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1

Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

2

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy  

PubMed Central

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

2012-01-01

3

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley. PMID:20819790

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, Søren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

4

Lysine metabolism in antisense C-hordein barley grains.  

PubMed

The grain proteins of barley are deficient in lysine and threonine due to their low concentrations in the major storage protein class, the hordeins, especially in the C-hordein subgroup. Previously produced antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines have an improved amino acid composition, with increased lysine, methionine and threonine contents. The objective of the study was to investigate the possible changes in the regulation of key enzymes of the aspartate metabolic pathway and the contents of aspartate-derived amino acids in the nontransgenic line (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Golden Promise) and five antisense C-hordein transgenic barley lines. Considering the amounts of soluble and protein-bound aspartate-derived amino acids together with the analysis of key enzymes of aspartate metabolic pathway, we suggest that the C-hordein suppression did not only alter the metabolism of at least one aspartate-derived amino acid (threonine), but major changes were also detected in the metabolism of lysine and methionine. Modifications in the activities and regulation of aspartate kinase, dihydrodipicolinate synthase and homoserine dehydrogenase were observed in most transgenic lines. Furthermore the activities of lysine ?-ketoglutarate reductase and saccharopine dehydrogenase were also altered, although the extent varied among the transgenic lines. PMID:25559386

Schmidt, Daiana; Rizzi, Vanessa; Gaziola, Salete A; Medici, Leonardo O; Vincze, Eva; Kozak, Marcin; Lea, Peter J; Azevedo, Ricardo A

2015-02-01

5

Effect of the hull fraction on the beta-glucan contents of barley and oat grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The hull fraction of barley and oat grains affects the beta-glucan (BG) content in whole grains. To evaluate the impact of the hull fraction on BG content in various genetic backgrounds and growth conditions, BG contents were analyzed in five hulled barley lines, seven hulled oat lines, and one F2 ...

6

[Fractions of barley spent grain as media for growth of probiotic bacteria].  

PubMed

The application of the protein and polysaccharide fractions of barley spent grain as a basis of growth media for probiotic bacteria was studied. High values of biomass yield, cell viability, and organic acid production were observed in the variants of media containing the barley spent grain supplemented with lactose, ascorbic acid, yeast extract, and mineral salts. Cells of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria had the typical rod-shaped morphology. PMID:18297884

Novik, G I; Wawrzynczyk, J; Norrlow, O; Szwajcer-Dey, E

2007-01-01

7

Fractions of barley spent grain as media for growth of probiotic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of the protein and polysaccharide fractions of barley spent grain as a basis of growth media for probiotic\\u000a bacteria was studied. High values of biomass yield, cell viability, and organic acid production were observed in the variants\\u000a of media containing the barley spent grain supplemented with lactose, ascorbic acid, yeast extract, and mineral salts. Cells\\u000a of lactic acid

G. I. Novik; J. Wawrzynczyk; O. Norrlow; E. Szwajcer-Dey

2007-01-01

8

Tubing crimping pliers  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

Lindholm, G.T.

1981-02-27

9

Investigation of germination and aging in Moravian III barley grain by nuclear magnetic resonance.  

PubMed Central

High-resolution, solid-state 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques are used for the first time to study germination in imbibed Moravian III barley grains. Whereas magic-angle spinning 1H NMR spectra reveal the water and lipid components in barley grains, combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy techniques provide 1H NMR spectra of grains that reveal the protein and carbohydrate as well as the water and lipid components. Spectra of grains are compared with spectra of model compounds to verify assignments. 1H T1 and T2 measurements using magic-angle spinning only and combined rotation and multiple-pulse spectroscopy techniques provide information about molecular mobility within the grains during inhibition. Some grains were subjected to artificial aging conditions. 1H NMR spectral comparisons are made between normal, viable grains and artificially aged grains. PMID:8770229

Ridenour, C F; Xiong, J; Maciel, G E

1996-01-01

10

Phytate Reduction in Whole Grains of Wheat, Rye, Barley and Oats after Hydrothermal Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole grains of different cereals have traditionally been prepared with water and heat prior to dehulling, but knowledge of the effect on nutritional properties is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate if phytate reduction occurred during hydrothermal treatment of whole grains. Wheat, rye, hulled and dehulled barley, hulled oats and naked oats were incubated with either

K. Fredlund; N.-G. Asp; M. Larsson; I. Marklinder; A.-S. Sandberg

1997-01-01

11

CoulArray electrochemical evaluation of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in barley, oat and spelt grains.  

PubMed

Hexane extracts obtained from Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Avena sativa L. (oat), Triticum spelta Schrank and Triticum dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler (spelt or emmer) whole grains, were examined for their tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol) content. The analyses were carried out on fatty extracts by means of HPLC coupled with a coulometric array electrochemical detector (ECD). Due to the specific high selectivity of the detector, the sample can be directly injected without any preliminary treatment (e.g., saponification). Eight tocochromanol isomers have been detected in barley grains. Different barley cultivars examined showed a tocochromanol content ranging from 1620 to 1852 ng/g caryopses. Oat grains contained ca. 45 ng/g caryopses and Triticum species ca.1070 ng/g caryopses. The results are considered in view of a potential use of vitamin E derivatives as human health enhancer and as sources of antioxidants for food lipid preservation. PMID:19370933

Colombo, Maria L; Marangon, Katia; Bugatti, Carlo

2009-02-01

12

cis-trans-Isomerization of unsaturated fatty acids during /?-irradiation of barley grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gamma-irradiating barley grains with doses of 10-100 kGy, a dose dependent isomerization of the naturally occurring cis-unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic, cis-vaccenic, linoleic and also of linolenic acid was found. Whereas the effect was negligible up to 10 kGy, at 50 kGy the trans-fatty acid level became comparable to that of other natural products like butter fat which means that there is no essential nutrition danger. The cis-trans-isomerization found in barley grains is explained mainly by a thiyl radical driven process rather than direct isomerization.

Geißler, Christian; Brede, Ortwin; Reinhardt, Jürgen

2003-06-01

13

Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with

J Olsson; T Börjesson; T Lundstedt; J Schnürer

2002-01-01

14

Aspartic proteinase from barley grains is related to mammalian lysosomal cathepsin D  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains contain acid-proteinase activity. The corresponding enzyme was purified from grain extracts by affinity chromatography on a pepstatin-Sepharose column. The pH optimum of the affinity-purified enzyme was between 3.5 and 3.9 as measured by hemoglobin hydrolysis and the enzymatic activity was completely inhibited by pepstatin a specific inhibitor of aspartic proteinases (EC 3.4.23). Further purification

Paula Sarkkinen; Nisse Kalkkinen; Carola Tilgmann; Jari Siuro; Jukka Kervinen; Leena Mikola

1992-01-01

15

Endogenous gibberellins and kauranoids identified from developing and germinating barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gibberellins (GAs) and kauranoids were identified in extracts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A partially purified acidic ethyl acetate extract from\\u000a 21-day postanthesis developing barley grain (cv. Proctor) contained GA1 (trace), GA4 (trace), GA8 (trace), GA12, GA17, GA20 (tentative) (trace), GA25, GA34, GA48, 18-hydroxy-GA4, 12?-hydroxy-GA9, and 18-hydroxy-GA34 (tentative). A hydrolyzed butanol extract contained

Paul Gaskin; Sarah Jane Gilmour; John R. Lenton; Jake MacMillan; Valerie M. Sponsel

1983-01-01

16

Differences in Grain Ultrastructure, Phytochemical and Proteomic Profiles between the Two Contrasting Grain Cd-Accumulation Barley Genotypes  

PubMed Central

To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low- grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2), trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars. PMID:24260165

Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Nanbo; Zhang, Mian; Mosaddek Ahmed, Imrul; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2013-01-01

17

GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1972-01-01

18

Genotype x environment interaction patterns for grain yield of spring barley in different regions of Kazakhstan.  

PubMed

Barley plays an important role in agricultural sector of Kazakhstan and it is grown in many different climate zones over 1.5 min hectares annually. Therefore development of optimal cultivars for specific environments is a major challenge for barley breeding community in Kazakhstan. One of the approaches to address this question is to test large collection of commercial cultivars and advanced lines over a number of environmental sites that reflect major spatial and temporal climate variations in the country. In this work 103 cultivars and advanced lines of spring barley bred in six different breeding stations of Kazakhstan were grown in different testing sites in seven regions over 2009-2011 years. The major tasks of this research were to evaluate genotype x x environment interactions and assess grain yield in associations with developmental stages of barley, such as heading date and seed maturation date. The results suggest that (i) heading and seed maturation dates are significantly correlated with grain yield in specific regions and may have opposite correlation indexes in response to environmental conditions; (ii) accessions of different bred origin vary in their ability to exhibit environmentally-dependent plastic responses; (iii) spatial variation was more important than temporal variation in GxE interactions; (iv) biplot analysis is effective approach in identification of best suitable and stable accessions for both broad and narrow environments. The obtained results are further contribution to understanding of complex mechanisms of genotype x environment interactions. PMID:23668088

Turuspekov, Y; Sariev, B; Chudinov, V; Sereda, G; Tokhetova, L; Ortaev, A; Tsygankov, V; Doszhanov, M; Volis, S; Abugalieva, S

2013-02-01

19

Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants  

PubMed Central

Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp

2010-01-01

20

Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb

2005-01-01

21

Transcriptome Assembly and Analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) Developing Grains, with Emphasis on Quality Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and ?-glucan) were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. Conclusions/Significance We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1–3;1–4)-?-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley. PMID:24871534

Chen, Xin; Long, Hai; Gao, Ping; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Liang, Junjun; Tang, Yawei; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

2014-01-01

22

Barley Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

23

THE EFFECT OF LOW-PHYTATE MUTANT-M 995 BARLEY GRAIN ON PHYTATE DEGRADATION AND MINERAL DIGESTION IN SHEEP FED HIGH-GRAIN DIETS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Our objectives for this study were to determine the extent of phytate degradation and mineral digestion in wethers fed high-grain diets consisting of either a normal- or low-phytate barley grain. In two separate experiments, mature Columbia wethers (n = 7) fitted with rumen and duodenal cannulas an...

24

Tool for Crimping Flexible Circuit Leads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A hand tool has been developed for crimping leads in flexible tails that are parts of some electronic circuits -- especially some sensor circuits. The tool is used to cut the tails to desired lengths and attach solder tabs to the leads. For tailoring small numbers of circuits for special applications, this hand tool is a less expensive alternative to a commercially available automated crimping tool. The crimping tool consists of an off-the-shelf hand crimping tool plus a specialized crimping insert designed specifically for the intended application.

Hulse, Aaron; Diftler, Myron A.

2009-01-01

25

A pathway-specific microarray analysis highlights the complex and co-ordinated transcriptional networks of the developing grain of field-grown barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to describe the molecular and biochemical interactions associated with amino acid biosynthesis and storage protein accumulation in the developing grains of field-grown barley. Our strategy was to analyse the transcription of genes associated with the biosynthesis of storage products during the development of field-grown barley grains using a grain-specific microarray assembled in our laboratory.

Michael Hansen; Carsten Friis; Steve Bowra; Preben Bach Holm; Eva Vincze

2009-01-01

26

The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.  

PubMed

The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. PMID:24853664

Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

2015-01-01

27

Overexpression of thioredoxin h leads to enhanced activity of starch debranching enzyme (pullulanase) in barley grain.  

PubMed

Biochemically active wheat thioredoxin h has been overexpressed in the endosperm of transgenic barley grain. Two DNA constructs containing the wheat thioredoxin h gene (wtrxh) were used for transformation; each contained wtrxh fused to an endosperm-specific B(1)-hordein promoter either with or without a signal peptide sequence for targeting to the protein body. Twenty-two stable, independently transformed regenerable lines were obtained by selecting with the herbicide bialaphos to test for the presence of the bar herbicide resistance gene on a cotransformed plasmid; all were positive for this gene. The presence of wtrxh was confirmed in 20 lines by PCR analysis, and the identity and level of expression of wheat thioredoxin h was assessed by immunoblots. Although levels varied among the different transgenic events, wheat thioredoxin h was consistently highly expressed (up to 30-fold) in the transgenic grain. Transgenic lines transformed with the B(1)-hordein promoter with a signal peptide sequence produced a higher level of wheat thioredoxin h on average than those without a signal sequence. The overexpression of thioredoxin h in the endosperm of germinated grain effected up to a 4-fold increase in the activity of the starch debranching enzyme, pullulanase (limit dextrinase), the enzyme that specifically cleaves alpha-1,6 linkages in starch. These results raise the question of how thioredoxin h enhances the activity of pullulanase because it was found that the inhibitor had become inactive before the enzyme showed appreciable activity. PMID:10588758

Cho, M J; Wong, J H; Marx, C; Jiang, W; Lemaux, P G; Buchanan, B B

1999-12-01

28

Selenium speciation in malt, wort, and beer made from selenium-biofortified two-rowed barley grain.  

PubMed

Selenium (Se) biofortification of barley is a suitable strategy to increase the Se concentration in grain. In the present paper, the suitability of this Se-biofortified grain for making Se-enriched beer is analyzed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different Se fertilizer doses (0, 10, and 20 g of Se ha(-1)) and forms (sodium selenate or sodium selenite) on the Se loss during the malting and brewing processes and Se speciation in grain, malt, wort, and beer. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-ICP-MS for total Se and speciation. Mashing-lautering was the process with the greatest Se loss (83.8%). After malting and brewing, only 7.3% of the initial Se was retained in beer, mainly in selenite form. Even so, the fertilizer application of sodium selenate at 20 g ha(-1) increased the total Se concentration almost 6-fold in the final beer in comparison to the use of grain derived from unfertilized barley. The present paper provides evidence that the use of Se-biofortified barley grain as a raw material to produce Se-enriched beer is possible, and the results are comparable to other methods in terms of efficiency. PMID:24869769

Rodrigo, Sara; Santamaria, Oscar; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P; Poblaciones, Maria J

2014-06-25

29

A Role for Barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in Light Regulation of Grain Dormancy and Germination[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8’-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

Barrero, Jose M.; Downie, A. Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

2014-01-01

30

Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

Yu, Peiqiang

2012-05-01

31

Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.  

PubMed

Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower ?-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower ?-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher ?-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of ?-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of ?-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification. PMID:25136990

Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

2014-09-01

32

Diamine oxidase is involved in H2O2 production in the chalazal cells during barley grain filling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The localization and activities of diamine oxidase (DAO, EC 1.4.3.6) and polyamine oxidase (PAO, EC 1.4.3.4) together with polyamine levels have been investigated in developing grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). DAO (pH 7.5) is present mainly in vascular tissue and its neighbouring cells, namely chalazal cells and nucellar projection, while PAO (pH 6.0) is mainly localized in the chlorenchymatous

Bavita Asthir; Carol M. Duffus; Rachel C. Smith; William Spoor

2002-01-01

33

Effects of Zn fertilization on hordein transcripts at early developmental stage of barley grain and correlation with increased Zn concentration in the mature grain.  

PubMed

Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers) which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization. PMID:25250985

Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Vincze, Eva

2014-01-01

34

The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.  

PubMed

Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P < 0.001); however, other grain components were found to interact with the traits. QTL for these traits were also found on different genomic regions, for example, grain density QTLs were found on chromosomes 2H and 6H, whereas endosperm hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci. PMID:23884598

Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

2013-10-01

35

Crop identification studies using Landsat data Separation of barley from other spring small grains and corn and soybean decision logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two labeling procedures were developed which identify various agricultural crops through the use of Landsat data. One procedure separates barley from other spring small grains, and the other identifies corn and soybeans. For both procedures, a minimum data set (critical acquisition time) has been designated. Landsat data in both image format and various graphic displays were used along with ancillary data to obtain information which aided in labeling the spectral signatures. The corn and soybean procedure also employed a structured decision logic. Test results for the barley separation procedure emphasized the importance of obtaining a critical acquisition and showed some success especially in areas where spring crops followed the expected growth patterns. Two tests of the corn and soybean procedure produced good labeling accuracies. Problems with the procedure were easy to identify, and some solutions were implemented for the second test. Automation of various parts of the procedure and extension to other crops and regions were recommended.

Dailey, C. L.; Register, D. T.; Abotteen, K. M.; Palmer, W. F.; Spikes, G. D.; Magness, E. R.; Wade, L. C.

1980-01-01

36

Caspase-Like Activities Accompany Programmed Cell Death Events in Developing Barley Grains  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development. PMID:25286287

Tran, Van; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Thiel, Johannes; Radchuk, Volodymyr

2014-01-01

37

Chromium supplementation and substitution of barley grain with corn: effects on metabolite and hormonal responses in periparturient dairy cows.  

PubMed

Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation and dietary grain source on metabolic indices throughout the periparturient period. Cows were fed a total mixed ration with the concentrate portion based on ground barley (barley based diet, BBD)--or ground corn (corn-based diet, CBD) from 21 days before anticipated calving through 28 days after calving. The Cr-Met was supplemented at dosages of 0 or 0.08 mg of Cr/kg of metabolic body weight throughout the experiment. Thus, treatments were in a 2 (Cr-Met) × 2 (grain sources) factorial arrangement. Plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, very low-density lipoprotein, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), insulin, glucagon, cortisol and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations were not affected by chromium supplementation on calving day (d 0). However, there was a trend for decreased ?-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) and increased cholesterol on d 0 in cows fed the Cr supplemented diet. On d 21 postpartum (wk 3 p.p.), plasma glucagon concentration tended to be greater in cows fed the Cr supplemented diet. However, other plasma metabolite and hormone measures were not affected by Cr supplementation in wk 3 p.p. There was no effect of grain source on d 0 plasma metabolic and endocrine measures. In wk 3 p.p., a significant difference was found only for plasma concentration of glucagon that was higher for cows fed the BBD compared with the CBD. There was an interaction of Cr-Met supplementation and grain source in wk 3 p.p. plasma concentration of BUN to decrease in CBD and increase in BBD, supplemented with Cr-Met. No Cr by grain interactions were observed for other plasma metabolic variables on d 0 and in wk 3 p.p. These results indicate that Cr-Met supplementation and substituting barley grain with corn throughout the transition period have only moderate effects on metabolic and endocrine parameters. PMID:21438928

Sadri, H; Rahmani, H R; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R; Bruckmaier, R M

2012-04-01

38

Reciprocal combinations of barley and corn grains in oil-supplemented diets: Feeding behavior and milk yield of lactating cows.  

PubMed

The effect of barley-based (BBD) or corn-based diets (CBD), or their equal blend (BCBD) on dry matter (DM) intake, feeding and chewing behavior, and production performance of lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Nine multiparous Holstein cows (75.6±11.0 d in milk) were used in a triplicate 3×3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Forage-to-concentrate ratio (40:60), forage neutral detergent fiber (20% of DM), total neutral detergent fiber (>29% of DM), and geometric mean particle size (4.3mm) were similar among treatments. Meal patterns, including meal size and intermeal interval, were not affected by the dietary treatments and DM intake (25.6kg/d) was not different among treatments. Ether extract intake increased linearly with increasing amount of the corn grain in the diets. Due to similar feed intake, actual milk (48.6kg/d), 4% fat-corrected milk (36.8kg/d), and fat- and protein-corrected milk (38.1kg/d) yields were not affected by treatments. Average milk protein percentage and yield were 2.83% and 1.37kg/d, respectively, and were not different across treatments. Milk fat percentage increased linearly with increasing amount of corn grain in the diets and was greater in CBD relative to BCBD but not BBD (2.31, 2.28, and 2.57%, for BBD, BCBD, and CBD, respectively). However, milk fat yield tended to show a linear increase as the amount of corn grain included in the diets increased. Results indicated that changing diet fermentability by replacing barley grain for corn grain in oil-supplemented diets did not influence feeding patterns and thereby no changes in feed intake and milk yield occurred. PMID:25200781

Kargar, S; Ghorbani, G R; Khorvash, M; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Schingoethe, D J

2014-11-01

39

Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains  

PubMed Central

In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

2014-01-01

40

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

41

Particle Size Effects on the Quality of Flour Tortillas Enriched with Whole Grain Waxy Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat tortillas were enriched with whole barley flour (WBF) of different particle sizes including 237 micros (regular-R), 131 micros (intermediate-IM), and 68 micros (microground-MG). Topographical and fluorescent microstructure images of flours, doughs and tortillas were examined. Flours and tort...

42

Association mapping of Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia [Kurdjumov]) is an ongoing problem in the western USA. Infestations in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking and prevent unrolling of emerging leaves which trap spikes and severely reduce fertility and grain yield. Resistant...

43

Detection and quantification of ochratoxin A and deoxynivalenol in barley grains by GC-MS and electronic nose.  

PubMed

Mycotoxin contamination of cereal grains can be detected and quantified using complex extraction procedures and analytical techniques. Normally, the grain odour, i.e. the presence of non-grain volatile metabolites, is used for quality classification of grain. We have investigated the possibility of using fungal volatile metabolites as indicators of mycotoxins in grain. Ten barley samples with normal odour, and 30 with some kind of off-odour were selected from Swedish granaries. The samples were evaluated with regard to moisture content, fungal contamination, ergosterol content, and levels of ochratoxin A (OA) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Volatile compounds were also analysed using both an electronic nose and gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples with normal odour had no detectable ochratoxin A and average DON contents of 16 microg kg(-1) (range 0-80), while samples with off-odour had average OA contents of 76 microg kg(-1) (range 0-934) and DON contents of 69 microg kg(-1) (range 0-857). Data were evaluated by multivariate data analysis using projection methods such as principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The results show that it was possible to classify the OA level as below or above the maximum limit of 5 microg kg(-1) cereal grain established by the Swedish National Food Administration, and that the DON level could be estimated using PLS. Samples with OA levels below 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentration of aldehydes (nonanal, 2-hexenal) and alcohols (1-penten-3-ol, 1-octanol). Samples with OA levels above 5 microg kg(-1) had higher concentrations of ketones (2-hexanone, 3-octanone). The GC-MS system predicted OA concentrations with a higher accuracy than the electronic nose, since the GC-MS misclassified only 3 of 37 samples and the electronic nose 7 of 37 samples. No correlation was found between odour and OA level, as samples with pronounced or strong off-odours had OA levels both below and above 5 microg kg(-1). We were able to predict DON levels in the naturally contaminated barley samples using the volatile compounds detected and quantified by either GC-MS or the electronic nose. Pentane, methylpyrazine, 3-pentanone, 3-octene-2-ol and isooctylacetate showed a positive correlation with DON, while ethylhexanol, pentadecane, toluene, 1-octanol, 1-nonanol, and 1-heptanol showed a negative correlation with DON. The root mean square error of estimation values for prediction of DON based on GC-MS and electronic nose data were 16 and 25 microg kg(-1), respectively. PMID:11845819

Olsson, J; Börjesson, T; Lundstedt, T; Schnürer, J

2002-02-01

44

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities in covered whole-grain flours of Norwegian barley varieties and in fractions obtained after pearling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phenolic contents and corresponding antioxidant activities were studied in covered whole-grain flours of Norwegian barley varieties and in two different pearling fractions. In covered whole-grain flours the summarized amount of phenolics (?-P) ranged from 481–676 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)\\/100 g dry matter (DM) and the corresponding total antioxidant activities (?-FRAP) between 6.1–8.7 mmol Fe\\/100 g DM. About 50% of

Ann Katrin Holtekjølen; Stefan Sahlstrøm; Svein Halvor Knutsen

2011-01-01

45

RUMINAL AND POST-RUMINAL UTILIZATION OF NITROGEN AND STARCH FROM SORGHUM GRAIN, CORN AND BARLEY-BASED DIETS BY BEEF STEERS z'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorghum grain-, corn- and barley-based diets (approximately 82% grain) were fed to six ab- omasal-fistulated steers (avg. weight 448 kg) in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin-square design to determine ruminal, post-ruminal and total tract utilization of N and starch, and extent of bacterial protein synthesis. Each trial included a 6-d period of total fecal collection and abornasal sampling (12-h

Lawson A. Spicer; C. Brent Theurer; Jabel Sowe; T. H. Noon

2010-01-01

46

A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins  

PubMed Central

Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described PMID:22791822

Diaz, Isabel

2012-01-01

47

Expression of the Arabidopsis vacuolar H?-pyrophosphatase gene (AVP1) improves the shoot biomass of transgenic barley and increases grain yield in a saline field.  

PubMed

Cereal varieties with improved salinity tolerance are needed to achieve profitable grain yields in saline soils. The expression of AVP1, an Arabidopsis gene encoding a vacuolar proton pumping pyrophosphatase (H?-PPase), has been shown to improve the salinity tolerance of transgenic plants in greenhouse conditions. However, the potential for this gene to improve the grain yield of cereal crops in a saline field has yet to be evaluated. Recent advances in high-throughput nondestructive phenotyping technologies also offer an opportunity to quantitatively evaluate the growth of transgenic plants under abiotic stress through time. In this study, the growth of transgenic barley expressing AVP1 was evaluated under saline conditions in a pot experiment using nondestructive plant imaging and in a saline field trial. Greenhouse-grown transgenic barley expressing AVP1 produced a larger shoot biomass compared to null segregants, as determined by an increase in projected shoot area, when grown in soil with 150 mM NaCl. This increase in shoot biomass of transgenic AVP1 barley occurred from an early growth stage and also in nonsaline conditions. In a saline field, the transgenic barley expressing AVP1 also showed an increase in shoot biomass and, importantly, produced a greater grain yield per plant compared to wild-type plants. Interestingly, the expression of AVP1 did not alter barley leaf sodium concentrations in either greenhouse- or field-grown plants. This study validates our greenhouse-based experiments and indicates that transgenic barley expressing AVP1 is a promising option for increasing cereal crop productivity in saline fields. PMID:24261956

Schilling, Rhiannon K; Marschner, Petra; Shavrukov, Yuri; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark; Roy, Stuart J; Plett, Darren C

2014-04-01

48

Chromium supplementation and substitution of barley grain with corn: Effects on performance and lactation in periparturient dairy cows.  

PubMed

Thirty-two multiparous Holstein cows were used to investigate the effects of chromium-l-methionine (Cr-Met) supplementation and dietary grain source on performance and lactation during the periparturient period. Cows were fed a total mixed ration consisting of either a barley-based diet (BBD) or a corn-based diet (CBD) from 21 d before anticipated calving through 28 d after calving. The Cr-Met was supplemented at dosages of 0 or 0.08 mg of Cr/kg of metabolic body weight. The study was designed as a randomized complete block design with 2 (Cr-Met levels) x 2 (grain sources) factorial arrangement. There was no Cr effect on prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) or postpartum DMI, body weight (BW), net energy balance, and whole tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. Prepartum DMI as a percentage of BW tended to increase with Cr-Met. Supplemental Cr-Met tended to increase milk yield whereas milk protein percentage decreased. Pre- and postpartum DMI, BW, net energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition were not affected by substituting ground barley with ground corn. The addition of Cr-Met increased prepartum DMI and tended to increase postpartum DMI of the BBD but not the CBD. The change in prepartum DMI was smaller when the BBD was supplemented with Cr-Met but remained unchanged when the CBD was supplemented with Cr-Met. Yields of crude protein and total solids in milk and prepartum digestibility of DM and organic matter tended to increase when Cr-Met was added to the BBD but remained unchanged when added to the CBD. Periparturient cows failed to respond to the grain source of the diet, whereas they showed greater response in milk yield to diets supplemented with Cr-Met. In conclusion, the present results demonstrate that the beneficial effect of Cr-Met supplementation during the periparturient period to improve feed intake may depend on the grain source of the diet. PMID:19841203

Sadri, H; Ghorbani, G R; Rahmani, H R; Samie, A H; Khorvash, M; Bruckmaier, R M

2009-11-01

49

A History of Small Grain Crops in Texas: Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye 1582-1976.  

E-print Network

fields of wheat nearby. Farther west in Coleman (Bruce, 24), a Mr. Figure 4A: Hand-operated cradle for harvesting grain. Figure 4B: Horse-drawn mechanical harvester of the ment of grain harvesting until 1840. (Courtesy Interna- Introduced to America...

Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1980-01-01

50

Effects of photoperiod and pair-feeding on lactation of cows fed corn or barley grain in total mixed rations.  

PubMed

Effects of photoperiod and type of grain were assessed using 47 cows (wk 1; 59.5 d of lactation) exposed daily to 16 h of light (long day) and fed randomly one of two diets containing an equal amount of cracked corn or rolled barley. During wk 5, cows were assigned within each diet to long day and ad libitum feeding, short day (8 h of light: 2 h of dark: 2 h of light: 12 h of dark) and ad libitum feeding, or long day and ad libitum feeding (wk 5 to 8) followed by pair feeding with short day cows between wk 9 and 16. Milk composition was not affected by treatments. Between wk 9 and 16, long day cows fed for ad libitum consumption or pair fed produced 5 to 11% more milk than cows exposed to short day; feed intake of long day cows fed for ad libitum consumption was greater than short short day and long day cows pair fed cows. Milk yield and total feed intake were not affected by type of grain in the diet. In conclusion, long day photoperiod increased milk yield and feed intake. PMID:2625490

Bilodeau, P P; Petitclerc, D; St Pierre, N; Pelletier, G; St Laurent, G J

1989-11-01

51

Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley.  

PubMed

Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field. PMID:25505473

Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

2014-01-01

52

Nutritional control of storage-protein synthesis in developing grain of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Sulphur starvation of barley results in decreased accumulation of the "sulphur-rich" B-hordein polypeptides, with little or no effect on the 'sulphur-poor' C hordeins. The populations of mRNAs for C hordeins and the two major subfamilies of B-hordein polypeptides have been assessed by in-vitro translations in a wheat-germ extract and by 'dot' hybridisations to (32)P-labelled B- and C-hordein complementary-DNA clones. The results show that the relative changes in the rates of accumulation of the three groups of polypeptides are correlated with similar changes in the abundances of their respective mRNAs. In addition, the deficiency of sulphur also appears to increase the efficiency of translation of C-hordein mRNA and to decrease the efficiency of translation of the B-hordein mRNAs. Thus the results indicate that there may be two components to the effect of sulphur deficiency on hordein accumulation, one acting at the level of transcription, or mRNA degradation, and one at the level of translation. PMID:24258235

Rahman, S; Shewry, P R; Forde, B G; Kreis, M; Miflin, B J

1983-11-01

53

Crimp morphology in the ovine anterior cruciate ligament.  

PubMed

While the crimp morphology in ligaments and tendons has been described in detail in the literature, its relative distribution within the tissue has not been studied, especially in relation to the complex multi-bundle arrangement as is found in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). In this study, the crimp morphology of the ovine ACL was examined topologically and with respect to its double-bundle structure. The crimp morphologies were compared with the knee in three knee positions, namely stance, maximum extension and maximum flexion. As a control, the crimp morphology of the ACL free from its bony attachments was determined. In the control samples, the anterior-medial (AM) bundle contained a combination of coarse and fine crimp, whereas the posterior-lateral (PL) bundle manifested only a coarse crimp. Using the extent of crimp loss observed when subjecting the knee to the respective positions, and comparing with the controls, the crimp morphologies show that the AM bundle of the ACL is most active in the stance position, whereas for the maximum extension and flexion positions the PL bundle is most active. We propose that these differences in crimp morphologies have relevance to ACL design and function. PMID:25677165

Zhao, Lei; Thambyah, Ashvin; Broom, Neil

2015-03-01

54

Inhibition of germination of dormant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains by blue light as related to oxygen and hormonal regulation.  

PubMed

Germination of primary dormant barley grains is promoted by darkness and temperatures below 20?°C, but is strongly inhibited by blue light. Exposure under blue light at 10?°C for periods longer than five days, results in a progressive inability to germinate in the dark, considered as secondary dormancy. We demonstrate that the inhibitory effect of blue light is reinforced in hypoxia. The inhibitory effect of blue light is associated with an increase in embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content (by 3.5- to 3.8-fold) and embryo sensitivity to both ABA and hypoxia. Analysis of expression of ABA metabolism genes shows that increase in ABA mainly results in a strong increase in HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 expression, and a slight decrease in HvABA8'OH-1. Among the gibberellins (GA) metabolism genes examined, blue light decreases the expression of HvGA3ox2, involved in GA synthesis, increases that of GA2ox3 and GA2ox5, involved in GA catabolism, and reduces the GA signalling evaluated by the HvExpA11 expression. Expression of secondary dormancy is associated with maintenance of high embryo ABA content and a low HvExpA11 expression. The partial reversion of the inhibitory effect of blue light by green light also suggests that cryptochrome might be involved in this hormonal regulation. PMID:24256416

Hoang, Hai Ha; Sechet, Julien; Bailly, Christophe; Leymarie, Juliette; Corbineau, Françoise

2014-06-01

55

Elastic Response of Crimped Collagen Fibrils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils have a three-dimensional structure at the micrometer scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this waveform allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendineae

Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

2005-01-01

56

Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the nonlinear elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils in a fascicle have a three-dimensional structure at the micron scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this wave form allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form: all integrals become analytic. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendinece.

Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

2005-01-01

57

Development of time-resolved chemiluminescence for the determination of antu in river water, wheat, barley, and oat grain samples.  

PubMed

A novel chemiluminescence method for the determination of antu has been developed based on the reaction between potassium permanganate in acid medium with this rat-poison in the presence of formaldehyde as an emission enhancer. The main feature of the system used is that the recording of the whole chemiluminescence intensity-vs-time profiles can be obtained, using the stopped-flow technique in a continuous-flow system. This enables the use of three quantitative parameters adjustable via software settings, one of them a typically kinetic parameter, such as rate of the light-decay reaction, and the others conventional parameters, such as maximum emission intensity and total emission area, which are proportional to the analyte concentration. The optimum chemical conditions for the chemiluminescence emission were investigated. The effect of common emission enhancers, such as formic acid, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, acetaldehyde, quinine, fluorescein, rhodamine B, and rhodamine 6G, was studied. The parameters selected were sulfuric acid 4.0 mol L(-)(1), permanganate 0.1 mmol L(-)(1), and formaldehyde 1.0 mol L(-)(1). The calibration graphs obtained with each one of the measurement parameters were linear for the concentration range from 0.05 to 3.00 microg mL(-)(1). The detection limits ranged from 0.005 to 0.010 microg mL(-)(1), and RSD values (n = 10) of 0.99-1.79% at a 0.30 microg mL(-)(1) concentration level and 1.71-2.22% at a 1.0 microg mL(-)(1) concentration level were obtained. The present chemiluminescence procedures were applied to the determination of antu in different kinds of samples, such as river water, wheat, barley, and oat grain samples. Recovery values not significantly different from the spiked amount were found for these determinations. PMID:16104774

Murillo Pulgarín, José A; García Bermejo, Luisa F; Rubio Aranda, José A

2005-08-24

58

Transcatheter fiber heart valve: Effect of crimping on material performances.  

PubMed

Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has become a popular alternative technique to surgical valve replacement. However, the biological valve tissue used in these devices appears to be fragile material in the long term particularly due being folded for low diameter catheter insertion purposes and when released in a calcified environment with irregular geometry. Textile polyester material is characterized by outstanding folding and strength properties combined with proven biocompatibility. It could therefore be considered as a replacement for biological valve leaflets in the TAVI procedure. The folding process associated with crimping, however, may degrade the filaments involved in the fibrous assembly and limit the durability of the device. The purpose of the present work is to study the effect of different crimping conditions on the mechanical performances of textile valve prototypes made from various fabric constructions. Results show that crimping generates some creases in the fabrics, which surface topography varies with fabric construction and crimping configuration. The mechanical properties of the crimped materials are globally slightly reduced. To determine how critical the modifications due to crimping are for prosthesis durability, more detailed long term in vitro and in vivo trials with crimped textile prototypes are needed in addition to this preliminary work. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2014. PMID:25448469

Khoffi, Foued; Heim, Frederic; Chakfe, Nabil; Lee, Jason T

2014-11-29

59

Quality control on crimping of large diameter welding pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crimping is used in production of large diameter submerged-arc welding pipes. Many researches are focused on crimping in certain manufacturing mode of welding pipe. The application scopes of research achievements become limited due to lack of uniformity in theoretical analysis. In order to propose a crimping prediction method in order to control forming quality, the theory model of crimping based on elastic-plastic mechanics is established. The main technical parameters are determined by theoretical analysis, including length of crimping, base radius of punch, terminal angle of punch, base radius of die, terminal angle of die and horizontal distance between punch and die. In addition, a method used to evaluate the forming quality is presented, which investigates the bending angle after springback, forming force, straight edge length and equivalent radius of curvature. In order to investigate the effects of technical parameters on forming quality, a two-dimensional finite element model is established by finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element model is verified in that its shapes error is less than 5% by comparable experiments, which shows that their geometric precision meets demand. The crimping characteristics is obtained, such as the distribution of stress and strain and the changes of forming force, and the relation curves of technical parameters on forming quality are given by simulation analysis. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects of length of crimping, technical parameters of punch on forming quality are significant. In particular, the data from simulation analysis are regressed by response surface method (RSM) to establish prediction model. The feasible technical parameters are obtained from the prediction model. This method presented provides a new thought used to design technical parameters of crimping forming and makes a basis for improving crimping forming quality.

Fan, Lifeng; Gao, Ying; Li, Qiang; Xu, Hongshen

2012-11-01

60

Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination. PMID:23155447

Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela; Vincze, Eva; Mills, Rebecca F.; Borg, Søren; Møller, Annette; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Williams, Lorraine E.; Baekgaard, Lone; Holm, Preben Bach; Palmgren, Michael G.

2012-01-01

61

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

two-row winter barley cle~elc$ in New Mexico. The six-row head type, Figme kt has three fertile florets in each spikelet which r8dl in six rows of seed around the spike. The twbm I type develops seed only in the center florets. O~hu types grown... Seed and grazing crop in three-crop, 2-year rotations of cotton-barley-grain sorghum. Unfortunately, no barley trials have been conducted in this area. Grower experience has shown that, even though winter temperatures are severe, spring varieties...

Atkins, I. M.; Gardenshire, J. H.; McDaniel, M. E.; Porter, K. B.

1969-01-01

62

Using a fibrolytic enzyme in barley-based diets containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles: ruminal fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot steers.  

PubMed

Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding an exogenous fibrolytic enzyme (FE) on ruminal pH and fermentation, digestibility, and growth performance of feedlot beef cattle fed a finishing diet containing wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). In Exp. 1, 4 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 807 ± 93.9 kg) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were 1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate), 2) CON diet substituting 30% wheat DDGS for barley grain (WDG), 3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL), and 4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (WDGH). Heifers fed WDG had less (P = 0.01) total tract DM digestibility than heifers fed CON. Increasing FE linearly (P < 0.05) increased starch digestibility without affecting digestibility of other nutrients. Addition of FE also reduced (P = 0.03) ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration but did not affect VFA concentration. Moreover, application of FE to wheat DDGS linearly increased in situ ruminal DM (P < 0.01) and NDF (P = 0.02) disappearance after 48 h of incubation. In Exp. 2, 160 yearling steers (initial BW = 495 ± 37.9 kg) were fed the same diets as in Exp. 1. No differences in DMI, final BW, ADG, dietary NEg, or carcass characteristics were observed among diets. However, the steers fed WDG had less (P < 0.05) G:F and greater number of (P < 0.01) abscessed livers than steers fed CON. Increasing FE application in wheat DDGS diets did not affect DMI, final BW, or ADG but tended (P < 0.09) to linearly improve feed efficiency and decreased (P = 0.03) the incidence of abscessed livers. These results demonstrated adverse effects of including wheat DDGS in finishing diets on feed digestion, feed efficiency, and animal health. Application of FE in wheat DDGS-based diets potentially improved starch digestion, protein metabolism in the rumen, feed efficiency, and animal health. PMID:24987082

He, Z X; He, M L; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

2014-09-01

63

Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet  

PubMed Central

In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

2012-01-01

64

Effects of method of barley grain processing and source of supplemental dietary fat on duodenal nutrient flows, milk fatty acid profiles, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the interactive effects of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on ruminal nutrient digestion, duodenal nutrient flow, microbial protein synthesis, and milk fatty acid (FA) profiles in dairy cows. Four Holstein cows (656 ± 28 kg of BW; 80 ± 12 d in milk) fitted with permanent ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of experimental treatments, in which barley was either dry-rolled (DRB) or pelleted (PB) and supplemented with full-fat canola seed (canola) or full-fat flaxseed (flaxseed). Cows fed DRB consumed 1.8 to 3.5 kg/d more dry matter compared with those fed PB. Mean ruminal pH was lower and the duration (min/d) and area (pH × min) of total ruminal acidosis (RA; ruminal pH <5.8), mild RA (5.8 >ruminal pH >5.5), and severe RA (5.5 >ruminal pH >5.2), and the duration of acute RA (ruminal pH <5.2) were greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Milk yield was unaffected by diet. Milk fat content and yield were greater in cows fed DRB than in cows fed PB. Cows fed PB had greater duodenal flows of C18:1 trans, C18:1 cis, C18:2 trans-9,trans-12, C18:2 trans-9,cis-12, C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, and C18:2 trans-10,cis-12 compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flows of C18:1 cis, C18:1 trans, total C18:1, C18:2n6, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-10,cis-12, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola. Milk concentrations of C18:3n3 and total CLA tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. When compared with cows fed canola, milk concentrations of C18:2 trans-11,cis-15, C18:2 cis-9,trans-11, C18:2 trans-11,trans-13, total CLA, and C18:3n3 were greater in cows fed flaxseed. Ruminal digestion of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber was greater in cows fed DRB compared with those fed PB. Duodenal flow of ammonia-N tended to be greater in cows fed PB compared with those fed DRB. Duodenal flow of nonammonia nonmicrobial N was greater in cows fed flaxseed compared with those fed canola; however, barley grain processing did not affect duodenal nonammonia nonmicrobial N flow. Duodenal flow of microbial nonammonia N and microbial efficiency were not affected by diet. In summary, barley grain processing and source of fat altered ruminal FA biohydrogenation, and this was reflected in changes in duodenal FA flow and milk FA profiles; however, ruminal microbial protein synthesis was unaltered. PMID:22863103

Mutsvangwa, T; Hobin, M R; Gozho, G N

2012-10-01

65

Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.  

PubMed

This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability. PMID:25536510

Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

2015-03-01

66

Antisense-mediated suppression of C-hordein biosynthesis in the barley grain results in correlated changes in the transcriptome, protein profile, and amino acid composition.  

PubMed

Antisense- or RNAi-mediated suppression of the biosynthesis of nutritionally inferior storage proteins is a promising strategy for improving the amino acid profile of seeds. However, the potential pleiotropic effects of this on interconnected pathways and the agronomic quality traits need to be addressed. In the current study, a transcriptomic analysis of an antisense C-hordein line of barley was performed, using a grain-specific cDNA array. The C-hordein antisense line is characterized by marked changes in storage protein and amino acid profiles, while the seed weight is within the normal range and no external morphological irregularities were observed. The results of the transcriptome analysis showed excellent correlation with data on changes in the relative proportions of storage proteins and amino acid composition. The antisense line had a lower C-hordein level and down-regulated transcript encoding C-hordein. The production of the S-rich B/gamma- and D-hordeins was increased and significantly higher steady-state expression levels of the corresponding genes were observed. The increased synthesis of S-rich hordeins appeared to increase the demand for sulphur and the S-rich amino acids (cysteine and methionine), resulting in an up-regulation of key genes in the appropriate biosynthetic pathways. This study demonstrated the utility of the grain-specific cDNA microarray analysis to detect perturbations induced by antisense suppression of plant processes. PMID:18162630

Hansen, Michael; Lange, Mette; Friis, Carsten; Dionisio, Giuseppe; Holm, Preben Bach; Vincze, Eva

2007-01-01

67

Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize at high measurement temperatures. . The simplicity of these techniques makes it possible to attach thermocouples quickly. . These techniques can be used to attach thermocouples at locations where access is somewhat restricted by the surrounding objects.

Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

2006-01-01

68

7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for...201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of...consists of 50 percent or more of whole kernels of cultivated barley...more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have...

2010-01-01

69

Effect of sprouted barley grain supplementation of an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and methane output in continuous culture.  

PubMed

A 4-unit dual-flow continuous-culture fermentor system was used to assess the effect of supplementing 7-d sprouted barley (SB) or barley grain (BG) with an herbage-based or haylage-based diet on nutrient digestibility, volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, bacterial protein synthesis, and methane (CH4) output. Treatments were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement using 7 d for diet adaptation and 3 d for sample collection. Experimental diets were (1) 55.5g of herbage dry matter (DM) + 4.5g of SB DM, (2) 56.0g of herbage DM + 4.0g of BG DM, (3) 55.5g of haylage DM + 4.5g of SB DM, and (4) 56.0g of haylage DM + 4.0g of BG DM. Forages were fed at 0730, 1030, 1400, and 1900h, whereas SB and BG were fed at 0730 and 1400h. Gas samples for CH4 analysis were collected at 0725, 0900, 1000, 1355, 1530, and 1630h on d 8, 9, and 10. Fluid samples were taken once daily on d 8, 9, and 10 for pH measurements and for ammonia-N and VFA analysis and analyzed for DM, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber for determination of nutrient digestibilities and estimation of bacterial protein synthesis. Orthogonal contrasts were used to compare the effect of forage source (haylage vs. herbage), supplement (BG vs. SB), and the forage × supplement interaction. Apparent and true DM and organic matter digestibilities as well as apparent crude protein digestibility were not affected by forage source. However, true DM digestibility was greatest for diets supplemented with SB. Apparent neutral and acid detergent fiber digestibilities of herbage-based diets were higher than haylage-based diets but fiber digestibility was not affected by supplement. Diets supplemented with SB had higher mean and minimum pH than BG; however, maximum pH was not affected by diet. Supplementation with BG produced a greater concentration of total VFA compared with diets supplemented with SB. Haylage-based diets produced greater CH4 output compared with herbage-based diets but supplementation did not affect CH4 output. Efficiency of bacterial protein synthesis was greater for herbage-based diets compared with haylage-based diets, with no effect of supplementation. Overall, supplementation with SB marginally increased true DM digestibility of herbage- and haylage-based diets but did not affect fiber and crude protein digestibilities, CH4 output, and bacterial efficiency, compared with BG. PMID:25262180

Hafla, A N; Soder, K J; Brito, A F; Rubano, M D; Dell, C J

2014-12-01

70

Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

Wittel, deceased, Charles F. (Inventor)

1986-01-01

71

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes.

Fischer, Jon E. (Concord, CA); Walmsley, Don (Livermore, CA); Wapman, P. Derek (Livermore, CA)

1996-01-01

72

Crimp sealing of tubes flush with or below a fixed surface  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for crimp sealing and severing tubes flush or below a fixed surface. Tube crimping below a fixed surface requires an asymmetric die and anvil configuration. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. This asymmetric die and anvil is used when a ductile metal tube and valve assembly are attached to a pressure vessel which has a fixed surface around the base of the tube at the pressure vessel. A flat anvil is placed against the tube. Die guides are placed against the tube on a side opposite the anvil. A pinch-off die is inserted into the die guides against the tube. Adequate clearance for inserting the die and anvil around the tube is needed below the fixed surface. The anvil must be flat so that, after crimping, it may be removed without deforming the crimped tubes. 8 figs.

Fischer, J.E.; Walmsley, D.; Wapman, P.D.

1996-08-20

73

Functional proteomics of barley and barley chloroplasts – strategies, methods and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an important cereal grain that is used in a range of products for animal and human consumption. Crop yield and seed quality has been optimized during decades by plant breeding programs supported by biotechnology and molecular biology techniques. The recently completed whole-genome sequencing of barley revealed approximately 26,100 open reading frames, which provides a foundation for detailed molecular studies of barley by functional genomics and proteomics approaches. Such studies will provide further insights into the mechanisms of, for example, drought and stress tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research. PMID:23515231

Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole N.

2013-01-01

74

Ultrasonics Equipped Crimp Tool: A New Technology for Aircraft Wiring Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of poor mechanical and electrical quality will result in low temporal output and will distort the spectrum into unique and predictable patterns, depending on crimp "quality". This inexpensive, real-time measurement system can provide certification of crimps as they are made and recertification of existing wire crimps currently in service. The measurements for re-certification do not require that the wire be disconnected from its circuit. No other technology exists to measure in-situ the condition of wire joints (no electrical currents through the crimp are used in this analytical technique). We discuss the signals obtained from this instrument, and correlate these signals with destructive wire pull tests.

Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, Elliott

2006-01-01

75

Assessment and Calibration of a Crimp Tool Equipped with Ultrasonic Analysis Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is provided for calibrating ultrasonic signals passed through a crimp formed with respect to a deformable body via an ultrasonically-equipped crimp tool (UECT). The UECT verifies a crimp quality using the ultrasonic signals. The method includes forming the crimp, transmitting a first signal, e.g., a pulse, to a first transducer of the UECT, and converting the first signal, using the first transducer, into a second signal which defines an ultrasonic pulse. This pulse is transmitted through the UECT into the crimp. A second transducer converts the second signal into a third signal, which may be further conditioned, and the ultrasonic signals are calibrated using the third signal or its conditioned variant. An apparatus for calibrating the ultrasonic signals includes a pulse module (PM) electrically connected to the first and second transducers, and an oscilloscope or display electrically connected to the PM for analyzing an electrical output signal therefrom.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

2013-01-01

76

Device and Method for Connections Made Between a Crimp Connector and Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic device and method obtains desirable crimp connections between a crimp connector and a wire, or bundle of wires, by assessing the desirability of connections made in a wire-to-wire connection and in other situations where two materials with good acoustic propagation characteristics are joined together via deformation. An embodiment of the device as a crimping tool comprises a compressing means, pulse-generating circuitry. at least one ultrasonic transmitting transducer, at least one ultrasonic receiving transducer, receiving circuitry, and a display. The user may return to a previously crimped connection and assess the desirability of the connection by compressing the device about the connection, sending an acoustic signal through the crimp, andco111paring the received signal to a signal obtained from known desirable connections.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

77

Residual Stress Evaluation within a Crimped Splice Connector Assembly  

SciTech Connect

In power transmission, connectors play an important role in the efficiency and reliability of the system. Due to the increase of power demand and lack of new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than the original design criteria. However, this had led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors, which has been manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection of transmission lines operating at elevated temperatures. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increase in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reduction in the connector clamping strength, which ultimately results in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector has become the weakest link in the electric power transmission infrastructure. The compressive residual stresses induced by the crimping process within the splice provide the clamping forces to secure the conductor and therefore, the determination of the state of residual stresses in splice connectors is a necessary requirement to provide an accurate estimate of their service lifetime. This paper presents a protocol of utilizing finite-element analysis and neutron scattering experiments for evaluating the residual stress fields within a crimped single-stage splice connector assembly.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL; Graziano, Joe [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Chan, John [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

2006-01-01

78

Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.  

PubMed

Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar levels of growth and feed efficiency compared with a TMR. PMID:25006072

Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

2014-08-01

79

Comparison of Grain Sources (Barley, White Corn, and Yellow Corn) for Swine Diets and Their Effects on Meat Quality and Production Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient pork production is a necessity for an economically viable swine industry. Number two yellow corn is considered the primary energy source for swine diets in the Midwest. Despite the low protein content, corn is considered one of the most economical feed stuffs available to the swine production system. Barley is a high fiber that has approximately 89% of the

Jay F. Lampe; John W. Mabry; Palmer J. Holden

2004-01-01

80

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

81

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION IN HUMANS FROM A B-GLUCAN-ENRICHED BARLEY IS REDUCED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obese and diabetic patients may benefit from foodstuffs that are poorly absorbed and/or digested at a slower rate. Prowashonupana (PW) is a cultivar of barley, whose grains are enriched in beta-glucans, and thus may be less digestible than standard barley (barley cultivar (BZ) 594.35.e). To test thi...

82

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...101 Grains for which standards are established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and...

2012-01-01

83

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...101 Grains for which standards are established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and...

2013-01-01

84

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...101 Grains for which standards are established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and...

2011-01-01

85

Synthesis of the major storage protein, hordein, in barley : Pulse-labeling study of grain filling in liquid-cultured detached spikes.  

PubMed

A liquid culture system for culturing detached spikes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at different nutritional levels was established. The synthesis of hordein polypeptides was studied by pulse-labeling with [(14)C]sucrose at different stages of development and nitrogen (N) nutrition. All polypeptides were synthesised at 10 d after anthesis and hercafter an increase was observed for all polypeptides. A fivefold increase in total hordein was observed within the N range tested. Hordein-1 increased considerably more than hordein-2 with increased N nutrition, and hordein-1 synthesis exceeded that of hordein-2 at the highest N level 20 and 25 d after anthesis. Hordein-1 thus appears to act as the main N sink at high N levels. The synthesis of the major groups of hordein-2 polypeptides responded differently to increasing N in that the slower-migrating polypeptides increased more with increasing N than the faster-migrating polypeptides. PMID:24258087

Giese, H; Andersen, B; Doll, H

1983-01-01

86

Protein body formation in the developing barley endosperm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrastructure of the pericarp, testa, aleurone and endosperm in a developing barley grain is presented in the form of\\u000a a reconstructed section cut tangential to the dorsal surface of the grain and extending half way to the center of the endosperm.\\u000a \\u000a Protein body formation in the endosperm is examined in Carlsberg II and Bomi barley and two mutants defective

Verena Cameron-Mills; Diter von Wettstein

1980-01-01

87

Studies of grain and forage production of varieties, varietal mixtures, and species mixtures of oats (Avena Spp.), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

in the season, then allowed to produce grain crop. This has stimulated additional research on means of evaluating and developing varieties for pasture, hay, and silage production. Crown rust or leaf rust of oats, Puccinia coronata Cda. , is the most...

Waghray, Kishan Lal

2012-06-07

88

Effects of Crimping on Mechanical Performance of Nitinol Stent Designed for Femoral Artery: Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitinol stents are used to minimize improper dynamic behavior, low twistability, and inadequate radial mechanical strength of femoral artery stents. In this study, finite element method is used to investigate the effect of crimping and Austenite finish temperature ( A f) of Nitinol on mechanical performance of Z-shaped open-cell femoral stent under crimping conditions. Results show that low A f Nitinol has better mechanical and clinical performance due to small chronic outward force, large radial resistive force, and appropriate superelastic behavior.

Nematzadeh, F.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

2013-11-01

89

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

Experimental Results ....................................... 16 Substation No. 6, Denton, Texas 16 Yields of Barley in Fall Sown Field Plat Trials 16 Yields of Barley in Fall Sown Nursery Plat Trials _-__----------- 19 Yields of Barley in Spring Sown... Nursery Plat Trials 19 U. S. Cotton Field Station, Greenville, Texas 19 Substation No. 5, Temple, Texas -------------_----------------------------------- 22 Substation No. 16, Iowa Park, Texas ................................... 24 Substation No. 12...

Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1941-01-01

90

Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae Isolates from Barley Grains Produce New Cereulide-Like Depsipeptides (Paenilide and Homopaenilide) That Are Highly Toxic to Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg?1 of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K+ ions already at 4 mM [K+], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A.; Teplova, Vera V.; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-01-01

91

Benefits of crimped and prestressed CFRP's over noncrimped fibres as reinforcement in machine elements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a representative volume element consisted of a single wavy carbon fibre engulfed in a thermoplastic rectangular matrix is studied in order to examine the effect ofnon-crimped carbon fibre, and specifically its waviness, at the mechanical behavior. In order to quantify these influences and their nonlinear elastic behavior, a plane strain analysis of this model was simulated with finite elements.

Kanellopoulos, Ioannis; Vasileiou, Ioannis; Kitsos, Ioannis

2014-10-01

92

Electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-acryloyl carbonate) fiber scaffolds with a mechanically stable crimp structure for ligament tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare a fibrous scaffold that possesses a crimped morphology using a photo-cross-linkable biodegradable copolymer. To obtain the crimped morphology, the polymer was first electrospun onto a rotating wire mandrel to obtain aligned straight fibers. Postprocessing by immersion in aqueous buffer at 37 °C generated a crimplike pattern in the fibers. It was reasoned that cross-linking the fibers following formation of the crimped structure would endow the scaffolds with a recoverable crimp pattern and mechanical properties similar to that of the collagen fibers in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). To achieve this aim, a trimethylene carbonate based monomer bearing an acrylate pendant group was synthesized and copolymerized with l-lactide. The copolymer was electrospun and photo-cross-linked yielding fibrous scaffolds possessing a substantial increase in tensile modulus and crimp stability compared to the uncross-linked fibrous scaffolds. The crimp-stabilized scaffolds also showed good cytocompatibility toward 3T3 fibroblasts, which attached and grew along the crimped fibers. These findings suggest that these cross-linked fiber scaffolds may be useful for the generation of cultured ligament tissue. PMID:24697661

Chen, Fei; Hayami, James W S; Amsden, Brian G

2014-05-12

93

Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

94

Interaction between barley and mixed cultures of nitrogen fixing and phosphate-solubilizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pot experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of inoculation with pure and mixed cultures of nitrogen fixers Azospirillum lipoferum 137, Arthrobacter mysorens 7 and the phosphate-solubilizing strain Agrobacterium radiobacter 10 on growth and mineral nutrition of two barley cultivars. A significant positive effect on grain yield both of the studied barley cultivars was obtained after inoculation with mixtures

A. A. Belimov; A. P. Kojemiakov; C. V. Chuvarliyeva

1995-01-01

95

Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

96

Comparison of barley seed proteomic profiles associated with fusarium head blight reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB) incited primarily by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, is a destructive disease that affects the quality and yield of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain. At present, there is a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in barley resistance against infection by and the spread of F. graminearum. The objective of the current study was to identify proteins

J. Zantinge; K. Kumar; K. Xi; M. Johns; A. Murray; T. Jones; J. H. Helm; P. Juskiw

2010-01-01

97

DEVELOPING FUNCTIONAL HYDROCOLLOIDS FROM SMALL GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public health concerns related to heart disease and other aging chronic diseases have created opportunities for small grain functional ingredients. The known nutritional benefits of barley and oat beta-glucan make these small grains an excellent source for developments. Although the milled grain p...

98

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

99

Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

Carnes, J. G. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

100

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

101

Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

102

Identifying and characterizing barley genes that protect against trichothecene mycotoxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, is a major disease problem around the world. During infection, trichothecene mycotoxins are produced and act as virulence factors, resulting in reduced grain yield and quality. There are two types of tricho...

103

2012 North Dakota Transgenic Barley FHB Nursery Report  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2012 North Dakota transgenic field trials consisted of 23 barley lines, tested in three misted and three non-misted replicates. Plots were sown on May 9, 2012 in hill plots with 10 seed per hill spaced at 30 cm, and all plots were inoculated using the grain spawn method at heading. Lines include...

104

Barley germplasm resistant to both Russian wheat aphid and greenbug  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Both Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov), and greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) are potential pests on winter cereals grown in the southern plains. In outbreak years, both aphids can drastically reduce grain yield of susceptible cultivars. In barley, two single dominant genes, R...

105

RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANT BARLEY-CULTIVAR AND GERMPLASM RELEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RWA continues to be a devastating pest of barley in the high and dry areas of the Western U.S.A. Screening of the entire National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, Idaho, by the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma, identified 115 accessions with some level of resistance ranging from 2 to 6 on Webst...

106

Transgenic wheat and barley carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an old yet unsolved problem of cereal crops, mainly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. During infection, trichothecenes produced by Fusarium increase fungal virulence and decrease grain quality. Previous work identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase ...

107

An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material. This is exhibited by the exotherm. Heating the so-cooled samples, in general, increases their melting point in almost all samples. Thus melting event is shifted towards higher temperature, except for one sample in which pre-twist level is appreciably high. Thus, DSC is a very useful technique to select and optimize the pre-twist level and may provide quite a significant insight into the thermal stability of the mechanical crimp textured yarn.

Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

2010-06-01

108

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

109

Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.

Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid

2014-01-01

110

GRAIN GENES 2.0: RESOURCES FOR SMALL GRAINS BREEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GrainGenes, the international database for genetic and genomic data about Triticeae species (e.g. wheat, barley, and rye) and Avena sativa (oat), was extensively redesigned in 2004. As a result it is now much easier to use, both for getting a quick answer to a simple question and for mining the dat...

111

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using embryogenic pollen cultures.  

PubMed

The temperate cereal barley is grown as a source of food, feed, and malt. The development of a broad range of genetic resources and associated technologies in this species has helped to establish barley as the prime model for the other Triticeae cereals. The specific advantage of the transformation method presented here is that transgene homozygosity is attained in the same generation as the transgenic event occurred through the coupling of haploid technology with Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Pollen is haploid and, following transformation, can be induced to regenerate into haploid plantlets, which can subsequently subjected to colchicine treatment to obtain diploid, genetically fixed plants. The routine application of the method based on the winter-type barley cultivar 'Igri' over a period of over 10 years has achieved an average yield of about two transgenic plants per donor spike. The whole procedure from pollen isolation to non-segregating transgenic, mature grain takes less than 12 months. PMID:25300833

Otto, Ingrid; Müller, Andrea; Kumlehn, Jochen

2015-01-01

112

Microwave dielectric properties of cereal grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dielectric properties of five cereal grains (wheat, corn, barley, oats, and grain sorghum) were measured at 23°C over a range of moisture contents and over microwave frequencies from 5 to 15 GHz with a free-space transmission technique. Resulting dielectric constants and loss factors are tabulated f...

113

Microwave Dielectric Properties of Cereal Grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dielectric properties of five cereal grains (wheat, corn, barley, oats, and grain sorghum) were 19 measured at 23 oC over broad microwave frequency range (5 GHz to 15 GHz) with a free-space-transmission 20 technique. Results of dielectric properties measurement are tabulated for each material for mo...

114

Spring Small Grains Area Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

1986-01-01

115

of the exposed germ, which may reduce germination and emergence. Yields of current hulless barley lines  

E-print Network

and become to- tally separated when the grain is combined. The grain of hulless barley looks more like wheat Tech Mark M. Alley, W.G. Wysor Professor of Agriculture and Soil Fertility Specialist, Virginia Tech Steve B. Phillips, Associate Professor and Soil Fertility Specialist, Eastern Shore AREC E. Scott Hagood

Liskiewicz, Maciej

116

Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2011-01-01

117

Effect of tillage systems, mulches and nitrogen fertilization on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield, N uptake, weeds and diseases of spring barley were examined under five mulching practices (white mustard, phacelia, oat-pea mixture, straw mulch, and no mulch), three tillage systems (conventional, reduced and no-tillage) and three doses of nitrogen fertilization (0, 50 and 100 kg N ha-1). In general the grain yield of spring barley for cover crops was 10-31% higher compared

I. Ma?ecka; A. Blecharczyk

2008-01-01

118

Fibrous waveforms or crimp in surface and subsurface layers of hyaline cartilage maintained in its wet functional condition.  

PubMed

The structural features of hyaline cartilage maintained in its wet functional condition have been examined using the technique of Nomarski interference microscopy. The collagenous arrays and associated chondrocytes in both the extreme superficial layers and in the deeper subsurface zones were satisfactorily imaged with this technique. Most significantly the collagen fibers were observed to possess a geometric waveform or "crimp" of varying acuteness and the role of this crimp is discussed in relation to the mechanical and biological function of the tissue. It is clear from these wet tissue studies that the fibrous layout in hyaline cartilage is considerably more "disciplined" than has been previously recognized from morphological data obtained using more indirect experimental techniques involving prepared histological sections or scanning and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:6447049

Broom, N D; Myers, D D

1980-01-01

119

On modelling the mechanical degradation of fatigue loaded glass-fibre non-crimp fabric reinforced epoxy laminates  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a “non-scalar approach” a complete damage analysis is performed to describe the mechanical degradation and failure of tension–compression fatigue loaded glass-fibre non-crimp fabric reinforced epoxy laminates. The used algorithm is based on experimentally obtained parameters to describe damage evolution and lifetime. To calculate the effective properties finite element analysis (FEA) is used. With a limited number of mainly

Andreas Gagel; Bodo Fiedler; Karl Schulte

2006-01-01

120

High-moisture air-tight storage of barley and wheat improves nutrient digestibility.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) are often stored dry with 14% or less moisture, which during rainy periods may require that grains are dried after harvest. The hypothesis is that air-tight storage of high-moisture barley and wheat will increase nutrient digestibility due to chemical conversions prior to feeding. The objective was to evaluate the effect of high moisture compared to dry storage of barley and wheat on digestibility of P and CP. The crops were grown on 1 field keeping other factors constant. Half of the grains was harvested in the morning after a rainy day and stored in air-tight silos (DM, %: barley, 85.2; wheat, 82.8) and the other half was harvested later the same day (windy and sunny) and stored dry (DM, %: barley, 89.8; wheat, 88.3). After 6 mo of storage, 1 low- and 1 high-moisture diet were prepared with a barley:wheat ratio of 1:1 mixed with soybean (Glycine max) meal and rapeseed cake to produce a compound diet without inorganic P and microbial phytase. Sixteen 45-kg pigs housed in metabolism crates were fed either the low- or the high-moisture diet for 5 d for adaptation and 7 d for total collection of feces. Digestibility of P was 12% higher (P < 0.01) and of CP was 4% higher (P = 0.08) in the high-moisture diet. Phytase activity of dry-stored grain was lower (P < 0.01) and phytate P was 4% higher in the high-moisture stored grain vs. the grains stored dry. Overall, high-moisture storage increased digestibility of P and CP when the grain was fed to finishing pigs. Therefore, high-moisture air-tight storage saved energy (without drying) and at the same time enhanced P digestibility and increased the nutritional value of grain probably through enzymatic activity during storage. PMID:23365343

Poulsen, H D; Blaabjerg, K; Nørgaard, J V; Ton Nu, M A

2012-12-01

121

Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands  

PubMed Central

Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

2011-01-01

122

Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA  

SciTech Connect

The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.; (Texas)

2010-01-12

123

Identification of complete linkage disequilibrium in the DSG4 gene and its association with wool length and crimp in Chinese indigenous sheep.  

PubMed

The desmoglein 4 (DSG4) gene is a potential candidate in the search for genes that may affect wool traits, because of its function. This study aimed to screen for polymorphisms in partial exon 16 and 3?UTR of the sheep desmoglein 4 DSG4 gene, and to test its possible association with wool length and crimp associated with fur. Overall, 326 sheep were scanned via single-strand conformational polymorphism assay, through three pairs of primers. The breeds included Tan, Han, and TanxHan from China, Polled Dorset from Australia, and Suffolk from Britain genotypes AA, BB, and AB for primer2 and genotypes DD, EE, and DE for primer3 were detected in native breeds. Six SNPs and 3-bp insertion/deletions were found in exon 16, of which 4 lead to amino acid substitutions. In addition, 1 SNP was found in 3?UTR. The DSG4 genotype was found to be strongly associated with all wool traits that were considered in this study (P < 0.01). Sheep with the genotype MM had a higher least square mean compared to sheep with the genotype WW or WM with respect to birth scapular wool length (P < 0.01), crimp number of birth scapular wool crimp (P < 0.01), crimp number of weaning scapular wool crimp (P < 0.01), and crimp number of weaning rump wool crimp (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that the DSG4 gene may be a candidate, or major gene, which influences important wool traits. PMID:25117319

Ling, Y H; Xiang, H; Zhang, G; Ding, J P; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, Y H; Han, J L; Ma, Y H; Zhang, X R

2014-01-01

124

Dry Matter, Crude Protein, and Starch Degradability of Five Cereal Grains1  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Degradability of starch from corn, milo, wheat, barley, and oats was deter- mined,in vitro using a 60-min incubation in a glucoamylase,enzyme. Grains were ranked oats, then wheat, barley, corn, then,milo,with,60-min,starch degradabilities of 28, 24, 18, 13, and 9%, respectively. Six ruminally,fistulated steers were,used,to determine,in situ degradabilities of DM, CP, and starch in the five grains. Grains were,incubated ruminally for

R. E. Herrera-Saldana; J. T Huber; M. H. Poore

1990-01-01

125

Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas  

E-print Network

-glucan content increased water absorption of the flours and moisture content of tortillas. Increased moisture gave softer and more extensible barley tortillas. Reheated and fresh tortillas had similar extensibilities. Reheated tortillas had less moisture...

Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

2001-01-01

126

Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermen- tations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simulta- neous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding

Amera Gibreel; James R. Sandercock; Jingui Lan; Laksiri A. Goonewardene; Ruurd T. Zijlstra; Jonathan M. Curtis; David C. Bressler

2009-01-01

127

COMPARISON OF THREE CEREALS : WHEAT, MAIZE, BARLEY AND MAIZE-BARLEY, MAIZE-WHEAT MIXTURES  

E-print Network

SUMMARY COMPARISON OF THREE CEREALS : WHEAT, MAIZE, BARLEY AND MAIZE-BARLEY, MAIZE-WHEAT MIXTURES IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS The purpose of our experiment was to compare the feeding value of maize, wheat and barley and of maize-wheat, maize-barley mixtures (at two levels : 2/3-1/3- r/3-2/3) in the rations

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

128

Energy inputs and outputs of fuel-alcohol production. Appendices A and B. Ethanol from grain  

SciTech Connect

Estimates are developed of present energy requirements for producing five grains (corn, grain, sorghum, winter wheat, barley and oats) and of energy requirements for increasing production of two of these grains (corn and grain sorghum). Brief discussions are also included of the overall potential for increasing crop land and for increasing grain production for conversion to ethanol. The energy and materials consumption of both wet and dry milling technologies are considered for the conversion of grain to ethanol.

Not Available

1982-04-01

129

Potential and optimization of genomic selection for fusarium head blight resistance in six-row barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley, causing reductions in yield and quality. Marker-based selection for resistance to FHB and lowered deoxynivalenol (DON) grain concentration would save considerable costs and time associated with phenotyping. A comprehensive marker-based s...

130

MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER IN MILLED BARLEY USING NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMITTANCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole-grain milled barley (n=56) was scanned using a near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT)(850-1048nm) and total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined for each cultivar by AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method (Method 991.43). The validation statistics of PLS models using calibration (n=28) and v...

131

Locations of Quantitative Trait Loci Conferring Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance in Barley Germplasm STARS9301B  

Microsoft Academic Search

Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Kurdjumov) infestations reduce grain yield and quality and have caused more than $1 billion in losses for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the western United States since 1986. Our objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) conferring resis- tance to RWA feeding damage in the germplasm line STARS-9301B

Shipra Mittal; Lynn S. Dahleen; Dolores Mornhinweg

2008-01-01

132

A Comparison of Factors Involved in Starch Degradation in Barley Germination Under Laboratory and Malting Conditions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Grains of the malting barley cultivar Legacy were laboratory germinated (LG) or micromalted (MM) and sampled daily from 0 to 5 days after imbibition/steeping. Alpha-amylase and beta-amylase activities and protein levels along with starch, osmolyte concentration (OC), and sugar (glucose, sucrose, fr...

133

Effects of Deoxynivalenol on Content of Chloroplast Pigments in Barley Leaf Tissues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (scab) has been a devastating disease of wheat and barley in recent years across grain growing areas from Minnesota and the Dakotas to the Carolinas. The fungal pathogen causing the disease (Fusarium graminearum) produces a toxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) that can be toxic when inf...

134

Impact of removing straw from wheat and barley fields: A literature review  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The sustainability of straw removal from wheat and barley fields from the standpoint of its effects on soil properties and nutrient cycling is a concern. A recent literature review reveals that there is no negative effect of small grain straw removal on soil organic carbon (SOC) content with irriga...

135

Estimating grain and straw nitrogen concentration in grain crops based on aboveground nitrogen concentration and harvest index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simulating grain (Ng) and straw (Ns) nitrogen concentration is important in cropping systems simulation models. In this paper we present a simple model to partition nitrogen between grain and straw at harvest for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L), and sorg...

136

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets.  

PubMed

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (60Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples. PMID:3958804

Campbell, G L; Classen, H L; Ballance, G M

1986-04-01

137

Gamma irradiation treatment of cereal grains for chick diets  

SciTech Connect

Wheat (W), triticale (T), hulled barley (HB), hull-less barley (HLB), hulled oats (HO), and hull-less oats (HLO) were gamma irradiated (/sup 60/Co) at 0, 3, 6 and 9 Mrad to study the effect of irradiation on the nutritional value of cereal grains for chicks. A significant curvilinear relationship between radiation dose and 3-wk body weight of chicks fed irradiated cereals was noted for T, HB, HLB, HO and HLO. Chicks fed W or T showed no effect or lower body weight, respectively, while body weights of chicks fed barley or oat samples were higher with irradiation. The improvement tended to be maximal at the 6 Mrad level. Irradiation significantly improved the gain-to-feed ratio for chicks fed either HO or HLO. Apparent fat retention and tibia ash were higher in chicks fed irradiated HLO than in those fed untreated HLO. In a second experiment chick body weight, apparent amino acid and fat retention, tibia ash, and gain-to-feed ratios were lower in chicks fed autoclaved (121 degrees C for 20 min) barley than in those fed untreated barley. Irradiation (6 Mrad) subsequent to autoclaving barley samples eliminated these effects. Irradiation appears to benefit cereals containing soluble or mucilagenous fiber types as typified by beta-glucan of barley and oats. These fibers appear prone to irradiation-induced depolymerization, as suggested by increased beta-glucan solubility and reduced extract viscosity for irradiated barley and oat samples.

Campbell, G.L.; Classen, H.L.; Ballance, G.M.

1986-04-01

138

On the Damage Evolution and the Mechanical Degradation of Glass-Fibre Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Under Tensile Loading: Experimental and Finite Element Modelling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stiffness and damage evolution in a quasi-static tensile loaded non-crimp fabric reinforced epoxy was measured. To determine the effective stiffness of the damaged material numerically a finite element analysis was performed. The finite element analysis bases solely on the measured ±45° and 90°- crack densities and on ply properties calculated by the Rule of Mixtures. The measured and calculated

Andreas Gagel; Karl Schulte

2006-01-01

139

Grain and vegetative biomass reduction by the Russian wheat aphid in winter wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), is a severe pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), other small grains, and grasses. Although the Russian wheat aphid is a significant pest of small grains, its feeding effects on grain yield and vegetative biomass in ...

140

HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease remains the major health problem in the US. Consumption of soluble fiber, like that in oats, has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed...

141

A barley RFLP map: alignment of three barley maps and comparisons to Gramineae species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several gene linkage maps have been produced for cultivated barley. We have produced a new linkage map for barley, based on a cross between Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum and Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare (Hvs x Hvv), having a higher level of polymorphism than most of the previous barley crosses used for RFLP mapping. Of 133 markers mapped in the Hvs

J. D. Sherman; A. L. Fenwick; D. M. Namuth; N. L. V. Lapitan

1995-01-01

142

Mode of Action of Abscisic Acid in Barley Aleurone Layers 1  

PubMed Central

As a part of our effort to study the mode of action of abscisic acid (ABA) and its metabolites during seed germination, we have investigated the regulation of ABA metabolism in barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers and a few other plant tissues. The rate of conversion of [3H]ABA to [3H]phaseic acid (PA), the first stable metabolite of ABA, is enhanced by 2- to 5-fold in barley aleurone layers when the tissue is pretreated with ABA. However, the conversion of [3H]PA to [3H] dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), the next metabolite after PA, is not enhanced by pretreatment with either ABA or PA. The ABA enhancement of its own metabolism in barley aleurone layers is detectable with a pretreatment of ABA ranging from 10?3 to 10?4 molar. This apparent self-induction of ABA conversion to PA can be observed after the barley aleurone layers have been treated with 10?5 molar ABA for as short as 2 hours, and is inhibited by the transcription inhibitor, cordycepin (3?-deoxyadenosine), or the translation inhibitor, cycloheximide. The self-induction of ABA conversion to PA also occurs in wheat aleurone layers, but not in other plant tissues that have been investigated, including corn root tips, barley embryos, barley, and soybean leaf discs. It is probably a phenomenon unique to the aleurone layers of some cereal grains. In view of the recent observations that ABA is able to induce new proteins in barley aleurone layers, we suggest that some of these ABA-induced proteins are involved in the conversion from ABA to PA in this tissue. PMID:16663746

Uknes, Scott J.; Ho, Tuan-Hua David

1984-01-01

143

Detecting Corn Syrup in Barley Malt Extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 78(3):349-353 Methods for detecting corn syrup in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) malt extract were evaluated. Twelve samples representative of commercially available 2-rowed and 6-rowed malting barleys were malted. Extracts prepared from the finely ground malts were analyzed for 13 C\\/ 12 C ratios, Malt extract is produced from malted barley and used in the formulation of foodstuffs, where

David M. Peterson; Allen D. Budde; Cynthia A. Henson; Berne L. Jones

2001-01-01

144

Secretomics identifies Fusarium graminearum proteins involved in the interaction with barley and wheat.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is a phytopathogenic fungus primarily infecting small grain cereals, including barley and wheat. Secreted enzymes play important roles in the pathogenicity of many fungi. In order to access the secretome of F. graminearum, the fungus was grown in liquid culture with barley or wheat flour as the sole nutrient source to mimic the host-pathogen interaction. A gel-based proteomics approach was employed to identify the proteins secreted into the culture medium. Sixty-nine unique fungal proteins were identified in 154 protein spots, including enzymes involved in the degradation of cell walls, starch and proteins. Of these proteins, 35% had not been identified in previous in planta or in vitro studies, 70% were predicted to contain signal peptides and a further 16% may be secreted in a nonclassical manner. Proteins identified in the 72 spots showing differential appearance between wheat and barley flour medium were mainly involved in fungal cell wall remodelling and the degradation of plant cell walls, starch and proteins. The in planta expression of corresponding F. graminearum genes was confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in barley and wheat spikelets harvested at 2-6 days after inoculation. In addition, a clear difference in the accumulation of fungal biomass and the extent of fungal-induced proteolysis of plant ?-amylase was observed in barley and wheat. The present study considerably expands the current database of F. graminearum secreted proteins which may be involved in Fusarium head blight. PMID:22044785

Yang, Fen; Jensen, Jens D; Svensson, Birte; Jørgensen, Hans J L; Collinge, David B; Finnie, Christine

2012-06-01

145

New starch phenotypes produced by TILLING in barley.  

PubMed

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1:3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

146

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley  

PubMed Central

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamè, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

147

Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

2009-01-01

148

Recombinant barley-produced antibody for detection and immunoprecipitation of the major bovine milk allergen, ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Recombinant allergens and antibodies are needed for diagnostic, therapeutic, food processing and quality verification purposes. The aim of this work was to develop a barley-based production system for ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) specific immunoglobulin E antibody (D1 scFv). The expression level in the best barley cell clone was 0.8-1.2 mg/kg fresh weight, and was constant over an expression period of 21 days. In the case of barley grains, the highest stable productivity (followed up to T2 grains) was obtained when the D1 scFv cDNA was expressed under a seed-specific Glutelin promoter rather than under the constitutive Ubiquitin promoter. Translational fusion of ER retention signal significantly improved the accumulation of recombinant antibody. Furthermore, lines without ER retention signal lost D1 scFv accumulation in T2 grains. Pilot scale purification was performed for a T2 grain pool (51 g) containing 55.0 mg D1 scFv/kg grains. The crude extract was purified by a two-step purification protocol including IMAC and size exclusion chromatography. The purification resulted in a yield of 0.47 mg of D1 scFv (31 kD) with high purity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that 29 % of the purified protein was fully functional. In immunoprecipitation assay the purified D1 scFv recognized the native 18 kD BLG in the milk sample. No binding was observed with the heat-treated milk sample, as expected. The developed barley-based expression system clearly demonstrated its potential for application in the processing of dairy milk products as well as in detecting allergens from foods possibly contaminated by bovine milk. PMID:24497085

Ritala, A; Leelavathi, S; Oksman-Caldentey, K-M; Reddy, V S; Laukkanen, M-L

2014-06-01

149

Developing transgenic wheat and barley that exhibit resistance to Fusarium graminearum via glucoside conjugation of trichothecene mycotoxins  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum infection of wheat and barley results in production of trichothecene mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV). These mycotoxins result in increased fungal virulence and reduce grain quality. Numerous transcriptomic studies have been conducted by our lab on t...

150

Understanding consumer preference for functional tortillas including whole barley flour using sensory and demographic/behavioral data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. population has failed to incorporate sufficient amounts of whole grains and soluble fiber into their diet. The main objectives of this study were to investigate consumer acceptance of soluble fiber-enriched and low-fat tortillas made with blends of different particle size whole barley flour...

151

Infection patterns in barley and wheat spikes inoculated with wild-type and trichodiene synthase gene disrupted Fusarium graminearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight epidemics of wheat and barley cause heavy economic losses to farmers due to yield decreases and production of mycotoxin that renders the grain useless for flour and malt products. No highly resistant cultivars are available at present. Hyphae of germinating fungal spores use different paths of infection: After germination at the extruded tip of an ovary, the

Carin Jansen; Diter von Wettstein; Wilhelm Schäfer; Karl-Heinz Kogel; Angelika Felk; Frank J. Maier

2005-01-01

152

Transgenic wheat carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance by detoxifying trichothecenes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a worldwide disease of wheat and barley, mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum. During infection, the fungal pathogen produces trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that increase fungal virulence. Moreover, grains contaminated with t...

153

Descriptions of Barley Genetic Stocks For 2007  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Barley Genetics Stocks Database provides information on hundreds of morphological markers. We recently characterized and mapped 27 brachytic (brh) semidwarf mutants in barley. The brachytic lines were evaluated for ten phenotypic traits: height, awn, peduncle, rachis internode length, leaf lengt...

154

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2010-01-01

155

Tibet as a Potential Domestication Center of Cultivated Barley of China  

PubMed Central

The importance of wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in the origin and domestication of cultivated barley has long been underestimated. Population-based phylogenetic analyses were performed to study the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese domesticated barley, and address the possibility that the Tibetan region in China was an independent center of barley domestication. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) populations from Southwest Asia, Central Asia, and Tibet along with domesticated barley from China were analyzed using two nuclear genes. Our results showed that Tibetan wild barley distinctly diverged from Southwest Asian (Near East) wild barley, that Central Asian wild barley is related to Southwest Asian wild barley, and that Chinese domesticated barley shares the same haplotypes with Tibetan wild barley. Phylogenetic analysis showed a close relationship between Chinese domesticated barley and the Tibetan wild barley, suggesting that Tibetan wild barley was the ancestor of Chinese domesticated barley. Our results favor the polyphyletic origin for cultivated barley. PMID:23658764

Ren, Xifeng; Nevo, Eviatar; Sun, Dongfa; Sun, Genlou

2013-01-01

156

A nonsense mutation in a putative sulphate transporter gene results in low phytic acid in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low phytic acid grains can provide a solution to dietary micronutrient deficiency and environmental pollution. A low phytic\\u000a acid 1-1 (lpa1-1) barley mutant was identified using forward genetics and the mutant gene was mapped to chromosome 2HL. Comparative genomic\\u000a analysis revealed that the lpa1-1 gene was located in the syntenic region of the rice Os-lpa-MH86-1 gene on chromosome 4. The

Hongxia Ye; Xiao-Qi Zhang; Sue Broughton; Sharon Westcott; Dianxing Wu; Reg Lance; Chengdao Li

2011-01-01

157

Abundant transcripts of malting barley identified by serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) was applied to the major cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) to characterize the transcriptional profile of grain during the malting process. Seven SAGE libraries were generated from seed at different time points during malting, in addition to one library from dry mature seed. A total of 155,206 LongSAGE tags, representing 41,909 unique sequences, was

Jessica F White; Toni Pacey-Miller; Allison C Crawford; Giovanni M Cordeiro; Daniel Barbary; Peter C Bundock; Robert J Henry

2006-01-01

158

The fate of mycotoxins during the distillation process of barley shochu, a distilled alcoholic beverage.  

PubMed

Mycotoxins are frequent contaminants of grains and critical risk substances for brewers. Fermented barley mash contaminated artificially with 13 representative mycotoxins was distilled with small-scale apparatuses to elucidate the possibility of mycotoxin transfer from mash to distillates. None of these were detected in the distillates. The distillation process can effectively reduce the contamination risk posed by mycotoxins in distilled alcoholic beverages. PMID:22232264

Nagatomi, Yasushi; Inoue, Tomonori; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

2012-01-01

159

Unprocessed barley aleurone endo-?-1,4-xylanase XI is an active enzyme  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endo-?-1,4-xylanase X-I is a major hydrolase produced by the aleurone tissue of germinating barley grain. It was previously reported that this cytosolic enzyme is synthesized as an inactive precursor which is proteolytically processed to active forms upon its programmed cell death dependent release. We here demonstrate, however, that the precursor form of X-I is an active enzyme. Purified recombinant precursor

Steven Van Campenhout; Annick Pollet; Tine M. Bourgois; Sigrid Rombouts; Johnny Beaugrand; Kurt Gebruers; Evelien De Backer; Christophe M. Courtin; Jan A. Delcour; Guido Volckaert

2007-01-01

160

Inhibitory Effect of Aqueous Extracts of Barley and Fenugreek on Ulcer Induction in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

3 Abstract: Aqueous extracts of barley grains (Hordeum vulgare L.) and fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum- graecum L.) were administered to a group of Albino rats (n= 42) previously subjected to aspirin at 400mg\\/kg b.w., for gastric ulcer induction. Two levels of intakes were used 13 ml\\/kg b.w. (L ) and 26 ml \\/kg b.w. (L ) of 1 2 each

Sati Al-dalain; Mona S. El-kutry; Hoda S. Ibrahim

161

Calcium homeostasis in barley aleurone  

SciTech Connect

Under the auspices of the Department of Energy we investigated calcium homeostasis in aleurone cells of barley. This investigation was initiated to explore the role played by extracellular Ca{sup 2+} in gibberellic acid (GA)-induced synthesis and secretion of hydrolases in the aleurone layer. We have focused our attention on four topics that relate to the role of Ca{sup 2+} in regulating the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase. First, we determined the stoichiometry of Ca{sup 2+} binding to the two principal classes of barley {alpha}-amylase and examined some of the biochemical and physical properties of the native and Ca{sup 2+}-depleted forms of the enzyme. Second, since {alpha}-amylase is a Ca{sup 2+} containing metalloenzyme that binds one atom of Ca{sup 2+} per molecule, we developed methods to determine the concentration of Ca{sup 2+} in the cytosol of the aleurone cell. We developed a technique for introducing Ca{sup 2+}-sensitive dyes into aleurone protoplasts that allows the measurement of Ca{sup 2+} in both cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Third, because the results of our Ca{sup 2+} measurements showed higher levels of Ca{sup 2+} in the ER than in the cytosol, we examined Ca{sup 2+} transport into the ER of control and GA-treated aleurone tissue. And fourth, we applied the technique of patch-clamping to the barley aleurone protoplast to examine ion transport at the plasma membrane. Our results with the patch-clamp technique established the presence of K{sup +} channels in the plasma membrane of the aleurone protoplast, and they showed that this cell is ideally suited for the application of this methodology for studying ion transport. 34 refs.

Jones, R.L.

1990-02-21

162

Forage production of intraspecific small grain varietal mixtures  

E-print Network

grains. The ryegrass is less likely to winterkill, and it extends grazing during the spr~ng. Gardner and Rogers (5) found that the annual grasses--oats, rye, ryegrass, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ), and rescue 10 grass (Bromus catharticus Vahl...

Morgan, Thomas Edward

1974-01-01

163

Models for the Microwave Dielectric Properties of Grain and Seed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Based on microwave dielectric properties of wheat, corn, barley, oats, grain sorghum, soybeans, canola, shelled peanuts and pod peanuts measured over ranges of frequency and moisture content, models are developed for predicting the dielectric constant and loss factor of these commodities. Nearly li...

164

Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.  

PubMed

Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods. PMID:25619974

Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

2015-02-18

165

Region and field level distributions of aster yellows phytoplasma in small grains crops  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aster yellows (AY), a disease of small grain crops caused by aster yellows phytoplasma (AYp), produces disease symptoms similar to barley yellow dwarf (BYD). From 2003 to 2005, small grain production fields in Minnesota and North Dakota were surveyed to determine the incidences of AY and BYD. In-fie...

166

Plasma alkylresorcinois, biomarkers of whole-grain intake, are related to lower BMI in older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids found in the bran fraction of whole-grain wheat, rye, and barley. In intervention studies, plasma AR concentration increased in response to greater intakes of whole grain, wheat, and rye. This study examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR...

167

Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

168

Assessment and introduction of quantitative resistance to Fusarium head blight in elite spring barley.  

PubMed

Breeding for resistance is a key task to control Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of small cereals leading to economic losses and grain contamination with mycotoxins harmful for humans and animals. In the present work, FHB resistance of the six-rowed spring barley 'Chevron' to FHB in Germany was compared with those of adapted German spring barley cultivars. Both under natural infection conditions and after spray inoculation with conidia of Fusarium culmorum, F. sporotrichioides, and F. avenaceum under field conditions, Chevron showed a high level of quantitative resistance to the infection and contamination of grain with diverse mycotoxins. This indicates that Chevron is not only a little susceptible to deoxynivalenol-producing Fusarium spp. but also to Fusarium spp. producing type A trichothecenes and enniatins. Monitoring the initial infection course of F. culmorum on barley lemma tissue by confocal laser-scanning microscopy provided evidence that FHB resistance of Chevron is partially mediated by a preformed penetration resistance, because direct penetration of floral tissue by F. culmorum was observed rarely on Chevron but was common on susceptible genotypes. Alternatively, F. culmorum penetrated Chevron lemma tissue via stomata, which was unusual for susceptible genotypes. We generated double-haploid barley populations segregating for the major FHB resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) Qrgz-2H-8 of Chevron. Subsequently, we characterized these populations by spray inoculation with conidia of F. culmorum and F. sporotrichioides. This suggested that Qrgz-2H-8 was functional in the genetic background of European elite barley cultivars. However, the degree of achieved resistance was very low when compared with quantitative resistance of the QTL donor Chevron, and the introgression of Qrgz-2H-8 was not sufficient to mediate the cellular resistance phenotype of Chevron in the European backgrounds. PMID:23777405

Linkmeyer, A; Götz, M; Hu, L; Asam, S; Rychlik, M; Hausladen, H; Hess, M; Hückelhoven, R

2013-12-01

169

Grain fractionation technologies for cereal beta-glucan concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed linkage beta-glucan is a cell wall component of cereal grains such as oat and barley. A number of nutritional studies have demonstrated a link between the regular consumption of foods containing cereal beta-glucan at physiologically effective concentrations and a reduced risk of chronic health problems. However, since beta-glucan exists in lower concentrations in grains, its incorporation into regular foods

Thava Vasanthan; Feral Temelli

2008-01-01

170

Ground Versus Unground Grain for Lactating Dairy Cows.  

E-print Network

of the concentrate mixture was com- posed of whole ens. Less of the whole oats and barley was re- fnsed by the cows than of wrn or milo fed as whole $rain. Greater milk production, especially with high producing cows, was obtained in all of the experiments when... of milk were obtained by feeding ground grains, even though more grain mas required to produce this milk, and since the ratio of milk produced to grain consumed was practically unchanged, it seems advisable to grind grains for dairy cows in order...

Darnell, A. L. (Albert Laurie); Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

1936-01-01

171

Improved palatability and bio-functionality of super-hard rice by soaking in a barley-koji miso suspension.  

PubMed

Cooked grains of ae rice cultivars are too hard and non-sticky due to the presence of long-chain amylopectin, and ae rice cultivars are therefore called ``super-hard rice'' and cannot be used as table rice. However, they are promising in terms of their bio-functionality such as preventing diabetes. Miso (soybean paste) is a yeast-fermented food, made from steamed soybeans, salt, and inoculated cereals known as koji, made from rice, barley, or soybeans.We investigated the effects of soaking ae mutant rice cultivars in a miso suspension. Their chemical components, physical properties, and enzyme activities were measured under different conditions (milled rice before or after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension). Rice grains cooked after soaking in the miso suspension were less hard and more sticky than those cooked after soaking in water. Rice grains cooked after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension maintained high amounts of resistant starch and dietary fiber, and were fortified with polyphenols and isoflavones. Palatable and bio-functional ae rice could therefore be produced by cooking after soaking in a 5% barley-koji miso suspension. PMID:24317058

Nakamura, Sumiko; Nakano, Yohei; Satoh, Hikaru; Ohtsubo, Ken'ichi

2013-01-01

172

Basic leucine zipper family in barley: genome-wide characterization of members and expression analysis.  

PubMed

The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest and most diverse transcription factors in eukaryotes participating in many essential plant processes. We identified 141 bZIP proteins encoded by 89 genes from the Hordeum vulgare genome. HvbZIPs were classified into 11 groups based on their DNA-binding motif. Amino acid sequence alignment of the HvbZIPs basic-hinge regions revealed some highly conserved residues within each group. The leucine zipper heptads were analyzed predicting their dimerization properties. 34 conserved motifs were identified outside the bZIP domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that major diversification within the bZIP family predated the monocot/dicot divergence, although intra-species duplication and parallel evolution seems to be occurred afterward. Localization of HvbZIPs on the barley chromosomes revealed that different groups have been distributed on seven chromosomes of barley. Six types of intron pattern were detected within the basic-hinge regions. Most of the detected cis-elements in the promoter and UTR sequences were involved in seed development or abiotic stress response. Microarray data analysis revealed differential expression pattern of HvbZIPs in response to ABA treatment, drought, and cold stresses and during barley grain development and germination. This information would be helpful for functional characterization of bZIP transcription factors in barley. PMID:25173685

Pourabed, Ehsan; Ghane Golmohamadi, Farzan; Soleymani Monfared, Peyman; Razavi, Seyed Morteza; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat

2015-01-01

173

Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.  

PubMed

Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

2014-06-01

174

Haplotyping, linkage mapping and expression analysis of barley genes regulated by terminal drought stress influencing seed quality  

PubMed Central

Background The increasingly narrow genetic background characteristic of modern crop germplasm presents a challenge for the breeding of cultivars that require adaptation to the anticipated change in climate. Thus, high priority research aims at the identification of relevant allelic variation present both in the crop itself as well as in its progenitors. This study is based on the characterization of genetic variation in barley, with a view to enhancing its response to terminal drought stress. Results The expression patterns of drought regulated genes were monitored during plant ontogeny, mapped and the location of these genes was incorporated into a comprehensive barley SNP linkage map. Haplotypes within a set of 17 starch biosynthesis/degradation genes were defined, and a particularly high level of haplotype variation was uncovered in the genes encoding sucrose synthase (types I and II) and starch synthase. The ability of a panel of 50 barley accessions to maintain grain starch content under terminal drought conditions was explored. Conclusion The linkage/expression map is an informative resource in the context of characterizing the response of barley to drought stress. The high level of haplotype variation among starch biosynthesis/degradation genes in the progenitors of cultivated barley shows that domestication and breeding have greatly eroded their allelic diversity in current elite cultivars. Prospective association analysis based on core drought-regulated genes may simplify the process of identifying favourable alleles, and help to understand the genetic basis of the response to terminal drought. PMID:21205309

2011-01-01

175

Trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of Fusarium graminearum isolates obtained from barley cultivated in Argentina.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum is one of the most important pathogens isolated from small cereal grains with Fusarium Head Blight symptoms. The presence of this fungus is often linked to the occurrence of several mycotoxins in barley and wheat. The aim of our study was to characterize trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum sensu stricto isolates obtained from barley grains in Argentina. A total of 110 F. graminearum s.s. isolates were analyzed by PCR assays to predict deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) and nivalenol (NIV) production, and all isolates were found to belong to the same molecular 15-ADON genotype. Trichothecene production in autoclaved rice was analyzed by using gas chromatography (GC) and confirmed by GC-MS. Of the 110 isolates, 95% were able to produce DON, 71% produced 15-ADON, 63% 3-ADON and 52% NIV. With the exception of a single isolate, all isolates that produced NIV, also produced DON. However, the NIV production was very low, ranging from 0.13 to 0.30 ?g/g. Six different production profiles of DON and its acetyl-derivatives were detected, the predominant being simultaneous production of DON, 3-ADON and 15-ADON, followed by DON production, and DON and 15-ADON co-production. This work is the first attempt to characterize the trichothecene genotypes and production profiles of F. graminearum s.s. isolates from Argentinean barley. PMID:24727383

Castañares, Eliana; Albuquerque, Diana Ramirez; Dinolfo, María Inés; Pinto, Virginia Fernandez; Patriarca, Andrea; Stenglein, Sebastián Alberto

2014-06-01

176

The effect of combining scald resistance genes on disease levels, yield and quality traits in barley.  

PubMed

Pairwise combinations of genes for resistance to scald in barley were developed using linked isozyme markers to test whether such combinations conferred improved resistance to the pathogen, Rhynchosporium secalis. The resistance genes originally derived from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The combinations were bred into an essentially similar genetic background because the scald-susceptible, Australian barley cultivar 'Clipper' was the recurrent backcross parent in their ancestry. In field tests of the recombinants over 2 years, disease levels were lower in three of six doubly resistant lines than in backcross lines carrying a single resistance gene, which in turn were less diseased than either 'Clipper' or recombinants that lacked the marked resistance genes. All resistant lines significantly outyielded 'Clipper' but did not themselves differ significantly. Lines resistant to scald had significantly higher grain size and grain weight. Gains for malt yield of about 1 % were detected in the higher disease environment. Resistance was not accompanied by any obvious "cost" in terms of yield or quality. Protection against scald is therefore a significant requirement for new malting barley cultivars in scald-prone areas. PMID:24162292

Brown, A H; Burdon, J J; Garvin, D F; Abbott, D C; Read, B J

1996-08-01

177

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2013-01-01

178

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2012-01-01

179

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2011-01-01

180

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a ''jackknife'' method of the reversion of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1981-01-01

181

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1980-05-29

182

N release from livestock waste compost pellets in barley fields  

Microsoft Academic Search

N release patterns from dairy cattle, swine, and poultry waste compost pellets were studied using the buried glass filter paper method in barley fields. Field experiments with barley were also carried out to study the relationship between N release from pellets and N absorption by barley. Results showed that about 28, 36, 44% and of N were released from 3

Wang Yan; Katsumi Yamamoto; Ken-ichi Yakushido

2001-01-01

183

Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

are one to two weeks earlier than for winter wheat, and thus fall N uptake can be greater for win- ter barley than for winter wheat. Excessive fall barley growth can occur and result in freeze injury to stemsIntroduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in excess of 170 bu

Liskiewicz, Maciej

184

Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).  

PubMed

The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

2012-02-15

185

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

2014-06-01

186

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

187

Availability of phosphorus and trace elements in low-phytate varieties of barley and corn for rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately two-thirds of phosphorus in various grains is present as phytate, which is not well-utilized by fish and other monogastric species. Besides its low availability of phosphorus, phytate is reported to reduce the availability of other dietary nutrients to animals. Single-gene, non-lethal low phytic acid (lpa) mutations in corn and barley cause the seed to store most of the phosphorus

Shozo H Sugiura; Victor Raboy; Kevin A Young; Faye M Dong; Ronald W Hardy

1999-01-01

188

Study of fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The fluorescence quenching of Barley ?-amylase by acrylamide and succinimide has been studied in water using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. The steady-state fluorescence quenching technique has been performed in three different pHs (i.e., 6, 7 and 8) of water. Ground state and excited state binding constants (Kg &Ke) have been calculated. From the calculated binding constants (Kg &Ke) the free energy changes for the ground (?Gg) and excited (?Ge) states have been calculated and are presented in tables. UV and FTIR spectra have also been recorded to prove the binding of Barley ?-amylase with acrylamide and succinimide.

Bakkialakshmi, S.; Shanthi, B.; Bhuvanapriya, T.

2012-05-01

189

Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective  

PubMed Central

The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

Frølich, Wenche; Åman, Per; Tetens, Inge

2013-01-01

190

Grain boundaries  

SciTech Connect

The present document is a progress report describing the work accomplished to date during the second year of our four-year grant (February 15, 1990--February 14, 1994) to study grain boundaries. The research was focused on the following three major efforts: Study of the atomic structure of grain boundaries by means of x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and computer modeling; study of short-circuit diffusion along grain boundaries; and development of a Thin-film Deposition/Bonding Apparatus for the manufacture of high purity bicrystals.

Balluffi, R.W.; Bristowe, P.D.

1991-01-01

191

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community in stored barley in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community composition was studied in nonsterile barley grain. The experiments included following treatments: control barley without mites; barley containing 10 or 50 mites without preincubation on F. poae (Tp10 and Tp50); barley containing 10 or 50 mites after preincubation on F. poae (FTp10 and FTp50). The number of mites, successful transfer of F. poae, and changes in the fungal communities were examined after 21 d of experiment. Increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in the barley was chosen as a criterion of successful F. poae transfer. The preincubation of T. putrescentiae on F. poae increased DON level approximately to 800 and 300 ?g/kg of grain for FTp10 and FTp50, respectively. T. putrescentiae population growth in FTp10 was lower than in Tp10, while no difference was found between FTp50 and Tp50. Fungal communities were compared by amplification, cloning and sequencing of ITS fragments, and operational taxonomic units (OTU) analysis. The OTU analysis did not support the transfer of F. poae via mites. From the analyzed clones, only 13 cloned sequences clustered with F. poae in an OTU defined at distance level 0.07. The related clones originated from FTp10, Tp10, Tp50 and control treatments, but not from FTp50. However, the presence of F. poae in FTp50 was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers. The observation may be explained by different effect of mite population density, that is, in the high density, (FTp50 treatment) the fungus was overgrazed, while the lower population density (FTp10) supported F. poae transfer. PMID:23955921

Hubert, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Kopecký, Jan

2014-02-01

192

Registration of 'Dan' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dan’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 659066) six-rowed winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and released by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in March 2009. Dan was derived from the cross VA96-41-17 / SC872143. It was released for production in the eastern United States, as a poten...

193

A hairpin plastid genome in barley  

PubMed Central

A linear plastid genome of a barley albino plant derived from anther culture has been characterized. The monomeric genome is 21 kb long. This molecule has a hairpin structure. We discuss the possible origins of this genome. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4. PMID:16453721

Ellis, T. H. N.; Day, A.

1986-01-01

194

EFFECTS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON BARLEY LEAF PIGMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...

195

Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

196

Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0mgml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare). PMID:25577053

Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

2015-05-15

197

Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in ?-oxidation  

PubMed Central

In oilseed plants, peroxisomal ?-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of ?-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 ?M IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2? mutant for fatty acid ?-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

Mendiondo, Guillermina M.; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W.; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R.; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L.; Holdsworth, Michael J.

2014-01-01

198

cGMP Is Required for Gibberellic Acid-Induced Gene Expression in Barley Aleurone.  

PubMed Central

The occurrence and roles of cGMP were investigated in aleurone layers and protoplasts isolated from barley (cv Himalaya) grain. Levels of cGMP in freshly isolated barley aleurone layers ranged from 0.065 to 0.08 pmol/g fresh weight of tissue, and cGMP levels increased transiently after incubation in gibberellic acid (GA). Abscisic acid (ABA) did not increase cGMP levels in aleurone layers. LY 83583 (LY), an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase, prevented the GA-induced increase in cGMP and inhibited GA-induced [alpha]-amylase synthesis and secretion. The inhibitory effects of LY could be overcome by membrane-permeant analogs of cGMP. LY also prevented GA-induced accumulation of [alpha]-amylase and GAMYB mRNAs. cGMP alone was not sufficient to induce the accumulation of [alpha]-amylase or GAMYB mRNA. LY had a less dramatic effect on the accumulation of mRNAs encoding the ABA-responsive gene Rab21. We conclude that cGMP plays an important role in GA, but not ABA, signaling in the barley aleurone cell. PMID:12239379

Penson, S. P.; Schuurink, R. C.; Fath, A.; Gubler, F.; Jacobsen, J. V.; Jones, R. L.

1996-01-01

199

Genome-Wide Association Mapping for Kernel and Malting Quality Traits Using Historical European Barley Records  

PubMed Central

Malting quality is an important trait in breeding barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). It requires elaborate, expensive phenotyping, which involves micro-malting experiments. Although there is abundant historical information available for different cultivars in different years and trials, that historical information is not often used in genetic analyses. This study aimed to exploit historical records to assist in identifying genomic regions that affect malting and kernel quality traits in barley. This genome-wide association study utilized information on grain yield and 18 quality traits accumulated over 25 years on 174 European spring and winter barley cultivars combined with diversity array technology markers. Marker-trait associations were tested with a mixed linear model. This model took into account the genetic relatedness between cultivars based on principal components scores obtained from marker information. We detected 140 marker-trait associations. Some of these associations confirmed previously known quantitative trait loci for malting quality (on chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 5H). Other associations were reported for the first time in this study. The genetic correlations between traits are discussed in relation to the chromosomal regions associated with the different traits. This approach is expected to be particularly useful when designing strategies for multiple trait improvements. PMID:25372869

Röder, Marion S.; van Eeuwijk, Fred

2014-01-01

200

Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows.  

PubMed

Starch is an important energy-providing nutrient for dairy cows that is most commonly provided from cereal grains. However, ruminal fermentation of large amounts of easily degradable starch leads to excessive production and accumulation of volatile fatty acids (VFA). VFA not only play a vital role in the energy metabolism of dairy cows but are also the main cause of ruminal acidosis and depressed feed intake. The aim of the present study was to compare maize cob silage (MCS) as an energy supplement in rations for dairy cows with highly rumen-digestible rolled barley and with sodium hydroxide wheat (SHW), which has a higher proportion of by-pass starch than barley. Two studies were carried out: (1) a production study on 45 Danish Holstein cows and (2) an intensive study to determine digestibilities, rumen fermentation patterns and methane emission using three rumen-cannulated Danish Holstein cows. Both studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments. The energy-corrected milk yield was unaffected by treatment. The fat content of the milk on the MCS ration was not different from the SHW ration, whereas it was higher on the barley ration. The protein content of the milk decreased when MCS was used in the ration compared with barley and SHW. From ruminal VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions, was not different when comparing MCS, SHW and barley. PMID:24594308

Hymøller, L; Hellwing, A L F; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

2014-05-01

201

Anthocyanin composition and oxygen radical scavenging capacity (ORAC) of milled and pearled purple, black, and common barley.  

PubMed

The importance of anthocyanins to the total antioxidant capacity of various fruits and vegetables has been well established, but less attention has been focused on cereal grains. This study investigated the antioxidant capacity and anthocyanin composition of a bran-rich pearling fraction (10% outer kernel layers) and whole kernel flour of purple (CI-1248), black (PERU-35), and yellow (EX-83) barley genotypes. HPLC analysis showed that as much as 6 times more anthocyanin per unit weight (microg/g) was present in the bran-rich fractions of yellow and purple barley (1587 and 3534, respectively) than in their corresponding whole kernel flours (210 and 573, respectively). Delphinidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-glucoside, petunidin 3-glucoside, and cyanidin chloride were positively identified in barley, with as many as 9 and 15 anthocyanins being detected in yellow and purple barley, respectively. Antioxidant activity analysis showed that the ORAC values for the bran-rich fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than for the whole kernel flour. PMID:19159302

Bellido, Guillermo G; Beta, Trust

2009-02-11

202

Nutritional evaluation of wheat and barley cultivars by growth rate and body composition of larvae of Tenebrio molitor.  

PubMed

Larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L., Gembloux strain, race F, were reared on diets of 17 cultivars of wheat and 29 cultivars of barley, prepared for determination of digestible energy with mice, for 4 weeks at 27 +/- 0.25 degrees C and 65 +/- 5% relative humidity. Values for percentage crude protein of tissues of larvae fed wheat cultivars were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy as determined with mice. These values were not correlated for larvae fed barley cultivars; however, values for per cent dry matter content of larvae were significantly and positively correlated with values for digestible energy determined with mice. This apparent discrepancy is explained on the basis of the chemical constitution of barley and the availability of amino acids of barley to the larvae. Use of larvae of Tenebrio molitor to indicate the digestible energy of cereal grains is feasible, provided that the proper parameter is chosen. Nevertheless, use of this biological method seems more suitable for evaluation of protein quality and of amino acid availability than for a measure of digestible energy of feeds. PMID:71027

Davis, G R; Sosulski, F W

1976-04-01

203

Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process  

PubMed Central

Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of ?-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the ?-glucan problem. First, ?-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the ?-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, ?-glucosidase was used to complete the ?-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While ?-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding ?-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis) or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) co-product had extremely low ?-glucan (below 0.2%) making it suitable for use in both ruminant and mono-gastric animal feeds. PMID:20426816

2010-01-01

204

Production of volatile compounds by Rhizopus oligosporus during soybean and barley tempeh fermentation.  

PubMed

Rhizopus oligosporus Saito can ferment soybeans or cereal grains to tempeh, a sliceable cake with improved nutritional properties. Volatiles produced by different R. oligosporus strains grown on malt extract agar (MEA), barley and soybean were investigated. The effect of co-cultivation with Lactobacillus plantarum on the production of volatiles was also studied. Volatile compounds were collected in situ by headspace diffusion and identified by GC-MS. The ten R. oligosporus strains that had different colony morphologies on MEA produced very similar volatile profiles, except for slight variations among the minor volatile compounds (e.g. sesquiterpenes). Likewise, practically no differences in volatile profiles were observed between three of the strains grown on soybeans. In contrast, the R. oligosporus volatile profile on soybean was different from that on barley from the same strain. Co-cultivation with L. plantarum did not influence volatile production by R. oligosporus. The dominant compounds produced on all three substrates were ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, 2-butanone, 2-methyl-1-propanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-methyl-1-butanol. Acetaldehyde and 2-methyl-propanal were also produced on MEA and barley, while 2-pentanone, methyl acetate, 2-butanol and 3-methyl-3-buten-1-ol were observed on soybeans. Ethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol were the most abundant volatile compounds produced on MEA and barley, while 2-butanone was the dominant volatile metabolite on soybean. The mushroom odour compounds, 3-octanone and 1-octen-3-ol, were only detected from soybean and soybean tempeh. PMID:16889859

Feng, Xin Mei; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld; Schnürer, Johan

2007-01-25

205

The Impact of qGPC6H on Malting Quality, Grain Composition and Agronomic Performance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One of barley's more remarkable characteristics is its ability to tolerate variation in seed composition. Selection for increased percentage of one grain component (e.g. protein) can be accomplished by reduction in the percentage of another component (e.g. starch). Starch is the largest contributor ...

206

Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare the effects on blood pressure of predominantly insoluble fiber (whole wheat and brown rice) and soluble fiber (barley) in a whole-grain diet. Subjects (seven men, nine premenopausal women, and nine postmenopausal women) consumed a controlled Step I diet for...

207

Further Experiments on Gibberellin-Stimulated Amylase Production in Cereal Grains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Experiments conducted on wheat and barley grains to analyze activities of alpha- and beta-amylase enzymes. Gibberellins were used exogenously. Techniques are described in detail. Results on different cultivars revealed that beta-amylase was not an invariable result of imbibition. Techniques employed can be used by school students. (PS)

Coppage, Jo; Hill, T. A.

1973-01-01

208

Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig diets  

E-print Network

Comparison of different types of barley with variable crude fibre contents in growing-finishing pig pens to compare several types of barley with variable contents of crude fibre components under the same : a naked barley, a spring barley, a two-row winter barley and two six-row winter barleys with a crude fibre

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

209

Barley doubled-haploid production by uniparental chromosome elimination  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uniparental elimination of chromosomes, which occurs in interspecific crosses between Hordeum vulgare (cultivated barley) and H. bulbosum (bulbous barley grass), is a process which can be used to produce doubled-haploid barley plants in breeding programs. We\\u000a review the procedure of haploid production and the mechanism underlying selective elimination of one of the genomes during\\u000a the early development of species hybrid embryos.

Andreas Houben; Maryam Sanei; Richard Pickering

2011-01-01

210

Performance of Small Grain and Flax Varieties, 1958-1961.  

E-print Network

and uses of the crop. Flax is fall-seeded as a cash grain crop in South Central Texas, mainly in a 10-county area between San Antonio and Corpus Christi. The first com- mercial fields of flax in Texas were grown in 1938, and the acreage increased... crops. When moisture contlitions are favorable in the spring, oats and barley may be sown in the High Plains area for grain pro- tluttio~l alone. Flax is grown only for seed, being i~njuited to forage or fiber uses. Throughout most of East and South...

Atkins, I. M.; Porter, K. B.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Pawlisch, Paul E.; Merkle, Owen G.; Gilmore, Earl C.; Lahr, K. A.

1962-01-01

211

Transcriptome profiling reveals mosaic genomic origins of modern cultivated barley  

PubMed Central

The domestication of cultivated barley has been used as a model system for studying the origins and early spread of agrarian culture. Our previous results indicated that the Tibetan Plateau and its vicinity is one of the centers of domestication of cultivated barley. Here we reveal multiple origins of domesticated barley using transcriptome profiling of cultivated and wild-barley genotypes. Approximately 48-Gb of clean transcript sequences in 12 Hordeum spontaneum and 9 Hordeum vulgare accessions were generated. We reported 12,530 de novo assembled transcripts in all of the 21 samples. Population structure analysis showed that Tibetan hulless barley (qingke) might have existed in the early stage of domestication. Based on the large number of unique genomic regions showing the similarity between cultivated and wild-barley groups, we propose that the genomic origin of modern cultivated barley is derived from wild-barley genotypes in the Fertile Crescent (mainly in chromosomes 1H, 2H, and 3H) and Tibet (mainly in chromosomes 4H, 5H, 6H, and 7H). This study indicates that the domestication of barley may have occurred over time in geographically distinct regions. PMID:25197090

Dai, Fei; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Zefeng; Jin, Gulei; Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Feibo; Nevo, Eviatar; Zhang, Guoping

2014-01-01

212

Lysine Catabolism in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Lysine catabolism in seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Emir) was studied by direct injection of the following tracers into the endosperm of the seedlings: aspartic acid-3-14C, 2-aminoadipic acid-1-14C, saccharopine-14C, 2,6-diaminopimelic acid-1-(7)-14C, and lysine-1-14C. Labeled saccharopine was formed only after the administration of either labeled 2,6-diaminopimelic acid or labeled lysine to the seedlings. The metabolic fate of the other tracers administered also supported a catabolic lysine pathway via saccharopine, and apparently proceeding by a reversal of some of the biosynthetic steps of the 2-aminoadipic acid pathway known from lysine biosynthesis in most fungi. Pipecolic acid seems not to be on the main pathway of l-lysine catabolism in barley seedlings. PMID:16659552

Møller, Birger Lindberg

1976-01-01

213

The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

1980-01-01

214

Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

Dunwell, Jim M.

215

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds.  

PubMed

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S; Vázquez, Susana C; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M; Groppa, María D

2014-01-01

216

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

2014-01-01

217

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Søren K.

2014-01-01

218

The effects of barley bran flour and barley oil on hypercholesterolemic men and women  

E-print Network

and women in a 30-day intervention trial. All participants were instructed to follow the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) step-one diet and were d ly 'g dto f th t t tg p*. G~t added 20 grams of cellulose fiber to their daily intake. mG2...% with some special strains of up to 16% (30) . Cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin are the main constituents of the crude or insoluble fiber portion of barley. The crude fiber content of cov- ered barley is approximately 4-8% and only 2% or less in hull...

Robinson, Michael Clayton

2012-06-07

219

Characterization of Gibberellin Receptor Mutants of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sequence of Gid1 (a gene for a gibberellin (GA) receptor from rice) was used to identify a putative ortho- logue from barley. This was expressed in E. coli, and produced a protein that was able to bind GA in vitro with both struc- tural specificity and saturability. Its potential role in GA responses was investigated using barley mutants with

Peter M. Chandler; Carol A. Harding; Anthony R. Ashton; Mark D. Mulcair; Nicholas E. Dixon; Lewis N. Mander

220

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2006 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2006, wheat stripe rust occurred in...

221

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

222

A BARLEY CONSENSUS MAP INTEGRATING SSR, RFLP, AND AFLP MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A consensus map of barley combining SSR, RFLP, and AFLP markers has been developed by combining five Australian barley linkage maps, `Galleon x Harruna Nijo', `Chebec x Harrington', `Clipper x Sahara', `Alexis x Sloop', and `Amaji Nijo x WI2585' using the software package JOINMAP 2.0. The new consen...

223

Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

224

Pyrenophora teres: Profile of an Iincreasingly Damaging Barley Pathogen  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrenophora teres, causal agent of net blotch of barley exists in two forms designated P. teres f. teres and P. teres f. maculata which induce net form net blotch (NFNB) and spot form net blotch (SFNB), respectively. Genetic studies demonstrate that net blotch resistance in barley is present in bot...

225

Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. PMID:24967651

Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

2014-01-01

226

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained  

E-print Network

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained 24% hay, 66- zyme activities of SAM were not modified between 0 and 55% barley in the diet, ex- cept a small decrease with the 20% barley diet. Beyond 55 % barley, all enzyme ac- tivities dropped, and particularly

Boyer, Edmond

227

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes

Andrzej Pacak; Katrin Geisler; Bodil Jørgensen; Maria Barciszewska-Pacak; Lena Nilsson; Tom Hamborg Nielsen; Elisabeth Johansen; Mette Grønlund; Iver Jakobsen; Merete Albrechtsen

2010-01-01

228

Systemic signalling in barley through action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using apoplastic voltage- and ion selective microprobes, in barley leaves action potentials (APs) have been measured, which\\u000a propagate acropetally as well as basipetally from leaf to leaf or from root to leaf following the application of mild salt\\u000a stress (e.g. 30–50 mM KCl or NH4Cl) or amino acids (e.g. 1 mM glutamic acid or 5 mM GABA). Voltage changes were biphasic, followed an

Hubert H. Felle; Matthias R. Zimmermann

2007-01-01

229

DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

230

LUTEOVIRUS AND POLEROVIRUS FOUND IN SMALL GRAINS FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE MATANUSKA-SUSITNA REGION OF ALASKA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys for viruses belonging to the family Luteovirideae in small grains were conducted in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. In 2002, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativum) plants had an unusually high incidence of leaves with bright yellow or red leaves, respectively. These plants were targe...

231

A Novel Approach to Monitor the Hydrolysis of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L) Malt: A Chemometrics Approach.  

PubMed

Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation. PMID:25393707

Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

2014-12-01

232

Marker-assisted selection for disease resistance in wheat and barley breeding.  

PubMed

Marker-assisted selection (MAS) provides opportunities for enhancing the response from selection because molecular markers can be applied at the seedling stage, with high precision and reductions in cost. About each of 50 genes conferring monogenic resistances and hundreds of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for quantitative disease resistances have been reported in wheat and barley. For detecting single-major gene resistance, MAS could be easily applied, but is often not necessary because the resistances are selected phenotypically. In quantitative disease resistances, MAS would be very useful, but the individual QTL often have small effects. Additionally, only a few monogenic resistances are durable and only a few QTL with high effects have been successfully transferred into elite breeding material. Further economic and biological constraints, e.g., a low return of investment in small-grain cereal breeding, lack of diagnostic markers, and the prevalence of QTL-background effects, hinder the broad implementation of MAS. Examples in which MAS has been successfully applied to practical breeding are the wheat rust resistance genes Lr34 and Yr36, the eyespot resistance gene Pch1, the recessive resistance genes rym4/rym5 to barley yellow mosaic viruses, mlo to barley powdery mildew, and two QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat (Fhb1 and Qfhs.ifa-5A). Newly identified broad-spectrum resistance genes/QTL conferring resistance to multiple taxa of pathogens offer additional perspectives for MAS. In the future, chip-based, high-throughput genotyping platforms and the introduction of genomic selection will reduce the current problems of integrating MAS in practical breeding programs and open new avenues for a molecular-based resistance breeding. PMID:22568813

Miedaner, Thomas; Korzun, Viktor

2012-06-01

233

The European Community feed grain substitute problem: an econometric analysis of import demand for feedstuffs in the European Community  

E-print Network

of animals fed due to the addition of methionine to the ration (e. g. 4. 4 lbs. per metric ton for poultry and 2 lbs. per metric ton for swine, Austin). Under normal economic conditions, EC livestock producers would prefer the cheaper cassava-soybean meal... and iterative instrumental variables. It is hypothesized in this study that grain substitutes (soybeans, soybean meal, FGS energy, and cassava) substitute for grains within the EC feeding industry. The EC import demand equations for barley, corn, sorghum...

Tucker, James Leroy

2012-06-07

234

A metabolomics approach to uncover the effects of grain diets on rumen health in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Dairy cows fed high-grain diets during early lactation have a high incidence of metabolic disorders. However, the precise mechanism(s) of how grain feeding causes disease is not clear. In an effort to understand how this diet transition alters the rumen environment and potentially leads to certain metabolic disorders in dairy cattle, we undertook a comprehensive, quantitative metabolomic analysis of rumen fluid samples from dairy cows fed 4 different diets. Using a combination of proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and direct flow injection tandem mass spectroscopy, we identified and quantified 93 metabolites in rumen samples taken from 8 dairy cows fed graded amounts of barley grain (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of diet dry matter). We also studied temporal changes in the rumen by studying metabolite concentration differences between the first day and the last day of each diet phase following the diet adaptation period. Multivariate analysis showed that rumen metabolites arising from the diet containing 45% barley grain were clearly different from those containing 0, 15, and 30% barley grain. Likewise, a clear separation of the metabolic composition of the ruminal fluid was evident at the beginning and at the end of each diet phase-contrary to the belief that 11 d are suitable for the adaptation of cows to high-grain diets. High-grain diets (>30%) resulted in increased rumen fluid concentrations of several toxic, inflammatory, and unnatural compounds including putrescine, methylamines, ethanolamine, and short-chain fatty acids. Perturbations in several amino acids (phenylalanine, ornithine, lysine, leucine, arginine, valine, and phenylacetylglycine) were also evident. The present study confirms and greatly extends earlier observations on dietary effects on rumen fluid composition and shows that the use of multiple metabolomic platforms permits a far more detailed understanding of metabolic causes and effects. These results may improve our understanding of diet-related rumen metabolism and the influence of grain on the overall health of dairy cattle. PMID:22959937

Saleem, F; Ametaj, B N; Bouatra, S; Mandal, R; Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M; Wishart, D S

2012-11-01

235

Development of thrombus-resistant and cell compatible crimped polyethylene terephthalate cardiovascular grafts using surface co-immobilized heparin and collagen.  

PubMed

Short-term patency of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) cardiovascular grafts is determined mainly by the inherent thrombogenicity and improper endothelialization following grafts implantation. The aim of the present study was to immobilize heparin to develop thrombus resistant grafts. Additionally, collagen was co-immobilized to enhance the host cell compatibility. The synthetic woven and knitted forms of crimped PET grafts were surface modified by Denier reduction to produce functional carboxyl groups. The produced groups were used as anchor sites for covalent immobilization of heparin or co-immobilization of heparin/collagen by the end-point method. The modified surface was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The biological activity of immobilized molecules was investigated in vitro using direct blood coagulation test, and "platelet deposition under flow condition. Furthermore, the biocompatibility of modified grafts with host cells was assessed using L929 cell as model. All modified grafts showed significant resistance against fibrin and clot formation. The number of deposited platelets on heparin-immobilized woven and knitted grafts obviously decreased by 3 fold and 2.8 fold per unit surface area respectively, while the heparin/collagen co-immobilized grafts showed only a decrease by 1.7 and 1.8 fold compared to unmodified PET. Heparin-immobilized grafts reported no significant effect on L929 cells adhesion and growth (P>0.05), conversely, collagen co-immobilization considerably increased cell adhesion almost ~1.3 fold and 2 fold per unit surface area for woven and knitted grafts respectively. Our results emphasize that immobilization of heparin minimized the inherent thrombogenicity of the PET grafts. The simultaneous co-immobilization of collagen supported host cell adhesion and growth required for the grafts biocompatibility. PMID:25175248

Al Meslmani, Bassam; Mahmoud, Gihan; Strehlow, Boris; Mohr, Eva; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Bakowsky, Udo

2014-10-01

236

Thermoregulatory response of dairy cows fed ergotized barley during summer heat stress.  

PubMed

Claviceps purpurea infects the seed heads of cereal grains and grasses and produces ergopeptine alkaloids that cause hyperthermia and agalactia in cattle during periods of heat stress. A field experiment was undertaken to examine the effects of ergopeptine alkaloids found in barley on thermal status of dairy cattle during periods of heat stress. Production end points were also measured to identify the effect of the change in thermal status. Contaminated barley screenings containing known levels of ergopeptine alkaloids were fed to lactating Holstein cattle (10 microg total ergopeptine alkaloids/kg BW/day) for 10 days during summer heat stress. Air temperature increased 14.4 C during the first 8 days of treatment and then declined the same during the last 2 days. Extreme daily values for rectal temperature and respiration rate, using averages of all animals, showed maximum increases of 2.3 C and 56.8 breaths/minute, respectively, during this period. Group afternoon milk production decreased 2 kg/day during the heat stress period, with no measurable change in feed intake. A greater level of hyperthermia occurred in cattle consuming the diet with ergopeptine alkaloids, with only marginal symptoms of ergot toxicosis reflected in feed intake and milk production. Therefore, the ergopeptine alkaloid dose used in this study represents a level for minimal induction of the ergot toxicity response. PMID:12918817

Al-Tamimi, Hosam J; Rottinghaus, George E; Spiers, Donald E; Spain, Jim; Chatman, Darryl; Eichen, Peggy A; Carson, Thomas L

2003-07-01

237

Effects of graded levels of potato by-products in barley- and corn-based beef feedlot diets: II. Palatability.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of barley- or corn-based diets containing 0, 10, or 20% potato by-product (DM basis) on Warner-Bratzler shear force and palatability of beef. One hundred forty-four crossbred beef steers (333+/-.44 kg) were allotted within weight block (3) to a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Main effects were grain (barley or corn) and level of potato by-product (0, 10, or 20% of diet DM). There were a total of 18 pens with eight steers per pen and three pens per treatment. Steers were fed diets containing 83% concentrate (grain plus potato by-product), 10% supplement, and 7% alfalfa (DM basis) for an average of 130 d. Longissimus muscle cuts were used for Warner-Bratzler shear force determination (four steers per pen) and evaluation (two steers per pen) by a 10-member trained laboratory panel, a professional flavor/texture profile panel, and by consumer panels. Diet did not affect (P > .10) Warner-Bratzler shear force or trained laboratory panel tenderness, juiciness, and flavor intensity scores. Flavor/texture profile panel scores indicated feeding a corn-based diet as opposed to barley-based diet produced a more appropriate well-balanced and well-blended beef flavor and texture. However, the magnitudes of the differences were relatively small, and flavor and texture amplitude ratings for both barley- and corn-fed beef were well above average. Beef from steers fed 10 or 20% potato by-product had lower (P < .05) incidences of inappropriate aromatics and aftertastes, which may have a slightly beneficial effect on beef flavor, but flavor amplitude was not affected (P > .05) by level of potato. Moreover, consumer panel overall acceptability scores were not affected by diet. Thus, feedlot diets containing corn or barley with or without potato by-product should result in palatable beef products. PMID:10907825

Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; Jeremiah, L E; Duckett, S K; Cronrath, J D; Falen, L; Kuber, P S

2000-07-01

238

Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

2008-01-01

239

Effects of graded levels of potato by-products in barley- and corn-based beef feedlot diets: I. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, meat composition, and appearance.  

PubMed

To measure effects of diet on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef appearance, 144 crossbred beef steers (333+/-.44 kg) were allotted within weight block (3) to a randomized complete block design with a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Main effects were grain (barley or corn) and level of potato by-product (PB) (0, 10, or 20% of diet DM). Steers were fed diets containing 83% concentrate (grain plus PB), 10% supplement, and 7% alfalfa on a DM basis for an average of 130 d. Level of PB quadratically affected (P < .10) DM intake and gain such that steers fed 10% PB ate more and gained faster. Corn-fed steers were more (P < .05) efficient (5.8 vs 6.3 kg DM/kg gain) and had more (P < .05) kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.2 vs 2.0%) than barley-fed steers. A grain x PB interaction was detected (P < .10) for marbling score, which was minimized in steers fed barley diets (small 0) but maximized in those fed corn diets (small 30) at 10% PB. Diet did not affect beef firmness or beef color score. Barley-fed beef had whiter fat (P < .05) than corn-fed beef (2.6 vs 2.9 on a 1 to 7 scale); however, fat luster score was not affected by diet. Small differences were noted in fatty acid profile, purge, drip loss, and muscle pH. No differences were noted in color measurements due to dietary treatment over 7 d of retail shelf life. Overall, differences were small and probably not biologically important. These results indicate that these diets had minimal effects on beef appearance and carcass characteristics, meat composition, and water retention properties. PMID:10907824

Nelson, M L; Busboom, J R; Cronrath, J D; Falen, L; Blankenbaker, A

2000-07-01

240

Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation) when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (? 5 ppm) in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201) were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare). DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation. PMID:21888629

2011-01-01

241

Wholegrain barley ?-glucan fermentation does not improve glucose tolerance in rats fed a high-fat diet.  

PubMed

Fermentation of oat and barley ?-glucans is believed to mediate in part their metabolic health benefits, but the exact mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we sought to test the hypothesis that barley ?-glucan fermentation raises circulating incretin hormone levels and improves glucose control, independent of other grain components. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 30) were fed a high-fat diet for 6 weeks and then randomly allocated to 1 of 3 dietary treatments for 2 weeks. The low- (LBG, 0% ?-glucan) and high- (HBG, 3% ?-glucan) ?-glucan diets contained 25% wholegrain barley and similar levels of insoluble dietary fiber, available carbohydrate, and energy. A low-fiber diet (basal) was included for comparison. Immediately prior to the dietary intervention, gastric emptying rate (using the (13)C-octanoic breath test) and postprandial glycemic response of each diet were determined. At the end of the study, circulating gut hormone levels were determined; and a glucose tolerance test was performed. The rats were then killed, and indices of cecal fermentation were assessed. Diet did not affect live weight; however, the HBG diet, compared to basal and LBG, reduced food intake, tended to slow gastric emptying, increased cecal digesta mass and individual and total short-chain fatty acid pools, and lowered digesta pH. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, insulin, gastric-inhibitory peptide, and glucagon-like peptide-1, and glucose tolerance were unaffected by diet. In conclusion, wholegrain barley ?-glucan suppressed feed intake and increased cecal fermentation but did not improve postprandial glucose control or insulin sensitivity. PMID:25622537

Belobrajdic, Damien P; Jobling, Stephen A; Morell, Matthew K; Taketa, Shin; Bird, Anthony R

2015-02-01

242

Greening etiolated barley plants under clinorotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are capable to react to change of a gravitational field and have sensitive and selective mechanisms, allowing to be guided in a field of gravitation of the Earth. It is known, that changes of gravitational conditions (hyper- or hypogravity) influence metabolic processes in alive organisms. One of the important problems of space biology is studying influence of microgravity on development of the photosynthetic apparatus. Damaging action of weightlessness on photosynthetic processes in plants was shown in a lot of space experiments. However, results of these experiments are inconsistent and do not allow to conclude how varied conditions of weight influence photosynthesis and in particular biosynthesis of chlorophyll. The aim of the communication is an analysis of clinorotation effects on the pigment accumulation and photochemical characteristics of the photosynthetic apparatus during its formation at greening of barley seedlings. Barley plants were grown on a slow horizontal clinostat (2 rpm) and in vertical control at room temperature for 7-8 days (6 days in the dark and 1 or 2 day on white light, ˜ 90 ? Mm-2s-1). Protochlorophyllide (Pchld) and carotenoid (? -carotene, lutein, neoxantin, violaxantin) content in dark grown plants, as well as photosynthetic pigment content after 24 and 48h of greening was determined by TLC. It was found that the content of ? -carotene, lutein and neoxantin in clinorotated etiolated plants was on 9-25% higher compared to control. Pchld and violaxantin level was less on 9-11% in clinorotated etiolated plants. The content of Chl a, b and carotenoids in control after 24h greening of barley seedlings exceeded on 10-20% their level in clinorotated variant. After 48h greening the total level of pigments doubled and the difference in the pigment content between control and clinorotated leaves averaged 0-12%, i.e. distinction in pigment content between control and clinorotated variants smoothed out in the greening process. No difference in Chl a/b ratio between variants was observed. A process of photosynthetic apparatus formation was controlled by chlorophyll fluorescence. It was shown that after 24 to 48 hour greening maximal quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was increased in result of maturation of pigment apparatus. Proportion of open PSII (qP) was higher in control plants, especially when intensity of actinic light exceeded growth intensity. Chlorophyll fluorescence nonphotochemical quenching coefficient (qN) was higher in control plants in comparison with clinorotated ones on a different level of actinic light. Thus clinorotation influences formation of photosynthetic machinery through slowing down pigment biosynthesis and affecting photochemical characteristics.

Syvash, O. O.; Dovbysh, E. P.; Zolotareva, E. K.

243

Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia;)

1984-06-11

244

Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID:24558366

Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

2014-01-01

245

Biochemical mutant in barley renders chemical stabilization of beer superfluous  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recessive mutantant-13 isolated from Foma barley after a mutagen treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate is shown to be blocked in the formation\\u000a of anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanidins (=anthocyanogens). The mutant has been propagated, malted on a pilot scale\\u000a and the malt used for pilot brews of beer. Foma barley has been malted and brewed for comparison. Malt, wort and beer

D. von Wettstein; Barbro Jende-Strid; B. Ahrenst-Larsen; J. A. Sørensen

1977-01-01

246

Fusariosis of spring barley cultivated in Lublin region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diseases of spring barley in 1986–1988 seasons have been examined on barley plantations in Lublin region. Observations in\\u000a eight weeks after sowing each year spring showed the occurrence of root rot and sheath rot in seedlings. As a result of mycological\\u000a examination of infected seedlings 34 species of fungi were isolated:Fusarium spp. amounted up to 23% of all isolates. Each

Barbara ?acicowa; Irena Kiecana

1991-01-01

247

Barley Cbf3 gene identification, expression pattern, and map location.  

PubMed

Although cold and drought adaptation in cereals and other plants involve the induction of a large number of genes, inheritance studies in Triticeae (wheat [Triticum aestivum], barley [Hordeum vulgare], and rye [Secale cereale]) have revealed only a few major loci for frost or drought tolerance that are consistent across multiple genetic backgrounds and environments. One might imagine that these loci could encode highly conserved regulatory factors that have global effects on gene expression; therefore, genes encoding central regulators identified in other plants might be orthologs of these Triticeae stress tolerance genes. The CBF/DREB1 regulators, identified originally in Arabidopsis as key components of cold and drought regulation, merit this consideration. We constructed barley cDNA libraries, screened these libraries and a barley bacterial artificial chromosome library using rice (Oryza sativa) and barley Cbf probes, found orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF/DREB1 genes, and examined the expression and genetic map location of the barley Cbf3 gene, HvCbf3. HvCbf3 was induced by a chilling treatment. HvCbf3 is located on barley chromosome 5H between markers WG364b and saflp58 on the barley cv Dicktoo x barley cv Morex genetic linkage map. This position is some 40 to 50 cM proximal to the winter hardiness quantitative trait locus that includes the Vrn-1H gene, but may coincide with the wheat 5A Rcg1 locus, which governs the threshold temperature at which cor genes are induced. From this, it remains possible that HvCbf3 is the basis of a minor quantitative trait locus in some genetic backgrounds, though that possibility remains to be thoroughly explored. PMID:12177491

Choi, Dong-Woog; Rodriguez, Edmundo M; Close, Timothy J

2002-08-01

248

Analysis of durable resistance to stem rust in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the mid-1940's, barley cultivars grown in the northern Great Plains of the USA and Canada have been resistant to stem rust caused byPuccinia graminis f. sp.tritici. This durable resistance is largely conferred by a single gene,Rpg1, derived from a single plant selection of the cultivar Wisconsin 37 and an unimproved Swiss cultivar. At the seedling stage, barley genotypes withRpg1

Brian J. Steffenson

1992-01-01

249

Barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor. I. Isolation and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A protein inhibitor of endogenous ?-amylase 2 has been isolated from germinated barley by glycogen precipitation followed\\u000a by cation-exchange chromatography. Preliminary kinetic analysis showed a mixed type mechanism of inhibition with an apparent\\u000a Ki of 4×10?8M. The inhibitor formed well-defined complexes with barley malt ?-amylase 2 and co-purified with the ?-amylase by cycloheptaamylose\\u000a affinity chromatography of glycogen precipitates. The inhibitor

John Mundy; IB Svendsen; Jørn Hejgaard

1983-01-01

250

The Properties and Genetics of Barley Malt Starch Degrading Enzymes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The properties and quality of barley malt starch degrading enzymes are of primary importance to the efficiency and profitability\\u000a of brewing (beer and whiskey), and the bio-fuel (bio-ethanol) industries. The barley starch degrading enzymes hydrolyse starch\\u000a into fermentable sugars that yeast converts into alcohol. This process is key for the alcohol producing industries as the\\u000a starch substrate makes up approximately

D. E. Evans; C. Li; J. K. Eglinton

251

Levels of fungi and mycotoxins in the samples of grain and grain dust collected from five various cereal crops in eastern Poland.  

PubMed

During combine harvesting of 5 various cereal crops (rye, barley, oats, buckwheat, corn) 24 samples of grain and 24 samples of settled grain dust were collected on farms located in the Lublin province of eastern Poland. The samples were examined for the concentration of total microfungi, Fusarium species, deoxynivalenol (DON), nivalenol (NIV), and ochratoxin A (OTA). Microfungi able to grow on malt agar were present in 79.2% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 1.0-801.3x10(3) cfu/g and 1.5-12440.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. The concentration of microfungi in grain dust samples was significantly greater than in grain samples (p<0.01). Fusarium strains were isolated from 54.2% of grain samples and from 58.3% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.1-375.0x10(3) cfu/g and 4.0-7,700.0x10(3) cfu/g, respectively. They were found in all samples of grain and grain dust from rye, barley and corn, but only in 0-16.7% of samples of grain and grain dust from oats and buckwheat. DON was found in 79.2% of grain samples and in 100% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.001-0.18 microg/g and 0.006-0.283 microg/g, respectively. NIV was detected in 62.5% of grain samples and in 94.4% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.004-0.502 microg/g and 0.005-0.339 microg/g, respectively. OTA was detected in 58.3% of grain samples and in 91.7% of grain dust samples in the concentrations of 0.00039- 0.00195 microg/g and 0.00036-0.00285 microg/g, respectively. The concentrations of DON, total fusariotoxins (DON+NIV) and OTA were significantly greater in grain dust samples than in grain samples (p<0.05, p<0.05, and p<0.001, respectively). The concentration of Fusarium poae in the samples of rye grain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentrations of DON (p<0.05), NIV (p<0.01), and total fusariotoxins (p<0.05). Similarly, the concentration of Fusarium culmorum in the samples of barley grain and dust was significantly correlated with the concentration of total fusariotoxins (p<0.05). A significant correlation was also found between the concentration of total fungi grown on malt agar and the concentration of OTA (p<0.05). In conclusion, although the concentration of DON, NIV and OTA in the samples of grain dust collected from 5 various cereals on farms in eastern Poland was not large, the persistent presence of these mycotoxins in over 90% of examined samples poses a potential health risk of chronic respiratory intoxication for exposed grain farmers. PMID:17655194

Krysi?ska-Traczyk, Ewa; Perkowski, Juliusz; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

2007-01-01

252

Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

2007-04-01

253

Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The starchy endosperm of cereals is a priori taken as a metabolically uniform tissue. By applying a noninvasive assay based on 13C/1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, we uncovered metabolic compartmentation in the endosperm. 13C-Suc feeding during grain filling showed that the primary site of Ala synthesis was the central region of the endosperm, the part of the caryopsis experiencing the highest level of hypoxia. Region-specific metabolism in the endosperm was characterized by flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolite profiling. FBA predicts that in the central region of the endosperm, the tricarboxylic acid cycle shifts to a noncyclic mode, accompanied by elevated glycolytic flux and the accumulation of Ala. The metabolic compartmentation within the endosperm is advantageous for the grain's carbon and energy economy, with a prominent role being played by Ala aminotransferase. An investigation of caryopses with a genetically perturbed tissue pattern demonstrated that Ala accumulation is a consequence of oxygen status, rather than being either tissue specific or dependent on the supply of Suc. Hence the 13C-Ala gradient can be used as an in vivo marker for hypoxia. The combination of MRI and metabolic modeling offers opportunities for the noninvasive analysis of metabolic compartmentation in plants. PMID:21856793

Rolletschek, Hardy; Melkus, Gerd; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Fuchs, Johannes; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk; Jakob, Peter M.; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

2011-01-01

254

Coupling between grain growth and grain rotation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Grain boundary motion during grain growth or recrystallization is considered as a diffusion process of atomic movement across the boundary. It can be accompanied by subgrain rotation or nanograin rotation. However, grain boundary migration can be achieved also by dislocation motion or creep. The evidence is the power law relationship between driving force and boundary velocity for large driving forces and an activation energy which approaches that of self-diffusion at low driving forces and decreases with increasing driving force. The creep mechanism may or may not involve grain rotation. Experimental evidences and dislocation models are discussed in reference to coupling between boundary migration and grain rotation.

Rath, Bhakta B.; Winning, M.; Li, J. C. M.

2007-04-01

255

Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance. PMID:23383190

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

256

Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.  

PubMed

Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100 kg ha(-1) level. Application of 200 kg K ha(-1) resulted in a five-fold reduction in (137)Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in (137)Cs transfer to crops was correlated with (137)Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of (137)Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect. PMID:24412815

Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

2014-04-01

257

7 CFR 407.10 - Area risk protection insurance for barley.  

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Area risk protection insurance for barley. 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AREA RISK PROTECTION INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Area risk protection insurance for barley. The...

2014-01-01

258

Grain Handling and Storage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text for a secondary- or postecondary-level course in grain handling and storage contains ten chapters. Chapter titles are (1) Introduction to Grain Handling and Storage, (2) Elevator Safety, (3) Grain Grading and Seed Identification, (4) Moisture Control, (5) Insect and Rodent Control, (6) Grain Inventory Control, (7) Elevator Maintenance,…

Harris, Troy G.; Minor, John

259

A putative role for amino acid permeases in sink-source communication of barley tissues uncovered by RNA-seq  

PubMed Central

Background The majority of nitrogen accumulating in cereal grains originates from proteins remobilised from vegetative organs. However, interactions between grain filling and remobilisation are poorly understood. We used transcriptome large-scale pyrosequencing of flag leaves, glumes and developing grains to identify cysteine peptidase and N transporter genes playing a role in remobilisation and accumulation of nitrogen in barley. Results Combination of already known and newly derived sequence information reduced redundancy, increased contig length and identified new members of cysteine peptidase and N transporter gene families. The dataset for N transporter genes was aligned with N transporter amino acid sequences of rice and Arabidopsis derived from Aramemnon database. 57 AAT, 45 NRT1/PTR and 22 OPT unigenes identified by this approach cluster to defined subgroups in the respective phylogenetic trees, among them 25 AAT, 8 NRT1/PTR and 5 OPT full-length sequences. Besides, 59 unigenes encoding cysteine peptidases were identified and subdivided into different families of the papain cysteine peptidase clade. Expression profiling of full-length AAT genes highlighted amino acid permeases as the group showing highest transcriptional activity. HvAAP2 and HvAAP6 are highly expressed in vegetative organs whereas HvAAP3 is grain-specific. Sequence similarities cluster HvAAP2 and the putative transporter HvAAP6 together with Arabidopsis transporters, which are involved in long-distance transfer of amino acids. HvAAP3 is closely related to AtAAP1 and AtAAP8 playing a role in supplying N to developing seeds. An important role in amino acid re-translocation can be considered for HvLHT1 and HvLHT2 which are specifically expressed in glumes and flag leaves, respectively. PCA and K-means clustering of AAT transcript data revealed coordinate developmental stages in flag leaves, glumes and grains. Phloem-specific metabolic compounds are proposed that might signal high grain demands for N to distantly located plant organs. Conclusions The approach identified cysteine peptidases and specific N transporters of the AAT family as obviously relevant for grain filling and thus, grain yield and quality in barley. Up to now, information is based only on transcript data. To make it relevant for application, the role of identified candidates in sink-source communication has to be analysed in more detail. PMID:22935196

2012-01-01

260

Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley?  

PubMed Central

The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high ?-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble ?-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total ?-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent. PMID:24748716

Howard, Thomas P.; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M.

2014-01-01

261

Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

262

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2-encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus  

E-print Network

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2- encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus P and experimental data that were obtained from plants infected with bymoviruses such as barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), or wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

263

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS  

E-print Network

UTILISATION OF NAKED OATS AND BARLEY IN THE FEED OF BROILERS AND LAYING HENS J. GUILLAUME C. CALET Three varieties of hulless cereals : two oats and one barley were compared to maize (trial i), to maize, wheat and normal or dehulled oats and barley (trial 2) as main components of isocaloric diets in growing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

264

The effect of different grain diets on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by steers.  

PubMed

Three groups of six yearling steers (three rumen fistulated plus three nonfistulated) fed one of three different grain diets (85% cracked corn, 15% whole cottonseed and 70% barley, or 85% barley) were inoculated with 10(10) CFU of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 3081, and the presence of the inoculated strain was followed in the rumen fluid and feces for a 10-week period. E. coli O157:H7 was rapidly eliminated from the rumen of the animals on all three diets but persisted in the feces of some animals up to 67 days after inoculation, suggesting that the bovine hindgut is the site of E. coli O157:H7 persistence. A significant difference existed in the levels of E. coli O157:H7 shed by the animals among diets on days 5, 7, 49, and 63 after inoculation (P < 0.05). No significant difference was found between the levels shed among diets on days 9 through 42 and on day 67 (P > 0.05). The number of animals that were culture positive for E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 during the 10-week period was significantly higher for the barley fed group (72 of 114 samplings) as opposed to the corn fed group (44 of 114 samplings) (P < 0.005) and the cottonseed and barley fed group (57 of 114 samplings) (P < 0.05). The fecal pH of the animals fed the corn diet was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than the fecal pH of the animals fed the cottonseed and barley and barley diets, likely resulting in a less suitable environment for E. coli O157:H7 in the hindgut of the corn fed animals. E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 was present in 3 of 30 (corn, 1 of 10; cottonseed, 1 of 10; barley, 1 of 10) animal drinking water samples, 3 of 30 (corn, 1 of 10; cottonseed, 0 of 10; barley, 2 of 10) water trough biofilm swabs, 5 of 30 (corn, 0 of 10; cottonseed, 2 of 10; barley, 3 of 10) feed samples, and 30 of 30 manure samples taken from the pens during the entire experimental period. Mouth swabs of the steers were also culture positive for E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 in 30 of 180 samples (corn, 7 of 60; cottonseed, 4 of 60; barley, 19 of 60) taken during the 10-week period. Minimizing environmental dissemination of E. coli O157:H7 in conjunction with diet modification may reduce numbers of E. coli O157:H7-positive cattle. PMID:11079685

Buchko, S J; Holley, R A; Olson, W O; Gannon, V P; Veira, D M

2000-11-01

265

Allelic Variations of a Light Harvesting Chlorophyll A/B-Binding Protein Gene (Lhcb1) Associated with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP) is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING). A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels) and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits. PMID:22662173

Xia, Yanshi; Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Li, Ronghua; Yan, Guijun; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Baum, Michael; Guo, Peiguo

2012-01-01

266

Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies. PMID:25457306

Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

2014-11-01

267

Comparative genomic analysis and expression of the APETALA2-like genes from barley, wheat, and barley-wheat amphiploids  

PubMed Central

Background The APETALA2-like genes form a large multi-gene family of transcription factors which play an important role during the plant life cycle, being key regulators of many developmental processes. Many studies in Arabidopsis have revealed that the APETALA2 (AP2) gene is implicated in the establishment of floral meristem and floral organ identity as well as temporal and spatial regulation of flower homeotic gene expression. Results In this work, we have cloned and characterised the AP2-like gene from accessions of Hordeum chilense and Hordeum vulgare, wild and domesticated barley, respectively, and compared with other AP2 homoeologous genes, including the Q gene in wheat. The Hordeum AP2-like genes contain two plant-specific DNA binding motifs called AP2 domains, as does the Q gene of wheat. We confirm that the H. chilense AP2-like gene is located on chromosome 5Hch. Patterns of expression of the AP2-like genes were examined in floral organs and other tissues in barley, wheat and in tritordeum amphiploids (barley × wheat hybrids). In tritordeum amphiploids, the level of transcription of the barley AP2-like gene was lower than in its barley parental and the chromosome substitutions 1D/1Hch and 2D/2Hch were seen to modify AP2 gene expression levels. Conclusion The results are of interest in order to understand the role of the AP2-like gene in the spike morphology of barley and wheat, and to understand the regulation of this gene in the amphiploids obtained from barley-wheat crossing. This information may have application in cereal breeding programs to up- or down-regulate the expression of AP2-like genes in order to modify spike characteristics and to obtain free-threshing plants. PMID:19480686

Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Martín, Antonio; Barro, Francisco

2009-01-01

268

Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Synchrotron-Based Infrared  

SciTech Connect

Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P < 0.05) among the barley samples in terms of the peak ratio and peak area and height intensities of amides I (ca. 1650 cm{sup -1}) and II (ca. 1550 cm{sup -1}), cellulosic compounds (ca. 1240 cm{sup -1}), CHO component peaks (the first peak at the region ca. 1184-1132 cm{sup -1}, the second peak at ca. 1132-1066 cm{sup -1}, and the third peak at ca. 1066-950 cm{sup -1}). With the SFTIRM technique, the structural characteristics of the cereal seeds were illuminated among different cultivars at an ultraspatial resolution. The structural differences of barley seeds may be one reason for the various digestive behaviors and nutritive values in ruminants. The results show weak correlations between the functional groups spectral data (peak area, height intensities, and ratios) and rumen biodegradation kinetics (rate and extent of nutrient degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

Liu, N.; Yu, P

2010-01-01

269

Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

2008-03-01

270

miRNA regulation in the early development of barley seed  

PubMed Central

Background During the early stages of seed development many genes are under dynamic regulation to ensure the proper differentiation and establishment of the tissue that will constitute the mature grain. To investigate how miRNA regulation contributes to this process in barley, a combination of small RNA and mRNA degradome analyses were used to identify miRNAs and their targets. Results Our analysis identified 84 known miRNAs and 7 new miRNAs together with 96 putative miRNA target genes regulated through a slicing mechanism in grain tissues during the first 15?days post anthesis. We also identified many potential miRNAs including several belonging to known miRNA families. Our data gave us evidence for an increase in miRNA-mediated regulation during the transition between pre-storage and storage phases. Potential miRNA targets were found in various signalling pathways including components of four phytohormone pathways (ABA, GA, auxin, ethylene) and the defence response to powdery mildew infection. Among the putative miRNA targets we identified were two essential genes controlling the GA response, a GA3oxidase1 and a homolog of the receptor GID1, and a homolog of the ACC oxidase which catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. We found that two MLA genes are potentially miRNA regulated, establishing a direct link between miRNAs and the R gene response. Conclusion Our dataset provides a useful source of information on miRNA regulation during the early development of cereal grains and our analysis suggests that miRNAs contribute to the control of development of the cereal grain, notably through the regulation of phytohormone response pathways. PMID:22838835

2012-01-01

271

An Endogenous ?-Amylase Inhibitor in Barley Kernels 1  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum distichum cv Klages) kernels were shown to contain a factor that converted malted barley ?-amylase II to the ?-amylase III form. After purification by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephacel, and gel-filtration on Bio Gel P60, the factor gave a single band of protein on isoelectric focusing. The purified factor inhibited hydrolysis of soluble starch by ?-amylase II from malted barley and germinated wheat (Triticum aestivum cv Neepawa). However, ?-amylase I from these cereals was not affected. The inhibitor was not dialyzable and was retained by a PM 10 ultrafiltration membrane suggesting a molecular weight greater than 10,000 daltons. Heat treatment of the inhibitor at 70°C for 15 minutes at pH 5.5 and 8.0 resulted in considerable loss of inhibitory activity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16663089

Weselake, Randall J.; MacGregor, Alexander W.; Hill, Robert D.

1983-01-01

272

Factors underlying restricted crossover localization in barley meiosis.  

PubMed

Meiotic recombination results in the formation of cytological structures known as chiasmata at the sites of genetic crossovers (COs). The formation of at least one chiasma/CO between homologous chromosome pairs is essential for accurate chromosome segregation at the first meiotic division as well as for generating genetic variation. Although DNA double-strand breaks, which initiate recombination, are widely distributed along the chromosomes, this is not necessarily reflected in the chiasma distribution. In many species there is a tendency for chiasmata to be distributed in favored regions along the chromosomes, whereas in others, such as barley and some other grasses, chiasma localization is extremely pronounced. Localization of chiasma to the distal regions of barley chromosomes restricts the genetic variation available to breeders. Studies reviewed herein are beginning to provide an explanation for chiasma localization in barley. Moreover, they suggest a potential route to manipulating chiasma distribution that could be of value to plant breeders. PMID:25089719

Higgins, James D; Osman, Kim; Jones, Gareth H; Franklin, F Chris H

2014-11-23

273

RFLP analysis of highly polymorphic loci in barley.  

PubMed

Barley middle-repeat sequences were screened for their ability to discriminate 51 barley commercial varieties. Two hordein clones, a clone encoding a leaf-specific thionin, a desiccation induced cDNA clone, a clone coding for 5S-rRNA and one corresponding to ubiquitin genes were tested. A very sensitive RFLP technique including four cutter restriction enzymes and denaturing 4% polyacrylamide gels were used to evidence the highest level of polymorphism.The RFLP data were analyzed by computer. Some probe/enzyme combinations were able to differentiate a large number of the cultivars tested, whereas three probe/enzyme combinations succeeded in identifying all the varieties. The use of this RFLP method can thus be suggested for cultivar identification in barley. PMID:24196141

Pecchioni, N; Stanca, A M; Terzi, V; Cattivelli, L

1993-02-01

274

Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells  

SciTech Connect

({sup 35}S)Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100{degree}C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered.

Jacobsen, J.V. (CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)); Shaw, D.C. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

1989-12-01

275

The effects of barley bran flour on colonic physiology  

E-print Network

THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis JANET LOUISE MORIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990... Major Subject: Nutrition THE EFFECTS OF BARLEY BRAN FLOUR ON COLONIC PHYSIOLOGY A Thesis by JANET LOUISE MORIN Approved as to style and content by: OM A l I M/ Joanne R. Lupton (Chair of Committee) Karen S. Kubena (Member) John D. Williams...

Morin, Janet Louise

2012-06-07

276

Peroxidase changes in barley induced by ionizing and thermal radiation.  

PubMed

Thermal and ionizing (gamma-ray) radiations were used to induce damage to barley seeds (IB65). The activity and isozyme banding patterns of peroxidase were compared. It was found that both physical agents caused damage to barley seeds (as observed from seedling height), but their action on peroxidase activity is not similar. Gamma-Rays enhance peroxidase activity. Thermal radiation, on the other hand, tends to reduce it but fails to alter the number of peroxidase isozymes. It is conjectured that the pathways of damage by thermal and ionizing radiations are not the same. PMID:8601749

Sah, N K; Pramanik, S; Raychaudhuri, S S

1996-01-01

277

Metabolism of Linoleic Acid by Barley Lipoxygenase and Hydroperoxide Isomerase 1  

PubMed Central

The oxidation of linoleic acid in incubation mixtures containing extracts of barley lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase, and the production of these enzymes in quiescent and germinated barley, were investigated. The ratio of 9-hydroperoxylinoleic acid to 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid was higher for incubation mixtures containing extracts of quiescent barley than for mixtures containing extracts of germinated barley; production of 13-hydroperoxylinoleic acid from germinated barley exceeded that of quiescent barley. Hydroperoxy metabolites of linoleic acid were converted to 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-cis-12-octadecenoic acid, 13-hydroxy-10-oxo-trans-11-octadecenoic acid, and small amounts of 11-hydroxy-12,13-epoxy-cis-9-octadecenoic acid and 11-hydroxy-9,10-epoxy-cis-13-octadecenoic acid whether quiescent or germinated barley was the enzyme source; a fifth product, 13-hydroxy-12-oxo-cis-9-octadecenoic acid was formed only when germinated barley was the enzyme source. Lipoxygenase was readily extracted by buffer, but hydroperoxide isomerase was bound in a catalytically active state to the insoluble barley grist and was efficiently extracted only when Triton X-100 was included in the extraction buffer. Hydroperoxide isomerase was localized in the embryo of quiescent barley, but it was present in the embryo, acrospire, and in small but concentrated amounts in the rootlet of germinating barley. The levels of both lipoxygenase and hydroperoxide isomerase increased through the thirteenth day of germination. Images PMID:16662032

Lulai, Edward C.; Baker, Charles W.; Zimmerman, Don C.

1981-01-01

278

Presolar Grains in Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about presolar grains. It discusses what they are, how to identify them, the different kinds, and what can be learned from presolar grains. If you need more information there are additional links to go to.

Nittler, Larry R.

2005-06-07

279

Differential Synthesis in Vitro of Barley Aleurone and Starchy Endosperm Proteins  

PubMed Central

To widen the selection of proteins for gene expression studies in barley seeds, experiments were performed to identify proteins whose synthesis is differentially regulated in developing and germinating seed tissues. The in vitro synthesis of nine distinct barley proteins was compared using mRNAs from isolated endosperm and aleurone tissues (developing and mature grain) and from cultured (germinating) aleurone layers treated with abscisic acid (ABA) and GA3. B and C hordein polypeptides and the salt-soluble proteins ?-amylase, protein Z, protein C, the chymotrypsin inhibitors (CI-1 and 2), the ?-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (ASI) and the inhibitor of animal cell-free protein synthesis systems (PSI) were synthesized with mRNA from developing starchy endosperm tissue. Of these proteins, ?-amylase, protein Z, and CI- 1 and 2 were also synthesized with mRNA from developing aleurone cells, but ASI, PSI, and protein C were not. CI-1 and also a probable amylase/protease inhibitor (PAPI) were synthesized at high levels with mRNAs from late developing and mature aleurone. These results show that mRNAs encoding PAPI and CI-1 survive seed dessication and are long-lived in aleurone cells. Thus, expression of genes encoding ASI, PSI, protein C, and PAPI is tissue and stage-specific during seed development. Only ASI, CI-1, and PAPI were synthesized in significant amounts with mRNA from cultured aleurone layers. The levels of synthesis of PAPI and CI-1 were independent of hormone treatment. In contrast, synthesis of ?-amylase (included as control) and of ASI showed antagonistic hormonal control: while GA promotes and ABA reduces accumulation of mRNA for ?-amylase, these hormones have the opposite effect on ASI mRNA levels. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16664868

Mundy, John; Hejgaard, Jørn; Hansen, Annette; Hallgren, Lars; Jorgensen, Kim G.; Munck, Lars

1986-01-01

280

Grain structure and composition  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chapter 4 covers general information about structure and composition of cereal grains as well as the unique features of each cereal grain. Cereal grains are the fruits of cultivated grasses and members of Gramineae family. The fruit of a cereal is botanically known as caryopsis, featured by fusion...

281

Marketing Farm Grain Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

Ridenour, Harlan E.

282

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

283

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

284

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-01-01

285

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain.  

PubMed

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-08-26

286

Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

287

POPULATION AND MULTILOCUS ISOZYME STRUCTURES IN A BARLEY LANDRACE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Isozyme data was used to assess genetic diversity within and among a subdivided population of the salt-tolerant Batini barley landrace. Total population diversity and its components were estimated on the basis of 12 isozymes scored on 450 single plants representing seven subpopulations. Of the 36 al...

288

A rapid hydroponic screening for aluminium tolerance in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selection and breeding of crops for aluminium (Al) tolerance is a useful approach to increase production on acid soils. This requires a rapid and reliable system to discriminate between Al-tolerant and Al-sensitive genotypes. A hydroponic system was developed to screen for Al tolerance in barley (t Hordeum vulgare L.) to overcome several problems encountered in previous screening methods. Four levels

Jian Feng Ma; Shao Jian Zheng; Xiao Feng Li; Kazuyoshi Takeda; Hideaki Matsumoto

1997-01-01

289

Cultural Practices for Producing Dryland Malt Barley: Sulfur Fertilizer Rate  

E-print Network

on the yield and quality of malting barley. This Fertilizer Fact reports only the effect of S fertilizer rate/acre of potassium (K) as KCl while planting. In addition, S as potassium thiosulfate or ammonium thiosulfate, 25 lb/acre of K as KCl, and S as potassium sulfate was applied while seeding in a band approximately

Lawrence, Rick L.

290

Incidence of Boron Toxicity in Spring Barley in Southwestern Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One hundred and four crops of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Stirling) grown throughout southwestern Australia (WA) were surveyed for symptoms of boron (B) toxicity. Symptoms were identified as B toxicity and not spot-type net blotch, a foliar disease, caused by the fungus Pyrenohora teres f. spp. maculata that produces similar leaf symptoms. Symptoms of B toxicity occurred in

R. F. Brennan; K. G. Adcock

2004-01-01

291

Generative cell division and sperm cell formation in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Shortly before and during division, the generative cell of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is located near the vegetative nucleus, in the peripheral layer of the highly vacuolated vegetative cell at the aperture pole. This position is also characteristic of the two resulting sperm cells. Conventional mitosis of the generative cell is followed by cytokinesis through cell plate formation. Just after

Maria Charzyfiska; Fabrizio Ciampolini; Mauro Cresti

1988-01-01

292

COMPREHENSIVE MUTANT ANALYSIS OF THE BARLEY LTP6 GENE PROMOTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differential display was used to identify a transcript that was highly expressed in the pericarp epidermis but not in leaves of barley. The sequence and its promoter were cloned. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 124 amino acids showing 87% identity with WBP1A, a wheat lipid transfer protein (LTP) ...

293

CHARACTERIZATION OF BARLEY TISSUE-UBIQUITOUS B-AMYLASE2  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are two barley b-amylases genes, encoding important starch degrading enzymes. The endosperm-specific b-amylase (Bmy1), the more abundant isozyme in cereal seeds, has been thoroughly characterized. The lesser abundant b-amylase2 (Bmy2), has not been biochemically characterized from any cereal s...

294

Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

295

THE VIRTUAL CROP-MODELLING SYSTEM 'VICA' SPECIFIED FOR BARLEY  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents an improved version of the Virtual Canopy model VICA (Wernecke et al. 2000), which is developed to establish a generic functional-structural plant model (FSPM; cf. Vos et al. this volume) specified for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The model core is formulated as a set of hierarchically structured objects. These objects are related to morphological and functional 'plant

P. WERNECKE; J. MÜLLER; T. DORNBUSCH; A. WERNECKE; W. DIEPENBROCK

296

Conserved transcriptional regulatory programs underlying rice and barley germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination is accompanied with concerted transcriptional expression of many genes and biological pathways. Barley and rice germinations have been divergent from each other for 50-60 million years. However, there is little knowledge about the conservation and divergence in transcriptional regul...

297

FUSARIUM SPECIES SYNTHESIZE ALKALINE PROTEINASES IN INFESTED BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) that is infested with Fusarium head blight (FHB, `scab') is unsuitable for malting and brewing because it may contain mycotoxins and has unacceptable malting quality. Fungal proteinases are apparently involved in plant-microbe interactions, because they degrade the storag...

298

Biotic stresses in barley: Insect problems and solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter is an overview of the 5 major insects of barley, Russian wheat aphid, greenbug, bird cherry-oat aphid, Hessian fly, and cereal leaf beetle, with emphasis on research reported in the last 20 years. History, distribution, plant damage, yield losses, host plant resistance, biological...

299

BARLEY PROMOTERS FOR ORGANS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB, or scab) is a fungal disease that causes significant seed yield and quality losses in barley and wheat worldwide. The fungus lowers yield and deposits toxic levels of mycotoxins. The pericarp and lemma/palea (hull) are readily infected by Fusarium graminearum. The restrict...

300

Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium chromate is more toxic to the growth of barley in solution culture than chromic chloride, though apparent uptake of the latter is much faster. Inhibitor studies indicate that CrO42- uptake is “active” whereas Cr3+ uptake is passive, demonstrating that the two forms do not share a common uptake mechanism. Studies on the form of Cr inside root cells show

R. A. Skeffington; P. R. Shewry; P. J. Peterson

1976-01-01

301

Primary structure of the (1?3,1?4)-?-D-glucan 4-glucohydrolase from barley aleurone  

PubMed Central

During germination of barley grains, the cell walls of the starchy endosperm are degraded by (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.73) secreted from the aleurone and scutellar tissues. The complete sequence of the aleurone (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase isoenzyme II comprises 306 amino acids and was determined by sequencing nine tryptic peptides (110 residues) and aligning them with the amino acid sequence deduced from a cDNA clone encoding the 291 NH2-terminal residues. Although no amino acid sequence homology with a bacterial (1?3)(1?4)-?-glucanase is apparent, close to 50% homology is found with two large regions of a (1?3)-?-glucanase from tobacco pith tissue. The gene for barley (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase isoenzyme II shares with that for the ?-amylase isoenzyme 1 a strongly preferred use of codons with G and C in the wobble position (94% and 90%, respectively). Both enzymes are secreted from the aleurone cells during germination. Such one-sided codon usage is not characteristic for the gene encoding the (1?3)-?-glucanase of tobacco pith tissue or the hor2-4 gene encoding the B1 hordein storage protein in the endosperm. Images PMID:16593676

Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Lock, Peter A.; Morgan, Margaret M.; Lingelbach, Klaus; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Mercer, Julian F. B.; Brandt, Anders; Thomsen, Karl Kristian

1986-01-01

302

Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92?mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700?g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700?g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend. PMID:25217023

Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

2014-09-12

303

Bio-oil and bio-char from low temperature pyrolysis of spent grains using activated alumina  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pyrolysis of wheat and barley spent grains resulting from bio-ethanol and beer production respectively was investigated at temperatures between 460 and 540°C using an activated alumina bed. The results showed that the bio-oil yield and quality depend principally on the applied temperature where pyrolysis at 460°C leaves a bio-oil with lower nitrogen content in comparison with the original spent

Aimaro Sanna; Sujing Li; Rob Linforth; Katherine A. Smart; John M. Andrésen

2011-01-01

304

Production of a recombinant industrial protein using barley cell cultures.  

PubMed

The use of recombinant DNA-based protein production using genetically modified plants could provide a reproducible, consistent quality, safe, animal-component free, origin-traceable, and cost-effective source for industrial proteins required in large amounts (1000s of metric tons) and at low cost (below US$100/Kg). The aim of this work was to demonstrate the feasibility of using barley suspension cell culture to support timely testing of the genetic constructs and early product characterization to detect for example post-translational modifications within the industrial protein caused by the selected recombinant system. For this study the human Collagen I alpha 1 (CIa1) chain gene encoding the complete helical region of CIa1 optimized for monocot expression was fused to its N- and C-terminal telopeptide and to a bacteriophage T4 fibritin foldon peptide encoding sequences. The CIa1 accumulation was targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by fusing the CIa1 gene to an ER-directing signal peptide sequence and an ER retention signal HDEL. The construct containing the CIa1 gene was then introduced into immature barley half embryos or barley cells by particle bombardment. Transgenic barley cells resulting from these transformations were grown as suspension cultures in flasks and in a Wave bioreactor producing CIa1 similar to CIa1 purified from the yeast Pichia pastoris based on Western blotting, pepsin resistance, and mass spectroscopy analysis. The barley cell culture derived-CIa1 intracellular accumulation levels ranged from 2 to 9 microg/l illustrating the need for further process improvement in order to use this technology to supply material for product development activities. PMID:18406168

Ritala, A; Wahlström, E H; Holkeri, H; Hafren, A; Mäkeläinen, K; Baez, J; Mäkinen, K; Nuutila, A M

2008-06-01

305

Diagnosis and management of grain-induced asthma.  

PubMed

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder. PMID:24179680

Quirce, Santiago; Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-11-01

306

Diagnosis and Management of Grain-Induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder. PMID:24179680

Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-01-01

307

A comparison of barley malt osmolyte concentrations and standard malt quality measurements as indicators of barley malt amylolytic enzyme activities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt osmolyte concentrations (OC) would correlate better with malt a-amylase, ß-amylase, and limit dextrinase activities than do the standard malt quality measurements (malt extract [ME], diastatic power [DP], ASBC a-amylase activity, solub...

308

iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

309

Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

Winter, Philip W.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

1996-12-01

310

Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment  

PubMed Central

Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

2014-01-01

311

Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment.  

PubMed

Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

Shaik, Shahnoor S; Carciofi, Massimiliano; Martens, Helle J; Hebelstrup, Kim H; Blennow, Andreas

2014-06-01

312

Molecular mapping of rsp1, rsp2, and rsp3 genes conferring resistance to septoria speckled leaf blotch in barley.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Septoria speckled leaf blotch (SSLB) caused by Septoria passerinii is a common disease in barley. SSLB resistance genes Rsp1, Rsp2, and Rsp3 have previously been identified in the United States Department of Agriculture National Small Grains collection accessions CIho 14300, CIho 4780, and CIho 10644, respectively. Populations of 100 to 120 F(2) individuals were evaluated for SSLB resistance in the greenhouse. Inheritance was evaluated in F(2:3)-derived families in the field. Partial molecular maps for three Rsp genes were constructed on F(2) and F(2:3) families derived from crosses between Robust and the resistant accessions CIho 14300, CIho 4780, and CIho 10644. The resistant locus Rsp1 was mapped to the short arm of chromosome 3H with two flanking diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers, bPb-6978 (8.9 cM) and bPb-9945 (16.3 cM), and two random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers, OPC2(441R) (3.0 cM) and UBC285(158R) (4.3 cM). The genes Rsp2 and Rsp3 were positioned on the short arm of barley chromosome 1H with two restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), six DArT, and three RAPD markers. An RFLP marker, MWG938, and an RAPD marker, OPAH5(545C), were tightly associated with Rsp2 at a distance of 0 cM. Five DArT markers spanning the short arm of 1H surrounded Rsp3 at a distance of 2.3 and 5.8 cM, while two RAPD markers-OPBA12(314C) (2.4 cM) in coupling and OPB17(451R) (3.5 cM) in repulsion-flanked Rsp3. Molecular marker data associated with Rsp2 and Rsp3 indicated that the two genes are closely linked on chromosome 1HS. A total of 17 of 154 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) tested were associated with Rsp genes on chromosome 1H and 3H, and they were also integrated into genetic linkage maps of the three F(2) Robust populations. Knowledge about the map position of Rsp genes on barley chromosomes will be useful for breeding for SSLB resistance in barley and eventual gene cloning. PMID:18944370

Lee, S H; Neate, S M

2007-02-01

313

Haplotype structure at seven barley genes: relevance to gene pool bottlenecks, phylogeny of ear type and site of barley domestication.  

PubMed

Archaeological remains indicate that the origin of western agriculture occurred in a brief period about 10,500 years ago in a region of the Middle East known as the Fertile Crescent, where the wild progenitors of several key agricultural cereal species are endemic. Domestication entailed the appearance of agronomic traits such as seed size and threshability. For a representative sample of 20 domesticated barley (Hordeum vulgare) lines, including 13 two-rowed and 7 six-rowed varieties, we determined the haplotypes at seven loci-Adh2, Adh3, Amy1, Dhn9, GAPDH, PEPC and WAXY encompassing 5,616 bases per line-and compared them to the haplotypes at the same loci for 25 wild forms (Hordeum spontaneum) collected within and outside the Fertile Crescent. In comparisons of wild versus domesticated barley, the number of haplotypes (70 vs. 17), average nucleotide diversity, pi, (0.0077 vs. 0.0028), and Watterson's theta at silent sites (0.0104 vs. 0.0028) was reduced in domesticated lines. Two loci, Amy1 and PEPC, were monomorphic in domesticated lines; Amy1 and GAPDH produced significant values of Tajima's D. At GAPDH, pi was slightly higher in domesticated than wild forms, due to divergent high-frequency haplotypes; for the remaining six loci, 87% of nucleotide diversity has been lost in the domesticated forms. Bottlenecks acting on neutrally evolving loci either during the domestication process, during subsequent breeding, or both, are sufficient to account for reduced diversity and the results of Tajima's test, without the need to evoke selection at these loci. Phylogenetic networks data uncover distinct wild and domesticated barley genotypes and suggest that barley may have been domesticated in the Jordan valley. Because, based on AFLP data, the domesticated Turkish cultivars had a genetic basis as large as that present in large germplasm collections, all comparisons provided in this paper are of general value more than being restricted to the Turkish barley germplasm. PMID:16758198

Kilian, Benjamin; Ozkan, Hakan; Kohl, Jochen; von Haeseler, Arndt; Barale, Francesca; Deusch, Oliver; Brandolini, Andrea; Yucel, Cemal; Martin, William; Salamini, Francesco

2006-09-01

314

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process  

PubMed Central

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE – 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

315

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

316

Retention and growth performance of chicks given low-phytate conventional or hull-less barleys  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Four low-phytate, hulled lines, M2 422 (now referred to as barley lpa1-1), M2 635 (now referred to as barley lpa3-1), M2 955 and M2 1070 (now referred to as barley lpa2-1), and a "hulless" version of M2 422, were evaluated in a chick feeding experiment. The diets were provided in meal form, with the...

317

Origins of GEMS Grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the chemical compositions of GEMS grains are extremely heterogeneous and seem to rule out this possibility. Based on their solar isotopic compositions and their non-solar elemental compositions we propose that most GEMS grains formed in the nebula as late-stage non-equilibrium condensates.

Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

2012-01-01

318

Identification and phenotypic description of new wheat: six-rowed winter barley disomic additions.  

PubMed

To increase the allelic variation in wheat-barley introgressions, new wheat-barley disomic addition lines were developed containing the 2H, 3H, 4H, 6H, and 7H chromosomes of the six-rowed Ukrainian winter barley 'Manas'. This cultivar is agronomically much better adapted to Central European environmental conditions than the two-rowed spring barley 'Betzes' previously used. A single 'Asakaze' × 'Manas' wheat × barley hybrid plant was multiplied in vitro and one backcross plant was obtained after pollinating 354 regenerant hybrids with wheat. The addition lines were selected from the self-fertilized seeds of the 16 BC(2) plants using genomic in situ hybridization. The addition lines were identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization using repetitive DNA probes (HvT01, GAA, pTa71, and Afa family), followed by confirmation with barley SSR markers. The addition lines were grown in the phytotron and in the field, and morphological parameters (plant height, fertility, tillering, and spike characteristics) were measured. The production of the disomic additions will make it possible to incorporate the DNA of six-rowed winter barley into the wheat genome. Addition lines are useful for genetic studies on the traits of six-rowed winter barley and for producing new barley dissection lines. PMID:22439846

Molnár-Láng, Márta; Kruppa, Klaudia; Cseh, András; Bucsi, Julianna; Linc, Gabriella

2012-04-01

319

A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley  

PubMed Central

Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na+, Cl–, and K+ at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at ECe 7.2 [Spearman’s rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and ECe 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na+ (rs=0.72) and Cl– (rs=0.82) concentrations at ECe 7.2 dS m?1. This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt tolerance in the tolerant genotypes and further field tests of these plants under stress conditions will help to verify their potential utility in crop-improvement programmes. PMID:22442423

Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

2012-01-01

320

A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley.  

PubMed

Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na(+), Cl(-), and K(+) at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at EC(e) 7.2 [Spearman's rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and EC(e) 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na(+) (rs=0.72) and Cl(-) (rs=0.82) concentrations at EC(e) 7.2 dS m(-1). This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt tolerance in the tolerant genotypes and further field tests of these plants under stress conditions will help to verify their potential utility in crop-improvement programmes. PMID:22442423

Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K

2012-06-01

321

Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance. PMID:24359826

Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

2014-02-01

322

Metal solubility enhancing peptides derived from barley protein.  

PubMed

Mineral supplements are required to be soluble as their bioavailability is highly correlated to their solubility in body fluids. In this study, metal binding capacity of barley protein hydrolysates and their purified fractions was investigated and expressed as increase in solubility of metal ions. Metal ions in the presence of hydrolysates exhibited a remarkable increase in solubility: 118, 32, 10, 29 and 35-fold for Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+), respectively. A mixture of low molecular weight peptides possesses a synergistic combination of both charged and hydrophobic residues and achieves the best binding metal ions. Electrostatic interactions via charged side chains and coordination binding with His and Cys, initially attract the metal ions and, afterward, hydrophobic interactions and aromatic ring stacking stabilize the positioning of metal ions in the structure of the peptide. Barley hordein hydrolysates show potential as dietary supplements that enhance both mineral solubility and bioavailability. PMID:24767088

Eckert, Ewelina; Bamdad, Fatemeh; Chen, Lingyun

2014-09-15

323

Constructing an alternative wheat karyotype using barley genomic DNA.  

PubMed

The established karyotype was generated by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) using total barley genomic DNA as labelled probe on mitotic metaphase bread wheat chromosomes. GISH produced specific banding signals on 16 of the 21 chromosome pairs. The following chromosomes showed distinctive banding patterns: 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1D, 2D, 7D and all of the B chromosomes. The remaining chromosomes showed either faint bands or no hybridization signals at all. The in situ hybridization patterns corresponded to the GAA-satellite sequence, which is similar to the N-banding pattern in wheat. In situ hybridization by labelling total barley genomic DNA made it possible to identify most of the bread wheat chromosomes. The present paper describes a GISH-banding method for hexaploid wheat chromosomes. It is a valuable alternative method for fast chromosome selection without using FISH repetitive DNA clones. PMID:25027628

Icsó, Diána; Molnár-Láng, Márta; Linc, Gabriella

2015-02-01

324

Asexual Genetic Exchange in the Barley Pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The causal agent of barley scald, Rhynchosporium secalis, is a haploid anamorphic ascomycete with no known sexual stage. Nevertheless, a high degree of genetic variation has been observed in fungal populations on commercial barley cultivars and parasexuality has been suggested to contribute to this variation. In order to test whether asexual genetic exchange can occur, isolates of R. secalis were transformed to hygromycin B resistance or phleomycin resistance. Mixtures of transformants were co-inoculated either on agar or in planta and screened for the occurrence of dual-antibiotic-resistant colonies. No dual-antibiotic-resistant colonies resulted from mixing transformants of different fungal isolates. In contrast, with transformants originating from the same fungal isolate, asexual exchange of markers was demonstrated on agar plates and in planta. This is the first definitive evidence of asexual genetic exchange in R. secalis. PMID:18943585

Forgan, Angus H; Knogge, Wolfgang; Anderson, Peter A

2007-05-01

325

Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

326

Golgi Localized Barley MTP8 Proteins Facilitate Mn Transport  

PubMed Central

Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegård, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Søren

2014-01-01

327

Compositional and digestibility changes in sprouted barley and canola seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley and canola seeds were sprouted over a 5 day period, in laboratory conditions under room temperature (22°C) and room lighting. Following initial hydration, seeds were kept moist by wetting the germination trays at 9 a.m., 1 p.m. and 6 p.m. daily. A parallel germination experiment using 200 g quantities of seeds in petri dishes was conducted. Starting from the

T. Y. Chung; E. N. Nwokolo; J. S. Sim

1989-01-01

328

Tillage System Effects on Competition between Barley and Sterile Oat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The short-term effect of three tillage systems (minimum (MT), reduced (RT), and conventional (CT)) on growth and yield com- ponents of two six-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. 'Athinaida' and 'Plaisant') in presence or absence of sterile oat (Avena sterilis L.) was studied in northern Greece during the 2003-2004 (Yr 1) and 2004- 2005 (Yr 2) growing seasons. Sterile oat

K. Dhima; I. Vasilakoglou; A. Lithourgidis; S. Papadopoulou; I. Eleftherohorinos

2006-01-01

329

Detection of insects in grain  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Detecting insects hidden inside kernels of grain is important to grain buyers because internal infestations can result in insect fragments in products made from the grain, or, if the grain is stored before use, the insect population can increase and damage the grain further. In a study in the Unite...

330

High-resolution mapping of the Rym4\\/Rym5 locus conferring resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex (BaMMV, BaYMV, BaYMV-2) in barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil-borne barley yellow mosaic virus disease – caused by a complex of at least three viruses, i.e. Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and BaYMV-2 – is one of the most important diseases of winter barley in Europe. The two genes rym4, effective against BaMMV and BaYMV, and rym5, additionally effective against BaYMV-2, comprise a complex

Bettina Pellio; Stefan Streng; Eva Bauer; Nils Stein; Dragan Perovic; Andrea Schiemann; Wolfgang Friedt; Frank Ordon; Andreas Graner

2005-01-01

331

Freezing of barley studied by infrared video thermography.  

PubMed

Freezing of barley (Hordeum vulgare), Hordeum murinum, and Holcus lanatus was studied using infrared video thermography. In the field, ice could enter H. lanatus leaves through hydathodes. In laboratory tests with barley, initially 0.4% of the leaf water froze, spreading in alternate strips of high and low freezing intensity longitudinally at 1 to 4 cm s(-1), and simultaneously spreading laterally at 0.3 cm s(-1). Similar results were obtained in the field with H. lanatus. A distinct second, more intense, freezing event spread slowly from the margins of the leaves toward the midrib. Organs of uprooted barley tested in the laboratory froze in this order: nucleated leaf, roots, older leaves, younger leaves, and secondary tillers. When ice spread from one leaf to the rest of the plant the crown delayed spread to the roots and other leaves. There was a longer delay above than below -2 degrees C, helping to protect the crown from freezing during mild frosts. Initial spread of freezing was not damaging. However, the initial spread is a prerequisite for the second freezing event, which can cause damage. The route of the initial spread of ice may be extracellular, drawing water from more gel-like parts of the cell wall. PMID:11154332

Pearce, R S; Fuller, M P

2001-01-01

332

An Anomaly in Potassium Accumulation by Barley Roots  

PubMed Central

Excised barley roots accumulated 40 to 50% more K+ from 0.04 mm than from 0.06 mm KCl when incubated for 24 hours in KCl solutions containing 0.2 mm CaSO4. This phenomenon was not markedly influenced by the rate of absorption of the counteranion. The presence of Na+ in the treatment solutions decreased total K accumulation but did not alter the K+ concentration at which the accumulation peak occurred. Short interval studies indicated that this phenomenon is easily observable after 4 hours and begins to become apparent within 2 hours. In comparison with barley, accumulation of K+ by excised wheat roots decreased as KCl concentration was increased from 0.02 to 0.06 mm; but K+ accumulation curve for corn roots showed no peaks or depressions in the concentration range of 0.01 to 0.1 mm. A normal hyperbolic curve was noted for the accumulation of Na+ from 0.01 to 1 mm NaCl by barley roots. PMID:16657324

Hiatt, A. J.

1970-01-01

333

Structure, morphology and functionality of acetylated and oxidised barley starches.  

PubMed

Acetylation and oxidation are chemical modifications which alter the properties of starch. The degree of modification of acetylated and oxidized starches is dependent on the catalyst and active chlorine concentrations, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acetylation and oxidation on the structural, morphological, physical-chemical, thermal and pasting properties of barley starch. Barley starches were acetylated at different catalyst levels (11%, 17%, and 23% of NaOH solution) and oxidized at different sodium hypochlorite concentrations (1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% of active chlorine). Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffractograms, thermal, morphological, and pasting properties, swelling power and solubility of starches were evaluated. The degree of substitution (DS) of the acetylated starches increased with the rise in catalyst concentration. The percentage of carbonyl (CO) and carboxyl (COOH) groups in oxidized starches also increased with the rise of active chlorine level. The presence of hydrophobic acetyl groups, carbonyl and carboxyl groups caused a partial disorganization and depolymerization of starch granules. The structural, morphological and functional changes in acetylated and oxidized starches varied according to reaction conditions. Acetylation makes barley starch more hydrophobic by the insertion of acetyl groups. Also the oxidation promotes low retrogradation and viscosity. All these characteristics are important for biodegradable film production. PMID:25172707

El Halal, Shanise Lisie Mello; Colussi, Rosana; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Bartz, Josiane; Radunz, Marjana; Carreño, Neftali Lenin Villarreal; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

2015-02-01

334

Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

2014-01-01

335

Utilization of fermented barley extract obtained from a by-product of barley shochu for nisin production.  

PubMed

Fermented barley extract (FBE) obtained from a barley shochu by-product (shochu kasu) and its ethanol fractions were evaluated as a medium and supplement, respectively, for nisin A production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. A Brix 2.5 FBE medium supplemented with glucose provided a high level of nisin A production with a nisin yield comparable to that from a nutritionally rich laboratory medium (basal medium). By adding the ethanol-insoluble (EI) fraction of FBE to the basal medium, nisin A production was enhanced concomitant with an increase in bacterial cell growth, while the ethanol-soluble (ES) fraction had a negative effect on nisin A production. These findings indicate that FBE obtained from shochu kasu can be utilized as a preferable medium for nisin A production and could be converted into a value-added food product having preservative functions. The procedure developed in this study would promote recycling of shochu kasu. PMID:19000617

Furuta, Yoshifumi; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Omori, Toshiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2008-10-01

336

Evaluation of gaseous ozone and hydrogen peroxide treatments for reducing Fusarium survival in malting barley.  

PubMed

The use of Fusarium-infected barley for malting can lead to mycotoxin production and decreased malt quality. Methods for treatment of Fusarium-infected barley might prevent these safety and quality defects and allow use of otherwise good-quality barley. Gaseous ozone and hydrogen peroxide (HP) were evaluated for effectiveness in reducing Fusarium survival while maintaining germinative energy (GE) in barley. Gaseous ozone treatments (GOT) included concentrations of 11 and 26 mg/g for 0, 15, 30, and 60 min. HP treatments included 0, 5, 10, and 15% concentrations with exposure times of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min. For GOT, in naturally Fusarium-infected barley, a statistically significant (P < 0.05) decrease (24 to 36%) of Fusarium survival occurred within 15 min of exposure at either concentration. GE was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by 30 min at both concentrations in naturally Fusarium-infected barley, but not in sound barley. GOT did not cause any significant (P > 0.05) effect on GE in sound barley at either concentration over the full 30-min exposure time. For HP, Fusarium survival was significantly decreased (50 to 98%) within 5 min of exposure. With the exception of two treatments (10 and 15% HP agitated for 20 min), GE was not statistically significantly different from the control in naturally Fusarium-infected barley. In sound barley, HP had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on GE. The results suggest that GOT and HP might have potential for treatment of Fusarium-infected malting barley. PMID:15954715

Kottapalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul

2005-06-01

337

Natural variation in grain composition of wheat and related cereals.  

PubMed

The wheat grain comprises three groups of major components, starch, protein, and cell wall polysaccharides (dietary fiber), and a range of minor components that may confer benefits to human health. Detailed analyses of dietary fiber and other bioactive components were carried out under the EU FP6 HEALTHGRAIN program on 150 bread wheat lines grown on a single site, 50 lines of other wheat species and other cereals grown on the same site, and 23-26 bread wheat lines grown in six environments. Principal component analysis allowed the 150 bread wheat lines to be classified on the basis of differences in their contents of bioactive components and wheat species (bread, durum, spelt, emmer, and einkorn wheats) to be clearly separated from related cereals (barley, rye, and oats). Such multivariate analyses could be used to define substantial equivalence when novel (including transgenic) cereals are considered. PMID:23414336

Shewry, Peter R; Hawkesford, Malcolm J; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Ann-Maija; Gebruers, Kurt; Boros, Danuta; Andersson, Annica A M; Åman, Per; Rakszegi, Mariann; Bedo, Zoltan; Ward, Jane L

2013-09-01

338

Chlorine inactivation of fungal spores on cereal grains.  

PubMed

Although 0.4% chlorine for 2 min has been recommended for surface disinfection of food samples before direct plating for fungal enumeration, this procedure may not be adequate for highly contaminated products. The effectiveness of a range of chlorine solutions was investigated using barley samples artificially contaminated with four different concentrations of Aspergillus flavus. A. niger, A. ochraceus, Eurotium repens, Penicillium brevicompactum P. chrysogenum and Cladosporium cladosporioides. At initial contamination levels greater than 10(4)/g, 0.4% chlorine did not inactivate sufficient spores to produce less than 20% contamination. Of the test fungi, ascospores of E. repens were the most resistant to chlorine inactivation, whereas the conidia of C. cladosporioides were the most sensitive. Rinsing the samples with 70% ethanol improved the effectiveness of the recommended surface disinfection procedure. However, some ethanol appears to permeate into the grains and may inactivate sensitive internal fungi, although a minimal effect only was observed on wheat infected with Alternaria. PMID:9105923

Andrews, S; Pardoel, D; Harun, A; Treloar, T

1997-04-01

339

RFLP mapping of three new loci for resistance genes to powdery mildew ( Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei ) in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new major, race-specific, resistance genes to powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. hordei) were identified in three barley lines, RS42-6*O, RS137-28*E, and HSY-78*A, derived from crosses with wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). The resistance gene origining from wild barley in line RS42-6*O, showed a recessive mode of inheritance, whereas the other wild barley genes were (semi)-dominant. RFLP mapping

M. Schfinfeld; A. Ragni; G. Fischbeck; A. Jahoor

1996-01-01

340

Major Cereal Grain Fibers and Psyllium in Relation to Cardiovascular Health  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. ?-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in ?-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. PMID:23628720

Bernstein, Adam M.; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F.

2013-01-01

341

Major cereal grain fibers and psyllium in relation to cardiovascular health.  

PubMed

Numerous studies reveal the cardiovascular benefits of consuming dietary fiber and, especially, cereal fiber. Cereal fiber is associated with cardiovascular risk reduction through multiple mechanisms and consuming a variety of cereal fiber sources offers health benefits specific to the source. Certain cereal fibers have been studied more extensively than others and provide greater support for their incorporation into a healthful diet. ?-glucan from oats or barley, or a combination of whole oats and barley, and soluble fiber from psyllium reduces the risk of coronary heart disease; inulin-type fructans added to foods and beverages may modestly decrease serum triacylglycerols; arabinoxylan and resistant starch may improve glycemic control. Individuals with low cereal fiber intake should increase their intake of whole grains in order to receive the benefits of whole grains in addition to fiber. For those adjusting to the texture and palatability of whole grains, turning to added-fiber products rich in ?-glucan and psyllium may allow them to reach their fiber goals without increasing caloric intake. PMID:23628720

Bernstein, Adam M; Titgemeier, Brigid; Kirkpatrick, Kristin; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F

2013-05-01

342

Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

343

BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase (http://barleybase.org/) and its successor, PLEXdb (http://plexdb.org/), are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...

344

Enhanced tolerance of rice to low iron availability in alkaline soils using barley nicotianamine aminotransferase genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the widest ranging abiotic stresses in world agriculture arises from low iron (Fe) availability due to high soil pH, with 30% of arable land too alkaline for optimal crop production. Rice is especially susceptible to low iron supply, whereas other graminaceous crops such as barley are not. A barley genomic DNA fragment containing two naat genes, which encode

Michiko Takahashi; Hiromi Nakanishi; Shinji Kawasaki; Naoko K. Nishizawa; Satoshi Mori

2001-01-01

345

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.  

PubMed

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

2015-01-27

346

Cytokinin enhancement of the light induction of nitrate reductase transcript levels in etiolated barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) on the level of NR transcript was studied in etiolated barley leaves using a barley NR cDNA as a probe. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly (A)+ RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of

Jia-ling Lu; John R. Ertl; Chong-maw Chen

1990-01-01

347

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called “Qingke” in Chinese and “Ne” in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

2015-01-01

348

A Comparison Of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Thermostabilities As Indicators Of Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt amylolytic enzyme thermostabilities would correlate negatively with malt sugar concentrations. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germinated in a micromalter for 6 days. At 2...

349

Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

350

A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

351

Cytologically Integrated Physical Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Maps for the Barley Genome Based on Translocation Breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new technique for the physical mapping of barley chromosomes using microdis- sected translocation chromosomes for PCR with sequence-tagged site primers derived from .300 geneti- cally mapped RFLP probes. The positions of 240 translocation breakpoints were integrated as physical landmarks into linkage maps of the seven barley chromosomes. This strategy proved to be highly efficient in relating

Gottfried Kunzel; Larissa Korzun; Armin Meister

352

Near-Infrared analysis of ground barley for use as a feedstock for fuel ethanol production  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently there has been growing interest in using barley as a feedstock for fuel ethanol in the United States. The objective of this study was to explore the potential of near-infrared spectroscopy for determining the compositional quality properties of barley and to compare the prediction accuracy ...

353

Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements conducted with the eddy covariance method over agricultural peat soil in the 2-year period between October 2000 and October 2002. In 2001, spring barley and undersown grass were sown on the site. After the barley harvest, the perennial forage grass was left to grow, so that in 2002 the field was

Annalea Lohila; Mika Aurela; Juha-Pekka Tuovinen; Tuomas Laurila

2004-01-01

354

Ribosomal DNA polymorphisms and the Oriental-Occidental genetic differentiation in cultivated barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 289 accessions of cultivated barley were assayed for ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymorphisms. These accessions comprised four independent samples: (1) 79 entries from China, (2) 59 accessions from Ethiopia, (3) 59 entries from Tibet and (4) 92 entries representing 36 barley growing countries of the world (referred to as “world sample”). In all, 17 rDNA phenotypes (genotypes) were

Qifa Zhang; M. A. Saghai Maroof; P. G. Yang

1992-01-01

355

LIGHT-DEPENDENT BLEACHING OF DETACHED BARLEY LEAF TISSUE BY DEOXYNIVALENOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulates in wheat and barley heads infected with Fusarium graminearum. To assess the effects of DON on green plant tissues, we partially stripped the abaxial epidermis from detached Robust barley leaf segments (1 cm long) and floated them with stripped mesophyl...

356

The effect of combining scald resistance genes on disease levels, yield and quality traits in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pairwise combinations of genes for resistance to scald in barley were developed using linked isozyme markers to test whether such combinations conferred improved resistance to the pathogen, Rhynchosporium secalis. The resistance genes originally derived from Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum. The combinations were bred into an essentially similar genetic background because the scald-susceptible, Australian barley cultivar Clipper was the recurrent backcross

A. H. D. Brown; J. J. Burdon; D. F. Garvin; D. C. Abbott; B. J. Read

1996-01-01

357

TRANSFORMATION AND EXPRESSION OF AN ALTERED ANTIFUNGAL PROTEIN HORDOTHIONIN GENE IN TRANSGENIC BARLEY AND OAT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alpha-hordothionin is produced in developing barley endosperms and has antimicrobial activity against a wide range of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. We cloned an alpha-hordothionin gene (Hth1) from a cDNA library derived from developing barley endosperms, ligated the nearly full length hordothionin...

358

Development and Implementation of High-Throughput SNP Genotyping in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 22,000 SNPs were identified from barley ESTs and sequenced amplicons; 4,596 of them were tested for performance in three pilot phase Illumina GoldenGate assays. Pilot phase data from three barley doubled haploid mapping populations supported the production of an initial consensus map, ...

359

Molecular mapping of greenbug (Schizaphis graminum) resistance gene Rsg1 in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) is an extremely damaging aphid pest of barley (Hordeum vulgare L., 2n = 2x =14 L.) particularly in the southern Great Plains of the US. The simply inherited, dominant resistance gene Rsg1 is presented in all greenbug-resistant US barley cultivars, includi...

360

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley  

E-print Network

Capacity and Plasticity of Potassium Channels and High-Affinity Transporters in Roots of Barley of potassium (K+ ) transporters in high- and low-affinity K+ uptake was examined in roots of intact barley important model systems and reveal novel aspects of K+ transport in planta. Potassium (K+ ), a major

Britto, Dev T.

361

Potassium and nitrogen poising: Physiological changes and biomass gains in rice and barley  

E-print Network

Potassium and nitrogen poising: Physiological changes and biomass gains in rice and barley D. T., Coskun, D., Huynh, W. Q. and Kronzucker, H. J. 2014. Potassium and nitrogen poising: Physiological changes and biomass gains in rice and barley. Can. J. Plant Sci, 94: 1085-1089. Soil nitrogen, potassium

Britto, Dev T.

362

A first genome sequence survey of the barley fungal pathogen Pyrenophora teres f. teres  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pyrenophora teres f. teres is a necrotrophic fungal pathogen and the cause of one of barley’s most important diseases, net form of net blotch. Here we report the first genome assembly for this species based solely on short Solexa sequencing reads of isolate 0-1. The assembly was validated by compari...

363

Crop stand density enhances competitive ability of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research was to establish weediness, competitive ability and productivity of the crop. The experimental object was agrophytocenoses of spring barley – Hordeum vulgare L. – crop of spring barley ‘Aura’ and unsown soil, and weeds growing in them. The crop was formed sowing 0, 120, 200 and 280 kg ha (0, 2.7, 4.5 and 6.2 million

Vytautas Pilipavicius; Regina Romaneckiene; Kestutis Romaneckas

2011-01-01

364

Safeguarding world wheat and barley production against Russian wheat aphid: An international pre-breeding initiative  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia, is one of the most damaging insect pests of wheat and barley throughout the World. This aphid, although is not yet present in Australia, is extremely damaging with up to 70% yield loses in wheat and barley producing lands, causing significant financia...

365

Modelling dry matter production and resource use in intercrops of pea and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The FASSET whole farm model was extended with a sub-model for competition between several plant species for light, water and nitrogen. The new model was tested on intercrops of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A 3-year dataset on pea and barley sole crop growth was used for calibration. Two datasets that included detailed measurements of

J. Berntsen; H. Hauggard-Nielsen; J. E. Olesen; B. M. Petersen; E. S. Jensen; A. Thomsen

2004-01-01

366

Trends in comparative genetics and their potential impacts on wheat and barley research  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review some general points about comparative mapping, the evolution of gene families and recent advances in the understanding of angiosperm phylogeny. These are considered in relation to studies of large-genome cereals, particularly barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), with reference to methods of gene isolation. The relative merits of direct map-based cloning in barley and wheat, utilization of

David A. Laurie; Katrien M. Devos

2002-01-01

367

Presolar Grains in Indarch  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report results for the EH(4) Indarch. Earlier work [1] found 20 micrometers clumps of sub-micron SiC whose presolar nature was inferred from step-wise combustion, noble gas [2], and ion probe isotopic measurements. Our results indicate that the clumps were an artifact of sample preparation. Our sample was first cleaned using 6N HCl, and water and isopropanol rinses, then powdered and reacted with HCl-HF/HCl, KOH, and H3BO3-HCl/HCl giving a C-rich residue 1.14 wt.% of the original. X-ray mapping showed SiC grains and 5x as many Si3N4 grains, but no fine-grained clumps. Large (6 micrometers to 20 micrometers) C-rich spheroids were also present. The sample was further treated with KOH/HNO3 and NH3H2O; attempts to do density-separates were unsuccessful. An aliquot was treated with perchloric acid and separated into <1 micrometers and >1 micrometer fractions. SEM-EDS measurements of 73 (<1 micrometer) grains showed 44 SiC, 19 Si3N4, 4 C only, and 6 C with minor Si (both the C and Si in these particles are isotopically normal). A similar distribution of species was found for 37 (>1 micrometer) grains with the addition of 2 spinel and one Al2O3 grains. The whole rock concentration of SiC was 5.8 ppm, higher than previous determinations [1,3,9]. Confirming earlier suggestions [1,2], we find that SiC in Indarch is much finer-grained than in Murchison; about 2/3 of the mass is in grains <=0.3 micrometers compared to only about 4% for Murchison. This may represent size-sorting in the nebula or selective destruction of fine-grained material. Ion probe measurements of 22 (1-3 micrometers) grains gave isotopic results in the range previously measured for Murchison SiCs [4]. Several normal Si3N4 grains (>1 micron) were measured; probably exsolution products similar to those in Qingzhen [7]. Ion mapping was used to search for presolar oxide grains using previously developed techniques [5]. Seven candidate grains out of ~1000 were found. Multiple imaging confirmed an ^(16)O/^(18)O anomaly in one spinel grain - the first presolar oxide found in an E chondrite. Although the proportion of oxide grains relative to SiC is smaller, the fraction of anomalous oxide grains is not strikingly different in Indarch than in Murchison (1/1000) or Tieschitz (1/300). Prior ion probe measurements of clumped sub-micron grains [1] gave isotopic compositions closer to normal than the average of single >1 micrometer SiC grains, suggesting possible size-dependent effects. To investigate this we used 28Si/30Si maps to measure the fraction of X-type SiC in the <1 micron fraction to compare with the 1% fraction measured in larger grains [6]. The mapping also locates presolar Si3N4 grains since their Si isotopes are similar to those of X-SiC [8]. Although there is overlap from closely adjacent grains, our preliminary analysis of a fine-grained mount indicates similar fractions of X-type SiC. No presolar nitrides were found. The prior isotopic results in grain clumps [1] can be attributed to admixtures of isotopically normal submicron Si3N4 and C-rich grains. In summary, contrary to previous suggestions [1,9] the properties of measured presolar components in Indarch, with the exception of grain size, are similar to those measured in other meteorites. References: [1] Russell S. S. et al. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 425. [2] Ott U. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 382. [3] Huss G. R. and Lewis R. S. (1995) GCA, 59, 115. [4] Hoppe P. et al. (1994) Astrophys. J., 430, 870. [5] Nittler L. R. et al. (1994) Nature, 370, 443. [6] Nittler et al. (1995) LPS XXVI, 1037. [7] Alexander C. M. O'D. et al. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 79. [8] Hoppe P. et al. (1994) LPS XXV, 563. [9] Stone J. et al. (1991) Earth and Planet. Sci., 107, 570.

Gao, X.; Nittler, L. R.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

1995-09-01

368

Dehumidification Grain Dryer  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technique developed during this project dries grain with mildly heated, dehumidified air in a closed-loop process. This proposed technique uses about one-tenth the energy and dries grain at a lower temperature, producing less damage to the kernels.Approximately 250 million automotive and truck tires are discarded each year in the U.S. The very properties that ensure a safe ride

J. W. Lula; G. W. Bohnert

1998-01-01

369

Islands and streams: clusters and gene flow in wild barley populations from the Levant.  

PubMed

The domestication of plants frequently results in a high level of genetic differentiation between domesticated plants and their wild progenitors. This process is counteracted by gene flow between wild and domesticated plants because they are usually able to inter-mate and to exchange genes. We investigated the extent of gene flow between wild barley Hordeum spontaneum and cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare, and its effect on population structure in wild barley by analysing a collection of 896 wild barley accessions (Barley1K) from Israel and all available Israeli H. vulgare accessions from the Israeli gene bank. We compared the performance of simple sequence repeats (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) marker data genotyped over a core collection in estimating population parameters. Estimates of gene flow rates with SSR markers indicated a high level of introgression from cultivated barley into wild barley. After removing accessions from the wild barley sample that were recently admixed with cultivated barley, the inference of population structure improved significantly. Both SSR and SNP markers showed that the genetic population structure of wild barley in Israel corresponds to the three major ecogeographic regions: the coast, the Mediterranean north and the deserts in the Jordan valley and the South. Gene flow rates were estimated to be higher from north to south than in the opposite direction. As has been observed in other crop species, there is a significant exchange of alleles between the wild species and domesticated varieties that needs to be accounted for in the population genetic analysis of domestication. PMID:22256891

Hübner, Sariel; Günther, Torsten; Flavell, Andrew; Fridman, Eyal; Graner, Andreas; Korol, Abraham; Schmid, Karl J

2012-03-01

370

Trichothecene mycotoxins and their determinants in settled dust related to grain production.  

PubMed

We hypothesise that inhalant exposure to mycotoxins causes developmental outcomes and certain hormone-related cancers that are associated with grain farming in an epidemiological study. The aim of the present study was to identify and validate determinants of measured trichothecene mycotoxins in grain dust as work environmental trichothecene exposure indicators. Settled grain dust was collected in 92 Norwegian farms during seasons of 1999 and 2000. Production characteristics and climatic data were studied as determinants of trichothecenes in settled dust samples obtained during the production of barley (N = 59), oats (N = 32), and spring wheat (N = 13). Median concentrations of trichothecenes in grain dust were <20, 54, and < 50 mg/kg (ranges < 20-340, < 30-2400, and < 50-1200) for deoxynivalenol (DON), HT-2 toxin (HT-2) and T-2 toxin (T-2) respectively. Late blight potato rot (fungal) forecasts have been broadcast in Norway to help prevent this potato disease. Fungal forecasts representing wet, temperate, and humid meteorological conditions were identified as strong determinants of trichothecene mycotoxins in settled grain dust in this study. Differences in cereal species, production properties and districts contributed less to explain mycotoxin concentrations. Fungal forecasts are validated as indicators of mycotoxin exposure of grain farmers and their use in epidemiological studies may be warranted. PMID:15236502

Nordby, Karl-Christian; Halstensen, Anne Straumfors; Elen, Oleif; Clasen, Per-Erik; Langseth, Wenche; Kristensen, Petter; Eduard, Wijnand

2004-01-01

371

A proteomics survey on wheat susceptibility to Fusarium head blight during grain development  

PubMed Central

The mycotoxigenic fungal species Fusarium graminearum is able to attack several important cereal crops, such as wheat and barley. By causing Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) disease, F. graminearum induces yield and quality losses and poses a public health concern due to in planta mycotoxin production. The molecular and physiological plant responses to FHB, and the cellular biochemical pathways used by F. graminearum to complete its infectious process remain still unknown. In this study, a proteomics approach, combining 2D-gel approach and mass spectrometry, has been used to determine the specific protein patterns associated with the development of the fungal infection during grain growth on susceptible wheat. Our results reveal that F. graminearum infection does not deeply alter the grain proteome and does not significantly disturb the first steps of grain ontogeny but impacts molecular changes during the grain filling stage (impact on starch synthesis and storage proteins). The differentially regulated proteins identified were mainly involved in stress and defence mechanisms, primary metabolism, and main cellular processes such as signalling and transport. Our survey suggests that F. graminearum could take advantage of putative susceptibility factors closely related to grain development processes and thus provide new insights into key molecular events controlling the susceptible response to FHB in wheat grains.

Chetouhi, Cherif; Lecomte, Philippe; Cambon, Florence; Merlino, Marielle; Biron, David Georges

2014-01-01

372

Gut microbiome composition is linked to whole grain-induced immunological improvements  

PubMed Central

The involvement of the gut microbiota in metabolic disorders, and the ability of whole grains to affect both host metabolism and gut microbial ecology, suggest that some benefits of whole grains are mediated through their effects on the gut microbiome. Nutritional studies that assess the effect of whole grains on both the gut microbiome and human physiology are needed. We conducted a randomized cross-over trial with four-week treatments in which 28 healthy humans consumed a daily dose of 60?g of whole-grain barley (WGB), brown rice (BR), or an equal mixture of the two (BR+WGB), and characterized their impact on fecal microbial ecology and blood markers of inflammation, glucose and lipid metabolism. All treatments increased microbial diversity, the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio, and the abundance of the genus Blautia in fecal samples. The inclusion of WGB enriched the genera Roseburia, Bifidobacterium and Dialister, and the species Eubacterium rectale, Roseburia faecis and Roseburia intestinalis. Whole grains, and especially the BR+WGB treatment, reduced plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) and peak postprandial glucose. Shifts in the abundance of Eubacterium rectale were associated with changes in the glucose and insulin postprandial response. Interestingly, subjects with greater improvements in IL-6 levels harbored significantly higher proportions of Dialister and lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae. In conclusion, this study revealed that a short-term intake of whole grains induced compositional alterations of the gut microbiota that coincided with improvements in host physiological measures related to metabolic dysfunctions in humans. PMID:23038174

Martínez, Inés; Lattimer, James M; Hubach, Kelcie L; Case, Jennifer A; Yang, Junyi; Weber, Casey G; Louk, Julie A; Rose, Devin J; Kyureghian, Gayaneh; Peterson, Daniel A; Haub, Mark D; Walter, Jens

2013-01-01

373

Scandinavian mutation research in barley - a historical review.  

PubMed

In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Applying X-rays and UV-irradiation very soon the first chlorophyll mutations were obtained followed by the first viable mutations 'Erectoides'. Soon the X-ray experiments expanded with other types of irradiation such as neutrons etc. and finally with chemical mutagens, starting with mustard gas and concluding with the sodium azide. The research brought a wealth of observations of general biological importance, high increased mutation frequencies, difference in the mutation spectrum and to direct mutagenesis for specific genes. A rather large collection of morphological and physiological mutations, about 12 000 different mutant alleles, with a very broad variation were collected and incorporated into the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) Sweden. Barley, the main experimental crop has become one of the few higher plants in which biochemical genetics and molecular biological studies are now feasible. The collection is an outstanding material for mapping genes and investigating the barley genome. Several characters have been studied and analyzed in more detail and are presented in this historical review. PMID:25491643

Lundqvist, Udda

2014-12-10

374

Cytoplasmic Male Sterility in Barley. Xi. the msm2 Cytoplasm  

PubMed Central

A new cytoplasmic male sterility in barley (Hordeum vulgare s.l.) is described and designated as msm2. The cytoplasm was derived from a selection of the wild progenitor of barley (H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum). This selection, 79BS14-3, originates from the Southern Coastal Plain of Israel. The selection 79BS14-3 has a normal spike fertility in Finland. When 79BS14-3 was crossed by cv. Adorra, the F1 displayed partial male fertility and progeny of recurrent backcrosses with cv. Adorra were completely male sterile. Evidently 79BS14-3 is a carrier of a recessive or semidominant restorer gene of fertility. The dominant restorer gene Rfm1a for another cytoplasmic male sterility, msm1, is also effective in msm2 cytoplasm. The different partial fertility restoration properties of msm2 and msm1 cause these cytoplasms to be regarded as being distinct. Seventy spontaneum accessions from Israel have been studied for their capacity to produce F1 restoration of male fertility both in msm1 and in msm2 cytoplasms with a cv. Adorra-like seed parent (nuclear gene) background. The msm2 cytoplasm shows partial restoration more commonly than msm1 in these F1 combinations. The mean restoration percentage per accession for msm2 is 28, and for msm1 4. Most of the F1 seed set differences of the two cytoplasms are statistically significant. When estimated with partially restored F1 combinations, msm2 cytoplasm appeared to be about 50 times more sensitive to the male fertility-promoting genes present in the spontaneum accessions. The spontaneum sample from Central and Western Negev, which has been found to be devoid of restoration ability in msm1 cytoplasm, had only low partial restoration ability in msm2 (mean 0.3%). The female fertility of msm2 appears normal. The new msm2 cytoplasm could be useful in producing hybrid barley. PMID:17246095

Ahokas, H.

1982-01-01

375

[3'terminal nucleotide sequence of barley stripe mosaic virus RNA].  

PubMed

Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) is a representative of the hordeiviruses which has a functionally fragmented RNA genom. 3'-terminal nucleotide sequence of the noncoding region of BSMV RNA 2 has been determined. This region contains the internal olygo(A) sequence (n = 21) and the tyrosine accepting tRNA-like structure at 3'-extreme end. tRNA-like sequence can fold into the two distinct secondary structure which strikingly similar to such a structures which has been proposed recently for cucumo- and bromoviruses. PMID:6708954

Rupasov, V V; Adyshev, D M; Morozov, S M; Belzhelarskaia, S N; Man'kin, A S

1984-01-01

376

Utilization of sorghum brans and barley flour in bread  

E-print Network

, functional foods As Hasler (1998) describes, functional foods, also called nutraceutical foods, are defined by the U S Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board as "any food or food ingredient that may provide a health benefit beyond the traditional... the potential for use in baked goods to increase both total and soluble dietary fiber. Sorghum bran. as a good source of insoluble fiber. could be combined with barley for use in baking formulations to provide a balance of both types of dietary fiber. Baking...

Gordon, Leigh Ann

2001-01-01

377

Effects of indigestible carbohydrates in barley on glucose metabolism, appetite and voluntary food intake over 16 h in healthy adults  

PubMed Central

Background Recent knowledge in animals suggests that gut microbial metabolism may affect host metabolism, including appetite regulating hormones. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of a whole grain barley kernel product, rich in intrinsic indigestible carbohydrates (dietary fibre and resistant starch), on markers of metabolism and appetite regulation in healthy subjects. Methods Boiled barley kernels (BK) or white wheat bread (WWB; reference) were provided as late evening meals to 19 young adults in random order using a cross-over design. During subsequent ad libitum standardized breakfast and lunch meals (10.5-16 h), blood was collected for analysis of glucose, plasma insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum free fatty acids (FFA) and interleukin (IL)-6. In addition, appetite sensations, voluntary energy intake and breath H2 were determined. Results BK as evening meal increased plasma GLP-1 at fasting (P < 0.05) and during the experimental day (P < 0.01) compared with WWB. In addition the BK evening meal decreased fasting serum FFA (P < 0.05) and tended to decrease fasting serum IL-6 (P = 0.06). At lunch, preceded by BK evening meal, voluntary energy intake was decreased (P < 0.05) when compared to WWB evening meal. The BK evening meal decreased incremental blood glucose area (P < 0.01), promoted higher breath H2 (P < 0.001), maintained adiponectin concentrations (P < 0.05) and reduced perceived hunger (P < 0.05) during 10.5-16 h after the meal. Conclusions The results indicate that the BK evening meal, facilitate glucose regulation, increase the release of GLP-1, reduce subsequent energy intake while at the same time decreasing hunger over 2 subsequent meals, and reduce fasting FFA the subsequent morning, possibly mediated through gut microbial fermentation of the indigestible carbohydrates. PMID:23577719

2013-01-01

378

The effect of stored barley cultivars, temperature and humidity on population increase of Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescentiae.  

PubMed

The rate of population increase of three mite species, Acarus siro (L.), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), was studied on various types of barley and at various combinations of temperature and humidity. The mites were added into the chambers and incubated for 21 days on seven different kinds of barley coming from four sites, including six cultivars and a mixture. The population increase of all species was higher on the mixture than on any other cultivar, except for Sebastian and Calgary. The increase of mites was studied at constant temperatures ranging from 5 to 35 °C and relative humidity (RH) ranging from 50 to 90 %. Positive rate of increase was found above 70 % RH for all species. The optimal humidity was at 85 % RH for A. siro and L. destructor and at 90 % RH for T. putrescentiae. As concerns the temperature, positive rate of increase was found at temperatures higher than 10, 15 and 20 °C for A. siro, L. destructor and T. putrescentiae, respectively. The temperature optima were at 23, 25, and 30 °C for A. siro, L. destructor and T. putrescentiae, respectively. Model estimated on laboratory data was then fitted to temperature and humidity records from August to November in the Czech grain store. Estimated population rate of increase was rarely positive: for A. siro it was for 24 %, for L. destructor for only 1 % and for T. putrescentiae for only 7 % days of the study period. It is concluded that in the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic the population increase of three mite pests is negligible during autumn and winter. PMID:23192331

Hubert, Jan; Pekár, Stano; Aulický, Radek; Nesvorná, Marta; Stejskal, Václav

2013-06-01

379

Grain quality inspection system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A review of grain quality indicators and measurement methods was conducted in order to assess the feasibility of using remote sensing technology to develop a continuous monitoring system for use during grain transfer operations. Most detection methods were found to be too slow or too expensive to be incorporated into the normal inspection procedure of a grain elevator on a continuous basis. Two indicators, moisture content and broken corn and foreign material, show potential for automation and are of an economic value. A microprocessor based system which utilizes commercially available electronic moisture meter was developed and tested. A method for automating BCFM measurement is described. A complete system description is presented along with performance test results.

Flood, C. A., Jr.; Singletow, D. P.; James, S. N.

1979-01-01

380

Effect of Anisotropic Grain Boundary Properties on Grain Boundary Plane Distributions During Grain Growth  

E-print Network

on grain growth has been examined previously using two-dimensional grain growth simulations [4 mobility anisotropy in determining the distribution of grain boundary types. However, two-dimensional by a three-dimensional finite element model using the code GRAIN3D, which is described in detail elsewhere

Rohrer, Gregory S.

381

Estimating Corn Grain Yields  

E-print Network

of unpollinated or aborted kernels is occupied by polli- nated kernels of adjacent rows. Grain test weight is one of the factors used to deter- mine market grade and is most affected during kernel fill. Moisture stress can slow or stop grain fill by disrupt- ing... for highly variable fields. The objective is to accurately represent each zone within a field by strategically positioning one or more sample areas on each of the soil types. Adjust the num- ber of sample areas within each soil type up or down, according...

Blumenthal, Jurg M.; Thompson, Wayne

2009-06-12

382

Introduction to Grain Elevators  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The US Department of Agriculture has placed online this series of presentations on grain elevators. The presentations (VRML 2.0) demonstrate "the operation of an export elevator; the operation of a bulkweighing scale and the procedure for performing a build-up scale test; a description of electronic control systems; a 3-dimensional model of a shipping bin and diverter gates; and a simulation of a gate limit switch test." Demos include animated color images with fully labeled parts and summary paragraphs. From agricultural students to design engineers, as well as those who have always wanted to know, visitors will obtain a solid introduction to grain elevators from this informative resource.

1998-01-01

383

Grain optical properties  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optical properties of small grains provide the link between the infrared observations presented in Chapter 1 and the dust composition described in Chapter 3. In this session, the optical properties were discussed from the viewpoint of modeling the emission from the dust coma and the scattering in order to draw inference about the dust size distribution and composition. The optical properties are applied to the analysis of the infrared data in several ways, and these different uses should be kept in mind when judging the validity of the methods for applying optical constants to real grains.

Hanner, Martha

1988-01-01

384

Charging of interplanetary grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of this program is to quantify, by laboratory experiments, the charging of ices and other insulators subject to irradiation with electrons, ions and ultraviolet photons and to model special conditions based on the data. The system and conditions to be studied are those relevant for charging of dust in magnetospheric plasmas. The measurements are supplemented by computer simulations of charging or grains under a variety of conditions. Our work for this period involved experiments on water ice, improved models of charging of ice grains for Saturn's E-ring, and the construction of apparatus for electron impact studies and measurements of electron energy distributions.

Baragiola, R. A.; Johnson, R. E.; Newcomb, John L.

1995-01-01

385

Development of 5006 Full-Length CDNAs in Barley: A Tool for Accessing Cereal Genomics Resources  

PubMed Central

A collection of 5006 full-length (FL) cDNA sequences was developed in barley. Fifteen mRNA samples from various organs and treatments were pooled to develop a cDNA library using the CAP trapper method. More than 60% of the clones were confirmed to have complete coding sequences, based on comparison with rice amino acid and UniProt sequences. Blastn homologies (E<1E-5) to rice genes and Arabidopsis genes were 89 and 47%, respectively. Of the 5028 possible amino acid sequences derived from the 5006 FLcDNAs, 4032 (80.2%) were classified into 1678 GreenPhyl multigenic families. There were 555 cDNAs showing low homology to both rice and Arabidopsis. Gene ontology annotation by InterProScan indicated that many of these cDNAs (71%) have no known molecular functions and may be unique to barley. The cDNAs showed high homology to Barley 1 GeneChip oligo probes (81%) and the wheat gene index (84%). The high homology between FLcDNAs (27%) and mapped barley expressed sequence tag enabled assigning linkage map positions to 151–233 FLcDNAs on each of the seven barley chromosomes. These comprehensive barley FLcDNAs provide strong platform to connect pre-existing genomic and genetic resources and accelerate gene identification and genome analysis in barley and related species. PMID:19150987

Sato, Kazuhiro; Shin-I, Tadasu; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Yoshida, Hideya; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Conte, Matthieu; Kohara, Yuji

2009-01-01

386

Genetic and molecular analyses of resistance to a variant of Puccinia striiformis in barley.  

PubMed

Seedlings of 62 Australian barley cultivars and two exotic barley genotypes were assessed for resistance to a variant of Puccinia striiformis, referred to as "Barley Grass Stripe Rust" (BGYR), first detected in Australia in 1998, which is capable of infecting wild Hordeum species and some genotypes of cultivated barley. Fifty-three out of 62 cultivated barley cultivars tested were resistant to the pathogen. Genetic analyses of seedling resistance to BGYR in six Australian barley cultivars and one Algerian barley landrace indicated that they carried either one or two major resistance genes to the pathogen. A single recessive seedling resistance gene, rpsSa3771, identified in Sahara 3771, was located on the long arm of chromosome 1 (7 H), flanked by the restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers Xwg420 and Xcdo347 at genetic distances of 12.8 and 21.9 cM, respectively. Mapping resistance to BGYR at adult plant growth stages using the doubled haploid (DH) population Clipper × Sahara 3771 identified two major quantitative trait loci (QTL), one on the long arm of chromosome 3 (3 H) and the second on the long arm of chromosome 1 (7 H), accounting for 26 % and 18 % of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. The QTL located on chromosome 7HL corresponded to seedling resistance gene rpsSa3771 and the second QTL was concluded to correspond to a single APR gene, designated rpsCl, contributed by cultivar Clipper. PMID:23090689

Golegaonkar, Prashant G; Wellings, Colin R; Singh, Davinder; Park, Robert F

2013-02-01

387

Increasing Sucrose Uptake Capacity of Wheat Grains Stimulates Storage Protein Synthesis1[W  

PubMed Central

Increasing grain sink strength by improving assimilate uptake capacity could be a promising approach toward getting higher yield. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) sucrose transporter HvSUT1 (SUT) was expressed under control of the endosperm-specific Hordein B1 promoter (HO). Compared with the wild type, transgenic HOSUT grains take up more sucrose (Suc) in vitro, showing that the transgene is functional. Grain Suc levels are not altered, indicating that Suc fluxes are influenced rather than steady-state levels. HOSUT grains have increased percentages of total nitrogen and prolamins, which is reflected in increased levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, tryptophan, isoleucine, and leucine at late grain development. Transcript profiling indicates specific stimulation of prolamin gene expression at the onset of storage phase. Changes in gene expression and metabolite levels related to carbon metabolism and amino acid biosynthesis suggest deregulated carbon-nitrogen balance, which together indicate carbon sufficiency and relative depletion of nitrogen. Genes, deregulated together with prolamin genes, might represent candidates, which respond positively to assimilate supply and are related to sugar-starch metabolism, cytokinin and brassinosteroid functions, cell proliferation, and sugar/abscisic acid signaling. Genes showing inverse expression patterns represent potential negative regulators. It is concluded that HvSUT1 overexpression increases grain protein content but also deregulates the metabolic status of wheat (Triticum aestivum) grains, accompanied by up-regulated gene expression of positive and negative regulators related to sugar signaling and assimilate supply. In HOSUT grains, alternating stimulation of positive and negative regulators causes oscillatory patterns of gene expression and highlights the capacity and great flexibility to adjust wheat grain storage metabolism in response to metabolic alterations. PMID:20018590

Weichert, Nicola; Saalbach, Isolde; Weichert, Heiko; Kohl, Stefan; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Hause, Bettina; Varshney, Alok; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Strickert, Marc; Kumlehn, Jochen; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

2010-01-01

388

Using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy to detect effects of blend DDGS inclusion level on the molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics of the proteins in hulless barley.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of inclusion of a bioethanol co-product of blend DDGS (wheat:corn=70%:30%) on protein molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics in hulless barley-based feed using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Hulless barley grain with the blend DDGS were mixed in the five ratios. The results showed that when blend DDGS was included at an increased ratio, predicted truly absorbed protein supply was highly and linearly increased (P<0.05) from 98 to 245 g kg(-1) DM and degraded protein balance was increased (P<0.05) from -1 to 75 g kg(-1) DM. The ratio of amide I to II peak area was increased (P<0.05) in the original combination samples but decreased (P<0.05) in the in situ 48 h residue samples. The ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet peak height was quadratically changed with increasing inclusion rate of blend DDGS in the original samples, but no difference among the in situ 48 h residue samples, indicating completion of protein degradation. No correlation was found between protein 2nd structures and protein nutrient profiles not only for the original combination samples (except NPN) but also for in situ 48 h residue samples. This study may provide information on how protein molecular structure and metabolic characteristic changes after feed combination and how more effectively utilize hulless barley and blend co-products for dairy and beef cattle. PMID:22613124

Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

2012-09-01

389

Using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy to detect effects of blend DDGS inclusion level on the molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics of the proteins in hulless barley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of inclusion of a bioethanol co-product of blend DDGS (wheat:corn = 70%:30%) on protein molecular structure spectral and metabolic characteristics in hulless barley-based feed using ATR-FT/IR molecular spectroscopy. Hulless barley grain with the blend DDGS were mixed in the five ratios. The results showed that when blend DDGS was included at an increased ratio, predicted truly absorbed protein supply was highly and linearly increased (P < 0.05) from 98 to 245 g kg-1 DM and degraded protein balance was increased (P < 0.05) from -1 to 75 g kg-1 DM. The ratio of amide I to II peak area was increased (P < 0.05) in the original combination samples but decreased (P < 0.05) in the in situ 48 h residue samples. The ratio of ?-helix to ?-sheet peak height was quadratically changed with increasing inclusion rate of blend DDGS in the original samples, but no difference among the in situ 48 h residue samples, indicating completion of protein degradation. No correlation was found between protein 2nd structures and protein nutrient profiles not only for the original combination samples (except NPN) but also for in situ 48 h residue samples. This study may provide information on how protein molecular structure and metabolic characteristic changes after feed combination and how more effectively utilize hulless barley and blend co-products for dairy and beef cattle.

Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

2012-09-01

390

A cDNA-based comparison of dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) in barley and corn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several cDNAs related to an ABA-induced cDNA from barley aleurone were isolated from barley and corn seedlings that were undergoing dehydration. Four different barley polypeptides with sizes of 22.6, 16.2, 14.4 and 14.2 kDa and a single corn polypeptide with a size of 17.0 kDa were predicted from the nucleotide sequences of the cDNAs. These dehydration-induced proteins (dehydrins) are very

Timothy J. Close; Alexander A. Kortt; Peter M. Chandler

1989-01-01

391

Regulation of barley miRNAs upon dehydration stress correlated with target gene expression  

Microsoft Academic Search

We aim to identify conserved and dehydration responsive microRNAs (miRNAs) in Hordeum vulgare (barley). A total of 28 new barley miRNAs belonging to 18 distinct miRNA families were identified. Detailed nucleotide analyses\\u000a revealed that barley pre-miRNAs are in the range of 46–114 nucleotides with average of 77.14. Using 28 newly detected miRNAs\\u000a as queries, 445 potential target mRNAs were predicted.

Melda Kantar; Turgay Unver; Hikmet Budak

2010-01-01

392

Edible grain legumes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible grain legumes including dry bean, dry pea, chickpeas, and lentils, have served as important sources of protein for human diets for thousands of years. In the US, these crops are predominately produced for export markets. The objective of this study was to examine yield gains in these crops ov...

393

Grass and grain seeds  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many types of grasses grow back after they have been cut back or mowed. Some weeds also do this, but other kinds of weeds stop growing once cut. Grains are seeds, but they are also valuable sources of food for humans and animals.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-03

394

Grains, Water Introduction  

E-print Network

Grains, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near the Shore Surf Induced Sand Dynamics Discussion Dry Granular Flows, Water Waves & Surf, Water & Wet Sand Onno Bokhove Introduction Dry Granular Chute Flows: Cantilever Water Waves: Bores Near

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

395

Interstellar Grain Mantles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Techniques for determining the composition of small dust grains in interstellar matter are discussed. The best way to study the composition of interstellar grain mantles is by infrared spectroscopy. The absorption features in a complete infrared spectrum from 2 to 15 microns can be used as fingerprints to identify the absorbing molecule. Ground-based observations around 3 microns confirmed the presence of H2O ice in interstellar grain mantles, through the detection of the 3.08 micron OH stretching vibration. The detection of other molecules, in particular the carbon bearing molecules, is however hampered by atmospheric absorption in the 5-8 micron region and the presence of the strong ice and silicate bands, which dominate the 3 and 10 micron region respectively. Kuiper Airborne Observatory observations of the 5-8 micron region of the spectrum are therefore extremely important to determine the composition of interstellar grain mantles. The 5 to 8 micron spectra of molecular cloud sources was obtained using a 24 detector grating spectrometer. An important characteristic of this spectrometer is that the whole spectrum is obtained simultaneously. It is therefore relatively easy to correct for atmospheric transmission.

Witteborn, F.; Goebel, J.; Bregman, J.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Dhendecourt, L. B.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

1984-01-01

396

A pitfall in determining the globulin/albumin ratio in amaranth grains.  

PubMed

In amaranth grains (Amaranthus hypochondriacus L. and Amaranthus cruentus L.), there were two albumin (Alb) fractions, Alb-1 and Alb-2; Alb-1 was extracted with water or 0.5 M NaCl, and Alb-2 was extracted with water after extracting Alb-1 and globulin. The amount of Alb-2 comprised about 30% of the total albumin and globulin content. Little or no measurable protein corresponding to the amaranth Alb-2 was extracted from seeds of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa L.), or barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Sekitorisai-1). That the globulin/albumin ratio (G/A) in amaranth grains has been conflicting among investigators probably accounts for the consideration of Alb-2 during extraction. We here report the revised G/A ratio of 0.3-0.4. PMID:1506925

Konishi, Y; Azumaya, J; Horikawa, K; Nakatani, N

1992-04-01

397

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of wheat distiller's dried grain with solubles.  

PubMed

A wide variety of carbohydrates and starch-containing materials have been used for production of ethanol by the fermentation process. The alcohol from grain such as corn, wheat, barley, and sweet sorgum produced dried distillate grain with solubles (DDGS) and carbon dioxide as by-products. An attempt has been made to extract fatty oil from wheat DDGS using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO?). Wheat DDGS contain 65-70% of omega-3-fatty acid and omega-6-fatty acid. The fatty oil was also extracted from wheat DDGS by the Soxhlet method using hexane. The chemical compositions of fatty oils were determined by carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur analyser, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. SC-CO? is a suitable process for extraction of fatty oils with an improved percentage of essential fatty acids such as omega-3-fatty acid and omega-6-fatty acid. PMID:20608884

Pradhan, Rama Chandra; Naik, Satya Narayan; Rout, Prasant Kumar; Dalai, Ajaya Kumar; Meda, Venkatesh

2010-12-01

398

Characterization of grain-specific peptide markers for the detection of gluten by mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Global and targeted mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches were developed to discover, evaluate, and apply gluten peptide markers to detect low parts per million (ppm) wheat contamination of oats. Prolamins were extracted from wheat, barley, rye, and oat flours and then reduced, alkylated, and digested with chymotrypsin. The resulting peptides were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis and database matching. No peptide markers common to wheat, barley, and rye were identified that could be used for global gluten detection. However, many grain-specific peptide markers were identified, and a set of these markers was selected for gluten detection and grain differentiation. Wheat flour was spiked into gluten-free oat flour at concentrations of 1-100,000 ppm and analyzed to determine the lowest concentration at which the wheat "contaminant" could be confidently detected in the mixture. The same 2D ion trap instrument that was used for the global proteomics approach was used for the targeted proteomics approach, providing a seamless transition from target discovery to application. A powerful, targeted MS/MS method enabled detection of two wheat peptide markers at the 10 ppm wheat flour-in-oat flour concentration. Because gluten comprises approximately 10% of wheat flour protein, the reported wheat gluten-specific peptides can enable detection of approximately 1 ppm of wheat gluten in oats. PMID:24866027

Fiedler, Katherine L; McGrath, Sara C; Callahan, John H; Ross, Mark M

2014-06-25

399

Grain growth from amorphous phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time dependence of the grain growth in phosphorus doped silicon thin films deposited in situ at 530 °C was investigated. The samples were annealed at 950 °C in different time intervals. The theories, which give the tn time dependent increase of grain size, cannot fit the observed data. We derived a differential equation which describes the grain growth from amorphous phase. Our experimental results and the solution of the differential equation show the effect of grain growth stagnation and even grain growth stop. The solution also comprises all the features of the result of the Monte Carlo simulation of the grain growth of pure materials.

O?ko, Miroslav; Žonja, Sanja; Ivanda, Mile

2014-03-01

400

Uptake and distribution of stable strontium in 26 cultivars of three crop species: oats, wheat, and barley for their potential use in phytoremediation.  

PubMed

The main objective of this study was to investigate the accumulation and distribution of strontium (Sr) in 26 cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), husk oat (Avena sativa L) and naked oat (Avena nuda), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for their potential use in phytoremediation.Sr levels had no effect on the accumulation of shoot biomass at tillering or at maturity. Mean shoot Sr concentration of naked oat and barley at tillering was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that of wheat; Neimengkeyimai-1, a naked oat cultivar, had the highest Sr concentrations. At maturity, of four naked oat cultivars, Neimengkeyimai-1 had the highest Sr content at all measured Sr levels. Leaves had the highest Sr concentrations, followed by roots and straw, and then grain with the lowest. Mean enrichment coefficients from soil to shoots ranged from 0.521 to 1.343; the percentage of stable Sr removed from the soil to the shoots at harvest time was more than 1.4% after 120 days. Neimengkeyimai-1 could be used as a model for further research to find more effective cultivars; and naked oat plants could be selected for phytoremediation to clean up contaminated soil. PMID:25397985

Qi, Lin; Qin, Xiaoliang; Li, Feng-Min; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Brandl, Helmut; Xu, Jinzhang; Li, Xiaogang

2015-01-01

401

MIXTURES OF FINE-GRAINED MINERALS KAOLINITE AND CARBONATE GRAINS  

E-print Network

; Carman, 1937; White and Walton, 1937; German, 1989), while mixtures of rounded sand and platy mica grains without mica (Guimaraes, 2002). Mixtures of fine and coarse grains exhibit unique behavior, often related

Palomino, Angelica M.

402

Brewer's spent grain: a valuable feedstock for industrial applications.  

PubMed

Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated from the beer-brewing process, representing approximately 85% of the total by-products obtained. This material is basically constituted by the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the wort production. Since BSG is rich in sugars and proteins, the main and quickest alternative for elimination of this industrial by-product has been as animal feed. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas because of its low cost, large availability throughout the year and valuable chemical composition. In the last decade, many efforts have been directed towards the reuse of BSG, taking into account the incentive that has been given to recycle the wastes and by-products generated by industrial activities. Currently, many interesting and advantageous methods for application of BSG in foods, in energy production and in chemical and biotechnological processes have been reported. The present study presents and discusses the most recent perspectives for BSG application in such areas. PMID:24254316

Mussatto, Solange I

2014-05-01

403

Incorporation of whole, ancient grains into a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease.  

PubMed

Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. PMID:21790614

Dixit, Anjali A; Azar, Kristen Mj; Gardner, Christopher D; Palaniappan, Latha P

2011-08-01

404

Grains charges in interstellar clouds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The charge of cosmic grains could play an important role in many astrophysical phenomena. It probably has an influence on the coagulation of grains and more generally on grain-grain collisions, and on interaction between charged particles and grains which could lead to the formation of large grains or large molecules. The electrostatic charge of grains depends mainly on the nature of constitutive material of the grain and on the physical properties of its environment: it results from a delicate balance between the plasma particle collection and the photoelectron emission, both of them depending on each other. The charge of the grain is obtained in two steps: (1) using the numerical model the characteristics of the environment of the grain are computed; (2) the charge of a grain which is embedded in this environment is determined. The profile of the equilibrium charge of some typical grains through different types of interstellar clouds is obtained as a function of the depth of the cloud. It is shown that the grain charge can reach high values not only in hot diffuse clouds, but also in clouds with higher densities. The results are very sensitive to the mean UV interstellar radiation field. Three parameters appear to be essential but with different levels of sensitivity of the charge: the gas density, the temperature, and the total thickness of the cloud.

Bel, N.; Lafon, J. P.; Viala, Y. P.

1989-01-01

405

MULTIVARIATE PHENOTYPIC STRUCTURES IN THE BATINI BARLEY LANDRACE FROM OMAN  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We identified 14 phenological classes in three (grain, forage, and dual-purpose) end-use types and formulated discriminant functions to help select elite germplasm for breeding purposes. Biological yield, pre- and post anthesis thermal time, grain yield, plant height and tillers per plant, in decrea...

406

A barley Engulfment and Motility domain containing protein modulates Rho GTPase activating protein HvMAGAP1 function in the barley powdery mildew interaction.  

PubMed

Engulfment and Motility (ELMO) proteins are involved in the regulation of small GTPase activity in eukaryotic organisms, but little is known about ELMO proteins in plants. We isolated the barley ELMO Domain Containing Protein, HvELMOD_C, in a yeast two hybrid screen for proteins interacting with HvMAGAP1 (Microtubule Associated ROP-GTPase Activating Protein 1). HvMAGAP1 is considered as an antagonist of barley RACB, a member of the RHO of plant (ROP) family GTPases, which functions as a susceptibility factor in the interaction of barley with the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. HvELMOD_C interacts with the central RHO-GAP domain of HvMAGAP1. Cytoplasmic HvELMOD_C translocates to microtubules on co-expression of HvMAGAP1 but not on co-expression of HvMAGAP1-R185G, a mutant of the catalytically active arginine R185 in the RHO-GAP domain. HvELMOD_C, when simultaneously expressed with HvMAGAP1, abolished the resistance-inducing effect of HvMAGAP1 to B. graminis f.sp. hordei. Therefore, HvELMOD_C might function as a new modulator of HvMAGAP1 and thus ROP activity in barley. PMID:24142383

Hoefle, Caroline; Hückelhoven, Ralph

2014-03-01

407

HvCKX2 gene silencing by biolistic or Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in barley leads to different phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Background CKX genes encode cytokinin dehydrogenase enzymes (CKX), which metabolize cytokinins in plants and influence developmental processes. The genes are expressed in different tissues and organs during development; however, their exact role in barley is poorly understood. It has already been proven that RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing of HvCKX1 decreased the CKX level, especially in those organs which showed the highest expression, i.e. developing kernels and roots, leading to higher plant productivity and higher mass of the roots [1]. The same type of RNAi construct was applied to silence HvCKX2 and analyze the function of the gene. Two cultivars of barley were transformed with the same silencing and selection cassettes by two different methods: biolistic and via Agrobacterium. Results The mean Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency of Golden Promise was 3.47% (±2.82). The transcript level of HvCKX2 in segregating progeny of T1 lines was decreased to 34%. The reduction of the transcript in Agrobacterium-derived plants resulted in decreased CKX activity in the developing and developed leaves as well as in 7 DAP (days after pollination) spikes. The final phenotypic effect was increased productivity of T0 plants and T1 lines. Higher productivity was the result of the higher number of seeds and higher grain yield. It was also correlated with the higher 1000 grain weight, increased (by 7.5%) height of the plants and higher (from 0.5 to 2) numbers of spikes. The transformation efficiency of Golden Promise after biolistic transformation was more than twice as low compared to Agrobacterium. The transcript level in segregating progeny of T1 lines was decreased to 24%. Otherwise, the enzyme activity found in the leaves of the lines after biolistic transformation, especially in cv. Golden Promise, was very high, exceeding the relative level of the control lines. These unbalanced ratios of the transcript level and the activity of the CKX enzyme negatively affected kernel germination or anther development and as a consequence setting the seeds. The final phenotypic effect was the decreased productivity of T0 plants and T1 lines obtained via the biolistic silencing of HvCKX2. Conclusion The phenotypic result, which was higher productivity of silenced lines obtained via Agrobacterium, confirms the hypothesis that spatial and temporal differences in expression contributed to functional differentiation. The applicability of Agrobacterium-mediated transformation for gene silencing of developmentally regulated genes, like HvCKX2, was proven. Otherwise low productivity and disturbances in plant development of biolistic-silenced lines documented the unsuitability of the method. The possible reasons are discussed. PMID:23134638

2012-01-01

408

Recommended Amounts of Refined grains  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Refined grains Table B10. Refined grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake

409

Recommended Amounts of Whole grains  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Whole grains Table B9. Whole grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

410

Recommended Amounts of Total grains  

Cancer.gov

Recommended Amounts of Total grains Table B8. Total grains: Estimated percentage of persons below, at, or above recommendation1 Age (years) N Mean (SE) % with intake below recommendation (SE) % with intake meeting recommendation (SE) % with intake above

411

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such ‘weather response diversity’ within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3–7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3–4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

HAKALA, K.; JAUHIAINEN, L.; HIMANEN, S. J.; RÖTTER, R.; SALO, T.; KAHILUOTO, H.

2012-01-01

412

Sensitivity of barley varieties to weather in Finland.  

PubMed

Global climate change is predicted to shift seasonal temperature and precipitation patterns. An increasing frequency of extreme weather events such as heat waves and prolonged droughts is predicted, but there are high levels of uncertainty about the nature of local changes. Crop adaptation will be important in reducing potential damage to agriculture. Crop diversity may enhance resilience to climate variability and changes that are difficult to predict. Therefore, there has to be sufficient diversity within the set of available cultivars in response to weather parameters critical for yield formation. To determine the scale of such 'weather response diversity' within barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), an important crop in northern conditions, the yield responses of a wide range of modern and historical varieties were analysed according to a well-defined set of critical agro-meteorological variables. The Finnish long-term dataset of MTT Official Variety Trials was used together with historical weather records of the Finnish Meteorological Institute. The foci of the analysis were firstly to describe the general response of barley to different weather conditions and secondly to reveal the diversity among varieties in the sensitivity to each weather variable. It was established that barley yields were frequently reduced by drought or excessive rain early in the season, by high temperatures at around heading, and by accelerated temperature sum accumulation rates during periods 2 weeks before heading and between heading and yellow ripeness. Low temperatures early in the season increased yields, but frost during the first 4 weeks after sowing had no effect. After canopy establishment, higher precipitation on average resulted in higher yields. In a cultivar-specific analysis, it was found that there were differences in responses to all but three of the studied climatic variables: waterlogging and drought early in the season and temperature sum accumulation rate before heading. The results suggest that low temperatures early in the season, delayed sowing, rain 3-7 weeks after sowing, a temperature change 3-4 weeks after sowing, a high temperature sum accumulation rate from heading to yellow ripeness and high temperatures (?25°C) at around heading could mostly be addressed by exploiting the traits found in the range of varieties included in the present study. However, new technology and novel genetic material are needed to enable crops to withstand periods of excessive rain or drought early in the season and to enhance performance under increased temperature sum accumulation rates prior to heading. PMID:22505777

Hakala, K; Jauhiainen, L; Himanen, S J; Rötter, R; Salo, T; Kahiluoto, H

2012-04-01

413

Unlocking the Barley Genome by Chromosomal and Comparative Genomics[W][OA  

PubMed Central

We used a novel approach that incorporated chromosome sorting, next-generation sequencing, array hybridization, and systematic exploitation of conserved synteny with model grasses to assign ~86% of the estimated ~32,000 barley (Hordeum vulgare) genes to individual chromosome arms. Using a series of bioinformatically constructed genome zippers that integrate gene indices of rice (Oryza sativa), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Brachypodium distachyon in a conserved synteny model, we were able to assemble 21,766 barley genes in a putative linear order. We show that the barley (H) genome displays a mosaic of structural similarity to hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) A, B, and D subgenomes and that orthologous genes in different grasses exhibit signatures of positive selection in different lineages. We present an ordered, information-rich scaffold of the barley genome that provides a valuable and robust framework for the development of novel strategies in cereal breeding. PMID:21467582

Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Martis, Mihaela; Hedley, Pete E.; Šimková, Hana; Liu, Hui; Morris, Jenny A.; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Taudien, Stefan; Roessner, Stephan; Gundlach, Heidrun; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Murat, Florent; Felder, Marius; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Graner, Andreas; Salse, Jerome; Endo, Takashi; Sakai, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Itoh, Takeshi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Platzer, Matthias; Matsumoto, Takashi; Scholz, Uwe; Doležel, Jaroslav; Waugh, Robbie; Stein, Nils

2011-01-01

414

First report of barley yellow dwarf luteovirus on Miscanthus in the United Kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) was detected in field grownMiscanthus sacchariflorus propagated from root cuttings. Inoculation of BYDV toM. sinensis plants grown from seed had an adverse effect on shoot growth and leaf development.

D. G. Christian; J. N. L. Lamptey; S. M. D. Forde; R. T. Plumb

1994-01-01

415

7 CFR 810.206 - Grades and grade requirements for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...8 to 11/4 quarts of barley; or (c) Has a musty, sour, or commercially objectionable foreign odor (except smut or garlic odor); or (d) Is heating or otherwise of distinctly low quality. 1 Includes heat-damaged...

2010-01-01

416

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw  

E-print Network

Xylitol Production by Genetically Engineered Trichoderma reesei Strains Using Barley Straw. The xylitol production by T. reesei can be enhanced by genetic engineering of blocking further xylitol and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Vienna University of Technology, Vienna, Austria e

Qin, Wensheng

417

The effects of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on the growth of freshwater algae.  

PubMed

Bioassays were conducted to determine the efficacy of barley straw liquor in controlling algal growth of 12 freshwater species of algae representing three divisions. Barley straw liquor inhibited the growth of three nuisance algae common in freshwater: Synura petersenii, Dinobyron sp., and Microcystis aeruginosa. However, Selenastrum capricornutum, Spirogyra sp., Oscillatoria lutea var. contorta, and Navicula sp. had significantly increased growth in the presence of straw liquor. The growth of the remainder, Ulothrix fimbriata, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Chlorella vulgaris, Anabaena flos-aquae, and Synedra sp. showed no significant difference from controls. In a related field study, we treated four of six ponds with barley straw and monitored their chlorophyll a levels for one growing season. While phytoplankton populations in all ponds decreased in midsummer, the phytoplankton biomass in treated ponds did not differ significantly from that of control ponds, suggesting that the application of barley straw had no effect on algal growth in these systems. PMID:16051085

Ferrier, M D; Butler, B R; Terlizzi, D E; Lacouture, R V

2005-11-01

418

History of Presolar Grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers on the History of Presolar Grains. This has been a very productive period in which much of the laboratory work conducted in the previous year and during this funding cycle were brought to completion. In the last year we have published or submitted for peer review 4 research papers, 4 review papers, and 11 abstracts in research areas supported under this grant. Brief synopses of the results of the research papers are presented, followed by short summaries of the topics discussed in the review papers. Several areas of research are of course being actively pursued, and the appended list of abstracts gives citations to this ongoing work. In a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, the results of an investigation into the physical conditions in the mass outflows of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) carbon stars that are required for the formation of micron-sized presolar graphite grains, with and without previously formed internal crystals of titanium carbide (TIC) are reported.

Bernatowicz, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

419

Signal Transduction in Barley Aleurone Protoplasts 1s Calcium Dependent and lndependent  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA) increases Ca2+ and calmodulin (CaM) levels in barley aleurone cells, and abscisic acid (ABA) an- tagonizes the GA effect. These alterations in cytoplasmic Ca2+ and CaM have been suggested to be central regulators of the secretory response of the barley aleurone. Using microinjection of caged Ca2+, Ca2+ chelators, and CaM, we mim- icked or blocked these hormonally

Simon Gilroy

420

Response to saline stress and aquaporin expression in Azospirillum -inoculated barley seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of two strains of Azospirillum brasilense to mitigate NaCl stress in barley plants was evaluated. Barley seedlings were inoculated and subjected to 200 mM NaCl for\\u000a 18 days. Several days after NaCl treatment, a significant decline in biomass as well as in height was observed in uninoculated\\u000a plants. However, smaller reductions in biomass and height were detected in plants inoculated

Myriam S. Zawoznik; Mayra Ameneiros; María P. Benavides; Susana Vázquez; María D. Groppa

2011-01-01

421

Genetically engineered stem rust resistance in barley using the Rpg1 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stem-rust-susceptible barley cv. Golden Promise was transformed by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of immature zygotic embryos with the Rpg1 genomic clone of cv. Morex containing a 520-bp 5' promoter region, 4,919-bp gene region, and 547-bp 3' nontranscribed sequence. Representatives of 42 transgenic barley lines obtained were characterized for their seedling infection response to pathotype Pgt-MCC of the stem rust fungus Puccinia

Henriette Horvath; Nils Rostoks; Robert Brueggeman; Brian Steffenson; Diter von Wettstein; Andris Kleinhofs

2003-01-01

422

Competitive interactions of fifty barley cultivars with Avena sterilis and Asperugo procumbens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year study was conducted in northern Greece to assess the ability of 29 six-row and 21 two-row barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars to compete with winter wild oat [Avena sterilis spp. ludoviciana (Durieu) Gill & Magne] and German-madwort (Asperugo procumbens L.). The fresh weight of both weeds grown in competition with six of the most competitive six-row barley cultivars

Kico Dhima; Ioannis Vasilakoglou; Thomas Gatsis; Ilias Eleftherohorinos

2010-01-01

423

Complex interspecific hybridization in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) and the possible occurrence of apomixis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several complex hybrids were produced from the combination [(Hordeum lechleri, 6x xH. procerum, 6 x) × H. vulgare, 2 x]. Crosses with six diploid barley lines resulted in triple hybrids, most of which had a full complement of barley chromosomes (no. 1–7), but were mixoploid with respect to alien chromosomes (19–22). In one combination, chromosome no. 7 was duplicated. Meiosis

R. von Bothmer; M. Bengtsson; J. Flink; I. Linde-Laursen

1988-01-01

424

Characterization of barley starches of waxy, normal, and high amylose varieties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four varieties of barley starches, W.B. Merlin, glacier, high amylose glacier, and high amylose hull-less glacier, were isolated from barley seeds. Apparent and absolute amylose contents, molecular size distributions of amylose and amylopectin, amylopectin branch-chain-length distributions, and Naegeli dextrin structures of the starches were analyzed. W.B. Merlin amylopectin had the longest detectable chain length of DP 67, whereas glacier, high

Y. Song; J. Jane

2000-01-01

425

Barley Cbf3 Gene Identification, Expression Pattern, and Map Location1  

PubMed Central

Although cold and drought adaptation in cereals and other plants involve the induction of a large number of genes, inheritance studies in Triticeae (wheat [Triticum aestivum], barley [Hordeum vulgare], and rye [Secale cereale]) have revealed only a few major loci for frost or drought tolerance that are consistent across multiple genetic backgrounds and environments. One might imagine that these loci could encode highly conserved regulatory factors that have global effects on gene expression; therefore, genes encoding central regulators identified in other plants might be orthologs of these Triticeae stress tolerance genes. The CBF/DREB1 regulators, identified originally in Arabidopsis as key components of cold and drought regulation, merit this consideration. We constructed barley cDNA libraries, screened these libraries and a barley bacterial artificial chromosome library using rice (Oryza sativa) and barley Cbf probes, found orthologs of Arabidopsis CBF/DREB1 genes, and examined the expression and genetic map location of the barley Cbf3 gene, HvCbf3. HvCbf3 was induced by a chilling treatment. HvCbf3 is located on barley chromosome 5H between markers WG364b and saflp58 on the barley cv Dicktoo × barley cv Morex genetic linkage map. This position is some 40 to 50 cM proximal to the winter hardiness quantitative trait locus that includes the Vrn-1H gene, but may coincide with the wheat 5A Rcg1 locus, which governs the threshold temperature at which cor genes are induced. From this, it remains possible that HvCbf3 is the basis of a minor quantitative trait locus in some genetic backgrounds, though that possibility remains to be thoroughly explored. PMID:12177491

Choi, Dong-Woog; Rodriguez, Edmundo M.; Close, Timothy J.

2002-01-01

426

Differential responses to dietary cobalt in finishing steers fed corn- versus barley-based diets1  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was conducted to deter- mine the effects of dietary Co concentration on perfor- mance, carcass traits, and plasma, liver, and ruminal metabolites of steers fed corn- or barley-based diets. Sixty steers, initially averaging 316 kg, were stratified by BW and assigned randomly to treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement, with factors being a corn- or barley-baseddietandsupplementalCoaddedat0,0.05,

M. E. Tiffany; J. W. Spears

2010-01-01

427

Potassium and sodium transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa regulate virulence to barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the role of three uncharacterized cation transporters of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 as virulence factors for barley: PA1207, PA5021, and PA2647. PAO1 displayed reduced barley virulence with inactivated\\u000a PA1207, PA5021, and PA2647 as well as with one known Na+\\/H+ antiporter, PA1820. Using the Escherichia coli LB2003 mutant lacking three K+ uptake systems, the expression of the PA5021 gene repressed

Akihiro Ueda; Thomas K. Wood

2008-01-01

428

Expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants are exposed to the extreme environment in space, especially space radiation is suspected to induce oxidative stress by generating high-energy free radicals and microgravity would enhance the effect of space radiation, however, current understandings of plant growth and responses on this synergistic effect of radiation and microgravity is limited to a few experiments. In this study, expression of stress/defense-related genes in barley grown under space environment was analyzed by RT-PCR and DNA microarray experiments to understand plant responses and adaptation to space environment and to develop the space stress-tolerant plants. The seeds of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Haruna nijo, kept in the international space station (ISS) over 4 months, were germinated after 3 days of irrigation in LADA plant growth chamber onboard Russian segment of ISS and the final germination ratio was over 90 %. The height of plants was about 50 to 60 cm and flag leaf has been opened after 26 days of irrigation under 24 hr lighting, showing the similar growth to ground-grown barley. Expression levels of stress/defense-related genes in space-grown barley were compared to those in ground-grown barley by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. In 17 stress/defense-related genes that are up-regulated by oxidative stress or other abiotic stress, only catalase, pathogenesis-related protein 13, chalcone synthase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase genes were increased in space-grown barley. DNA microarrya analysis with the GeneChip Barley Genome Array showed the similar expression profiles of the stress/defense-related genes to those by RT-PCR experiment, suggesting that the barley germinated and grown in LADA onboard ISS is not damaged by space environment, especially oxidative stress induced by space radiation and microgravity.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Shagimardanova, Elena; Gusev, Oleg; Bingham, Gail; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir

429

Staining paraffin embedded sections of scald of barley before paraffin removal.  

PubMed

Staining of paraffin embedded sections with periodic acid-Schiff reagent and fast green before paraffin removal resulted in differentiation of barley seed and leaf tissue from fungal structures of Rhynchosporium secalis. Crystal violet, toluidine blue O and antiline blue also successfully stained fungal structures of R. secalis in barley leaf tissues. Staining of embedded sections before paraffin removal allows simple processing of a series of sections, saves time and reduces solvent consumption. PMID:9290905

Xi, K; Burnett, P A

1997-07-01

430

Haploid Plants from Pollen Grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented by which hundreds of haploid plants of various species of Nicotiana can be raised from pollen grains. Stamens should be excised when pollen grains have been individualized, but are still uninucleate and free of starch. When grown in vitro on a relatively simple medium, some pollen grains proliferate into embryo-like structures which develop in stages similar

J. P. Nitsch; C. Nitsch

1969-01-01

431

Whole grain phytochemicals and health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemicals and antioxidants in whole grains have not received as much attention as the phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables although the increased consumption of whole grains and whole grain products has been associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, some cancers and all-cause mortality. Recent research has shown that the total phytochemical

Rui Hai Liu

2007-01-01

432

Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-IGS) as a tool for functional analysis of barley genes potentially involved in nonhost resistance.  

PubMed

Barley is an alternative host for the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae but is resistant to Magnaporthe species associated with the grass genera Pennisetum and Digitaria. The latter cases are examples for nonhost resistance which confers effective and durable protection to plants against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Comparative transcript profiling of host and nonhost interaction revealed an early and pronounced change in gene expression in epidermal tissue of barley infected with a Magnaporthe nonhost isolate. Interestingly, this set of genes did not overlap considerably with the transcriptional response of barley against nonhost rust or powdery mildew isolates. For a functional testing of candidate genes a combined approach of virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and subsequent pathogen challenge was established. As anticipated, VIGS-mediated down-regulation of Mlo-transcripts led to higher resistance against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and enhanced susceptibility against M. oryzae. PMID:21586898

Delventhal, Rhoda; Zellerhoff, Nina; Schaffrath, Ulrich

2011-06-01

433

Selection screen for novel photorespiratory mutants of barley  

SciTech Connect

Selfed seed from a catalase mutant of barley (RPr 79/4) was treated with the mutagen N-nitroso-N-methyl urea, which is known to induce mutations in both chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Treated seed was grown to maturity at 0.8% CO/sub 2/, until the second leaf emerged, then plants were transferred to air under high light intensity for 5 days. Those plants which did not show the characteristic phenotype of the catalase mutant, silvering of the leaves, were selected and maintained in high CO/sub 2/. These should include plants with mutations upstream catalase (i.e. non-producers of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/); for example, those affecting glycollate oxidase, phosphoglycollate phosphatase and RuBP oxygenase, in addition to catalase revertants. Preliminary experiments showed a high (7%) frequency of pigment mutations and one plant was selected for further study.

Hall, N.P.; Kendall, A.C.; Turner, J.C.; Wallsgrove R.M.; Keys, A.J.

1987-04-01

434

Evaluation of hot water and electron beam irradiation for reducing Fusarium infection in malting barley.  

PubMed

The use of Fusarium-infected barley for malting may lead to mycotoxin production and decreased product quality. Physical methods for the treatment of Fusarium-infected barley may prevent these safety and quality defects and allow the use of otherwise good quality barley. Hot water and electron beam irradiation were evaluated for their effectiveness in reducing Fusarium infection while maintaining germinative energy in barley samples. Hot-water treatments involved temperatures of 45, 50. 55, and 60 degrees C and treatment times of 0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 min. Electron beam irradiation involved doses ranging from 0 to 11.4 kGy. Treatment with water at 45 degrees C for 15 min resulted in a reduction in Fusarium infection from 32 to 1% after 15 min, with only a very slight reduction in germination. Treatment with water at 50 degrees C for 1 min resulted in a reduction in Fusarium infection from 32 to 2%, and no effect on germination was observed for up to 5 min of treatment. At higher water temperatures. Fusarium infection was essentially eliminated, but germination was also severely reduced. Electron beam irradiation of Fusarium-infected barley reduced Fusarium infection at doses of >4 kGy, and a slight increase in germination for dry samples was observed with doses of 6 to 8 kGy. Doses of >10 kGy significantly decreased germination. Physical methods may have potential for the treatment of Fusarium-infected malting barley. PMID:12870759

Kottapalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul; Schwarz, Jurgen; Gillespie, James

2003-07-01

435

Cytologically integrated physical restriction fragment length polymorphism maps for the barley genome based on translocation breakpoints.  

PubMed Central

We have developed a new technique for the physical mapping of barley chromosomes using microdissected translocation chromosomes for PCR with sequence-tagged site primers derived from >300 genetically mapped RFLP probes. The positions of 240 translocation breakpoints were integrated as physical landmarks into linkage maps of the seven barley chromosomes. This strategy proved to be highly efficient in relating physical to genetic distances. A very heterogeneous distribution of recombination rates was found along individual chromosomes. Recombination is mainly confined to a few relatively small areas spaced by large segments in which recombination is severely suppressed. The regions of highest recombination frequency (barley genome and harbor 47.3% of the 429 markers of the studied RFLP map. The results for barley correspond well with those obtained by deletion mapping in wheat. This indicates that chromosomal regions characterized by similar recombination frequencies and marker densities are highly conserved between the genomes of barley and wheat. The findings for barley support the conclusions drawn from deletion mapping in wheat that for all plant genomes, notwithstanding their size, the marker-rich regions are all of similar gene density and recombination activity and, therefore, should be equally accessible to map-based cloning. PMID:10628998

Künzel, G; Korzun, L; Meister, A

2000-01-01

436

The origin and colonization history of the barley scald pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis.  

PubMed

The origins of pathogens and their past and present migration patterns are often unknown. We used phylogenetic haplotype clustering in conjunction with model-based coalescent approaches to reconstruct the genetic history of the barley leaf pathogen Rhynchosporium secalis using the avirulence gene NIP1 and its flanking regions. Our results falsify the hypothesis that R. secalis emerged in association with its host during the domestication of barley 10,000 to 15,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent and was introduced into Europe through the migration of Neolithic farmers. Estimates of time since most recent common ancestor (2500-5000 BP) placed the emergence of R. secalis clearly after the domestication of barley. We propose that modern populations of R. secalis originated in northern Europe following a host switch, most probably from a wild grass onto cultivated barley shortly after barley was introduced into northern Europe. R. secalis subsequently spread southwards into already established European barley-growing areas. PMID:17584226

Brunner, P C; Schürch, S; McDonald, B A

2007-07-01

437

The role of partial grain boundary dislocations in grain boundary sliding and coupled grain boundary motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the process of grain boundary sliding through the motion of grain boundary dislocations, utilizing molecular dynamics\\u000a and embedded atom method (EAM) interatomic potentials. For a ? = 5 [001]{310} symmetrical tilt boundary in bcc Fe, the sliding\\u000a process was found to occur through the nucleation and glide of partial grain boundary dislocations, with a secondary grain\\u000a boundary structure playing an

Joshua Monk; Brian Hyde; Diana Farkas

2006-01-01

438

Effect of electron-beam irradiation on the safety and quality of Fusarium-infected malting barley.  

PubMed

Utilization of Fusarium-infected barley for malting may lead to mycotoxin production during malting and decreased malt quality. Electron-beam irradiation may prevent safety and quality defects and allow use of otherwise good quality barley. We evaluated electron-beam irradiation for preventing Fusarium growth and mycotoxin production while maintaining barley-malt quality characteristics. Four barley lots with varying deoxynivalenol (DON) concentrations were irradiated at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 kGy. Treated barley was malted in a pilot-scale malting unit. Barley and malt were analyzed for Fusarium infection (FI), germinative energy (GE), aerobic plate counts (APC), mold and yeast counts (MYC), and DON. Malt quality parameters included malt extract, soluble protein, wort color, wort viscosity, free amino nitrogen, alpha-amylase, and diastatic power. FI, APC, and MYC decreased in barley with an increase in dosage. The APC and MYC for malts from barley exposed to 8-10 kGy were slightly higher than in other malted samples indicating that irradiation-resistant microflora could flourish during malting. Barley GE significantly decreased (3-15%) at 8-10 kGy. Although irradiation had no effect on DON in raw barley, DON decreased significantly (60-100%) in finished malts prepared from treated barley (6-10 kGy). Malt quality parameters were slightly affected by electron-beam radiation. The results suggest 6-8 kGy may be effective for reducing FI in barley and DON in malt with minimal effects on malt quality. PMID:16780979

Kottapalli, Balasubrahmanyam; Wolf-Hall, Charlene E; Schwarz, Paul

2006-08-01

439

Differential expression of endo-?-1,4-xylanase isoenzymes XI and XII at various stages throughout barley development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley endo-?-1,4-xylanases (EC 3.2.1.8) hydrolyse arabinoxylan, which is an abundant cell wall constituent in grass species. In addition to isoenzyme X-I, the major endo-?-1,4-xylanase released from the aleurone layer of germinating barley, another isoenzyme, named X-II, is expressed during germination. Using PCR on barley genomic DNA, we isolated the complete gene encoding sequence of this less-characterized isoenzyme. The gene, shown

Steven Van Campenhout; Guido Volckaert

2005-01-01

440

The influence of extruded vs. untreated barley in the feed, with and without dietary enzyme supplement on broiler performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The experiment was conducted to study the effect of extruded vs. unprocessed barley in the diet (400 g kg?1) on the response of broiler chickens to Trichoderma viride enzyme supplement (cellulase, 10 500 U g?1; endo-?-(1:3) (1:4)-glucanase; 24 000 U g?1 and xylanase, 32 000 U g?1). The four experimental diets were as follows: B, unprocessed barley; BE, unprocessed barley

M. Vukic Vranjes; C. Wenk

1995-01-01

441

Inheritance of Cold Tolerance, Plant Height, Maturity and Other Characters in a Spring-Winter Barley Cross.  

E-print Network

. 7:77-94. Nilan, R. A. 1964. The cytology and gentics of barley 1951-62. Washington State Univ. Press. 278 pp. Reid, D. A. 1965. Inheritance of growth habit in barley (Hordeurn vulgare L. Emend. Lam.) Crop Sic. 5:141-14.5. Reid, D. A. 1963.... Winterhardiness of progenies from winter x spring barley (Hordeum vulgare, L. Enlend. Lam.) crosses. Crop Sci. 5:263-266. Rohcle, C. R. and C. F. Pulham. 1960. Genetics studies of winterhardiness in barley. Res. Bul. Seb. Agr. Exp. Sta. Xo. 193. Sclliemann...

Abo-Elenein, Rashad Ahmed; Atkins, I. M.; Pawlisch, E.; Gardenhire, J. H.; Porter, K. B.

1967-01-01

442

Shock processing of interstellar grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical and observational evidence is presented that shock processing of interstellar dust grains by supernova blast waves affects both heavy element depletions and ultraviolet extinction curves. By coupling a realistic model of grain sizes and populations with a radiative shock code, significant grain destruction at velocities as low as 40 km/s is demonstrated. Nonthermal sputtering and grain-grain collisions destroy relatively more large grains than small, and more silicates than graphite. Consequently, both the 2175 A extinction 'bump' and the far-ultraviolet normalized extinction are increased in strength. Ultraviolet extinction studies with the International Ultraviolet Explorer of nine stars near three supernova remnants (the Monoceros Loop, Shajn 147, and Vela) exhibit strong 2175 A bumps and normal or high far-ultraviolet extinction. Diffuse bands, if they are created by small grains, should show little correlation with such activity.

Seab, C. G.; Shull, J. M.

1983-01-01

443

Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Presolar Grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Topics discussed include: Presolar Silicate Grains; Presolar Silicates from Primitivr Chondrites; Oxygen and Magnesium Isotopic Ratios of Presolar Spinel Grains; Study of Two New Presolar Grains from Bishunpur Ordinary Chondrite; Extinct Technetium in Presolar Grains; etc.

2004-01-01

444

Extension Bulletin GMI-035 New July 2014 Malting Barley Production  

E-print Network

the grain to prevent further development. The germination process produces two enzymes ­ alpha- amylase and beta-amylase ­ which hydrolyze starches to dextrins and fermentable sugars, necessary components

445

One Grain of Rice  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Beginning with the famous story of the village girl trying to feed her people, the lesson involves students in the mathematics of exponential growth. Students work collaboratively to come up with a bargaining plan to trick a raja into feeding the village using algebra and estimation. The complete activity includes the development of an exponential equation, but just following the growth of the number of rice grains throughout the story gives a good introduction to exponential growth. Questions for students and ideas for assessment are provided.

Simon, Christy

2000-01-01

446

Contents of phenolic acids, alkyl- and alkenylresorcinols, and avenanthramides in commercial grain products.  

PubMed

The contents of free and total phenolic acids and alk(en)ylresorcinols were analyzed in commercial products of eight grains: oat (Avena sativa), wheat (Triticum spp.), rye (Secale cerale), barley (Hordeum vulgare), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), millet (Panicum miliaceum), rice (Oryza sativa), and corn (Zea mays). Avenanthramides were determined in three oat products. Free phenolic acids, alk(en)ylresorcinols, and avenanthramides were extracted with methanolic acetic acid, 100% methanol, and 80% methanol, respectively, and quantified by HPLC. The contents of total phenolic acids were quantified by HPLC analysis after alkaline and acid hydrolyses. The highest contents of total phenolic acids were in brans of wheat (4527 mg/kg) and rye (4190 mg/kg) and in whole-grain flours of these grains (1342 and 1366 mg/kg, respectively). In other products, the contents varied from 111 mg/kg (white wheat bread) to 765 mg/kg (whole-grain rye bread). Common phenolic acids found in the grain products were ferulic acid (most abundant), ferulic acid dehydrodimers, sinapic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The grain products were found to contain either none or only low amounts of free phenolic acids. The content of avenanthramides in oat flakes (26-27 mg/kg) was about double that found in oat bran (13 mg/kg). The highest contents of alk(en)ylresorcinols were observed in brans of rye (4108 mg/kg) and wheat (3225 mg/kg). In addition, whole-grain rye products (rye bread, rye flour, and whole-wheat flour) contained considerable levels of alk(en)ylresorcinols (524, 927, and 759 mg/kg, respectively). PMID:16218677

Mattila, Pirjo; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Hellström, Jarkko

2005-10-19

447

The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica reprograms barley to salt-stress tolerance, disease resistance, and higher yield.  

PubMed

Disease resistance strategies are powerful approaches to sustainable agriculture because they reduce chemical input into the environment. Recently, Piriformospora indica, a plant-root-colonizing basidiomycete fungus, has been discovered in the Indian Thar desert and was shown to provide strong growth-promoting activity during its symbiosis with a broad spectrum of plants. Here, we report on the potential of P. indica to induce resistance to fungal diseases and tolerance to salt stress in the monocotyledonous plant barley. The beneficial effect on the defense status is detected in distal leaves, demonstrating a systemic induction of resistance by a root-endophytic fungus. The systemically altered "defense readiness" is associated with an elevated antioxidative capacity due to an activation of the glutathione-ascorbate cycle and results in an overall increase in grain yield. Because P. indica can be easily propagated in the absence of a host plant, we conclude that the fungus could be exploited to increase disease resistance and yield in crop plants. PMID:16174735

Waller, Frank; Achatz, Beate; Baltruschat, Helmut; Fodor, József; Becker, Katja; Fischer, Marina; Heier, Tobias; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Neumann, Christina; von Wettstein, Diter; Franken, Philipp; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2005-09-20

448

Sequence variation and haplotypes of lipoxygenase gene LOX-1 in the Australian barley varieties  

PubMed Central

Background Lipoxygenases are a family of enzymes which catalyse the hydroperoxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids with a cis, cis-1,4-pentadiene to form conjugated hydroperoxydienes. Lipoxygenase-1 (LOX-1) in barley worsens the flavour and foam stability of beer. It has become a major selection criteria for malting quality in the last few years. Results Lipoxygenase activity was investigated in 41 Australian barley cultivars and advanced breeding lines released since the 1950s; the cultivars differed markedly, ranging from 22.3 to 46.5 U/g. The structural gene and its promoter of lipoxygenase-1 were sequenced from the barley varieties representing different levels of LOX. Based on the analysis of nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences, two major haplotypes were identified. Barley varieties with lower LOX were classified into three categories based on their pedigrees and sequence variations in the structural gene: (1) barley varieties derived from Canadian varieties with the pre-harvest sprouting susceptible allele, (2) Skiff and Hindmarsh with unique haplotype in the structural gene, and (3) Gairdner and Onslow with an unknown mechanism. Conclusion Lipoxygenase activity has been reduced in the malting barley cultivars in the last 60 years although it is only recognized as a malting quality trait recently. There are clear haplotypes of the lipoxygenase structual gene. The polymorphisms detected in the structural gene can be used to design molecular markers for selection of low LOX haplotype. Other mechanisms also existed for controlling lipoxygenase activity. The results suggest that it is possible to develop barley varieties with lower LOX by combination of low LOX-1 haplotype and other trans-regulation factors. PMID:24641784

2014-01-01

449

Sources of uncertainty in nitrous oxide emissions from winter barley biofuel feedstock life cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Winter barley is an attractive feedstock for first generation biofuel production in the US Mid-Atlantic region that can serve East Coast transportation fuel markets. Recently designated advanced fuel standing by US EPA, the influence of barley grown as a winter crop on N2O emissions is uncertain because of high spatial and temporal variability. Our objective is to examine the sensitivity of direct and indirect N2O emissions to different management and environmental factors within a 20 year winter barley rotation in two Mid-Atlantic counties (Lenoir, North Carolina, and Queen Anne's, Maryland) using first order uncertainty methods. Specifically, we conducted simulations using the DayCent biogeochemical model, where winter barley was introduced in a two-year rotation following corn and preceding soybean, and grown in four-year cycles that alternate with winter wheat and fallow periods. We tested different model input parameters and analyzed the level of uncertainty each contributes to both direct and indirect N2O emissions with the introduction of barley into the crop rotation. The input values for pH, precipitation, temperature, soil texture, and fertilizer quantity applied were altered from base values and outputs for rotations with and without winter barley were compared by calculating partial derivatives for each parameter to estimate the relative change in N2O emitted. Fertilizer, followed by