was apparently not due to inhibition of amylases. Inhibition of seedling growth was primarily a direct effect of the inhibitors on roots and coleoptiles rather than an indirect effect of the inhibition of endosperm metabolism. It may reflect inhibition of glycoprotein-processing glucosidases in these organs. In transgenic seedlings carrying an RNA interference silencing cassette for HvAgl97, ?-glucosidase activity was reduced by up to 50%. There was a large decrease in the Glc-to-maltose ratio in these lines but no effect on starch degradation or seedling growth. Our results suggest that the ?-glucosidase HvAGL97 is the major endosperm enzyme catalyzing the conversion of maltose to Glc but is not required for starch degradation. However, the effects of three glucosidase inhibitors on starch degradation in the endosperm indicate the existence of unidentified glucosidase(s) required for this process.

Stanley, Duncan; Rejzek, Martin; Naested, Henrik; Smedley, Mark; Otero, Sofia; Fahy, Brendan; Thorpe, Frazer; Nash, Robert J.; Harwood, Wendy; Svensson, Birte; Denyer, Kay; Field, Robert A.; Smith, Alison M.

2011-01-01

31

Diamine oxidase is involved in H2O2 production in the chalazal cells during barley grain filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization and activities of diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidase (PAO, EC 1.4.3.4) together with polyamine levels have been investigated in developing grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). DAO (pH 7.5) is present mainly in vascular tissue and its neighbouring cells, namely chalazal cells and nucellar projection, while PAO (pH 6.0) is mainly localized in the chlorenchymatous

Bavita Asthir; Carol M. Duffus; Rachel C. Smith; William Spoor

2002-01-01

32

Short communication: Effects of processing methods of barley grain in starter diets on feed intake and performance of dairy calves.  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different processing methods of barley grain in starter rations on feed intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, skeletal growth, fecal score, and rumen pH of dairy calves. Thirty-two Holstein dairy calves (16 female and 16 male) were randomly allocated to 1 of 4 treatments consisting of coarse ground, whole, steam-rolled, or roasted barley from d 4 to 56 of birth in a completely randomized design. Starter diets were formulated to have similar ingredients and composition. All calves had free access to water and feed throughout the study period and received 4L of milk/d from a bottle from d 4 to 41, 2L/d from d 41 to 45, and weaning occurred on d 45. Feed intake and fecal score were recorded daily. Body weight and skeletal growth measures were recorded on d 4 (beginning of the study), 45, and 56. Rumen fluid and blood samples were collected on d 35, 45, and 56. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The results indicate that different methods of processing barley had no detectable effect on dry matter intake, average daily gain, and feed efficiency and that skeletal growth, health, and rumen pH were not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the results show that different processing methods of barley included in starter diets had no detectable effect on the performance of dairy calves under our experimental conditions. Therefore, feeding whole or coarsely ground barley would be a more economical method compared with steam rolled or roasted barley. PMID:23992978

Jarrah, A; Ghorbani, G R; Rezamand, P; Khorvash, M

2013-08-29

33

The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.  

PubMed

Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P < 0.001); however, other grain components were found to interact with the traits. QTL for these traits were also found on different genomic regions, for example, grain density QTLs were found on chromosomes 2H and 6H, whereas endosperm hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci. PMID:23884598

Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

2013-07-25

34

Feeding rolled barley grain steeped in lactic acid modulated energy status and innate immunity in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Feeding dairy cows large proportions of cereal grain is commonly associated with rumen acidosis, activation of innate immunity, and perturbation of intermediary metabolism. We previously showed that steeping barley grain in 0.5% lactic acid (LA) decreased the rate of starch degradation, lowered the risk of subacute rumen acidosis, modulated rumen fermentation profile, and increased milk fat content in dairy cows. This study sought to investigate whether feeding of LA-treated barley grain would affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism as well as innate immunity. Eight rumen-fistulated late-lactation (approximately 217 d in milk, DIM) Holstein cows were randomly assigned, in a 2 × 2 crossover design, to 1 of the 2 dietary treatments consisting of 27% (dry matter basis) rolled barley grain steeped for 48 h in an equal volume (wt/vol) of tap water (CTR) or 0.5% LA (TRT). Each experimental period lasted 21 d, with the first 11 d for diet adaptation. Blood and rumen samples were collected on d 12, 15, 17, and 21 of the experimental period before the morning feeding to evaluate the effects of dietary treatment on preprandial day-to-day variation of plasma and rumen variables. To establish the effect of treatment on diurnal variation of plasma variables, blood samples were collected on the last day of each period at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12h after the morning feeding (i.e., 0800 h). Results of the day-to-day study showed that cows fed the TRT diet had greater overall preprandial concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, and insulin, and a lower concentration of haptoglobin in plasma. Diurnal data indicated lower concentrations of haptoglobin and serum amyloid A and a tendency for greater plasma lactate in cows fed the TRT diet. A treatment by time interaction was observed for glucose, lactate, insulin, haptoglobin, and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, suggesting a role for both the processing of grain and the time of sampling on those variables. No effect of diet on plasma concentrations of cortisol, ?-hydroxybutyrate, and nonesterified fatty acids or rumen endotoxin was evidenced. Taken together, our results demonstrated that feeding barley grain steeped in 0.5% LA modulated both energy status and innate immunity of dairy cows fed relatively high levels (45% of dry matter) of dietary concentrate. PMID:20965330

Iqbal, S; Zebeli, Q; Mazzolari, A; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

2010-11-01

35

A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling  

PubMed Central

Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection’ technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification. The amplified RNA was subsequently hybridized to Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChips. Due to the short average length of the amplified transcripts and the positioning of numerous probe sets at locations more than 400 base pairs (bp) from the poly(A)-tail, a normalization approach was used where the probe positions were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain.

Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, S?ren; Gregersen, Per L.; Holm, Preben B.

2009-01-01

36

Barley mutants with low rates of endosperm starch synthesis have low grain dormancy and high susceptibility to preharvest sprouting.  

PubMed

• Studies of embryo dormancy in relation to preharvest sprouting (PHS) in cereals have focused on ABA and other hormones. The relationship between these phenomena and the rate of grain filling has not been investigated. • A collection of barley mutants impaired in starch synthesis was assessed for preharvest sprouting in the field. In subsequent glasshouse experiments, developing grains were assayed for germination index, sugars, abscisic acid (ABA) and the effects of temperature and exogenous ABA on germination. • Mutant lines displayed greater preharvest sprouting in the field than parental lines. In the glasshouse, nondeep physiological dormancy was reduced in developing grains of five lines with mutations affecting proteins involved in endosperm starch synthesis. Inhibition of germination by exogenous ABA and elevated temperature was decreased in developing mutant grains. Sugar concentrations were high but embryo and endosperm ABA contents were unaltered. • We reveal a direct connection between grain filling and the extent of grain dormancy. Impaired endosperm starch synthesis directly influences the acquisition of embryo dormancy, perhaps because endosperm sugar concentrations modulate the ABA responsiveness of the embryo. Thus environmental or genetic factors that reduce grain filling are likely to reduce dormancy and enhance susceptibility to PHS. PMID:22300545

Howard, Thomas P; Fahy, Brendan; Craggs, Alice; Mumford, Rachel; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Greenland, Andy; Smith, Alison M

2012-02-02

37

Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon  

PubMed Central

Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed ‘fibrillar crimps’ and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P < 0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165° in stretched tendons vs. 148° in relaxed tendons, P < 0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the ‘fibrillar crimps’ are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the ‘fibrillar crimp’ may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon.

Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

2007-01-01

38

AUTOTOXICITY OF BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allelopathic potential of a crop species varies depending on stage of growth. Because allelopathy of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important cereal grain adapted to semi-arid conditions of northern Tunisia, has not been widely reported, a study was conducted to determine i) the potential autotoxicity of barley and ii) the differential allelopathic potential of barley plant components over four phenological

Moncef Ben-Hammouda; Habib Ghorbal; Robert J. Kremer; Oussama Oueslatt

2002-01-01

39

Association mapping of Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia [Kurdjumov]) is an ongoing problem in the western USA. Infestations in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking and prevent unrolling of emerging leaves which trap spikes and severely reduce fertility and grain yield. Resistant...

40

Effect of Replacement of Barley Grains by Wasted Bread Crumbs or Rejected Dates on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Growing Rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thirty five 10 weeks of age white New Zealand rabbits were assigned to investigate the effect of partial and complete replacement of barley grains by Wasted Bread Crumbs (WBC) or Rejected Dates (RD) on growth performance and carcass traits of growing rabbits. The rabbits were allotted into seven groups (5 rabbits per each). Seven diets were formulated, the control (No.

S. A. AL-Shami; T. A. Mohammed

2009-01-01

41

(/sup 14/C)sucrose uptake and labeling of starch in developing grains of normal segl barley  

SciTech Connect

Previous work showed that the segl mutant of barley (Hordeum vulgare o Betzes) did not differ from normal Betzes in plant growth, photosynthesis, or fertility, but it produced only shrunken seeds regardless of pollen source. To determine whether defects in sucrose uptake or starch synthesis resulted in the shrunken condition, developing grains of Betzes and segl were cultured in (/sup 14/C)sucrose solutions after slicing transversely to expose the endosperm cavity and free space. In both young grains (before genotypes differed in dry weight) and older grains (17 days after anthesis, when segl grains were smaller than Betzes), sucrose uptake and starch synthesis were similar in both genotypes on a dry weight basis. To determine if sucrose was hydrolyzed during uptake, spikes of Betzes and segl were allowed to take up (fructose-U-/sup 14/C)sucrose 14 days after anthesis and the radioactivity of endosperm sugars was examined during 3 hours of incubation. Whereas less total radioactivity entered the endosperm and the endosperm cavity (free space) of segl, in both genotypes over 96% of the label of endosperm sugars was in sucrose, and there was no apparent initial or progressive randomization of label among hexose moieties of sucrose as compared to the free space sampled after 1 hour of incubation. The authors conclude that segl endosperms are capable of normal sucrose uptake and starch synthesis and that hydrolysis of sucrose is not required for uptake in either genotype. Evidence suggests abnormal development of grain tissue of maternal origin during growth of segl grains.

Felker, F.C.; Peterson, D.M.; Nelson, O.E.

1984-01-01

42

Expression of the gamma-zein protein of maize in seeds of transgenic barley: effects on grain composition and properties.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding the gamma-zein protein of maize was expressed in developing grain of barley using the starchy endosperm cell-specific promoter from the wheat Glu-1D-1 (HMW subunit 1Dx5) gene. Seven transgenic lines were recovered from 226 bombarded immature embryos, of which two were sterile and four tetraploid, while five were shown to express the gamma-zein protein based on western blotting. Southern blot analysis showed the presence of between about three and twelve transgene insertions. Detailed comparative studies of five null and five homozygous transformed sub-lines from transgenic line A showed that gamma-zein accounted for over 4% of the total prolamin fraction, corresponding to about 1.9% of the total grain N. Comparison of the proteins present in the gel protein fraction demonstrated that the gamma-zein was incorporated into polymers, as in maize. However, there was no effect on grain hardness measured using the Perten Single Kernel Characterisation System or on the vitreousness measured by visual inspection. This contrasts with the situation in maize where a clear association with vitreousness has been reported. PMID:12671764

Zhang, Y; Darlington, H; Jones, H D; Halford, N G; Napier, J A; Davey, M R; Lazzeri, P A; Shewry, P R

2003-02-28

43

Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tendons are composed of longitudinally aligned collagen fibrils arranged in bundles with an undulating pattern, called crimp.\\u000a The crimp structure is established during embryonic development and plays a vital role in the mechanical behaviour of tendon,\\u000a acting as a shock-absorber during loading. However, the mechanism of crimp formation is unknown, partly because of the difficulties\\u000a of studying tendon development in

Andreas Herchenhan; Nicholas S. Kalson; David F. Holmes; Patrick Hill; Karl E. Kadler; Lee Margetts

44

Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599 ± 36 kg) were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P < 0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P < 0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P < 0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P < 0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P < 0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P < 0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P < 0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P < 0.04) acetate and increased (P < 0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH < 5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These results suggest that feeding monensin at 48 vs. 28 mg/kg diet DM altered nutrient availability and site of feed digestion, likely as a result of reduced DMI and increased ruminal digestion of DM. High levels of monensin may reduce the risk of acidosis through a reduction in DMI, but in the present study this was not evident in differences in the ruminal pH profiles between heifers fed ML and MH diets. PMID:24045473

Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

2013-09-17

45

Barley grains for the production of endotoxin-free growth factors.  

PubMed

The most popular hosts for recombinant protein production have now in many cases passed their low-hanging-fruit era and their limitations as production hosts are becoming more evident. Therefore, the bioprocessing community is constantly on the lookout for new hosts that can complement the current selection. The development of plant systems is eagerly followed because of the great potential they show, such as much reduced production cost and absence of endotoxins and human pathogens. In this review, we describe the unique barley-based platform for recombinant protein production. We summarize the methods used for gene modification and protein processing and discuss the main advantages of the system. Finally, we discuss the significance of endotoxin-free proteins for cell-based research and therapeutic applications. PMID:23849675

Magnusdottir, Audur; Vidarsson, Hilmar; Björnsson, Jon Mar; Orvar, Björn Larus

2013-07-10

46

In situ digestibility of protein in barley grain ( Hordeum vulgare) and peas ( Pisum sativum L.) in dairy cows: influence of heat treatment and glucose addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rumen degradation and total tract indigestibility of protein and amino acids (AA) in untreated and heat-treated (at 100, 125 and 150°C for 5, 15 and 30min) barley grain (Hordeum vulgare) and peas (Pisum sativum L.) was studied in non-lactating cows. The treated samples, and the control, were incubated in the rumen for 4, 8, and 16h using an in situ

Kari Ljøkjel; Odd Magne Harstad; Egil Prestløkken; Anders Skrede

2003-01-01

47

Interrelationships in the digestion of sheep given barley grain diets containing either fish meal, soya-bean meal or urea.  

PubMed

Three sheep, each fitted with a ruminal cannula and duodenal re-entrant cannulae were given three isonitrogenous, isoenergetic diets in a Latin Square design. Each diet contained approximately 60% DM as barley grain and 40% of total N as either white fish meal, soya-bean meal or urea. These diets were fed continuously and supplied about 28 g N/day. Diets containing such large amounts of barley grain usually produce wide variations in the rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) proportions and these have been correlated with various other digestive characteristics. Several ruminal and duodenal components were measured in this study and interrelationships between them sought. The molar proportions of VFA varied widely from 45-67% for acetate, 13-48% for propionate and 7-23% for butyrate. Rumen pH was positively correlated with acetate (P less than 0.01), but negatively so with propionate (P less than 0.01) and butyrate (P less than 0.1). The numbers of rumen ciliate protozoa also varied widely and were related to rumen pH (P less than 0.05) and VFA proportions; positively to acetate (P less than 0.001) and butyrate (P less than 0.01) but negatively to propionate (P less than 0.001). Duodenal N was always less than fed N. The mean composition of this duodenal N was 10.1% ammonia-N, 6.7% RNA-N, 79.0% amino acid-N and 7.3% was unaccounted for. Efficiencies of synthesis of microbial and bacterial crude protein (derived from 35S and 2,6-diaminopimelic acid data) ranged from 10.5 to 42.2 g microbial N per kg apparently digested organic matter (ADOM) and 5.0 to 27.9 g bacterial N per kg ADOM. Division of VFA patterns into either propionate or butyrate type fermentations suggested several further interrelationships. No relationship was established between these fermentation patterns and the extent or efficiency of microbial crude protein synthesis. Possible interrelationships between different digestive characteristics are discussed and a plea made for both more extensive and intensive experimentation before such designation of cause and effect can be assigned. PMID:6686930

Ling, J R; Swan, H; Buttery, P J

48

Quality control on crimping of large diameter welding pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crimping is used in production of large diameter submerged-arc welding pipes. Many researches are focused on crimping in certain manufacturing mode of welding pipe. The application scopes of research achievements become limited due to lack of uniformity in theoretical analysis. In order to propose a crimping prediction method in order to control forming quality, the theory model of crimping based on elastic-plastic mechanics is established. The main technical parameters are determined by theoretical analysis, including length of crimping, base radius of punch, terminal angle of punch, base radius of die, terminal angle of die and horizontal distance between punch and die. In addition, a method used to evaluate the forming quality is presented, which investigates the bending angle after springback, forming force, straight edge length and equivalent radius of curvature. In order to investigate the effects of technical parameters on forming quality, a two-dimensional finite element model is established by finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element model is verified in that its shapes error is less than 5% by comparable experiments, which shows that their geometric precision meets demand. The crimping characteristics is obtained, such as the distribution of stress and strain and the changes of forming force, and the relation curves of technical parameters on forming quality are given by simulation analysis. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects of length of crimping, technical parameters of punch on forming quality are significant. In particular, the data from simulation analysis are regressed by response surface method (RSM) to establish prediction model. The feasible technical parameters are obtained from the prediction model. This method presented provides a new thought used to design technical parameters of crimping forming and makes a basis for improving crimping forming quality.

Fan, Lifeng; Gao, Ying; Li, Qiang; Xu, Hongshen

2012-11-01

49

Variation in the interaction between alleles of HvAPETALA2 and microRNA172 determines the density of grains on the barley inflorescence  

PubMed Central

Within the cereal grasses, variation in inflorescence architecture results in a conspicuous morphological diversity that in crop species influences the yield of cereal grains. Although significant progress has been made in identifying some of the genes underlying this variation in maize and rice, in the temperate cereals, a group that includes wheat, barley, and rye, only the dosage-dependent and highly pleiotropic Q locus in hexaploid wheat has been molecularly characterized. Here we show that the characteristic variation in the density of grains along the inflorescence, or spike, of modern cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) is largely the consequence of a perturbed interaction between microRNA172 and its corresponding binding site in the mRNA of an APELATA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, HvAP2. We used genome-wide association and biparental mapping to identify HvAP2. By comparing inflorescence development and HvAP2 transcript abundance in an extreme dense-spike mutant and its nearly isogenic WT line, we show that HvAP2 turnover driven by microRNA 172 regulates the length of a critical developmental window that is required for elongation of the inflorescence internodes. Our data indicate that this heterochronic change, an altered timing of developmental events caused by specific temporal variation in the efficiency of HvAP2 turnover, leads to the striking differences in the size and shape of the barley spike.

Houston, Kelly; McKim, Sarah M.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonar, Nicola; Druka, Ilze; Uzrek, Nicola; Cirillo, Elisa; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Collins, Nicholas C.; Halpin, Claire; Hansson, Mats; Dockter, Christoph; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie

2013-01-01

50

Kinetics of crimp and slope grip in rock climbing.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate differences of the kinetics of the crimp and the slope grip used in rock climbing. Nine cadaver fingers were prepared and fixated with the proximal phalanx in a frame. The superficial (FDS) and deep (FDP) flexor tendons were loaded selectively and together with 40 N in the crimp grip (PIP joint flexed 90°/DIP joint hyperextended) and the slope grip position (<25° flexed/50° flexed respectively). Five different grip sizes were tested and the flexion force which was generated to the grip was measured. In the crimp grip the FDP generated more flexion force in small sized holds whereas the FDS generated more force in the larger holds. During the slope grip the FDP was more effective than the FDS. While both tendons were loaded, the flexion force was always greater during crimp grip compared with the slope grip. The FDP seems to be most important for very small holds using the crimp grip but also during slope grip holds whereas the FDS is more important for larger flat holds. PMID:21576719

Schweizer, Andreas; Hudek, Robert

2011-05-01

51

Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare vulgare L.) is an ancient cereal grain, which upon domestication has evolved from largely a food grain to a feed and malting grain. However, barley food use today remains important in some cultures around the world, particularly in Asia and northern Africa, and there is renewed interest throughout the world in barley food because of its nutritional

Byung-Kee Baik; Steven E. Ullrich

2008-01-01

52

Hulless winter barley for ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hulless barley is viable feedstock alternative to corn for ethanol production in areas where small grains are produced. The first barley-based ethanol plant in the US is currently under construction by Osage BioEnergy LLC in Hopewell, VA. New hulless winter barley varieties developed by Virginia T...

53

Grain yield, symbiotic N 2 fixation and interspecific competition for inorganic N in pea-barley intercrops  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of mixed intercropping of field pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), compared to monocrop cultivation, on the yield and crop-N dynamics was studied in a 4-yr field experiment using 15N-isotope dilution technique. Crops were grown with or without the supply of 5 g 15N-labeled N m-2. The effect of intercropping on the dry matter

Erik Steen Jensen

1996-01-01

54

Different Hormonal Regulation of Cellular Differentiation and Function in Nucellar Projection and Endosperm Transfer Cells: A Microdissection-Based Transcriptome Study of Young Barley Grains1[W  

PubMed Central

Nucellar projection (NP) and endosperm transfer cells (ETC) are essential tissues in growing barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, responsible for nutrient transfer from maternal to filial tissues, endosperm/embryo nutrition, and grain development. A laser microdissection pressure catapulting-based transcriptome analysis was established to study NP and ETC separately using a barley 12K macroarray. A major challenge was to isolate high-quality mRNA from preembedded, fixed tissue while maintaining tissue integrity. We show that probes generated from fixed and embedded tissue sections represent largely the transcriptome (>70%) of nonchemically treated and nonamplified references. In NP, the top-down gradient of cellular differentiation is reflected by the expression of C3HC4-type ubiquitin ligases and different histone genes, cell wall biosynthesis and expansin/extensin genes, as well as genes involved in programmed cell death-related proteolysis coupled to nitrogen remobilization, indicating distinct areas simultaneously undergoing mitosis, cell elongation, and disintegration. Activated gene expression related to gibberellin synthesis and function suggests a regulatory role for gibberellins in establishment of the differentiation gradient. Up-regulation of plasmalemma-intrinsic protein and tonoplast-intrinsic protein genes indicates involvement in nutrient transfer and/or unloading. In ETC, AP2/EREBP-like transcription factors and ethylene functions are transcriptionally activated, a response possibly coupled to activated defense mechanisms. Transcriptional activation of nucleotide sugar metabolism may be attributed to ascorbate synthesis and/or cell wall biosynthesis. These processes are potentially controlled by trehalose-6-P synthase/phosphatase, as suggested by expression of their respective genes. Up-regulation of amino acid permeases in ETC indicates important roles in active nutrient uptake from the apoplastic space into the endosperm.

Thiel, Johannes; Weier, Diana; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Weichert, Nicola; Melzer, Michael; Czauderna, Tobias; Wobus, Ulrich; Weber, Hans; Weschke, Winfriede

2008-01-01

55

Effects of method of barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on duodenal nutrient flows, milk fatty acid profiles, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on ruminal nutrient digestion, duodenal nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles in dairy cows. Four Holstein cows (656 ± 28 kg of BW; 80 ± 12 d in milk) fitted with permanent ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of experimental treatments, in which barley was either dry-rolled (DRB) or pelleted (PB) and supplemented with full-fat canola seed (canola) or full-fat flaxseed (flaxseed). Cows fed DRB consumed 1.8 to 3.5 kg/d more dry matter compared with those fed PB. Mean ruminal pH was lower and the duration (min/d) and area (pH × min) of total ruminal acidosis (RA; ruminal pH <5.8), mild RA (5.8 >ruminal pH >5.5), and severe RA (5.5 >ruminal pH >5.2), and the duration of acute RA (ruminal pH <5.2) were greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Milk yield was unaffected by diet. Milk fat content and yield were greater in cows fed DRB than in cows fed PB. Cows fed PB had greater duodenal flows of C18:1 trans, C18:1 cis, C18:2 trans-9,trans-12, C18:2 trans-9,cis-12, C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, and C18:2 trans-10,cis-12 compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flows of C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans, total C18:1, C18:2n6, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola. Milk concentrations of C18:3n3 and total CLA tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. When compared with cows fed canola, milk concentrations of C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total CLA, and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed. Ruminal digestion of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was greater in cows fed DRB compared with those fed PB. Duodenal flow of ammonia-N tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flow of nonammonia nonmicrobial N was greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola; however, barley grain processing did not affect duodenal nonammonia nonmicrobial N flow. Duodenal flow of microbial nonammonia N and microbial efficiency were not affected by diet. In summary, barley grain processing and source of fat altered ruminal FA biohydrogenation, and this was reflected in changes in duodenal FA flow and milk FA profiles; however, ruminal microbial protein synthesis was unaltered. PMID:22863103

Mutsvangwa, T; Hobin, M R; Gozho, G N

2012-08-03

56

AGRONOMIC AND QUALITY EVALUATIONS OF HULLESS BARLEY LINES FROM ABERDEEN, ID  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Hulless barley is considered a good source of food and feed. Hulless barley has higher feed value and is more nutritious than hulled barley. However, hulless barley is usually associated with low grain yields. Development of hulless barley with increased agronomic performance and high value-added...

57

BLOOD PRESSURE REDUCED BY WHOLE GRAIN DIET CONTAINING BARLEY OR WHOLE WHEAT AND BROWN RICE IN MODERATELY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole grain foods have been reported to lower blood pressure, but results have been mixed. It has not been determined whether fiber content or type of fiber of the grains is responsible for this beneficial effect. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of predominantly insoluble fibe...

58

Mineral accumulation, carbon isotope discrimination and indirect selection for grain yield in two-rowed barley grown under semiarid conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral accumulation in vegetative plant parts and in mature kernels has been proposed as an indirect selection criterion, either in addition to, or in substitution of, carbon isotope discrimination (?), to assess grain yield of temperate cereals in Mediterranean areas. However, the association between mineral concentration, in different plant parts, and grain yield is not yet fully understood. In order

J. Voltas; I. Romagosa; P. Muñoz; J. L. Araus

1998-01-01

59

Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil  

DOEpatents

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

Wittel, deceased, Charles F. (late of Linden, NJ)

1986-01-01

60

Variation of the amino acid scores and of the nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors in barley grain as a function of nitrogen content as compared with wheat and rye.  

PubMed

Barley grains (9 samples from 7 cultivars) with nitrogen contents (N) ranging from 1.45 to 4.01% of dry matter were analysed for their amino acid (AA) composition with high accuracy from six different hydrolysates per sample. AA levels in grain increased as linear functions of N with correlation coefficients close to unity. A comparison with literature data confirmed that the AA composition of any grain sample of normal barley can be predicted from its N for all phenotypes and genotypes. AAs in grain protein changed as hyperbolic functions of N which increased for Phe, Pro and Glx but more or less strongly decreased for the other AAs. By plotting AA scores against N, barley proteins were shown to be always richer than wheat and rye in Val and Phe + Tyr; sometimes richer than both other species for N less than 2 (Lys); 2.2 (Leu and Ile); 3.4 (Thr); sometimes intermediate to wheat and rye above the latter N values. They were also intermediate in sulphur AAs for N less than 1.9 and drastically poorer for N greater than 1.9. However, they were richer than both other species in Trp for N greater than 1.6. The hyperbolic variations of non-protein nitrogen and nitrogen-to-protein conversion factors were determined as a function of N and also compared with those of wheat and rye. PMID:3200803

Huet, J C; Baudet, J; Bettaieb, L; Kaab, B; Mossé, J

1988-01-01

61

Intraruminal supplementation with increasing levels of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes: effects on nutrient digestion in cattle fed a barley grain diet.  

PubMed

The effects of supplying increasing ruminal doses of exogenous polysaccharide-degrading enzymes (EPDE) on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion were studied using eight ruminally cannulated heifers, four of which were also duodenally cannulated, in a replicated Latin square. The heifers were fed a diet of 85.5% rolled barley grain and 14% barley silage (DM basis), and once daily they were given intraruminal doses of 0 (Control), 100, 200, or 400 g of a preparation containing polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. Enzyme treatment decreased ruminal pH (linear, P<.001) and increased ammonia N (quadratic, P<.001) concentration. The ruminally soluble fraction and effective degradability of feed DM in situ were increased (quadratic response, P<.001) by enzyme treatment. Ruminal administration of EPDE increased ruminal fluid carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities linearly (P<.001) and beta-glucanase activity quadratically (P<.01), decreased (quadratic response, P<.05) ruminal fluid viscosity, and did not affect (P>.05) ruminal fluid amylase activity. Elevated levels of fibrolytic activities in the rumen resulted in increased (quadratic, P<.001) carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, and beta-glucanase (P<.01) activities in duodenal digesta. Duodenal amylase activity and reducing sugar concentration were also increased (quadratic responses, P<.001 and P<.05, respectively) by EPDE. Xylanase activity of fecal DM was increased linearly (P<.05) with increasing ruminal EPDE levels. Apparent digestibilities of DM, crude protein, and NDF were not affected by EPDE supplementation. Enzyme treatment did not affect (P>.05) urinary excretion of allantoin and uric acid, or concentrations of glucose and urea in blood. PMID:10709941

Hristov, A N; McAllister, T A; Cheng, K J

2000-02-01

62

Control of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) development and senescence by the interaction between a chromosome six grain protein content locus, day length, and vernalization  

PubMed Central

Regulatory processes controlling traits such as anthesis timing and whole-plant senescence are of primary importance for reproductive success and for crop quality and yield. It has previously been demonstrated that the presence of alleles associated with high grain protein content (GPC) at a locus on barley chromosome six leads to accelerated leaf senescence, and to strong (>10-fold) up-regulation of several genes which may be involved in senescence control. One of these genes (coding for a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein termed HvGR-RBP1) exhibits a high degree of similarity to Arabidopsis glycine-rich RNA-binding protein 7 (AtGRP7), which has been demonstrated to accelerate flowering under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) conditions, but not after vernalization. Development of near-isogenic barley lines, differing in the allelic state of the GPC locus, was compared from the seedling stage to maturity under both SD and LD and after vernalization under LD. Intriguingly, pre-anthesis plant development [measured by leaf emergence timing and pre-anthesis (sequential) leaf senescence] was enhanced in high-GPC germplasm. Differences were more pronounced under SD than under LD, but were eliminated by vernalization, associating observed effects with floral induction pathways. By contrast, differences in post-anthesis flag leaf and whole-plant senescence between low- and high-GPC germplasm persisted under all tested conditions, indicating that the GPC locus, possibly through HvGR-RBP1, impacts on both developmental stages. Detailed molecular characterization of this experimental system may allow the dissection of cross-talk between signalling pathways controlling early plant and floral development on one side, and leaf/whole-plant senescence on the other side.

Parrott, David L.; Downs, Eric P.; Fischer, Andreas M.

2012-01-01

63

Blood pressure reduced by whole grain diet containing barley or whole wheat and brown rice in moderately hypercholesterolemic men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole grains have been reported to lower blood pressure, but results have been mixed. This report compares the effects of soluble and insoluble fibers on blood pressure in a whole grain diet. Twenty-one non-hypertensive men (28-62 yr) with elevated plasma cholesterol levels were selected for the study approved by the Institutional Review Board of the Johns Hopkins School of Public

Judith Hallfrisch; Daniel J. Scholfield; Kay M. Behall

2003-01-01

64

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. 8 figs.

Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

1996-08-20

65

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes.

Fischer, Jon E. (Concord, CA); Walmsley, Don (Livermore, CA); Wapman, P. Derek (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

66

Microflora of barley kernels.  

PubMed

Numbers and kinds of microflora were determined in 160 samples of barley grown in different regions of the United States; microflora were more abundant in the grains grown in the central states than in those grown in the western states. During steeping and germination in micromalting equipment, the number of colonies of filamentous fungi increased from two to five times, colonies of yeasts from five to ten times, and bacteria from 50 to more than 100 times the numbers present in the grain before malting. Kiln drying according to a commercial schedule reduced the number of all types of microflora below the number present before kilning, but all were present in larger numbers in the kilned malt than in the original grain. In barley stored at room temperature and at a moisture content of 15 to 18%, members of the Aspergillus glaucus group increased with increasing time and increasing moisture content, and germination percentage of the seeds decreased. Stored free of storage fungi at room temperature, barley with a moisture content just over 15% retained a high germination percentage for 5 months, but at a moisture content of 16% the germination decreased to zero. PMID:13893856

FOLLSTAD, M N; CHRISTENSEN, C M

1962-07-01

67

Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts - strategies, methods and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research.

Petersen, J?rgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

2013-01-01

68

10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

10. SOUTH BAY SHOWING 300-TON R.D. WOOD CO. HYDRAULIC CRIMPING PRESS. VIEW EAST ALSO SHOWING NORTHWEST CORNER OF OFFICE/MACHINE SHOP - Oldman Boiler Works, Fabricating Shop, 32 Illinois Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

69

Collagen fibre arrangement and functional crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament in the rat knee  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ligaments have been described as multifascicular structures with collagen fibres cross-connecting to each other or running\\u000a straight and parallel also showing a waviness or crimping pattern playing as a shock absorber\\/recoiling system during joint\\u000a motions. A particular collagen array and crimping pattern in different ligaments may reflect different biomechanical roles\\u000a and properties. The aim of the study was to relate

Marco Franchi; Marilisa Quaranta; Maria Macciocca; Luisa Leonardi; Vittoria Ottani; Paolo Bianchini; Alberto Diaspro; Alessandro Ruggeri

2010-01-01

70

Comparison of Grain Sources (Barley, White Corn, and Yellow Corn) for Swine Diets and Their Effects on Meat Quality and Production Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient pork production is a necessity for an economically viable swine industry. Number two yellow corn is considered the primary energy source for swine diets in the Midwest. Despite the low protein content, corn is considered one of the most economical feed stuffs available to the swine production system. Barley is a high fiber that has approximately 89% of the

Jay F. Lampe; John W. Mabry; Palmer J. Holden

2004-01-01

71

Differential RNA Expression of Two Barley ß-Amylase Genes (Bmy1 and Bmy2) in Developing Grains and Their Association with ß-Amylase Activity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RNA expression from the barley ß-amylase1 (Bmy1) gene was determined during seed development in four genotypes (Legacy, Harrington, Ashqelon, and PI 296897). The Bmy1 transcript amount in Legacy and Harrington was not significantly different at 17, 19, or 21 days after anthesis (DAA). Ashqelon Bmy...

72

The effect of grain species, processing and time of feeding on the efficiency of feed utilization and microbial protein synthesis in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the effect of cereal grain species (sorghum, wheat, oats and barley), extent of processing (cracked barley, finely ground barley, and wet whole barley) and time of feeding (barley grain mixed with ryegrass hay or fed 2 h before hay was fed), on whole tract dry matter digestibility (WTDMD), and microbial protein synthesis (MPS), as a supplement to ryegrass

A. Horadagoda; W. J. Fulkerson; I. Barchia; R. C. Dobos; K. S. Nandra

2008-01-01

73

Duplicate polyphenol oxidase genes on barley chromosome 2H and their functional differentiation in the phenol reaction of spikes and grains.  

PubMed

Polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are copper-containing metalloenzymes encoded in the nucleus and transported into the plastids. Reportedly, PPOs cause time-dependent discoloration (browning) of end-products of wheat and barley, which impairs their appearance quality. For this study, two barley PPO homologues were amplified using PCR with a primer pair designed in the copper binding domains of the wheat PPO genes. The full-lengths of the respective PPO genes were cloned using a BAC library, inverse-PCR, and 3'-RACE. Linkage analysis showed that the polymorphisms in PPO1 and PPO2 co-segregated with the phenol reaction phenotype of awns. Subsequent RT-PCR experiments showed that PPO1 was expressed in hulls and awns, and that PPO2 was expressed in the caryopses. Allelic variation of PPO1 and PPO2 was analysed in 51 barley accessions with the negative phenol reaction of awns. In PPO1, amino acid substitutions of five types affecting functionally important motif(s) or C-terminal region(s) were identified in 40 of the 51 accessions tested. In PPO2, only one mutant allele with a precocious stop codon resulting from an 8 bp insertion in the first exon was found in three of the 51 accessions tested. These observations demonstrate that PPO1 is the major determinant controlling the phenol reaction of awns. Comparisons of PPO1 single mutants and the PPO1PPO2 double mutant indicate that PPO2 controls the phenol reaction in the crease on the ventral side of caryopses. An insertion of a hAT-family transposon in the promoter region of PPO2 may be responsible for different expression patterns of the duplicate PPO genes in barley. PMID:20616156

Taketa, Shin; Matsuki, Kanako; Amano, Satoko; Saisho, Daisuke; Himi, Eiko; Shitsukawa, Naoki; Yuo, Takahisa; Noda, Kazuhiko; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

2010-07-08

74

The effect of H 2O 2 and abscisic acid (ABA) interaction on ?-amylase activity under osmotic stress during grain development in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) and polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) treatments on grain H2O2, ABA and ?-amylase activity were studied during grain development in the spike culture experiments with variety Triumph and its ABA-insensitive mutant TL43 as the plant materials. The results showed that during grain development the two genotypes were similar in the pattern of ABA concentration

Kang Wei; Xiaoli Jin; Xin Chen; Feibo Wu; Weihui Zhou; Boyin Qiu; Long Qiu; Xudong Wang; Chengdao Li; Guoping Zhang

2009-01-01

75

Product development and sensory evaluation of cookies made with barley protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The barley industry needs to diversify both its domestic uses and export opportunities. This study was performed to determine whether the protein fraction of the barley grain has value in the production of convenient and healthful foods. A drop sugar cookie formulation was used in which barley protein was substituted as a percentage by weight for the all-purpose flour. Prototype

Melanie Auger

76

Microflora of Barley Kernels1  

PubMed Central

Numbers and kinds of microflora were determined in 160 samples of barley grown in different regions of the United States; microflora were more abundant in the grains grown in the central states than in those grown in the western states. During steeping and germination in micromalting equipment, the number of colonies of filamentous fungi increased from two to five times, colonies of yeasts from five to ten times, and bacteria from 50 to more than 100 times the numbers present in the grain before malting. Kiln drying according to a commercial schedule reduced the number of all types of microflora below the number present before kilning, but all were present in larger numbers in the kilned malt than in the original grain. In barley stored at room temperature and at a moisture content of 15 to 18%, members of the Aspergillus glaucus group increased with increasing time and increasing moisture content, and germination percentage of the seeds decreased. Stored free of storage fungi at room temperature, barley with a moisture content just over 15% retained a high germination percentage for 5 months, but at a moisture content of 16% the germination decreased to zero.

Follstad, M. N.; Christensen, C. M.

1962-01-01

77

Crimped metal ribbon flame arrestors for the protection of gas measurement systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper summarises the results of extensive research to determine the limit of safety against flame transmission for flame arrestors of relatively small size fitted with arrestor elements made of crimped metal ribbon. Depending on the reactivity of the fuel gas\\/air mixture and the tube geometry the running up to detonation and hence the stressing of a flame arrestor by

Dieter Lietze

2002-01-01

78

Tocotrienol and fatty acid composition of barley oil and their effects on lipid metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley oil was extracted with hexane from the grain of a high oil waxy hull-les barley. Twelve male broiler chicks were fed corn-based diets with either 10% barley oil, 10% corn oil or 10% margarinead libitum for ten days. Total plasma cholesterol concentration of the chicks fed barley oil was 34% lower (pppp<0.05) body weight than those fed the corn

Linji Wang; R. K. Newman; C. W. Newman; L. L. Jackson; P. J. Hofer

1993-01-01

79

Microbes in the Tailoring of Barley Malt Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Malted barley (malt) is traditionally used in the production of beer and distilled spirits. In addition, it can be processed into ingredients for different areas of the food industry. Malting, the controlled germination of cereal grains, is a complex biol...

A. Laitila

2009-01-01

80

Is barley yield in the UK sink limited?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the absence of serious post-anthesis stress, the potential supply of assimilates for grain filling in barley appears to exceed the storage (sink) capacity of the grains. The sink capacity is a function of the number of grains per unit land area and their potential size. In order to investigate the contribution of pre and early post-anthesis factors in the

Ian J. Bingham; Jonathan Blake; M. John Foulkes; John Spink

2007-01-01

81

[Influence of granulated bacterial preparation complex action on the growth and yield of barley].  

PubMed

The influence of granulated bacterial preparation of complex action on the growth and yield of barley (H. distichum L.) has been studied. The treatment of barley seeds by this preparation has been established to have a very significant effect on the mass of 1000 grains, grain natural weight and to increase the yield of plants, but to different degree. Consequently, the interaction of certain barley varieties with bacteria-components of the preparation is rather specific. It has been displayed that the treatment of grains of different barley varieties by the bacterial preparation takes a very significant influence on the function of microbial associations in the rhizosphere. PMID:22830193

Skorokhod, I O; Tserkovniak, L S; Kurdysh, I K; Plotnikov, V V; Gyl'chuk, V G; Korni?chuk, O V

82

Greenhouse screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains through its role as a vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by feeding damage to winter and spring small grains. Barley accessions have been reported to have BCOA ...

83

Fundamental study on the influence of Fusarium infection on quality and ultrastructure of barley malt.  

PubMed

Barley infection with Fusarium species has been a long standing problem for the malting and brewing industries. In this study, we evaluate the impact of Fusarium culmorum infected raw barley on the final malt quality. Barley grains were infected for 5 days at optimum fungal growth conditions. Grains were fully characterized and compared to standard barley grains. Due to fungal infection, germinative energy of infected barley grains decreased by 45%; its water sensitivity increased dramatically, and grains accumulated 199 ?g/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON). Barley grains were subsequently malted for 8 days, fully characterized and compared to standard malt grains. Fungal growth behavior was evaluated during malting using a PCR-based assay and mycotoxins were measured using HPLC. Fungal biomass increased in grains, during all stages of malting. Infected malt accumulated 8-times its DON concentration during malting. Kernel ultrastructure was evaluated using scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Infected malt grains were characterized by extreme structural proteolytic, (hemi)-cellulolytic and starch deterioration with increased friability and fragmentation. Infected grains had higher protease and ?-glucanase activities, lower amylase activity, a greater proportion of free amino and soluble nitrogen, and a lower ?-glucan content. Malt loss was over 27% higher in infected malt in comparison to the control. The results of this study revealed that 20% F. culmorum infected barley kernels lead to a significant reduction in malt quality as well as mycotoxin formation. PMID:22424933

Oliveira, Pedro M; Mauch, Alexander; Jacob, Fritz; Waters, Deborah M; Arendt, Elke K

2012-03-01

84

Malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

85

THE 2003 PROCEEDINGS FOR BARLEY IMPROVEMENT CONFERENCE.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since early in the 20th century, barley had been one of the primary targets of federally-funded research in Aberdeen, Idaho. Recently funding increases were made through congressional action to enhance support of small grains research and to plan an expansion of the current ARS research facility. ...

86

Combining ability of barley flour pasting properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malt extract is one of the major traits contributing to high malting quality and thus a major objective in malting barley breeding programs. Understanding the genetic behaviour of this trait could make selection more efficient. However, the measurement of this trait is very time-consuming and cannot be done in a single plant since it needs a certain amount of grain.

M. X. Zhou; H. B. Li; Z. H. Chen; N. J. Mendham

2008-01-01

87

Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae Isolates from Barley Grains Produce New Cereulide-Like Depsipeptides (Paenilide and Homopaenilide) That Are Highly Toxic to Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg?1 of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K+ ions already at 4 mM [K+], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent.

Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A.; Teplova, Vera V.; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-01-01

88

Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae isolates from barley grains produce new cereulide-like depsipeptides (paenilide and homopaenilide) that are highly toxic to mammalian cells.  

PubMed

Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg(-1) of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K(+) ions already at 4 mM [K(+)], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

Rasimus, Stiina; Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A; Teplova, Vera V; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-03-09

89

Barley seed proteomics from spots to structures.  

PubMed

Barley is a major cereal crop grown mainly for feed and malting. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been used to analyse barley proteins for over 20 years and more recently, mass spectrometry was applied. In the absence of a genome sequence, barley gene and EST sequences combined with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during grain filling, maturation, germination and radicle elongation. Cultivar comparisons and genetic mapping of polymorphic protein spots in doubled haploid populations provide a means to link the genome to the proteome and identify proteins that can influence grain quality. Many proteins appear in multiple forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has led to identification of thioredoxin target proteins, quantitative analysis of reduction of individual target disulphides and structural studies to gain insight into determinants for target protein recognition by thioredoxin. PMID:19118654

Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte

2008-12-14

90

Analyses of the Deformation Mechanisms of Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Reinforcements during Preforming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two experimental devices are used for the analysis of the deformation mechanisms of biaxial non-crimp fabric composite reinforcements during preforming. The bias extension test, commonly use for the shear behaviour characterisation of woven fabrics, allows to highlight the sliding between the two plies of the reinforcement. This sliding is localized in areas of high gradient of shearing. This questions the use of bias extension test in determining the shear stiffness of the studied reinforcement. Then a hemispherical stamping experiment, representative of a preforming process, allows to quantify this sliding. The slippage is defined as the distance, projected onto the middle surface, of two points initially opposed on both sides of the reinforcement. For both experiments, the characteristic behavior of the non-crimp fabric reinforcement is highlighted by comparison with a woven textile reinforcement. This woven fabric presents only a very little sliding between warp and weft yarns during preforming. This aspect of the deformation kinematics of the non-crimp fabric reinforcement must be considered when simulating the preforming.

Bel, Sylvain; Boisse, Philippe; Dumont, François

2012-06-01

91

Producción y valor nutritivo de genotipos imberbes de cebada forrajera en la Región Lagunera de México Yield and nutritive value of awnless forage barley genotypes in the Región Lagunera of Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spite of the advantages of barley when compared to other cereals, in México there are few studies on whole-plant barley used as forage and its nutritive value for dairy cows. Twenty six (26) advanced awnless forage barley lines plus commercial varieties of oat (cv. Cuauhtémoc), triticale (cv. Eronga 83), grain barley (cv. Cerro Prieto) and one awnless experimental line

Modesto Colín Rico; Víctor Manuel Zamora Villa; María Alejandra Torres Tapia; Martha Alicia Jaramillo Sánchez

92

Effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the intake, digestibility and ruminal fermentation in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of the supplementation of yeast, molasses and barley to barley straw diets on the dry matter intake, digestibil- ity and ruminal fermentation in sheep were investigated. Ten male merino sheep were used in a changeover design trial of five 30-day periods. Baker's yeast (50 g\\/kg straw), molasses (100g\\/kg straw) and barley grain (100 g\\/kg straw) were given either

Ahmet G. ÖNOL; S. Yalçin; S. Ya?ar; A. ?ehu

1998-01-01

93

Use of Barley in the Egyptian Late Paleolithic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several grains of barley have been recovered from archeological sites at Wadi Kubbaniya, near Aswan in Egypt. The sites are typical Late Paleolithic and are firmly dated between 18,300 and 17,000 years ago. They seem to represent a very early use of ground grain in the Nile Valley, and evidence is presented for its continued use over the subsequent 6000

Fred Wendorf; Romuald Schild; Nabil El Hadidi; Angela E. Close; Michael Kobusiewicz; Hanna Wieckowska; Bahay Issawi; Herbert Haas

1979-01-01

94

Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

95

Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

96

Screening for Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

97

Influence of roasting or sodium hydroxide treatment of barley on digestion in lactating cows.  

PubMed

Three cannulated, lactating cows were used in a 3 x 3 Latin square design to determine the effect of roasting or NaOH treatment of barley on ruminal fermentation and site and extent of digestion of nutrients. Experimental treatments were rolled barley, roasted (exit temperature, 135 degrees C) and rolled barley, and treated with 4% NaOH and 220 L of H2O/tonne of barley. Diets also consisted of grass silage and soybean meal. Treatment with NaOH reduced concentrations of several AA, starch, and NDF in the barley. Starch digestibility in the rumen was lower for barley that was treated with NaOH but was unaffected for roasted barley. Digestibilities of N and starch in the small intestine were reduced for barley treated with NaOH, but values for rolled and roasted barley were similar. Apparent total tract digestibility of starch was reduced for the NaOH treated barley. Treatment of barley with NaOH tended to have a detrimental effect on feed intake, digestibility, and milk production. Roasting of barley did not appear to affect the site or extent of carbohydrate digestion, but roasting protected N from ruminal degradation. The protective effect on the carbohydrate fraction would be expected to be greater if the grain were cooled prior to rolling so that the protein matrix of the starch granule remained intact. PMID:7622721

McNiven, M A; Weisbjerg, M R; Hvelplund, T

1995-05-01

98

FEEDING VALUE OF CORN AND 'VALIER' BARLEY FOR FINISHING STEERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighty crossbred steers (average initial weight 436 ± 3.9 kg) were used to evaluate the performance, nutrient digestibility, and grain energy content of finishing diets based on corn or 'Valier' barley. Barley was dry rolled prior to being fed and diets were formulated to be isocaloric (2.04 Mcal\\/kg NEm and 1.43 Mcal\\/kg NEg) and isonitrogenous (2.6% N). Diets were formulated

N. L. Iversen; A. V. Grove; J. G. P. Bowman; D. Boss; T. K. Blake

2007-01-01

99

Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics  

SciTech Connect

A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

2011-05-04

100

Effect of Barley and Its Amylopectin Content on Ruminal Fermentation and Nitrogen Utilization in Lactating Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of type of grain (corn vs. barley) and amylo- pectin content of barley grain (normal vs. waxy) on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and utilization of ruminal ammonia nitrogen for milk protein synthesis was studied in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design trial with 6 lactating dairy cows. The experimental treatments were (proportion of dietary dry matter): CORN,

A. E. Foley; A. N. Hristov; A. Melgar; J. K. Ropp; R. P. Etter; S. Zaman; C. W. Hunt; K. Huber; W. J. Price

2006-01-01

101

INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN VPLYV SILÁŽNYCH ADITÍV NA FERMENTÁCIU VLHKÉHO MIAGANÉHO KUKURI?NÉHO ZRNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi-experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C), and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A) and chemical (variant B) additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into

Gálik Branislav; A. Hlinku

2008-01-01

102

Characterizing Local Collagen Fiber Re-Alignment and Crimp Behavior Throughout Mechanical Testing in a Mature Mouse Supraspinatus Tendon Model  

PubMed Central

Background Collagen fiber re-alignment and uncrimping are two postulated mechanisms of tendon structural response to load. Recent studies have examined structural changes in response to mechanical testing in a postnatal development mouse supraspinatus tendon model (SST), however, those changes in the mature mouse have not been characterized. The objective of this study was to characterize collagen fiber realignment and crimp behavior throughout mechanical testing in a mature mouse SST. Method of Approach A tensile mechanical testing set-up integrated with a polarized light system was utilized for alignment and mechanical analysis. Local collagen fiber crimp frequency was quantified immediately following the designated loading protocol using a traditional tensile set up and a flash-freezing method. The effect of number of preconditioning cycles on collagen fiber re-alignment, crimp frequency and mechanical properties in midsubstance and insertion site locations were examined. Results Decreases in collagen fiber crimp frequency were identified at the toe-region of the mechanical test at both locations. The insertion site re-aligned throughout the entire test, while the midsubstance re-aligned during preconditioning and the test’s linear-region. The insertion site demonstrated a more disorganized collagen fiber distribution, lower mechanical properties and a higher cross-sectional area compared to the midsubstance location. Conclusions Local collagen fiber re-alignment, crimp behavior and mechanical properties were characterized in a mature mouse SST model. The insertion site and midsubstance respond differently to mechanical load and have different mechanisms of structural response. Additionally, results support that collagen fiber crimp is a physiologic phenomenon that may explain the mechanical test toe-region.

Miller, Kristin S.; Connizzo, Brianne K.; Feeney, Elizabeth; Soslowsky, Louis J.

2012-01-01

103

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... General Provisions Terms Defined § 810.101 Grains for which standards are established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards...

2013-01-01

104

3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.

Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

105

Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

106

DEVELOPING FUNCTIONAL HYDROCOLLOIDS FROM SMALL GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public health concerns related to heart disease and other aging chronic diseases have created opportunities for small grain functional ingredients. The known nutritional benefits of barley and oat beta-glucan make these small grains an excellent source for developments. Although the milled grain p...

107

Two Stage Crimping Dies for Installing Size 8, 4, and 1/0 Electric Connector Contacts on Wires.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The design criteria for crimping dies to be used for installing size 8, 4, and 1/0 contacts on their respective wires were developed. The dies were designed to be installed and operated in an MS25441-1 hydraulic head. Developmental models of the dies were...

G. H. Kalen W. A. Ritchie

1970-01-01

108

EFFECTIVE LIFETIME ESTIMATE OF CRIMPED POWERLINE SPLICE CONNECTOR OPERATED AT HIGH TEMPERATURE  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses the thermal-mechanical properties and performance characteristics of full tension splice connectors under high temperature operation, in particular those used in overhead transmission and distribution lines. Due to the increase in power demand existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than those originally considered for their design. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors. The compressive residual stresses induced by the crimping process within the splice connector provide the clamping forces to secure the conductor and therefore, the determination of the state of compressive residual stresses in splice connectors is a necessary requirement to provide an accurate estimate of their service lifetime. This paper presents a protocol for integrating analytical and experimental approaches to evaluate the integrity of a full tension single-stage splice connector assembly.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL

2008-01-01

109

Barley Helps Reduce Cholesterol.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. Barley's many roles, in brewing beer, in breakfast foods, and as feed for stock, may now be expanding to include lowering cholesterol in chickens and pigs. Scientist...

1983-01-01

110

Consolidated conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) treatment.  

PubMed

A novel process using chemical, thermal, and enzymatic treatment for conversion of hulled barley into fermentable sugars was developed. The purpose of this process is to convert both lignocellulosic polysaccharides and starch in hulled barley grains into fermentable sugars simultaneously without a need for grinding and hull separation. In this study, hulled barley grains were treated with 0.1 and 1.0 wt.-% sulfuric acid at various temperatures ranging from 110 to 170 °C in a 63-ml flow-through packed-bed stainless steel reactor. After sulfuric acid pretreatment, simultaneous conversion of lignocellulose and starch in the barley grains into fermentable sugars was performed using an enzyme cocktail, which included ?-amylase, glucoamylase, cellulase, and ?-glucosidase. Both starch and non-starch polysaccharides in the pre-treated barley grains were readily converted to fermentable sugars. The treated hulled barley grains, including their hull, were completely hydrolyzed to fermentable sugars with recovery of almost 100% of the available glucose and xylose. The pretreatment conditions of this chemical, thermal, and enzymatic (CTE) process for achieving maximum yield of fermentable sugars were 1.0 wt.% sulfuric acid and 110 °C. In addition to starch, the acid pretreatment also retained most of the available proteins in solid form, which is essential for subsequent production of fuel ethanol and high protein distiller's dried grains with solubles co-product. PMID:21229334

Kim, Tae Hyun; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Taylor, Frank; Hicks, Kevin B

2011-01-13

111

Russian Federation: Grain and Feed. December Grain Update, 2008. GAIN Report Number RS8091.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Post increased Russia's total grain production forecast by 2.1 MMT to 102.5 MMT. Logistics, financial problems, and tight competition in the foreign markets will limit grain exports to 14.0 MMT of wheat, 2.1 MMT of barley, 150,000 MT of corn. Grain prices...

M. E. Smith Y. Vassilieva

2008-01-01

112

Coding region single nucleotide polymorphism in the barley low-pI, ?-amylase gene Amy32b  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley a-amylase variability influences the quality of barley grain in the brewing, feed and food industries. a-Amylase proteins are encoded by multigene families in cereals, and this study focused on the barley Amy32b gene. We identified coding region single nucleotide polymorphism (cSNP) and insertion\\/deletion variation in DNA sequences, which resulted in amino acid substitution and stop codon formation, respectively. The

K. Machova Polakova; L. Kucera; D. A. Laurie; K. Vaculova; J. Ovesna

2005-01-01

113

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

114

Breeding Malting Barley under Stress Conditions in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual average area sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare) in South America during 1999-2003 was 795 000 ha. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, two-rowed spring cultivars are used mostly for malt production. Research has been developed in private malting companies and official institutions supported by the industry. In Argentina, tolerance to drought and heat stress during grain filling are

115

Procedure for malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley, and can produce malt with characteristics representative of those produced at a commercial scale. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh container...

116

Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

117

A theoretical framework for ?-glucan degradation during barley malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

During malting, barley germinates and produces hydrolytic enzymes that de-structure the endosperm, making the grains soft\\u000a and friable. This process starts close to the embryo and spreads throughout the whole grain. It is leaded by the degradation\\u000a of cell walls, which are mainly constituted of ?-glucans. Fast and extended breakdown of ?-glucans occurs by means of an expanding\\u000a reaction front

Alberto Gianinetti

2009-01-01

118

Fatigue tensile behavior of carbon\\/epoxy composite reinforced with non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven fabric  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental study of the in-plane tension–tension fatigue behavior of the carbon fiber\\/epoxy matrix composite reinforced with non-crimp 3D orthogonal woven fabric is presented. The results include pre-fatigue quasi-static test data, fatigue life diagrams, fatigue damage progression, and post-fatigue quasi-static test data for the warp- and fill-directional loading cases. It is revealed that the maximum cycle stress corresponding to at

Mehmet Karahan; Stepan V. Lomov; Alexander E. Bogdanovich; Ignaas Verpoest

2011-01-01

119

GRAIN GENES 2.0: RESOURCES FOR SMALL GRAINS BREEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GrainGenes, the international database for genetic and genomic data about Triticeae species (e.g. wheat, barley, and rye) and Avena sativa (oat), was extensively redesigned in 2004. As a result it is now much easier to use, both for getting a quick answer to a simple question and for mining the dat...

120

Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA  

SciTech Connect

The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.; (Texas)

2010-01-12

121

The transfer of {sup 137}Cs from barley to beer  

SciTech Connect

Beer has been brewed from barley contaminated with {sup 137}Cs as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The {sup 137}Cs activity has been measured in all intermediate steps and in the by-products of the production process. About 35 % of the {sup 137}Cs in barley were recovered in beer. Processing factors defined as the concentration ratio of processed and raw products were determined to be 0.61, 3.3, 0.1 and 0.11 for malt, malt germs, spent grains and beer, respectively. 4 refs., 2 tabs.

Proehl, G.; Mueller, H.; Voigt, G. [Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleibheim (Germany)] [and others

1997-01-01

122

REGISTRATION OF 'RADIANT' BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Radiant' (PI 633971), a proanthocyanidin-free two-row spring feed and potential malting barley released in 2003, was developed by the Washington State University Agricultural Research Center cooperatively with the Idaho and Oregon Agricultural Research Experiment Stations and the USDA-ARS. Radiant...

123

Measurement of Beta -amylase in Malting Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.). I. Development of a Quantitative ELISA for Beta -amylase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A double antibody, sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using polyclonal antibodies specific tobeta-amylase to estimate the amount of ‘free’ (soluble in aqueous saline solution) or ‘combined’ (extracted with saline solution including reducing agent)beta-amylase protein in barley grain and malt. This ELISA was used to quantify the amount ofbeta-amylase in barley grain and malt from four varieties grown at

D. E. Evans; L. C. MacLeod; J. K. Eglinton; C. E. Gibson; X. Zhang; W. Wallace; J. H. Skerritt; R. C. M. Lance

1997-01-01

124

Azospirillum sp . inoculation in wheat, barley and oats seeds greenhouse experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present work was to evaluate the inoculation effects of Azospirillum sp. RAM-7 strain, in seeds of wheat, barley and oats cultures on yield and total nitrogen content of the grains in greenhouse experiments. Seeds inoculation with Azospirillum sp. RAM-7 strain enhanced grain yields, even so, the responses vary among the evaluated cultures. For wheat, significant increases

Osmar R. Dalla Santa; Ramona Fernández Hernández; Gergina L. Michelena Alvarez; Pedro Ronzelli Junior; Carlos Ricardo Soccol

2004-01-01

125

Validity of various physiological traits as screening criteria for salt tolerance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Limited knowledge of the physiological basis of the detrimental effects of soil salinity on growth and yield of barley and the consequent lack of suitable screening traits are two reasons for the limited success of plant breeding in saline environments. We assessed the relationships between grain yield, carbon isotope discrimination (?), canopy temperature, stomatal conductance, and grain ash content in

R. Isla; R. Aragüés; A. Royo

1998-01-01

126

Effect of grain processing on in sacco digestibility and degradability in the rumen.  

PubMed

Effect on nylon-bag digestibility of rolling and steam-flaking as such or followed by grinding through a 1-mm screen was studied in wheat, barley and maize grains. Digestibilities of ground grains were not different, irrespective of rolling or steam-flaking, except flaked and ground barley, which was less digestible than ground barley. Rolled and flaked grains were less digestible than ground grains, except for rolled wheat which was not different from ground wheat. These results suggest that particle size due to grinding is more important than other methods of processing. Dry matter and protein degradabilities of steam-flaked grains were investigated by in sacco technique and compared with unprocessed grains. Dry matter degradability during incubation periods up to 24 h was reduced for steam-flaked wheat and barley, but increased for flaked maize. Protein degradability was lower for flaked grains. PMID:2175587

Fiems, L O; Cottyn, B G; Boucque, C V; Vanacker, J M; Buysse, F X

1990-08-01

127

Methane emissions from feedlot cattle fed barley or corn diets.  

PubMed

Methane emitted from the livestock sector contributes to greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Understanding the variability in enteric methane production related to diet is essential to decreasing uncertainty in greenhouse gas emission inventories and to identifying viable greenhouse gas reduction strategies. Our study focused on measuring methane in growing beef cattle fed corn- or barley-based diets typical of those fed to cattle in North American feedlots. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block (group) design with two treatments, barley and corn. Angus heifer calves (initial BW = 328 kg) were allocated to two groups (eight per group), with four cattle in each group fed a corn or barley diet. The experiment was conducted over a 42-d backgrounding phase, a 35-d transition phase and a 32-d finishing phase. Backgrounding diets consisted of 70% barley silage or corn silage and 30% concentrate containing steam-rolled barley or dry-rolled corn (DM basis). Finishing diets consisted of 9% barley silage and 91% concentrate containing barley or corn (DM basis). All diets contained monensin (33 mg/kg of DM). Cattle were placed into four large environmental chambers (two heifers per chamber) during each phase to measure enteric methane production for 3 d. During the backgrounding phase, DMI was greater by cattle fed corn than for those fed barley (10.2 vs. 7.6 kg/d, P < 0.01), but during the finishing phase, DMI was similar for both diets (8.3 kg/d). The DMI was decreased to 6.3 kg/d with no effect of diet or phase while the cattle were in the chambers; thus, methane emissions (g/d) reported may underestimate those of the feedlot industry. Methane emissions per kilogram of DMI and as a percentage of GE intake were not affected by grain source during the backgrounding phase (24.6 g/kg of DMI; 7.42% of GE), but were less (P < 0.05) for corn than for barley during the finishing phase (9.2 vs. 13.1 g/kg of DMI; 2.81 vs. 4.03% of GE). The results indicate the need to implement dietary strategies to decrease methane emissions of cattle fed high-forage backgrounding diets and barley-based finishing diets. Mitigating methane losses from cattle will have long-term environmental benefits by decreasing agriculture's contribution to greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:15705762

Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

2005-03-01

128

cDNA sequences, MALDI-TOF analyses, and molecular modelling of barley PR5 proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley plants are known to produce various PR-5 proteins. Transcripts encoding eight different barley PR-5 proteins (TLPs 1–8, TLP for thaumatin-like protein) were identified and cloned – seven from infected leaves and one from developing grains. Here, we describe the cDNA sequences of four of these TLP isoforms. Moreover, the TLPs from the infected leaves (TLPs 1, 2, and TLPs

Ernst Reiss; Bernhard Schlesier; Wolfgang Brandt

2006-01-01

129

Genetic variation of Bmy1 alleles in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) investigated by CAPS analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enzyme ?-amylase is one of the most important hydrolytic enzymes in the grain of malting barley and is encoded by the\\u000a gene Bmy1. To learn more about its structure and function, a total of 657 barley accessions including 541 Hordeum\\u000a vulgare ssp. vulgare (HV), and 116 H.\\u000a vulgare ssp. spontaneum (HS) were selected for the cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence

Wen Sheng Zhang; Xia Li; Jian Bing Liu

2007-01-01

130

Effect of nickel deficiency on soluble anion, amino acid, and nitrogen levels in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. ‘Onda’) plants were grown in nutrient solutions supplied either 0 (no Ni added), 0.6, or 1.0 ?M NiSO4. Plants supplied 0 ?M Ni developed Ni deficiency symptoms; Ni deficiency resulted in the disruption of nitrogen metabolism, and affected the concentration\\u000a of malate and various inorganic anions in roots, shoots, and grain of barley.\\u000a \\u000a The concentrations

Patrick H. Brown; Ross M. Welch; James T. Madison

1990-01-01

131

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge.

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

132

HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed in the US diet. Two studies carried out at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular risk factors comparably to reductions observed with other soluble ...

133

APPLICATIONS OF MICROARRAYS TO BARLEY RESEARCH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip probe array was developed in 2003 and has provided a new resource for barley geneticists to examine gene expression in barley. This article summarizes the development of the GeneChip and several applications to barley research. Traditionally, gene expression studies h...

134

World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf: Proceedings of the International Workshop. Held in Udine, Italy on July 6-11, 1987.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) is a phloem-restricted pathogen which infects most cereals and grasses worldwide, causing yellowing, reddening, and brittleness of leaves, dwarfing, and reduction in size and number of ears and grains. The disease, which i...

P. A. Burnett

1990-01-01

135

Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4) controls spikelet determinacy and row-type in barley  

PubMed Central

Inflorescence architecture of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is common among the Triticeae species, which bear one to three single-flowered spikelets at each rachis internode. Triple spikelet meristem is one of the unique features of barley spikes, in which three spikelets (one central and two lateral spikelets) are produced at each rachis internode. Fertility of the lateral spikelets at triple spikelet meristem gives row-type identity to barley spikes. Six-rowed spikes show fertile lateral spikelets and produce increased grain yield per spike, compared with two-rowed spikes with sterile lateral spikelets. Thus, far, two loci governing the row-type phenotype were isolated in barley that include Six-rowed spike1 (Vrs1) and Intermedium-C. In the present study, we isolated Six-rowed spike4 (Vrs4), a barley ortholog of the maize (Zea mays L.) inflorescence architecture gene RAMOSA2 (RA2). Eighteen coding mutations in barley RA2 (HvRA2) were specifically associated with lateral spikelet fertility and loss of spikelet determinacy. Expression analyses through mRNA in situ hybridization and microarray showed that Vrs4 (HvRA2) controls the row-type pathway through Vrs1 (HvHox1), a negative regulator of lateral spikelet fertility in barley. Moreover, Vrs4 may also regulate transcripts of barley SISTER OF RAMOSA3 (HvSRA), a putative trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase involved in trehalose-6-phosphate homeostasis implicated to control spikelet determinacy. Our expression data illustrated that, although RA2 is conserved among different grass species, its down-stream target genes appear to be modified in barley and possibly other species of tribe Triticeae.

Koppolu, Ravi; Anwar, Nadia; Sakuma, Shun; Tagiri, Akemi; Lundqvist, Udda; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Rutten, Twan; Seiler, Christiane; Himmelbach, Axel; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Youssef, Helmy Mohamad; Stein, Nils; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Komatsuda, Takao; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2013-01-01

136

Barley variety identification using SSRs.  

PubMed

There is a current and developing need for rapid and accurate methods of barley varietal identification which go beyond traditional morphological analysis. Methods using DNA analysis have the capacity to fulfil this role with microsatellites being the current marker of choice. The majority of barley cultivars on the National List can be differentiated using 6 SSRs and bulk samples, using the methods described here. PMID:19301765

Southworth, Cathy

2009-01-01

137

Effects of late-terminal drought stress on seed germination and vigor of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Late-terminal drought stress during grain filling has recently become more common in the semi-arid Mediterranean region, where barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is grown as an important winter cereal crop. Little information is available in the literature about the effect of late-terminal drought stress on seed germination and vigor of barley. The objective of this experiment was to study the effect

Nezar Samarah; Ahmad Alqudah

2011-01-01

138

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with spot blotch and net blotch resistance in a doubled-haploid barley population  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spot blotch and net blotch are important foliar barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) diseases in Canada and elsewhere. These diseases result in significant yield reduction and, more importantly, loss of\\u000a grain quality, downgrading barley from malt to feed. Combining resistance to these diseases is a breeding priority but is\\u000a a significant challenge using conventional breeding methodology. In the present investigation, an

Tajinder S. GrewalBrian; Brian G. Rossnagel; Graham J. Scoles

139

Traditional seed management and genetic diversity in barley varieties in high-hill agro-ecosystems of Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chawali and Lekali are two common farmer’s barley varieties or landraces in Jumla, Nepal (2,240–3,000 m) with small to bold\\u000a grains and wide adaptation from irrigated low lands to high hills. This study was undertaken to test whether features of the\\u000a traditional seed system can significantly influence the diversity of a crop and its conservation on-farm. In Jumla (high-hill),\\u000a the barley

Jwala Bajracharya; Anthony H. D. Brown; Bal K. Joshi; Dipak Panday; Bimal K. Baniya; Bhuwon R. Sthapit; Devra I. Jarvis

140

Analysis of Accumulation Patterns of Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV) in Two Resistant Wheat Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley yellow dwarf (BYD) is one of the main viral diseases of small-grain cereals. This disease, reported on numerous plant\\u000a species of the Poaceae family, is caused by a complex of eight viral species including the species Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV), frequently found in western Europe. Resistance sources against BYDV-PAV are scarce and only identified in perennial\\u000a Triticineae. Some

Florian Chain; Gérard Riault; Maxime Trottet; Emmanuel Jacquot

2005-01-01

141

Does function follow form? Principal QTLs for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance are coincident with QTLs for inflorescence traits and plant height in a doubled-haploid population of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB), an important disease of barley in many areas of the world, causes losses in grain yield and quality. Deoxynivalenol\\u000a (DON) mycotoxin residues, produced by the primary pathogen Fusarium graminearum, pose potential health risks. Barley producers may not be able to profitably market FHB-infected barley, even though it has\\u000a a low DON level. Three types of FHB

H. Zhu; L. Gilchrist; P. Hayes; A. Kleinhofs; D. Kudrna; Z. Liu; L. Prom; B. Steffenson; T. Toojinda; H. Vivar

1999-01-01

142

Characteristics of the active transport of peptides and amino acids by germinating barley embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of two different assays involving either radioactively labelled substrates or a fluorescent-labelling procedure, gave good agreement for the rates of transport of peptides and amino acids into the scutellum of germinating grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Maris Otter, Winter). However, evidence was obtained for the enzymic decarboxylation of transpored substrate, which can cause underestimates of transport rates when

D. J. Walker-Smith; J. W. Payne

1984-01-01

143

UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF SELENIUM, NITROGEN AND SULFUR IN THREE BARLEY CULTIVARS SUBJECTED TO SELENIUM APPLICATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, and also affects plant metabolism. In this study, the effects of increasing doses of Se application on the uptake of selenium (Se), nitrogen (N), and sulfur (S) content of three barley cultivars were investigated. The analysis indicated that the Se contents were highest in root tissues, intermediate in grain, and

Ali Irfan Ilbas; Semih Yilmaz; Mikail Akbulut; Oleg Bogdevich

2012-01-01

144

Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus in Oats: A Field and Laboratory View  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley and Cereal Yellow Dwarf Viruses continue to be a major disease problem in the Midwest and Southeastern parts of the US. A number of lines developed in the small grains breeding programs at Purdue University and University of Illinois do have significant resistance to these viruses. However,...

145

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy

A. L. Hodgdon; A. H. Marcus; P. Arenaz; J. L. Rosichan; T. P. Bogyo; R. A. Nilan

1980-01-01

146

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy

A. L. Hodgdon; A. H. Marcus; P. Arenaz; J. L. Rosichan; T. P. Bogyo; R. A. Nilan

1981-01-01

147

Characterization of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance and deoxynivalenol accumulation in hulled and hulless winter barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most serious diseases impacting the U.S. barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) industry. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by the pathogen renders grain unmarketable if concentrations exceed threshold values set for end-use m...

148

Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

149

Apoptosis in barley aleurone during germination and its inhibition by abscisic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

During germination of barley grains, DNA fragmentation was observed in the aleurone. The appearance of DNA fragmentation in the aleurone layer, observed by TUNEL staining in aleurone sections, started near the embryo and extended to the aleurone cells far from the embryo in a time dependent manner. The same spatial temporal activities of hydrolytic enzymes such as a-amylase were observed

Mei Wang; Berry J. Oppedijk; Xin Lu; Bert Van Duijn; Rob A. Schilperoort

1996-01-01

150

Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.  

PubMed

Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements. PMID:23194550

Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

2012-09-28

151

Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to Fusarium diseases of barley.  

PubMed

Fusarium pathogens are amongst the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease resulting in yield loss and head blight disease also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of the barley cultivar (cv.) Lux reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86 % and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28% and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the barley cvs. Lux and Akashinriki, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine if growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post-F. culmorum inoculation, there were a total of 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48 h time point (n = 118). Real-time RT-PCR analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defence genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodelling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis and pathogenesis related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

Ali, Shahin; Kumar, Sunil; Doohan, Fiona; Khan, Mojibur

2013-06-18

152

WHOLE GRAIN DIETS REDUCE BLOOD PRESSURE IN MILDLY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MEN AND WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Objectives: The objective of this study is to compare the effects of predominantly insoluble fiber grains (whole wheat/brown rice) & soluble fiber grain (barley) in a whole grain diet consumed by men, premenopausal and postmenopausal women on cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects: Twenty-five normot...

153

7 CFR 800.86 - Inspection of shiplot, unit train, and lash barge grain in single lots.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...grains. Table 1âGrade Limits (GL) and Breakpoints (BP) for Six-Rowed Malting Barley and Six-Rowed Blue Malting...broken kernels (percent) Thin barley (percent) GL BP GL BP GL BP GL BP GL BP GL BP GL BP GL BP...

2009-01-01

154

Structure of the Yeast DEAD-Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA  

PubMed Central

Summary The yeast DEAD-box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here, we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF3?, or ADP-AlF4?. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge ?-helix bending RNA 3? of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD-box protein structures. Additionally, the C-terminal extension bends RNA 5? of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD-box protein function and reveal a new strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

Campo, Mark Del; Lambowitz, Alan M.

2010-01-01

155

Comparative expression analysis of dehydrins between two barley varieties, wild barley and Tibetan hulless barley associated with different stress resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought, salinity and cold are the major environmental factors impacting on survival and productivity of Tibetan hulless barley\\u000a in Tibetan Plateau of China. Tibetan hulless barley cultivar, Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1, has developed a strong tolerance and\\u000a adaptation to stresses in relation to the wild barley. The differences of dehydrin gene transcription and translation between\\u000a Tibetan Heiqingke No. 1 and

Jun-Bo DuShu; Shu Yuan; Yang-Er Chen; Xin Sun; Zhong-Wei Zhang; Fei Xu; Ming Yuan; Jing Shang; Hong-Hui Lin

2011-01-01

156

Grain aeration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aeration, the forced movement of ambient air by fan power through a grain bulk, is widely used in stored grain management programs in the United States (U.S.) to maintain favorable storage conditions for preserving grain quality. Aeration flow rates are lower than rates from grain drying, which uses...

157

Improvement of tolerance to paraquat and drought in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) by exogenous 2-aminoethanol: effects on superoxide dismutase activity and chloroplast ultrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

In pot and field experiments conducted over several years, the influence of 2-aminoethanol on growth and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under conditions of different water supply was studied. Under drought stress, 2-aminoethanol pre-treatment increased the grain yield of barley by 5–30%. The effects of application of the plant constituent, 2-aminoethanol on biomass formation, the content of chlorophyll and

René Mascher; Erika Nagy; Bärbel Lippmann; Steffi Hörnlein; Susan Fischer; Waltraud Scheiding; Aurora Neagoe; Hans Bergmann

2005-01-01

158

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

159

Granary trial of protein-enriched pea flour for the control of three stored-product insects in barley.  

PubMed

A granary trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of protein-enriched pea flour against three common stored-grain insects, Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst), and Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens). Six 30-t farm granaries were filled with approximately 11 t of barley. The barley was either not treated, treated with protein-enriched pea flour at 0.1% throughout the entire grain mass, or treated at 0.5% throughout the top half of the grain mass. Adult insects were released in screened boxes (two insects per kilogram barley for S. oryzae and T. castaneum 1.4 insects per kilogram barley for C. ferrugineus). Barley was sampled four times during the 70-d trial. The number and mortality of adults and emerged adults in the samples were noted. Four kinds of traps, flight, surface-pitfall, probe-pitfall, and sticky-bar, were placed at different locations in the granaries to estimate the movement of insects. The 0.1% protein-enriched pea flour treatment reduced adult numbers of S. oryzae by 93%, T. castaneum by 66%, and C. ferrugineus by 58%, and reduced the emerged adults by 87, 77, and 77%, respectively. Treating the top half of the barley with 0.5% protein-enriched pea flour had similar effects as treating the entire grain mass with 0.1% pea-protein flour. However, the top-half treatment failed to prevent insects from penetrating into the untreated lower layer. Differences between traps are discussed. PMID:12852648

Hou, Xingwei; Fields, Paul G

2003-06-01

160

Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).  

PubMed

Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains. PMID:20560601

Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

2010-07-14

161

Water transport in barley roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radial transport of water in excised barley (Hordeum distichon, cv. Villa) roots was measured using a new method based on the pressure-probe technique. After attaching excised roots to the probe, root pressures of 0.9 to 2.9 bar were developed. They could be altered either by changing the root pressure artificially (with the aid of the probe) or by changing the

E. Steudle; W. D. Jeschke

1983-01-01

162

SURFACE ABRASION OF HULLED AND HULLESS BARLEY TO PRODUCE VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS: I. PHYSICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MILLED FRACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Abrasion techniques were used to remove the hull and pericarp layers of grain kernels to obtain a smaller kernel, or kernel pieces that were enriched in endosperm. The objective of this study was to abrade and remove the outer layers of four barley varieties with two milling techniques, scarificati...

163

Effect of Adlay, Buckwheat and Barley on Lipid Metabolism and Aorta Histopathology in Rats Fed an Obesogenic Diet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional quality of adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW) and waxy barley (WB), with particular respect to their fiber components. Plasma lipid parameters, gut transit time and thickness of the aortic wall in rats fed with different grains were evaluated and compared with rats fed on white rice (WR). Methods: The rats

Bo Kyung Son; Jung Yun Kim; Sang Sun Lee

2008-01-01

164

IRRADIATION OF DEVELOPING PLANT EMBRYOS. I. EFFECTS OF EXTERNAL IRRADIATION (X RAYS) ON BARLEY EMBRYOGENY, GERMINATION, AND SUBSEQUENT SEEDLING DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley embryos in varying stages of development were subjected in situ ; to single doses of x radiation of 50 to 800 r. At intervals following ; irradiation, part of the developing grains were sampled for histologic ; examination; those remaining were allowed to mature so that effects of ; irradiation could be followed on their subsequent germination and seedling

Leo W. Mericle; Rae Phelps Mericle

1957-01-01

165

DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL), validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding

Grit Haseneyer; Silke Stracke; Hans-Peter Piepho; Sascha Sauer; Hartwig H Geiger; Andreas Graner

2010-01-01

166

Intelligent classification methods of grain kernels using computer vision analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a digital image analysis method was developed to classify seven kinds of individual grain kernels (common rice, glutinous rice, rough rice, brown rice, buckwheat, common barley and glutinous barley) widely planted in Korea. A total of 2800 color images of individual grain kernels were acquired as a data set. Seven color and ten morphological features were extracted and processed by linear discriminant analysis to improve the efficiency of the identification process. The output features from linear discriminant analysis were used as input to the four-layer back-propagation network to classify different grain kernel varieties. The data set was divided into three groups: 70% for training, 20% for validation, and 10% for testing the network. The classification experimental results show that the proposed method is able to classify the grain kernel varieties efficiently.

Lee, Choon Young; Yan, Lei; Wang, Tianfeng; Lee, Sang Ryong; Park, Cheol Woo

2011-06-01

167

Background for 1990 Farm Legislation: U.S. Feed Grains.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Feed grains (corn, sorghum, barley, and oats) lead all crops in terms of production value and acres planted. During 1988 their value of production totaled $15.3 billion, or 22% of all crops grown, while planted area totaled 101.6 million acres or 33% of p...

L. Hoffman M. Ash S. Mercier W. Lin

1990-01-01

168

A novel glucoamylase preparation for grain mash saccharification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to saccharify barley grain mash of Hormoconis resinae glucoamylase P produced by a heterologous host, Trichoderma reesei, was compared with that of Aspergillus niger glucoamylase. The results showed that the glucoamylase P secreted by T. reesei produces more fermentable sugars from mash and thus makes a higher ethanol yield possible in fermentation.

Vesa V. Joutsjoki; Elke E. M. Parkkinen; Tuula K. Torkkeli

1993-01-01

169

In vitro digestion characteristics of unprocessed and processed whole grains and their components.  

PubMed

Chemical composition and in vitro digestion properties of select whole grains, before and after processing, and their components were measured. Substrates included barley, corn, oat, rice, and wheat. In addition to whole grain flours, processed substrates also were tested as were corn bran, oat bran, wheat bran, and wheat germ. Processing of most substrates resulted in higher dry matter and digestible starch and lower resistant starch concentrations. Dietary fiber fractions varied among substrates with processing. Digestion profiles for most substrates correlated well with their chemical composition. Corn bran and rice substrates were the least fermentable. Extrusion rendered barley, corn, and wheat more hydrolytically digestible and barley and oat more fermentatively digestible. Except for corn bran, all components had greater or equal fermentability compared with their native whole grains. Understanding digestion characteristics of whole grains and their components will allow for more accurate utilization of these ingredients in food systems. PMID:18983157

Hernot, David C; Boileau, Thomas W; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Fahey, George C

2008-11-26

170

Transgenic barley expressing a protein-engineered, thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination.  

PubMed Central

The codon usage of a hybrid bacterial gene encoding a thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase was modified to match that of the barley (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene. Both the modified and unmodified bacterial genes were fused to a DNA segment encoding the barley high-pI alpha-amylase signal peptide downstream of the barley (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase isoenzyme EII gene promoter. When introduced into barley aleurone protoplasts, the bacterial gene with adapted codon usage directed synthesis of heat stable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase, whereas activity of the heterologous enzyme was not detectable when protoplasts were transfected with the unmodified gene. In a different expression plasmid, the codon modified bacterial gene was cloned downstream of the barley high-pI alpha-amylase gene promoter and signal peptide coding region. This expression cassette was introduced into immature barley embryos together with plasmids carrying the bar and the uidA genes. Green, fertile plants were regenerated and approximately 75% of grains harvested from primary transformants synthesized thermostable (1,3-1,4)-beta-glucanase during germination. All three trans genes were detected in 17 progenies from a homozygous T1 plant. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Jensen, L G; Olsen, O; Kops, O; Wolf, N; Thomsen, K K; von Wettstein, D

1996-01-01

171

Ergosterol Levels and Mould Colony Forming Units in Swedish Grains of Food and Feed Grade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although ergosterol is considered to be a suitable indicator of mould growth in cereal grains, there are few reference values available for Scandinavian conditions. We have determined the ergosterol levels in Swedish grain of different origins: cleaned food-grade wheat from a commercial mill, feed-grade cereals (oats and barley) with different odours and cereals (winter wheat, “American wheat”, triticale and rye)

Johan Schnürer; Anders Jonsson

1992-01-01

172

ALLELIC VARIATION IN BARLEY ALPHA-GLUCOSIDASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Starch degradation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seeds results from the combined action of alpha-amylase, beta-amylase, limit dextrinase and alpha-glucosidase. The thermal stability of these enzymes is important because the conversion of barley starch to fermentable sugars during industrial ethanol p...

173

Genetic variation in barley landraces from Bhutan  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bhutan, barley is usually grown in mountainous regions over 2,000 m elevation. The barleys investigated were six-rowed naked, and classified into three groups by spike and awn characters; lax spike and long awn, dense spike and long awn, and dense spike and elevated hood. They also varied in spike color; yellow, purple and black. For isozymes, there was no

Takeo Konishi; Yuko Yano; Yoshihisa Fukushima

1993-01-01

174

Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

175

Developmental Expression of Amylases During Barley Malting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Amylase activity and qualitative changes in amylase isoenzymes as a function of barley seedling age were investigated in 10 Brazilian barley cultivars. All cultivars showed few isoenzymes in early germination. An increase in general activity ensued in the following days when new isoenzymes were detected and those already observed since early germination had their activity increased. All cultivars disclosed increase

J. E. Georg-Kraemer; E. C. Mundstock; S. Cavalli-Molina

2001-01-01

176

Effect of Barley Flour on Quality of Balady Bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Balady bread was prepared from barley flour (Rum and ACSAD 176 flour) with local wheat flour (Unified and Zero flour). Chemical, physical, and sensory analysis of the bread was performed. The results showed that there were variations in physical and chemical properties, between different barley varieties, barley flour, and the bread. This study showed that barley flour can be mixed

K. I. Ereifej; M. A. Al-Mahasneh; T. M. Rababah

2006-01-01

177

Primary structure of a novel barley gene differentially expressed in immature aleurone layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a direct approach to elucidate the molecular biology of barley aleurone cell development, we differentially screened an aleurone cDNA library made from poly(A)+ RNA of immature grains for clones representing transcripts present in the aleurone but not in the starchy endosperm. For one of these clones, B22E, which hybridies to a 0.7 kb transcript, Northern and in situ hybridization

Sonja S. Klemsdal; Wayne Hughes; Anders Lönneborg; Reidunn B. Aalen; Odd-Arne Olsen

1991-01-01

178

Starch and By-Products from a Laboratory-Scale Barley Starch Isolation Procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(5):507-513 Starch was isolated from three different barleys with normal, high- amylose, or high-amylopectin (waxy) starch. The laboratory-scale starch isolation procedure included crushing of grains, steeping, wet milling, and sequential filtration and washing with water and alkali, respectively. Yield and content of starch, protein, and dietary fiber, including ?-glucan, were analyzed in isolated starch and in the by-products

A. A. M. Andersson; R. Andersson; P. Åman

2001-01-01

179

Sheep Fed Grain Prefer Foods and Solutions That Attenuate Acidosis1  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted experiments to deter- mine whether lambs fed grain prefer foods and solutions containing sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and lasalocid, compounds capable of attenuating acidosis. In Exp. 1, we determined whether lambs fed barley preferred flavored rabbit pellets (RP) contain- ing NaHCO3 and lasalocid. Lambs in two groups (n = 10\\/group) were fed increasing amounts of barley on d 1

Timothy S. Phy; Frederick D. Provenza

2010-01-01

180

Tibet as a potential domestication center of cultivated barley of China.  

PubMed

The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

2013-05-03

181

Chemical composition and microstructure of milled barley fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wholegrain barley and peeled and pearled barley were roller milled in a Bühler mill, each producing three fractions: endosperm,\\u000a middlings and bran. These fractions were compared and contrasted with one another and also with milled wheat fractions. Barley\\u000a endosperm had the highest total starch content in both wholegrain and peeled and pearled barley. Amylose-to-amylopectin ratios\\u000a (Am:Ap) were higher in barley

Paul Sullivan; John O’Flaherty; Nigel Brunton; Vivian L. Gee; Elke Arendt; Eimear Gallagher

2010-01-01

182

Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.  

PubMed

Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley cultivar Chevron to FHB in Germany was compared to those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray-inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides and F. avenaceum under field conditions Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only little susceptible to deoxynivalenol producing Fusarium species but also to Fusarium species producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, since direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid (DH) barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance QTL Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray-inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested Qrgz-2H-8 to be functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared to quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds. PMID:23777405

Linkmeyer, Andrea; Goetz, Michael; Hu, Ling; Asam, Stefan; Rychlik, Michael; Hausladen, Hans; Hess, Michael; Huckelhoven, Ralph

2013-06-18

183

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-07-01

184

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-04-01

185

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-02-01

186

Purification and partial characterization of barley leucine aminopeptidase.  

PubMed

A peptidase acting on Leu-Gly-Gly and Leu-Tyr at pH 8 to 10 was purified about 670-fold from germinated grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Gel electrophoretic analyses indicated a purity of about 90%. The purified enzyme is remarkably similar to mammalian leucine aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.1.1) both in chemical and in enzymatic properties. It has a sedimentation constant of 12.7S and a molecular weight of about 260,000. The enzyme has a high activity on leucine amide and di- and tripeptides with N-terminal leucine or methionine; leucyl-beta-naphthylamide, in contrast, is hydrolyzed very slowly. The enzyme also liberates N-terminal amino acids from the insulin B chain. The pH optima for the hydrolysis of different substrates depend on the buffers used; highest reaction rates are generally obtained at pH 8.5 to 10.5. Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) ions stabilize (and probably activate) the enzyme. In contrast to mammalian leucine aminopeptidases, the barley enzyme is inactivated in the absence of reducing sulfydryl compounds. PMID:16659173

Sopanen, T; Mikola, J

1975-05-01

187

Purification and Partial Characterization of Barley Leucine Aminopeptidase  

PubMed Central

A peptidase acting on Leu-Gly-Gly and Leu-Tyr at pH 8 to 10 was purified about 670-fold from germinated grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Gel electrophoretic analyses indicated a purity of about 90%. The purified enzyme is remarkably similar to mammalian leucine aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.1.1) both in chemical and in enzymatic properties. It has a sedimentation constant of 12.7S and a molecular weight of about 260,000. The enzyme has a high activity on leucine amide and di- and tripeptides with N-terminal leucine or methionine; leucyl-?-naphthylamide, in contrast, is hydrolyzed very slowly. The enzyme also liberates N-terminal amino acids from the insulin B chain. The pH optima for the hydrolysis of different substrates depend on the buffers used; highest reaction rates are generally obtained at pH 8.5 to 10.5. Mg2+ and Mn2+ ions stabilize (and probably activate) the enzyme. In contrast to mammalian leucine aminopeptidases, the barley enzyme is inactivated in the absence of reducing sulfydryl compounds. Images

Sopanen, Tuomas; Mikola, Juhani

1975-01-01

188

Effects of barley chromosome on heading characters in wheat-barley chromosome addition lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heading time in cereals is a composite character determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiodic sensitivity and narrow-sense\\u000a earliness. To study the effects of added barley chromosomes on the heading characters in wheat, two sets of wheat-barley chromosome\\u000a addition lines, i.e., ‘Betzes’ barley chromosomes 2H to 7H added to ’Chinese Spring‘ wheat (CS-Be2H to CS-Be7H) and ‘New Golden’\\u000a barley chromosomes 5H and

Koji Murai; Takato Koba; Takiko Shimada

1997-01-01

189

Combined Use of a Coral Reef Instrumented Platform (CRIMP) to Characterize Temporally the Biogeochemical Response of Kaneohe Bay, Hawaii to Storm Runoff Input  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pulsed inputs to coastal waters in Hawaii from storm runoff rapidly affect water quality, especially in semi enclosed coastal embayments. Traditionally the response of coastal waters to such inputs was evaluated through synoptic (low frequency) sampling that only provides snapshots of the evolution of these highly dynamic environments. In contrast, continuous in-situ measurements can potentially yield data that reflect the short-term biogeochemical response that cannot be captured through manual sampling. Data acquired by instrumented platforms facilitate the characterization of impacts of storm runoff on coastal waters and can be used to evaluate the overall ecosystem response over extended periods of time. We have deployed successfully a multi-instrument Coral Reef Instrumented Monitoring Platform (CRIMP) under conditions ranging from calm to windy dry periods through extreme rain events. Our CRIMP measures physical and biogeochemical parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and chl-a, nutrients, and suspended particle distributions). Use of CRIMP in conjunction with synoptic water sampling has enabled spatial characterization of the response of Kaneohe Bay to storm inputs, the elucidation of relationships between physical, biological, and chemical processes in the bay, and the evolution of the community structure during phytoplankton blooms. In this presentation we discuss high rainfall episodes in the winter 2003-2004 that resulted in large runoff events and increased nutrient loading to coastal waters. DIN:DIP ratios in Kaneohe Bay normally range from 2 to 4, suggesting a nitrogen-limitation that has been confirmed by nutrient-enrichment experiments. Elevated DIN:DIP (25) in storm runoff changes significantly the proportion of dissolved nutrients available for biological uptake. Increases in Chl-a in the bay shortly after storms and changes in the plankton community structure reflect an evolving biological response stimulated by the inputs of excess nutrients. Extremely low phosphate levels combined with the very high DIN:DIP values in Bay waters immediately after storms imply that phosphorus becomes the ultimate limiting-nutrient. Therefore, stream runoff shifts the "normal" N-limitation to a P-limitation as the Bay is flooded with high N:P river and groundwater discharge. This shift has consequences for the management of fluvial nutrient inputs to Kaneohe Bay. A rise and persistence of elevated NH3 concentrations (10-15 µM) in the water column for several months after a rain event may also sustain longer-term bay productivity. Enhancements in primary productivity during storms also lead to drawdown of dissolved CO2 changing bay waters from a net source of CO2 to near or below atmospheric levels.

de Carlo, E. H.; Young, C. W.; Hoover, D. J.; Ringuet, S.; Fagan, K.; MacKenzie, F. T.

2004-12-01

190

A nonsense mutation in a putative sulphate transporter gene results in low phytic acid in barley.  

PubMed

Low phytic acid grains can provide a solution to dietary micronutrient deficiency and environmental pollution. A low phytic acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) barley mutant was identified using forward genetics and the mutant gene was mapped to chromosome 2HL. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the lpa1-1 gene was located in the syntenic region of the rice Os-lpa-MH86-1 gene on chromosome 4. The gene ortholog of rice Os-lpa-MH86-1 (designated as HvST) was isolated from barley using polymerase chain reaction and mapped to chromosome 2HL in a doubled haploid population of Clipper×Sahara. The results demonstrate the collinearity between the rice Os-lpa-MH86-1 gene and the barley lpa1-1 region. Sequence analysis of HvST revealed a single base pair substitution (C?T transition) in the last exon of the gene in lpa1-1 (M422), which resulted in a nonsense mutation. These results will facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms controlling the low phytic acid phenotype and assist in the development of a diagnostic marker for the selection of the lpa1-1 gene in barley. PMID:21243513

Ye, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Broughton, Sue; Westcott, Sharon; Wu, Dianxing; Lance, Reg; Li, Chengdao

2011-01-18

191

Germinated grains--sources of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

Germination of seven selected commercially important grains was studied to establish its effects on the nutritional and chemical composition. The changes in the concentration of the nutrients, bioactive compounds and the inhibitory effect of extracts on ?-glucosidase and ?-amylase activities were investigated. These were measured through proximate analysis, inhibition assays and HPLC. Germinated sorghum and rye extracts inhibited (p<0.05) ?-glucosidase activity, whereas barley and sorghum extracts exhibited higher inhibitory activities against ?-amylase. Germinated grains contained substantial amounts of total phenolics with rye having significantly higher content compared with the non-germinated grains. Radical scavenging activities of the phenolic extracts were between 13% and 73% for non-germinated and 14% and 53% for germinated. Inositol phosphate (InsP) 4, 5 and 6 were noted in all the grains, but InsP 6 was significantly lower in concentration. This study indicates the potential of germinated barley, sorghum and rye for the development of effective physiologically bioactive compounds for the reduction of the risk of diabetic agents and colon cancer. PMID:22953810

Donkor, O N; Stojanovska, L; Ginn, P; Ashton, J; Vasiljevic, T

2012-05-23

192

Effects of barley yellow mosaic disease resistant gene rym1 on the infection by strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus and Barley mild mosaic virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a Chinese landrace of barley, Mokusekko 3, is completely resistant to all strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), and is known to have at least two resistant genes, rym1 and rym5, only rym5 has been utilized for BaYMV resistant barley breeding in Japan. In order to clarify the effect of rym1 on

Y. Okada; S. Kashiwazaki; R. Kanatani; S. Arai; K. Ito

2003-01-01

193

Microbial Dynamics during Barley Tempeh Fermentation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Tempeh is a traditional staple food in Indonesia mainly made from soybeans. Barley tempeh has been developed by adapting the soybean tempeh process. During soybean tempeh fermentation, the filamentous fungus Rhizopus oligosporus is dominant. However, othe...

X. M. Feng

2006-01-01

194

Structure and Functionality of Barley Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):747-754 Amylose contents of prime starches from nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, determined by colorimetric method, were 24.6 and 48.7%, respec- tively, whereas waxy starch contained only a trace (0.04%) of amylose. There was little difference in isoamylase-debranched amylopectin between nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, whereas amylopectin from waxy bar- ley had a significantly higher percentage of fraction with degree

Z. Czuchajowska; A. Klamczynski; B. Paszczynska; B.-K. Baik

1998-01-01

195

Evaluation of variations in the shape of grain types using principal components analysis of the elliptic Fourier descriptors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variation in the shape of cereal grains, namely; barley, oat, rye and wheat (Canada Western Amber Durum and Canada Western Red Spring), were quantitatively evaluated using principal components analysis (PCA) based on elliptic Fourier descriptors. Grain image boundary contours were extracted from the digital images of kernels, expressed as chain-coded points and then approximated by 13 elliptic Fourier coefficients.

H. K. Mebatsion; J. Paliwal; D. S. Jayas

196

Haplotyping, linkage mapping and expression analysis of barley genes regulated by terminal drought stress influencing seed quality  

PubMed Central

Background The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress. Results The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II) and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored. Conclusion The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought.

2011-01-01

197

The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica requires host cell death for proliferation during mutualistic symbiosis with barley  

PubMed Central

Fungi of the recently defined order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) are involved in a wide spectrum of mutualistic symbioses (including mycorrhizae) with various plants, thereby exhibiting a unique potential for biocontrol strategies. The axenically cultivable root endophyte Piriformospora indica is a model organism of this fungal order. It is able to increase biomass and grain yield of crop plants. In barley, the endophyte induces local and systemic resistance to fungal diseases and to abiotic stress. To elucidate the lifestyle of P. indica, we analyzed its symbiotic interaction and endophytic development in barley roots. We found that fungal colonization increases with root tissue maturation. The root tip meristem showed no colonization, and the elongation zone showed mainly intercellular colonization. In contrast, the differentiation zone was heavily infested by inter- and intracellular hyphae and intracellular chlamydospores. The majority of hyphae were present in dead rhizodermal and cortical cells that became completely filled with chlamydospores. In some cases, hyphae penetrated cells and built a meshwork around plasmolyzed protoplasts, suggesting that the fungus either actively kills cells or senses cells undergoing endogenous programmed cell death. Seven days after inoculation, expression of barley BAX inhibitor-1 (HvBI-1), a gene capable of inhibiting plant cell death, was attenuated. Consistently, fungal proliferation was strongly inhibited in transgenic barley overexpressing GFP-tagged HvBI-1, which shows that P. indica requires host cell death for proliferation in differentiated barley roots. We suggest that the endophyte interferes with the host cell death program to form a mutualistic interaction with plants.

Deshmukh, Sachin; Huckelhoven, Ralph; Schafer, Patrick; Imani, Jafargholi; Sharma, Monica; Weiss, Michael; Waller, Frank; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2006-01-01

198

The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica requires host cell death for proliferation during mutualistic symbiosis with barley.  

PubMed

Fungi of the recently defined order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) are involved in a wide spectrum of mutualistic symbioses (including mycorrhizae) with various plants, thereby exhibiting a unique potential for biocontrol strategies. The axenically cultivable root endophyte Piriformospora indica is a model organism of this fungal order. It is able to increase biomass and grain yield of crop plants. In barley, the endophyte induces local and systemic resistance to fungal diseases and to abiotic stress. To elucidate the lifestyle of P. indica, we analyzed its symbiotic interaction and endophytic development in barley roots. We found that fungal colonization increases with root tissue maturation. The root tip meristem showed no colonization, and the elongation zone showed mainly intercellular colonization. In contrast, the differentiation zone was heavily infested by inter- and intracellular hyphae and intracellular chlamydospores. The majority of hyphae were present in dead rhizodermal and cortical cells that became completely filled with chlamydospores. In some cases, hyphae penetrated cells and built a meshwork around plasmolyzed protoplasts, suggesting that the fungus either actively kills cells or senses cells undergoing endogenous programmed cell death. Seven days after inoculation, expression of barley BAX inhibitor-1 (HvBI-1), a gene capable of inhibiting plant cell death, was attenuated. Consistently, fungal proliferation was strongly inhibited in transgenic barley overexpressing GFP-tagged HvBI-1, which shows that P. indica requires host cell death for proliferation in differentiated barley roots. We suggest that the endophyte interferes with the host cell death program to form a mutualistic interaction with plants. PMID:17116870

Deshmukh, Sachin; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Schäfer, Patrick; Imani, Jafargholi; Sharma, Monica; Weiss, Michael; Waller, Frank; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2006-11-20

199

Fertility in barley flowers depends on Jekyll functions in male and female sporophytes.  

PubMed

• Owing to its evolutional plasticity and adaptability, barley (Hordeum vulgare) is one of the most widespread crops in the world. Despite this evolutionary success, sexual reproduction of small grain cereals is poorly investigated, making discovery of novel genes and functions a challenging priority. Barley gene Jekyll appears to be a key player in grain development; however, its role in flowers has remained unknown. • Here, we studied RNAi lines of barley, where Jekyll expression was repressed to different extents. The impact of Jekyll on flower development was evaluated based on differential gene expression analysis applied to anthers and gynoecia of wildtype and transgenic plants, as well as using isotope labeling experiments, hormone analysis, immunogold- and TUNEL-assays and in situ hybridization. • Jekyll is expressed in nurse tissues mediating gametophyte-sporophyte interaction in anthers and gynoecia, where JEKYLL was found within the intracellular membranes. The repression of Jekyll impaired pollen maturation, anther dehiscence and induced a significant loss of fertility. The presence of JEKYLL on the pollen surface also hints at possible involvement in the fertilization process. • We conclude that the role of Jekyll in cereal sexual reproduction is clearly much broader than has been hitherto realized. PMID:22269089

Radchuk, Volodymyr; Kumlehn, Jochen; Rutten, Twan; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Radchuk, Ruslana; Rolletschek, Hardy; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Feussner, Ivo; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

2012-01-23

200

Sugar Repression of a Gibberellin-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Barley Embryos.  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence shows that sugars can act as signals affecting plant metabolism and development. Some of the effects of sugars on plant growth and development suggest an interaction of sugar signals with hormonal regulation. We investigated the effects of sugars on the induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in barley embryos and aleurone layers. Our results show that sugar and hormonal signaling interact in the regulation of gibberellic acid-induced gene expression in barley grains. The induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in the aleurone layer is unaffected by the presence of sugars, but repression by carbohydrates is effective in the embryo. [alpha]-Amylase expression in the embryo is localized to the scutellar epithelium and is hormone and sugar modulated. The effects of glucose are independent from the effects of sugars on gibberellin biosynthesis. They are not due to an osmotic effect, they are independent of abscisic acid, and only hexokinase-phosphorylatable glucose analogs are able to trigger gene repression. Overall, the results suggest the existence of an interaction between the hormonal and metabolic regulation of [alpha]-amylase genes in barley grains.

Perata, P; Matsukura, C; Vernieri, P; Yamaguchi, J

1997-01-01

201

An Ac/Ds-mediated gene trap system for functional genomics in barley  

PubMed Central

Background Gene trapping is a powerful tool for gene discovery and functional genomics in both animals and plants. Upon insertion of the gene trap construct into an expressed gene, splice donor and acceptor sites facilitate the generation of transcriptional fusions between the flanking sequence and the reporter. Consequently, detection of reporter gene expression allows the identification of genes based on their expression pattern. Up to now rice is the only cereal crop for which gene trap approaches exist. In this study we describe a gene trap system in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) based on the maize transposable elements Ac/Ds. Results We generated gene trap barley lines by crossing Ac transposase expressing plants with multiple independent transformants carrying the Ds based gene trap construct GTDsB. Upstream of the ?-Glucuronidase start codon GTDsB carries splice donor and acceptor sites optimized for monocotyledonous plants. DNA blot analysis revealed GTDsB transposition frequencies of 11% and 26% in the F1 and F2 generation of gene trap lines and perpetuation of transposition activity in later generations. Furthermore, analysis of sequences flanking transposed GTDsB elements evidenced preferential insertion into expressed regions of the barley genome. We screened leaves, nodes, immature florets, pollinated florets, immature grains and seedlings of F2 plants and detected GUS expression in 51% (72/141) of the plants. Thus, reporter gene expression was found in 24 of the 28 F1 lines tested and in progeny of all GTDsB parental lines. Conclusion Due to the frequent transposition of GTDsB and the efficient expression of the GUS reporter gene, we conclude that this Ac/Ds-based gene trap system is an applicable approach for gene discovery in barley. The successful introduction of a gene trap construct optimized for monocots in barley contributes a novel functional genomics tool for this cereal crop.

Lazarow, Katina; Lutticke, Stephanie

2009-01-01

202

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley.

Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Peiguo

2013-01-01

203

Association of HvLDI with limit dextrinase activity and malt quality in barley.  

PubMed

Limit dextrinase (LD) is a unique de-branching enzyme involved in starch mobilization of barley grains during malting, and closely related to malt quality. Genotypic variation of LD activity is controlled by genetic factors and also affected by environmental conditions. Correlation analysis between LD activity and four malt quality parameters showed that LD activity was positively correlated with diastatic power, Kolbach index and the quality of malt extract, while negatively correlated with viscosity. The structure-based association analysis demonstrated that HvLDI, a gene encoding limit dextrinase inhibitor, was a major determinant of LD activity and malt quality. The single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LD activity could be used in early generation selection for barley breeding. PMID:23264263

Jin, Xiaoli; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2012-12-22

204

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1980-05-29

205

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a ''jackknife'' method of the reversion of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1981-01-01

206

Plant Growth Regulator Trials on Spring and Winter Barley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present report encompasses trials conducted by the Scottish Agricultural Colleges on spring barley from 1980-82 and winter barley from 1979-82. The growth regulators assessed in the trials were: ethephon + mepiquat chloride (Terpal), ethephon (Cerone)...

W. G. W. Paterson G. A. Blackett W. D. Gill

1983-01-01

207

Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape.  

PubMed

Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe. PMID:23081982

Hands, Philip; Kourmpetli, Sofia; Sharples, Donna; Harris, Robert G; Drea, Sinéad

2012-10-17

208

Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape  

PubMed Central

Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe.

Drea, Sinead

2012-01-01

209

Dwarf alleles differentially affect barley root traits influencing nitrogen acquisition under low nutrient supply.  

PubMed

Sustainable food production depends critically on the development of crop genotypes that exhibit high yield under reduced nutrient inputs. Rooting traits have been widely advocated as being able to influence optimal plant performance, while breeding-based improvements in yield of spring barley suggest that this species is a good model crop. To date, however, molecular genetics knowledge has not delivered realistic plant ideotypes, while agronomic trials have been unable to identify superior traits. This study explores an intermediate experimental system in which root traits and their effect on plant performance can be quantified. As a test case, four modern semi-dwarf barley varieties, which possess either the ari-e.GP or the sdw1 dwarf allele, were compared with the long-stemmed old variety Kenia under two levels of nutrient supply. The two semi-dwarf types differed from Kenia, exhibiting smaller stem mass and total plant nitrogen (N), and improved partitioning of mass and N to grain. Amongst the semi-dwarfs, the two ari-e.GP genotypes performed better than the two sdw1 genotypes under standard and reduced nutrient supply, particularly in root mass, root investment efficiency, N acquisition, and remobilization of N and mass to grain. However, lack of between-genotype variation in yield and N use efficiency indicated limited potential for exploiting genetic variation in existing varieties to improve barley performance under reduced nutrient inputs. Experimental approaches to test the expression of desirable root and shoot traits are scrutinized, and the potential evaluated for developing a spring barley ideotype for low nutrient conditions. PMID:21464160

Karley, A J; Valentine, T A; Squire, G R

2011-04-04

210

Dwarf alleles differentially affect barley root traits influencing nitrogen acquisition under low nutrient supply  

PubMed Central

Sustainable food production depends critically on the development of crop genotypes that exhibit high yield under reduced nutrient inputs. Rooting traits have been widely advocated as being able to influence optimal plant performance, while breeding-based improvements in yield of spring barley suggest that this species is a good model crop. To date, however, molecular genetics knowledge has not delivered realistic plant ideotypes, while agronomic trials have been unable to identify superior traits. This study explores an intermediate experimental system in which root traits and their effect on plant performance can be quantified. As a test case, four modern semi-dwarf barley varieties, which possess either the ari-e.GP or the sdw1 dwarf allele, were compared with the long-stemmed old variety Kenia under two levels of nutrient supply. The two semi-dwarf types differed from Kenia, exhibiting smaller stem mass and total plant nitrogen (N), and improved partitioning of mass and N to grain. Amongst the semi-dwarfs, the two ari-e.GP genotypes performed better than the two sdw1 genotypes under standard and reduced nutrient supply, particularly in root mass, root investment efficiency, N acquisition, and remobilization of N and mass to grain. However, lack of between-genotype variation in yield and N use efficiency indicated limited potential for exploiting genetic variation in existing varieties to improve barley performance under reduced nutrient inputs. Experimental approaches to test the expression of desirable root and shoot traits are scrutinized, and the potential evaluated for developing a spring barley ideotype for low nutrient conditions.

Karley, A. J.; Valentine, T. A.; Squire, G. R.

2011-01-01

211

Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).  

PubMed

The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

2012-02-15

212

Chromosome 5H of Hordeum species involved in reduction in grain hardness in wheat genetic background.  

PubMed

Grain hardness is an important factor affecting end-use quality in wheat. Mutations of the puroindoline genes, which are located on chromosome 5DS, control a majority of grain texture variations. Hordoindoline genes, which are the puroindoline gene homologs in barley, are located on chromosome 5HS and are also responsible for grain texture variation. In this study, we used three types of wheat-barley species (Hordeum vulgare, H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and H. chilense) chromosome addition lines and studied the effect of chromosome 5H of these species on wheat grain characteristics. The 5H chromosome addition lines showed significantly lower grain hardness and higher grain weight than the corresponding wheat parents. The effect of enhancing grain softness was largest in the wheat-H. chilense line regardless of having an increase in grain weight similar to those in the wheat-H. vulgare and wheat-H. spontaneum lines. Our results indicated that chromosome 5H of the Hordeum species plays a role in enhancing grain softness and increasing grain weight in the wheat genetic background, and the extent of effect on grain hardness depends on the type of Hordeum species. Protein analysis of hordoindolines indicated that profiles of 2D-electrophoresis of hordoindolines were different among Hordeum species and hordoindolines in the addition lines appeared to be most abundant in wheat-H. chilense line. The differences in enhancing grain softness among the Hordeum species might be attributed to the quantity of hordoindolines expressed in the 5H chromosome addition lines. These results suggested that the barley hordoindolines located on chromosome 5HS play a role in reducing grain hardness in the wheat genetic background. PMID:21739140

Yanaka, Mikiko; Takata, Kanenori; Terasawa, Yohei; Ikeda, Tatsuya M

2011-07-08

213

High (1?3,1?4)-?-Glucan Barley Fractions in Bread Making and their Effects on Human Glycemic Response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley flour (BF) from whole naked grain and two (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan-enriched fractions, a sieved fraction (SF) and a water-extracted fraction (WF), were produced and mixed with bread wheat flour (BW), for bread-making quality evaluation. Bread was baked in a pilot plant and analysed for sensory properties, proximate composition and (1?3,1?4)-?-glucan content. Four kinds of bread were produced from different mixtures of

A. Cavallero; S. Empilli; F. Brighenti; A. M. Stanca

2002-01-01

214

Coated Grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This volume is an important collection of papers by 62 authors from 19 countries on the description, characterization, and origin of coated grains, such as ooids, oncoids, and accretionary lapilli. The volume is the out-growth of a fellowship at the University of Bochum (Federal Republic of Germany) under which author Tadeusz Peryt began a study of modern and ancient occurrences of coated grains. The first chapter of the book is a collection of six papers under the heading “Approaches.” The rest of the book is organized according to the classification scheme for coated grains proposed by Peryt. Chapters on ooids (12 papers), rhodoids (four papers), oncoids (15 papers), and vadoids (eight papers) report on modern and ancient examples of these particles and their genesis. The final chapter consists of seven papers, which could not easily be placed elsewhere, under the heading “Contrasted Occurrences.”

Reinhardt, Juergen

215

Chromatographic analysis of Fusarium toxins in grain samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the analysis of zearalenone, T-2 toxin, neosolaniol and HT-2 toxin from the grains of barley, wheat and oats has been developed. Toxins are extracted with ethyl acetate, purified on a kieselgel TLC-plate and analysed on a HPTLC-plate. The limits of detection are 0.2 mg\\/kg for zearalenone and T-2 toxin and 5 mg\\/kg for neosolaniol and HT-2 toxin.

T. Ilus; M.-L. Niku-Paavola; T.-M. Enari

1981-01-01

216

Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

2012-05-01

217

Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

218

Barley Protein and Rapeseed Meal as Protein Supplements for Growing Cattle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growing cattle on ad libitum hay- (H) or grass silage- (S) feeding were given supplements of barley (B), barley and rapeseed meal (BRSM) or barley and barley protein (BBP) in order to compare barley protein (BP), a by-product of integrated starch-ethanol production and rapeseed meal (RSM) as protein supplements for growing cattle. The protein intake was also calculated in terms

Ilmo Aronen

1990-01-01

219

The Impact of qGPC6H on Malting Quality, Grain Composition and Agronomic Performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of barley's more remarkable characteristics is its ability to tolerate variation in seed composition. Selection for increased percentage of one grain component (e.g. protein) can be accomplished by reduction in the percentage of another component (e.g. starch). Starch is the largest contributor ...

220

Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare the effects on blood pressure of predominantly insoluble fiber (whole wheat and brown rice) and soluble fiber (barley) in a whole-grain diet. Subjects (seven men, nine premenopausal women, and nine postmenopausal women) consumed a controlled Step I diet for...

221

WholeGrain Diets Reduce Blood Pressure in Mildly Hypercholesterolemic Men and Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to compare the effects on blood pressure of predominantly insoluble fiber (whole wheat and brown rice) and soluble fiber (barley) in a whole-grain diet. Subjects (seven men, nine premenopausal women, and nine postmenopausal women) consumed a controlled Step I diet for 2 weeks; then about 20% of energy was replaced with whole wheat\\/brown rice,

Kay M. Behall; Daniel J. Scholfield; Judith Hallfrisch

2006-01-01

222

Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)|

Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

1973-01-01

223

Effect of Grains Differing in Expected Ruminal Fermentability on the Productivity of Lactating Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of barley and corn grains differing in expected fer- mentability in the rumen on dry matter intake (DMI) and productivity of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-two multiparous and 9 primiparous lactating Holstein cows (94 ± 29 d in milk; mean ± SD) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square

C. Silveira; M. Oba; K. A. Beauchemin; J. Helm

2007-01-01

224

Russian Federation: Grain and Feed, November Monthly Update, 2007. GAIN Report Number RS7082.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

November's grain production estimate for Russia is 79.7 million metric tons (mmt). Wheat production forecast is raised to 48.1 mmt (7.1 percent increase from 2006 crop), while barley production forecast is decreased to 16.4 mmt (down 9.4 percent from 2006...

Y. Vassilieva

2007-01-01

225

Russian Federation: Grain and Feed. December Monthly Update, 2007. GAIN Report Number RS7086.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

December's grain production estimate for Russia is 80.4 million metric tons (mmt). The wheat production estimate has been raised to 48.3 mmt (a 7.6-percent increase from the 2006 crop). The barley production estimate has been raised to 16.5 mmt, but still...

K. Svec Y. Vassilieva

2007-01-01

226

PRODUCTION DISTORTIONS IN THE SLOVAKIAN GRAIN SECTOR RESULTING FROM AGRICULTURAL SUBSIDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Policy Analysis Method, based on social benefit-cost analysis, is applied to five production areas of the Slovak Republic to analyze production distortions resulting from direct systematic subsidies in Slovakia. Three grains are analyzed: wheat, barley, and corn. Results indicate that currently applied policies have significant distortion effects, but those effects are not homogeneous across commodities and production areas.

Monika Tothova; Preston E. LaFerney; Harold L. Goodwin Jr.

1999-01-01

227

Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effects of cereal grain phosphorus (P) source on faecal P composition, twenty crossbred barrows, weighing 35.8 plus or minus 3.09 kg, were fed one of five diets with four pigs assigned to each of the diets. The diets contained corn, wheat, high fat-low lignin oat, normal barley or l...

228

Evaluation of Rye Grain in the Diets of Young Holstein Calves and Lactating Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sixty young Holstein calves were fed five diets containing various amounts of rye grain up to 18 wk of age. Average daily gain and feed consumption were similar during the first 6 wk; however, calves receiving 60% rye consumed less feed and gained slower than the barley control and 80% roasted rye fed groups in the next 12 wk. Ratios

H. R. Sharma; J. R. Ingalls; J. A. McKirdy; L. M. Sanford

1981-01-01

229

Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects  

SciTech Connect

NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP registered is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

2011-05-04

230

Quantitative ultrastructural analysis of barley sperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Complete serial ultrathin sections of seven sperm pairs, computer-assisted measurements of cell, nuclear and organelle surface areas and volumes, and three-dimensional imagery were used to demonstrate that a process of cytoplasm and organelle elimination occurs during sperm maturation in barley. The number of mitochondria per sperm cell is reduced by 50%; sperm cell surface area and volume are reduced

H. L. Mogensen; Maxine Losoff Rusche

1985-01-01

231

UPTAKE OF BROMACIL BY ISOLATED BARLEY ROOTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A study of bromacil uptake by excised barley (Hordeum Vulgare) roots was used to evaluate this procedure as a tool to learn the uptake characteristics of toxic organic chemicals. Bromacil uptake was shown to be a passive process with an uptake rate (at 0.8 mg/l) of 0.64 microgram...

232

Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen

1987-01-01

233

APPLICATIONS OF GENECHIPS FOR BARLEY IMPROVEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of RNA profiling has become a powerful strategy to examine genome-wide gene transcript accumulation patterns. The Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip probe array is a resource that can be used to examine the expression of greater than 20,000 genes in parallel. This article summarizes several researc...

234

Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

235

Presolar Grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, astronomers have studied the stars by using, with rare exception, electromagnetic radiation received by telescopes on and above the Earth. Since the mid-1980s, an additional observational window has been opened in the form of microscopic presolar grains found in primitive meteorites. These grains had apparently formed in stellar outflows of late-type stars and in the ejecta of stellar explosions and had survived the formation of the solar system. They can be located in and extracted from their parent meteorites and studied in detail in the laboratory. Their stellar origin is recognized by their isotopic compositions, which are completely different from those of the solar system and, for some elements, cover extremely wide ranges, leaving little doubt that the grains are ancient stardust.By the 1950s it had been conclusively established that the elements from carbon on up are produced by nuclear reactions in stars and the classic papers by Burbidge et al. (1957) and Cameron (1957) provided a theoretical framework for stellar nucleosynthesis. According to these authors, nuclear processes produce elements with very different isotopic compositions, depending on the specific stellar source. The newly produced elements are injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds or as supernova (SN) ejecta, enriching the galaxy in "metals" (all elements heavier than helium) and after a long galactic history the solar system is believed to have formed from a mix of this material. In fact, the original work by Burbidge et al. and Cameron was stimulated by the observation of regularities in the abundance of the nuclides in the solar system as obtained by the study of meteorites (Suess and Urey, 1956). Although providing only a grand average of many stellar sources, the solar system abundances of the elements and isotopes ( Anders and Grevesse, 1989; Grevesse et al., 1996; see Chapter 1.03; Lodders, 2003) remained an important test for nucleosynthesis theory (e.g., Timmes et al., 1995).In contrast, the study of stellar grains permits information to be obtained about individual stars, complementing astronomical observations of elemental and isotopic abundances in stars (e.g., Lambert, 1991), by extending measurements to elements that cannot be measured astronomically. In addition to nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution, presolar grains provide information about galactic chemical evolution, physical properties in stellar atmospheres, mixing of SN ejecta and conditions in the parent bodies of the meteorites in which the grains are found.This new field of astronomy has grown to an extent that not all aspects of presolar grains can be treated in detail in this chapter. The interested reader is therefore referred to some recent reviews (Anders and Zinner, 1993; Ott, 1993; Zinner, 1998a, b; Hoppe and Zinner, 2000; Nittler, 2003) and to the compilation of papers found in Bernatowicz and Zinner (1997). The latter not only contains several detailed review papers on presolar dust grains but also a series of chapters on stellar nucleosynthesis. Further information on nucleosynthesis can be obtained from the textbooks by Clayton (1983b) and Arnett (1996), and from reviews by Köppeler et al. (1989), Meyer (1994), and Wallerstein et al. (1997).

Zinner, E. K.

2003-12-01

236

Electronic nose for microbial quality classification of grains.  

PubMed

The odour of grains is in many countries the primary criterion of fitness for consumption. However, smelling of grain for quality grading should be avoided since inhalation of mould spores or toxins may be hazardous to the health and determinations of the off-odours are subjective. An electronic nose, i.e. a gas sensor array combined with a pattern recognition routine might serve as an alternative. We have used an electronic nose consisting of a sensor array with different types of sensors. The signal pattern from the sensors is collected by a computer and further processed by an artificial neural network (ANN) providing the pattern recognition system. Samples of oats, rye and barley with different odours and wheat with different levels of ergosterol, fungal and bacterial colony forming units (cfu) were heated in a chamber and the gas in the chamber was led over the sensory array. The ANN could predict the odour classes of good, mouldy, weakly and strongly musty oats with a high degree of accuracy. The ANN also indicated the percentage of mouldy barley or rye grains in mixtures with fresh grains. In wheat a high degree of correlation between ANN predictions and measured ergosterol as well as with fungal and bacterial cfu was observed. The electronic nose can be developed to provide a simple and fast method for quality classification of grain and is likely to find applications also in other areas of food mycology. PMID:9105927

Jonsson, A; Winquist, F; Schnürer, J; Sundgren, H; Lundström, I

1997-04-01

237

Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process  

PubMed Central

Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of ?-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the ?-glucan problem. First, ?-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the ?-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, ?-glucosidase was used to complete the ?-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While ?-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding ?-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis) or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) co-product had extremely low ?-glucan (below 0.2%) making it suitable for use in both ruminant and mono-gastric animal feeds.

2010-01-01

238

Temporal and spatial appearance of wall polysaccharides during cellularization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endosperm.  

PubMed

Barley endosperm begins development as a syncytium where numerous nuclei line the perimeter of a large vacuolated central cell. Between 3 and 6 days after pollination (DAP) the multinucleate syncytium is cellularized by the centripetal synthesis of cell walls at the interfaces of nuclear cytoplasmic domains between individual nuclei. Here we report the temporal and spatial appearance of key polysaccharides in the cell walls of early developing endosperm of barley, prior to aleurone differentiation. Flowering spikes of barley plants grown under controlled glasshouse conditions were hand-pollinated and the developing grains collected from 3 to 8 DAP. Barley endosperm development was followed at the light and electron microscope levels with monoclonal antibodies specific for (1-->3)-beta-D: -glucan (callose), (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D: -glucan, hetero-(1-->4)-beta-D: -mannans, arabino-(1-->4)-beta-D: -xylans, arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) and with the enzyme, cellobiohydrolase II, to detect (1-->4)-beta-D: -glucan (cellulose). Callose and cellulose were present in the first formed cell walls between 3 and 4 DAP. However, the presence of callose in the endosperm walls was transient and at 6 DAP was only detected in collars surrounding plasmodesmata. (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D: -Glucan was not deposited in the developing cell walls until approximately 5 DAP and hetero-(1-->4)-beta-D: -mannans followed at 6 DAP. Deposition of AGPs and arabinoxylan in the wall began at 7 and 8 DAP, respectively. For arabinoxylans, there is a possibility that they are deposited earlier in a highly substituted form that is inaccessible to the antibody. Arabinoxylan and heteromannan were also detected in Golgi and associated vesicles in the cytoplasm. In contrast, (1-->3,1-->4)-beta-D: -glucan was not detected in the cytoplasm in endosperm cells; similar results were obtained for coleoptile and suspension cultured cells. PMID:16532317

Wilson, Sarah M; Burton, Rachel A; Doblin, Monika S; Stone, Bruce A; Newbigin, Edward J; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bacic, Antony

2006-03-11

239

Conserved synteny-based anchoring of the barley genome physical map.  

PubMed

Gene order is largely collinear in the small-grained cereals, a feature which has proved helpful in both marker development and positional cloning. The accuracy of a virtual gene order map ("genome zipper") for barley (Hordeum vulgare), developed by combining a genetic map of this species with a large number of gene locations obtained from the maps constructed in other grass species, was evaluated here both at the genome-wide level and at the fine scale in a representative segment of the genome. Comparing the whole genome "genome zipper" maps with a genetic map developed by using transcript-derived markers, yielded an accuracy of >94 %. The fine-scale comparison involved a 14 cM segment of chromosome arm 2HL. One hundred twenty-eight genes of the "genome zipper" interval were analysed. Over 95 % (45/47) of the polymorphic markers were genetically mapped and allocated to the expected region of 2HL, following the predicted order. A further 80 of the 128 genes were assigned to the correct chromosome arm 2HL by analysis of wheat-barley addition lines. All 128 gene-based markers developed were used to probe a barley bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library, delivering 26 BAC contigs from which all except two were anchored to the targeted zipper interval. The results demonstrate that the gene order predicted by the "genome zipper" is remarkably accurate and that the "genome zipper" represents a highly efficient informational resource for the systematic identification of gene-based markers and subsequent physical map anchoring of the barley genome. PMID:23812960

Poursarebani, Naser; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Zhou, Ruonan; Schulte, Daniela; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Martis, Mihaela Maria; Graner, Andreas; Schweizer, Patrick; Scholz, Uwe; Mayer, Klaus; Stein, Nils

2013-06-28

240

Production of volatile compounds by Rhizopus oligosporus during soybean and barley tempeh fermentation.  

PubMed

Rhizopus oligosporus Saito can ferment soybeans or cereal grains to tempeh, a sliceable cake with improved nutritional properties. Volatiles produced by different R. oligosporus strains grown on malt extract agar (MEA), barley and soybean were investigated. The effect of co-cultivation with Lactobacillus plantarum on the production of volatiles was also studied. Volatile compounds were collected in situ by headspace diffusion and identified by GC-MS. The ten R. oligosporus strains that had different colony morphologies on MEA produced very similar volatile profiles, except for slight variations among the minor volatile compounds (e.g. sesquiterpenes). Likewise, practically no differences in volatile profiles were observed between three of the strains grown on soybeans. In contrast, the R. oligosporus volatile profile on soybean was different from that on barley from the same strain. Co-cultivation with L. plantarum did not influence volatile production by R. oligosporus. The dominant compounds produced on all three substrates were ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Acetaldehyde and 2-methyl-propanal were also produced on MEA and barley, while 2-pentanone, methyl acetate, 2-butanol and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol were observed on soybeans. Ethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were the most abundant volatile compounds produced on MEA and barley, while 2-butanone was the dominant volatile metabolite on soybean. The mushroom odour compounds, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, were only detected from soybean and soybean tempeh. PMID:16889859

Feng, Xin Mei; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Schnürer, Johan

2006-08-02

241

Evaluation of the toxicity of concentrated barley beta-glucan in a 28-day feeding study in Wistar rats.  

PubMed

Beta-glucans are water-soluble cell-wall polysaccharides consisting of (1-->3,1-->4)-linked beta-D-glucopyranosyl monomers that comprise a considerable proportion of soluble fiber from certain grains including oats and barley. Consumption of foods containing beta-glucan or beta-glucan-enriched fractions prepared from these grains lower serum cholesterol concentrations in humans and in animal models of hypercholesterolemia. The present study was conducted to evaluate the toxicity of beta-glucan-enriched soluble fiber from barley in Wistar rats on dietary administration at concentrations of 0.7, 3.5 and 7% beta-glucan for 28 days. There were no adverse effects on general condition and behavior, growth, feed and water consumption, feed conversion efficiency, red blood cell and clotting potential parameters, clinical chemistry values, and organ weights. Necropsy and histopathology findings revealed no treatment-related changes in any organ evaluated. A dose-dependent increase in full and empty cecum weight was observed. This is a common physiological response of rodents to high amounts of poorly digestible, fermentable carbohydrates, and was of no toxicological concern. The only finding of possible biological relevance was an increase in the number of circulating lymphocytes observed in males. However, the increase was not dose-dependent and was not observed in females. Results of this study demonstrated that consumption of concentrated barley beta-glucan was not associated with any obvious signs of toxicity in Wistar rats even following consumption of large quantities. PMID:12615121

Delaney, B; Carlson, T; Frazer, S; Zheng, T; Hess, R; Ostergren, K; Kierzek, K; Haworth, J; Knutson, N; Junker, K; Jonker, D

2003-04-01

242

Grain dust fueled grain dryer. Quarterly report. [For grain elevators  

SciTech Connect

A grain dust combustor has been designed to use the available grain dust as fuel in an elevator handling 3 million bushels of grain per year and a 1000 bushel per hour grain dryer. Conventional fuel is still used to provide most of the energy required for drying. This grain dust combustor is a compact add-on system. Elevators handling more than 10 million bushels of grain per year are clearly in a favorable investment situation. Elevators handling between 5 to 10 million bushels of grain per year have a marginally favorable investment situation. The capital cost of adding a grain dust combustor to an existing system is estimated to be $50,000. This allows the grain elevator to reduce energy costs by $7500 per year. However, the total annual operating costs increase, making this an unattractive investment for the average elevator.

Litt, R.D.; Gregorich, N.

1985-07-12

243

Telomere-mediated truncation of barley chromosomes.  

PubMed

Engineered minichromosomes offer an enormous opportunity to plant biotechnology as they have the potential to simultaneously transfer and stably express multiple genes. Following a top-down approach, we truncated endogenous chromosomes in barley (Hordeum vulgare) by Agrobacterium-mediated transfer of T-DNA constructs containing telomere sequences. Blocks of Arabidopsis-like telomeric repeats were inserted into a binary vector suitable for stable transformation. After transfer of these constructs into immature embryos of diploid and tetraploid barley, chromosome truncation by T-DNA-induced de novo formation of telomeres could be confirmed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation, primer extension telomere repeat amplification and DNA gel blot analysis in regenerated plants. Telomere seeding connected to chromosome truncation was found in tetraploid plants only, indicating that genetic redundancy facilitates recovery of shortened chromosomes. Truncated chromosomes were transmissible in sexual reproduction, but were inherited at rates lower than expected according to Mendelian rules. PMID:22080935

Kapusi, Eszter; Ma, Lu; Teo, Chee How; Hensel, Götz; Himmelbach, Axel; Schubert, Ingo; Mette, Michael Florian; Kumlehn, Jochen; Houben, Andreas

2011-11-13

244

Aberrant cell expansion in the elongation mutants of barley.  

PubMed

The elongation (elo) mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv 'Himalaya') are a class of dwarf plants with defects affecting cell expansion. The phenotypes of mutants in three of the elo loci (elo1, elo2 and elo3) are recessive to the wild-type allele, and the mutations at elo-4 and elo-5 are semi-dominant. Allelism tests showed that elo1, elo2 and elo3 were at separate loci, and mapping data indicated that elo-5 was possibly allelic to either elo1 or elo2. A phenotype common to all elo mutants was the presence of short, radially swollen cells on the leaf epidermis, indicating a defect in longitudinal cell expansion. In three of the mutants, elo1, elo3 and elo5, this was accompanied by a twisting growth habit. Two of the mutations, elo2 and elo-5, affected cell division, with aberrant periclinal cell division resulting in the formation of increased cell layers in the leaf epidermis of elo2 and elo-5 homozygotes and in the aleurone layer of elo2 grains. Misplaced anticlinal divisions also occurred in the elo-5 leaf epidermis. Leaf cell walls of all elo lines contained less cellulose than the wild- type, and the cortical microtubules in elongating root epidermal cells in some elo lines were more randomly oriented than in the wild-type, consistent with the presence of radially swollen cells. We discuss possible functions for the Elo genes in primary cell wall synthesis. PMID:19181700

Lewis, Dyani; Bacic, Antony; Chandler, Peter M; Newbigin, Edward J

2009-01-30

245

Allelic Variations of a Light Harvesting Chlorophyll A/B-Binding Protein Gene (Lhcb1) Associated with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP) is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING). A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels) and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits.

Xia, Yanshi; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Li, Ronghua; Yan, Guijun; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Baum, Michael; Guo, Peiguo

2012-01-01

246

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly.

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

247

The Potential of Hull-less Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(5):589-599 Hull-less barley (HB) has been investigated in many countries for use in feed, food, and industry since the publication of the last review in 1986. Literature published since 1990 on various aspects of HB u tiliza- tion, other than in monogastric feeds, has been reviewed. Several HB cultivars containing low or high ?-glucan, low or high extract

R. S. Bhatty

1999-01-01

248

Enhancement of methane production from barley waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two different approaches were attempted to try and enhance methane production from an industrial waste composed of 100% barley, which results from production of instant coffee substitutes. In previous work, this waste was co-digested with an excess of activated sludge produced in the wastewater treatment plant located in same industrial unit, resulting in a very poor methane yield (25LCH4(STP)\\/kgVSinitial), and

L. Neves; R. Ribeiro; R. Oliveira; M. M. Alves

2006-01-01

249

Antioxidant Enzymes in Barley Green Biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Green biomass of young barley plants exhibited statistically significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and\\u000a catalase (CAT) at sampling I (in the phase of plant development DC 29) compared to the later sampling II (DC 31). Significant\\u000a effects of varieties, years and interactions of the studied factors on the activity of the studied antioxidants were determined.\\u000a During the experiment

J. Ehrenbergerová; N. B?ezinová Belcredi; J. Kopá?ek; L. Melišová; P. Hrstková; S. Macuchová; K. Vaculová; I. Paulí?ková

2009-01-01

250

Nove1 Phosphoinositides in Barley Aleurone Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel isomer of phosphatidylinositol that differs in the structure of the head group was detected in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Himalaya) seeds. In this paper we describe our efforts to elucidate the structure of the novel isomer. Evidence from a variety of techniques, including chemical modification of in vivo 32Pi- and myo- (3H)inositol-labeled compounds, gas chromatography-mass spec- trometry analysis,

Bhuvarahamurthy Narasimhan; Cay Pliska-Matyshak; Richard Kinnard; Michele A. Ritter; Linda von Weymarn; Pushpalatha P. N. Murthy

251

Characteristics of amino acid uptake in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have the ability to take up organic nitrogen (N) but this has not been thoroughly studied in agricultural plants. A\\u000a critical question is whether agricultural plants can acquire amino acids in a soil ecosystem. The aim of this study was to\\u000a characterize amino acid uptake capacity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) from a mixture of amino acids at concentrations

Sandra Jämtgård; Torgny Näsholm; Kerstin Huss-Danell

2008-01-01

252

Whole grain consumption has a modest effect on the development of diabetes in the Goto-Kakisaki rat.  

PubMed

Epidemiological evidence suggests that whole grain intake is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. However, studies of individual whole grains on the prevention of type 2 diabetes are lacking. The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of different whole grains on type 2 diabetes in an animal model of type 2 diabetes, the Goto-Kakisaki (GK) rat. GK rats were fed either a basal diet or a whole grain-containing diet for 5 months. Whole grain diets contained 65 % whole grain flours of wheat, barley, oats or maize. After 2 months of feeding, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were lower in the wheat, barley and oats groups, compared with the basal group, whereas glycated Hb was significantly greater in the wheat group compared with other groups. Feeding of whole barley and maize increased plasma C-peptide concentrations compared with whole wheat at 2 months. There was a trend in the improvement of insulin resistance with a consumption of barley and oats diets at 2 months (P = 0·06) compared with the basal diet. Oxidative stress markers, urinary thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-isoprostane, did not improve with whole grain intake at 2 months. At 5 months, whole grain diets did not differ from the basal diet in glycaemic control, insulin secretion, oxidative stress and preservation of pancreatic ?-cell mass. These results suggest that the consumption of whole grains may offer modest benefit early in the development of type 2 diabetes, but this benefit is lost with further development of the disease. PMID:21733309

Youn, Moonyeon; Csallany, A Saari; Gallaher, Daniel D

2011-06-30

253

Review of human studies investigating the post-prandial blood-glucose lowering ability of oat and barley food products.  

PubMed

Oat and barley foods have been shown to reduce human glycaemic response, compared to similar wheat foods or a glucose control. The strength of the evidence supporting the hypothesis that the soluble fibre, mixed linkage ?-glucan, reduces glycaemic response was evaluated. A search of the literature was conducted to find clinical trials with acute glycaemic response as an end point using oat or barley products. Of the 76 human studies identified, 34 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Dose response and ratio of ?-glucan to available carbohydrate as predictors of glycaemic response were assessed. Meals provided 0.3-12.1 g oat or barley ?-glucan, and reduced glycaemic response by an average of 48 ± 33 mmol · min/l compared to a suitable control. Regression analysis on 119 treatments indicated that change in glycaemic response (expressed as incremental area under the post-prandial blood-glucose curve) was greater for intact grains than for processed foods. For processed foods, glycaemic response was more strongly related to the ?-glucan dose alone (r(2)=0.48, P<0.0001) than to the ratio of ?-glucan to the available carbohydrate (r(2)=0.25, P<0.0001). For processed foods containing 4 g of ?-glucan, the linear model predicted a decrease in glycaemic response of 27 ± 3 mmol · min/l, and 76% of treatments significantly reduced glycaemic response. Thus, intact grains as well as a variety of processed oat and barley foods containing at least 4 g of ?-glucan and 30-80 g available carbohydrate can significantly reduce post-prandial blood glucose. PMID:23422921

Tosh, S M

2013-02-20

254

Identification of barley and rye varieties using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks.  

PubMed

Cereal varieties are normally identified using time-consuming methods such as visual examination of either the intact grain or one-dimensional electrophoretic patterns of the grain storage proteins. A fast method for identification of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties has previously been developed, which combines analysis of alcohol-soluble wheat proteins (gliadins) using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry with neural networks. Here we have applied the same method for the identification of both barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.) varieties. For barley, 95% of the mass spectra were correctly classified. This is an encouraging result, since in earlier experiments only a grouping into subsets of varieties was possible. However, the method was not useful in the classification of rye, due to the strong similarity between mass spectra of different varieties. PMID:11291123

Bloch, H A; Petersen, M; Sperotto, M M; Ke?mir, C; Radzikowski, L; Jacobsen, S; Søndergaard, I

2001-01-01

255

A Simple Sequence Repeat-Based Linkage Map of Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 568 new simple sequence repeat (SSR)-based markers for barley have been developed from a combination of database sequences and small insert genomic libraries enriched for a range of short simple sequence repeats. Analysis of the SSRs on 16 barley cultivars revealed variable levels of informativeness but no obvious correlation was found with SSR repeat length, motif type,

L. Ramsay; M. Macaulay; K. MacLean; L. Cardle; J. Fuller; K. J. Edwards; S. Tuvesson; M. Morgante; A. Massari; E. Maestri; N. Marmiroli; T. Sjakste; M. Ganal; W. Powell; R. Waugh

256

Microgeographic edaphic differentiation in hordein polymorphisms of wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic diversity in the storage protein hordein encoded by two loci, Hor1 and Hor2, was analyzed electrophoretically in seeds from 123 individual plants of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, the progenitor of cultivated barley. The test was conducted in two topographically different 100 meter transects in Israel, each equally divided into basalt and terra rossa soil types. Altogether 15 Hor1 and

E. Nevo; A. Beiles; N. Storch; H. Doll; B. Andersen

1983-01-01

257

Expression of Ethylene Biosynthesis Genes in Barley Tissue Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant hormone ethylene influences green plant regeneration rates from barley callus cultures. Our studies have focused on the effects of short treatments of an ethylene inhibitor or an ethylene precursor on green plant regeneration from two barley cultivars and the expression patterns of two eth...

258

SCARIFICATION OF BARLEY TO PRODUCE VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New barley varieties are being developed to use this crop in nontraditional food and non-food value-added applications, such as ethanol production. The objective of this study was to abrade the outer layers of the barley kernel creating a fraction enriched in pericarp and keeping the physical integr...

259

TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

260

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2005, stripe rust of wheat was the most widespread in the U.S. and also occurred unusually early and severe in the PNW. Barley stripe rust occurred in the western U.S. and was severe in some fields grown with susceptible cultivars. Stripe rusts of wheat and barley were accurately predicted. Fungi...

261

FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF CROSSLINKED AND ACETYLATED BARLEY PROTEIN ISOLATE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley protein isolate (BPI) was prepared using defatted barley flour. BPI was extracted in 0.05 N NaOH in a 10:1 ratio solvent:flour, was precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and freeze-dried. Portion of the BPI sample was crosslinked using Transglutaminase and acetylated using acetic anhydrid...

262

The use of cyanobacteria as filler in nitrocellulose capillaries improves ultrastructural preservation of immature barley pollen upon high pressure freezing.  

PubMed

The high pressure freezing (HPF) followed by freeze substitution technique has advantages over chemical fixation in the context of preserving sample ultrastructure. However, when HPF is applied to cultured pollen grains, the large intercellular spaces present lead to a poor level of ultrastructure preservation. We report here that the mixing of cyanobacteria with immature barley pollen grains succeeded in greatly reducing the volume of liquid present between the large pollen grains, and so improved the loading of the sample into a nitrocellulose capillary. The use of yeast or cyanobacteria paste to surround the filled capillaries was beneficial in speeding the transfer of heat during the freezing process. This modification of the HPF method resulted in a greatly improved level of ultrastructure preservation. PMID:21711458

Daghma, D S; Kumlehn, J; Melzer, M

2011-06-29

263

Energy Evaluation of Eight Barley Cultivars for Poultry: Effect of Dietary Enzyme Addition1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three experiments were conducted to study eight barley cultivars and the effect of enzyme addition on their energy value for poultry. In Experi- ment 1, the AMEn of a reference barley (Beka cultivar) was calculated by increasing barley concentrations (30, 40, 50, and 60%) that replaced a high protein basal diet. In Experiment 2, eight barley cultivars (four spring and

M. J. VILLAMIDE; J. M. FUENTE; P. PEREZ DE AYALA; A. FLORES

264

Organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of wheat breads supplemented with soybean and barley flour  

Microsoft Academic Search

Supplementations of soy (full fat and defatted) and barley flours to wheat flours at 5, 10, 15 and 20% levels were carried out to test the effects on organoleptic and nutritional evaluation of the supplemented bread. Additions of 15% barley flour, 10% soy flour (full fat and defatted), 15% barley plus full fat soy flour and 15% barley plus defatted

Shfali Dhingra; Sudesh Jood

2002-01-01

265

The effect of 𝛃-glucanase supplementation of barley- and oat-based diets on growth performance and fermentation in broiler chicken gastrointestinal tract  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether grain type (barley or oats) and ?-glucanase inclusion influence the performance and the gastrointestinal ecosystem of broiler chickens, taking the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and lactic acid, pH, ileal viscosity, and the weight of the caeca and liver into consideration.2. The inclusion of ?-glucanase in the oat-based diet

D. Józefiak; A. Rutkowski; B. B. Jensen; R. M. Engberg

2006-01-01

266

A Non-capsid Protein Associated with Unencapsidated Virus RNA in Barley Infected with Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley tissue with an acute systemic infection of barley stripe mosaic virus contained a large amount of unencapsidated virus RNA which was stable in extracts made in ribosome isolation buffer. The virus RNA in ribosome preparations sedimented in a broad band at 80S to 100S in sucrose gradients, which is less than the virion sedimentation rate of 180S to 200S.

MYRON K. BRAKKE; E. M. Ball; W. G. Langenberg

1988-01-01

267

Naked barley—Optimized recipe for pure barley bread with sufficient beta-glucan according to the EFSA health claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Naked barley is an underutilized crop that is suitable for the production of functional food: it contains remarkable amounts of ?-glucans, which are well known for their blood cholesterol and short-time blood sugar regulating properties and their impact on weight regulation. The aim of the present work was to develop naked barley bread with satisfying sensory characteristics and good baking

M. Kinner; S. Nitschko; J. Sommeregger; A. Petrasch; G. Linsberger-Martin; H. Grausgruber; E. Berghofer; S. Siebenhandl-Ehn

2011-01-01

268

A genetic playground for enhancing grain number in cereals.  

PubMed

Improving the yield stability of cereal crops with a view to bolstering global food security is an important priority. The components of final grain number per plant at harvest are determined by fertile spikes per plant, number of fertile spikelets per spike and number of grains per spikelet. In this review article, we focus on the genetic factors of floral development and inflorescence architecture known to influence grain number and provide a broad overview of genes and genetic pathways that potentially can be manipulated to increase the yield of cereal crops, in particular wheat (Triticum aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare). In addition, we discuss the outcome of multidisciplinary genomics knowledge to identify potential gene targets to develop conceptual ideotypes to meet the future demand. PMID:22197176

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2011-12-22

269

Differential regulation of 3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase and gramine in barley by both biotic and abiotic stress conditions.  

PubMed

The expression of NMT (3-aminomethylindole/N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole N-methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.), involved in the biosynthesis of the indole alkaloid gramine, was investigated in aphid-infested barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). NMT is induced by methyl jasmonate and it was hypothesized that the gene would be more strongly upregulated in aphid-resistant barley. We examined the effects of feeding by three aphid species; Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko), rose-grain aphid (Metopolophium dirhodum Walker) and bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley genotypes with varying resistance characteristics. The barley genotypes selected included the cultivar Libra, known to upregulate gramine after feeding by Schizaphis graminum. Infestation by R. padi and M. dirhodum resulted in higher NMT expression in the doubled haploid line 5172-28:4 (DH28:4), which has moderate resistance against R. padi, but not in other aphid-barley combinations. None of the aphid-plant combinations had however increased gramine, suggesting that aphid-induction of gramine is specific to S. graminum. The increased abundance of NMT transcript in aphid-infested DH28:4 did not lead to higher amounts of NMT protein or NMT enzyme activity, neither did 200 times upregulation of NMT transcript in cotyledons incubated with methyl jasmonate, illustrating that even large differences measured at transcript level may have no metabolic consequences. Drought stress or treatments with abscisic acid did lead to higher gramine concentrations in several barley cultivars, but without any concomitant increase of NMT transcripts. Thus, the regulation of the biosynthetic pathway to gramine at transcript and metabolite level diverges during two different stress conditions. PMID:21074448

Larsson, Kristina A E; Saheed, Sefiu A; Gradin, Therese; Delp, Gabriele; Karpinska, Barbara; Botha, Christiaan E J; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

2010-10-27

270

The Horn of Africa as a centre of barley diversification and a potential domestication site  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to a widely accepted theory on barley domestication, wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) from the Fertile Crescent is the progenitor of all cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare). To determine whether barley has undergone one or more domestication events, barley accessions from three continents have\\u000a been studied (a) using 38 nuclear SSR (nuSSRs) markers, (b) using five chloroplast

Jihad Orabi; Gunter Backes; Asmelash Wolday; Amor Yahyaoui; Ahmed Jahoor

2007-01-01

271

Construction of barley consensus map showing chromosomal regions associated with economically important traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past, it has been difficult to accurately determine the location of many types of barley molecular markers due to the lack of commonality between international barley linkage maps. In this study, a consensus map of barley was constructed from five different maps (OWB, VxHs, KxM, barley consensus 2 and barley consensus 2003) to produce the consensus AD-2005 map

Ayman A. Diab

272

Anti-oxidative compounds in barley tea.  

PubMed

Five phenolic compounds, p-hydroxyacetophenone, 5,7-dihydroxychromone, naringenin, quercetin, and iso-americanol A, were found first time in the barley tea, together with the known compounds, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The anti-oxidative properties were evaluated by measuring their peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. Among these compounds, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, and isoamericanol A showed stronger activities than that of BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) at 400 microM. PMID:15618635

Etoh, Hideo; Murakami, Kazushi; Yogoh, Tokiyasu; Ishikawa, Hajime; Fukuyama, Yoshiyasu; Tanaka, Hitoshi

2004-12-01

273

Chemical test for mammalian feces in grain products: collaborative study.  

PubMed

A collaborative study was conducted to validate the use of the AOAC alkaline phosphatase method for mammalian feces in corn meal, 44.B01-44.B06, for 7 additional products: brown rice cream, oat bran, grits, semolina, pasta flour, farina, and barley plus (a mixture of barley, oat bran, and brown rice). The proposed method determines the presence of alkaline phosphatase, an enzyme contained in mammalian feces, by using phenolphthalein diphosphate as the enzyme substrate in a test agar medium. Fecal matter is separated from the grain products by specific gravity differences in 1% test agar. As the product is distributed on liquid test agar, fecal fragments float while the grain products sink. The alkaline phosphatase cleaves phosphate radicals from phenolphthalein diphosphate, generating free phenolphthalein, which produces a pink to red-purple color around the fecal particles in the previously colorless medium. Collaborators' recovery averages ranged from 21.7 particles (72.3%) for oat bran to 25.3 particles (84.3%) for semolina at the 30 particle spike level. Overall average background was 0.4 positive reactions per food type. The collaborators reported that the method was quick, simple, and easy to use. The method has been approved interim official first action for all 7 grain products. PMID:2808238

Gerber, H R

274

The cluster structure of barley amylopectins of different genetic backgrounds.  

PubMed

The unit chains of amylopectin are organized into clusters. In this study, the cluster structure was analysed in detail in four different genotypes of barley, of which two possessed the amo1 genetic background. Amylose content of the barley starches differed from 0 to 32.6%. Isolated amylopectin was hydrolysed with ?-amylase from Bacillus subtilis into domains, defined as groups of clusters, which were size-fractionated by methanol. The domain fractions were further treated with ?-amylase to release single clusters. Amylopectin, domains and clusters were subsequently treated with phosphorylase and ?-amylase to produce ?,?-limit dextrins and the detailed internal structures of these different structure levels were investigated. Analysis was performed with gel-permeation and anion-exchange chromatography. Equal amount of A-chains were detected in all barleys, but the distribution of B-chains differed. At least two types of domain structures were identified in all four barley varieties. Large domains were built up by large clusters and small domains by small clusters. In all four barley samples the number of long chains was small suggesting that shorter chains with a degree of polymerization of 25-35 also are involved in the interconnection of clusters. The cluster structure of the amylopectin correlated with the genetic background. The two barley samples with amo1 genetic background possessed a more dense structure. Internal chain lengths in these two barleys were shorter resulting in larger domains built up by larger clusters. PMID:21704067

Bertoft, Eric; Källman, Anna; Koch, Kristine; Andersson, Roger; Aman, Per

2011-06-17

275

Effect of ? -glucanase and xylanase supplementation of barley- and rye-based diets on caecal microbiota of broiler chickens.  

PubMed

1. The aim was to investigate the effect of grain type (barley or rye) and exogenous enzymes (?-glucanase or xylanase) on the composition of chicken caecal microbiota as examined by classical culturing and molecular techniques (fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) and terminal-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (T-RFLP)). 2. Plate counting revealed higher total numbers of anaerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in caecal contents of birds fed with rye-based diets than in birds fed with barley-based diets. 3. As assessed by FISH analysis, the most abundant bacterial groups in the broiler caeca were Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale followed by Bacteroides sp., Lactobacillus sp./Enterococcus sp., Bifidobacterium sp. and Enterobacteriaceae. For both cereal types, the enzyme supplementation significantly decreased the relative amount of Enterobacteriaceae. 4. The T-RFLP profiles indicated that the caecal microbiota of birds receiving rye-based diets was more diverse than that of birds fed on barley-based diets. 5. Irrespective of the method applied, the results indicate that the cereal type as well as the exogenous enzyme supplementation influence the microbiota in broiler chicken caeca, and may have the effect of reducing potentially pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae populations. PMID:20924850

Jozefiak, D; Rutkowski, A; Kaczmarek, S; Jensen, B B; Engberg, R M; Højberg, O

2010-08-01

276

Boron Uptake by Excised Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

At 2 C, all boron accumulated by excised barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta) remains in the free space; i.e. active uptake is nil at this temperature. Three component fractions of free space B were apparent: (a) a surface contaminant film of B on blotted roots, (b) water free space B, and (c) B reversibly bound in the cell walls. A stoichiometric release of H+ from the roots in the presence of B indicated that B was bound by borate complexes with polysaccharides in the cell walls. Polysaccharide-borate complexes are much less stable than those of monosaccharides, and the bound B fraction could be readily removed by rinsing the roots in the presence of a monomeric polyol possessing the necessary cis-diol configuration. Cell wall material separated from excised barley roots had a B binding capacity 66% greater than that of intact roots. A 30-minute rinse in distilled H2O or 0.5 mm CaSO4 was required to remove all cell wall-bound B from the roots after a 30-minute uptake period. Thus, although B in the contaminant surface film and the water free space is rinsed from the roots within 10 minutes, a 30-minute rinse is essential if all reversibly accumulated B is to be removed from the free space.

Bowen, John E.; Nissen, Per

1976-01-01

277

Grain Grading and Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

278

Grain Handling and Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

279

The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases  

SciTech Connect

Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

1999-03-23

280

Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains  

PubMed Central

A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined.

Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

1995-01-01

281

Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation) when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (? 5 ppm) in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201) were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare). DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation.

2011-01-01

282

Race-specific resistance and cultivar-specific virulence in the barley-leaf rust pathosystem and their consequences for the breeding of leaf rust resistant barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A range of leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) isolates was tested on a series of barley cultivars among which the differential series. No resistance to all isolates seems to exist in the cultivated barley. The barley cultivars appear to carry zero to two race-specific resistance (Pa) genes. The isolates carry from three to eight virulence factors from the eight or nine

J. E. Parlevliet

1983-01-01

283

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section... § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue...

2009-01-01

284

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section... § 810.204 Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue...

2010-01-01

285

Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus and the Frequency of Triploids and Aneuploids in Barley  

PubMed Central

BSMV infection caused a pronounced increase in the frequency of triploid and aneuploid seeds in eleven barley varieties, but with considerable variation in frequency among varieties. In some of the varieties triploids exceeded three per cent. In virus-free material a few triploids were found in most of the varieties, but the frequency was very low. There was, however, a significant variation among varieties.

Sandfaer, Jens

1973-01-01

286

Effect of compost and manure soil amendments on nematodes and on yields of potato and barley: a 7-year study.  

PubMed

A 7-year study located in Prince Edward Island, Canada, examined the influence of compost and manure on crop yield and nematode populations. The compost used in this study consisted of cull waste potatoes, sawdust, and beef manure in a 3:3:1 ratio, respectively. No plant-parasitic nematodes were detected in samples collected from windrow compost piles at 5- and 30-cm depths prior to application on field plots. Low population densities of bacterial-feeding nematodes were recovered from compost windrows at the 5-cm depth. Field plots of potato (Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec) received compost applied at 16 metric tonnes per hectare, or beef manure applied at 12 metric tonnes per hectare. An adjacent trial with barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Mic Mac) received only the compost treatment. In both trials the experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replicates. Data averaged over seven growing seasons indicated that population levels of root-lesion nematodes (primarily Pratylenchus penetrans) were higher in root-zone soil in potato plots treated with either compost or manure compared to the untreated control plots. The soil amendments did not affect root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) population densities in the potato plots, but clover-cyst nematodes (Heterodera trifolii) were more numerous in the root-zone soils of barley treated with compost compared to the untreated plots. Numbers of bacterial-feeding nematodes (primarily Diplogaster lheritieri) were greater in soil in potato plots treated with manure and in soil around barley roots than in untreated plots. Total yields of potato tubers averaged over seven growing seasons increased by 27% in the plots treated with either compost or manure. Grain yields of barley also were increased by 12% when compost was applied. These results indicated that organic amendments increased crop yields, but the impacts on different nematode species varied and usually increased soil population levels. PMID:19262763

Kimpinski, J; Gallant, C E; Henry, R; Macleod, J A; Sanderson, J B; Sturz, A V

2003-09-01

287

Timing of Initial Exposure to Cereal Grains and the Risk of Wheat Allergy  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.Early exposure to solid foods in infancy has been associated with the development of allergy. The aim of this study was to examine the association between cereal-grain exposures (wheat, barley, rye, oats) in the infant diet and development of wheat allergy. METHODS.A total of 1612 children were enrolled at birth and followed to the mean age of 4.7 years. Questionnaire

Jill A. Poole; Kathy Barriga; Donald Y. M. Leung; Michelle Hoffman; George S. Eisenbarth; Marian Rewers; Jill M. Norris

288

Activity of spinosad against three stored-product beetle species on four grain commodities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the insecticidal effect of four spinosad doses; 0.01, 0.1, 0.5 and 1ppm against adults of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Sitophilus oryzae (L.) as well as adults and larvae of Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val on four grain commodities – wheat, corn, rice and barley. The bioassays were carried out at 25°C and 65%

B. J. Vayias; C. G. Athanassiou; D. N. Milonas; C. Mavrotas

2009-01-01

289

Recent developments in the genetic engineering of barley  

SciTech Connect

Cereals are the most important group of plants for human nutrition and animal feed. Partially due to the commercial value of crop plants, there has been an ever-increasing interest in using modern biotechnological methods for the improvement of the characteristics of cereals during the past decade. The rapid progress in molecular biology, plant cell culture techniques, and gene transfer technology has resulted in successful transformations of all the major cereals--maize, rice, wheat, and barley. This brings the biotechnological methods closer to the routine also in barley breeding. In this article, the current status of barley genetic engineering, including the patent situation, is reviewed. The needs aims, and possible applications of genetic engineering in barley breeding are discussed. 179 refs.

Mannonen, L.; Kauppinen, V.; Enari, T.M. (VTT Biotechnology and Food Research, Espoo (Finland))

1994-01-01

290

Variations in BARE-1 insertion patterns in barley callus cultures.  

PubMed

The stability of aging barley calli was investigated with the barley retroelement 1 (BARE-1) retrotransposon specific inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) technique. Mature embryos of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Zafer-160) were cultured on callus induction MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L 2,4-D and maintained on the same medium for 60 days. Ten IRAP primers were used in 25 different combinations. The similarity index between 30-day-old and 45-day-old calli was 84%; however, the similarity index between mature embryos and 45-day-old calli was 75%. These culture conditions caused BARE-1 retrotransposon alterations to appear as different band profiles. This is the first report of the use of the IRAP technique in barley in an investigation of callus development. PMID:21710447

Evrensel, C; Yilmaz, S; Temel, A; Gozukirmizi, N

2011-05-31

291

Unlocking the barley genome by chromosomal and comparative genomics.  

PubMed

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F X; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E; Simková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-04-05

292

Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia;)

1984-06-11

293

Choice of selection strategy in breeding barley for stress environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the optimum selection environment for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) targeted at low-input, stress environment,\\u000a barley lines were selected for high yield under stress (YS), high yield under non-stress (YNS), or average yield in stress\\u000a and non-stress conditions (YA) during three breeding cycles (cohorts) of three years each. The lines were then tested in a\\u000a total of 21 year-location

Salvatore Ceccarelli; Stefania Grando; Alfredo Impiglia

1998-01-01

294

The Properties and Genetics of Barley Malt Starch Degrading Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The properties and quality of barley malt starch degrading enzymes are of primary importance to the efficiency and profitability\\u000a of brewing (beer and whiskey), and the bio-fuel (bio-ethanol) industries. The barley starch degrading enzymes hydrolyse starch\\u000a into fermentable sugars that yeast converts into alcohol. This process is key for the alcohol producing industries as the\\u000a starch substrate makes up approximately

D. E. Evans; C. Li; J. K. Eglinton

295

Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with barley net blotch resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Net blotch of barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres Drechs., is an important foliar disease worldwide. Deployment of resistant cultivars is the most economic and eco-friendly\\u000a control method. This report describes mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with net blotch resistance in a\\u000a doubled-haploid (DH) barley population using diversity arrays technology (DArT®) markers. One hundred and fifty DH lines from

T. S. Grewal; B. G. Rossnagel; C. J. Pozniak; G. J. Scoles

2008-01-01

296

Characterization and sequence of a novel nitrate reductase from barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) has both NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductases. Genomic and cDNA clones of the NADH nitrate reductase have been sequenced. In this study, a genomic clone (pMJ4.1) of a second type of nitrate reductase was isolated from barley by homology to a partial-length NADH nitrate reductase cDNA and the sequence determined. The open reading frame encodes a

John Miyazaki; Miloslav Juricek; Karel Angelis; Kirk M. Schnorr; Andris Kleinhofs; Robert L. Warner

1991-01-01

297

Response of barley aleurone layers to abscisic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cordycepin, an inhibitor of RNA synthesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone cells, does not inhibit the gibberellic acid-enhanced ..cap alpha..-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) synthesis in barley aleurone layers if it is added 12 hours or more after the addition of the hormone. However, the accumulation of ..cap alpha..-amylase activity after 12 hours of gibberellic acid can be decreased by abscisic

D. T.-H. Ho; J. E. Varner

1976-01-01

298

Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the effects on blood pressure of predominantly insoluble fiber (whole wheat and brown rice) and soluble fiber (barley) in a whole-grain diet. Subjects (seven men, nine premenopausal women, and nine postmenopausal women) consumed a controlled Step I diet for 2 weeks; then about 20% of energy was replaced with whole wheat/brown rice, barley, or half wheat-rice/half barley, for 5 weeks each. Blood pressure was determined weekly and weight daily before breakfast. Urinary excretions of minerals that might affect blood pressure and urea nitrogen were determined each period. Systolic pressure was lower after the wheat/rice and half-and-half diets. Diastolic and mean arterial pressures were reduced by all whole-grain diets. No differences were observed in urinary measurements. In a healthful diet, increasing whole-grain foods, whether high in soluble or insoluble fiber, can reduce blood pressure and may help to control weight. PMID:16963350

Behall, Kay M; Scholfield, Daniel J; Hallfrisch, Judith

2006-09-01

299

Zeatin-binding proteins in barley leaves  

SciTech Connect

Highly labelled tritium-zeatin was used in the work to clarify for the first time a protein factor that is present in cytokinin-sensitive vegetative organs of plants (barley leaves) and which possesses the properties of a cytokinin receptor. Aliquots of tritium-zeatin were mixed with a solution of protein and incubated for several hours in buffer. Following incubation, protein was precipitated by ammonium sulfate at 90% of saturation, and radioactivity of the precipitate was checked in a dioxane scintillator with an efficiency of about 35%. It is shown that the characteristics of interaction of the clarified specific protein sites with cytokinins in regard to a number of criteria correspond to the characteristics expected of receptors of these phytohormones.

Romanov, G.A.; Kulaeva, O.N.; Taryan, V.Y.

1986-01-01

300

Immunotoxin construction with a ribosome-inactivating protein from barley.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of a ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) from barley endosperm for use as an immunotoxin. This barley RIP is identical with the 30-kDa protein first reported by Coleman and Roberts [(1982) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 696, 239] and sequenced by Asano and co-workers [(1986) Carlsberg Res. Commun. 51, 75]. Use of the terms barley toxin I, II, and III is proposed to describe the three isoforms resolved by cation-exchange chromatography. An improved procedure for isolating the protein involving the steps of aqueous extraction, ammonium sulfate precipitation, and cation-exchange HPLC is described. Barley toxin II retained activity after exposure to ca. 40% acetonitrile and 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid or lyophilization. In a comparative study using the rabbit reticulocyte lysate assay, the protein was about 68% and 30% as potent as gelonin and ricin A-chain (RTA), respectively. Introduction of SH groups with 2-iminothiolane resulted in a substantial loss of activity as the number of thiol groups approached four. Therefore, it was necessary to limit thiolation to an average of one to two SH groups per toxin molecule. Anti-transferrin receptor-based immunotoxins constructed with RTA, gelonin, and barley toxin II exhibited comparable cytotoxicity against a human colon tumor cell line. We conclude that the availability of raw material, ease of purification, and stability of barley toxin II to lyophilization and denaturing conditions render it a suitable protein for the construction of immunotoxins. PMID:2098110

Ebert, R F; Spryn, L A

301

High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley.

Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Silvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A

2008-01-01

302

Tissue metabolic responses to salt stress in wild and cultivated barley.  

PubMed

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance. PMID:23383190

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-31

303

Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance.

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

304

Tibet is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The Near East Fertile Crescent is well recognized as a primary center of barley origin, diversity, and domestication. A large number of wild barleys have been collected from the Tibetan Plateau, which is characterized by an extreme environment. We used genome-wide diversity array technology markers to analyze the genotypic division between wild barley from the Near East and Tibet. Our results confirmed the existence of Tibetan wild barley and suggested that the split between the wild barleys in the Near East and those in Tibet occurred around 2.76 million years ago (Mya). To test the concept of polyphyletic domestication of barley, we characterized a set of worldwide cultivated barley. Some Chinese hulless and six-rowed barleys showed a close relationship with Tibetan wild barley but showed no common ancestor with other cultivated barley. Our data support the concept of polyphyletic domestication of cultivated barley and indicate that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. The current results may be highly significant in exploring the elite germplasm for barley breeding, especially against cold and drought stresses.

Dai, Fei; Nevo, Eviatar; Wu, Dezhi; Comadran, Jordi; Zhou, Meixue; Qiu, Long; Chen, Zhonghua; Beiles, Avigdor; Chen, Guoxiong; Zhang, Guoping

2012-01-01

305

Propellant Grain Design,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This lecture reports a general overview of the current methodologies used at SNIA BPD in designing solid rocket motor propellant grain. The Internal Ballistics aspect in the grain design is emphasized. An overview of what are the general requirements (Thr...

S. Scippa

1987-01-01

306

Presolar Grains in Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about presolar grains. It discusses what they are, how to identify them, the different kinds, and what can be learned from presolar grains. If you need more information there are additional links to go to.

Nittler, Larry R.

2005-06-07

307

Presolar Grains in Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about presolar grains. It discusses what they are, how to identify them, the different kinds, and what can be learned from presolar grains. If you need more information there are additional links to go to.

Nittler, Larry R.

2010-07-21

308

Grains and Starchy Vegetables  

MedlinePLUS

... Non-starchy Vegetables Protein Foods Sugar and Desserts Artificial Sweeteners Sugar Alcohols Grains and Starchy Vegetables Taking ... package. For all cereals and grains, read the ingredient list and look for the following sources of ...

309

In vivo indices for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle: Comparison with in vitro methods.  

PubMed

Our objective was to evaluate a near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) used in the feed industry to estimate the potential for grains to increase the risk of ruminal acidosis. The existing NIRS calibration was developed from in sacco and in vitro measures in cattle and grain chemical composition measurements. To evaluate the existing model, 20 cultivars of 5 grain types were fed to 40 Holstein heifers using a grain challenge protocol and changes in rumen VFA, ammonia, lactic acids, and pH that are associated with acidosis were measured. A method development study was performed to determine a grain feeding rate sufficient to induce non-life threatening but substantial ruminal changes during grain challenge. Feeding grain at a rate of 1.2% of BW met these criteria, lowering rumen pH (P = 0.01) and increasing valerate (P < 0.01) and propionate concentrations (P = 0.01). Valerate was the most discriminatory measure indicating ruminal change during challenge. Heifers were assigned using a row by column design in an in vivo study to 1 of 20 grain cultivars and were reassigned after a 9 d period (n = 4 cattle/treatment). The test grains were dry rolled oats (n = 3), wheat (n = 6), barley (n = 4), triticale (n = 4), and sorghum (n = 3) cultivars. Cattle were adapted to the test grain and had ad libitum access to grass silage 11 d before the challenge. Feed was withheld for 14 h before challenge feeding with 0.3 kg DM of silage followed by the respective test grain fed at 1.2% of BW. A rumen sample was taken by stomach tube 5, 65, 110, 155, and 200 min after grain consumption. The rumen is not homogenous and samples of rumen fluid obtained by stomach tube will differ from those gained by other methods. Rumen pH was measured immediately; individual VFA, ammonia, and D- and L-lactate concentrations were analyzed later. Rumen pH (P = 0.002) and all concentrations of fermentation products differed among grains (P = 0.001). A previously defined discriminant score calculated at 200 min after challenge was used to rank grains for acidosis risk. A significant correlation between the discriminant score and the NIRS ranking (r = 0.731, P = 0.003) demonstrated the potential for using NIRS calibrations for predicting acidosis risk of grains in cattle. The overall rankings of grains for acidosis risk were wheat > triticale > barley > oats > sorghum. PMID:23482574

Lean, I J; Golder, H M; Black, J L; King, R; Rabiee, A R

2013-03-12

310

DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits  

PubMed Central

Background Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL), validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding of gene functions involved in the control of these traits. We focused on the four loci BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF and HvGAMYB that play a role in the regulation of B-hordein expression, the major fraction of the barley storage protein. The association was tested in a collection of 224 spring barley accessions using a two-stage mixed model approach. Results Within the sequenced fragments of four candidate genes we observed different levels of nucleotide diversity. The effect of selection on the candidate genes was tested by Tajima's D which revealed significant values for BLZ1, BLZ2, and BPBF in the subset of two-rowed barleys. Pair-wise LD estimates between the detected SNPs within each candidate gene revealed different intra-genic linkage patterns. On the basis of a more extensive examination of genomic regions surrounding the four candidate genes we found a sharp decrease of LD (r2<0.2 within 1 cM) in all but one flanking regions. Significant marker-trait associations between SNP sites within BLZ1 and flowering time, BPBF and crude protein content and BPBF and starch content were detected. Most haplotypes occurred at frequencies <0.05 and therefore were rejected from the association analysis. Based on haplotype information, BPBF was associated to crude protein content and starch content, BLZ2 showed association to thousand-grain weight and BLZ1 was found to be associated with flowering time and plant height. Conclusions Differences in nucleotide diversity and LD pattern within the candidate genes BLZ1, BLZ2, BPBF, and HvGAMYB reflect the impact of selection on the nucleotide sequence of the four candidate loci. Despite significant associations, the analysed candidate genes only explained a minor part of the total genetic variation although they are known to be important factors influencing the expression of seed quality traits. Therefore, we assume that grain quality as well as plant height and flowering time are influenced by many factors each contributing a small part to the expression of the phenotype. A genome-wide association analysis could provide a more comprehensive picture of loci involved in the regulation of grain quality, thousand grain weight and the other agronomic traits that were analyzed in this study. However, despite available high-throughput genotyping arrays the marker density along the barely genome is still insufficient to cover all associations in a whole genome scan. Therefore, the candidate gene-based approach will further play an important role in barley association studies.

2010-01-01

311

Solid Propellant Grain Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To design a solid propellant grain is to conceive and to define a grain which satisfies various requirements. This paper describes the methods and procedures which are used today in France to design propellant grains. It describes and analyses: (1) The va...

B. Zeller

1988-01-01

312

Marketing Farm Grain Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

Ridenour, Harlan E.

313

Genetic diversity analysis of barley landraces and cultivars in the Shanghai region of China.  

PubMed

We analyzed the genetic diversity of 115 barley germplasms, including 112 landraces and three new barley cultivars grown in the Shanghai region, using a set of 11 SSR markers. Sixty-six alleles were observed at the 11 SSR loci, ranged from three to ten, with a mean of six alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content ranged from 0.568 to 0.853, with a mean of 0.732, indicating considerable genetic variation in barley in the Shanghai area. Clustering analysis indicated that these barley accessions could be divided into two categories (A and B). Ninety-seven six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the A category; sixteen two-rowed and two six-rowed barley cultivars were classified in the B category. This demonstrated genetic differences between two-rowed and six-rowed barley varieties. In addition, we found that the three new barley cultivars are closely related. PMID:22535400

Chen, Z-W; Lu, R-J; Zou, L; Du, Z-Z; Gao, R-H; He, T; Huang, J-H

2012-03-16

314

Proteome analysis of Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 affected by barley.  

PubMed

Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 is known to be able to suppress plant diseases by producing antimicrobial compounds and to promote plant growth by producing phytohormones, and secreting diverse degrading enzymes. In spite of these capabilities, little is known regarding the flow of information from the bacterial strain to the barley roots. In an attempt to determine the flow of information from the bacterial strain to barley roots, the train was grown in the presence and absence of barley, and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry were used. 2D-PAGE detected approximately 1000 spots in the cell and 1100 spots in the supernatant at a pH 4-10 gradient. Interestingly, about 80 spots from each sample showed quantitative variations. Fifty-three spots from these were analyzed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and 28 proteins were identified. Most of the cytosolic proteins expressed at higher levels were found in P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley rather than in the absence of barley. Proteins detected at a lower level in the surpernatant of P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley were lipoprotein, glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase, heat-shock protein HtpG spermidine synthase, OrfZ, ribonuclease PH, and coenzyme PQQ synthesis protein, and flagellar hook-associated protein 2 whereas proteins detected at a higher level in the surpernatant of P. polymyxa E681 cells grown in the presence of barley included D-alanyl-D-alanine ligase A, isopentenyldiphosphate delta-isomerase, ABC transporter ATP-binding protein Uup, lipase. Many of the proteins belonging to plant-induced stimulons are associated with biosynthetic metabolism and metabolites of proteins and transport. Some of these proteins would be expected to be induced by environmental changes resulting from the accumulation of plant-secreted substances. PMID:18050911

Seul, Keyung-Jo; Park, Seung-Hwan; Ryu, Choong-Min; Lee, Yong-Hyun; Ghim, Sa-Youl

2007-06-01

315

Discovery, characterization and exploitation of Mlo powdery mildew resistance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mlo resistance to barley powdery mildew is a relatively new kind of resistance. It was originally described in a powdery mildew resistant barley mutant in 1942 and has been mutagen-induced repeatedly since then. About 1970 it was also recognized in barley landraces collected in Ethiopia in the 1930s. It is unique in that 1) Mlo resistance does not conform to

I. Helms Jørgensen

1992-01-01

316

The European barley database of the ECP\\/GR: an introduction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Passport data of 55,369 accessions from 35 barley collections in 26 countries are stored in the European Barley Database (EBDB) of the European Cooperative Programme for the Conservation and Exchange of Crop Genetic Resources (ECP\\/GR) which is maintained at the Zentralinstitut für Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung at Gatersleben, German Democratic Republic. A catalogue, the European Barley List, was published in

Helmut Knüpffer

1988-01-01

317

Evaluation of antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of typical malting barley varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen typical malting barley varieties from China were evaluated for their DPPH radical, ABTS radical cation and superoxide anion radical scavenging activities, reducing power, metal chelating activities, and total phenolic contents (TPC). All barley samples exhibited significant antioxidant activities determined by different assays, and contained significant levels of phenolic compounds. Gan4 and Wupi1 barley exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging

Haifeng Zhao; Wei Fan; Jianjun Dong; Jian Lu; Jian Chen; Lianju Shan; Yan Lin; Weibao Kong

2008-01-01

318

Long-term hermetic storage of barley in PVC-covered concrete platforms under Mediterranean conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the bulk storage of barley in the open air under Mediterranean conditions was developed. A large (75 × 25 m) concrete platform with low walls was filled with barley and covered with a PVC overliner and a polyethylene underliner. The barley formed a pile of 4018 tonnes with a peak 7 m high and was stored for

A. Varnava; S. Navarro; E. Donahaye

1995-01-01

319

Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi; Yukihiro Yasuda; Ryosuke Sasaki

2010-01-01

320

Necrotic enteritis: Effect of barley, wheat and corn diets on proliferation of Clostridium perfringens type A  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necrotic enteritis, caused by Clostridium perfringens type A, is more prevalent in broilers fed wheat or barley diets than in those fed a corn diet. We compared the effects of wheat, barley and corn diets on in vitro proliferation of C. perfringens type A. Bacteria were inoculated into the supernatants delivered from either digested or non-digested barley, wheat and corn

C. B. Annett; J. R. Viste; M. Chirino-Trejo; H. L. Classen; D. M. Middleton; E. Simko

2002-01-01

321

Properties and Composition of Turkish Flat Bread (Bazlama) Supplemented with Barley Flour and Wheat Bran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 76(4):506-511 In this study, effects of increasing levels of wheat bran and barley flour on dough properties and bazlama quality were investigated. Bazlama is a flat bread commonly consumed in Turkey. Flours of wheat cultivars Gün and Gerek, flour of barley cultivar Tokak, and Gerek bran mixture were used. Part of the wheat flours were replaced with barley

Arzu Ba?man; Hamit Köksel

1999-01-01

322

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants.

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Piston, Fernando; Martin, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

323

Investigation of a His-rich arabinogalactan-protein for micronutrient biofortification of cereal grain.  

PubMed

The micronutrient content of most cereal grains is low and responsible for malnutrition deficiencies in millions of people who rely on grains as their primary food source. Any strategy that can increase the micronutrient content of grain will have significant benefits to world health. We identified a gene from barley encoding a cell wall protein with multiple histidine (His)-rich motifs interspersed with short arabinogalactan-protein (AGP) domains and have called it Hordeum vulgare His-rich AGP (HvHRA1). Sequence analysis shows that His-rich AGPs are rare in plants and that the number of His-rich and AGP domains differ between cereals and dicots. The barley and wheat encoded proteins have more than 13 His-rich domains, whereas the putative rice orthologue has only 5 His-rich regions. His-rich motifs are well-established metal-binding motifs; therefore, we developed transgenic (Tx) rice plants that constitutively overexpress barley HvHRA1. There was no significant effect on plant growth or grain yield in Tx plants. Purification of AGPs from wild-type and Tx plants showed that only Tx plants contained detectable levels of a His-rich AGP. Calcein assay shows that the AGP fraction from Tx plants had increased binding affinity for Cu(2+) . Micronutrient analysis of brown and white rice showed that the grain nutrient yield for Fe, Zn and Cu was higher in two Tx lines compared to their respective nulls, although the differences were not statistically significant. This approach highlights the potential of the plant apoplast (cell wall) for storage of key nutrients through overexpression of genes for metal-binding proteins. PMID:21707638

Aizat, Wan M; Preuss, James M; Johnson, Alexander A T; Tester, Mark A; Schultz, Carolyn J

2011-07-25

324

Epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae on barley.  

PubMed

The epiphytic populations of Pseudomonas syringae were monitored on 23 barley entries planted in the field in four replications during the summer of 1986, and on six selected entries during the summer of 1987, from the second-leaf stage until senescence. Populations were initially low (0-3 log colony-forming units (cfu) per leaf) in all but one entry; they generally increased throughout the season, and at the end they reached 3-7 log cfu/leaf. Significant differences among the average epiphytic populations were found in the 1986 trial; only one entry, however, had a significantly different average population in the 1987 trial. The slopes of population increase were also compared: significant differences were observed in 1986 but not in 1987. In addition to epiphytic population counts, the percentage of ice nucleation active bacteria was determined in the population isolated from each leaf sample, and averaged throughout the season for each entry. Significant differences were observed in 1986 and in 1987. When the entries were ranked according to their average epiphytic population and compared between the two experiments, they were found to be very similar. The same was not true for the other parameters studied in the experiment. PMID:1521185

Georgakopoulos, D G; Sands, D C

1992-02-01

325

Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

2008-03-01

326

Effect of Diets Containing Different Qualities of Barley on Growth Performance and Serum Amylase and Intestinal Villus Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to investigate protein metabolism and differences in length of intestinal villi in broiler chickens which consumed one of the barley based diets. The treatments were corn diet (1) as a control, barley diet with (4) or without (2) a commercial ?-glucanase enzyme, barley treated with rumen fluid without protozoa (3) and hulless barley (5). The effect

2005-01-01

327

Effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation and variation in the proportion of barley and sugar beet pulp on growth performance and rumen, blood and carcass characteristics of young entire male lambs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-eight Suffolk×Mule entire male lambs (22.3kg average live weight, two months old) were used to study the effects of addition of sodium bicarbonate and increasing quantities of molassed sugar beet pulp (MSBP) to diets based on barley grain (780gkg?1 fresh weight and approximately iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous). Measurements were made of dry matter (DM) intake, growth, some ruminal and blood plasma

P. Mandebvu; H. Galbraith

1999-01-01

328

Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells  

SciTech Connect

({sup 35}S)Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100{degree}C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered.

Jacobsen, J.V. (CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)); Shaw, D.C. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

1989-12-01

329

Antioxidant activity of grains.  

PubMed

Epidemiological studies have shown that consumption of whole grains and grain-based products is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. The health benefits of whole grains are attributed in part to their unique phytochemical composition. However, the phytochemical contents in grains have been commonly underestimated in the literature, because bound phytochemicals were not included. This study was designed to investigate the complete phytochemical profiles in free, soluble conjugated, and insoluble bound forms, as well as their antioxidant activities in uncooked whole grains. Corn had the highest total phenolic content (15.55 +/- 0.60 micromol of gallic acid equiv/g of grain) of the grains tested, followed by wheat (7.99 +/- 0.39 micromol of gallic acid equiv/g of grain), oats (6.53 +/- 0.19 micromol of gallic acid equiv/g of grain), and rice (5.56 +/- 0.17 micromol of gallic acid equiv/g of grain). The major portion of phenolics in grains existed in the bound form (85% in corn, 75% in oats and wheat, and 62% in rice), although free phenolics were frequently reported in the literature. Ferulic acid was the major phenolic compound in grains tested, with free, soluble-conjugated, and bound ferulic acids present in the ratio 0.1:1:100. Corn had the highest total antioxidant activity (181.42 +/- 0.86 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of grain), followed by wheat (76.70 +/- 1.38 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of grain), oats (74.67 +/- 1.49 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of grain), and rice (55.77 +/- 1.62 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of grain). Bound phytochemicals were the major contributors to the total antioxidant activity: 90% in wheat, 87% in corn, 71% in rice, and 58% in oats. Bound phytochemicals could survive stomach and intestinal digestion to reach the colon. This may partly explain the mechanism of grain consumption in the prevention of colon cancer, other digestive cancers, breast cancer, and prostate cancer, which is supported by epidemiological studies. PMID:12358499

Adom, Kafui Kwami; Liu, Rui Hai

2002-10-01

330

Diagnosis and Management of Grain-Induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder.

Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-01-01

331

Chemical composition of teff (Eragrostis tef) compared with that of wheat, barley and grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of teff, analyzed from uncontaminated seeds, revealed the superiority of the species in mineral nutritive\\u000a value. Teff’s exceedingly high iron and calcium content was confirmed. The high iron content of teff reported by the Ethiopia\\u000a Nutrition Survey must have been due to certain inherent factors of the species, not only a result of contamination. The magnitude\\u000a of

Melak H. Mengesha

1966-01-01

332

Marker-trait associations in Virginia Tech winter barley identified using genome-wide mapping.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an opportunity to examine the genetic architecture of quantitatively inherited traits in breeding populations. The objectives of this study were to use GWAS to identify chromosome regions governing traits of importance in six-rowed winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germplasm and to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) markers that can be implemented in a marker-assisted breeding program. Advanced hulled and hulless lines (329 total) were screened using 3,072 SNPs as a part of the US. Barley Coordinated Agricultural Project (CAP). Phenotypic data collected over 4 years for agronomic and food quality traits and resistance to leaf rust (caused by Puccinia hordei G. Otth), powdery mildew [caused by Blumeria graminis (DC.) E.O. Speer f. sp. hordei Em. Marchal], net blotch (caused by Pyrenophora teres), and spot blotch [caused by Cochliobolus sativus (Ito and Kuribayashi) Drechsler ex Dastur] were analyzed with SNP genotypic data in a GWAS to determine marker-trait associations. Significant SNPs associated with previously described quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes were identified for heading date on chromosome 3H, test weight on 2H, yield on 7H, grain protein on 5H, polyphenol oxidase activity on 2H and resistance to leaf rust on 2H and 3H, powdery mildew on 1H, 2H and 4H, net blotch on 5H, and spot blotch on 7H. Novel QTL also were identified for agronomic, quality, and disease resistance traits. These SNP-trait associations provide the opportunity to directly select for QTL contributing to multiple traits in breeding programs. PMID:23139143

Berger, Gregory L; Liu, Shuyu; Hall, Marla D; Brooks, Wynse S; Chao, Shiaoman; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Baik, B-K; Steffenson, Brian; Griffey, Carl A

2012-11-09

333

Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Barley Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Isomerase 1  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of linoleic acid in incubation mixtures containing extracts of barley lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase, and the production of these enzymes in quiescent and germinated barley, were investigated. The ratio of 9-hydroperoxylinoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid was higher for incubation mixtures containing extracts of quiescent barley than for mixtures containing extracts of germinated barley; production of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid from germinated barley exceeded that of quiescent barley. Hydroperoxy metabolites of linoleic acid were converted to 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid, and small amounts of 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and 11-hydroxy-9,10-epoxy-cis-13-octadecenoic acid whether quiescent or germinated barley was the enzyme source; a fifth product, 13-hydroxy-12-oxo-cis-9-octadecenoic acid was formed only when germinated barley was the enzyme source. Lipoxygenase was readily extracted by buffer, but hydroperoxide isomerase was bound in a catalytically active state to the insoluble barley grist and was efficiently extracted only when Triton X-100 was included in the extraction buffer. Hydroperoxide isomerase was localized in the embryo of quiescent barley, but it was present in the embryo, acrospire, and in small but concentrated amounts in the rootlet of germinating barley. The levels of both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase increased through the thirteenth day of germination. Images

Lulai, Edward C.; Baker, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Don C.

1981-01-01

334

Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

Winter, Philip; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

1996-12-01

335

Dehumidification Grain Dryer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels. ...

J. W. Lula G. W. Bohnert

1998-01-01

336

Environmental monitoring in grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is shown that Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are capable of deployment in industrial processes which present particularly hostile RF environments. The techniques which have been developed have generic applicability, but in this work they are focused on the monitoring of grain storage. Determination of the environmental conditions in a grain silo is challenged by the dielectric properties of the

Graham Parkinson; Dominic Crutchley; Peter M Green; Michalis Antoniou; Mathew Boon; Peter N. Green; Peter R. Green; Robin Sloan; Trevor York

2010-01-01

337

Effects of adlay, buckwheat, and barley on transit time and the antioxidative system in obesity induced rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined whether four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) affect the duration of food residence in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic enzyme activities in rats fed different combinations of the grains. The rats were raised for 4 weeks on a high fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into four groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the grains. Corresponding to the dietary fiber contents of the experimental grains, gut transit time was shortest in the rats fed GB and increased in the order of BW, AD, and WR. In addition, the accumulated shortest transit time occurred in the GB group. Gut transit time affected weight gain and major organ weight, as it was closely related to the absorption of nutrients. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver was higher in rats fed WR, AD, BW, and GB, indicating that the other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group. In conclusion, reduced colonic transit time has been implicated in reducing the incidence of colon cancer, as evidenced by populations consuming diets rich in fiber. Whole grains such as AD, BW, and GB may contribute to a significant supply of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress if they are consumed in large amounts.

Kim, Jung Yun; Son, Bo Kyung

2012-01-01

338

BARLEY CONSUMPTION LOWERS CHOLESTEROL IN MEN AND OVERWEIGHT WOMEN.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Heart disease continues to be the number one cause of death in the United States despite numerous plans to reduce its prevalence. Increasing soluble fiber from oats or psyllium has been reported to be effective in lowering cholesterol. Barley contains as much soluble fiber as oats, but it is not co...

339

Phytosiderophore release in relation to micronutrient metal deficiencies in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosiderophore release occurs under both iron and zinc deficiencies in representative Poaceae and has been speculated to be a general adaptive response to enhance the acquisition of micronutrient metals. To test this hypothesis, phytosiderophore (PS) release rates from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. CM72) subjected to deficiencies of Fe, Zn, Mn, and Cu were compared using chelator-buffered nutrient solutions. PS release

Dirk Gries; Sylke Brunn; David E. Crowley; David R. Parker

1995-01-01

340

Increasing the efficiency of azide mutagenesis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In both the higher plant and bacterial systems, ozide appears to be a highly efficient mutagen with some apparently rather unique properties. However, its mechanism in vivo is not yet clear. Results are reported from studies on the effects of azide administered at fixed intervals to barley seedlings. Effects on DNA synthesis and chromosomes were studied. The effects of azide

C. Sander; R. A. Nilan; A. Kleinhofs; B. K. Vig

1976-01-01

341

Caffeine potentiation of propane sultone mutagenesis in barley.  

PubMed

Pre- and post-treatments with caffeine enhanced propane sultone (PS)-induced growth damage in barley. The caffeine post-treatments were, however, more effective in potentiating PS-induced growth damage and caused an additive effect on the frequency of chlorophyll mutations. PMID:4069141

Singh, C; Kaul, B L

1985-12-01

342

CALCIUMIONS INCREASE TOXICITY OF DEOXYNIVALENOL TO BARLEY LEAF TISSUES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Deoxynivalenol (DON) had a bleaching effect on detached barley leaf segments (Bushnell et al, Phytopathology 92:S11, 2002). Leaf tissues lost pigmentation after incubation with 30-200 ppm DON for 2-4 days in light. The bleaching was accompanied by disorganization of chloroplasts and other cytoplas...

343

Association Mapping of Spot Blotch Resistance in Wild Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spot blotch, caused by Cochliobolus sativus, is an important foliar disease of barley. The disease has been controlled for over 40 years through the deployment of cultivars with durable resistance derived from line 'NDB112.' Pathotypes of C. sativus with virulence for the NDB112 resistance have be...

344

Simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification, and lactic acid fermentation on barley starch  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been demonstrated that a l(+)-lactic acid concentration as high as 162 g l?1 can be obtained from barley starch in a relatively short processing time of less than 48 h with a balanced simultaneous liquefaction, saccharification, and fermentation. Yields of 98 and 87% were obtained from 130 and 170 g l?1 starch, respectively. A 10% inoculum was determined

Y.-Y. Linko; P. Javanainen

1996-01-01

345

Random amplified polymorphic DNA and pedigree relationships in spring barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in 27 inbred barley lines with varying amounts of common ancestry and in 20 doubled-haploid (DH) lines from a biparental cross. Of 33 arbitrary 10 base primers that were tested, 19 distinguished a total of 31 polymorphisms. All polymorphisms were scored as dominant genetic markers except for 1, where Southern analysis indicated the

N. A. Tinker; M. G. Fortin; D. E. Mather

1993-01-01

346

PREGERMINATION IN THE 2002 MIDWESTERN BARLEY CROP: ASSESSMENT AND OCCURRENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall received during harvest resulted in a substantial portion of the 2002 Midwestern barley crop exhibiting pregermination (preharvest sprouting). The fact that the incidence was the most wide spread in more than 20 years, has provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare methodology f...

347

Yield Limiting Factors to Food Barley Production in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most previous studies conducted to examine food barley production constraints in Ethiopia were single factor experiments and unsuitable to determine the relative importance of various factors and interactions among these factors. To develop sustainable food systems in regions with limited resources, it is essential to understand the relative importance of alternative production inputs and their interactions. A replicated 2 factorial

Amsal Tarekegne; Hailu Gebre; Charles A. Francis

1997-01-01

348

Quantitative resistance of barley cultivars to Rhynchospohum secalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative resistance in spring barley cultivars with different genetic bases of resistance to scald was investigated in field trials conducted in 1993, 1995, and 1996. The variables measured included area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), apparent infection rate (AIR), infection frequency (IF), lesion length (LL), lesion width (LW), time to disease onset at 5% severity (T5), final severity (FS),

K. Xi; A. G. Xue; P. A. Burnett; T. K. Turkington

2000-01-01

349

Patterns of polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium in cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

We carried out a genome-wide analysis of polymorphism (4,596 SNP loci across 190 elite cultivated accessions) chosen to represent the available genetic variation in current elite North West European and North American barley germplasm. Population sub-structure, patterns of diversity and linkage disequilibrium varied considerably across the seven barley chromosomes. Gene-rich and rarely recombining haplotype blocks that may represent up to 60% of the physical length of barley chromosomes extended across the ‘genetic centromeres’. By positioning 2,132 bi-parentally mapped SNP markers with minimum allele frequencies higher than 0.10 by association mapping, 87.3% were located to within 5 cM of their original genetic map position. We show that at this current marker density genetically diverse populations of relatively small size are sufficient to fine map simple traits, providing they are not strongly stratified within the sample, fall outside the genetic centromeres and population sub-structure is effectively controlled in the analysis. Our results have important implications for association mapping, positional cloning, physical mapping and practical plant breeding in barley and other major world cereals including wheat and rye that exhibit comparable genome and genetic features. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1466-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Comadran, Jordi; Ramsay, Luke; MacKenzie, Katrin; Hayes, Patrick; Close, Timothy J.; Muehlbauer, Gary; Stein, Nils

2010-01-01

350

A rapid hydroponic screening for aluminium tolerance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and breeding of crops for aluminium (Al) tolerance is a useful approach to increase production on acid soils. This requires a rapid and reliable system to discriminate between Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive genotypes. A hydroponic system was developed to screen for Al tolerance in barley (t Hordeum vulgare L.) to overcome several problems encountered in previous screening methods. Four levels

Jian Feng Ma; Shao Jian Zheng; Xiao Feng Li; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Hideaki Matsumoto

1997-01-01

351

Gradual enzymatic modification of barley and potato amylopectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

New potato and barley starches with no amylose were used in order to explore structural changes in amylopectin due to hydrolysis with ?-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquifaciens. The degradation pattern was monitored with size exclusion, with light scattering and viscometry detectors for determination of molecular weight and radius of gyration. Fractions with relatively narrow molecular weight distributions at high yields were

T Frigård; R Andersson; P Åman

2002-01-01

352

EYTHYLENE INFLUENCES GREEN PLANT REGENERATION FROM BARLEY CALLUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The plant hormone ethylene is involved in numerous plant processes including in vitro growth and regeneration. Manipulating ethylene in vitro may be useful for increasing plant regeneration from cultured cells. As part of ongoing efforts to improve plant regeneration from barley (Hordeum vulgare L...

353

Deterioration and reactivation of beneficial rhizopseudomonads of barley ( Hordeum vulgare )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The beneficial effect of rhizopseudomonad strains on the growth of the barley cultivar Iban as a function of the storage time under laboratory conditions was evaluated. The beneficial rhizopseudomonad strains were preserved on slants of Modified King Medium B (MKB) at 28 °C and transferred every 2 weeks. After 6 months of storage most strains lost their beneficial effect on

A. Iswandi; P. Bossier; J. Vandenabeele; W. Verstraete

1987-01-01

354

THE OMANI BARLEY LANDRAC BAHTINI: II. DIVERSITY OF ISOZYME MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Patterns of variation, based on ten isozyme loci, were used in characterizing seven ecotypes of the salt tolerant "Bahtini" Omani barley landrace. A total of 22 alleles were observed on all ten isozyme loci; all were polymorphic except for Pgd-1. Seven of the loci were found to be common widespread,...

355

CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY TISSUE-UBIQUITOUS B-AMYLASE2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are two barley b-amylases genes, encoding important starch degrading enzymes. The endosperm-specific b-amylase (Bmy1), the more abundant isozyme in cereal seeds, has been thoroughly characterized. The lesser abundant b-amylase2 (Bmy2), has not been biochemically characterized from any cereal s...

356

Volume changes of wheat and barley soaking in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Volume changes of wheat and barley soaked in water were determined utilizing measurements of particle density and bulk density. The effects of moisture content and temperature on the specific volume of the sample were investigated. An empirical equation relating moisture content and temperature to specific volume was derived, and the measured data agreed well with the values calculated from the

Y. Muramatsu; A. Tagawa; T. Kasai; K. Takeya

2006-01-01

357

THE OMANI BARLEY LANDRAC BAHTINI. I. VARIABILITY FOR SALT TOLERANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One-hundred-twenty-five accessions representing seven ecotypes of the Omani barley landrace "Batini" were selected from a collection of 3,000 accessions based on their agronomic performance under optimum growing conditions. The 125 accessions were evaluated for biomass production, in a hydroponics s...

358

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection. PMID:16263921

Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J

2005-11-01

359

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the hyphae travel along the epicarp in the space between the lemma and palea. Infection of the developing kernel proceeds through the epicarp, successively destroying the layers of the fruit coat and finally the starch and protein accumulating endosperm. Hyphae reaching the rachis proceed to apically located developing kernels. Using a constitutively green fluorescence protein-expressing Fusarium wild-type strain, and its knockout mutant, preventing trichothecene synthesis, we demonstrate that trichothecenes are not a virulence factor during infection through the fruit coat. In the absence of trichothecenes, the fungus is blocked by the development of heavy cell wall thickenings in the rachis node of Nandu wheat, a defense inhibited by the mycotoxin. In barley hyphae of both wild-type and the trichothecene knockout mutant, are inhibited at the rachis node and rachilla, limiting infection of adjacent florets through the phloem and along the surface of the rachis. Effective resistance to Fusarium head blight requires expression of genes that combat these different pathways of infection.

Jansen, Carin; von Wettstein, Diter; Schafer, Wilhelm; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Felk, Angelika; Maier, Frank J.

2005-01-01

360

Flux Balance Analysis of Barley Seeds: A Computational Approach to Study Systemic Properties of Central Metabolism1[W  

PubMed Central

The accumulation of storage compounds is an important aspect of cereal seed metabolism. Due to the agronomical importance of the storage reserves of starch, protein, and oil, the understanding of storage metabolism is of scientific interest, with practical applications in agronomy and plant breeding. To get insight into storage patterning in developing cereal seed in response to environmental and genetic perturbation, a computational analysis of seed metabolism was performed. A metabolic network of primary metabolism in the developing endosperm of barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model plant for temperate cereals, was constructed that includes 257 biochemical and transport reactions across four different compartments. The model was subjected to flux balance analysis to study grain yield and metabolic flux distributions in response to oxygen depletion and enzyme deletion. In general, the simulation results were found to be in good agreement with the main biochemical properties of barley seed storage metabolism. The predicted growth rate and the active metabolic pathway patterns under anoxic, hypoxic, and aerobic conditions predicted by the model were in accordance with published experimental results. In addition, the model predictions gave insight into the potential role of inorganic pyrophosphate metabolism to maintain seed metabolism under oxygen deprivation.

Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Schreiber, Falk; Koschutzki, Dirk; Junker, Bjorn H.

2009-01-01

361

Elemental fingerprint analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistics.  

PubMed

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS) have been used to examine the multi-elemental composition and (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of three spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes (Orthega, Barke, and Bartok) grown in three typical Danish agricultural soils (North Jutland, West Jutland, and East Zealand) differing in soil fertility. The aim of the study was to examine whether it was possible to generate a unique elemental fingerprint of individual barley genotypes irrespective of the elemental imprint plants had received from soils differing in fertility and agricultural practice. Multivariate statistics were used to analyze the elemental fingerprints of the barley genotypes at different times during a full growing season from early tillering to full maturity of the barley grains. Initially, 36 elements were analyzed in the plant samples but this number was subsequently reduced to 15 elements: B, Ba, C, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn. These elements exceeded the limit of detection ( LOD) for all genotypes, soil types, and plant growth stages and for these elements the accuracy was better than 90% compared with apple leaf certified reference material (CRM). Principal component analysis (PCA) separated multi-elemental data in accordance with soil type when plants of similar physiological age were compared, whereas this separation disappeared if plants of all ages were compared simultaneously. Isotope ratios (delta(15)N) of plants also proved to be a highly accurate property for classification of samples according to soil type. In contrast, the differences in delta(13)C were too small to enable such classification. The differences in delta(15)N among soils were so pronounced that separation of samples according to the physiological age of plants became redundant. However, delta(15)N and the multi-elemental analysis revealed no differences between the three barley genotypes, indicating that the influence of soil chemistry and possibly also climate and agricultural practice was too large to allow an unique elemental fingerprint for the genotypes. This finding was substantiated by analyzing the multi-elemental composition of grain from two additional genotypes (Otira and Barthos) grown at the north and east locations, respectively. PCA showed not only that the elemental fingerprints of these two genotypes were similar to those of the others, but also that the soil in which the plant had been growing could be accurately predicted on the basis of the PCA scores from the genotypes Orthega, Barke, and Bartok. Similar conclusions could be drawn using delta(15)N data. PMID:14551660

Husted, Søren; Mikkelsen, Birgitte F; Jensen, Jacob; Nielsen, Niels Erik

2003-10-09

362

Leucine-Derived Cyano Glucosides in Barley1  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings contain five cyano glucosides derived from the amino acid l-leucine (Leu). The chemical structure and the relative abundance of the cyano glucosides were investigated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses using spring barley cultivars with high, medium, and low cyanide potential. The barley cultivars showed a 10-fold difference in their cyano glucoside content, but the relative content of the individual cyano glucosides remained constant. Epiheterodendrin, the only cyanogenic glucoside present, comprised 12% to 18% of the total content of cyano glucosides. It is proposed that the aglycones of all five cyano glucosides are formed by the initial action of a cytochrome P450 enzyme of the CYP79 family converting l-Leu into Z-3-methylbutanal oxime and subsequent action of a less specific CYP71E enzyme converting the oxime into 3-methylbutyro nitrile and mediating subsequent hydroxylations at the ?-, as well as ?- and ?-, carbon atoms. Presence of cyano glucosides in the barley seedlings was restricted to leaf tissue, with 99% confined to the epidermis cell layers of the leaf blade. Microsomal preparations from epidermal cells were not able to convert l-[14C]Leu into the biosynthetic intermediate, Z-3-methylbutanal-oxime. This was only achieved using microsomal preparations from other cell types in the basal leaf segment, demonstrating translocation of the cyano glucosides to the epidermal cell layers after biosynthesis. A ?-glucosidase able to degrade epiheterodendrin was detected exclusively in yet a third compartment, the endosperm of the germinating seed. Therefore, in barley, a putative function of cyano glucosides in plant defense is not linked to cyanide release.

Nielsen, Kirsten Annette; Olsen, Carl Erik; Pontoppidan, Katrine; M?ller, Birger Lindberg

2002-01-01

363

Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.  

PubMed

The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities. PMID:18406168

Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

2008-02-29

364

The defective seed5 (des5) mutant: effects on barley seed development and HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1 gene regulation  

PubMed Central

Barley, one of the major small grain crops, is especially important in climatically demanding agricultural areas of the world, with multiple uses within food, feed, and beverage. The barley endosperm is further of special scientific interest due to its three aleurone cell layers, with the potential of bringing forward the molecular understanding of seed development and cell specification from Arabidopsis and maize. Work done in Arabidopsis and maize indicate the presence of conserved seed developmental pathways where Crinkly4 (Cr4), Defective kernel1 (Dek1), and Supernumerary aleurone layer1 (Sal1) are key players. With the use of microscopy, a comprehensive phenotypic characterization of the barley defective seed5 (des5) mutant is presented here. The analysis further extends to molecular quantification of gene expression changes in the des5 mutant by qRT-PCR. Moreover, full-length genomic sequences of the barley orthologues were generated and these were annotated as HvDek1, HvCr4, and HvSal1. The most striking results in this study are the patchy reduction in number of aleurone cells, rudimentary anticlinal aleurone cell walls, and the specific change of HvCr4 expression compared to HvDek1 and HvSal1. The data presented support the involvement of Hvdes5 in establishing aleurone cells. Finally, how these results might affect the current model of aleurone and epidermal cell identity and development is discussed with a speculation regarding a possible role of Des5 in regulating cell division/ secondary cell wall building.

Olsen, Lene T.; Divon, Hege H.; Al, Ronald; Fosnes, Kjetil; Lid, Stein Erik; Opsahl-Sorteberg, Hilde-Gunn

2008-01-01

365

Isolate-specific QTLs of resistance to leaf stripe (Pyrenophora graminea) in the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' spring barley cross.  

PubMed

Leaf stripe caused by the fungus Pyrenophora graminea represents a serious threat to grain yield in organically grown barley and in conventional Nordic and Mediterranean districts, for which resistant cultivars are necessary. A medium-density, molecular marker map derived from a 'Steptoe' (partially resistant) x 'Morex' (susceptible) spring barley cross and its derived doubled-haploid mapping population inoculated with the fungus made it possible to identify QTLs of resistance to leaf stripe. In order to investigate isolate-specificity of partial resistance, the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' segregating population was inoculated with two highly virulent P. graminea isolates, Dg2 and Dg5. The present study demonstrates that partial resistance to leaf stripe of cv 'Steptoe' is governed in part by shared loci and in part by isolate-specific ones. One QTL is common to the resistance for the two isolates, on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2H), two QTLs are linked on chromosome 3 (3H), and the remaining two are isolate-specific, respectively for isolate Dg2 on chromosome 2 (2H) and for isolate Dg5 on chromosome 7 (5H). The QTL in common is that with the major effect on the resistance for each isolate, explaining 18.3% and 30.9% R(2) respectively for Dg2 and Dg5. The isolate-specific QTLs mapped in the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' barley reference map support the assumption of Parlevliet and Zadoks (1977) that partial resistance may be due to minor gene-for-minor-gene interactions. Map comparisons of the QTLs with the known qualitative resistance genes to leaf stripe, Rdg1 (2H) and Rdg2 (7H), as well as with other QTLs of partial resistance in barley, show that the QTL for resistance to both isolates mapped on the long arm of chromosome 2 (2H) does not coincide with the qualitative Rdg1 gene but is linked to it at about 30 cM. One isolate-specific QTL of resistance to P. graminea, mapped on the short arm of chromosome 2 (2H), is coincident with a QTL for resistance to Pyrenophora teres previously mapped in the 'Steptoe' x 'Morex' cross. PMID:12595996

Arru, L; Francia, E; Pecchioni, N

2002-10-19

366

The use of normal and heat-treated barley flour and waxy barley starch as anti-staling agents in laboratory and industrial baking processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Normal and heat-treated barley, both as flour and waxy starch, were added at a concentration of 3% to a white wheat bread. The effect not only of selected additives, but also of laboratory- and industrial baking processes on stalling was evaluated. Laboratory baked breads with heat-treated barley flour differed from control breads with regard to water content, firmness and amylopectin

Jeanette K. Purhagen; Malin E. Sjöö; Ann-Charlotte Eliasson

2011-01-01

367

Grain Optical Properties.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emi...

M. Hanner

1988-01-01

368

A homogenizer with replaceable razor blades for bulk isolation of active barley plastids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modification of the cutting device of a kitchen homogenizer is described which allows the preparation of biochemically active\\u000a greening barley plastids. The new cutting device consists of four easily replaceable razor blades. Intact plastids are isolated\\u000a from the immature leaves of spinach or from greening barley leaves with a yield of 10% and from etiolated barley with a yield

C. Gamini Kannangara; Simon P. Gough; Bent Hansen; Jan N. Rasmussen; David J. Simpson

1977-01-01

369

Comparison of Water Absorption Patterns in Two Barley Cultivars, Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(6):792-795 Two barley cultivars, Excel and Prisma (six-row and two-row types, respectively), were obtained from the 1993 harvest at Crookston, MN. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to follow water imbibition in single, large seeds of Excel and Prisma barley. A comparison of mois- ture distribution on longitudinal sections of Prisma and Excel barley during early hours of

E. McEntyre; R. Ruan; R. G. Fulcher

1998-01-01

370

Estimating Yield Losses in Cereals Infected with Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a prediction model to estimate yield losses due to barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV, family Luteoviridae) infection, thus avoiding the need for a healthy control, could facilitate germplasm screening and reduce evaluation costs. In the 1999\\/2000 growing season, 69 barley, 58 spring and winter\\/facultative bread wheat, and 39 durum wheat lines derived from the ICARDA (barley) and CIMMYT\\/ICARDA (wheat)

K. M. Makkouk; W. Ghulam

371

Optimizing the replacement of pork fat with fractionated barley flour paste in reduced-fat sausage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reduced-fat sausages were prepared by replacing pork back fat with barley flours of different particle sizes. Three barley\\u000a flour fractions with different particle size were obtained by passing the ground barley material through a sieve. Fraction\\u000a 1 and 2 had a higher water absorption index than other fraction and showed higher peak and final viscosities due to higher\\u000a ?-glucan content.

Jin-Woong Choi; So-Hee Kim; Saehun Mun; Sung-Joon Lee; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Ro Kim

2011-01-01

372

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

373

Sensitivity analysis of energy inputs for barley production in Hamedan Province of Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to determine the energy consumption and evaluation of inputs sensitivity for barley production in Hamedan Province, Iran. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method and partial regression coefficients on barley yield. The results revealed that total energy input for barley production was ?25,027MJha?1; the non-renewable energy shared

Hassan Ghasemi Mobtaker; Alireza Keyhani; Ali Mohammadi; Shahin Rafiee; Asadollah Akram

2010-01-01

374

Identification of a novel gene ( Hsdr4 ) involved in water-stress tolerance in wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought is one of the most severe stresses limiting plant growth and yield. Genes involved in water stress tolerance of wild\\u000a barley (Hordeum spontaneoum), the progenitor of cultivated barley, were investigated using genotypes contrasting in their response to water stress. Gene\\u000a expression profiles of water-stress tolerant vs. water-stress sensitive wild barley genotypes, under severe dehydration stress\\u000a applied at the seedling

Tatiana Suprunova; Tamar Krugman; Assaf Distelfeld; Tzion Fahima; Eviatar Nevo; Abraham Korol

2007-01-01

375

CHANGING CANADIAN GRAINS POLICIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR MONTANA'S GRAIN INDUSTRY  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Canada many changes have been made, and more are pending, to their grain transportation policies. This package of policy changes has two offsetting impacts on freight rates for Canadian grain producers. The removal of transportation subsidies on grain for export offshore has roughly doubled the cost of transporting grain for the Canadian producer. In addition, the change in pooling

Linda M. Young

1996-01-01

376

Grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth in nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth has been observed in recrystallized polycrystalline Ni at varying annealing temperatures, with or without C added. Carburized Ni specimens deformed to 50 pct show faceted grain boundaries and abnormal grain growth when annealed at temperatures below 0.7 T m, where T m is the melting point of Ni in absolute

Sung Bo Lee; Nong Moon Hwang; Duk Yong Yoon; Michael F. Henry

2000-01-01

377

Glucose and insulin responses to whole grain breakfasts varying in soluble fiber, ?-glucan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  A high intake of whole grains containing soluble fiber has been shown to lower glucose and insulin responses in overweight\\u000a humans and humans with type 2 diabetes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Aim of the study  We investigated the linearity of this response after consumption of 5 breakfast cereal test meals containing wheat and\\/or\\u000a barley to provide varying amounts of soluble fiber, ?-glucan (0, 2.5, 5,

Hyunsook Kim; Kim S. Stote; Kay M. Behall; Karen Spears; Bryan Vinyard; Joan M. Conway

2009-01-01

378

Fiber fractions from processing of barley in production and conservation of a biologic control agent.  

PubMed

Carriers are frequently used to overcome problems associated with microbial survival in soil after inoculation. Moreover, the use of carriers can prolong the shelf lives and lessen dusting of both biofungicides and biologic fertilizers. This study investigated the suitability of barley-based fiber fractions as growth media and immobilization matrices in the cultivation of a Streptomyces griseoviridis biologic control agent, as well as for the conservation of obtained biomass in dehydrated hydrogel capsules. The second main ingredient in all the examined carrier matrices was alginate. The aim was to find a hydrogel formulation suited for a production process in which all individual steps, including cultivation of the organism; downstream processing; and formulation, storage, and application of the product (i.e., biologic control agent), are carried out in the hydrogel matrix. Of the tested fractions, brewer's spent grain was the best choice, when considering the price vs the nutrient contents as well as the storage time and ease of processing of the crude and the finished products. It seems that cereal fibers can be replenished with cereal fractions less rich in fiber but having a higher content of utilizable nutrients and, hence, better suited for the production of biomass. A high content of water-insoluble fiber favorably influenced the appearance as well as the applicability of the products. PMID:11456292

Tuomi, T; Heino, M; Nordström, K; Laakso, S

2001-05-01

379

Pattern of deposition of cell wall polysaccharides and transcript abundance of related cell wall synthesis genes during differentiation in barley endosperm.  

PubMed

Immunolabeling, combined with chemical analyses and transcript profiling, have provided a comprehensive temporal and spatial picture of the deposition and modification of cell wall polysaccharides during barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain development, from endosperm cellularization at 3 d after pollination (DAP) through differentiation to the mature grain at 38 DAP. (1?3)-?-D-Glucan appears transiently during cellularization but reappears in patches in the subaleurone cell walls around 20 DAP. (1?3, 1?4)-?-Glucan, the most abundant polysaccharide of the mature barley grain, accumulates throughout development. Arabino-(1-4)-?-D-xylan is deposited significantly earlier than we previously reported. This was attributable to the initial deposition of the polysaccharide in a highly substituted form that was not recognized by antibodies commonly used to detect arabino-(1-4)-?-D-xylans in sections of plant material. The epitopes needed for antibody recognition were exposed by pretreatment of sections with ?-L-arabinofuranosidase; this procedure showed that arabino-(1-4)-?-D-xylans were deposited as early as 5 DAP and highlighted their changing structures during endosperm development. By 28 DAP labeling of hetero-(1?4)-?-D-mannan is observed in the walls of the starchy endosperm but not in the aleurone walls. Although absent in mature endosperm cell walls we now show that xyloglucan is present transiently from 3 until about 6 DAP and disappears by 8 DAP. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of transcripts for GLUCAN SYNTHASE-LIKE, Cellulose Synthase, and CELLULOSE SYNTHASE-LIKE genes were consistent with the patterns of polysaccharide deposition. Transcript profiling of some members from the Carbohydrate-Active Enzymes database glycosyl transferase families GT61, GT47, and GT43, previously implicated in arabino-(1-4)-?-d-xylan biosynthesis, confirms their presence during grain development. PMID:22510768

Wilson, Sarah M; Burton, Rachel A; Collins, Helen M; Doblin, Monika S; Pettolino, Filomena A; Shirley, Neil; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Bacic, Antony

2012-04-17

380

Gibberellin-repressible gene expression in the barley aleurone layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellins are noted for their ability to induce expression of genes, such as a-amylase, in the aleurone layers of cereals. However, a number of mRNA species in the mature imbibed aleurone cell of barley, such as a storage globulin (Heck et al., Mol Gen Genet 239: 209–218 1993), are simultaneously and specifically repressed by gibberellin. In a continuing effort to

Gregory R. Heck; T. H. David Ho

1996-01-01

381

Photosynthesis of six barley genotypes as affected by water stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of water stress on plant water status and net photosynthetic gas exchange (PN) in six barley genotypes (Hordeum\\u000a vulgare L.) differing in productivity and drought tolerance was studied in a controlled growth chamber. Osmotic adjustment\\u000a (OA), PN, stomatal conductance (gs), and the ratio intercellular\\/ambient. CO2 concentration (Ci\\/Ca) were evaluated at four\\u000a different levels of soil water availability, corresponding

G. Arnau; P. Monneveux; D. This; L. Alegre

1997-01-01

382

Identification, localization, and characterization of putative USP genes in barley.  

PubMed

The universal stress proteins (USPs) play an important role in enhancing survival rate during prolonged exposure to heat shock, nutrient starvation, or stressors from agents that arrest cell growth or damage DNA structures. Searching the HarvEST database of barley resulted in 25 putative USP cDNA sequences. Of these, 16 could translate into intact proteins (putative USPs). The alignments of multiple amino acid sequences between the putative barley USPs with those of Arabidopsis and Methanococcus jannaschii resulted in a set of common residues involved in ATP-binding. The 16 putative USPs in barley and the 21 in Arabidopsis were clustered into seven groups, which were distinct from those of E. coli. The genes in these different groups have different intron/exon structures. Nine putative USP genes of barley were cloned successfully based on their sequence characteristics, and they contain two or three introns each. Two of these introns were present in all the genes, one located between beta2 and alpha2, and the other between beta 4 and alpha 4. Five sets of primers were successfully developed for these putative USP genes. Two of them were mapped on chromosome 1H and the other three were located on three different chromosomes, 2H, 3H and 6H, respectively. Expression analyses were carried out for nine of these putative USP genes. The expression for two of them was undetectable within 27 h following exposure to salt stress. Six of the other seven were expressed in both root and leaf, and the remaining one was expressed in root only. The majority of these genes was expressed more in the salt-sensitive variety, Morex, than in the more tolerant variety, Steptoe. PMID:20523963

Li, Wei-Tao; Wei, Yu-Ming; Wang, Ji-Rui; Liu, Chun-Ji; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Pu, Zhi-En; Zheng, You-Liang

2010-06-04

383

Inhibitory Activity by Barley Coffee Components Towards Streptococcus Mutans Biofilm  

Microsoft Academic Search

It was shown that barley coffee (BC) interferes with Streptococcus mutans adsorption to hydroxyapatite. After BC component fractionation by dialysis and gel filtration chromatography (GFC), it was\\u000a found that the low molecular mass (<1,000 Da) fraction (LMM fraction) containing polyphenols, zinc and fluoride ions and,\\u000a above all, a high molecular mass (HMM > 1,000 kDa) melanoidin fraction display strong anti-adhesive properties towards S. mutans.

Monica Stauder; Adele Papetti; Maria Daglia; Luigi Vezzulli; Gabriella Gazzani; Pietro E. Varaldo; Carla Pruzzo

2010-01-01

384

Cytological Effects of Phenothiazine Tranquilizing Agents on Barley Meristems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A growth reduction of 30–40% was noted in barley plants grown in two phenothiazine tranquilizers. Similar reductions were noted in the number of mid-anaphase cells, indicating the reduced growth could have been the result of a reduced mitotic rate. Also observed were several types of chromosomal aberrations. Electron microscopy revealed less endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasmic organelles in the treated cells

Charles D. A. Polson; Jack D. Adams

1978-01-01

385

Generation of Large Numbers of lndependently Transformed Fertile Barley Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, efficient, and reproducible system to generate large numbers of independently transformed, self-fertile, transgenic bar- ley (Hordeum vurgare 1.) plants is described. lmmature zygotic embryos, young callus, and microspore-derived embryos were bombarded with a plasmid containing bar and uidA either alone or in combination with another plasmid containing a barley yellow dwarf virus coat protein (BYDVcp) gene. A total

Yuechun Wan; Peggy C. Lemaux

1994-01-01

386

Haploid formation in maize, barley, flax, and potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The article is reviewing some significant features and issues in the process of haploid formation in two important monocotyledonous\\u000a crop plants – maize and barley – and in two dicotyledonous plants – flax and potato. Exotic maize lines with higher androgenic\\u000a response turned up as a good source for this heritable trait and this valuable trait can be incorporated into

A. Pret’ová; B. Obert; Z. Bartošová

2006-01-01

387

Genetic markers for doubled haploid response in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to analyse the genetic control of anther culture response in barley, a doubled-haploid (DH) population from the cross\\u000a between a medium responsive cultivar ‘Dobla’ and the model cultivar ‘Igri’ was produced. A linkage map was constructed with\\u000a 91 markers. A sub-population of 41 lines was characterised for different components of the anther culture response, and was\\u000a used for

Xi-Wen Chen; Luís Cistué; María Muñoz-Amatriaín; Miguel Sanz; Ignacio Romagosa; Ana-María Castillo; María-Pilar Vallés

2007-01-01

388

Genetic analysis of several root hair mutants of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mutagenic treatment of barley varieties 'Rudzik', 'Dema', 'Krona', 'Diva', 'Karat', and 'Delisa' was performed with the use of N-methylo-N-nitroso-urea (MNU) and sodium azide. To generate high frequency of gene mutations, the combined treatment with both mutagenes (Szarejko and Maluszynski, 1999) or double treatment of MNU was applied. The doses for treatment of Rudzik and Dema varieties were as follows:

I. Szarejko; A. Janiak; B. Chmielewska; M. Nawrot

2005-01-01

389

Isolation of carboxypeptidase II from malted barley by affinity chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A serine carboxypeptidase isolated from malted barley by affinity chromatography was termed malt carboxypeptidase II to distinguish\\u000a it from another malt carboxypeptidase previously described (Carlsberg Res. Commun. 48, 217–230 (1983)), henceforth called\\u000a malt carboxypeptidase I. Our nomenclature is in agreement with the nomenclature formerly suggested byMikola. Malt carboxypeptidase II has a molecular weight of 110,000–120,000. It appears to be a

Klaus Breddam; Steen Bech Sørensen; Martin Ottesen

1985-01-01

390

Immunological screening for specific protein content in barley seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A screening method employing immunofluorescence has been developed to judge the amount of specific polypeptides, such as the\\u000a high lysine protein chymotrypsin inhibitor 2 (CI-2) in the endosperm of barley.\\u000a \\u000a Thin sections or sanded seeds were prepared fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde and labelled with antibody against CI-2 conjugated\\u000a with fluorescein isothiocyanate. With this technique single seeds can be evaluated without

Ulla Rasmussen

1985-01-01

391

The nutritive value of new high-lysine barley mutants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four new high-lysine barley mutants, the mother variety ‘Sultan’, and the cultivar ‘Lysimax’ with the high-lysine gene lys3a were grown in a field trial in 1992 at Riso, Denmark. Yield and 1000 kernel weights were measured. The material was analyzed for protein, fat, starch, soluble non-starch polysaccharides, insoluble non-starch polysaccharides, lignin, ?-glucans, sugars, energy and amino acids. The nutritive value

B. O Eggum; G Brunsgaard; J Jensen

1995-01-01

392

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

393

Molecular analysis of barley mutants deficient in chloroplast glutamine synthetase  

Microsoft Academic Search

A barley leaf cDNA library has been screened with two oligonucleotide probes designed to hybridize to conserved sequences in glutamine synthetase (GS) genes from higher plants. Two GS cDNA clones were identified as hybridizing strongly to one or both probes. The larger clone (pcHvGS6) contained a 1.6 kb insert which was shown by primer extension analysis to be an almost

Jacqueline Freeman; Antonio J. Marquez; Roger M. Wallsgrove; Ritva Saarelainen; Brian G. Forde

1990-01-01

394

Grain boundary cracking  

SciTech Connect

A chronological summary is given of the various types of grain boundary fracture found in metals. In each case, there is an impurity that adsorbs at the new (fracture) surface being formed. For the case of De-P alloys, a quantitative argument can show that adsorption of phosphorus on the free surface greatly reduces the barrier to void nucleation compared to that in the absence of phosphorus. The same or larger reduction would appear for any other element, which adsorbs more strongly than phosphorus and displaces it at the surface. Such an argument is shown to explain a great many cases of dimpled grain boundary fracture in strong alloys undergoing creep or hydrogen attack. The reduction in surface energy can also lead to a smooth grain boundary fracture (no void nucleation), in which diffusion of solute to the new surface limits crack growth. Numerous examples of this are also discussed.

Shewmon, P.G.

1998-06-01

395

Gut microbiome composition is linked to whole grain-induced immunological improvements.  

PubMed

The involvement of the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders, and the ability of whole grains to affect both host metabolism and gut microbial ecology, suggest that some benefits of whole grains are mediated through their effects on the gut microbiome. Nutritional studies that assess the effect of whole grains on both the gut microbiome and human physiology are needed. We conducted a randomized cross-over trial with four-week treatments in which 28 healthy humans consumed a daily dose of 60?g of whole-grain barley (WGB), brown rice (BR), or an equal mixture of the two (BR+WGB), and characterized their impact on fecal microbial ecology and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. All treatments increased microbial diversity, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and the abundance of the genus Blautia in fecal samples. The inclusion of WGB enriched the genera Roseburia, Bifidobacterium and Dialister, and the species Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia faecis and Roseburia intestinalis. Whole grains, and especially the BR+WGB treatment, reduced plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and peak postprandial glucose. Shifts in the abundance of Eubacterium rectale were associated with changes in the glucose and insulin postprandial response. Interestingly, subjects with greater improvements in IL-6 levels harbored significantly higher proportions of Dialister and lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae. In conclusion, this study revealed that a short-term intake of whole grains induced compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in host physiological measures related to metabolic dysfunctions in humans. PMID:23038174

Martínez, Inés; Lattimer, James M; Hubach, Kelcie L; Case, Jennifer A; Yang, Junyi; Weber, Casey G; Louk, Julie A; Rose, Devin J; Kyureghian, Gayaneh; Peterson, Daniel A; Haub, Mark D; Walter, Jens

2012-10-04

396

Nutrient retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?The experimental barley samples included 4 hulled and one hull-less low-phytate barley cultivars and two commercial barley varieties as controls.2.?The diets were provided in meal form, with the experimental barley samples constituting the cereal source. Two additional treatments were added for each of the control varieties in which intermediate and recommended levels of phosphorus were provided.3.?A completely randomised design was

M. Salarmoini; G. L. Campbell; B. G. Rossnagel; V. Raboy

2008-01-01

397

Barley ?-amylase bound to its endogenous protein inhibitor BASI: crystal structure of the complex at 1.9 å resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Barley ?-amylase is a 45 kDa enzyme which is involved in starch degradation during barley seed germination. The released sugars provide the plant embryo with energy for growth. The major barley ?-amylase isozyme (AMY2) binds with high affinity to the endogenous inhibitor BASI (barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor) whereas the minor isozyme (AMY1) is not inhibited. BASI is a 19.6 kDa

François Vallée; Anders Kadziola; Yves Bourne; Michel Juy; Kees W Rodenburg; Birte Svensson; Richard Haser

1998-01-01

398

Gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and carbon isotope discrimination of 14 barley genetic lines in response to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley is one of the most salt tolerant crop species, and differences between barley genotypes for salinity tolerance have been previously documented. Greenhouse experiments were conducted with barley seedlings (up to fourth leaf) from 14 genetic lines grown in control and saline (EC=20dSm?1) conditions. Some of these barley genotypes are parental lines to diverse mapping populations. Others have been bred

Qingzhen Jiang; Dominique Roche; Thomas A. Monaco; Susan Durham

2006-01-01

399

Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the safety and quality of Fusarium-infected malting barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utilization of Fusarium-infected barley for malting may lead to mycotoxin production during malting and decreased malt quality. Electron-beam irradiation may prevent safety and quality defects and allow use of otherwise good quality barley. We evaluated electron-beam irradiation for preventing Fusarium growth and mycotoxin production while maintaining barley-malt quality characteristics. Four barley lots with varying deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations were irradiated at

Balasubrahmanyam Kottapalli; Charlene E. Wolf-Hall; Paul Schwarz

2006-01-01

400

Introduction to Grain Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

1998-01-01

401

A region of barley chromosome 6H harbors multiple major genes associated with net type blotch resistance.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Net type of net blotch (NTNB) on barley, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres Drechs. is prevalent in barley growing regions worldwide and is particularly damaging under cool, wet conditions. A population of 118 doubled haploid (DH) lines developed from a cross between barley cultivars ‘Rika’ and ‘K...

402

The suitability of barley and corn starches in their native and chemically modified forms for volatile meat flavor encapsulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to minimize the evaporative flavor loss and to improve flavor stability, the encapsulation potential of native corn and barley starches [waxy corn starch (CW), regular corn starch (CR), waxy barley starch (BW), regular barley starch (BR)] and their chemically modified counterparts (succinylated starches: CWS; CRS; BWS; BRS and octenyl succinylated starches: CWOS; CROS; BWOS; BROS) were investigated. Four

You-Jin Jeon; Thava Vasanthan; Feral Temelli; Byung-Kwon Song

2003-01-01

403

Probabilistic methodology for assessing changes in the level and molecular weight of barley ?-glucan during bread baking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to create a probabilistic model to assess changes in the levels and molecular weight (Mw) of ?-glucan during the bread baking process using Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Three different composite flours were formulated by substituting wheat flour (WF) with barley whole meal flour (BWMF), barley straight grade flour (BSGF) or barley fibre rich fraction

U. Tiwari; E. Cummins; P. Sullivan; J. O’. Flaherty; N. Brunton; E. Gallagher

2011-01-01

404

Structural and expressional analysis of the B-hordein genes in Tibetan hull-less barley.  

PubMed

The B-hordein gene family was analyzed from two Tibetan hull-less barley cultivars Z09 and Z26 (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare). Fourteen B-hordein genes, designated BZ09-2 to BZ09-5 (from Z09) and BZ26-1 to BZ26-10 (from Z26), were sequenced. Seven of them, similar to a previously reported BZ09-1 from Z09, were predicted to encode putative active proteins each with a signal peptide, a repetitive domain, and a C-terminal region; seven of them were predicted to be pseudogenes. The B-hordein gene family was analyzed using all known representatives of B-hordein sequences and two most similar LMW-GSs of Triticum aestivum. Alignment of these seven putative proteins with known B-hordeins and two most similar LMW-GSs of T. aestivum revealed that they shared a common motif. A large variation was observed between numbers of repeat units of predicted B-hordeins of Z26 and Z09. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all BZ26 clones were clustered in a subgroup, and BZ09-1 formed another subgroup by itself in the putative eight active genes. In addition, six 5'-upstream regulatory sequences of the B-hordein genes were isolated from the two accessions by a single oligonucleotide nested PCR, and several different mutations were identified in the cis-acting element GLM and two distinctive sequences (Z09P-2 and Z26P-3). Phylogenetic analysis of 5'-upstream regulatory regions of the B-hordein genes showed that members from the same accession were clustered together except for two distinct members. Quantitative real time PCR analysis indicated distinct expression levels of B-hordein genes in four developing stages of developing grains in two accessions. These findings suggest B-hordein genes have intrinsic differences between accessions, and this knowledge will be useful for incorporating the B-hordeins protein in barley breeding programs. PMID:19856114

Han, Zhaoxue; Wu, Fang; Deng, Guangbing; Qian, Gang; Yu, Maoqun; Jia, Yulin

2009-10-24

405

Plasma Alkylresorcinols, Biomarkers of Whole-Grain Intake, Are Related to Lower BMI in Older Adults123  

PubMed Central

Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found in the bran fraction of whole-grain wheat, rye, and barley. In intervention studies, plasma AR concentration increased in response to greater intakes of whole grain, wheat, and rye. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR and habitual whole-grain intake, BMI, and metabolic risk factors in 407 free-living older adults (166 men and 241 women; aged 60–81y; median BMI: 27 kg/m2). Plasma AR were measured by liquid chromatography–tandem MS, and whole-grain intakes were estimated by using an FFQ. After adjustment for fasting TG concentrations, median plasma AR concentrations across quartile categories of AR were 5, 14, 27, and 62 nmol/L, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients between plasma AR and whole-grain wheat–rich foods and total bran intake were 0.31 and 0.27, respectively (both P < 0.0001). After adjustment for multiple covariates, the geometric means of BMI in the lowest and highest quartile category of plasma AR were 27.6 and 26.7 kg/m2, respectively (P-trend = 0.04). No associations were observed between plasma AR and glucose and insulin. Our study shows a dose-dependent relationship between whole-grain intake and plasma AR and confirms the previously observed inverse relationship between whole-grain intake and BMI using an independent biomarker of whole-grain wheat intake.

Ma, Jiantao; Ross, Alastair B.; Shea, M. Kyla; Bruce, Stephen J.; Jacques, Paul F.; Saltzman, Edward; Lichtenstein, Alice H.; Booth, Sarah L.; McKeown, Nicola M.

2012-01-01

406

Grain dust and the lungs.  

PubMed Central

Grain dust is composed of a large number of materials, including various types of grain and their disintegration products, silica, fungi, insects and mites. The clinical syndromes described in relation to exposure to grain dust are chronic bronchitis, grain dust asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, grain fever and silo-filler's lung. Rhinitis and conjunctivitis are also common in grain workers. While the concentration and the quality of dust influence the frequency and the type of clinical syndrome in grain workers, host factors are also important. Of the latter, smoking is the most important factor influencing the frequency of chronic bronchitis. The role of atopy and of bronchial hyperreactivity in grain dust asthma has yet to be assessed. Several well designed studies are currently being carried out in North America not only to delineate the frequency of the respiratory abnormalities, the pathogenetic mechanisms and the host factors, but also to establish a meaningful threshold limit concentration for grain dust. Images p1272-a

Chan-Yeung, M.; Ashley, M. J.; Grzybowski, S.

1978-01-01

407

Breeding Perennial Grain Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Referee: Ms. Peggy Wagoner, Rodale Institute, 611 Siegfriedale Road, Kutztown, PA 19530-9749 One-third of the planet's arable land has been lost to soil erosion in recent decades, and the pace of this degradation will increase as the limits of our food production capacity are stretched. The persistent problem of worldwide soil erosion has rekindled interest in perennial grain crops. All

T. S. Cox; M. Bender; C. Picone; D. L. Van Tassel; J. B. Holland; E. C. Brummer; B. E. Zoeller; A. H. Paterson; W. Jackson

2002-01-01

408

Natural contamination of Manitoba barley by 3,15-diacetyldeoxynivalenol and its detection by immunochromatography.  

PubMed Central

Contamination of Canadian barley samples by 3,15-diacetyldeoxynivalenol was detected by enzyme immunoassays combined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This is the first reported natural occurrence of this mycotoxin. The barley was infected mainly with Fusarium graminearum. Deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and zearalenone were also found.

Usleber, E; Abramson, D; Gessler, R; Smith, D M; Clear, R M; Martlbauer, E

1996-01-01

409

Evaluation of Nitrate-Nitrogen Transport in a Potato–Barley Rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

nant crop rotation of potato followed by barley. This region produced 90% of the potato, 77% of the spring Well water NO 2 3 -N concentrations have been found to exceed 10 wheat (Triticum aestivumL.), 81% of the barley, 32% of mg L 21 of NO 2 3 -N for some areas of the San Luis Valley (SLV) of South-Central

Jorge A. Delgado; Ronald R. Riggenbach; Richard T. Sparks; Merlin A. Dillon; Lawrence M. Kawanabe; Randall J. Ristau

2001-01-01

410

AN ATLAS OF GENE EXPRESSION FROM SEED TO SEED THROUGH BARLEY DEVELOPMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We assessed the global regulation of gene expression from seed to seed during barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) development by quantifying transcript abundance in key tissues and developmental stages of two diverse genotypes using the Barley1 GeneChip. Differential abundance was observed both between tis...

411

Embryogenic callus formation and plant regeneration from immature embryos of some barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genotypic restrictions on plant regeneration from cultured cells have hindered the genetic transformation of most barley cultivars. Optimizing culturing protocols for some genotypes may facilitate their genetic transformation to produce transgenic plants with desired characters. Plant regeneration from embryogenic callus of six barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.) was examined on four different media compositions. Regeneration was improved for all genotypes

Ebtissam H. A. Hussein; Magdy A. Madkour; Shireen K. Assem; Al-Zahraa M. A. Radwan

2004-01-01

412

Simulation analysis of relative yield advantage of barley and wheat in an eastern Mediterranean climate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are similar crops that can be grown in the arid regions of southwestern Asia. Generally, barley is favored over wheat in drier areas. However, the quantitative basis for the relative advantage of each crop under differing growing conditions has not been resolved. This study was undertaken to compare the two crops using the

Ammar Wahbi; Thomas R. Sinclair

2005-01-01

413

A Comparison Of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Thermostabilities As Indicators Of Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt amylolytic enzyme thermostabilities would correlate negatively with malt sugar concentrations. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germinated in a micromalter for 6 days. At 2...

414

A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

415

Beta-amylase degradation by serine endoproteinases from green barley malt  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Proteolytic degradation of barley proteins is examined in green malt from Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Harrington. Zymographic analysis of the Harrington green malt extracts using commercial preparations of barley beta-amylase incorporated as a proteolytic substrate in 2-D SDS gels shows at least three di...

416

Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

417

BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase (http://barleybase.org/) and its successor, PLEXdb (http://plexdb.org/), are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...

418

MOLECULAR MAPPING OF A GENE FOR RESISTANCE TO STRIPE RUST IN BBA 2890 BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei (PSH), is an important disease on barley. Growing resistant cultivars is the best approach for controlling the disease. Barley genotype BBA 2890 has all-stage (also known as seedling) resistance against all PSH races identified thus far in t...

419

Influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on phenolic composition, antioxidant activities, and viscoelastic properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The influence of jet-cooking Prowashonupana barley flour on total phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, water holding capacities, and viscoelastic properties was studied. Barley flour was jet-cooked without or with pH adjustment at 7, 9, or 11. Generally, the free phenolic content and antioxi...

420

Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in US barley germplasm: implications for association mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have shown that there is considerable population structure in cultivated barley, with the strongest structure corresponding to differences in row number and growth habit. US barley breeding programs include 6-row and 2-row types and winter and spring types in all combinations. To fa...

421

Abscisic Acid StructureActivity Relationships in Barley Aleurone Layers and Protoplasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optically active forms of abscisic acid (ABA) and their oxygen- ated metabolites were tested for their biological activity by exam- ining the effects of the compounds on the reversal of gibberellic acid-induced a-amylase activity in barley (Hordeum dgare cv Himalaya) aleurone layers and the induction of gene expression in barley aleurone protoplasts transformed with a chimeric construct containing the promoter

Robert D. Hill; Jin-Hao Liu; Douglas Durnin; Nancy Lamb; Angela Shaw; Suzanne R. Abrams

422

BARLEY INSECT RESEARCH AT THE USDA-ARS PLANT SCIENCE RESEARCH LABORATORY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Insect pests pose a major constraint to the profitable production of barley in the USA. The use of genetically resistant barley cultivars in conjunction with prudent integrated pest management tactics is an economical, environmentally friendly approach to controlling pest damage. Research is ongoi...

423

Minimizing Risk by Maximizing Production Through Barley as a Rotational Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A CD was produced that contained the presentations of the speakers, plus supplemental material. This was an effort at showing growers the benefits of rotating with barley, and educating growers in barley breeding, weeds, diseases, economics and government support programs. It was sponsored by the ...

424

Limited Effects of Barley Straw on Algae and Zooplankton in a Midwestern Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the United Kingdom have reported that barley straw can be used to control a variety of planktonic algae, as well as the filamentous alga Cladophora spp. This method appears to be cost-effective, user-friendly, and environmentally sound. If these results could be obtained in the United States, using barley straw would be a good alternative to using copper sulfate.

Joseph D. Boylan; Joseph E. Morris

2003-01-01

425

Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

2002-01-01

426

TRANSFORMATION AND EXPRESSION OF AN ALTERED ANTIFUNGAL PROTEIN HORDOTHIONIN GENE IN TRANSGENIC BARLEY AND OAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alpha-hordothionin is produced in developing barley endosperms and has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. We cloned an alpha-hordothionin gene (Hth1) from a cDNA library derived from developing barley endosperms, ligated the nearly full length hordothionin...

427

Genome-wide association analysis of aluminum tolerance in cultivated and Tibetan wild barley.  

PubMed

Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. spontaneum), originated and grown in harsh enviroNment in Tibet, is well-known for its rich germpalsm with high tolerance to abiotic stresses. However, the genetic variation and genes involved in Al tolerance are not totally known for the wild barley. In this study, a genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) was performed by using four root parameters related with Al tolerance and 469 DArT markers on 7 chromosomes within or across 110 Tibetan wild accessions and 56 cultivated cultivars. Population structure and cluster analysis revealed that a wide genetic diversity was present in Tibetan wild barley. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly in Tibetan wild barley (9.30 cM) than cultivated barley (11.52 cM), indicating that GWAS may provide higher resolution in the Tibetan group. Two novel Tibetan group-specific loci, bpb-9458 and bpb-8524 were identified, which were associated with relative longest root growth (RLRG), located at 2H and 7H on barely genome, and could explain 12.9% and 9.7% of the phenotypic variation, respectively. Moreover, a common locus bpb-6949, localized 0.8 cM away from a candidate gene HvMATE, was detected in both wild and cultivated barleys, and showed significant association with total root growth (TRG). The present study highlights that Tibetan wild barley could provide elite germplasm novel genes for barley Al-tolerant improvement. PMID:23922796

Cai, Shengguan; Wu, Dezhi; Jabeen, Zahra; Huang, Yuqing; Huang, Yechang; Zhang, Guoping

2013-07-26

428

Regeneration of Fertile Barley Plants from Mechanically lsolated Protoplasts of the Fertilized Egg Cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple procedure is described for the mechanical isolation of protoplasts of unfertilized and fertilized barley egg cells from dissected ovules. Viable protoplasts were isolated from m75% of the dissected ovules. Unfertilized protoplasts did not divide, whereas almost all fertilized protoplasts developed into microcalli. These degenerated when grown in medium only. When cocultivated with barley microspores undergoing microspore embryogenesis, the

Preben B. Holm; Peter Mouritzen; Diana Negri; Finn L. OIsen; Catherine Roue

1994-01-01

429

Effect of Barley Flour Incorporation on the Instrumental Texture of Sponge Cake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sponge cakes were prepared by incorporating barley flour (10, 20, 30, and 40%?w\\/w) into wheat flours. The sponge cakes were evaluated for their physical, chemical, nutritional, textural and sensory attributes. All the prepared products exhibited high in fiber, mineral and protein contents when compared with the 100%?wheat flour based product. Incorporation of barley flour improved the visual of the cake

Mahesh Gupta; Amarinder Singh Bawa; Anil Dutt Semwal

2009-01-01

430

Worldwide patterns of genetic variation among four esterase loci in Barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic assays of 1506 accessions of domestic (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wild (H. spontaneum Koch.) barley, maintained in the USDA World Barley Collection, led to the following conclusions: (1) worldwide the four esterase loci, Est 1, Est 2, Est 3, and Est 4, have a minimum of 7, 12, 6, and 7 alleles, respectively; (2) little or no genetic differentation

A. L. Kahler; R. W. Allard

1981-01-01

431

Biothanol production from barley hull using SAA (Soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley hull, a type of lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia to improve its enzymatic saccharification. Barley hull was soaked in 15-30 wt.% aqueous ammonia (SAA method) at 30-75'C for 1 day-11 weeks using a batch reactor. Under these conditions, SAA (soaking in aqueous ammon...

432

Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements conducted with the eddy covariance method over agricultural peat soil in the 2-year period between October 2000 and October 2002. In 2001, spring barley and undersown grass were sown on the site. After the barley harvest, the perennial forage grass was left to grow, so that in 2002 the field was

Annalea Lohila; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila

2004-01-01

433

Assessment of genetically diverse international barley germplasm for development of food product applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley landraces have experienced years of natural and farmer massal selection in favour of his particular trait of interest (food, feed or malt) without any scientific background on their performance, quality or inner properties. Eight hundred and seventy eight barley landraces, collected from farmers’ sites typically used for food belonging to forty three countries, were investigated to uncover the elite

Abderrazek Jilal

2011-01-01

434

MAS IN CEREALS: GREEN FOR MAIZE, AMBER FOR RICE, STILL RED FOR WHEAT AND BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This paper reviews the uptake of marker assisted selection in the major cereals maize, wheat, rice and barley, and contrasts the growing and substantial use of MAS in maize with the slow pace of uptake in wheat breeding. The difference largely reflects the fact that maize varieties are predominantly F1 hybrid, whereas wheat and barley varieties are almost exclusively

Robert Koebner

435

Role of Phenolic Acids in Expression of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Autotoxicity  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The role of phenolic acids in autotoxicity of four barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties was investigated using radicle growth bioassays and analytical techniques. Total phenolic content of barley plant components varied within and between varieties during the 1999-2002 growing seasons. Inhibition o...

436

DIETS CONTAINING BARLEY REDUCE LIPIDS SIGNIFICANTLY IN MODERATELY HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC MEN AND WOMEN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Background: Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed in the US diet. Objective: This study investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular risk factors comparably to reductions observed with other soluble fiber sources. Design: After instit...

437

LIGHT-DEPENDENT BLEACHING OF DETACHED BARLEY LEAF TISSUE BY DEOXYNIVALENOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulates in wheat and barley heads infected with Fusarium graminearum. To assess the effects of DON on green plant tissues, we partially stripped the abaxial epidermis from detached Robust barley leaf segments (1 cm long) and floated them with stripped mesophyl...

438

Increasing sucrose uptake capacity of wheat grains stimulates storage protein synthesis.  

PubMed

Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

2009-12-14

439

Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

Miloch, W. J.; Block, D.

2012-12-01

440

Dust grain charging in a wake of other grains  

SciTech Connect

The charging of dust grain in the wake of another grains in sonic and supersonic collisionless plasma flows is studied by numerical simulations. We consider two grains aligned with the flow, as well as dust chains and multiple grain arrangements. It is found that the dust charge depends significantly on the flow speed, distance between the grains, and the grain arrangement. For two and three grains aligned, the charges on downstream grains depend linearly on the flow velocity and intergrain distance. The simulations are carried out with DiP3D, a three dimensional particle-in-cell code with both electrons and ions represented as numerical particles [W. J. Miloch et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 103703 (2010)].

Miloch, W. J. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Block, D. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)

2012-12-15

441

Effects of different cereal grains and ractopamine hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and fat quality in late-finishing pigs.  

PubMed

Forty-eight barrows and forty-eight gilts (PIC 337 sires x PIC C22 dams) were evaluated to determine the effects of feeding ractopamine hydrochloride (RAC) and different cereal grains on the carcass and fat quality in late finishing pigs. The study was carried out using four replicates with 24 animals in each replicate (four pigs per pen, six pens per replicate, two replicates per slaughter date, 12 pens per slaughter date). Treatments for the experiment included corn, wheat, and barley (early finisher period); and corn, corn + RAC, wheat, wheat + RAC, barley, and barley + RAC for the late finisher period. Ractopamine was fed at the level of 10 mg/kg (as-fed basis) of feed. Pigs were allotted to early finisher period treatments at approximately 45 kg BW. Pigs were then given late finisher period treatments at approximately 80 kg BW and fed for 28 d. The dietary digestible lysine level for all diets was maintained at 2.7 g/Mcal of ME. Pigs fed the wheat and corn diets during the late finisher period had a greater (P <0.05) G:F than those fed the barley diets. Pigs fed diets with RAC had lower (P <0.05) leaf fat weights, 10th-rib fat, last-rib fat, and belly firmness and had improved (P <0.05) dressing percents and loin muscle areas compared with those not receiving RAC. Pigs fed the wheat diets had a greater (P <0.05) dressing percent than those receiving the barley diets, but pigs fed the barley diets had a higher (P <0.05) Minolta L* for fat color than pigs fed wheat. Pigs fed diets containing RAC produced pork that was less tender (P <0.05) compared with pigs that did not receive RAC. Linoleic acid percent values were higher (P <0.05) for pigs fed diets with RAC than in those that did not. Feeding RAC improved G:F and lowered feed intake of pigs during the late finisher period (P <0.05). Feeding diets equal in lysine (2.7 g/Mcal of ME) but varying in ME, whether based on corn, wheat, or barley with or without RAC, had little to no effect on carcass, meat, or fat quality attributes. PMID:15583063

Carr, S N; Rincker, P J; Killefer, J; Baker, D H; Ellis, M; McKeith, F K

2005-01-01

442

Purification and Properties of Hypoxically Induced Lactate Dehydrogenase from Barley Roots 1  

PubMed Central

Using Affigel Blue and oxamate-agarose affinity chromatography, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was purified 2000-fold from hypoxically induced barley roots. Molecular weights of the native and sodium dodecyl sulfate-denatured LDH protein were 157 and 40 kilodaltons, respectively, indicating a tetramer. Purified barley LDH was very similar in size and kinetic properties to potato LDH. However, their amino acid compositions differed substantially and antibodies raised against barley LDH did not cross-react with potato LDH on immunoblots, implying that the barley and potato LDHs are not closely related proteins. In vivo [35S] methionine labeling and immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that hypoxia increased the rate of LDH protein synthesis, and immunoblot analysis showed that LDH protein levels rose during hypoxia. We conclude that increased enzyme synthesis plays a major part in the induction of LDH enzyme activity by low O2 levels in barley roots. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Hoffman, Neil E.; Hanson, Andrew D.

1986-01-01

443

Early changes in protein expression of barley following inoculation with erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei  

SciTech Connect

Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei is an obligate pathogen of barley causing the powdery mildew disease. Resistance to this disease is the product of a highly specific interaction between barley lines with specific resistance alleles and pathogen races carrying complementary avirulence alleles. Using congenic barley lines which differ at the M1-a disease reaction locus, we hope to define the early molecular events of this interaction. Accordingly, resistant and susceptible barley seedlings were labelled with {sup 35}S-methionine and examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis at two hour intervals following inoculation. Infection related changes were observed with both isolines during the four to twelve hour time period. Additional differences existed constitutively between the barley lines. These differences have been quantified. Further characterization of these proteins will yield useful markers for events preceding or coinciding with cytological responses any may lead to identification and cloning of the M1-a gene.

Simons, S.P.; Somerville, S.C. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA))

1989-04-01

444

3,4-Dihydroxybenzaldehyde purified from the barley seeds ( Hordeum vulgare) inhibits oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis via its antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley is a major crop worldwide. It has been reported that barley seeds have an effect on scavenging ROS. However, little has been known about the functional role of the barley on the inhibition of DNA damage and apoptosis by ROS. In this study, we purified 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde from the barley with silica gel column chromatography and HPLC and then identified

Jin Boo Jeong; Se Chul Hong; Hyung Jin Jeong

2009-01-01

445

Scaling Behavior of Grain-Rotation-Induced Grain Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent investigations of grain growth in nanocrystalline materials have revealed a new growth mechanism: grain-rotation-induced grain coalescence. Based on a simple model employing a stochastic theory and using computer simulations, here we investigate the coarsening of a polycrystalline microstructure due solely to the grain-rotation coalescence mechanism. Our study demonstrates that this mechanism exhibits power-law growth with a universal scaling exponent.

Dorel Moldovan; Vesselin Yamakov; Dieter Wolf; Simon R. Phillpot

2002-01-01

446

Grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth in nickel  

Microsoft Academic Search

A correlation between grain boundary faceting and abnormal grain growth has been observed in recrystallized polycrystalline\\u000a Ni at varying annealing temperatures, with or without C added. Carburized Ni specimens deformed to 50 pct show faceted grain\\u000a boundaries and abnormal grain growth when annealed at temperatures below 0.7 T\\u000a m, where T\\u000a m is the melting point of Ni in absolute

Sung Bo Lee; Nong Moon Hwang; Duk Yong Yoon; Michael F. Henry

2000-01-01

447

Soluble sugar availability of aerobically germinated barley, oat and rice coleoptiles in anoxia.  

PubMed

Physiological and metabolic responses to anoxia were compared for aerobically germinated seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare), oat (Avena sativa) and rice (Oryza sativa). Coleoptile growth of barley, oat and rice seedlings was suppressed by a 24 h-anoxic stress, but the growth of the rice coleoptiles was much greater than that of the barley and oat coleoptiles. ATP concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that in the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. Concentrations of ethanol and activity of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in the anoxic rice coleoptiles were also greater than those of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles, suggesting that ethanolic fermentation may be more active in the rice coleoptiles than in the barley and oat coleoptiles, where glycolysis and ethanolic fermentation are the main source of ATP production. Soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic rice coleoptiles was greater than that of the anoxic barley and oat coleoptiles. However, ?-amylase, which catabolizes reserve starch to soluble sugars, was active in anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms, and soluble sugar concentration in the anoxic barley, oat and rice endosperms was not significantly different. Therefore, anoxia stress may inhibit soluble sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles in barley and oat more than in rice. Since the availability of soluble sugar is essential for operation of glycolysis and fermentation in plant cells, ability for sugar transport from the endosperms to the coleoptiles may be one means to distinguish the coleoptile growth of these plant species in anoxia and anoxia tolerance of these plants. PMID:20727618

Kato-Noguchi, Hisashi; Yasuda, Yukihiro; Sasaki, Ryosuke

2010-08-19

448

Health Gains from Whole Grains  

MedlinePLUS

... the Iowa Women’s Health Study linked whole-grain consumption with fewer deaths from noncardiac, noncancer causes. Compared ... Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, et al. Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from ...

449

Sputtering of glass dust grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust grains in space are exposed to energetic ions, electrons and UV irradiation. Impact of energetic ions can lead to sputtering of the grain, consequently resulting in grain destruction during long-term exposures. For the presented study we chose spherical SiO2 grains with diameter in the range of 1 micron as a representative of silicate-type space dust. Our experimental set-up enables us to catch and to store single dust grain which can be sputtered by the ion beam. The mass of the grain is measured after each sputtering session and we can judge the sputtering efficiency from temporal changes of the mass. Our results suggest that the mass change is around 1.5% per 3-hour bombardment of 1.1 keV Ar ions which corresponds to the yield of the order of unity. The measurements on glass grains are compared wit previous measurements on gold grains.

Vysinka, Marek; Vaverka, Jakub; Pavlu, Jiri; Safrankova, Jana; Nemecek, Zdenek

2013-04-01

450

Granular materials: Highly evolved grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By efficiently exploring the huge variety of possible grain shapes, computer algorithms that mimic evolution make possible the design of grains that pack into configurations with the desired mechanical or structural properties.

O'Hern, Corey S.; Shattuck, Mark D.

2013-04-01

451

Detection methods for cereal grains treated with low and high energy electrons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cereal grains can be treated with low energy (<300keV) or high energy (1-10MeV) electrons for decontamination of phytopathogenic and spoilage organisms. In this preliminary study, wheat and barley samples were treated with low energy electrons of 145keV or high energy electrons of 10MeV. To identify the electron treatment, different detection methods have been investigated: (1) photostimulated luminescence (PSL), (2) thermoluminescence (TL), (3) electron spin resonance (ESR) and (4) DNA Comet Assay. These four methods are already standardised at a European level and are now adopted as general Codex methods for detection of irradiated foodstuffs. The results suggest that the most suitable detection methods for electron-treated grains are the PSL and TL methods. The results from the other two methods (ESR and Comet Assay) are not so promising because they seem only to be applicable in special cases.

Cutrubinis, Mihalis; Delincée, Henry; Stahl, Mario; Röder, Olaf; Schaller, Hans Jürgen

2005-04-01

452

Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background Recent knowledge in animals suggests that gut microbial metabolism may affect host metabolism, including appetite regulating hormones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of a whole grain barley kernel product, rich in intrinsic indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre and resistant starch), on markers of metabolism and appetite regulation in healthy subjects. Methods Boiled barley kernels (BK) or white wheat bread (WWB; reference) were provided as late evening meals to 19 young adults in random order using a cross-over design. During subsequent ad libitum standardized breakfast and lunch meals (10.5-16 h), blood was collected for analysis of glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum free fatty acids (FFA) and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, appetite sensations, voluntary energy intake and breath H2 were determined. Results BK as evening meal increased plasma GLP-1 at fasting (P < 0.05) and during the experimental day (P < 0.01) compared with WWB. In addition the BK evening meal decreased fasting serum FFA (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease fasting serum IL-6 (P = 0.06). At lunch, preceded by BK evening meal, voluntary energy intake was decreased (P < 0.05) when compared to WWB evening meal. The BK evening meal decreased incremental blood glucose area (P < 0.01), promoted higher breath H2 (P < 0.001), maintained adiponectin concentrations (P < 0.05) and reduced perceived hunger (P < 0.05) during 10.5-16 h after the meal. Conclusions The results indicate that the BK evening meal, facilitate glucose regulation, increase the release of GLP-1, reduce subsequent energy intake while at the same time decreasing hunger over 2 subsequent meals, and reduce fasting FFA the subsequent morning, possibly mediated through gut microbial fermentation of the indigestible carbohydrates.

2013-01-01

453

Elevated phosphorus impedes manganese acquisition by barley plants.  

PubMed

The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH(2)PO(4) rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn-P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn(2+) had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels. PMID:22639592

Pedas, Pai; Husted, Søren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

2011-08-05

454

Characterization of recombinant barley oxalate oxidase expressed by Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Oxalate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of oxalate to carbon dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, making it useful for clinical analysis of oxalate in biological fluids. An artificial gene for barley oxalate oxidase has been used to produce functional recombinant enzyme in a Pichia pastoris heterologous expression system, yielding 250 mg of purified oxalate oxidase from 5 L of fermentation medium. The recombinant oxalate oxidase was expressed as a soluble, hexameric 140 kDa glycoprotein containing 0.2 g-atom Mn/monomer with a specific activity of 10 U/mg, similar to the properties reported for enzyme isolated from barley. No superoxide dismutase activity was detected in the recombinant oxalate oxidase. EPR spectra indicate that the majority of the manganese in the protein is present as Mn(II), and are consistent with the six-coordinate metal center reported in the recent X-ray crystal structure for barley oxalate oxidase. The EPR spectra change when bulky anions such as iodide bind, indicating conversion to a five-coordinate complex. Addition of oxalate perturbs the EPR spectrum of the Mn(II) sites, providing the first characterization of the substrate complex. The optical absorption spectrum of the concentrated protein contains features associated with a minor six-coordinate Mn(III) species, which disappears on addition of oxalate. EPR spin-trapping experiments indicate that carboxylate free radicals (CO2*-) are transiently produced by the enzyme in the presence of oxalate, most likely during reduction of the Mn(III) sites. These features are incorporated into a turnover mechanism for oxalate oxidase. PMID:11862550

Whittaker, Mei M; Whittaker, James W

2001-07-24

455

Elevated Phosphorus Impedes Manganese Acquisition by Barley Plants  

PubMed Central

The occurrence of manganese (Mn) deficiency in cereal crops has increased in recent years. This coincides with increasing phosphorus (P) status of many soils due to application of high levels of animal manure and P-fertilizers. In order to test the hypothesis that elevated P my lead to Mn deficiency we have here conducted a series of hydroponics and soil experiments examining how the P supply affects the Mn nutrition of barley. Evidence for a direct negative interaction between P and Mn during root uptake was obtained by on-line inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Addition of a pulse of KH2PO4 rapidly and significantly reduced root Mn uptake, while a similar concentration of KCl had no effect. Addition of a P pulse to the same nutrient solution without plants did not affect the concentration of Mn, revealing that no precipitation of Mn–P species was occurring. Barley plants growing at a high P supply in hydroponics with continuous replenishment of Mn2+ had up to 50% lower Mn concentration in the youngest leaves than P limited plants. This P-induced depression of foliar Mn accelerated the development of Mn deficiency as evidenced by a marked change in the fluorescence induction kinetics of chlorophyll a. Also plants growing in soil exhibited lower leaf Mn concentrations in response to elevated P. In contrast, leaf concentrations of Fe, Cu, and N increased with the P supply, supporting that the negative effect of P on Mn acquisition was specific rather than due to a general dilution effect. It is concluded that elevated P supply directly interferes with Mn uptake in barley roots and that this negative interaction can induce Mn deficiency in the shoot. This finding has major implications in commercial plant production where many soils have high P levels.

Pedas, Pai; Husted, S?ren; Skytte, Kristian; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod

2011-01-01

456

Monitoring of Fusarium trichothecenes in Canadian cereal grain shipments from 2010 to 2012.  

PubMed

A method involving dry grinding, rotary sample dividing, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was evaluated for the analysis of eight Fusarium trichothecenes in cereal grains. Processing of whole cereal grains by the method produced representative test portions for the analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON). Method validation data, as well as the successful participation in various international proficiency tests, demonstrated the analytical method produced accurate and precise results. The evaluated method was used to monitor DON, 3- and 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol, and fusarenon-X in shipments of Canadian wheat, durum, barley, corn, rye, and oats transported between August 1, 2010, and July 31, 2012. DON was the most frequently measured trichothecene, found in 231 of the 303 samples at concentrations up to 2.34 mg/kg; NIV was the next most frequently observed trichothecene, but its occurrence was limited to barley. Concentrations of DON were significantly associated with wheat class and grade. The median DON concentration in durum (0.09 mg/kg) was lower than that for hard red spring (0.21 mg/kg). Lower grades of wheat also contained higher median concentrations of DON than higher grades, supporting the current use of Fusarium damaged kernels as a grading factor to manage DON. PMID:23844863

Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Gaba, Don; Chan, Jason M

2013-07-22

457

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and quality traits of fossil cereal grains provide clues on sustainability at the beginnings of Mediterranean agriculture.  

PubMed

We present a novel approach to study the sustainability of ancient Mediterranean agriculture that combines the measurement of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta(13)C) and nitrogen isotope composition (delta(15)N) along with the assessment of quality traits in fossil cereal grains. Charred grains of naked wheat and barley were recovered in Los Castillejos, an archaeological site in SE Spain, with a continuous occupation of ca. 1500 years starting soon after the origin of agriculture (ca. 4000 BCE) in the region. Crop water status and yield were estimated from Delta(13)C and soil fertility and management practices were assessed from the delta(15)N and N content of grains. The original grain weight was inferred from grain dimensions and grain N content was assessed after correcting N concentration for the effect of carbonisation. Estimated water conditions (i.e. rainfall) during crop growth remained constant for the entire period. However, the grain size and grain yield decreased progressively during the first millennium after the onset of agriculture, regardless of the species, with only a slight recovery afterwards. Minimum delta(15)N values and grain N content were also recorded in the later periods of site occupation. Our results indicate a progressive loss of soil fertility, even when the amount of precipitation remained steady, thereby indicating the unsustainable nature of early agriculture at this site in the Western Mediterranean Basin. In addition, several findings suggest that barley and wheat were cultivated separately, the former being restricted to marginal areas, coinciding with an increased focus on wheat cultivation. PMID:18438779

Aguilera, Mònica; Araus, José Luis; Voltas, Jordi; Rodríguez-Ariza, Maria Oliva; Molina, Fernando; Rovira, Núria; Buxó, Ramon; Ferrio, Juan Pedro

2008-06-01

458

Haploid Plants from Pollen Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented by which hundreds of haploid plants of various species of Nicotiana can be raised from pollen grains. Stamens should be excised when pollen grains have been individualized, but are still uninucleate and free of starch. When grown in vitro on a relatively simple medium, some pollen grains proliferate into embryo-like structures which develop in stages similar

J. P. Nitsch; C. Nitsch

1969-01-01

459

Grain evolution during hot forging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A review on grain evolution during hot forging is presented in this paper. The discussion focus is on the experimental law, the microscopic mechanism, the physical model and the evolution equations of grain refinement and growth. This is because the grain evolution is the most important microstructure evolution effecting on the part mechanical behaviors, and to establish reasonable grain evolution is a very important and difficult work for macro microscopic coupling constitutive equation. The following contents about constitutive equation and grain evolution are discussed. 1) The experimental phenomena and evolution laws of grain growth and grain refinement under differential working conditions (deformation, heating, cooling) in order to adapt to the needs of numerical simulation of whole forging process. 2) The advantages and disadvantages of the traditional empirical equations on grain growth, grain refinement and recrystallization process are analyzed. 3) The recent advances in physic models for dynamic recrystallizaton and dynamic grain growth are introduced in detail. Comparing to the empirical equations, these models are closer to the actual physical process. The models not only describe the details of grain changes, but also reveal the relationship between the accumulated dislocations energy and grain size evolution. In addition, the assumptions used in the models and their influences on prediction function are also discussed in order to improve the models.

Jin, Quanlin

2013-05-01

460

Assessment of genetic diversity by simple sequence repeat markers among forty elite varieties in the germplasm for malting barley breeding*  

PubMed Central

The genetic diversity and relationship among 40 elite barley varieties were analyzed based on simple sequence repeat (SSR) genotyping data. The amplified fragments from SSR primers were highly polymorphic in the barley accessions investigated. A total of 85 alleles were detected at 35 SSR loci, and allelic variations existed at 29 SSR loci. The allele number per locus ranged from 1 to 5 with an average of 2.4 alleles per locus detected from the 40 barley accessions. A cluster analysis based on the genetic similarity coefficients was conducted and the 40 varieties were classified into two groups. Seven malting barley varieties from China fell into the same subgroup. It was found that the genetic diversity within the Chinese malting barley varieties was narrower than that in other barley germplasm sources, suggesting the importance and feasibility of introducing elite genotypes from di