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1

Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus fermentum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides inoculants, or a chemical additive on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of crimped wheat grains.  

PubMed

The preservation of crimped wheat grains by three bacterial inoculants or a chemical additive was compared. Crimped wheat grain [56.8 g dry matter (DM)/kg] was conserved in 1.75-kg plastic bag, mini-silos without treatment, with 4L/tonne of Crimpstore (CS; an additive containing a mixture of ammonium formate, propionate, ethyl benzoate, and benzoate, SAS Kelvin Cave, Ltd., UK) or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g of each of three inoculant additives containing Lactobacillus fermentum (A), Leuconostoc mesenteroides (B), and Lactobacillus buchneri (C). Six replicates were conserved per treatment. Ensiling DM losses, chemical composition, fermentation characteristics, and aerobic stability were measured in the silages after 68 d of ensiling. All the silages were well fermented and remained stable for 84 h after aeration. Subsequently, the rate of deterioration was slowest in crimped grains treated with CS treatment, followed by those treated with inoculant C, while those treated with inoculant A deteriorated most rapidly. Residual water-soluble carbohydrate concentration was higher in crimped grains treated with CS than those treated with the inoculants. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations were lowest in CS-treated crimped grains, followed by inoculants C and A. DM losses were greater in CS-treated crimped grains than in crimped grains treated with inoculants A and C. In vivo digestibility was also measured in Texel-cross lambs fed a grass silage basal diet supplemented with the additive-treated crimped grains or a conventional, lamb finisher concentrate. Dry matter intake and digestibility were unaffected by treatment. In conclusion, bacterial inoculants containing L. buchneri are promising preservatives for crimped wheat grains. PMID:12778589

Adesogan, A T; Salawu, M B; Ross, A B; Davies, D R; Brooks, A E

2003-05-01

2

Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. malting and brewing industries are America’s largest consumers of barley, purchasing more than one-half of the U.S. barley grain crop. More than 70% of the hectares seeded to barley are seeded to cultivars recommended by the American Malting Barley Association (AMBA). The malting and brewi...

3

Barley grain for ruminants: A global treasure or tragedy  

PubMed Central

Barley grain (Hordeum vulgare L.) is characterized by a thick fibrous coat, a high level of ß-glucans and simply-arranged starch granules. World production of barley is about 30 % of that of corn. In comparison with corn, barley has more protein, methionine, lysine, cysteine and tryptophan. For ruminants, barley is the third most readily degradable cereal behind oats and wheat. Due to its more rapid starch fermentation rate compared with corn, barley also provides a more synchronous release of energy and nitrogen, thereby improving microbial nutrient assimilation. As a result, feeding barley can reduce the need for feeding protected protein sources. However, this benefit is only realized if rumen acidity is maintained within an optimal range (e.g., > 5.8 to 6.0); below this range, microbial maintenance requirements and wastage increase. With a low pH, microbial endotoxines cause pro-inflammatory responses that can weaken immunity and shorten animal longevity. Thus, mismanagement in barley processing and feeding may make a tragedy from this treasure or pearl of cereal grains. Steam-rolling of barley may improve feed efficiency and post-rumen starch digestion. However, it is doubtful if such processing can improve milk production and feed intake. Due to the need to process barley less extensively than other cereals (as long as the pericarp is broken), consistent and global standards for feeding and processing barley could be feasibly established. In high-starch diets, barley feeding reduces the need for capacious small intestinal starch assimilation, subsequently reducing hindgut starch use and fecal nutrient loss. With its nutritional exclusivities underlined, barley use will be a factual art that can either matchlessly profit or harm rumen microbes, cattle production, farm economics and the environment. PMID:22958810

2012-01-01

4

Grain protein content variation and its association analysis in barley  

PubMed Central

Background Grain protein content (GPC) is an important quality determinant for barley used as malt, feed as well as food. It is controlled by a complex genetic system. GPC differs greatly among barley genotypes and is also variable across different environments. It is imperative to understand the genetic control of barley GPC and identify the genotypes with less variation under the different environments. Results In this study, 59 cultivated and 99 Tibetan wild barley genotypes were used for a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and a multi-platform candidate gene-based association analysis, in order to identify the molecular markers associated with GPC. Tibetan wild barley had higher GPC than cultivated barley. The significant correlation between GPC and diastatic power (DP), and malt extract confirmed the importance of GPC in determining malt quality. Diversity arrays technology (DArT) markers associated with barley GPC were detected by GWAS. In addition, GWAS revealed two HvNAM genes as the candidate genes controlling GPC. No association was detected between HvNAM1 polymorphism and GPC, while a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (798, P?barley. Conclusions The GWAS and candidate gene based-association study may be effectively used to determine the genetic variation of GPC in barley. The DArT markers and the polymorphism of HvNAM genes identified in this study are useful in developing high quality barley cultivars in the future. HvNAM genes could play a role in controlling barley GPC. PMID:23452582

2013-01-01

5

Megapixel imaging of (micro)nutrients in mature barley grains  

PubMed Central

Understanding the accumulation and distribution of essential nutrients in cereals is of primary importance for improving the nutritional quality of this staple food. While recent studies have improved the understanding of micronutrient loading into the barley grain, a detailed characterization of the distribution of micronutrients within the grain is still lacking. High-definition synchrotron X-ray fluorescence was used to investigate the distribution and association of essential elements in barley grain at the micro scale. Micronutrient distribution within the scutellum and the embryo was shown to be highly variable between elements in relation to various morphological features. In the rest of the grain, the distribution of some elements such as Cu and Zn was not limited to the aleurone layer but extended into the endosperm. This pattern of distribution was less marked in the case of Fe and, in particular, Mn. A significant difference in element distribution was also found between the ventral and dorsal part of the grains. The correlation between the elements was not consistent between and within tissues, indicating that the transport and storage of elements is highly regulated. The complexity of the spatial distribution and associations has important implications for improving the nutritional content of cereal crops such as barley. PMID:20819790

Lombi, Enzo; Smith, Euan; Hansen, Thomas H.; Paterson, David; de Jonge, Martin D.; Howard, Daryl L.; Persson, Daniel P.; Husted, Sřren; Ryan, Chris; Schjoerring, Jan K.

2011-01-01

6

Ground versus steam-rolled barley grain for lactating cows: a clarification into conventional beliefs.  

PubMed

Our objective was to compare the effects of grinding versus steam-rolling of barley grain at 30 or 35% of diet dry matter on feed intake, chewing behavior, rumen fermentation, and milk production in high-producing lactating cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (85 +/- 9 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment with four 21-d periods. Each period included 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of sampling. Treatments included grinding (GB) or steam-rolling (SB) of barley grains at either 35 or 30% of dietary dry matter. Diets were prepared as a total mixed ration and delivered twice daily at 0730 and 1600 h. Neither processing method nor dietary barley grain inclusion rate affected dry matter intake, daily eating, ruminating and chewing times, rumen pH and major volatile fatty acid molar percentages, or milk percentages and yields of fat and protein. Energy-corrected milk yield increased for SB compared with GB at 35% but not at 30% barley grain. Feed efficiency was increased by SB, but was unaffected by dietary barley grain level. Results suggest that at 30% dietary barley grain, GB resulted in similar lactation performance as SB and that SB did not affect productivity when dietary barley grain increased from 30 to 35%. Regardless of barley grain level, grinding effectively maintained dry matter intake and rumen pH at 4 h postfeeding, whereas steam-rolling increased feed efficiency. Increasing barley grain from 30 to 35% of diet dry matter did not improve feed intake and milk production. PMID:19528607

Soltani, A; Ghorbani, G R; Alikhani, M; Samie, A; Nikkhah, A

2009-07-01

7

Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This book chapter is part of a series reviewing advances in transgenic crop plants. The chapter covers advances in barley transformation. Conventional and biotechnological approaches to barley improvement are discussed. Experiments conducted around the world to improve barley food, feed and malting ...

8

CoulArray electrochemical evaluation of tocopherol and tocotrienol isomers in barley, oat and spelt grains.  

PubMed

Hexane extracts obtained from Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Avena sativa L. (oat), Triticum spelta Schrank and Triticum dicoccum Schrank ex Schübler (spelt or emmer) whole grains, were examined for their tocochromanol (tocopherol and tocotrienol) content. The analyses were carried out on fatty extracts by means of HPLC coupled with a coulometric array electrochemical detector (ECD). Due to the specific high selectivity of the detector, the sample can be directly injected without any preliminary treatment (e.g., saponification). Eight tocochromanol isomers have been detected in barley grains. Different barley cultivars examined showed a tocochromanol content ranging from 1620 to 1852 ng/g caryopses. Oat grains contained ca. 45 ng/g caryopses and Triticum species ca.1070 ng/g caryopses. The results are considered in view of a potential use of vitamin E derivatives as human health enhancer and as sources of antioxidants for food lipid preservation. PMID:19370933

Colombo, Maria L; Marangon, Katia; Bugatti, Carlo

2009-02-01

9

Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and decreased dressing percentage (P = 0.06), ribeye area (P = 0.10), and meat yield (P = 0.06). Severity and number of abscessed livers was greater (P = 0.006) in steers fed D-10S compared with those fed CON. Although mean ruminal pH decreased as barley silage was replaced with triticale DDGS, the trend for improved growth suggests that reduced ruminal pH did not affect animal performance. Triticale DDGS can be substituted for barley silage in finishing diets in addition to a portion of barley grain without affecting growth performance or carcass quality, but it is recommended that an antimicrobial be included in the diet to reduce liver abscesses. PMID:20495119

Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

2010-09-01

10

Relationships between early vigour, grain yield, leaf structure and stable isotope composition in field grown barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fast growth and early development in barley are used in breeding programmes to improve the water use efficiency and transpiration efficiency of this crop in Mediterranean conditions. Here, we examine the use of several simple traits based on the structure and stable isotope composition of seedling leaves to assess differences in early vigour, phenology and grain yield, and also the

Jordi Bort; JoséLuis Araus; Hani Hazzam; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli

1998-01-01

11

Tubing crimping pliers  

DOEpatents

The disclosure relates to pliers and more particularly to pliers for crimping two or more pieces of copper tubing together prior to their being permanently joined by brazing, soldering or the like. A die containing spring-loaded pins rotates within a cammed ring in the head of the pliers. As the die rotates, the pins force a crimp on tubing held within the pliers.

Lindholm, G.T.

1981-02-27

12

Association mapping of grain hardness, polyphenol oxidase, total phenolics, amylose content, and ß-glucan in US barley breeding germplasm  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A renewed interest in breeding barley specifically for food end-uses is being driven by increased consumer interest in healthier foods. We conducted association mapping on physicochemical properties of barley that play a role in food quality and processing including, grain hardness, polyphenol oxid...

13

GA Enhanced a-Amylase Synthesis in Halved Grains of Barley (Hordeum vulgare): A Simple Laboratory Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory demonstration is suggested for the formation of a-amylase enzyme in halved grains of barley. Data presented in the article provide some information of the pattern of a- and b-amylase activity during germination. (PS)

Freeland, P. W.

1972-01-01

14

Differences in Grain Ultrastructure, Phytochemical and Proteomic Profiles between the Two Contrasting Grain Cd-Accumulation Barley Genotypes  

PubMed Central

To reveal grain physio-chemical and proteomic differences between two barley genotypes, Zhenong8 and W6nk2 of high- and low- grain-Cd-accumulation, grain profiles of ultrastructure, amino acid and proteins were compared. Results showed that W6nk2 possesses significantly lower protein content, with hordein depicting the greatest genotypic difference, compared with Zhenong8, and lower amino acid contents with especially lower proportion of Glu, Tyr, Phe and Pro. Both scanning and transmission electron microscopy observation declared that the size of A-type starch molecule in W6nk2 was considerably larger than that of Zhenong8. Grains of Zhenong8 exhibited more protein-rich deposits around starch granules, with some A-type granules having surface pits. Seventeen proteins were identified in grains, using 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry, with higher expression in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including z-type serpin, serpin-Z7 and alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitor CM, carbohydrate metabolism, protein synthesis and signal transduction related proteins. Twelve proteins were less expressed in Zhenong8 than that in W6nk2; including barley trypsin inhibitor chloroform/methanol-soluble protein (BTI-CMe2.1, BTI-CMe2.2), trypsin inhibitor, dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), pericentrin, dynein heavy chain and some antiviral related proteins. The data extend our understanding of mechanisms underlying Cd accumulation/tolerance and provides possible utilization of elite genetic resources in developing low-grain-Cd barley cultivars. PMID:24260165

Sun, Hongyan; Cao, Fangbin; Wang, Nanbo; Zhang, Mian; Mosaddek Ahmed, Imrul; Zhang, Guoping; Wu, Feibo

2013-01-01

15

Piriformospora indica mycorrhization increases grain yield by accelerating early development of barley plants.  

PubMed

Root colonization by the basidiomycete fungus Piriformospora indica induces host plant tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress, and enhances growth and yield. As P. indica has a broad host range, it has been established as a model system to study beneficial plant-microbe interactions. Moreover, its properties led to the assumption that P. indica shows potential for application in crop plant production. Therefore, possible mechanisms of P. indica improving host plant yield were tested in outdoor experiments: Induction of higher grain yield in barley was independent of elevated pathogen levels and independent of different phosphate fertilization levels. In contrast to the arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus mosseae total phosphate contents of host plant roots and shoots were not significantly affected by P. indica. Analysis of plant development and yield parameters indicated that positive effects of P. indica on grain yield are due to accelerated growth of barley plants early in development. PMID:21150264

Achatz, Beate; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Franken, Philipp; Waller, Frank

2010-12-01

16

A History of Small Grain Crops in Texas: Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye 1582-1976.  

E-print Network

rain Crops Texas 1 [Blank Page in Original Bulletin] r A History of Small Grain Crops in Texas Wheat, Oats, Barley, Rye 1582-1976 Wheat for Man's Bread Introduction, Production, and Research Oats in Texas Through Three Centuries 1731... in 1582. (Observations of wheat growing at that location were reported earlier.) Casteiiada (29) writes that Don Pedro de Rivera observed fields of wheat and corn near Presidio in 1726. In 1731, Captain Joseph Idoyago visited the mission at San...

Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1980-01-01

17

Response of barley grains to the interactive e.ect of salinity and salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effect of grain soaking presowing in 1 mM salicylic acid (SA) and NaCl (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mM) on barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Gerbel) was studied. Increasing of NaCl level reduced the germination percentage, the growth parameters (fresh and dry weight), potassium, calcium, phosphorus and insoluble sugars content in both shoots and roots of 15-day old seedlings. Leaf relative water

M. A. El-Tayeb

2005-01-01

18

Barley Oil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an ancient grain that has was domesticated for use as a food. Currently only about 2% is used for food, about two thirds is used for animal feed and one third for malting. Because the oil content of most barley cultivars is low (<2%), obtaining oil from whole barley gra...

19

Effects of barley grain processing on the site and extent of digestion of beef feedlot finishing diets.  

PubMed

Effects of extent of barley rolling on chewing activities, ruminal fermentation, and site and extent of digestion were evaluated for feedlot finishing cattle diets in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Four Jersey steers (452 kg), cannulated in the rumen and duodenum, were used. Barley grain was temper-rolled to four extents: coarse, medium, medium-flat, and flat, which were expressed as processing index (PI, volume weight of barley after processing expressed as a percentage of its volume weight before processing, DM basis) and equivalent to 82, 75, 70, and 65%, respectively. Diets consisted of 9.7% barley silage, 86% temper-rolled barley, and 4.3% other ingredients (DM basis). Steers were offered ad libitum access to a total mixed ration once daily. Dry matter intake was not affected (P > 0.15) by PI of barley. Digestibility of OM in the rumen and in the total tract were numerically lower (P = 0.13) for steers fed coarsely rolled barley than for steers fed more extensively processed barley. Digestibility of starch in the total tract was linearly increased (P = 0.02) with grain processing, but NDF digestion was not affected by processing (P > 0.15). Digestibility of CP did not differ in the rumen but tended (P = 0.08) to increase in the total tract with increased processing of barley. Flow of microbial nitrogen to the duodenum was approximately one-third lower (linear effect, P = 0.06) for steers fed coarsely rolled barley than for steers fed further rolled barley. Increased grain processing tended to decrease (linear effect, P = 0.08) rumination time without affecting eating time. These results indicate that optimal degree of rolling for barley fed to feedlot cattle corresponded to a PI of 75% or lower. Coarsely rolled barley is not recommended because it resulted in the lowest digestibility and lowest microbial protein synthesis. Processing barley to attain a PI less than 75% resulted in marginal improvements in feed digestion, but rumination time decreased, which could lead to problems associated with acidosis if lower-fiber diets are used. PMID:11465381

Beauchemin, K A; Yang, W Z; Rode, L M

2001-07-01

20

Transcriptome Assembly and Analysis of Tibetan Hulless Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum) Developing Grains, with Emphasis on Quality Properties  

PubMed Central

Background Hulless barley is attracting increasing attention due to its unique nutritional value and potential health benefits. However, the molecular biology of the barley grain development and nutrient storage are not well understood. Furthermore, the genetic potential of hulless barley has not been fully tapped for breeding. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we investigated the transcriptome features during hulless barley grain development. Using Illumina paired-end RNA-Sequencing, we generated two data sets of the developing grain transcriptomes from two hulless barley landraces. A total of 13.1 and 12.9 million paired-end reads with lengths of 90 bp were generated from the two varieties and were assembled to 48,863 and 45,788 unigenes, respectively. A combined dataset of 46,485 All-Unigenes were generated from two transcriptomes with an average length of 542 bp, and 36,278 among were annotated with gene descriptions, conserved protein domains or gene ontology terms. Furthermore, sequences and expression levels of genes related to the biosynthesis of storage reserve compounds (starch, protein, and ?-glucan) were analyzed, and their temporal and spatial patterns were deduced from the transcriptome data of cultivated barley Morex. Conclusions/Significance We established a sequences and functional annotation integrated database and examined the expression profiles of the developing grains of Tibetan hulless barley. The characterization of genes encoding storage proteins and enzymes of starch synthesis and (1–3;1–4)-?-D-glucan synthesis provided an overview of changes in gene expression associated with grain nutrition and health properties. Furthermore, the characterization of these genes provides a gene reservoir, which helps in quality improvement of hulless barley. PMID:24871534

Chen, Xin; Long, Hai; Gao, Ping; Deng, Guangbing; Pan, Zhifen; Liang, Junjun; Tang, Yawei; Tashi, Nyima; Yu, Maoqun

2014-01-01

21

Barley grain constituents, starch composition, and structure affect starch in vitro enzymatic hydrolysis.  

PubMed

The relationship between starch physical properties and enzymatic hydrolysis was determined using ten different hulless barley genotypes with variable carbohydrate composition. The ten barley genotypes included one normal starch (CDC McGwire), three increased amylose starches (SH99250, SH99073, and SB94893), and six waxy starches (CDC Alamo, CDC Fibar, CDC Candle, Waxy Betzes, CDC Rattan, and SB94912). Total starch concentration positively influenced thousand grain weight (TGW) (r(2) = 0.70, p < 0.05). Increase in grain protein concentration was not only related to total starch concentration (r(2) = -0.80, p < 0.01) but also affected enzymatic hydrolysis of pure starch (r(2) = -0.67, p < 0.01). However, an increase in amylopectin unit chain length between DP 12-18 (F-II) was detrimental to starch concentration (r(2) = 0.46, p < 0.01). Amylose concentration influenced granule size distribution with increased amylose genotypes showing highly reduced volume percentage of very small C-granules (<5 ?m diameter) and significantly increased (r(2) = 0.83, p < 0.01) medium sized B granules (5-15 ?m diameter). Amylose affected smaller (F-I) and larger (F-III) amylopectin chains in opposite ways. Increased amylose concentration positively influenced the F-III (DP 19-36) fraction of longer DP amylopectin chains (DP 19-36) which was associated with resistant starch (RS) in meal and pure starch samples. The rate of starch hydrolysis was high in pure starch samples as compared to meal samples. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate both in meal and pure starch samples followed the order waxy > normal > increased amylose. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) increased with a decrease in amylose concentration. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed a higher polydispersity index of amylose in CDC McGwire and increased amylose genotypes which could contribute to their reduced enzymatic hydrolysis, compared to waxy starch genotypes. Increased ?-glucan and dietary fiber concentration also reduced the enzymatic hydrolysis of meal samples. An average linkage cluster analysis dendrogram revealed that variation in amylose concentration significantly (p < 0.01) influenced resistant starch concentration in meal and pure starch samples. RS is also associated with B-type granules (5-15 ?m) and the amylopectin F-III (19-36 DP) fraction. In conclusion, the results suggest that barley genotype SH99250 with less decrease in grain weight in comparison to that of other increased amylose genotypes (SH99073 and SH94893) could be a promising genotype to develop cultivars with increased amylose grain starch without compromising grain weight and yield. PMID:21462932

Asare, Eric K; Jaiswal, Sarita; Maley, Jason; Bĺga, Monica; Sammynaiken, Ramaswami; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

2011-05-11

22

Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation  

PubMed Central

In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

Leymarie, Juliette

2013-01-01

23

Induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia in barley grains and its hormonal regulation.  

PubMed

In barley, primary dormant grains did not germinate at 30 °C in air and at 15 °C in an atmosphere containing less than 10% O2, while they germinated easily at 15 °C in air. O2 tension in embryos measured with microsensors was 15.8% at 15 °C but only 0.3% at 30 °C. Incubation of grains at 30 °C is known to induce secondary dormancy in barley, and it was shown here that secondary dormancy was also induced by a 3 d treatment in O2 tensions lower than 10% at 15 °C. After such treatments, the grains lost their ability to germinate subsequently at 15 °C in air. During seed treatment in 5% O2, embryo abscisic acid (ABA) content decreased more slowly than in air and was not altered after transfer into air. Hypoxia did not alter the expression of ABA metabolism genes after 1 d, and induction of HvNCED2 occurred only after 3 d in hypoxia. Embryo sensitivity to ABA was similar in both primary and hypoxia-induced secondary dormant grains. Gibberellic acid (GA) metabolism genes were highly regulated and regulated earlier by the hypoxia treatment, with major changes in HvGA2ox3, HvGA3ox2 and HvGA20ox1 expression after 1 d, resulting in reduced GA signalling. Although a high temperature has an indirect effect on O2 availability, the data showed that it did not affect expression of prolyl-4-hydroxylases and that induction of secondary dormancy by hypoxia at 15 °C or by high temperature in air involved separate signalling pathways. Induction by hypoxia at 15 °C appears to be more regulated by GA and less by ABA than the induction by high temperature. PMID:23519728

Hoang, Hai Ha; Bailly, Christophe; Corbineau, Françoise; Leymarie, Juliette

2013-04-01

24

Post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in mycorrhizal barley plants.  

PubMed

An essential goal for modern agriculture is the simultaneous improvement of productivity efficiency and nutrient use efficiency. One way to achieve this goal in crops is to enhance nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) acquisition through the mycorrhizal association. This study examined the effect of mycorrhization on post-anthesis N and P dynamics and its impact on grain yield and quality in barley. In addition, the efficiency of both N and P utilization and remobilization was evaluated. With those purposes, barley plants inoculated or not with Rhizophagus intraradices were grown in a soil poor in N and P under greenhouse conditions. Inoculation with R. intraradices in barley enhanced both N and P content in grain and vegetative tissue and reduced phloem amino acid export rate. On the other hand, both N and P vegetative tissue content and phloem amino acid and P export rates decreased during grain filling, whereas N and P grain content increased in both treatments according to the senescence process. However, whereas N grain concentration decreased during grain filling, P grain concentration did not vary, thus suggesting a differential regulation on grain filling. Inoculation with R. intraradices improved the yield and grain quality, thus demonstrating that inoculation with R. intraradices in barley is beneficial, but mycorrhization caused a diminution in nutrient utilization efficiency. As the phloem remobilization rate of amino acids and P did not decrease during grain filling in R. intraradices-inoculated plants compared to non-inoculated ones, these results suggest that nutrient utilization efficiency is most probably regulated by sink strength rather by a mycorrhizal effect. PMID:25242016

Criado, Maria V; H Gutierrez Boem, Flavio; Roberts, Irma N; Caputo, Carla

2014-09-23

25

Protein fraction of barley spent grain as a new simple medium for growth and sporulation of soil actinobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cheap value-added product, the protein fraction of barley spent grains is proposed as a source of a potential and economical cultivation medium. We showed that medium composed of protein fraction extract allows the isolation of actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces, from soil samples, and enhances the sporulation. It was used for the screening and production of the biologically active substances from

Bogumila Szponar; Krzysztof J. Pawlik; Andrzej Gamian; Estera Szwajcer Dey

2003-01-01

26

The barley anion channel, HvALMT1, has multiple roles in guard cell physiology and grain metabolism.  

PubMed

The barley (Hordeum vulgare) gene HvALMT1 encodes an anion channel in guard cells and in certain root tissues indicating that it may perform multiple roles. The protein localizes to the plasma membrane and facilitates malate efflux from cells when constitutively expressed in barley plants and Xenopus oocytes. This study investigated the function of HvALMT1 further by identifying its tissue-specific expression and by generating and characterizing RNAi lines with reduced HvALMT1 expression. We show that transgenic plants with 18-30% of wild-type HvALMT1 expression had impaired guard cell function. They maintained higher stomatal conductance in low light intensity and lost water more rapidly from excised leaves than the null segregant control plants. Tissue-specific expression of HvALMT1 was investigated in developing grain and during germination using transgenic barley lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) with the HvALMT1 promoter. We found that HvALMT1 is expressed in the nucellar projection, the aleurone layer and the scutellum of developing barley grain. Malate release measured from isolated aleurone layers prepared from imbibed grain was significantly lower in the RNAi barley plants compared with control plants. These data provide molecular and physiological evidence that HvALMT1 functions in guard cells, in grain development and during germination. We propose that HvALMT1 releases malate and perhaps other anions from guard cells to promote stomatal closure. The likely roles of HvALMT1 during seed development and grain germination are also discussed. PMID:24853664

Xu, Muyun; Gruber, Benjamin D; Delhaize, Emmanuel; White, Rosemary G; James, Richard A; You, Jiangfeng; Yang, Zhenming; Ryan, Peter R

2015-01-01

27

Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

28

A Role for Barley CRYPTOCHROME1 in Light Regulation of Grain Dormancy and Germination[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

It is well known that abscisic acid (ABA) plays a central role in the regulation of seed dormancy and that transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA biosynthetic and degradation enzymes is responsible for determining ABA content. However, little is known about the upstream signaling pathways impinging on transcription to ultimately regulate ABA content or how environmental signals (e.g., light and cold) might direct such expression in grains. Our previous studies indicated that light is a key environmental signal inhibiting germination in dormant grains of barley (Hordeum vulgare), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and Brachypodium distachyon and that this effect attenuates as after-ripening progresses further. We found that the blue component of the light spectrum inhibits completion of germination in barley by inducing the expression of the ABA biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase and dampening expression of ABA 8’-hydroxylase, thus increasing ABA content in the grain. We have now created barley transgenic lines downregulating the genes encoding the blue light receptors CRYTOCHROME (CRY1) and CRY2. Our results demonstrate that CRY1 is the key receptor perceiving and transducing the blue light signal in dormant grains. PMID:24642944

Barrero, Jose M.; Downie, A. Bruce; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank

2014-01-01

29

Spatiotemporal Profiling of Starch Biosynthesis and Degradation in the Developing Barley Grain1[W  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains synthesize starch as the main storage compound. However, some starch is degraded already during caryopsis development. We studied temporal and spatial expression patterns of genes coding for enzymes of starch synthesis and degradation. These profiles coupled with measurements of selected enzyme activities and metabolites have allowed us to propose a role for starch degradation in maternal and filial tissues of developing grains. Early maternal pericarp functions as a major short-term starch storage tissue, possibly ensuring sink strength of the young caryopsis. Gene expression patterns and enzyme activities suggest two different pathways for starch degradation in maternal tissues. One pathway possibly occurs via ?-amylases 1 and 4 and ?-amylase 1 in pericarp, nucellus, and nucellar projection, tissues that undergo programmed cell death. Another pathway is deducted for living pericarp and chlorenchyma cells, where transient starch breakdown correlates with expression of chloroplast-localized ?-amylases 5, 6, and 7, glucan, water dikinase 1, phosphoglucan, water dikinase, isoamylase 3, and disproportionating enzyme. The suite of genes involved in starch synthesis in filial starchy endosperm is much more complex than in pericarp and involves several endosperm-specific genes. Transient starch turnover occurs in transfer cells, ensuring the maintenance of sink strength in filial tissues and the reallocation of sugars into more proximal regions of the starchy endosperm. Starch is temporally accumulated also in aleurone cells, where it is degraded during the seed filling period, to be replaced by storage proteins and lipids. PMID:19321714

Radchuk, Volodymyr V.; Borisjuk, Ludmilla; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Merx, Kathleen; Mock, Hans-Peter; Rolletschek, Hardy; Wobus, Ulrich; Weschke, Winfriede

2009-01-01

30

Study of Barley Grain Molecular Structure for Ruminants Using DRIFT, FTIR-ATR and Synchrotron Radiation Infrared Microspectroscopy (SR-IMS): A Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barley inherent structures are highly associated with nutrient utilization and availability in both humans and animals. Barley has different degradation kinetics compared with other cereal grains. It has a relatively higher degradation rate and extent, which often cause digestive disorder in the rumen. Therefore understanding barley inherent structure at cellular and molecular levels and processing-induced structure changes is important, because we can manipulate barley inherent structures and digestive behaviors. Several molecular spectroscopy techniques can be used to detect barley inherent structures at cellular and molecular levels. This article reviews several applications of the IR molecular spectral bioanalytical techniques - DRIFT, FT/IR-ATR and SR-IMS for barley chemistry, molecular structure and molecular nutrition research

Yu, Peiqiang

2012-05-01

31

Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.  

PubMed

Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower ?-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower ?-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher ?-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of ?-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of ?-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification. PMID:25136990

Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

2014-09-01

32

Effects of Zn Fertilization on Hordein Transcripts at Early Developmental Stage of Barley Grain and Correlation with Increased Zn Concentration in the Mature Grain  

PubMed Central

Zinc deficiency is causing malnutrition for nearly one third of world populations. It is especially relevant in cereal-based diets in which low amounts of mineral and protein are present. In biological systems, Zn is mainly associated with protein. Cereal grains contain the highest Zn concentration during early developmental stage. Although hordeins are the major storage proteins in the mature barley grain and suggested to be involved in Zn binding, very little information is available regarding the Zn fertilization effects of hordein transcripts at early developmental stage and possible incorporation of Zn with hordein protein of matured grain. Zinc fertilization experiments were conducted in a greenhouse with barley cv. Golden Promise. Zn concentration of the matured grain was measured and the results showed that the increasing Zn fertilization increased grain Zn concentration. Quantitative real time PCR showed increased level of total hordein transcripts upon increasing level of Zn fertilization at 10 days after pollination. Among the hordein transcripts the amount of B-hordeins was highly correlated with the Zn concentration of matured grain. In addition, protein content of the matured grain was analysed and a positive linear relationship was found between the percentage of B-hordein and total grain Zn concentration while C-hordein level decreased. Zn sensing dithizone assay was applied to localize Zn in the matured grain. The Zn distribution was not limited to the embryo and aleurone layer but was also present in the outer part of the endosperm (sub-aleurone layers) which known to be rich in proteins including B-hordeins. Increased Zn fertilization enriched Zn even in the endosperm. Therefore, the increased amount of B-hordein and decreased C-hordein content suggested that B-hordein upregulation or difference between B and C hordein could be one of the key factors for Zn biofortification of cereal grains due to the Zn fertilization. PMID:25250985

Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka; Vincze, Eva

2014-01-01

33

Wire Crimp Connectors Verification using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp connections is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp connector and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which previously has been used to assess crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies (missing wire strands, incorrect wire gauge, incomplete wire insertion in connector) are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with pull-testing data) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying the technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

34

The detection of QTLs in barley associated with endosperm hardness, grain density, grain size and malting quality using rapid phenotyping tools.  

PubMed

Using a barley mapping population, 'Vlamingh' × 'Buloke' (V × B), whole grain analyses were undertaken for physical seed traits and malting quality. Grain density and size were predicted by digital image analysis (DIA), while malt extract and protein content were predicted using near infrared (NIR) analysis. Validation of DIA and NIR algorithms confirmed that data for QTL analysis was highly correlated (R (2) > 0.82), with high RPD values (the ratio of the standard error of prediction to the standard deviation, 2.31-9.06). Endosperm hardness was measured on this mapping population using the single kernel characterisation system. Grain density and endosperm hardness were significantly inter-correlated in all three environments (r > 0.22, P < 0.001); however, other grain components were found to interact with the traits. QTL for these traits were also found on different genomic regions, for example, grain density QTLs were found on chromosomes 2H and 6H, whereas endosperm hardness QTLs were found on 1H, 5H, and 7H. In this study, the majority of the genomic regions associated with grain texture were also coincident with QTLs for grain size, yield, flowering date and/or plant development genes. This study highlights the complexity of genomic regions associated with the variation of endosperm hardness and grain density, and their relationships with grain size traits, agronomic-related traits, and plant development loci. PMID:23884598

Walker, Cassandra K; Ford, Rebecca; Muńoz-Amatriaín, María; Panozzo, Joe F

2013-10-01

35

Crop identification studies using Landsat data Separation of barley from other spring small grains and corn and soybean decision logic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two labeling procedures were developed which identify various agricultural crops through the use of Landsat data. One procedure separates barley from other spring small grains, and the other identifies corn and soybeans. For both procedures, a minimum data set (critical acquisition time) has been designated. Landsat data in both image format and various graphic displays were used along with ancillary data to obtain information which aided in labeling the spectral signatures. The corn and soybean procedure also employed a structured decision logic. Test results for the barley separation procedure emphasized the importance of obtaining a critical acquisition and showed some success especially in areas where spring crops followed the expected growth patterns. Two tests of the corn and soybean procedure produced good labeling accuracies. Problems with the procedure were easy to identify, and some solutions were implemented for the second test. Automation of various parts of the procedure and extension to other crops and regions were recommended.

Dailey, C. L.; Register, D. T.; Abotteen, K. M.; Palmer, W. F.; Spikes, G. D.; Magness, E. R.; Wade, L. C.

1980-01-01

36

A roadmap for zinc trafficking in the developing barley grain based on laser capture microdissection and gene expression profiling  

PubMed Central

Nutrients destined for the developing cereal grain encounter several restricting barriers on their path towards their final storage sites in the grain. In order to identify transporters and chelating agents that may be involved in transport and deposition of zinc in the barley grain, expression profiles have been generated of four different tissue types: the transfer cells, the aleurone layer, the endosperm, and the embryo. Cells from these tissues were isolated with the ‘laser capture microdissection’ technology and the extracted RNA was subjected to three rounds of T7-based amplification. The amplified RNA was subsequently hybridized to Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChips. Due to the short average length of the amplified transcripts and the positioning of numerous probe sets at locations more than 400 base pairs (bp) from the poly(A)-tail, a normalization approach was used where the probe positions were taken into account. On the basis of the expression levels of a number of metal homeostasis genes, a working model is proposed for the translocation of zinc from the phloem to the storage sites in the developing grain. PMID:19297552

Tauris, Birgitte; Borg, Sřren; Gregersen, Per L.; Holm, Preben B.

2009-01-01

37

Caspase-Like Activities Accompany Programmed Cell Death Events in Developing Barley Grains  

PubMed Central

Programmed cell death is essential part of development and cell homeostasis of any multicellular organism. We have analyzed programmed cell death in developing barley caryopsis at histological, biochemical and molecular level. Caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities increased with aging of pericarp coinciding with abundance of TUNEL positive nuclei and expression of HvVPE4 and HvPhS2 genes in the tissue. TUNEL-positive nuclei were also detected in nucellus and nucellar projection as well as in embryo surrounding region during early caryopsis development. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of micro-dissected grain tissues revealed the expression of HvVPE2a, HvVPE2b, HvVPE2d, HvPhS2 and HvPhS3 genes exclusively in the nucellus/nucellar projection. The first increase in cascade of caspase-1, -3, -4, -6 and -8-like activities in the endosperm fraction may be related to programmed cell death in the nucellus and nucellar projection. The second increase of all above caspase-like activities including of caspase-9-like was detected in the maturating endosperm and coincided with expression of HvVPE1 and HvPhS1 genes as well as with degeneration of nuclei in starchy endosperm and transfer cells. The distribution of the TUNEL-positive nuclei, tissues-specific expression of genes encoding proteases with potential caspase activities and cascades of caspase-like activities suggest that each seed tissue follows individual pattern of development and disintegration, which however harmonizes with growth of the other tissues in order to achieve proper caryopsis development. PMID:25286287

Tran, Van; Weier, Diana; Radchuk, Ruslana; Thiel, Johannes; Radchuk, Volodymyr

2014-01-01

38

Feeding high proportions of barley grain in a total mixed ration perturbs diurnal patterns of plasma metabolites in lactating dairy cows.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of feeding increasing proportions of barley grain in a total mixed ration (TMR) on diurnal plasma metabolite fluctuations in high-producing dairy cows. Eight early- to mid-lactation (60 to 140 d in milk) primiparous Holstein cows were assigned to a double 4 x 4 Latin square experimental design. Each experimental period lasted 21 d with the first 11 d used for diet adaptation. Cows were fed a TMR once daily at 0800 h containing no barley grain (control diet), or 15, 30, and 45% (dry matter basis) barley grain as well as barley silage. Blood samples were collected from the tail vein on the last day of each period shortly before (i.e., 0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after the morning feeding. Concentrations of glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyric acid, cholesterol, and lactate in plasma were measured. Results of this study showed that feeding increasing proportions of barley grain affected concentrations of glucose and lactate in plasma with greater plasma glucose and lactate in cows fed the highest amount of grain; however, the amount of grain in the diet did not have an effect on diurnal patterns of plasma glucose. Additionally, the concentration of NEFA in plasma was greater in cows fed the higher grain diets and was greater in the hours following the morning meal than later in the day. The amount of grain in the diet was associated with lower plasma beta-hydroxybutyric acid, which increased particularly after the morning meal. Interestingly, cows fed the most barley grain had the lowest plasma cholesterol and this decreased during the day. In conclusion, the concomitant increase of glucose, lactate, and NEFA as well as the decrease of plasma cholesterol in cows fed high proportions of barley grain suggest that high inclusion of barley grain in the diet played a role in the diurnal patterns of plasma metabolites in lactating dairy cows. However, further research is warranted to understand involvement of these metabolic changes on the long-term health and productivity of dairy cows. PMID:19233801

Ametaj, B N; Emmanuel, D G V; Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M

2009-03-01

39

Changes in chalazal cell walls and in the peroxidase enzymes of the crease region during grain development in barley.  

PubMed

In an investigation of the role of peroxidase enzymes in the differentiation of the tissues of the crease region of barley, plants of winter barley cv. Halcyon were grown from anthesis onwards in controlled conditions at a constant temperature of 16 degrees C. Four ears were harvested at 2-d intervals from 6 d after anthesis (daa) until 50 daa. Grains from mid-ear were used for (i) fresh and dry weight determinations, (ii) extraction of crease tissue for the determination of peroxidase activity and for the separation of isozymes of peroxidase by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and (iii) detection of lignin and suberin in the tissues of the crease using autofluorescence and cytochemistry. Peroxidase activity was located histochemically in the crease tissue of cv. Chariot. Scanning electron microscopy studies were carried out on developing grains of cv. Blenheim. Maximum grain water content was achieved at 14 daa. Lignin and suberin were detected in the walls of the chalazal cells from 18 daa onwards. No changes in the staining of chalazal cell walls were detected at the end of grain filling (32 daa), but loss of autofluorescence and staining were observed at 42 daa, just prior to the final, rapid phase of grain dehydration. Peroxidase activity per fresh weight of crease tissue was high at 6 daa and low at 22 daa. It was also low between 32 and 40 daa, but it rose again from 42 daa onwards. IEF demonstrated that both anionic and cationic isozymes of peroxidase were present in crease tissue, the pattern of bands showing some marked changes during the course of grain development. PMID:10938807

Cochrane, M P; Paterson, L; Gould, E

2000-03-01

40

Wire Crimp Termination Verification Using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating through the junction of a crimp termination and wire is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Various crimp junction pathologies such as undercrimping, missing wire strands, incomplete wire insertion, partial insulation removal, and incorrect wire gauge are ultrasonically tested, and their results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently (as evidenced with destructive testing) predicts good crimps when ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A physics-based model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. Finally, an approach for application to multipin indenter type crimps will be discussed.

Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, K. Elliott; Yost, William T.

2007-01-01

41

Gibberellin-to-abscisic acid balances govern development and differentiation of the nucellar projection of barley grains  

PubMed Central

In cereal grains, the maternal nucellar projection (NP) constitutes the link to the filial organs, forming a transfer path for assimilates and signals towards the endosperm. At transition to the storage phase, the NP of barley (Hordeum vulgare) undergoes dynamic and regulated differentiation forming a characteristic pattern of proliferating, elongating, and disintegrating cells. Immunolocalization revealed that abscisic acid (ABA) is abundant in early non-elongated but not in differentiated NP cells. In the maternally affected shrunken-endosperm mutant seg8, NP cells did not elongate and ABA remained abundant. The amounts of the bioactive forms of gibberellins (GAs) as well as their biosynthetic precursors were strongly and transiently increased in wild-type caryopses during the transition and early storage phases. In seg8, this increase was delayed and less pronounced together with deregulated gene expression of specific ABA and GA biosynthetic genes. We concluded that differentiation of the barley NP is driven by a distinct and specific shift from lower to higher GA:ABA ratios and that the spatial–temporal change of GA:ABA balances is required to form the differentiation gradient, which is a prerequisite for ordered transfer processes through the NP. Deregulated ABA:GA balances in seg8 impair the differentiation of the NP and potentially compromise transfer of signals and assimilates, resulting in aberrant endosperm growth. These results highlight the impact of hormonal balances on the proper release of assimilates from maternal to filial organs and provide new insights into maternal effects on endosperm differentiation and growth of barley grains. PMID:25024168

Weier, Diana; Thiel, Johannes; Kohl, Stefan; Tarkowská, Danuše; Strnad, Miroslav; Schaarschmidt, Sara; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans; Hause, Bettina

2014-01-01

42

Evaluation of the procedure for separating barley from other spring small grains. [North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota and Montana  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The success of the Transition Year procedure to separate and label barley and the other small grains was assessed. It was decided that developers of the procedure would carry out the exercise in order to prevent compounding procedural problems with implementation problems. The evaluation proceeded by labeling the sping small grains first. The accuracy of this labeling was, on the average, somewhat better than that in the Transition Year operations. Other departures from the original procedure included a regionalization of the labeling process, the use of trend analysis, and the removal of time constraints from the actual processing. Segment selection, ground truth derivation, and data available for each segment in the analysis are discussed. Labeling accuracy is examined for North Dakota, South Dakota, Minnesota, and Montana as well as for the entire four-state area. Errors are characterized.

Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1980-01-01

43

Particle Size Effects on the Quality of Flour Tortillas Enriched with Whole Grain Waxy Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat tortillas were enriched with whole barley flour (WBF) of different particle sizes including 237 micros (regular-R), 131 micros (intermediate-IM), and 68 micros (microground-MG). Topographical and fluorescent microstructure images of flours, doughs and tortillas were examined. Flours and tort...

44

Association mapping of Russian Wheat Aphid Resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA) infestations of barley cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking, and prevent unrolling of leaves which traps spikes and reduces grain yield. Resistant accessions identified in the NSGC were used to develop adapted, resistant germplasm and cultivars. This study identified...

45

Association mapping of Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley as a method to identify diversity in the National Small Grains Collection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia [Kurdjumov]) is an ongoing problem in the western USA. Infestations in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cause chlorotic leaf spotting and streaking and prevent unrolling of emerging leaves which trap spikes and severely reduce fertility and grain yield. Resistant...

46

QTL dissection of the loss of green colour during post-anthesis grain maturation in two-rowed barley.  

PubMed

Ability to genetically manipulate the loss of green colour during grain maturation has potentials for increasing productivity, disease resistance, and drought and heat tolerance in crop plants. Two doubled haploid, two-rowed barley populations (Vlamingh × Buloke and VB9524 × ND11231*12) were monitored over 2 years for loss of green colour during grain filling using a portable active sensor. The aims were to determine the genomic regions that control trait heritability by quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, and to examine patterns of QTL-environment interactions under different conditions of water stress. In the Vlamingh × Buloke cross, broad-sense heritability estimate for loss of green colour (measured as the difference in sensor readings taken at anthesis and maturity, ?SRI) was 0.68, and 0.78 for the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population. In the VB9524 × ND11231*12 population, rapid loss of green colour was positively associated with grain yield and percent plump grains, but in the Vlamingh × Buloke population, a slower loss of green colour (low ?SRI) was associated with increased grain plumpness. With the aid of a dense array of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and EST-derived SSR markers, a total of nine QTLs were detected across the two populations. Of these, a single major locus on the short arm of barley chromosome 5H was consistently linked with trait variation across the populations and multiple environments. The QTL was independent of flowering time and explained between 5.4 and 15.4 % of the variation observed in both populations, depending on the environment, and although a QTL × E interaction was detected, it was largely due to a change in the magnitude of the effect, rather than a change in direction. The results suggest that loss of green colour during grain maturation may be under the control of a simple genetic architecture, but a careful study of target populations and environments would be required for breeding purposes. PMID:23604470

Emebiri, Livinus C

2013-07-01

47

RUMINAL AND POST-RUMINAL UTILIZATION OF NITROGEN AND STARCH FROM SORGHUM GRAIN, CORN AND BARLEY-BASED DIETS BY BEEF STEERS z'2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorghum grain-, corn- and barley-based diets (approximately 82% grain) were fed to six ab- omasal-fistulated steers (avg. weight 448 kg) in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin-square design to determine ruminal, post-ruminal and total tract utilization of N and starch, and extent of bacterial protein synthesis. Each trial included a 6-d period of total fecal collection and abornasal sampling (12-h

Lawson A. Spicer; C. Brent Theurer; Jabel Sowe; T. H. Noon

2010-01-01

48

A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins  

PubMed Central

Among the C1A cysteine proteases, the plant cathepsin F-like group has been poorly studied. This paper describes the molecular and functional characterization of the HvPap-1 cathepsin F-like protein from barley. This peptidase is N-glycosylated and has to be processed to become active by its own propeptide being an important modulator of the peptidase activity. The expression pattern of its mRNA and protein suggest that it is involved in different proteolytic processes in the barley plant. HvPap-1 peptidase has been purified in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein is able to degrade different substrates, including barley grain proteins (hordeins, albumins, and globulins) stored in the barley endosperm. It has been localized in protein bodies and vesicles of the embryo and it is induced in aleurones by gibberellin treatment. These three features support the implication of HvPap-1 in storage protein mobilization during grain germination. In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described PMID:22791822

Diaz, Isabel

2012-01-01

49

Energy value of wheat, barley, and wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for broiler chickens determined using the regression method.  

PubMed

The energy value of wheat, barley, and 2 samples of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (WDDGS) for broiler chickens were determined in 2 experiments with Ross 708 broiler chickens from d 15 to 22 posthatch. The birds were fed a standard broiler starter diet from d 1 to 15 posthatch. In each experiment, 320 birds were grouped by weight into 8 blocks of 5 cages with 8 birds per cage and assigned to 5 diets. There were 5 diets in each experiment consisting of a corn-soybean meal reference diet (RD) and 4 test diets (TD). The TD consisted of each of the 2 WDDGS samples (experiment 1), wheat, or barley (experiment 2) that partly replaced the energy sources in the RD at 100 or 200 g/kg such that the same ratios were maintained for all energy ingredients across all experimental diets. The ileal digestible energy (IDE), ME, and MEn of the WDDGS samples, wheat, and barley were determined by the regression method. Dry matter of WDDGS1, WDDGS2, wheat, and barley were 939, 947, 899, and 890 g/kg, respectively; the gross energies were 4,838; 4,825; 4,456; and 4,567 kcal/kg of DM, respectively. Addition of WDDGS to the RD in experiment 1 linearly decreased (P<0.01) ileal nitrogen and energy digestibilities, total tract utilization of DM, energy and nitrogen, as well as ME and MEn of the TD. In experiment 2, IDE, ME, and MEn in the TD decreased (P<0.01) with increasing levels of barley in the diets, but wheat inclusion had no effect on the IDE, ME, and MEn of the diets. Wheat inclusion linearly improved (P<0.05) DM and energy utilization in TD. The DE, ME, and MEn of the test ingredients were determined by the regression method in which the test ingredient contribution to DE, ME, and MEn in kilocalories was regressed against the amount of test ingredient in grams. The IDE were 2,001 and 1,831 kcal/kg of DM for WDDGS1 and WDDGS2, respectively. The respective ME and MEn values were 2,644 and 2,464 kcal/kg of DM for WDDGS1 and 2,215 and 2,092 kcal/kg of DM for WDDGS2. The respective IDE, ME, and MEn of wheat for broiler chickens were 3,413; 3,713; and 3,372 kcal/kg of DM. The barley sample evaluated contained 2,364 kcal of IDE, 2,894 kcal of ME, and 2,841 kcal of MEn/kg of DM for broiler chickens. PMID:22802187

Bolarinwa, O A; Adeola, O

2012-08-01

50

Expression of the gamma-zein protein of maize in seeds of transgenic barley: effects on grain composition and properties.  

PubMed

A cDNA clone encoding the gamma-zein protein of maize was expressed in developing grain of barley using the starchy endosperm cell-specific promoter from the wheat Glu-1D-1 (HMW subunit 1Dx5) gene. Seven transgenic lines were recovered from 226 bombarded immature embryos, of which two were sterile and four tetraploid, while five were shown to express the gamma-zein protein based on western blotting. Southern blot analysis showed the presence of between about three and twelve transgene insertions. Detailed comparative studies of five null and five homozygous transformed sub-lines from transgenic line A showed that gamma-zein accounted for over 4% of the total prolamin fraction, corresponding to about 1.9% of the total grain N. Comparison of the proteins present in the gel protein fraction demonstrated that the gamma-zein was incorporated into polymers, as in maize. However, there was no effect on grain hardness measured using the Perten Single Kernel Characterisation System or on the vitreousness measured by visual inspection. This contrasts with the situation in maize where a clear association with vitreousness has been reported. PMID:12671764

Zhang, Y; Darlington, H; Jones, H D; Halford, N G; Napier, J A; Davey, M R; Lazzeri, P A; Shewry, P R

2003-04-01

51

Effects of increasing levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles and monensin on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation in beef heifers fed high-barley grain diets.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine whether increasing corn-based dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in high-barley grain diets reduces the merit of using higher levels of monensin by assessing intake, digestibility, and ruminal pH and fermentation in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally and duodenally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 599±36 kg) were used in a 5×5 Latin square with a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (CON, 10% barley silage, 90% barley-based concentrate, and 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets substituting 20% (LDG) or 40% (HDG) DDGS for barley grain with 28 mg (ML) or 48 mg (MH) monensin/kg diet DM: 1) CONML, 2) LDGML, 3) HDGML, 4) LDGMH, and 5) HDGMH. Contrasts compared LDG vs. HDG, ML vs. MH, interactions between DDGS and monensin, and the effect of increasing DDGS in the diet. Increasing DDGS quadratically (P<0.01) increased DMI. There was no interaction for DMI between the dietary inclusion rate of DDGS and the dose of monensin; however, DMI was reduced (P<0.05) for heifers fed MH vs. ML. Ruminal digestibility of OM, NDF, and starch linearly decreased (P<0.01), but intestinal digestibility linearly increased (P<0.01) with increasing DDGS, resulting in no differences in total tract digestibility. Ruminal digestibility of OM was greater (P<0.04) in heifers fed MH than ML; however, the total tract digestibility of OM was not affected. Intake of N, flows of total N, nonammonia N, and dietary N were linearly (P<0.02) increased, and the efficiency of ruminal microbial synthesis linearly (P<0.04) improved with increasing DDGS. Increasing DDGS inclusion linearly decreased (P<0.04) the acetate to propionate ratio. Inclusion of MH decreased (P<0.04) acetate and increased (P<0.05) NH3-N compared to ML, but high monensin did not affect mean ruminal pH, the duration of pH<5.8, 5.5, 5.2, or the area below the curve at pH 5.8, 5.5, and 5.2, indicating that there was no evidence that it modulated ruminal pH. These results suggest that feeding monensin at 48 vs. 28 mg/kg diet DM altered nutrient availability and site of feed digestion, likely as a result of reduced DMI and increased ruminal digestion of DM. High levels of monensin may reduce the risk of acidosis through a reduction in DMI, but in the present study this was not evident in differences in the ruminal pH profiles between heifers fed ML and MH diets. PMID:24045473

Xu, L; Jin, Y; He, M L; Li, C; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

2013-11-01

52

Drying characteristic of barley under natural convection in a mixed-mode type solar grain dryer  

SciTech Connect

Thin-layer solar drying characteristics of barley were determined at average natural air flow temperature ranging from 43.4 to 51.7 C and for relative humidities ranging from 16.5% to 37.5%. A mixed-mode type natural convection solar dryer was used for this experiment. The data of sample weight, and dry and wet bulb temperatures of the drying air were recorded continuously throughout the drying period for each test. The drying data were then fitted to the Page model. The model gave a good fit for the moisture content with an average standard error of 0.305% dry basis. The parameter N in Page's equation was assumed as a product-dependent constant which made it easy to compare the effects of independent variables on the natural convection solar drying rate without causing considerable error in predicting the drying rate for barley. A linear relationship was found between the parameter K, temperature T, and relative humidity R{sub H}.

Basunia, M.A.; Abe, T.

1999-07-01

53

The Application of Ultrasonic Inspection to Crimped Electrical Connections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to quantitatively assess wire crimp terminations is discussed. The development of a prototype instrument, based on a modified, commercially available, crimp tool, is demonstrated for applying this technique when wire crimps are installed. The crimp tool has three separate crimping locations that accommodate the three different ferrule diameters. The crimp tool in this study is capable of crimping wire diameters ranging from 12 to 26 American Wire Gauge (AWG). A transducer design is presented that allows for interrogation of each of the three crimp locations on the crimp tool without reconfiguring the device. An analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse is shown to correlate to both crimp location in the tool and the AWG of the crimp/ferrule combination. The detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, is discussed. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2010-01-01

54

Prececal, postileal and total tract starch digestion in ponies fed corn, oats, barley or sorghum grain  

E-print Network

granule size and soft endosperm of oats and bar- ley were similar in starch granule size. Results of the digestion trial suggest species of grain is not a significant factor in determining availability of starch at low levels of intake. Digestion... properties of cereal grains have been investigated in attempts to determine major factors responsible for dif- fering nutritive value between and within species of gt'ain. The eudosperm in cereal grains is composed primarily of starch granules embedded...

Arnold, Fairfax Ferguson

1982-01-01

55

Polymorphism in the barley granule bound starch synthase 1 (gbss1) gene associated with grain starch variant amylose concentration.  

PubMed

Granule bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1) accumulation within starch granules and structure of Gbss1 alleles were determined for nine barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes producing amylose-free (undetectable), near-waxy (1.6-4.5%), normal (25.8%), and increased (38.0-40.8%) amylose grain starches. Compared to normal starch granules, GBSS1 accumulation was severely reduced in three near-waxy, slightly reduced in two waxy, and slightly elevated in three increased amylose starches. Gbss1 nucleotide sequence analysis for the nine genotypes distinguished them into three Gbss1 groups with several single-nucleotide polymorphisms. A new unique Q312H substitution within GBSS1 was discovered in near-waxy genotype SB94912 with reduced amylose (1.6%) concentration relative to the other two near-waxy lines, CDC Rattan and CDC Candle (4.5%). The two waxy genotype GBSS1 showed a previously described D287V change for CDC Alamo and a new G513W change for CDC Fibar. Both amino acid alterations are conserved residues within starch synthase domains involved in glucan interaction. The increased amylose genotypes showed several unique nucleotide changes within the second and fourth Gbss1 introns, but only SB94893 GBSS1 showed a unique amino acid substitution, A250T in exon 6. The Gbss1 nucleotide differences were used to design genetic markers to monitor Gbss1 alleles in genotypes with various amylose grain starches. PMID:22950712

Asare, Eric K; Bĺga, Monica; Rossnagel, Brian G; Chibbar, Ravindra N

2012-10-10

56

Linking stomatal traits and expression of slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 with grain yield for increasing salinity tolerance in barley  

PubMed Central

Soil salinity is an environmental and agricultural problem in many parts of the world. One of the keys to breeding barley for adaptation to salinity lies in a better understanding of the genetic control of stomatal regulation. We have employed a range of physiological (stomata assay, gas exchange, phylogenetic analysis, QTL analysis), and molecular techniques (RT-PCR and qPCR) to investigate stomatal behavior and genotypic variation in barley cultivars and a genetic population in four experimental trials. A set of relatively efficient and reliable methods were developed for the characterization of stomatal behavior of a large number of varieties and genetic lines. Furthermore, we found a large genetic variation of gas exchange and stomatal traits in barley in response to salinity stress. Salt-tolerant cultivar CM72 showed significantly larger stomatal aperture under 200 mM NaCl treatment than that of salt-sensitive cultivar Gairdner. Stomatal traits such as aperture width/length were found to significantly correlate with grain yield under salt treatment. Phenotypic characterization and QTL analysis of a segregating double haploid population of the CM72/Gairdner resulted in the identification of significant stomatal traits-related QTLs for salt tolerance. Moreover, expression analysis of the slow anion channel genes HvSLAH1 and HvSLAC1 demonstrated that their up-regulation is linked to higher barley grain yield in the field. PMID:25505473

Liu, Xiaohui; Mak, Michelle; Babla, Mohammad; Wang, Feifei; Chen, Guang; Veljanoski, Filip; Wang, Gang; Shabala, Sergey; Zhou, Meixue; Chen, Zhong-Hua

2014-01-01

57

Effect of time and temperature on the hydration process of barley grains  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The barley behavior during hydration regarding to water absorption, density, volume variation, and solids loss is identified, as well as employ mathematical models such as diffusional, Peleg, Weibull distribution function and first order kinetics, in order to verify the effect of temperature on the process. Hydration was carried out over 32 h at six different temperatures: 35, 30, 25, 20, 15 and 10 °C. The hydration isotherms were divided into two phases, the first one comprising the first 8 h, with a high hydration rate, and the second one in which the moisture content increases slowly until it reaches the equilibrium moisture content. During the first hour of process, the solids loss at 35 °C was 3.95 % higher than at 10 °C. The effective diffusion coefficients ranged from 5.14 to 10.8 × 10-12 m2/s. The model of Peleg and the first order kinetics model best described the water absorption characteristics at the temperatures investigated.

Montanuci, Flávia Daiana; Jorge, Luiz Mario Matos; Jorge, Regina Maria Matos

2015-03-01

58

S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5–44.5 and 9.2–11.3%, respectively, after 18–24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

Corbineau, FranÇOise

2012-01-01

59

S phase of the cell cycle: a key phase for the regulation of thermodormancy in barley grain.  

PubMed

The aim of the present work was to investigate the occurrence of the cell cycle during germination as related to thermodormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L., cv. Pewter) grains in relation with abscisic acid (ABA) by: (i) flow cytometry to determine the progression of the cell cycle; and (ii) reverse transcription-PCR to characterize the expression of some important genes involved in cell-cycle regulation. In dry embryos, cells are mostly (82%) arrested in G1 phase of the cell cycle, the remaining cells being in the G2 (17%) or S phase (0.9%). Germination at 20 °C was associated with an increase in the nuclei population in G2 and S (up to 32.5-44.5 and 9.2-11.3%, respectively, after 18-24h). At 30 °C, partial reactivation of the cell cycle occurred in embryos of dormant grains that did not germinate. Incubation with 50mM hydroxyurea suggests that thermodormancy resulted in a blocking of the nuclei in the S phase. In dry dormant grains, transcripts of CDKA1, CYCA3, KRP4, and WEE1 were present, while those of CDKB1, CDKD1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 were not detected. Incubation at 30 °C resulted in a strong reduction of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4 expression and overexpression of CDK1 and KRP4. ABA had a similar effect as incubation at 30 °C on the expression of CDKB1, CYCB1, and CYCD4, but did not increase that of CDK1 and KRP4. Patterns of gene expression are discussed with regard to thermodormancy expression and ABA. PMID:22859679

Gendreau, Emmanuel; Cayla, Thibaud; Corbineau, Françoise

2012-09-01

60

Interactions Between Barley Grain Processing and Source of Supplemental Dietary Fat on Nitrogen Metabolism and Urea-Nitrogen Recycling in Dairy Cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to determine the ef- fects of methods of barley grain processing and source of supplemental fat on urea-N transfer to the gastroin- testinal tract (GIT) and the utilization of this recycled urea-N in lactating dairy cows. Four ruminally cannu- lated Holstein cows (656.3 ± 27.7 kg of BW; 79.8 ± 12.3 d in milk)

G. N. Gozho; M. R. Hobin; T. Mutsvangwa

2008-01-01

61

Analysis of the genotype-by-environment interaction of spring barley tested in the Nordic Region of Europe: Relationships among stability statistics for grain yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variation in agronomic and quality characteristics was investigated in 220 Nordic spring barley cultivars across distinct\\u000a environments (6 locations during 3 years) in the Nordic Region of Europe. The objectives of this research were to determine\\u000a the importance of the genotype by environment interaction in all characteristics evaluated and to establish the relationship\\u000a among different stability statistics for grain yield.

Minna Nurminiemi; Sten Madsen; Odd Arne Rognli; Âsmund Bjřrnstad; Rodomiro Ortiz

2002-01-01

62

Ultrasonic Inspection to Quantify Failure Pathologies of Crimped Electrical Connections  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous work has shown that ultrasonic inspection provides a means of assessing electrical crimp quality that ensures the electrical and mechanical integrity of an initial crimp before the installation process is completed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination was shown to correlate with the results of destructive pull tests, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. Of additional concern are crimps made at high speed assembly lines for wiring harnesses, which are used for critical applications, such as in aircraft. During high-speed assembly it is possible that many faulty crimps go undetected until long after assembly, and fail in service. The position and speed of the crimping jaw become factors as the high-speed crimp is formed. The work presented in this paper is designed to cover the more difficult and more subtle area of high-speed crimps by taking into account the rate change of the measurements. Building on the previous work, we present an analysis methodology, based on transmitted ultrasonic energy and timing of the first received pulse that is shown to correlate to the gauge of the crimp/ferrule combination and the position of the crimping jaw. Results demonstrating the detectability of a number of the crimp failure pathologies, such as missing strands, partially inserted wires and incomplete crimp compression, are presented. The ability of this technique to estimate crimp height, a mechanical measure of crimp quality, is discussed.

Cramer, K. Elliott; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William T.

2014-01-01

63

Variation in the interaction between alleles of HvAPETALA2 and microRNA172 determines the density of grains on the barley inflorescence.  

PubMed

Within the cereal grasses, variation in inflorescence architecture results in a conspicuous morphological diversity that in crop species influences the yield of cereal grains. Although significant progress has been made in identifying some of the genes underlying this variation in maize and rice, in the temperate cereals, a group that includes wheat, barley, and rye, only the dosage-dependent and highly pleiotropic Q locus in hexaploid wheat has been molecularly characterized. Here we show that the characteristic variation in the density of grains along the inflorescence, or spike, of modern cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare) is largely the consequence of a perturbed interaction between microRNA172 and its corresponding binding site in the mRNA of an APELATA2 (AP2)-like transcription factor, HvAP2. We used genome-wide association and biparental mapping to identify HvAP2. By comparing inflorescence development and HvAP2 transcript abundance in an extreme dense-spike mutant and its nearly isogenic WT line, we show that HvAP2 turnover driven by microRNA 172 regulates the length of a critical developmental window that is required for elongation of the inflorescence internodes. Our data indicate that this heterochronic change, an altered timing of developmental events caused by specific temporal variation in the efficiency of HvAP2 turnover, leads to the striking differences in the size and shape of the barley spike. PMID:24065816

Houston, Kelly; McKim, Sarah M; Comadran, Jordi; Bonar, Nicola; Druka, Ilze; Uzrek, Nicola; Cirillo, Elisa; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Collins, Nicholas C; Halpin, Claire; Hansson, Mats; Dockter, Christoph; Druka, Arnis; Waugh, Robbie

2013-10-01

64

Effect of feeding diets containing barley, wheat and corn distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass traits and meat quality in growing rabbits.  

PubMed

The effect of dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on carcass and meat quality of longissimus muscle was studied in 100 growing rabbits from 28 to 59days old. Diets with no DDGS (C), barley (Db20), wheat (Dw20) and corn (Dc20) DDGS at 20% and corn (Dc40) DDGS at 40% were formulated. No effects on most of the carcass traits, texture and water holding capacity were found. Barley and corn DDGS led to a higher dissectible fat percentage. Meat redness was higher with Dw20 and pH was higher with Dw20 and Db20 than with Dc20. Protein and saturated fatty acids concentration declined as corn DDGS level increased. Dc40 led to the lowest saturated/unsaturated fatty acid ratio, atherogenic index and thrombogenic index. In conclusion, dietary inclusion of these DDGS at 20% did not affect most of the carcass and meat quality traits in rabbits. PMID:25437451

Alagón, Gilbert; Arce, Orlando; Serrano, Paula; Ródenas, Luis; Martínez-Paredes, Eugenio; Cervera, Concepción; Pascual, Juan José; Pascual, Mariam

2015-03-01

65

Barley grain with adhering hulls is controlled by an ERF family transcription factor gene regulating a lipid biosynthesis pathway  

PubMed Central

In contrast to other cereals, typical barley cultivars have caryopses with adhering hulls at maturity, known as covered (hulled) barley. However, a few barley cultivars are a free-threshing variant called naked (hulless) barley. The covered/naked caryopsis is controlled by a single locus (nud) on chromosome arm 7HL. On the basis of positional cloning, we concluded that an ethylene response factor (ERF) family transcription factor gene controls the covered/naked caryopsis phenotype. This conclusion was validated by (i) fixation of the 17-kb deletion harboring the ERF gene among all 100 naked cultivars studied; (ii) two x-ray-induced nud alleles with a DNA lesion at a different site, each affecting the putative functional motif; and (iii) gene expression strictly localized to the testa. Available results indicate the monophyletic origin of naked barley. The Nud gene has homology to the Arabidopsis WIN1/SHN1 transcription factor gene, whose deduced function is control of a lipid biosynthesis pathway. Staining with a lipophilic dye (Sudan black B) detected a lipid layer on the pericarp epidermis only in covered barley. We infer that, in covered barley, the contact of the caryopsis surface, overlaid with lipids to the inner side of the hull, generates organ adhesion. PMID:18316719

Taketa, Shin; Amano, Satoko; Tsujino, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomohiko; Saisho, Daisuke; Kakeda, Katsuyuki; Nomura, Mika; Suzuki, Toshisada; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sato, Kazuhiro; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Shinji; Takeda, Kazuyoshi

2008-01-01

66

Barley HvHMA1 Is a Heavy Metal Pump Involved in Mobilizing Organellar Zn and Cu and Plays a Role in Metal Loading into Grains  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. Heavy metal transporters belonging to the P1B-ATPase subfamily of P-type ATPases are key players in cellular heavy metal homeostasis. In this study we investigated the properties of HvHMA1, which is a barley orthologue of Arabidopsis thaliana AtHMA1 localized to the chloroplast envelope. HvHMA1 was localized to the periphery of chloroplast of leaves and in intracellular compartments of grain aleurone cells. HvHMA1 expression was significantly higher in grains compared to leaves. In leaves, HvHMA1 expression was moderately induced by Zn deficiency, but reduced by toxic levels of Zn, Cu and Cd. Isolated barley chloroplasts exported Zn and Cu when supplied with Mg-ATP and this transport was inhibited by the AtHMA1 inhibitor thapsigargin. Down-regulation of HvHMA1 by RNA interference did not have an effect on foliar Zn and Cu contents but resulted in a significant increase in grain Zn and Cu content. Heterologous expression of HvHMA1 in heavy metal-sensitive yeast strains increased their sensitivity to Zn, but also to Cu, Co, Cd, Ca, Mn, and Fe. Based on these results, we suggest that HvHMA1 is a broad-specificity exporter of metals from chloroplasts and serve as a scavenging mechanism for mobilizing plastid Zn and Cu when cells become deficient in these elements. In grains, HvHMA1 might be involved in mobilizing Zn and Cu from the aleurone cells during grain filling and germination. PMID:23155447

Mikkelsen, Maria Dalgaard; Pedas, Pai; Schiller, Michaela; Vincze, Eva; Mills, Rebecca F.; Borg, Sřren; Mřller, Annette; Schjoerring, Jan K.; Williams, Lorraine E.; Baekgaard, Lone; Holm, Preben Bach; Palmgren, Michael G.

2012-01-01

67

Barley Production in Texas.  

E-print Network

. No recent feeding trials of barley have been made by the Texas Experi- ment Station but frequent analysis of barley grown in the state show that it is nearly equal to corn in feeding value. It is higher in protein, ash, and crude fibre; but lower... in nitrogen free extract and productive energy per 100 pounds of feed. The analysis of barley and several other grains as given in Texas Bulletin Number 461, "The Composition and Utilization of Texas Feeding Stuffs," are given in table 2. Table 2. Analysi...

Dunkle, P. B. (Paul Burtch); Atkins, Irvin Milburn

1941-01-01

68

Crimp morphology in relaxed and stretched rat Achilles tendon.  

PubMed

Fibrous extracellular matrix of tendon is considered to be an inextensible anatomical structure consisting of type I collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Under polarized light microscopy the collagen fibre bundles appear crimped with alternating dark and light transverse bands. This study describes the ultrastructure of the collagen fibrils in crimps of both relaxed and in vivo stretched rat Achilles tendon. Under polarized light microscopy crimps of relaxed Achilles tendons appear as isosceles or scalene triangles of different size. Tendon crimps observed via SEM and TEM show the single collagen fibrils that suddenly change their direction containing knots. The fibrils appear partially squeezed in the knots, bent on the same plane like bayonets, or twisted and bent. Moreover some of them lose their D-period, revealing their microfibrillar component. These particular aspects of collagen fibrils inside each tendon crimp have been termed 'fibrillar crimps' and may fulfil the same functional role. When tendon is physiologically stretched in vivo the tendon crimps decrease in number (46.7%) (P<0.01) and appear more flattened with an increase in the crimp top angle (165 degrees in stretched tendons vs. 148 degrees in relaxed tendons, P<0.005). Under SEM and TEM, the 'fibrillar crimps' are still present, never losing their structural identity in straightened collagen fibril bundles of stretched tendons even where tendon crimps are not detectable. These data suggest that the 'fibrillar crimp' may be the true structural component of the tendon crimp acting as a shock absorber during physiological stretching of Achilles tendon. PMID:17229278

Franchi, Marco; Fini, Milena; Quaranta, Marilisa; De Pasquale, Viviana; Raspanti, Mario; Giavaresi, Gianluca; Ottani, Vittoria; Ruggeri, Alessandro

2007-01-01

69

7 CFR 810.201 - Definition of barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...810.201 Definition of barley. Grain that, before the removal of dockage...and not more than 25 percent of other grains for which standards have been established under the United States Grain Standards Act. The term “barley” as...these standards does not include hull-less barley or black...

2010-01-01

70

Improvement of Fermentation and Nutritive Quality of Straw-grass Silage by Inclusion of Wet Hulless-barley Distillers’ Grains in Tibet  

PubMed Central

In order to develop methods that would enlarge the feed resources in Tibet, mixtures of hulless-barley straw and tall fescue were ensiled with four levels (0, 10%, 20%, and 30% of fresh weight) of wet hulless-barley distillers’ grains (WHDG). The silos were opened after 7, 14 or 30 d of ensiling, and the fermentation characteristics and nutritive quality of the silages were analyzed. WHDG addition significantly improved fermentation quality, as indicated by the faster decline of pH, rapid accumulation of lactic acid (LA) (p<0.05), and lower butyric acid content and ammonia-N/total N (p<0.05) as compared with the control. These results indicated that WHDG additions not only effectively inhibited the activity of aerobic bacteria, but also resulted in faster and greatly enhanced LA production and pH value decline, which restricted activity of undesirable bacteria, resulting in more residual water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in the silages. The protein content of WHDG-containing silages were significantly higher (p<0.05) higher than that of the control. In conclusion, the addition of WHDG increased the fermentation and nutritive quality of straw-grass silage, and this effect was more marked when the inclusion rate of WHDG was greater than 20%. PMID:25049588

Yuan, Xianjun; Yu, Chengqun; Shimojo, M.; Shao, Tao

2012-01-01

71

Elastic model for crimped collagen fibrils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the nonlinear elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils in a fascicle have a three-dimensional structure at the micron scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this wave form allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form: all integrals become analytic. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendinece.

Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

2005-01-01

72

Elastic Response of Crimped Collagen Fibrils  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A physiologic constitutive expression is presented in algorithmic format for the elastic response of wavy collagen fibrils found in soft connective tissues. The model is based on the observation that crimped fibrils have a three-dimensional structure at the micrometer scale that we approximate as a helical spring. The symmetry of this waveform allows the force/displacement relationship derived from Castigliano's theorem to be solved in closed form. Model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations for mitral-valve chordae tendineae

Freed, Alan D.; Doehring, Todd C.

2005-01-01

73

Tendon crimps and peritendinous tissues responding to tensional forces.  

PubMed

Tendons transmit forces generated from muscle to bone making joint movements possible. Tendon collagen has a complex supramolecular structure forming many hierarchical levels of association; its main functional unit is the collagen fibril forming fibers and fascicles. Since tendons are enclosed by loose connective sheaths in continuity with muscle sheaths, it is likely that tendon sheaths could play a role in absorbing/transmitting the forces created by muscle contraction. In this study rat Achilles tendons were passively stretched in vivo to be observed at polarized light microscope (PLM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). At PLM tendon collagen fibers in relaxed rat Achilles tendons ran straight and parallel, showing a periodic crimp pattern. Similarly tendon sheaths showed apparent crimps. At higher magnification SEM and TEM revealed that in each tendon crimp large and heterogeneous collagen fibrils running straight and parallel suddenly changed their direction undergoing localized and variable modifications. These fibril modifications were named fibrillar crimps. Tendon sheaths displayed small and uniform fibrils running parallel with a wavy course without any ultrastructural aspects of crimp. Since in passively stretched Achilles tendons fibrillar crimps were still observed, it is likely that during the tendon stretching, and presumably during the tendon elongation in muscle contraction, the fibrillar crimp may be the real structural component of the tendon crimp acting as shock absorber. The peritendinous sheath can be stretched as tendon, but is not actively involved in the mechanism of shock absorber as the fibrillar crimp. The different functional behaviour of tendons and sheaths may be due to the different structural and molecular arrangement of their fibrils. PMID:17703588

Franchi, M; Quaranta, M; De Pasquale, V; Macciocca, M; Orsini, E; Trirč, A; Ottani, V; Ruggeri, A

2007-01-01

74

Tenocyte contraction induces crimp formation in tendon-like tissue.  

PubMed

Tendons are composed of longitudinally aligned collagen fibrils arranged in bundles with an undulating pattern, called crimp. The crimp structure is established during embryonic development and plays a vital role in the mechanical behaviour of tendon, acting as a shock-absorber during loading. However, the mechanism of crimp formation is unknown, partly because of the difficulties of studying tendon development in vivo. Here, we used a 3D cell culture system in which embryonic tendon fibroblasts synthesise a tendon-like construct comprised of collagen fibrils arranged in parallel bundles. Investigations using polarised light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and fluorescence microscopy showed that tendon constructs contained a regular pattern of wavy collagen fibrils. Tensile testing indicated that this superstructure was a form of embryonic crimp producing a characteristic toe region in the stress-strain curves. Furthermore, contraction of tendon fibroblasts was the critical factor in the buckling of collagen fibrils during the formation of the crimp structure. Using these biological data, a finite element model was built that mimics the contraction of the tendon fibroblasts and monitors the response of the Extracellular matrix. The results show that the contraction of the fibroblasts is a sufficient mechanical impulse to build a planar wavy pattern. Furthermore, the value of crimp wavelength was determined by the mechanical properties of the collagen fibrils and inter-fibrillar matrix. Increasing fibril stiffness combined with constant matrix stiffness led to an increase in crimp wavelength. The data suggest a novel mechanism of crimp formation, and the finite element model indicates the minimum requirements to generate a crimp structure in embryonic tendon. PMID:21735243

Herchenhan, Andreas; Kalson, Nicholas S; Holmes, David F; Hill, Patrick; Kadler, Karl E; Margetts, Lee

2012-03-01

75

Quality control on crimping of large diameter welding pipe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crimping is used in production of large diameter submerged-arc welding pipes. Many researches are focused on crimping in certain manufacturing mode of welding pipe. The application scopes of research achievements become limited due to lack of uniformity in theoretical analysis. In order to propose a crimping prediction method in order to control forming quality, the theory model of crimping based on elastic-plastic mechanics is established. The main technical parameters are determined by theoretical analysis, including length of crimping, base radius of punch, terminal angle of punch, base radius of die, terminal angle of die and horizontal distance between punch and die. In addition, a method used to evaluate the forming quality is presented, which investigates the bending angle after springback, forming force, straight edge length and equivalent radius of curvature. In order to investigate the effects of technical parameters on forming quality, a two-dimensional finite element model is established by finite element software ABAQUS. The finite element model is verified in that its shapes error is less than 5% by comparable experiments, which shows that their geometric precision meets demand. The crimping characteristics is obtained, such as the distribution of stress and strain and the changes of forming force, and the relation curves of technical parameters on forming quality are given by simulation analysis. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effects of length of crimping, technical parameters of punch on forming quality are significant. In particular, the data from simulation analysis are regressed by response surface method (RSM) to establish prediction model. The feasible technical parameters are obtained from the prediction model. This method presented provides a new thought used to design technical parameters of crimping forming and makes a basis for improving crimping forming quality.

Fan, Lifeng; Gao, Ying; Li, Qiang; Xu, Hongshen

2012-11-01

76

Co-fermentation of hemicellulose and starch from barley straw and grain for efficient pentoses utilization in acetone-butanol-ethanol production.  

PubMed

This study aims to efficiently use hemicellulose-based biomass for ABE (acetone-butanol-ethanol) production by co-fermentation with starch-based biomass. Two processes were investigated: (I) co-fermentation of sugars derived from hemicellulose and starch in a mixture of barley straw and grain that was pretreated with dilute acid; (II) co-fermentation of straw hemicellulosic hydrolysate and gelatinized grain slurry in which the straw was pretreated with dilute acid. The two processes produced 11.3 and 13.5g/L ABE that contains 7.4 and 7.8g/L butanol, respectively. In process I, pretreatment with 1.0% H2SO4 resulted in better ABE fermentability than with 1.5% H2SO4, but only 19% of pentoses were consumed. In process II, 95% of pentoses were utilized even in the hemicellulosic hydrolysate pretreated with more severe condition (1.5% H2SO4). The results suggest that process II is more favorable for hemicellulosic biomass utilization, and it is also attractive for sustainable biofuel production due to great biomass availability. PMID:25536510

Yang, Ming; Kuittinen, Suvi; Zhang, Junhua; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

2015-03-01

77

What Foods Are in the Grain Group?  

MedlinePLUS

What foods are in the Grains Group? Any food made from wheat, rice, oats, cornmeal, barley or another cereal ... whole grains and refined grains. How many grain foods are needed daily? The amount of grains you ...

78

Influence of the physical form of barley grain on the digestion of its starch in the human small intestine and implications for health13  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that incomplete diges- tion of cereal starch explains the low energy values of certain cereals of large particle size. We used human subjects with ileostomies to investigate the digestion of barley and to deter- mine whether the physical form of barley affects stomal ex- cretion of starch, glucooligosacchanides, nitrogen, fat, and cal- culated energy. Only 2

Geoffrey Livesey; Jacqueline A Wilkinson; Mark Roe; Richard Faulks; Sybil Clark; Jacqueline C Brown; Hugh Kennedy; Marinos Elia

79

Kinetics of crimp and slope grip in rock climbing.  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate differences of the kinetics of the crimp and the slope grip used in rock climbing. Nine cadaver fingers were prepared and fixated with the proximal phalanx in a frame. The superficial (FDS) and deep (FDP) flexor tendons were loaded selectively and together with 40 N in the crimp grip (PIP joint flexed 90°/DIP joint hyperextended) and the slope grip position (<25° flexed/50° flexed respectively). Five different grip sizes were tested and the flexion force which was generated to the grip was measured. In the crimp grip the FDP generated more flexion force in small sized holds whereas the FDS generated more force in the larger holds. During the slope grip the FDP was more effective than the FDS. While both tendons were loaded, the flexion force was always greater during crimp grip compared with the slope grip. The FDP seems to be most important for very small holds using the crimp grip but also during slope grip holds whereas the FDS is more important for larger flat holds. PMID:21576719

Schweizer, Andreas; Hudek, Robert

2011-05-01

80

Mechanical properties of crimped mineral wools: Identification from digital image correlation  

E-print Network

Mechanical properties of crimped mineral wools: Identification from digital image correlation Jean-Saint-Gobain, 19 rue Emile Zola, F-60290 Rantigny, France. (Dated: November 6, 2007) Abstract Crimped mineral wools of experimental data on mineral wool with different crimping structures. Keywords: Anisotropic media, finite

81

Effects of a short-term p-hydroxybenzoic acid application on grain yield and yield components in different tiller categories of spring barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of these experiments was to evaluate how thresholds for phytotoxic substances obtained in seedling bioassays relate to yield losses or changes in yield components of mature barley crops after a short-term exposure to p-hydroxybenzoic acid. Under laboratory conditions a treatment with 1.81 mM p-hydroxybenzoic acid significantly reduced the radicle length of barley, whereas coleoptile elongation was less sensitive.

O. Christen; J. V. Lovett

1993-01-01

82

Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize at high measurement temperatures. . The simplicity of these techniques makes it possible to attach thermocouples quickly. . These techniques can be used to attach thermocouples at locations where access is somewhat restricted by the surrounding objects.

Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

2006-01-01

83

A Method For The Verification Of Wire Crimp Compression Using Ultrasonic Inspection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a new ultrasonic measurement technique to assess quantitatively wire crimp terminations is discussed. The amplitude change of a compressional ultrasonic wave propagating at right angles to the wire axis and through the junction of a crimp termination is shown to correlate with the results of a destructive pull test, which is a standard for assessing crimp wire junction quality. To demonstrate the technique, the case of incomplete compression of crimped connections is ultrasonically tested, and the results are correlated with pull tests. Results show that the nondestructive ultrasonic measurement technique consistently predicts good crimps when the ultrasonic transmission is above a certain threshold amplitude level. A quantitative measure of the quality of the crimped connection based on the ultrasonic energy transmitted is shown to respond accurately to crimp quality. A wave propagation model, solved by finite element analysis, describes the compressional ultrasonic wave propagation through the junction during the crimping process. This model is in agreement within 6% of the ultrasonic measurements. A prototype instrument for applying this technique while wire crimps are installed is also presented. The instrument is based on a two-jaw type crimp tool suitable for butt-splice type connections. A comparison of the results of two different instruments is presented and shows reproducibility between instruments within a 95% confidence bound.

Cramer, K. E.; Perey, Daniel F.; Yost, William t.

2010-01-01

84

Feeding behavior and ruminal pH of corn silage, barley grain, and corn dried distillers' grain offered in a total mixed ration or in a free-choice diet to beef cattle.  

PubMed

Seventy-nine continental crossbred beef heifers (524.4 ± 41.68 kg BW), 16 of which were ruminally cannulated, were used in a 53-d experiment with a generalized randomized block design to assess the effects of barley grain (BG), corn silage (CS), and corn distillers' grain (DG) offered in a free-choice diet on feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation. Treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) consisting of 85% BG, 10% CS, and 5% supplement or free-choice (i.e., self-selection) diets of BG and CS (BGCS), BG and corn dry DG (BGDG), or CS and corn DG (CSDG). Heifers were housed in groups of 9 or 10 in 8 pens and weighed 2 h before feed delivery at d 0, 21, 42, and 52 of the study. Pens were equipped with an electronic feed bunk monitoring system enabling feed intake and feeding behavior to be continuously monitored. Each of these pens was randomly allocated 2 cannulated heifers equipped with indwelling pH probes for continuous measurement of ruminal pH during wk 1, 2, 4, and 7. Blood and rumen contents were taken from cannulated heifers 2 h after feed delivery on d -3, 0, 7, 8, 42, and 49. Cattle fed either TMR or free-choice diets had similar (P > 0.10) ruminal fermentation, blood profile, and growth performance, with the exception of the CSDG diet, for which ruminal pH levels were consistently greater (P < 0.01) and performance was lower (P < 0.01). When DG was a component in free-choice diets, heifers reduced its inclusion in the diet (P < 0.05) over the experiment without affecting growth rate or ruminal fluid pH. Finishing feedlot cattle fed BG and CS separately selected a diet with a greater proportion of BG (85% DMI) compared to the TMR with no signs of acidosis. When cattle were given free-choice access to corn dry DG as an alternative to CS, they consumed levels up to 30% of their total daily DMI. Under the conditions of our experiment cattle can effectively self-select diets without increasing the risk of subclinical acidosis and still maintain similar levels of growth and feed efficiency compared with a TMR. PMID:25006072

Moya, D; Holtshausen, L; Marti, S; Gibb, D G; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K

2014-08-01

85

Analysis and comparison of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis from three barley biomass/byproduct streams  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluidized bed fast pyrolysis was carried out on three different barley biomass coproduct streams, barley straw, barley hulls and DDGS from Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation of barley grain. Each of these are possible sources of feedstock for advanced bio-fuels production via fast pyrolysis as b...

86

Fuel cell crimp-resistant cooling device with internal coil  

DOEpatents

A cooling assembly for fuel cells having a simplified construction whereby coolant is efficiently circulated through a conduit arranged in serpentine fashion in a channel within a member of such assembly. The channel is adapted to cradle a flexible, chemically inert, conformable conduit capable of manipulation into a variety of cooling patterns without crimping or otherwise restricting of coolant flow. The conduit, when assembled with the member, conforms into intimate contact with the member for good thermal conductivity. The conduit is non-corrodible and can be constructed as a single, manifold-free, continuous coolant passage means having only one inlet and one outlet. The conduit has an internal coil means which enables it to be bent in small radii without crimping.

Wittel, deceased, Charles F. (late of Linden, NJ)

1986-01-01

87

Comparison of Grain Sources (Barley, White Corn, and Yellow Corn) for Swine Diets and Their Effects on Meat Quality and Production Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient pork production is a necessity for an economically viable swine industry. Number two yellow corn is considered the primary energy source for swine diets in the Midwest. Despite the low protein content, corn is considered one of the most economical feed stuffs available to the swine production system. Barley is a high fiber that has approximately 89% of the

Jay F. Lampe; John W. Mabry; Palmer J. Holden

2004-01-01

88

Enumeration of fungi in barley.  

PubMed

Estimation of fungal contamination of barley grain is important as certain fungi can proliferate during the malting process. The following factors which may affect the enumeration of fungi were evaluated: dilution versus direct plating, presoaked versus unsoaked grain, five culture media: potato dextrose agar (PDA), acidified Czapek-Dox agar (ACA), pentachloronitrobenzene agar; (PCNB) dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and malt salt agar; two disinfectants' ethanol/water (80:20 v/v) and sodium hypochlorite (3.5% w/v in H2O). Two barley samples, one having a high incidence of storage fungi and one with a high incidence of field fungi were used and most fungi were identified to species level. Results showed that direct plating was superior to dilution plating for assessing the mycoflora of barley. Unsoaked grain gave significantly higher counts than presoaked grain in the case of Alternaria alternata, Rhizopus oryzae, Epicoccum nigrum and Mucor spp. Presoaked grain resulted in higher counts of Penicillium spp. Chlorine disinfection resulted in significantly higher counts of Aspergillus flavus, Eurotium spp. and Penicillium spp. Ethanol disinfection resulted in higher counts of Mucor spp., Phoma sorghina, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus restrictus. PDA and ACA, in general gave some what better results than DRBC for both field and storage fungi. PCNB consistently gave the highest Fusarium counts. More than thiry fungal genera were found in the two samples. PMID:9105919

Rabie, C J; Lübben, A; Marais, G J; Jansen van Vuuren, H

1997-04-01

89

Chemical Reaction-Induced Multi-molecular Polarization (CRIMP)  

PubMed Central

Here we present a novel hyperpolarization method, Chemical Reaction-Induced Multi-molecular Polarization (CRIMP), which could be applied to the study of several in vivo processes simultaneously including glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis and pH mapping. Through the use of non-enzymatic decarboxylation, we generate four hyperpolarized imaging agents from hyperpolarized 1,2-13C pyruvic acid. PMID:25224323

Lee, Youngbok; Zacharias Millward, Niki M.; Piwnica-Worms, David

2015-01-01

90

Chemical reaction-induced multi-molecular polarization (CRIMP).  

PubMed

Here we present a novel hyperpolarization method, Chemical Reaction-Induced Multi-molecular Polarization (CRIMP), which could be applied to the study of several in vivo processes simultaneously including glycolysis, TCA cycle, fatty acid synthesis and pH mapping. Through the use of non-enzymatic decarboxylation, we generate four hyperpolarized imaging agents from hyperpolarized 1,2-(13)C pyruvic acid. PMID:25224323

Lee, Y; Zacharias, N M; Piwnica-Worms, D; Bhattacharya, P K

2014-11-01

91

Transgenic barley: a prospective tool for biotechnology and agriculture.  

PubMed

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the founder crops of agriculture, and today it is the fourth most important cereal grain worldwide. Barley is used as malt in brewing and distilling industry, as an additive for animal feed, and as a component of various food and bread for human consumption. Progress in stable genetic transformation of barley ensures a potential for improvement of its agronomic performance or use of barley in various biotechnological and industrial applications. Recently, barley grain has been successfully used in molecular farming as a promising bioreactor adapted for production of human therapeutic proteins or animal vaccines. In addition to development of reliable transformation technologies, an extensive amount of various barley genetic resources and tools such as sequence data, microarrays, genetic maps, and databases has been generated. Current status on barley transformation technologies including gene transfer techniques, targets, and progeny stabilization, recent trials for improvement of agricultural traits and performance of barley, especially in relation to increased biotic and abiotic stress tolerance, and potential use of barley grain as a protein production platform have been reviewed in this study. Overall, barley represents a promising tool for both agricultural and biotechnological transgenic approaches, and is considered an ancient but rediscovered crop as a model industrial platform for molecular farming. PMID:24084493

Mrízová, Katarína; Holasková, Edita; Öz, M Tufan; Jiskrová, Eva; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

2014-01-01

92

Barley stripe mosaic and Barley yellow stripe  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley stripe mosaic was described in Wisconsin as "barley false stripe" in 1910, making it perhaps the first cereal virus disease described in the United States. The disease has been reported from most barley-producing areas of the world, including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Europe, an...

93

Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples  

E-print Network

Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples Sandra Bergonnier Mechanical compression and tearing tests are carried out on crimped glass wool samples. The displacement of the present paper is to analyse mechanical tests on very soft materials such as mineral wool. So

94

Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples  

E-print Network

Digital image correlation used for mechanical tests on crimped glass wool samples Sandra Bergonnier Mechanical compression and tearing tests are carried out on crimped glass wool samples. The displacement soft materials such as mineral wool. So-called compression and tearing tests are two means

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

95

Ultrasonics Equipped Crimp Tool: A New Technology for Aircraft Wiring Safety  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report on the development of a new measurement technique to quantitatively assess the condition of wire crimp connections. This ultrasonic (UT) method transmits high frequency sound waves through the joint under inspection. The wire-crimp region filters and scatters the ultrasonic energy as it passes through the crimp and wire. The resulting output (both time and frequency domains) provides a quantitative measure of the joint quality that is independent and unaffected by current. Crimps of poor mechanical and electrical quality will result in low temporal output and will distort the spectrum into unique and predictable patterns, depending on crimp "quality". This inexpensive, real-time measurement system can provide certification of crimps as they are made and recertification of existing wire crimps currently in service. The measurements for re-certification do not require that the wire be disconnected from its circuit. No other technology exists to measure in-situ the condition of wire joints (no electrical currents through the crimp are used in this analytical technique). We discuss the signals obtained from this instrument, and correlate these signals with destructive wire pull tests.

Yost, William T.; Perey, Daniel F.; Cramer, Elliott

2006-01-01

96

The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases  

E-print Network

The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases Barry and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears

Shelnutt, John A.

97

CARBOHYDRATE DIGESTION IN HUMANS FROM A B-GLUCAN-ENRICHED BARLEY IS REDUCED  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Obese and diabetic patients may benefit from foodstuffs that are poorly absorbed and/or digested at a slower rate. Prowashonupana (PW) is a cultivar of barley, whose grains are enriched in beta-glucans, and thus may be less digestible than standard barley (barley cultivar (BZ) 594.35.e). To test thi...

98

Device and Method for Connections Made Between a Crimp Connector and Wire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An ultrasonic device and method obtains desirable crimp connections between a crimp connector and a wire, or bundle of wires, by assessing the desirability of connections made in a wire-to-wire connection and in other situations where two materials with good acoustic propagation characteristics are joined together via deformation. An embodiment of the device as a crimping tool comprises a compressing means, pulse-generating circuitry. at least one ultrasonic transmitting transducer, at least one ultrasonic receiving transducer, receiving circuitry, and a display. The user may return to a previously crimped connection and assess the desirability of the connection by compressing the device about the connection, sending an acoustic signal through the crimp, andco111paring the received signal to a signal obtained from known desirable connections.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor)

2007-01-01

99

Assessment and Calibration of a Crimp Tool Equipped with Ultrasonic Analysis Features  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method is provided for calibrating ultrasonic signals passed through a crimp formed with respect to a deformable body via an ultrasonically-equipped crimp tool (UECT). The UECT verifies a crimp quality using the ultrasonic signals. The method includes forming the crimp, transmitting a first signal, e.g., a pulse, to a first transducer of the UECT, and converting the first signal, using the first transducer, into a second signal which defines an ultrasonic pulse. This pulse is transmitted through the UECT into the crimp. A second transducer converts the second signal into a third signal, which may be further conditioned, and the ultrasonic signals are calibrated using the third signal or its conditioned variant. An apparatus for calibrating the ultrasonic signals includes a pulse module (PM) electrically connected to the first and second transducers, and an oscilloscope or display electrically connected to the PM for analyzing an electrical output signal therefrom.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Cramer, K. Elliott (Inventor)

2013-01-01

100

Differentiation of mixtures of co-product blend with barley grain based on Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection molecular spectroscopy: carbohydrate molecular spectral profiles and nutritive characteristics in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to (1) differentiate mixtures of a co-product blend (70:30% mixture of wheat:corn before bioethanol fermentation) from bioethanol processing with barley grain based on Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection molecular spectroscopy with cluster analysis, (2) elucidate the effects of the co-product blend on the molecular structure spectral profile and nutritive characteristics of the hull-less barley carbohydrate (CHO) in dairy cattle, and (3) quantify the relationship between the CHO molecular structure spectral profiles and CHO nutritive characteristics of the mixtures in dairy cattle. The parameters assessed for CHO molecular structure spectral profiles included molecular spectral peak area and height intensities of lignin, structural CHO (STCHO), cellulosic compounds, and total CHO. The parameters assessed for CHO nutritive characteristics included the CHO nutrient profiles, CHO subfractions, energy values, and rumen-fermentable organic matter supply. Hull-less barley grains and the co-product blend were mixed according to the ratio of 100:0 (B100), 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100 (BD100). The results showed that when the co-product blend was included at the different ratios, the predicted rumen-fermentable organic matter supply in the rumen was significantly decreased from 632 (B100) to 518 g/kg of dry matter (DM; BD100). The effective degradable dry matter in the rumen and the effective degradable starch in the rumen were also significantly decreased from 672 and 482 g/kg of DM (B100) to 475 and 43 g/kg of DM (BD100), respectively. By using Fourier transform infrared attenuated total reflection spectroscopy, we identified were significant changes in the spectral profiles of the CHO molecular structure in terms of lignin, STCHO, cellulosic compounds, and total CHO spectral peak area and height and their ratios. Pearson analysis results suggested strong correlations between lignin peak area, cellulosic compound area, and total CHO peak area and CHO nutrient profiles except energy values (net energy for lactation at 3 times maintenance intake, net energy for maintenance, and net energy for gain). No correlation was observed between STCHO peak area and CHO nutrient profiles in the mixture samples. PMID:22921618

Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

2012-11-01

101

Extension Bulletin GMI-035 New July 2014 Malting Barley Production  

E-print Network

and agriculture, including beer production. The Michigan craft brewing industry has seen tremendous growth. Aside from feed uses, 30 percent to 40 percent of U.S. barley is malted for brewing, 2 percent to 3 and adaptability have led to consistent use of the grain in brewing for at least 5,000 years. Barley destined

102

Collagen fibre arrangement and functional crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament in the rat knee.  

PubMed

Ligaments have been described as multifascicular structures with collagen fibres cross-connecting to each other or running straight and parallel also showing a waviness or crimping pattern playing as a shock absorber/recoiling system during joint motions. A particular collagen array and crimping pattern in different ligaments may reflect different biomechanical roles and properties. The aim of the study was to relate the 3D collagen arrangement in the crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) to its functional role. The MCL is one of the most injured ligaments during sports activities and an experimental model to understand the rate, quality and composition of ligaments healing. A deep knowledge of structure-function relationship of collagen fibres array will improve the development of rehabilitation protocols and more appropriate exercises for recovery of functional activity. The rat MCL was analysed by polarized light microscopy, confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that MCL crimps have a smaller base length versus other tendons. SEM observations demonstrated that collagen fibres showing few crimps were composed of fibrils intertwining and crossing one another in the outer region. Confocal laser analyses excluded a helical array of collagen fibres. By contrast, in the core portion, densely packed straight collagen fibres ran parallel to the main axis of the ligament being interrupted both by planar crimps, similar to tendon crimps, and by newly described right-handed twisted crimps. It is concluded that planar crimps could oppose or respond exclusively to tensional forces parallel to the main ligament axis, whereas the right-handed twisted crimps could better resist/respond to a complex of tensional/rotational forces within the ligament thus opposing to an external rotation of tibia. PMID:20182866

Franchi, Marco; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; Leonardi, Luisa; Ottani, Vittoria; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ruggeri, Alessandro

2010-12-01

103

CEREALS/ GRAIN — QUALITY ATTRIBUTES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This encyclopedia chapter describes the quality attributes of the major cereal grains, including the important types of foods made from wheat; wheat flour quality end-product and component tests, and intrinsic quality of wheat grain and grain lots. Rice, maize, barley, sorghum and millets, oats, ry...

104

Studies of grain and forage production of varieties, varietal mixtures, and species mixtures of oats (Avena Spp.), barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum)  

E-print Network

M. Line I!ulti line Mixed reaction to crown rust Crs Chris wheat Susceptible to leaf rust Milan wheat Resi, tant to leaf rust Gl Goliad barley Moderately resistant to leaf rust Gt Gator rye Resistant ro leaf rust Fz-Crn !'razier and Coronado... to Rusts 12 Fz-Crn-NN Frazier, Coro- Approximately same number of nado, New Nortex seeds of each 13 Fz-Crs lrazier and Chris Approximately same number of seeds of each 14 Fz-Gl Frazicr and Goliad Approximately same r. umber of seeds of each 15 Fz...

Waghray, Kishan Lal

1968-01-01

105

Residual Stress Evaluation within a Crimped Splice Connector Assembly  

SciTech Connect

In power transmission, connectors play an important role in the efficiency and reliability of the system. Due to the increase of power demand and lack of new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than the original design criteria. However, this had led to the accelerated aging and degradation of splice connectors, which has been manifested by the formation of hot-spots that have been revealed by infrared imaging during inspection of transmission lines operating at elevated temperatures. The implications of connector aging is two-fold: (1) significant increase in resistivity of the splice connector (i.e., less efficient transmission of electricity) and (2) significant reduction in the connector clamping strength, which ultimately results in separation of the power transmission line at the joint. Therefore, the splice connector has become the weakest link in the electric power transmission infrastructure. The compressive residual stresses induced by the crimping process within the splice provide the clamping forces to secure the conductor and therefore, the determination of the state of residual stresses in splice connectors is a necessary requirement to provide an accurate estimate of their service lifetime. This paper presents a protocol of utilizing finite-element analysis and neutron scattering experiments for evaluating the residual stress fields within a crimped single-stage splice connector assembly.

Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; An, Ke [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL; Hubbard, Camden R [ORNL; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL; Graziano, Joe [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Chan, John [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

2006-01-01

106

A description of the reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure used in test 2, part 2 of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reformatted spring small grains labeling procedure is designed to be used for assigning crop identification labels to a predetermined and selected number of dots. The development and description of this procedure is presented.

Palmer, W. F.; Magness, E. R. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

107

Malting extremely small quantities of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Micromalting procedures for malt quality analysis typically use 50 – 500 g of barley and are used to produce malt with characteristics suitable for malting quality analysis. Modifications to routine micromalting protocols in which small quantities of grain within inexpensive mesh containers are surr...

108

Psychrotolerant Paenibacillus tundrae Isolates from Barley Grains Produce New Cereulide-Like Depsipeptides (Paenilide and Homopaenilide) That Are Highly Toxic to Mammalian Cells  

PubMed Central

Paenilide is a novel, heat-stable peptide toxin from Paenibacillus tundrae, which colonizes barley. P. tundrae produced 20 to 50 ng of the toxin mg?1 of cells (wet weight) throughout a range of growth temperatures from +5°C to +28°C. Paenilide consisted of two substances of 1,152 Da and 1,166 Da, with masses and tandem mass spectra identical to those of cereulide and a cereulide homolog, respectively, produced by Bacillus cereus NS-58. The two components of paenilide were separated from those of cereulide by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), showing a structural difference suggesting the replacement of O-Leu (cereulide) by O-Ile (paenilide). The exposure of porcine spermatozoa and kidney tubular epithelial (PK-15) cells to subnanomolar concentrations of paenilide resulted in inhibited motility, the depolarization of mitochondria, excessive glucose consumption, and metabolic acidosis. Paenilide was similar to cereulide in eight different toxicity endpoints with porcine and murine cells. In isolated rat liver mitochondria, nanomolar concentrations of paenilide collapsed respiratory control, zeroed the mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced swelling. The toxic effect of paenilide depended on its high lipophilicity and activity as a high-affinity potassium ion carrier. Similar to cereulide, paenilide formed lipocations, i.e., lipophilic cationic compounds, with K+ ions already at 4 mM [K+], rendering lipid membranes electroconductive. Paenilide-producing P. tundrae was negative in a PCR assay with primers specific for the cesB gene, indicating that paenilide was not a product of plasmid pCER270, encoding the biosynthesis of cereulide in B. cereus. Paenilide represents the first potassium ionophoric compound described for Paenibacillus. The findings in this paper indicate that paenilide from P. tundrae is a potential food-poisoning agent. PMID:22407690

Mikkola, Raimo; Andersson, Maria A.; Teplova, Vera V.; Venediktova, Natalia; Ek-Kommonen, Christine; Salkinoja-Salonen, Mirja

2012-01-01

109

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds are established under the...

2012-01-01

110

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds are established under the...

2010-01-01

111

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds are established under the...

2011-01-01

112

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds are established under the...

2014-01-01

113

7 CFR 810.101 - Grains for which standards are established.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...established. Grain refers to barley, canola, corn, flaxseed, mixed grain, oats, rye, sorghum, soybeans, sunflower seed, triticale, and wheat. Standards for these food grains, feed grains, and oilseeds are established under the...

2013-01-01

114

Using barley genomics to develop Fusarium head blight resistant wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight, caused by Fusarium graminearum, is a major problem for wheat and barley growers. During infection, F. graminearum produces trichothecene mycotoxins (e.g., deoxynivalenol or DON) that increases fungal virulence and reduces grain quality and yield. Previous work in Arabidopsis sh...

115

Screening for bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), has been reported to cause yield loss in small grains both through its role as an efficient vector of the PAV strain of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and by actual feeding damage to winter and spring small grains by aviruliferous BCOAs. Barl...

116

A crimp-like microarchitecture improves tissue production in fibrous ligament scaffolds in response to mechanical stimuli.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the influence of a crimp-like microarchitecture within electrospun polymer scaffolds on fibroblast extracellular matrix (ECM) production when cultured under dynamic conditions. Electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) scaffolds possessing a wave pattern similar to collagen crimp (amplitude: 5 ?m and wavelength: 46 ?m) were seeded with bovine fibroblasts and mechanically stimulated under dynamic uniaxial tension. The effect of strain amplitude (5%, 10% and 20%) was investigated in a short-term stimulation study. The 10% strain amplitude in the stimulated crimp-like fibre scaffold increased only collagen synthesis, while the 20% strain amplitude increased both collagen and sulphated proteoglycan synthesis compared to stimulated uncrimped (straight) fibre scaffolds and unloaded controls (crimp-like static fibre scaffolds). Alternatively, mechanical stimulation of fibroblasts seeded on uncrimped fibre scaffolds induced significant fibroblast proliferation compared to the stimulated crimp-like fibre scaffolds and no-load controls. Long-term, dynamic mechanical stimulation of fibroblasts seeded on crimp-like fibre scaffolds at 10% strain amplitude resulted in significantly up-regulated collagen accumulation and down-regulated sulphated proteoglycan accumulation. Additionally, the fibroblasts seeded on dynamically stimulated crimp-like fibre scaffolds appeared to form bundles that resembled fascicles, a characteristic hierarchical feature of the native ligament. Our findings demonstrate that fibroblasts seeded on crimp-like fibrous scaffolds respond more favourably (increased ECM synthesis and fascicle formation) to dynamic mechanical loading compared to those grown on scaffolds containing uncrimped (straight) fibres. PMID:22705636

Surrao, Denver C; Fan, Jackie C Y; Waldman, Stephen D; Amsden, Brian G

2012-10-01

117

Association genetics in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Applied and basic barley geneticists have begun to use association genetics as a tool to identify and fine map polymorphisms directly in breeding populations or diversity panels. Barley presents an ideal system because its populations present different extents of LD, from long-range LD in elite cult...

118

Process for Nondestructive Evaluation of the Quality of a Crimped Wire Connector  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A process and apparatus for collecting data for nondestructive evaluation of the quality of a crimped wire connector are provided. The process involves providing a crimping tool having an anvil and opposing jaw for crimping a terminal onto a stranded wire, moving the jaw relative to the anvil to close the distance between the jaw and the anvil and thereby compress the terminal against the wire, while transmitting ultrasonic waves that are propagated through the terminal-wire combination and received at a receiving ultrasonic transducer as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil, and detecting and recording the position of the jaw relative to the anvil as a function of time and detecting and recording the amplitude of the ultrasonic wave that is received at the receiving ultrasonic transducer as a function of time as the jaw is moved relative to the anvil.

Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cramer, Karl E. (Inventor); Perey, Daniel F. (Inventor); Williams, Keith A. (Inventor)

2014-01-01

119

Supplements of transgenic malt or grain containing (1,3-1,4)-ß-glucanase increase the nutritive value of barley-based broiler diets to that of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. A diet with addition to normal barley of malt from transgenic barley expressing a protein engineered, thermotolerant Bacillus (1,3-1,4)-?-glucanase during germination has previously been demonstrated to provide a broiler chicken weight gain comparable to maize diets. It also reduced dramatically the number of birds with adhering sticky droppings, but did not entirely eliminate sticky droppings. One of the objectives

D. Von Wettstein; J. Warner; C. G. Kannangara

2003-01-01

120

Effects of Crimping on Mechanical Performance of Nitinol Stent Designed for Femoral Artery: Finite Element Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitinol stents are used to minimize improper dynamic behavior, low twistability, and inadequate radial mechanical strength of femoral artery stents. In this study, finite element method is used to investigate the effect of crimping and Austenite finish temperature ( A f) of Nitinol on mechanical performance of Z-shaped open-cell femoral stent under crimping conditions. Results show that low A f Nitinol has better mechanical and clinical performance due to small chronic outward force, large radial resistive force, and appropriate superelastic behavior.

Nematzadeh, F.; Sadrnezhaad, S. K.

2013-11-01

121

RESISTANCE TO RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID FEEDING DAMAGE DERIVED FROM STARS 9301B PROTECTS AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE AND MALTING QUALITY WHEN TRANSFERRED TO ADAPTED BARLEY GERMPLASM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Infestations of Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diruaphis noxia (Mordvilko), reduce grain yield and quality of barley, and have induced producers in some areas to cease growing barley. No resistant barley cultivars that are adapted to North America exist. Resistance from STARS 9301B was transferred into ...

122

Barley and Oat beta-Glucan content measured by Calcofluor fluorescence in a microplate assay  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beta-glucans, linear glucan polymers of mixed linkage, are important constituents of cereal cell walls. They have important health benefits in the human diet, but also can negatively affect the use of barley grain as an animal feed. High beta-glucans in barley malt can also cause problems in brewi...

123

Registration of nineteen spring six-rowed barley germplasm lines resistant to Russian wheat aphid  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA) is a new and devastating pest of barley in the western US. No resistance was found in US cultivars whether two-row, six-row, malt, feed, spring or winter. A screening of the entire collection of barley accessions in the National Small Grains Collection by the USDA-ARS in ...

124

Electrospun poly(L-lactide-co-acryloyl carbonate) fiber scaffolds with a mechanically stable crimp structure for ligament tissue engineering.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to prepare a fibrous scaffold that possesses a crimped morphology using a photo-cross-linkable biodegradable copolymer. To obtain the crimped morphology, the polymer was first electrospun onto a rotating wire mandrel to obtain aligned straight fibers. Postprocessing by immersion in aqueous buffer at 37 °C generated a crimplike pattern in the fibers. It was reasoned that cross-linking the fibers following formation of the crimped structure would endow the scaffolds with a recoverable crimp pattern and mechanical properties similar to that of the collagen fibers in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). To achieve this aim, a trimethylene carbonate based monomer bearing an acrylate pendant group was synthesized and copolymerized with l-lactide. The copolymer was electrospun and photo-cross-linked yielding fibrous scaffolds possessing a substantial increase in tensile modulus and crimp stability compared to the uncross-linked fibrous scaffolds. The crimp-stabilized scaffolds also showed good cytocompatibility toward 3T3 fibroblasts, which attached and grew along the crimped fibers. These findings suggest that these cross-linked fiber scaffolds may be useful for the generation of cultured ligament tissue. PMID:24697661

Chen, Fei; Hayami, James W S; Amsden, Brian G

2014-05-12

125

RESEARCHES CONCERNING THE FLAME ARRESTERS GRATINGS MANUFACTURE AND VERIFICATION OF CRIMPED METALLIC RIBBON  

Microsoft Academic Search

A very important issue of design and manufacture of flame arresters gratings made of crimped metallic ribbon is the determination of technological parameters needed for manufacture of geared drums used for undulation of metallic ribbon. All these parameters shall be determined depending upon undulation critical height specific hcrt of each gas or mixture of combustible gas. Drums are assembled in

N. N. Antonescu; T. Ichim

126

Crimped Cover Crop Legume Residue Effects on Sweet Corn (Zea mays L.) Yield in Puerto Rico  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crimped legume residue can control weeds and supply N for sweet corn production if biomass is sufficient. Three sweet corn (Zea mays L.) open pollinated variety “Suresweet 2011” plantings (April, 2013; July 2013; February 2014) were conducted on an Oxisol (very fine, kaolinitic, isohyperthermic and...

127

Short- and full-season soybean in stale seedbeds versus rolled-crimped winter rye mulch  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Late seedbed preparations (also known as stale or false seedbeds) are used by organic growers to reduce weed populations prior to crop planting. Rye mulches, derived from mechanically killed (rolled and crimped) winter rye cover crops, can serve the same purpose for spring-planted organic crops. Bot...

128

Quantifying relationships between rooting traits and water uptake under drought in Mediterranean barley and durum wheat.  

PubMed

In Mediterranean regions drought is the major factor limiting spring barley and durum wheat grain yields. This study aimed to compare spring barley and durum wheat root and shoot responses to drought and quantify relationships between root traits and water uptake under terminal drought. One spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Rum) and two durum wheat Mediterranean cultivars (Triticum turgidum L. var durum cvs Hourani and Karim) were examined in soil-column experiments under well watered and drought conditions. Root system architecture traits, water uptake, and plant growth were measured. Barley aerial biomass and grain yields were higher than for durum wheat cultivars in well watered conditions. Drought decreased grain yield more for barley (47%) than durum wheat (30%, Hourani). Root-to-shoot dry matter ratio increased for durum wheat under drought but not for barley, and root weight increased for wheat in response to drought but decreased for barley. The critical root length density (RLD) and root volume density (RVD) for 90% available water capture for wheat were similar to (cv. Hourani) or lower than (cv. Karim) for barley depending on wheat cultivar. For both species, RVD accounted for a slightly higher proportion of phenotypic variation in water uptake under drought than RLD. PMID:24112696

Carvalho, Pedro; Azam-Ali, Sayed; Foulkes, M John

2014-05-01

129

Barley tortillas and barley flours in corn tortillas  

E-print Network

and required more force to rupture. Barley flours were also substituted at 10 to 25% in corn tortillas. As barley flours increased in the formulation, tortilla extensibility improved. Color was not affected, dietary fiber was increased and a slight off...

Mitre-Dieste, Carlos Marcelo

2001-01-01

130

Evaluation of the US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Labeling accuracies using the reformatted labeling procedure are evaluated. The procedure is described and the decision logic applied to six LANDSAT segments from the 1978 crop year. Small grains and nonsmall grains are labeled, and small grains differentiated from barley. An error analysis was performed. Recommended changes to the reformatted procedure are presented.

Carnes, J. G. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

131

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

132

Computer modelling for the prediction of the in-plane permeability of non-crimp stitch bonded fabrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present and validate a model for the prediction of in-plane permeability in non-crimp stitch bonded fabrics. The model is based on the combined flow through the multi-layer assembly in each non-crimp fabric. The permeability of each layer of the assembly is predicted on the basis of a meso-\\/micro-flow computer model. In this the

C. Lekakou; S. Edwards; G. Bell; S. C. Amico

2006-01-01

133

DEVELOPING FUNCTIONAL HYDROCOLLOIDS FROM SMALL GRAINS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Public health concerns related to heart disease and other aging chronic diseases have created opportunities for small grain functional ingredients. The known nutritional benefits of barley and oat beta-glucan make these small grains an excellent source for developments. Although the milled grain p...

134

BARLEY YELLOW STREAK MOSAIC VIRUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley yellow streak mosaic virus (BaYSMV) was discovered in barley from Montana, U.S.A. in 1982, and later reported in several western states, Alaska, and Alberta, Canada. Barley plants show chlorotic streaks, stripes, and dashes parallel to the leaf veins and varying degrees of stunting; increased...

135

Barley peroxidase isozymes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirteen peroxidase spots on two-dimensional gels were identified by comprehensive proteome analysis of the barley seed. Mass spectrometry tracked multiple forms of three different peroxidase isozymes: barley seed peroxidase 1, barley seed-specific peroxidase BP1 and a not previously identified putative barley peroxidase. The presence of multiple spots for each of the isozymes reflected variations in post-translational glycosylation and protein truncation. Complete sequence coverage was achieved by using a series of proteases and chromatographic resins for sample preparation prior to mass spectrometric analysis. Distinct peroxidase spot patterns divided the 16 cultivars tested into two groups. The distribution of the three isozymes in different seed tissues (endosperm, embryo, and aleurone layer) suggested the peroxidases to play individual albeit partially overlapping roles during germination. In summary, a subset of three peroxidase isozymes was found to occur in the seed, whereas products of four other barley peroxidase genes were not detected. The present analysis documents the selective expression profiles and post-translational modifications of isozymes from a large plant gene family.

Laugesen, Sabrina; Bak-Jensen, Kristian Sass; Hägglund, Per; Henriksen, Anette; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Roepstorff, Peter

2007-12-01

136

Inferring geographic origin of barley accessions using molecular markers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) National Small Grains Collection (NSGC) has 207 landrace barleys obtained from a nursery grown in the Ukraine in 1930 by N.I. Vavilov, many of which have multiple resistance (MR) to disease similar to accessions from Ethiopia. Vavilov collected germplasm ...

137

Breeding Malting Barley under Stress Conditions in South America  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annual average area sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare) in South America during 1999-2003 was 795 000 ha. In Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay, two-rowed spring cultivars are used mostly for malt production. Research has been developed in private malting companies and official institutions supported by the industry. In Argentina, tolerance to drought and heat stress during grain filling are

138

RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID RESISTANT BARLEY-CULTIVAR AND GERMPLASM RELEASE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

RWA continues to be a devastating pest of barley in the high and dry areas of the Western U.S.A. Screening of the entire National Small Grains Collection in Aberdeen, Idaho, by the USDA-ARS in Stillwater, Oklahoma, identified 115 accessions with some level of resistance ranging from 2 to 6 on Webst...

139

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) transformation using immature embryos.  

PubMed

Barley is a major crop species, and also has become a genetic model for the small grain temperate cereals. A draft barley genome sequence has recently been completed, opening many opportunities for candidate gene isolation and functionality testing. Thanks to the development of customizable endonucleases, also site-directed genome modification recently became feasible for higher plants, which marks the beginning of a new era of genetic engineering. The development of improved binary vectors and hypervirulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains has raised the efficiency of genetic transformation in barley to a level where the technique has become relatively routine. The transformation method described here involves immature barley embryos cocultivated with Agrobacterium after removal of their embryo axis. Critical adjustments to the protocol have included the supplementation of the cocultivation medium with the polyphenolic signaling compound acetosyringone at comparatively high concentration and the use of cysteine to reduce the extent of cellular oxidation upon agroinfection. In addition, the use of liquid, rather than solid, cocultivation medium promotes the throughput of the method. The protocol has delivered well over 10,000 transgenic barley plants over the past 10 years. Routine transformation efficiency, calculated on the basis of the recovery of independent transgenics per 100 explants, has reached about 25 % in cultivar (cv.) "Golden Promise". The protocol has proven effective for more than 20 barley cultivars, although some adjustments to the culture conditions have had to be made in some cases. The transformation efficiency of cv. "Golden Promise" remains higher than that of any other cultivar tested. PMID:25300832

Marthe, Cornelia; Kumlehn, Jochen; Hensel, Goetz

2015-01-01

140

Study regarding the influence of the crimping angle on the performances of the heat exchangers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this study is to determine the geometry of a plate for heat exchanger with high heat flow and low values for pressure losses. For this, in Solid Work software, were designed three plate geometries with different crimping angles for the flow channels. Was analyzed the influence of the crimping angle ? on the fluid distribution and heat transfer. Also, were compared the data resulted from Computational Fluid Dynamics numeric simulation with the experimental ones for the plate heat exchangers with gaskets. The analysis of the vortices and temperature field distribution was achieved with the aid of simulation software Fluent. In order to validate the numerical simulation's results experimental research were carried out on a heat exchangers stand

Irimie, O.; Bode, F.; Opruta, D.

2013-04-01

141

Simulation of Z crimp shaping with the use of the ansys finite element software  

Microsoft Academic Search

A finite element model of the Z-crimp shaping from a hard sheet blank is developed and a number of calculations using the\\u000a ANSYS finite element software is conducted. The calculations are carried out in the framework of elastoplastic behavior of\\u000a the blank material using the classical model of bilinear kinematic (translational) hardening with corresponding parameters\\u000a of elasticity and plasticity. The

L. P. Shabalin; I. N. Sidorov; V. I. Khaliulin

2010-01-01

142

Quantitative trait loci of barley malting quality trait components in the Stellar/01Ab8219 mapping population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Malting barley is of high economic and scientific importance. Determining barley grains that are suitable for malting involves measuring malting quality, which is an expensive and complex process. In order to decrease the cost of phenotyping and accelerate the process of developing superior malting ...

143

Barley Yellow Dwarf  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley yellow dwarf is the most economically important virus disease affecting most cereal crops world wide. This manuscript summarizes the current knowledge of the disease etiology, epidemiology and management. This information is incorporated into the latest revision of the American Phytopathologi...

144

Malting Barley Characteristics  

E-print Network

Malting Barley Characteristics for Craft Brewers Executive Summary The brewing industry is evolving.S. brewing industry is currently undergoing profound and lasting structural change. Craft brewers for a growing brewing Industry. Nonetheless, prior to the advent of craft brewery companies in the late 1970s

145

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients  

E-print Network

Mushroom Barley Soup Ingredients: 1 tablespoon oil 1 onion 2 celery stalks 2 carrots 2 cups of the onion, and peel off the brown layers. Run under water to remove any dirt. Cut the onion in half lengthwise, and place the flat side on the cutting board. Slice across the onion, from one side to the other

Liskiewicz, Maciej

146

REGISTRATION OF 'HERALD' BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

'Herald' (Reg. No. xxx, P.I. 642403 ) is a low-phytate six-rowed spring feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar developed cooperatively and released in 2006 by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. It is the first released...

147

Registration of Endeavor Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Endeavor’ (Reg. No. ______PI 654824); a two-rowed winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2007 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Endeavor is a selection...

148

Registration of ‘Tetonia’ barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Tetonia’, a spring two-rowed feed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Tetonia has performed particularly well in trials at the University of Idaho experiment sta...

149

Nitrate Absorption by Barley  

PubMed Central

The influence of protein synthesis and nitrate reductase activity on nitrate absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated. Cycloheximide decreased nitrate absorption. Pretreatment studies showed that cycloheximide affects either energy transfer or nitrate reductase activity or both. Illumination increased plant capacity for nitrate absorption, possibly through increased energy supply and/or increased nitrate reductase activity. There was a positive correlation between nitrate reductase activity and light. Inhibiting the development of nitrate reductase activity by tungstate decreased nitrate absorption. At least two nitrate transport systems are thus proposed in barley: one operating in the dark, with little nitrate reductase activity detectable; and one closely correlated with nitrate reductase activity. Total absorption is the sum of dark absorption and absorption facilitated by nitrate reductase. PMID:16659426

Rao, K. Prasad; Rains, D. William

1976-01-01

150

Identification of a Phytase Gene in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Endogenous phytase plays a crucial role in phytate degradation and is thus closely related to nutrient efficiency in barley products. The understanding of genetic information of phytase in barley can provide a useful tool for breeding new barley varieties with high phytase activity. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis for phytase activity was conducted using a doubled haploid population. Phytase protein was purified and identified by the LC-ESI MS/MS Shotgun method. Purple acid phosphatase (PAP) gene was sequenced and the position was compared with the QTL controlling phytase activity. A major QTL for phytase activity was mapped to chromosome 5 H in barley. The gene controlling phytase activity in the region was named as mqPhy. The gene HvPAP a was mapped to the same position as mqPhy, supporting the colinearity between HvPAP a and mqPhy. Conclusions/Significance It is the first report on QTLs for phytase activity and the results showed that HvPAP a, which shares a same position with the QTL, is a major phytase gene in barley grains. PMID:21533044

Dai, Fei; Qiu, Long; Ye, Lingzhen; Wu, Dezhi; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2011-01-01

151

GRAIN GENES 2.0: RESOURCES FOR SMALL GRAINS BREEDING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GrainGenes, the international database for genetic and genomic data about Triticeae species (e.g. wheat, barley, and rye) and Avena sativa (oat), was extensively redesigned in 2004. As a result it is now much easier to use, both for getting a quick answer to a simple question and for mining the dat...

152

Barley Genomics: An Overview  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), first domesticated in the Near East, is a well-studied crop in terms of genetics, genomics, and breeding and qualifies as a model plant for Triticeae research. Recent advances made in barley genomics mainly include the following: (i) rapid accumulation of EST sequence data, (ii) growing number of studies on transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome, (iii) new modeling techniques, (iv) availability of genome-wide knockout collections as well as efficient transformation techniques, and (v) the recently started genome sequencing effort. These developments pave the way for a comprehensive functional analysis and understanding of gene expression networks linked to agronomically important traits. Here, we selectively review important technological developments in barley genomics and related fields and discuss the relevance for understanding genotype-phenotype relationships by using approaches such as genetical genomics and association studies. High-throughput genotyping platforms that have recently become available will allow the construction of high-density genetic maps that will further promote marker-assisted selection as well as physical map construction. Systems biology approaches will further enhance our knowledge and largely increase our abilities to design refined breeding strategies on the basis of detailed molecular physiological knowledge. PMID:18382615

Sreenivasulu, Nese; Graner, Andreas; Wobus, Ulrich

2008-01-01

153

Digital Method of Analyzing the Bending Stiffness of Non-Crimp Fabrics  

SciTech Connect

A digital-analytical method for characterizing the bending behavior of NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) is developed. The study is based on a hanging fabric loaded to a known displacement. The image of the deformed fabric is captured digitally, and then analyzed to describe the deformed shape of the beam using x-y coordinates. The bending stiffness of the fabric is then determined through an iterative method using a finite element method (ABAQUS). This effective bending stiffness is of importance in the formation of wave defects in NCFs during manufacturing processes such as thermoforming, vacuum assisted resin transfer molding, and compression molding.

Soteropoulos, Dimitri; Fetfatsidis, Konstantine; Sherwood, James A.; Langworthy, Joanna [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

2011-05-04

154

Microwave dielectric properties of cereal grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dielectric properties of five cereal grains (wheat, corn, barley, oats, and grain sorghum) were measured at 23°C over a range of moisture contents and over microwave frequencies from 5 to 15 GHz with a free-space transmission technique. Resulting dielectric constants and loss factors are tabulated f...

155

Spring Small Grains Area Estimation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

SSG3 automatically estimates acreage of spring small grains from Landsat data. Report describes development and testing of a computerized technique for using Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data to estimate acreage of spring small grains (wheat, barley, and oats). Application of technique to analysis of four years of data from United States and Canada yielded estimates of accuracy comparable to those obtained through procedures that rely on trained analysis.

Palmer, W. F.; Mohler, R. J.

1986-01-01

156

HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed in the US diet. Two studies carried out at the Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center investigated whether consumption of barley would reduce cardiovascular risk factors comparably to reductions observed with other soluble ...

157

Ochratoxin A in stored U.S. barley and wheat.  

PubMed

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin of significant health concern that is present in a variety of cereal grains and other foods around the world. Although OTA contamination can occur prior to harvest, it is largely considered a storage issue that can be controlled through the implementation of proper storage practices. Barley, durum, and hard red spring wheat samples that had been stored for various lengths of time were collected (n = 262) over a period of 2 years by multiple commercial grain companies located in the northwestern and northern Great Plains regions of the United States. Samples were analyzed for OTA concentration using high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. OTA was detected in 12.2% of the samples, and of those samples, 81.3% had been stored for ?6 months. One sample of barley and four samples of wheat exceeded 5 ng/g of OTA. PMID:25719887

Kuruc, Julie A; Schwarz, Paul; Wolf-Hall, Charlene

2015-03-01

158

3D finite element simulation of non-crimp fabric composites ultrasonic testing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Composite materials offer many advantages for aerospace applications, e.g., good strength to weight ratio. Different types of composites, such as non-crimp fabrics (NCF), are currently being investigated as they offer reduced manufacturing costs and improved damage tolerance as compared to traditional pre-impregnated composite materials. NCF composites are made from stitched fiber bundles (tows), which typically have a width and thickness of less than a millimeter. This results in strongly inhomogeneous and anisotropic material properties. Different types of manufacturing imperfections, such as porosity, resin pockets, tow crimp and misalignment can lead to reduced material strength and thus to defects following excessive loads or impact, e.g., fracture and delaminations. The ultrasonic non-destructive testing of NCF composites is difficult, as the tow size is comparable to the wavelength, leading to multiple scattering in this inherently three-dimensional structure. For typical material properties and geometry of an NCF composite, a full three-dimensional Finite Element (FE) model has been developed in ABAQUS. The propagation of longitudinal ultrasonic waves has been simulated and the effect of multiple scattering at the fiber tows investigated. The influence of porosity in the epoxy matrix as a typical manufacturing defect on the ultrasonic wave propagation and attenuation has been studied.

Liu, Z.; Saffari, N.; Fromme, P.

2012-05-01

159

Ethnobotany, diverse food uses, claimed health benefits and implications on conservation of barley landraces in North Eastern Ethiopia highlands  

PubMed Central

Background Barley is the number one food crop in the highland parts of North Eastern Ethiopia produced by subsistence farmers grown as landraces. Information on the ethnobotany, food utilization and maintenance of barley landraces is valuable to design and plan germplasm conservation strategies as well as to improve food utilization of barley. Methods A study, involving field visits and household interviews, was conducted in three administrative zones. Eleven districts from the three zones, five kebeles in each district and five households from each kebele were visited to gather information on the ethnobotany, the utilization of barley and how barley end-uses influence the maintenance of landrace diversity. Results According to farmers, barley is the "king of crops" and it is put for diverse uses with more than 20 types of barley dishes and beverages reportedly prepared in the study area. The products are prepared from either boiled/roasted whole grain, raw- and roasted-milled grain, or cracked grain as main, side, ceremonial, and recuperating dishes. The various barley traditional foods have perceived qualities and health benefits by the farmers. Fifteen diverse barley landraces were reported by farmers, and the ethnobotany of the landraces reflects key quantitative and qualitative traits. Some landraces that are preferred for their culinary qualities are being marginalized due to moisture shortage and soil degradation. Conclusions Farmers' preference of different landraces for various end-use qualities is one of the important factors that affect the decision process of landraces maintenance, which in turn affect genetic diversity. Further studies on improving maintenance of landraces, developing suitable varieties and improving the food utilization of barley including processing techniques could contribute to food security of the area. PMID:21711566

2011-01-01

160

Rolled-crimped winter rye effects on hand-weeding times and fruit yield and quality of cucurbits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fruit and vegetables produced without pesticides are in demand by some segments of society. However, weeds often are deleterious in such crops, and managing them without herbicides is difficult. Stale seedbeds and rolled-crimped winter rye cover crops are non-chemical methods that may help manage we...

161

GRAIN GENES 2.0 - AN IMPROVED RESOURCE FOR THE SMALL-GRAINS COMMUNITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

GrainGenes (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov) is an international database for genetic and genomic information about Triticeae species (wheat, barley, rye and their wild relatives) and oat and its wild relatives. A major strength of the GrainGenes project is the interaction of the curators with database us...

162

An Investigation of Thermal Characteristic of Mechanical Crimp Textured Polyester Yarn by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deficiencies related to the lack of bulk in flat continuous filament yarns make them unsuitable for apparel, home textiles as well as other applications such as car seat covering. Hence, texturising is employed to impart lofty and bulky characteristics to them. The two major texturising techniques employed for polyester yarn are false-twist and air-jet texturising. Out of these earlier technique depends on the thermoplasticity of the yarn being textured whereas the later one demands subsequent amount of compressed air to carry out cold fluid texturising. A new concept of mechanical crimp texturising has been designed to overcome these limitations of commercially successful techniques. In this new technique, pre-twisted FDY (Fully Drawn Yarn) flat multifilament yarn has been subjected to the higher false-twisting (depending on yarn fineness) action under the condition of underfeed (depending on ductility of parent yarn). The torque caused due to high level of false-twisting, forces the filaments to follow helical path at a certain angle (depends on magnitude of twist and denier per filament) to the filament yarn longitudinal axis. Internal stresses arising in single filaments tend to bend the filament and take the shape of spatial helical spring. After the yarn has passed through the false twisting unit, the initial twist would reassert itself and lock the already formed crimpy convolutions in position. Mechanical crimp textured polyester yarns with different pre-twist and false-twist levels have been subjected to thermal stress analysis using differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) in heat-cool-heat mode. The samples were heated at a rate of 10°C/minute. Almost all samples appear to be crystalline in nature. However, the melting endotherm does not show sharp peak. Instead, the diffuse nature of the peak is a signature of a partial crystalline nature (48%) of the samples. After melting the specimens, cooling of the same leads to crystallization of the material. This is exhibited by the exotherm. Heating the so-cooled samples, in general, increases their melting point in almost all samples. Thus melting event is shifted towards higher temperature, except for one sample in which pre-twist level is appreciably high. Thus, DSC is a very useful technique to select and optimize the pre-twist level and may provide quite a significant insight into the thermal stability of the mechanical crimp textured yarn.

Bhattacharya, Someshwar S.; Shaikh, Tasnim N.; Pratap, Arun

2010-06-01

163

Barley Transformation Using Biolistic Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Microprojectile bombardment or biolistic techniques have been widely used for cereal transformation. These methods rely on the acceleration of gold particles, coated with plasmid DNA, into plant cells as a method of directly introducing the DNA. The first report of the generation of fertile, transgenic barley plants used biolistic techniques. However, more recently Agrobacterium-mediated transformation has been adopted as the method of choice for most cereals including barley. Biolistic procedures are still important for some barley transformation applications and also provide transient test systems for the rapid checking of constructs. This chapter describes methods for the transformation of barley using biolistic procedures and also highlights the use of the technology in transient assays.

Harwood, Wendy A.; Smedley, Mark A.

164

Separability study of wheat and small grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (principal investigators)

1978-01-01

165

Barley variety identification using SSRs.  

PubMed

There is a current and developing need for rapid and accurate methods of barley varietal identification which go beyond traditional morphological analysis. Methods using DNA analysis have the capacity to fulfil this role with microsatellites being the current marker of choice. The majority of barley cultivars on the National List can be differentiated using 6 SSRs and bulk samples, using the methods described here. PMID:19301765

Southworth, Cathy

2009-01-01

166

Damage Simulation in Non-Crimp Fabric Composite Plates Subjected to Impact Loads  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progressive failure analysis (PFA) of non-crimp fabric (NCF) composite laminates subjected to low velocity impact loads was performed using the COmplete STress Reduction (COSTR) damage model implemented through VUMAT and UMAT41 user subroutines in the frame works of the commercial finite element programs ABAQUS/Explicit and LS-DYNA, respectively. To validate the model, low velocity experiments were conducted and detailed correlations between the predictions and measurements for both intra-laminar and inter-laminar failures were made. The developed material and damage model predicts the peak impact load and duration very close with the experimental results. Also, the simulation results of delamination damage between the ply interfaces, in-plane matrix damages and fiber damages were all in good agreement with the measurements from the non-destructive evaluation data.

Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Aitharaju, Venkat; Aashat, Satvir; Kia, Hamid

2014-01-01

167

Effect of the addition of air-classified barley flours on the lipid stability of bakery products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Whole grains are a potential source of dietary antioxidants, and their phenolic compounds play a potential role in the prevention\\u000a of lipid oxidation. In the present study, the barley coarse fraction was tested as a source of phenolic compounds to minimize\\u000a lipid oxidation in bakery products (tarallini) during storage. The content of phenolic compounds in wheat and barley flours\\u000a and

Vito Verardo; Ylenia Riciputi; Maria Carmela Trivisonno; Emanuele Marconi; Maria Fiorenza Caboni

2010-01-01

168

Transcriptome analysis of the barley-Fusarium graminearum interaction.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is caused by Fusarium graminearum. FHB causes yield losses and reduction in grain quality primarily due to the accumulation of trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). To develop an understanding of the barley-F. graminearum interaction, we examined the relationship among the infection process, DON concentration, and host transcript accumulation for 22,439 genes in spikes from the susceptible cv. Morex from 0 to 144 h after F. graminearum and water control inoculation. We detected 467 differentially accumulating barley gene transcripts in the F. graminearum-treated plants compared with the water control-treated plants. Functional annotation of the transcripts revealed a variety of infection-induced host genes encoding defense response proteins, oxidative burst-associated enzymes, and phenylpropanoid pathway enzymes. Of particular interest was the induction of transcripts encoding potential trichothecene catabolic enzymes and transporters, and the induction of the tryptophan biosynthetic and catabolic pathway enzymes. Our results define three stages of E graminearum infection. An early stage, between 0 and 48 h after inoculation (hai), exhibited limited fungal development, low DON accumulation, and little change in the transcript accumulation status. An intermediate stage, between 48 and 96 hai, showed increased fungal development and active infection, higher DON accumulation, and increased transcript accumulation. A majority of the host gene transcripts were detected by 72 hai, suggesting that this is an important timepoint for the barley-F. graminearum interaction. A late stage also identified between 96 and 144 hai, exhibiting development of hyphal mats, high DON accumulation, and a reduction in the number of transcripts observed. Our study provides a baseline and hypothesis-generating dataset in barley during F. graminearum infection and in other grasses during pathogen infection. PMID:16610744

Boddu, Jayanand; Cho, Seungho; Kruger, Warren M; Muehlbauer, Gary J

2006-04-01

169

Does function follow form? Principal QTLs for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance are coincident with QTLs for inflorescence traits and plant height in a doubled-haploid population of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight (FHB), an important disease of barley in many areas of the world, causes losses in grain yield and quality. Deoxynivalenol\\u000a (DON) mycotoxin residues, produced by the primary pathogen Fusarium graminearum, pose potential health risks. Barley producers may not be able to profitably market FHB-infected barley, even though it has\\u000a a low DON level. Three types of FHB

H. Zhu; L. Gilchrist; P. Hayes; A. Kleinhofs; D. Kudrna; Z. Liu; L. Prom; B. Steffenson; T. Toojinda; H. Vivar

1999-01-01

170

Thermal performance and pressure drop of the helical-coil heat exchangers with and without helically crimped fins  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the thermal performance and pressure drop of the helical-coil heat exchanger with and without helical crimped fins are studied. The heat exchanger consists of a shell and helically coiled tube unit with two different coil diameters. Each coil is fabricated by bending a 9.50 mm diameter straight copper tube into a helical-coil tube of thirteen turns. Cold

Paisarn Naphon

2007-01-01

171

Retrospective analysis of the results of implanting Nitinol pistons with heat-crimping piston loops in stapes surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study presented here evaluates the hearing results after the implantation of a new nickel–titanium (Nitinol) prosthesis\\u000a in stapes surgery; on heating, this prosthesis crimps itself around the long process of the incus. In addition, we compare\\u000a the outcome with results published in the literature. The medical records of all patients who underwent surgery for otosclerosis\\u000a with implantation of a

Joachim Albert Hornung; Christoph Brase; Alessandro Bozzato; Johannes Zenk; Bernhard Schick; Heinrich Iro

2010-01-01

172

Influence of weed species and time of glyphosate application on Rhizoctonia root rot of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rhizoctonia solani AG-8 causes root disease in wheat, barley, canola and other small grains in the dryland inland Pacific Northwest. The pathogen survives between crops on roots of volunteers and grassy weeds. Destroying this green bridge with herbicides such as glyphosate is a common tactic to cont...

173

Tocol composition and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of lipids from barley pearling flour.  

PubMed

Samples of whole grain and 35% pearling flour of 20 different barley varieties grown in Alberta were analyzed for their lipid contents. Total lipid contents of whole grains were within 1.9% to 3.0% (w/w), whereas those of the 35% pearling flour were 4.3% to 7.9%. Lipids of 35% pearling flour fraction of Tercel barley were extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 ) at different pressures (24, 45, and 58 MPa) and temperatures (40 and 60 °C) for 3 h. Lipid recoveries of 73% to 97% were achieved using SC-CO2 extraction under different operational conditions. Tocol contents and compositions of whole grain, 35% pearling flour, and SC-CO2 extracts were analyzed using HPLC. Tocol content of the whole grain was 53.8 to 124.9 ?g/g and that of the pearling flour was 195 to 363 ?g/g of flour. The hulless barley varieties were higher in tocols, with waxy, double waxy and Tercel varieties having the highest levels (P < 0.05). The ratios of total tocotrienols to total tocopherols varied within 1.6 to 3.9 range. Tocol concentrations of SC-CO2 extract fractions varied from 1171 to 4391 ?g/g extract depending on the operational conditions. Barley oil is a good natural source of different tocol isomers rich in tocotrienols. PMID:24245882

Temelli, F; Stobbe, K; Rezaei, K; Vasanthan, T

2013-11-01

174

Locations of quantitative trait loci conferring Russian wheat aphid resistance in barley germplasm STARS-9301B  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Russian wheat aphid (RWA, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko) infestations of barley reduce grain yield and quality and have caused more than $1 billion in losses in the Western United States since 1986. Our objective was to map genes conferring resistance to RWA feeding damage in the germplasm line STARS-93...

175

MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL DIETARY FIBER IN MILLED BARLEY USING NEAR-INFRARED TRANSMITTANCE SPECTROSCOPY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole-grain milled barley (n=56) was scanned using a near-infrared transmittance spectroscopy (NIT)(850-1048nm) and total dietary fiber (TDF) was determined for each cultivar by AOAC enzymatic-gravimetric method (Method 991.43). The validation statistics of PLS models using calibration (n=28) and v...

176

Potential and optimization of genomic selection for fusarium head blight resistance in six-row barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of barley, causing reductions in yield and quality. Marker-based selection for resistance to FHB and lowered deoxynivalenol (DON) grain concentration would save considerable costs and time associated with phenotyping. A comprehensive marker-based s...

177

Impacts of temperature increase and change in precipitation pattern on crop yield and yield quality of barley.  

PubMed

Spring barley was grown in a field experiment under moderately elevated soil temperature and changed summer precipitation (amount and frequency). Elevated temperature affected the performance and grain quality characteristics more significant than changes in rainfall. Except for the decrease in thousand grain weight, warming had no impacts on aboveground biomass and grain yield traits. In grains, several proteinogenic amino acids concentrations were increased, whereas their composition was only slightly altered. Concentration and yield of total protein remained unaffected under warming. The concentrations of total non-structural carbohydrates, starch, fructose and raffinose were lower in plants grown at high temperatures, whereas maltose was higher. Crude fibre remained unaffected by warming, whereas concentrations of lipids and aluminium were reduced. Manipulation of precipitation only marginally affected barley grains: amount reduction increased the concentrations of several minerals (sodium, copper) and amino acids (leucine). The projected climate changes may most likely affect grain quality traits of interest for different markets and utilisation requirements. PMID:23194550

Högy, Petra; Poll, Christian; Marhan, Sven; Kandeler, Ellen; Fangmeier, Andreas

2013-02-15

178

Deoxynivalenol removal from barley intended as swine feed through the use of an abrasive pearling procedure.  

PubMed

Samples of naturally contaminated hulled barley, with varying deoxynivalenol concentrations, were subjected to an abrasive type dehulling procedure. The remaining grain fractions were analyzed for weight remaining (%), deoxynivalenol (ppm), crude protein (%CP), neutral detergent fiber (%NDF), ash (%ASH), gross energy (GE; kcal/kg), and calculated digestible energy values (DE; kcal/kg). Following the initial 15 s of pearling, 85% of the grain mass remained. Additional pearling resulted in a linear decline of grain mass. Following 15 s of pearling, the grain contained 34% of the initial deoxynivalenol content, irrespective of the initial level of contamination. Further pearling resulted in continued significant (p < 0.05) reductions in the percent of deoxynivalenol remaining to a level of 7.9% after 120 s but with significant losses in grain mass. Pearling can serve as an effective means of reducing the deoxynivalenol content of barley, with improvements in nutrient levels. However, the need to reduce the deoxynivalenol content of contaminated barley to less than 1 ppm for swine will necessitate the removal of a significant amount of the grain mass for heavily contaminated samples. PMID:12903987

House, James D; Nyachoti, Charles Martin; Abramson, David

2003-08-13

179

Estimating grain and straw nitrogen concentration in grain crops based on aboveground nitrogen concentration and harvest index  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Simulating grain (Ng) and straw (Ns) nitrogen concentration is important in cropping systems simulation models. In this paper we present a simple model to partition nitrogen between grain and straw at harvest for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays L), and sorg...

180

Isozymes in wheat-barley hybrid derivative lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zymogram analysis was used to identify the barley chromosomes that carry the structural genes for particular isozymes. Wheat, barley, and wheatbarley hybrid derivative lines (which contained identified barley chromosomes) were tested by gel electrophoresis for isozymes of particular enzymes. It was found that barley chromosome 4 carries structural genes for acid phosphatase and ß amylase isozymes, barley chromosome 5 carries

A. Powling; A. K. M. R. Islam; K. W. Shepherd

1981-01-01

181

Parameters optimization of laser brazing in crimping butt using Taguchi and BPNN-GA  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The laser brazing (LB) is widely used in the automotive industry due to the advantages of high speed, small heat affected zone, high quality of welding seam, and low heat input. Welding parameters play a significant role in determining the bead geometry and hence quality of the weld joint. This paper addresses the optimization of the seam shape in LB process with welding crimping butt of 0.8 mm thickness using back propagation neural network (BPNN) and genetic algorithm (GA). A 3-factor, 5-level welding experiment is conducted by Taguchi L25 orthogonal array through the statistical design method. Then, the input parameters are considered here including welding speed, wire speed rate, and gap with 5 levels. The output results are efficient connection length of left side and right side, top width (WT) and bottom width (WB) of the weld bead. The experiment results are embed into the BPNN network to establish relationship between the input and output variables. The predicted results of the BPNN are fed to GA algorithm that optimizes the process parameters subjected to the objectives. Then, the effects of welding speed (WS), wire feed rate (WF), and gap (GAP) on the sum values of bead geometry is discussed. Eventually, the confirmation experiments are carried out to demonstrate the optimal values were effective and reliable. On the whole, the proposed hybrid method, BPNN-GA, can be used to guide the actual work and improve the efficiency and stability of LB process.

Rong, Youmin; Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Guojun; Yue, Chen; Gu, Yafei; Huang, Yu; Wang, Chunming; Shao, Xinyu

2015-04-01

182

Heat transfer characteristics of a new helically coiled crimped spiral finned tube heat exchanger  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, the heat transfer characteristics in dry surface conditions of a new type of heat exchanger, namely a helically coiled finned tube heat exchanger, is experimentally investigated. The test section, which is a helically coiled fined tube heat exchanger, consists of a shell and a helical coil unit. The helical coil unit consists of four concentric helically coiled tubes of different diameters. Each tube is constructed by bending straight copper tube into a helical coil. Aluminium crimped spiral fins with thickness of 0.5 mm and outer diameter of 28.25 mm are placed around the tube. The edge of fin at the inner diameter is corrugated. Ambient air is used as a working fluid in the shell side while hot water is used for the tube-side. The test runs are done at air mass flow rates ranging between 0.04 and 0.13 kg/s. The water mass flow rates are between 0.2 and 0.4 kg/s. The water temperatures are between 40 and 50°C. The effects of the inlet conditions of both working fluids flowing through the heat exchanger on the heat transfer coefficients are discussed. The air-side heat transfer coefficient presented in term of the Colburn J factor is proportional to inlet-water temperature and water mass flow rate. The heat exchanger effectiveness tends to increase with increasing water mass flow rate and also slightly increases with increasing inlet water temperature.

Srisawad, Kwanchanok; Wongwises, Somchai

2009-02-01

183

Structure of the Yeast DEAD Box Protein Mss116p Reveals Two Wedges that Crimp RNA  

SciTech Connect

The yeast DEAD box protein Mss116p is a general RNA chaperone that functions in mitochondrial group I and II intron splicing, translational activation, and RNA end processing. Here we determined high-resolution X-ray crystal structures of Mss116p complexed with an RNA oligonucleotide and ATP analogs AMP-PNP, ADP-BeF{sub 3}, or ADP-AlF{sub 4}{sup -}. The structures show the entire helicase core acting together with a functionally important C-terminal extension. In all structures, the helicase core is in a closed conformation with a wedge {alpha} helix bending RNA 3' of the central bound nucleotides, as in previous DEAD box protein structures. Notably, Mss116p's C-terminal extension also bends RNA 5' of the central nucleotides, resulting in RNA crimping. Despite reported functional differences, we observe few structural changes in ternary complexes with different ATP analogs. The structures constrain models of DEAD box protein function and reveal a strand separation mechanism in which a protein uses two wedges to act as a molecular crimper.

Del Campo, Mark; Lambowitz, Alan M.; (Texas)

2010-01-12

184

HEALTH EFFECTS OF BARLEY CONSUMPTION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cardiovascular disease remains the major health problem in the US. Consumption of soluble fiber, like that in oats, has been recognized as beneficial in decreasing blood cholesterol levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. Barley has high amounts of soluble fiber but is not extensively consumed...

185

Application of Molecular Genetics and Transformation to Barley Improvement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This chapter of the new barley monograph summarizes current applications of molecular genetics and transformation to barley improvement. The chapter describes recent applications of molecular markers including association genetics, QTL mapping and marker assisted selection in barley programs, and in...

186

ECONOMIC AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF SMALL GRAIN PRODUCTION AND USE ON PENNSYLVANIA DAIRY FARMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Whole farm simulation was used to determine if adding small grain crops to traditional corn and alfalfa rotations provided long-term environmental and economic benefits. Small grain cropping strategies included 1) corn double cropped with barley harvested as cash crop grain and straw bedding, 2) cor...

187

Interfibre Failure Characterisation of Unidirectional and Triax Glass Fibre Non-Crimp Fabric Reinforced Epoxy Laminates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The in-plane failure envelopes of unidirectional (UD) laminae in a UD and a Triax (0°, ±45°) laminate configuration have been investigated. The two laminate configurations have been characterised by testing off-axis specimens in uniaxial tension and compression at different angles relative to the fibre direction and further by Iosipescu shear tests. Strain gauge and Digital Image Correlation (DIC) measurements were used to measure the deformation states during loading, and to record the stress-strain responses to identify the initiation of failure and investigate the heterogeneity of the material and possible parasitic effects. A novel analysis methodology to determine the so-called `failure initiation strength' based on the second derivative of the stresses with respect to the strains has been adopted. The experimentally determined `failure initiation stresses' were compared with predictions from the commonly applied Maximum Stress, Tsai-Wu, and Puck failure criteria. From this work, a thorough comparison of the UD and Triax failure envelopes has been facilitated. It is shown that failure prediction for the Triax laminate based on the failure envelope derived from UD lamina tests may be too conservative in comparison with fitting a failure criterion directly to the Triax laminate test data. The latter approach implies that the Triax laminate is considered as a single lamina with homogenised properties, which in principle violates the theoretical background of the considered failure criteria, since these are established to predict failure for a UD lamina. However, the simple homogenisation is shown to be a useful design oriented approach for providing a simple estimation of the onset of failure in laminate configurations composed of e.g., multiple layers of Triax. Thus, a reliable and efficient approach is offered for the structural integrity assessment, which takes the non-crimp fabric configurations directly or `as delivered' into account.

Laustsen, S.; Lund, E.; Kühlmeier, L.; Thomsen, O. T.

2015-02-01

188

New Starch Phenotypes Produced by TILLING in Barley  

PubMed Central

Barley grain starch is formed by amylose and amylopectin in a 1?3 ratio, and is packed into granules of different dimensions. The distribution of granule dimension is bimodal, with a majority of small spherical B-granules and a smaller amount of large discoidal A-granules containing the majority of the starch. Starch granules are semi-crystalline structures with characteristic X-ray diffraction patterns. Distinct features of starch granules are controlled by different enzymes and are relevant for nutritional value or industrial applications. Here, the Targeting-Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes (TILLING) approach was applied on the barley TILLMore TILLING population to identify 29 new alleles in five genes related to starch metabolism known to be expressed in the endosperm during grain filling: BMY1 (Beta-amylase 1), GBSSI (Granule Bound Starch Synthase I), LDA1 (Limit Dextrinase 1), SSI (Starch Synthase I), SSIIa (Starch Synthase IIa). Reserve starch of nine M3 mutant lines carrying missense or nonsense mutations was analysed for granule size, crystallinity and amylose/amylopectin content. Seven mutant lines presented starches with different features in respect to the wild-type: (i) a mutant line with a missense mutation in GBSSI showed a 4-fold reduced amylose/amylopectin ratio; (ii) a missense mutations in SSI resulted in 2-fold increase in A:B granule ratio; (iii) a nonsense mutation in SSIIa was associated with shrunken seeds with a 2-fold increased amylose/amylopectin ratio and different type of crystal packing in the granule; (iv) the remaining four missense mutations suggested a role of LDA1 in granule initiation, and of SSIIa in determining the size of A-granules. We demonstrate the feasibility of the TILLING approach to identify new alleles in genes related to starch metabolism in barley. Based on their novel physicochemical properties, some of the identified new mutations may have nutritional and/or industrial applications. PMID:25271438

Sparla, Francesca; Falini, Giuseppe; Botticella, Ermelinda; Pirone, Claudia; Talamč, Valentina; Bovina, Riccardo; Salvi, Silvio; Tuberosa, Roberto; Sestili, Francesco; Trost, Paolo

2014-01-01

189

Wheat and Barley Genome Sequencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high quality reference genome sequence is a prerequisite resource for accessing any gene, driving genomics-based approaches\\u000a to systems biology, and for efficient exploitation of natural and induced genetic diversity of an organism. Wheat and barley\\u000a possess genomes of a size that was long presumed to be not amenable for whole genome sequencing. So far, only limited genomic\\u000a sequencing of

Kellye Eversole; Andreas Graner; Nils Stein

190

Fermentation of Barley by Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Examination of Barley as a Feedstock for Bioethanol Production and Value-Added Products ?  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to examine the ethanol yield potential of three barley varieties (Xena, Bold, and Fibar) in comparison to two benchmarks, corn and wheat. Very high gravity (VHG; 30% solids) fermentations using both conventional and Stargen 001 enzymes for starch hydrolysis were carried out as simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. The grains and their corresponding dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS) were also analyzed for nutritional and value-added characteristics. A VHG traditional fermentation approach utilizing jet-cooking fermentation revealed that both dehulled Bold and Xena barley produced ethanol concentrations higher than that produced by wheat (12.3, 12.2, and 11.9%, respectively) but lower than that produced by corn (13.8%). VHG-modified Stargen-based fermentation of dehulled Bold barley demonstrated comparable performance (14.3% ethanol) relative to that of corn (14.5%) and wheat (13.3%). Several important components were found to survive fermentation and were concentrated in DDGS. The highest yield of phenolics was detected in the DDGS (modified Stargen 001, 20% solids) of Xena (14.6 mg of gallic acid/g) and Bold (15.0 mg of gallic acid/g) when the hull was not removed before fermentation. The highest concentration of sterols in DDGS from barley was found in Xena (3.9 mg/g) when the hull was included. The DDGS recovered from corn had the highest concentration of fatty acids (72.6 and 77.5 mg/g). The DDGS recovered from VHG jet-cooking fermentations of Fibar, dehulled Bold, and corn demonstrated similar levels of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Corn DDGS was highest in crude fat but was lowest in crude protein and in vitro energy digestibility. Wheat DDGS was highest in crude protein content, similar to previous studies. The barley DDGS was the highest in in vitro energy digestibility. PMID:19114516

Gibreel, Amera; Sandercock, James R.; Lan, Jingui; Goonewardene, Laksiri A.; Zijlstra, Ruurd T.; Curtis, Jonathan M.; Bressler, David C.

2009-01-01

191

Exploiting induced variation to dissect quantitative traits in barley.  

PubMed

The identification of genes underlying complex quantitative traits such as grain yield by means of conventional genetic analysis (positional cloning) requires the development of several large mapping populations. However, it is possible that phenotypically related, but more extreme, allelic variants generated by mutational studies could provide a means for more efficient cloning of QTLs (quantitative trait loci). In barley (Hordeum vulgare), with the development of high-throughput genome analysis tools, efficient genome-wide identification of genetic loci harbouring mutant alleles has recently become possible. Genotypic data from NILs (near-isogenic lines) that carry induced or natural variants of genes that control aspects of plant development can be compared with the location of QTLs to potentially identify candidate genes for development--related traits such as grain yield. As yield itself can be divided into a number of allometric component traits such as tillers per plant, kernels per spike and kernel size, mutant alleles that both affect these traits and are located within the confidence intervals for major yield QTLs may represent extreme variants of the underlying genes. In addition, the development of detailed comparative genomic models based on the alignment of a high-density barley gene map with the rice and sorghum physical maps, has enabled an informed prioritization of 'known function' genes as candidates for both QTLs and induced mutant genes. PMID:20298243

Druka, Arnis; Franckowiak, Jerome; Lundqvist, Udda; Bonar, Nicola; Alexander, Jill; Guzy-Wrobelska, Justyna; Ramsay, Luke; Druka, Ilze; Grant, Iain; Macaulay, Malcolm; Vendramin, Vera; Shahinnia, Fahimeh; Radovic, Slobodanka; Houston, Kelly; Harrap, David; Cardle, Linda; Marshall, David; Morgante, Michele; Stein, Nils; Waugh, Robbie

2010-04-01

192

Recombinant barley-produced antibody for detection and immunoprecipitation of the major bovine milk allergen, ?-lactoglobulin.  

PubMed

Recombinant allergens and antibodies are needed for diagnostic, therapeutic, food processing and quality verification purposes. The aim of this work was to develop a barley-based production system for ?-lactoglobulin (BLG) specific immunoglobulin E antibody (D1 scFv). The expression level in the best barley cell clone was 0.8-1.2 mg/kg fresh weight, and was constant over an expression period of 21 days. In the case of barley grains, the highest stable productivity (followed up to T2 grains) was obtained when the D1 scFv cDNA was expressed under a seed-specific Glutelin promoter rather than under the constitutive Ubiquitin promoter. Translational fusion of ER retention signal significantly improved the accumulation of recombinant antibody. Furthermore, lines without ER retention signal lost D1 scFv accumulation in T2 grains. Pilot scale purification was performed for a T2 grain pool (51 g) containing 55.0 mg D1 scFv/kg grains. The crude extract was purified by a two-step purification protocol including IMAC and size exclusion chromatography. The purification resulted in a yield of 0.47 mg of D1 scFv (31 kD) with high purity. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay revealed that 29 % of the purified protein was fully functional. In immunoprecipitation assay the purified D1 scFv recognized the native 18 kD BLG in the milk sample. No binding was observed with the heat-treated milk sample, as expected. The developed barley-based expression system clearly demonstrated its potential for application in the processing of dairy milk products as well as in detecting allergens from foods possibly contaminated by bovine milk. PMID:24497085

Ritala, A; Leelavathi, S; Oksman-Caldentey, K-M; Reddy, V S; Laukkanen, M-L

2014-06-01

193

Bioaccessible mineral content of malted finger millet (Eleusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare).  

PubMed

Malted grains are extensively used in weaning and geriatric foods. Malting generally improves the nutrient content and digestibility of foods. The present investigation examined the influence of malting of finger millet, wheat, and barley on the bioaccessibility of iron, zinc, calcium, copper, and manganese. Malting increased the bioaccessibility of iron by >3-fold from the two varieties of finger millet and by >2-fold from wheat, whereas such a beneficial influence was not seen in barley. The bioaccessibility of zinc from wheat and barley increased to an extent of 234 and 100%, respectively, as a result of malting. However, malting reduced the bioaccessibility of zinc from finger millet. Malting marginally increased the bioaccessibility of calcium from white finger millet and wheat. Whereas malting did not exert any influence on bioaccessibility of copper from finger millet and wheat, it significantly decreased (75%) the same from barley. Malting did increase the bioaccessibility of manganese from brown finger millet (17%) and wheat (42%). Thus, malting could be an appropriate food-based strategy to derive iron and other minerals maximally from food grains. PMID:20560601

Platel, Kalpana; Eipeson, Sushma W; Srinivasan, Krishnapura

2010-07-14

194

Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat, Barley, Maize, and Rice[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) possess significant phytase activity in the mature grains. Maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa) possess little or virtually no preformed phytase activity in the mature grain and depend fully on de novo synthesis during germination. Here, it is demonstrated that wheat, barley, maize, and rice all possess purple acid phosphatase (PAP) genes that, expressed in Pichia pastoris, give fully functional phytases (PAPhys) with very similar enzyme kinetics. Preformed wheat PAPhy was localized to the protein crystalloid of the aleurone vacuole. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that PAPhys possess four conserved domains unique to the PAPhys. In barley and wheat, the PAPhy genes can be grouped as PAPhy_a or PAPhy_b isogenes (barley, HvPAPhy_a, HvPAPhy_b1, and HvPAPhy_b2; wheat, TaPAPhy_a1, TaPAPhy_a2, TaPAPhy_b1, and TaPAPhy_b2). In rice and maize, only the b type (OsPAPhy_b and ZmPAPhy_b, respectively) were identified. HvPAPhy_a and HvPAPhy_b1/b2 share 86% and TaPAPhya1/a2 and TaPAPhyb1/b2 share up to 90% (TaPAPhy_a2 and TaPAPhy_b2) identical amino acid sequences. despite of this, PAPhy_a and PAPhy_b isogenes are differentially expressed during grain development and germination. In wheat, it was demonstrated that a and b isogene expression is driven by different promoters (approximately 31% identity). TaPAPhy_a/b promoter reporter gene expression in transgenic grains and peptide mapping of TaPAPhy purified from wheat bran and germinating grains confirmed that the PAPhy_a isogene set present in wheat/barley but not in rice/maize is the origin of high phytase activity in mature grains. PMID:21220762

Dionisio, Giuseppe; Madsen, Claus K.; Holm, Preben B.; Welinder, Karen G.; Jřrgensen, Malene; Stoger, Eva; Arcalis, Elsa; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

2011-01-01

195

Issues surrounding health claims for barley.  

PubMed

Government-approved health claims support dietary intervention as a safe and practical approach to improving consumer health and provide industry with regulatory guidelines for food product labels. Claims already allowed in the United States, United Kingdom, Sweden, and The Netherlands for reducing cholesterol through consumption of oat or barley soluble fiber provide a basis for review, but each country may have different criteria for assessing clinical evidence for a physiological effect. For example, the FDA-approved barley health claim was based on a petition that included 39 animal model studies and 11 human clinical trials. Since then, more studies have been published, but with few exceptions, clinical data continue to demonstrate that the consumption of barley products is effective for lowering total and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to fully understand the mechanism of cholesterol reduction and the role of beta-glucan molecular weight, viscosity, and solubility. In an assessment of the physiological efficacy of a dietary intervention, consideration should also be given to the potential impact of physical and thermal food-processing treatments and genotypic variation in the barley source. New barley cultivars have been generated specifically for food use, possessing increased beta-glucan, desirable starch composition profiles, and improved milling/processing traits. These advances in barley production, coupled with the establishment of a government-regulated health claim for barley beta-glucan, will stimulate new processing opportunities for barley foods and provide consumers with reliable, healthy food choices. PMID:18492863

Ames, Nancy P; Rhymer, Camille R

2008-06-01

196

New leaf diseases of barley in Egypt.  

PubMed

Leaf diseases of barley were observed also in Egypt. From leaves of barley were isolated: Helminthosporium teres, H. gramineum, Stemphylium vesicarium, Alternaria triticina, Vlocladium chartarum, Acnemonium kiliense, Stemphylium spec. accompanied with the Pleospora stage. Inoculations on both attached and detached leaves showed that all the tested fungi were pathogenic, except Acremonium kiliense and Ulocladium chartarum. PMID:1037183

Mehiar, F F; El-Deen, E; Wasfy, H; El-Samra, I A

1976-01-01

197

DNA polymorphisms and haplotype patterns of transcription factors involved in barley endosperm development are associated with key agronomic traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Association mapping is receiving considerable attention in plant genetics for its potential to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL), validate candidate genes, and identify alleles of interest. In the present study association mapping in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is investigated by associating DNA polymorphisms with variation in grain quality traits, plant height, and flowering time to gain further understanding

Grit Haseneyer; Silke Stracke; Hans-Peter Piepho; Sascha Sauer; Hartwig H Geiger; Andreas Graner

2010-01-01

198

Understanding consumer preference for functional tortillas including whole barley flour using sensory and demographic/behavioral data  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The U.S. population has failed to incorporate sufficient amounts of whole grains and soluble fiber into their diet. The main objectives of this study were to investigate consumer acceptance of soluble fiber-enriched and low-fat tortillas made with blends of different particle size whole barley flour...

199

Effects on feeding corn, hull-less or hulled barley on fermentation by mixed cultures of ruminal microorganisms  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to determine the effects of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) type or corn (Zea mays L.) as a grain source on fermentation in cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. Three continuous fermentors were fed 14 g of dry feed per day (divided equally between two feedings) consisting o...

200

Thioredoxin h overexpressed in barley seeds enhances selenite resistance and uptake during germination and early seedling development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake, distribution and metabolism of selenite were examined in germinating homozygous barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) grain with thioredoxin  h overexpressed in starchy endosperm. Results were related to the null segregant in which the transgene had segregated out during crossing. Compared with the null segregant, the homozygote showed enhanced germination and root and shoot growth in the presence of

Yong-Bum Kim; Carlos Garbisu; Ingrid J. Pickering; Roger C. Prince; Graham N. George; Myeong-Je Cho; Joshua H. Wong; Bob B. Buchanan

2003-01-01

201

7 CFR 810.204 - Grades and grade requirements for Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. 810.204 Section...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley. Grade Minimum limits...Six-rowed Malting barley and Six-rowed Blue Malting barley varieties not...

2010-01-01

202

Prediction of in-plane stiffness properties of non-crimp fabric laminates by means of 3D finite element analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-crimp fabric (NCF) composites are constituted by differently oriented layers of ideally unidirectional fibre tows. However, a slight waviness always appears in the tows. The applicability of the general laminate theory (GLT) to obtain the stiffness properties of NCF laminates is elucidated in this paper. For this purpose, a 3D finite element (FE) model of the representative unit cell (RUC)

Amparo González; Enrique Graciani; Federico París

2008-01-01

203

Hormonal regulation of Ca 2+ transport in the endomembrane system of the barley aleurone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) regulate a-amylase production in aleurone tissue of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain during germination. Since a-amylase is a Ca2+-containing protein that is synthesized on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER), we investigated the possibility that GA3 and ABA regulate the flux of Ca2+ into the ER of aleurone cells. Membrane vesicles were isolated

Douglas Scott Bush; Asok K. Biswas; Russell L. Jones

1993-01-01

204

Immunological characterization of the gluten fractions and their hydrolysates from wheat, rye and barley.  

PubMed

Gluten proteins in wheat, rye and barley cause celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder of the small intestine, which affects approximately 1% of the world population. Gluten is comprised of prolamin and glutelin. Since avoidance of dietary gluten is the only option for celiac patients, a sensitive gluten detection and quantitation method is warranted. Most regulatory agencies have set a threshold of 20 ppm gluten in foods labeled gluten-free, based on the currently available ELISA methods. However, these methods may exhibit differences in gluten quantitation from different gluten-containing grains. In this study, prolamin and glutelin fractions were isolated from wheat, rye, barley, oats and corn. Intact and pepsin-trypsin (PT)-digested prolamin and glutelin fractions were used to assess their immunoreactivity and gluten recovery by three sandwich and two competitive ELISA kits. The Western blots revealed varied affinity of ELISA antibodies to gluten-containing grain proteins and no reactivity to oat and corn proteins. ELISA results showed considerable variation in gluten recoveries from both intact and PT-digested gluten fractions among different kits. Prolamin fractions showed higher gluten recovery compared to their respective glutelin fractions. Among prolamins, barley exhibited higher recovery compared to wheat and rye with most of the ELISA kits used. Hydrolysis resulted in reduced gluten recovery of most gluten fractions. These results suggest that the suitability of ELISA for accurate gluten quantitation is dependent upon various factors, such as grain source, antibody specificity, gluten proteins and the level of their hydrolysis in foods. PMID:25619974

Rallabhandi, Prasad; Sharma, Girdhari M; Pereira, Marion; Williams, Kristina M

2015-02-18

205

Effect of different heating conditions on the extractability of barley hordeins.  

PubMed

The extractability of hordeins from barley grains was investigated after wet and dry heating conditions. It was found that the amount of hordeins extractable with 55% 2-propanol decreased in a time-dependent manner after barley grains were steamed (wet heating), whereas hordeins showed no effect from heating in an oven at 100 degress C for up to 120 min (dry heating). The result of SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that B-hordein decreased time-dependently in extractability with wet heating and had almost completely disappeared by 60 min, but C-hordein remained unchanged until 120 min. With the use of the hordein fraction prepared from the nonheated barley grains, it was confirmed that B-hordein suspended in boiling water lost solubility in 55% 2-propanol. The insolubilized B-hordein was redissolved by the addition of 2-mercaptoethanol to 1%, which suggested that the intermolecular disulfide bonds would play a significant role in the loss of solubility. On the other hand, C-hordein did not lose solubility from being heated under the same conditions. PMID:12171436

Nakai, Reiko; Ashida, Hitoshi; Danno, Gen-ichi

2002-04-01

206

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure treatment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non fertilized cereal reference during the GM year (2009). Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+ 0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) resulting in generally higher N2O emissions during barley production. Addition of biogas residue (80 kg N ha-1) in 2010 to previously non mulched GM and unfertilized cereal plots (2009) had no significant effect on cumulative N2O emissions relative to a treatment receiving the same amount of N in form of mulched aboveground GM. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, organic amendments (previously mulched or harvested GM, biorest) increased N2O emissions relative to a reference treatment with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-04-01

207

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and return as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilised cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010, all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (60 kg NH4+-N + 50 kg organic N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilised cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Based on measurements covering the growing season 2010, organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilisation (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-07-01

208

N2O emission from organic barley cultivation as affected by green manure management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Legumes are an important source of nitrogen in stockless organic cereal production. However, substantial amounts of N can be lost from legume-grass leys prior to or after incorporation as green manure (GM). Here we report N2O emissions from a field experiment in SE Norway exploring different green manure management strategies: mulching versus removal of grass-clover herbage during a whole growing season and replacement as biogas residue to a subsequent barley crop. Grass-clover ley had small but significantly higher N2O emissions as compared with a non-fertilized cereal reference during the year of green manure (GM) production in 2009. Mulching of herbage induced significantly more N2O emission (+0.37 kg N2O-N ha-1) throughout the growing season than removing herbage. In spring 2010 all plots were ploughed (with and without GM) and sown with barley, resulting in generally higher N2O emissions than during the previous year. Application of biogas residue (110 kg N ha-1) before sowing did not increase emissions neither when applied to previous ley plots nor when applied to previously unfertilized cereal plots. Ley management (mulching vs. removing biomass in 2009) had no effect on N2O emissions during barley production in 2010. In general, GM ley (mulched or harvested) increased N2O emissions relative to a cereal reference with low mineral N fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1). Organic cereal production emitted 95 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain, which was substantially higher than in the cereal reference treatment with 80 kg mineral N fertilization in 2010 (47 g N2O-N kg-1 N yield in barley grain).

Nadeem, S.; Hansen, S.; Azzaroli Bleken, M.; Dörsch, P.

2012-02-01

209

Thiamine treatments alleviate aphid infestations in barley and pea.  

PubMed

Treatment of plants with thiamine (Vitamin B1) has before been shown to activate plant defence against microorganisms. Here, we have studied the effects of thiamine treatments of plants on aphid reproduction and behaviour. The work was mainly carried out with bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Aphid population growth and aphid acceptance on plants grown from seeds soaked in a 150?M thiamine solution were reduced to ca. 60% of that on control plants. R. padi life span and the total number of offspring were reduced on barley plants treated with thiamine. Healthy aphids and aphids infected with the R. padi virus were similarly affected. Spraying or addition of thiamine at 150?M to nutrient solutions likewise resulted in reduced aphid population growth to ca. 60%, as did plant exposure to thiamine odour at 4mM. Thiamine treatments resulted in reduced aphid population growth also when tested with grain aphid (Sitobion avenae F.) on barley and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum H.) on pea (Pisum sativum L.). There was no direct effect of thiamine on aphid reproduction or thiamine odour on aphid behaviour, as evaluated using artificial diets and by olfactometer tests, respectively. Two gene sequences regulated by salicylic acid showed higher transcript abundance and one gene sequence regulated by methyl jasmonate showed lower transcript abundance in thiamine-treated plants but not in control plants after aphid infestation. These results suggest that the aphid antibiosis and antixenosis effects may be related to priming of defence, but more studies are needed to explain the effects against aphids. PMID:23787153

Hamada, Afaf M; Jonsson, Lisbeth M V

2013-10-01

210

Comparative Effects of Dietary Grains to Lipid Profiles in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative effects of four grains to lipid and antioxidative profiles were elucidated in rats fed cholesterol. Rats were fed on either purified diets containing rice, barley, wheat flour or buckwheat for 5 weeks. Cholesterol were fortified to the diets at the level of 0.12 % of diet. There were no significant differences in concentration of serum cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride

Deuk-Hyo Yoon; Yoon-Ho Han; Hong-Yeon Won; Heok-Hwa Lee; Bok-Ran Kim; Yong-Soon Choi

211

Forage production of intraspecific small grain varietal mixtures  

E-print Network

grains. The ryegrass is less likely to winterkill, and it extends grazing during the spr~ng. Gardner and Rogers (5) found that the annual grasses--oats, rye, ryegrass, wheat, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ), and rescue 10 grass (Bromus catharticus Vahl...

Morgan, Thomas Edward

1974-01-01

212

Biomarker of whole grain wheat intake associated lower BMI in older adults  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Alkylresorcinols (AR) are phenolic lipids in the bran fraction of some whole grains (wheat, rye and barley). Plasma AR reflect recent intake of these whole grains. We examined the cross-sectional associations between plasma AR (measured by LCMS/ MS), whole wheat intake, and body mass index (BMI) in ...

213

AgRISTARS: Foreign commodity production forecasting. The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crop identification procedures used performed were for spring small grains and are conducive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology; however, the crop calendars require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The integrated technology is capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. Barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated because LANDSAT sample segment data was not available for high density barley of primary importance in foreign regions and the low density segments examined were not judged to give indicative or unequvocal results. Generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analysis to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment.

Payne, R. W. (principal investigator)

1981-01-01

214

Basic leucine zipper family in barley: genome-wide characterization of members and expression analysis.  

PubMed

The basic leucine zipper (bZIP) family is one of the largest and most diverse transcription factors in eukaryotes participating in many essential plant processes. We identified 141 bZIP proteins encoded by 89 genes from the Hordeum vulgare genome. HvbZIPs were classified into 11 groups based on their DNA-binding motif. Amino acid sequence alignment of the HvbZIPs basic-hinge regions revealed some highly conserved residues within each group. The leucine zipper heptads were analyzed predicting their dimerization properties. 34 conserved motifs were identified outside the bZIP domain. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that major diversification within the bZIP family predated the monocot/dicot divergence, although intra-species duplication and parallel evolution seems to be occurred afterward. Localization of HvbZIPs on the barley chromosomes revealed that different groups have been distributed on seven chromosomes of barley. Six types of intron pattern were detected within the basic-hinge regions. Most of the detected cis-elements in the promoter and UTR sequences were involved in seed development or abiotic stress response. Microarray data analysis revealed differential expression pattern of HvbZIPs in response to ABA treatment, drought, and cold stresses and during barley grain development and germination. This information would be helpful for functional characterization of bZIP transcription factors in barley. PMID:25173685

Pourabed, Ehsan; Ghane Golmohamadi, Farzan; Soleymani Monfared, Peyman; Razavi, Seyed Morteza; Shobbar, Zahra-Sadat

2015-01-01

215

Grain aeration  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Aeration, the forced movement of ambient air by fan power through a grain bulk, is widely used in stored grain management programs in the United States (U.S.) to maintain favorable storage conditions for preserving grain quality. Aeration flow rates are lower than rates from grain drying, which uses...

216

Structure and Functionality of Barley Starches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cereal Chem. 75(5):747-754 Amylose contents of prime starches from nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, determined by colorimetric method, were 24.6 and 48.7%, respec- tively, whereas waxy starch contained only a trace (0.04%) of amylose. There was little difference in isoamylase-debranched amylopectin between nonwaxy and high-amylose barley, whereas amylopectin from waxy bar- ley had a significantly higher percentage of fraction with degree

Z. Czuchajowska; A. Klamczynski; B. Paszczynska; B.-K. Baik

1998-01-01

217

Germanium accumulation and toxicity in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accumulation of germanium (Ge) by barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. ‘Arivat') grown at various Ge and pH levels was investigated because Ge is an industrially important metal and bioaccumulation of Ge is a potentially useful means of concentrating this trace metal. Six?day?old barley seedlings were grown in perlite and nutrient solution adjusted to a pH of 4.5, 6.0, or 7.5

Stephen J. Halperin; Adam Barzilay; Matthew Carson; Cory Roberts; Jonathan Lynch; Sridhar Komarneni

1995-01-01

218

Ground Versus Unground Grain for Lactating Dairy Cows.  

E-print Network

of the concentrate mixture was com- posed of whole ens. Less of the whole oats and barley was re- fnsed by the cows than of wrn or milo fed as whole $rain. Greater milk production, especially with high producing cows, was obtained in all of the experiments when... of milk were obtained by feeding ground grains, even though more grain mas required to produce this milk, and since the ratio of milk produced to grain consumed was practically unchanged, it seems advisable to grind grains for dairy cows in order...

Darnell, A. L. (Albert Laurie); Copeland, O. C. (Orlin Cephas)

1936-01-01

219

Comparison of the potential rate of population increase of brown and green color morphs of Sitobion avenae (Homoptera: Aphididae) on barley infected and uninfected with Barley yellow dwarf virus.  

PubMed

Life tables of brown and green color morphs of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius) reared on barley under laboratory conditions at 20 ± 1°C, 65% ± 5% relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (L : D) were compared. The plants were either: (i) infected with the Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV); (ii) not infected with virus but previously infested with aphids; or (iii) healthy barley plants, which were not previously infested with aphids. Generally, both color morphs of S. avenae performed significantly better when fed on BYDV-infected plants than on plants that were virus free but had either not been or had been previously infested with aphids. Furthermore, when fed on BYDV-infected plants, green S. avenae developed significantly faster and had a significantly shorter reproductive period than the brown color morph. There were no significant differences in this respect between the two color morphs of S. avenae when they were reared on virus-free plants that either had been or not been previously infested with aphids. These results indicate that barley infected with BYDV is a more favorable host plant than uninfected barley for both the color morphs of S. avenae tested, particularly the green color morph. PMID:24382739

Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Thieme, Thomas

2014-06-01

220

The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica requires host cell death for proliferation during mutualistic symbiosis with barley  

PubMed Central

Fungi of the recently defined order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) are involved in a wide spectrum of mutualistic symbioses (including mycorrhizae) with various plants, thereby exhibiting a unique potential for biocontrol strategies. The axenically cultivable root endophyte Piriformospora indica is a model organism of this fungal order. It is able to increase biomass and grain yield of crop plants. In barley, the endophyte induces local and systemic resistance to fungal diseases and to abiotic stress. To elucidate the lifestyle of P. indica, we analyzed its symbiotic interaction and endophytic development in barley roots. We found that fungal colonization increases with root tissue maturation. The root tip meristem showed no colonization, and the elongation zone showed mainly intercellular colonization. In contrast, the differentiation zone was heavily infested by inter- and intracellular hyphae and intracellular chlamydospores. The majority of hyphae were present in dead rhizodermal and cortical cells that became completely filled with chlamydospores. In some cases, hyphae penetrated cells and built a meshwork around plasmolyzed protoplasts, suggesting that the fungus either actively kills cells or senses cells undergoing endogenous programmed cell death. Seven days after inoculation, expression of barley BAX inhibitor-1 (HvBI-1), a gene capable of inhibiting plant cell death, was attenuated. Consistently, fungal proliferation was strongly inhibited in transgenic barley overexpressing GFP-tagged HvBI-1, which shows that P. indica requires host cell death for proliferation in differentiated barley roots. We suggest that the endophyte interferes with the host cell death program to form a mutualistic interaction with plants. PMID:17116870

Deshmukh, Sachin; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Schäfer, Patrick; Imani, Jafargholi; Sharma, Monica; Weiss, Michael; Waller, Frank; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

2006-01-01

221

Sugar Repression of a Gibberellin-Dependent Signaling Pathway in Barley Embryos.  

PubMed Central

Increasing evidence shows that sugars can act as signals affecting plant metabolism and development. Some of the effects of sugars on plant growth and development suggest an interaction of sugar signals with hormonal regulation. We investigated the effects of sugars on the induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in barley embryos and aleurone layers. Our results show that sugar and hormonal signaling interact in the regulation of gibberellic acid-induced gene expression in barley grains. The induction of [alpha]-amylase by gibberellic acid in the aleurone layer is unaffected by the presence of sugars, but repression by carbohydrates is effective in the embryo. [alpha]-Amylase expression in the embryo is localized to the scutellar epithelium and is hormone and sugar modulated. The effects of glucose are independent from the effects of sugars on gibberellin biosynthesis. They are not due to an osmotic effect, they are independent of abscisic acid, and only hexokinase-phosphorylatable glucose analogs are able to trigger gene repression. Overall, the results suggest the existence of an interaction between the hormonal and metabolic regulation of [alpha]-amylase genes in barley grains. PMID:12237356

Perata, P.; Matsukura, C.; Vernieri, P.; Yamaguchi, J.

1997-01-01

222

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2011-01-01

223

Analysis of Pre-Germinated Barley using Hyperspectral Image Analysis.  

E-print Network

Analysis of Pre-Germinated Barley using Hyperspectral Image Analysis. TECHNICAL REPORT v1.0 Morten) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5 Germination Time Classification entitled 'Analysis of Pre- Germinated Barley using Hyperspectral Image Analysis.' [1]. It is not self

224

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2010-01-01

225

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2013-01-01

226

7 CFR 407.10 - Group risk plan for barley.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Group risk plan for barley. 407.10 Section 407...CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.10 Group risk plan for barley. The provisions of...

2012-01-01

227

Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in HSP17.8 and Their Association with Agronomic Traits in Barley  

PubMed Central

Small heat shock protein 17.8 (HSP17.8) is produced abundantly in plant cells under heat and other stress conditions and may play an important role in plant tolerance to stress environments. However, HSP17.8 may be differentially expressed in different accessions of a crop species exposed to identical stress conditions. The ability of different genotypes to adapt to various stress conditions resides in their genetic diversity. Allelic variations are the most common forms of genetic variation in natural populations. In this study, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the HSP17.8 gene were investigated across 210 barley accessions collected from 30 countries using EcoTILLING technology. Eleven SNPs including 10 from the coding region of HSP17.8 were detected, which form nine distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. Among the 10 SNPs in the coding region, six are missense mutations and four are synonymous nucleotide changes. Five of the six missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to HSP17.8 function. The accessions from Middle East Asia showed the higher nucleotide diversity of HSP17.8 than those from other regions and wild barley (H. spontaneum) accessions exhibited greater diversity than the cultivated barley (H. vulgare) accessions. Four SNPs in HSP17.8 were found associated with at least one of the agronomic traits evaluated except for spike length, namely number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, plant height, flag leaf area and leaf color. The association between SNP and these agronomic traits may provide new insight for study of the gene's potential contribution to drought tolerance of barley. PMID:23418603

Ning, Zhengxiang; Bai, Guihua; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Yan, Guijun; Baum, Michael; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Guo, Peiguo

2013-01-01

228

Association of HvLDI with limit dextrinase activity and malt quality in barley.  

PubMed

Limit dextrinase (LD) is a unique de-branching enzyme involved in starch mobilization of barley grains during malting, and closely related to malt quality. Genotypic variation of LD activity is controlled by genetic factors and also affected by environmental conditions. Correlation analysis between LD activity and four malt quality parameters showed that LD activity was positively correlated with diastatic power, Kolbach index and the quality of malt extract, while negatively correlated with viscosity. The structure-based association analysis demonstrated that HvLDI, a gene encoding limit dextrinase inhibitor, was a major determinant of LD activity and malt quality. The single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with LD activity could be used in early generation selection for barley breeding. PMID:23264263

Jin, Xiaoli; Cai, Shengguan; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

2013-04-01

229

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a jackknife method of the reversion frequencies of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1980-05-29

230

Ontogeny of the barley plant as related to mutation expression and detection of pollen mutations  

SciTech Connect

Clustering of mutant pollen grains in a population of normal pollen due to premeiotic mutational events complicates translating mutation frequencies into rates. Embryo ontogeny in barley will be described and used to illustrate the formation of such mutant clusters. The nature of the statistics for mutation frequency will be described from a study of the reversion frequencies of various waxy mutants in barley. Computer analysis by a ''jackknife'' method of the reversion of a waxy mutant treated with the mutagen sodium azide showed a significantly higher reversion frequency than untreated material. Problems of the computer analysis suggest a better experimental design for pollen mutation experiments. Preliminary work on computer modeling for pollen development and mutation will be described.

Hodgdon, A.L.; Marcus, A.H.; Arenaz, P.; Rosichan, J.L.; Bogyo, T.P.; Nilan, R.A.

1981-01-01

231

Cloning and overexpression of antifungal barley chitinase gene in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Plant chitinases are pathogenesis-related proteins, which are believed to be involved in plant defense responses to pathogen infection. In this study, chitinase gene from barley was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Chitinase (35 kDa) was isolated and purified. Since the protein was produced as insoluble inclusion bodies, the protein was solubilized and refolded. Purified chitinase exerted broad-spectrum antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea (blight of tobacco), Pestalotia theae (leaf spot of tea), Bipolaris oryzae (brown spot of rice), Alternaria sp. (grain discoloration of rice), Curvularia lunata (leaf spot of clover) and Rhizoctonia solani (sheath blight of rice). Due to the potential of broad-spectrum antifungal activity barley chitinase gene can be used to enhance fungal-resistance in crop plants such as rice, tobacco, tea and clover. PMID:17029984

Kirubakaran, S Isaac; Sakthivel, N

2007-03-01

232

Utilization of two sewage sludges on cropland: yield, nitrogen, and metal uptake in winter barley  

SciTech Connect

Two municipal sludges, one from a highly industrialized city, Chicago, and another from a lesser industrialized, highly agricultural area, Tucson, are compared for barley production of Pima c 1 (Typic torrifluvent). Both sludges were responsible for highly significant additions of Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd, and P to the soil each year at the rates of 100mt/ha single and 20mt/ha for 2 years. Nitrogen responses for barley straw and grain were observed from both sludges. Tucson sludge appears to be attractive as a potential fertilizer, not only as an NPK source, but also for its minimal amounts of heavy metals. The Chicago sludge with high levels of heavy metals, particularly Cd, appears unsuited as a fertilizer because of the plant's tendency to take up toxic levels of heavy metals.

Unger, M.

1985-01-01

233

Screening the Spanish Barley Core Collection for disease resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Spanish Barley Core Collection comprises 159 landrace-derived inbred lines and 16 cultivars adapted to Southern European condi- tions. The collection was screened for resistance to powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis), scald (Rhynchosporium secalis), leaf rust (Puccinia hordei), net blotch (Pyrenophora teres f. teres), Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV). Resistance to powdery mildew was outstanding,

C. S ILVAR; A. M. C ASAS; D. K OPAHNKE; A. H ABEKU ß; G. S CHWEIZER; M. P. G RACIA; J. M. L ASA; F. J. C IUDAD; J. L. M OLINA; E. I GARTUA; F. O RDON

234

The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment, volume 1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results from the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment which was completed during FY 1980 are presented. The results indicate that the new crop identification procedures performed well for spring small grains and that they are conductive to automation. The performance of the machine processing techniques shows a significant improvement over previously evaluated technology. However, the crop calendars will require additional development and refinements prior to integration into automated area estimation technology. The evaluation showed the integrated technology to be capable of producing accurate and consistent spring small grains proportion estimates. However, barley proportion estimation technology was not satisfactorily evaluated. The low-density segments examined were judged not to give indicative or unequivocal results. It is concluded that, generally, the spring small grains technology is ready for evaluation in a pilot experiment focusing on sensitivity analyses to a variety of agricultural and meteorological conditions representative of the global environment. It is further concluded that a strong potential exists for establishing a highly efficient technology or spring small grains.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

1983-01-01

235

Metabolic and transcriptional transitions in barley glumes reveal a role as transitory resource buffers during endosperm filling  

PubMed Central

During grain filling in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Barke) reserves are remobilized from vegetative organs. Glumes represent the vegetative tissues closest to grains, senesce late, and are involved in the conversion of assimilates. To analyse glume development and metabolism related to grain filling, parallel transcript and metabolite profiling in glumes and endosperm were performed, showing that glume metabolism and development adjusts to changing grain demands, reflected by specific signatures of metabolite and transcript abundances. Before high endosperm sink strength is established by storage product accumulation, glumes form early, intermediary sink organs, shifting then to remobilizing and exporting source organs. Metabolic and transcriptional transitions occur at two phases: first, at the onset of endosperm filling, as a consequence of endosperm sink activity and assimilate depletion in endosperm and vascular tissues; second, at late grain filling, by developmental ageing and senescence. Regulation of and transition between phases are probably governed by specific NAC and WRKY transcription factors, and both abscisic and jasmonic acid, and are accompanied by changed expression of specific nitrogen transporters. Expression and metabolite profiling suggest glume-specific mechanisms of assimilate conversion and translocation. In summary, grain filling and endosperm sink strength coordinate phase changes in glumes via metabolic, hormonal, and transcriptional control. This study provides a comprehensive view of barley glume development and metabolism, and identifies candidate genes and associated pathways, potentially important for breeding improved grain traits. PMID:25617470

Kohl, Stefan; Hollmann, Julien; Erban, Alexander; Kopka, Joachim; Riewe, David; Weschke, Winfriede; Weber, Hans

2015-01-01

236

Effects of graded levels of potato by-products in barley- and corn-based beef feedlot diets: I. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, meat composition, and appearance1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To measure effects of diet on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and beef appear- ance, 144 crossbred beef steers (333 ± .44 kg) were allotted within weight block (3) to a randomized com- plete block design with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Main effects were grain (barley or corn) and level of potato by-product (PB) (0, 10,

M. L. Nelson; J. R. Busboom; J. D. Cronrath; L. Falen; A. Blankenbaker

237

Mapping barley genes to chromosome arms by transcript profiling of wheat-barley ditelosomic chromosome addition lines  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat-barley disomic and ditelosomic chromosome addition lines have been used as genetic tools for a range of applications since their development in the 1980's. In the present study, we utilized the Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip for comparative transcript analysis of Betzes barley, Chinese Spring whe...

238

Studying ancient crop provenance: implications from ?(13)C and ?(15)N values of charred barley in a Middle Bronze Age silo at Ebla(NW Syria).  

PubMed

The discovery of a storeroom full of barley and other cereals (L.9512) in the proto-historic site of Ebla has provided a unique opportunity to study the centralized storage system of the early city-state from a different perspective. Epigraphic evidence available within the site reveals a complex system of taxation which included gathering grain tributes from satellite sites and redistributing semi-finished products such as flour. In this paper, we intend to explore the possibilities of a combined approach to studying the storage system, based on estimated barley grain volumes and ?(13)C-?(15)N analyses. This approach is used to distinguish between grain from different harvesting sites and to identify any grain cultivated using special agricultural practices (e.g. manuring or irrigation). The basic assumption for this kind of analysis is that the growth-site conditions, natural or anthropogenic, of harvested cereals are reflected in their grain size and ?(13)C-?(15)N values. Since the remains found in the storeroom were charred, the first task was to evaluate the effect of carbonization on the ?(13)C-?(15)N and the size of the grains. Thus, the effect of charring was tested on modern samples of Syrian barley landraces. Once it had been ascertained that fresh grains reduced to charred remains retain their original biometric and isotopic traits, the ancient material was examined. Thirteen groups were identified, each characterized by a specific average volume and specific carbon and nitrogen values. The analysis revealed that what had first appeared to be a homogeneous concentration of grain was in fact an assemblage of barley harvested from different sites. PMID:22223320

Fiorentino, Girolamo; Caracuta, Valentina; Casiello, Grazia; Longobardi, Francesco; Sacco, Antonio

2012-02-15

239

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

240

High-Resolution Genotyping of Wild Barley Introgression Lines and Fine-Mapping of the Threshability Locus thresh-1 Using the Illumina GoldenGate Assay  

PubMed Central

Genetically well-characterized mapping populations are a key tool for rapid and precise localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and subsequent identification of the underlying genes. In this study, a set of 73 introgression lines (S42ILs) originating from a cross between the spring barley cultivar Scarlett (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the wild barley accession ISR42-8 (H. v. ssp. spontaneum) was subjected to high-resolution genotyping with an Illumina 1536-SNP array. The array enabled a precise localization of the wild barley introgressions in the elite barley background. Based on 636 informative SNPs, the S42IL set represents 87.3% of the wild barley genome, where each line contains on average 3.3% of the donor genome. Furthermore, segregating high-resolution mapping populations (S42IL-HRs) were developed for 70 S42ILs in order to facilitate QTL fine-mapping and cloning. As a case study, we used the developed genetic resources to rapidly identify and fine-map the novel locus thresh-1 on chromosome 1H that controls grain threshability. Here, the recessive wild barley allele confers a difficult to thresh phenotype, suggesting that thresh-1 played an important role during barley domestication. Using a S42IL-HR population, thresh-1 was fine-mapped within a 4.3cM interval that was predicted to contain candidate genes involved in regulation of plant cell wall composition. The set of wild barley introgression lines and derived high-resolution populations are ideal tools to speed up the process of mapping and further dissecting QTL, which ultimately clears the way for isolating the genes behind QTL effects. PMID:22384330

Schmalenbach, Inga; March, Timothy J.; Bringezu, Thomas; Waugh, Robbie; Pillen, Klaus

2011-01-01

241

Barley Transformation Using Agrobacterium-Mediated Techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methods for the transformation of barley using Agrobacterium-mediated techniques have been available for the past 10 years. Agrobacterium offers a number of advantages over biolistic-mediated techniques in terms of efficiency and the quality of the transformed plants produced. This chapter describes a simple system for the transformation of barley based on the infection of immature embryos with Agrobacterium tumefaciens followed by the selection of transgenic tissue on media containing the antibiotic hygromycin. The method can lead to the production of large numbers of fertile, independent transgenic lines. It is therefore ideal for studies of gene function in a cereal crop system.

Harwood, Wendy A.; Bartlett, Joanne G.; Alves, Silvia C.; Perry, Matthew; Smedley, Mark A.; Leyland, Nicola; Snape, John W.

242

Genetic Dissection of Photoperiod Response Based on GWAS of Pre-Anthesis Phase Duration in Spring Barley  

PubMed Central

Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions), comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1) to long-day (LD) through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH) conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ?20/?16°C day/night). Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS). GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1) and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY) genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley. PMID:25420105

Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Sharma, Rajiv; Pasam, Raj K.; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2014-01-01

243

Genetic dissection of photoperiod response based on GWAS of pre-anthesis phase duration in spring barley.  

PubMed

Heading time is a complex trait, and natural variation in photoperiod responses is a major factor controlling time to heading, adaptation and grain yield. In barley, previous heading time studies have been mainly conducted under field conditions to measure total days to heading. We followed a novel approach and studied the natural variation of time to heading in a world-wide spring barley collection (218 accessions), comprising of 95 photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) and 123 accessions with reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1) to long-day (LD) through dissecting pre-anthesis development into four major stages and sub-phases. The study was conducted under greenhouse (GH) conditions (LD; 16/8 h; ?20/?16°C day/night). Genotyping was performed using a genome-wide high density 9K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) chip which assayed 7842 SNPs. We used the barley physical map to identify candidate genes underlying genome-wide association scans (GWAS). GWAS for pre-anthesis stages/sub-phases in each photoperiod group provided great power for partitioning genetic effects on floral initiation and heading time. In addition to major genes known to regulate heading time under field conditions, several novel QTL with medium to high effects, including new QTL having major effects on developmental stages/sub-phases were found to be associated in this study. For example, highly associated SNPs tagged the physical regions around HvCO1 (barley CONSTANS1) and BFL (BARLEY FLORICAULA/LEAFY) genes. Based upon our GWAS analysis, we propose a new genetic network model for each photoperiod group, which includes several newly identified genes, such as several HvCO-like genes, belonging to different heading time pathways in barley. PMID:25420105

Alqudah, Ahmad M; Sharma, Rajiv; Pasam, Raj K; Graner, Andreas; Kilian, Benjamin; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

2014-01-01

244

Evaluation of barley yellow dwarf tolerance from plant traits in two winter × spring barley crosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Winter-type experimental lines from crosses of two winter-type barley cultivars with a spring-type, barley yellow dwarf (BYD) tolerant cultivar were compared in inoculated and uninoculated hill plots. Mature plants traits-winter survival, height, number of spike-bearing tillers, and biomass-were examined. The experimental lines could not be compared with the BYD tolerant parent using these diagnostic symptoms since the spring-type parent would

Timothy F. Bourne; J. M. Poehlman

1987-01-01

245

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community in stored barley in a laboratory experiment.  

PubMed

The effect of Tyrophagus putrescentiae on Fusarium poae transmission and fungal community composition was studied in nonsterile barley grain. The experiments included following treatments: control barley without mites; barley containing 10 or 50 mites without preincubation on F. poae (Tp10 and Tp50); barley containing 10 or 50 mites after preincubation on F. poae (FTp10 and FTp50). The number of mites, successful transfer of F. poae, and changes in the fungal communities were examined after 21 d of experiment. Increase of deoxynivalenol (DON) content in the barley was chosen as a criterion of successful F. poae transfer. The preincubation of T. putrescentiae on F. poae increased DON level approximately to 800 and 300 ?g/kg of grain for FTp10 and FTp50, respectively. T. putrescentiae population growth in FTp10 was lower than in Tp10, while no difference was found between FTp50 and Tp50. Fungal communities were compared by amplification, cloning and sequencing of ITS fragments, and operational taxonomic units (OTU) analysis. The OTU analysis did not support the transfer of F. poae via mites. From the analyzed clones, only 13 cloned sequences clustered with F. poae in an OTU defined at distance level 0.07. The related clones originated from FTp10, Tp10, Tp50 and control treatments, but not from FTp50. However, the presence of F. poae in FTp50 was confirmed by PCR amplification with specific primers. The observation may be explained by different effect of mite population density, that is, in the high density, (FTp50 treatment) the fungus was overgrazed, while the lower population density (FTp10) supported F. poae transfer. PMID:23955921

Hubert, Jan; Nesvorná, Marta; Kopecký, Jan

2014-02-01

246

Identification of QTLs for yield and yield components of barley under different growth conditions*  

PubMed Central

Waterlogging is a major abiotic stress limiting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield and its stability in areas with excessive rainfall. Identification of genomic regions influencing the response of yield and its components to waterlogging stress will enhance our understanding of the genetics of waterlogging tolerance and the development of more tolerant barley cultivars. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for grain yield and its components were identified using 156 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from a cross between the cultivars Yerong (waterlogging-tolerant) and Franklin (waterlogging-sensitive) grown under different conditions (waterlogged and well drained). A total of 31 QTLs were identified for the measured characters from two experiments with two growth environments. The phenotypic variation explained by individual QTLs ranged from 4.74% to 55.34%. Several major QTLs determining kernel weight (KW), grains per spike (GS), spikes per plant (SP), spike length (SL) and grain yield (GY) were detected on the same region of chromosome 2H, indicating close linkage or pleiotropy of the gene(s) controlling these traits. Some different QTLs were identified under waterlogging conditions, and thus different markers may have to be used in selecting cultivars suitable for high rainfall areas. PMID:20205303

Xue, Da-wei; Zhou, Mei-xue; Zhang, Xiao-qin; Chen, Song; Wei, Kang; Zeng, Fan-rong; Mao, Ying; Wu, Fei-bo; Zhang, Guo-ping

2010-01-01

247

HUMAN HEALTH BENEFITS FROM CONSUMPTION OF BARLEY.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley contains high amounts of soluble fiber but is not consumed as extensively as oats. Oat soluble fiber has been shown to lower blood lipids and glycemic parameters. Three studies found that hypercholesterolemic subjects had significantly lower total and LDL-cholesterol concentrations after cons...

248

APPLICATIONS OF GENECHIPS FOR BARLEY IMPROVEMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The use of RNA profiling has become a powerful strategy to examine genome-wide gene transcript accumulation patterns. The Barley1 Affymetrix GeneChip probe array is a resource that can be used to examine the expression of greater than 20,000 genes in parallel. This article summarizes several researc...

249

Nuclear fusion in cultured microspores of barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusion of the generative and vegetative nuclei physically separated by a wall has been observed in cultured microspores of barley. The generative cell appears to play an active role in fusion as it elongates toward the vegetative nucleus, becomes detached from the microspore wall, and finally completely encloses the vegetative nucleus. The generative cell wall disappears before nuclear fusion takes

Feng-Ming Lee; Chi-Chang Chen

1987-01-01

250

Thionin antifungal peptide synthesis in transgenic barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In seeds and vegetative organs of barley and other cereals, thionins are processed into peptides with pronounced anti-microbial properties. In vitro studies demonstrated the toxicity of a- and ß-hordothionins (HTHs) to the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Increasing the expression of thionin g...

251

Pasang Temba 1, Barley and Nawa  

E-print Network

Pasang Temba explains the traditional system under which barley was planted in the Khumbu.These recordings were made on a trek in the spring of 2011 up to Mount Everest Base Camp. The recordings span a wide variety of topics from making and drinking...

Loomis, Molly

252

Registration of 'Eve' winter hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Eve’ (Reg. No. CV- PI 659067 ), a six-row winter hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) developed and tested as VA01H-68 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in May 2007. Eve was derived from the cross SC860974 / VA94-42-13. Eve is widely adapted and provides producers with ...

253

FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF WHEAT AND BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged in the 1990s as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the mid-western United States. Few diseases of modern times have been so severe. This book contains a comprehensive compilation of scientific knowledge of the disease. Included are 18 chapters by world autho...

254

Rheological properties of barley and flaxseed composites  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Prowashonupana, a barley variety with high ß-glucan content, was dry blended with flaxseed at 10, 20, and 50% for improving nutritional, physical, and functional qualities. Flaxseed is rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) that is known for lowering blood cholesterol and preve...

255

EFFECTS OF DEOXYNIVALENOL ON BARLEY LEAF PIGMENTATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As a first step in characterizing the role deoxynivalenol (DON) plays in pathogenesis of Fusarium graminearum in leaf and head tissues, we treated detached barley leaf tissues with DON and examined them daily for signs of injury or other alterations. As shown here, DON had pronounced and unexpected ...

256

REGISTRATION OF ‘SUBLETTE’ SPRING MALTING BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

‘Sublette’, a 2-row spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), was developed by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agriculture Experiment Station. Sublette was named after William L. ‘Bill’ Sublette, an early explorer of the Western United State...

257

Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare). PMID:25577053

Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

2015-05-15

258

Viability of barley seeds after long-term exposure to outer side of international space station  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Barley seeds were exposed to outer space for 13 months in a vented metal container without a climate control system to assess the risk of physiological and genetic mutation during long-term storage in space. The space-stored seeds (S0 generation), with an 82% germination rate in 50 seeds, lost about 20% of their weight after the exposure. The germinated seeds showed normal growth, heading, and ripening. The harvested seeds (S1 generation) also germinated and reproduced (S2 generation) as did the ground-stored seeds. The culm length, ear length, number of seed, grain weight, and fertility of the plants from the space-stored seeds were not significantly different from those of the ground-stored seeds in each of the S0 and S1 generation. Furthermore, the S1 and S2 space-stored seeds respectively showed similar ?-glucan content to those of the ground-stored seeds. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis with 16 primer combinations showed no specific fragment that appears or disappears significantly in the DNA isolated from the barley grown from the space-stored seeds. Though these data are derived from nine S0 space-stored seeds in a single exposure experiment, the results demonstrate the preservation of barley seeds in outer space for 13 months without phenotypic or genotypic changes and with healthy and vigorous growth in space.

Sugimoto, Manabu; Ishii, Makoto; Mori, Izumi C.; Elena, Shagimardanova; Gusev, Oleg A.; Kihara, Makoto; Hoki, Takehiro; Sychev, Vladimir N.; Levinskikh, Margarita A.; Novikova, Natalia D.; Grigoriev, Anatoly I.

2011-09-01

259

Drought response in the spikes of barley: gene expression in the lemma, palea, awn, and seed.  

PubMed

The photosynthetic organs of the barley spike (lemma, palea, and awn) are considered resistant to drought. However, there is little information about gene expression in the spike organs under drought conditions. We compared response of the transcriptome of the lemma, palea, awn, and seed to drought stress using the Barley1 Genome Array. Barley plants were exposed to drought treatment for 4 days at the grain-filling stage by withholding water. At the end of the stress, relative water content of the lemma, palea, and awn dropped from 85% to 60%. Nevertheless, the water content of the seed only decreased from 89% to 81%. Transcript abundance followed the water status of the spike organs; the awn had more drought-regulated genes followed by lemma and palea, and the seed showed very little change in gene expression. Despite expressing more drought-associated genes, many genes for amino acid, amino acid derivative, and carbohydrate metabolism, as well as for photosynthesis, respiration, and stress response, were down-regulated in the awn compared with the lemma, palea, and seed. This suggests that the lemma and the palea are more resistant to drought stress compared with the awn. PMID:19936810

Abebe, Tilahun; Melmaiee, Kalpalatha; Berg, Virginia; Wise, Roger P

2010-05-01

260

Barley has two peroxisomal ABC transporters with multiple functions in ?-oxidation.  

PubMed

In oilseed plants, peroxisomal ?-oxidation functions not only in lipid catabolism but also in jasmonate biosynthesis and metabolism of pro-auxins. Subfamily D ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters mediate import of ?-oxidation substrates into the peroxisome, and the Arabidopsis ABCD protein, COMATOSE (CTS), is essential for this function. Here, the roles of peroxisomal ABCD transporters were investigated in barley, where the main storage compound is starch. Barley has two CTS homologues, designated HvABCD1 and HvABCD2, which are widely expressed and present in embryo and aleurone tissues during germination. Suppression of both genes in barley RNA interference (RNAi) lines indicated roles in metabolism of 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyrate (2,4-DB) and indole butyric acid (IBA), jasmonate biosynthesis, and determination of grain size. Transformation of the Arabidopsis cts-1 null mutant with HvABCD1 and HvABCD2 confirmed these findings. HvABCD2 partially or completely complemented all tested phenotypes of cts-1. In contrast, HvABCD1 failed to complement the germination and establishment phenotypes of cts-1 but increased the sensitivity of hypocotyls to 100 ?M IBA and partially complemented the seed size phenotype. HvABCD1 also partially complemented the yeast pxa1/pxa2? mutant for fatty acid ?-oxidation. It is concluded that the core biochemical functions of peroxisomal ABC transporters are largely conserved between oilseeds and cereals but that their physiological roles and importance may differ. PMID:24913629

Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Medhurst, Anne; van Roermund, Carlo W; Zhang, Xuebin; Devonshire, Jean; Scholefield, Duncan; Fernández, José; Axcell, Barry; Ramsay, Luke; Waterham, Hans R; Waugh, Robbie; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

2014-09-01

261

Factors determining accumulation of mycotoxin producers in cereal grain during harvesting.  

PubMed

During the meteorologically contrasting period of 2003-2005, the contamination of winter wheat, malt barley and fodder barley grain with micromycetes during grain harvesting and preparation for storage was investigated. Micromycetes of over 70 species ascribed to 16 genera were isolated and identified, the density of their populations in grain was determined. Micromycetes with a population density of >50% were attributed to dominant species. Short biological characteristic, ecological peculiarities of the dominating micromycetes are provided; factors determining intensity of their development and abilities to synthesise and excrete toxic metabolites are indicated. The importance of grain drying for stabilisation of its contamination with micromycete propagules is highlighted. It is noted that in grain dried in shaft dryer using air at 90 degrees C the number of cfu (colony forming units) was reduced from 2.2 to 8.2 times. When active ventilation is applied, conditions favourable for the development of micromycetes remain longest in the upper layers of the mound. The airflow passing through the layer of damp grain inhibits the development of micromycetes, but an increase of comparative air flow for more than 500 m3x(txh)(-1) did not reduce the abundance of micromycete cfu. After drying Alternaria alternata, Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, Penicillum verrucosum dominated in wheat grain; Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Fusarium chlamydosporum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum in malts barley grain; Fusarium avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. tricinctum, Alternaria alternata in fodder barley grain. It has been determined that all micromycetes recorded on grain after drying are potential producers of toxic metabolites, i.e. are hazardous to human health. PMID:17655196

Lugauskas, Albinas; Raila, Algirdas; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Railiene, Marija; Novosinskas, Henrikas

2007-01-01

262

Analysis of grain characters in temperate grasses reveals distinctive patterns of endosperm organization associated with grain shape  

PubMed Central

Members of the core pooids represent the most important crops in temperate zones including wheat, barley, and oats. Their importance as crops is largely due to the grain, particularly the storage capabilities of the endosperm. In this study, a comprehensive survey of grain morphology and endosperm organization in representatives of wild and cultivated species throughout the core pooids was performed. As sister to the core pooid tribes Poeae, Aveneae, Triticeae, and Bromeae within the Pooideae subfamily, Brachypodium provides a taxonomically relevant reference point. Using macroscopic, histological, and molecular analyses distinct patterns of grain tissue organization in these species, focusing on the peripheral and modified aleurone, are described. The results indicate that aleurone organization is correlated with conventional grain quality characters such as grain shape and starch content. In addition to morphological and organizational variation, expression patterns of candidate gene markers underpinning this variation were examined. Features commonly associated with grains are largely defined by analyses on lineages within the Triticeae and knowledge of grain structure may be skewed as a result of the focus on wheat and barley. Specifically, the data suggest that the modified aleurone is largely restricted to species in the Triticeae tribe. PMID:23081982

Drea, Sinéad

2012-01-01

263

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

2013-01-01

264

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

2012-01-01

265

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

2011-01-01

266

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

2010-01-01

267

7 CFR 457.102 - Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement...CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.102 Wheat or barley winter coverage endorsement... Federal Crop Insurance Corporation Wheat or Barley Winter Coverage...

2014-01-01

268

Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective  

PubMed Central

The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

Frřlich, Wenche; Ĺman, Per; Tetens, Inge

2013-01-01

269

Whole grain foods and health - a Scandinavian perspective.  

PubMed

The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer. PMID:23411562

Frřlich, Wenche; Aman, Per; Tetens, Inge

2013-01-01

270

Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process  

PubMed Central

Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of ?-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the ?-glucan problem. First, ?-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the ?-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, ?-glucosidase was used to complete the ?-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While ?-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding ?-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis) or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) co-product had extremely low ?-glucan (below 0.2%) making it suitable for use in both ruminant and mono-gastric animal feeds. PMID:20426816

2010-01-01

271

The genetic analysis of barley storage proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hordein polypeptide patterns in barley seeds are known to be controlled by structural genes at 2 loci, Hor-1 and Hor-2, on chromosome 5. Two-dimensional and high resolution one-dimensional electrophoretic analyses of seeds of F2 and doubled haploid progenies of four intervarietal crosses gave no evidence of recombination within these loci. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that Hor-1 is 0·161

P R Shewry; Audrey J Faulks; R A Pickering; I T Jones; R A Finch; B J Miflin

1980-01-01

272

Transgenic Wheat, Barley and Oats: Future Prospects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Following the success of transgenic maize and rice, methods have now been developed for the efficient introduction of genes into wheat, barley and oats. This review summarizes the present position in relation to these three species, and also uses information from field trial databases and the patent literature to assess the future trends in the exploitation of transgenic material. This analysis includes agronomic traits and also discusses opportunities in expanding areas such as biofuels and biopharming.

Dunwell, Jim M.

273

Proteomic response of barley leaves to salinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drought and salinity stresses are adverse environmental factors that affect crop growth and yield. Proteomic analysis offers\\u000a a new approach to identify a broad spectrum of genes that are expressed in living system. We applied this technique to investigate\\u000a protein changes that were induced by salinity in barley genotypes (Hordeum vulgare L.), Afzal, as a salt-tolerant genotype and L-527, as

Abdolrahman Rasoulnia; Mohammad Reza Bihamta; Seyed Ali Peyghambari; Houshang Alizadeh; Afrasyab Rahnama

274

Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds  

PubMed Central

Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

2014-01-01

275

Biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis Stein (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) on resistant and susceptible barley cultivars  

PubMed Central

The biology of barley shoot fly Delia flavibasis was studied using resistant (Dinsho and Harbu) and susceptible (Holker) barley cultivars at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia. A higher number of eggs was laid on Holker (17 eggs/female) than on Dinsho (11 eggs/female) or Harbu (12 eggs/female). However, there were no differences between cultivars in preoviposition and total reproductive periods. The shortest time required to complete larval, pupal and total developmental stages from egg to adult emergence occurred when the insect was reared on the cultivar Holker. Pupal weight, adult emergence and adult longevity did not differ between cultivars. The female to male sex ratio was 1:1. This study enabled us to understand the duration of each of the life stages of D.flavibasis, which will undoubtedly aid researchers and growers to design a sustainable management strategy against barley shoot fly. PMID:21151718

Goftishu, Muluken; Getu, Emana

2008-01-01

276

Fecal phosphorus excretion and characterization from swine fed diets containing a variety of cereal grains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To determine the effects of cereal grain phosphorus (P) source on faecal P composition, twenty crossbred barrows, weighing 35.8 plus or minus 3.09 kg, were fed one of five diets with four pigs assigned to each of the diets. The diets contained corn, wheat, high fat-low lignin oat, normal barley or l...

277

Whole-grain diets reduce blood pressure in mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this study was to compare the effects on blood pressure of predominantly insoluble fiber (whole wheat and brown rice) and soluble fiber (barley) in a whole-grain diet. Subjects (seven men, nine premenopausal women, and nine postmenopausal women) consumed a controlled Step I diet for...

278

Quantification of amylose, amylopectin, and ?-glucan in search for genes controlling the three major quality traits in barley by genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan concentration in a collection of 254 European spring barley varieties allowed to identify 20, 17, and 21 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers, respectively, associated with these important grain quality traits. Negative correlations between the content of amylose and ?-glucan (R = ?0.62, P < 0.01) and amylopectin and ?-glucan (R = ?0.487, P < 0.01) were found in this large collection of spring barley varieties. Besides HvCslF6, amo1 and AGPL2, sex6, and waxy were identified among the major genes responsible for ?-glucan, amylose and amylopectin content, respectively. Several minor genes like HvGSL4, HvGSL3, and HvCesA6, PWD were also detected by GWAS for the first time. Furthermore, the gene encoding ?-fructofuranosidase, located on the short arm of chromosome 7H at 1.49 cM, and SRF6, encoding “leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase protein” on chromosome 2 H, are proposed to be new candidate genes for amylopectin formation in barley endosperm. Several of the associated SNPs on chromosome 1, 5, 6, and 7H mapped to overlapping regions containing QTLs and genes controlling the three grain constituents. In particular chromosomes 5 and 7H carry many QTLs controlling barley grain quality. Amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan were interacted among each other through a metabolic network connected by UDP showing pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these results showed that cereal quality traits related each other and regulated through an interaction network, the identified major genes and genetic regions for amylose, amylopectin and ?-glucan is a helpful for further research on carbohydrates and barley breeding. PMID:24860587

Shu, Xiaoli; Rasmussen, Sřren K.

2014-01-01

279

A comparison of two milling strategies to reduce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol in barley.  

PubMed

Winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production, may be contaminated with the trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON). DON is a threat to feed and food safety in the United States and may become concentrated during the production of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). DDGS is a coproduct of fuel ethanol production and is increasingly being used as feed for domestic animals. Therefore, new strategies to reduce the threat of DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented for grain destined for fuel ethanol production. It is known that large concentrations of DON accumulate in the hulls of wheat and barley. Consequently, improved methods are needed to carefully remove the hull from the grain and preserve the starchy endosperm. Whole kernels from five Virginia winter barley genotypes were used to evaluate the abilities of two different milling strategies (roller milling and precision milling (FitzMill)) for their ability to remove the hull-enriched tissue from the kernel while maintaining starch levels and reducing DON levels in the endosperm-enriched tissue. After whole kernels were milled, DON and starch levels were quantified in the hull-enriched fractions and endosperm-enriched fractions. Initial milling experiments demonstrated that the precision mill system (6 min run time) is able to reduce more DON than the roller mill but with higher starch losses. The average percent DON removed from the kernel with the roller mill was 36.7% ± 5.5 and the average percent DON removed from the dehulled kernel with the precision mill was 85.1% ± 9.0. Endosperm-enriched fractions collected from the roller mill and precision mill contained starch levels ranging from 49.0% ± 12.1 to 59.1% ± 0.5 and 58.5% ± 1.6 to 65.3% ± 3.9, respectively. On average, the precision mill removed a mass of 23.1% ± 6.8 and resulted in starch losses of 9.6% ± 6.3, but produced an endosperm-enriched fraction with relatively very little average DON (5.5 ± 2.7 ?g g(-1)). In contrast, on average, the roller mill removed a mass of 12.2% ± 1.6 and resulted in starch losses of 2.1% ± 0.5, but produced an endosperm-enriched fraction with high average DON (20.7 ± 13.5 ?g g(-1)). In a time course precision milling experiment, we tested barley genotypes Nomini, Atlantic, and VA96-44-304 and attempted to reduce the starch loss seen in the first experiment while maintaining low DON concentrations. Decreasing the run time of the precision mill from 5 to 2 min, reduced starch loss at the expense of higher DON concentrations. Aspirated fractions revealed that the precision milled hull-enriched fraction contained endosperm-enriched components that were highly contaminated with DON. This work has important implications for the reduction of mycotoxins such as DON in barley fuel ethanol coproducts and barley enriched animal feeds and human foods. PMID:24735088

Khatibi, Piyum A; Berger, Greg; Wilson, Jhanel; Brooks, Wynse S; McMaster, Nicole; Griffey, Carl A; Hicks, Kevin B; Nghiem, Nhuan P; Schmale, David G

2014-05-01

280

Control of stripe rusts of wheat and barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the Pacific Northwest (PNW) using trap plots and through field surveys during the 2006 growing season. Through collaborators in other states, stripe rusts of wheat and barley were monitored throughout the US. In 2006, wheat stripe rust occurred in...

281

Field tests of transgenic barley lines in North Dakota  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Testing transgenic barley lines for FHB in the greenhouse does not necessarily give the same results as field tests. The objective of this project was to test 18 transgenic lines in replicated trials in an inoculated FHB nursery. Several programs have developed barley lines expressing anti-fungal a...

282

Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

283

TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE TO GIBBERELLIN AND ABSCISIC ACID IN BARLEY ALEURONE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

De-embryonated cereal aleurone has been established as a model system to study GA and ABA responses, and their interaction. Using Barley 1 GeneChip, we examined mRNA accumulation of over 22,000 genes in de-embryonated barley aleurone treated with GA and ABA. We observed that 1328 genes had more than...

284

ELISA ANALYSIS FOR FUSARIUM IN BARLEY: APPLICATION IN FIELD NURSERIES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previously we described a system of quantifying Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) in barley by ELISA. ELISA had lower variability (lower CV's) than visual scoring or deoxynivalenol (DON) analyses. Thus we tested ELISA, DON, and visual assessment of FHB in 1) selections from a barley doubled-haploid mappi...

285

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

286

Transgenic resistance to Fusarium head blight in barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) and its mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) have been a major problem in the primary malting barley growing regions in North America since 1993. Resistance to FHB and DON accumulation in barley is quantitative, with no immunity available in the primary or secondary gene pools. ...

287

Pasting and rheological properties of chia composites containing barley flour  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The chia containing omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 PUFAs) was composited with barley flour having high ß-glucan content. Both omega-3 PUFAs and ß-glucan are well known for lowering blood cholesterol and preventing coronary heart disease. Barley flour was dry blended with ground chia ...

288

BARLEY DISEASES, GENETICS, AND GENOTYPING: FOR A FEW DOLLARS MORE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A brief overview of the barley-related research programs within the Cereal Crops Research Unit will be presented, followed by a brief overview of plans and progress in establishing an ARS Genotyping Laboratory. Topics covered will include research on virus diseases of barley, particularly research ...

289

ENDOGENOUS PROTEINACEOUS INHIBITORS OF BARLEY MALT SERINE ENDOPROTEINASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley malt contains endoproteinases belonging to all four of the commonly occurring classes, including serine proteinases. It also contains low-molecular-weight proteins that inhibit the activities of many of these endoproteinases, but it had never been shown that any barley or malt serine protein...

290

Low Phytic Acid Barley Responses to Phosphorus Rates  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Low phytic acid (LPA) barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars partition phosphorus in seed tissue differently than conventional barley cultivars through a reduction in seed phytic acid (myo-inositol-1,2,3,4,5,6-hexkisphosphate) coupled with an increase in inorganic phosphorus. The response of the LPA...

291

A BARLEY CONSENSUS MAP INTEGRATING SSR, RFLP, AND AFLP MARKERS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A consensus map of barley combining SSR, RFLP, and AFLP markers has been developed by combining five Australian barley linkage maps, `Galleon x Harruna Nijo', `Chebec x Harrington', `Clipper x Sahara', `Alexis x Sloop', and `Amaji Nijo x WI2585' using the software package JOINMAP 2.0. The new consen...

292

Introduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in  

E-print Network

and/or early winter lodging of the crop. Such situations have been observed with early planting datesIntroduction Modern winter barley cultivars are capable of yields in excess of 170 bu and protection of ground and surface waters. Excessive plant-available N produces barley plants

Liskiewicz, Maciej

293

Progressive hull removal from barley using the Fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of the study was to explore an alternative use of the Fitzpatrick Comminuting Machine: to use it to remove the hull from hulled barley while keeping the barley kernel intact. Traditionally, this mill is used to grind material, but we have recently discovered that it also has the abili...

294

The USDA Barley Core Collection: Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Potential for Genome-Wide Association Studies  

PubMed Central

New sources of genetic diversity must be incorporated into plant breeding programs if they are to continue increasing grain yield and quality, and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Germplasm collections provide a source of genetic and phenotypic diversity, but characterization of these resources is required to increase their utility for breeding programs. We used a barley SNP iSelect platform with 7,842 SNPs to genotype 2,417 barley accessions sampled from the USDA National Small Grains Collection of 33,176 accessions. Most of the accessions in this core collection are categorized as landraces or cultivars/breeding lines and were obtained from more than 100 countries. Both STRUCTURE and principal component analysis identified five major subpopulations within the core collection, mainly differentiated by geographical origin and spike row number (an inflorescence architecture trait). Different patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) were found across the barley genome and many regions of high LD contained traits involved in domestication and breeding selection. The genotype data were used to define ‘mini-core’ sets of accessions capturing the majority of the allelic diversity present in the core collection. These ‘mini-core’ sets can be used for evaluating traits that are difficult or expensive to score. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of ‘hull cover’, ‘spike row number’, and ‘heading date’ demonstrate the utility of the core collection for locating genetic factors determining important phenotypes. The GWAS results were referenced to a new barley consensus map containing 5,665 SNPs. Our results demonstrate that GWAS and high-density SNP genotyping are effective tools for plant breeders interested in accessing genetic diversity in large germplasm collections. PMID:24732668

Endelman, Jeffrey B.; Comadran, Jordi; Bonman, John M.; Bockelman, Harold E.; Chao, Shiaoman; Russell, Joanne; Waugh, Robbie; Hayes, Patrick M.; Muehlbauer, Gary J.

2014-01-01

295

MYCELIAL COLONIES AND LESIONS IN BARLEY FLORETS OF FIELD-GROWN BARLEY INOCULATED WITH FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To learn how the head blight pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, enters barley florets, field-grown plants were sprayed with macroconidial inoculum and then mist-irrigated daily in morning and evening. On selected days, 1-8 days after inoculation (DAI), 80-190 florets per day were harvested, dissected, ...

296

RFLP analysis of resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex  

E-print Network

RFLP analysis of resistance to the barley yellow mosaic virus complex A Graner E Bauer A Kellermann yellow mosaic virus complex consists of barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), barley yellow mosaic virus type 1 (BaYMV-1) and barley yellow mosaic virus type 2 (BaYMV-2). In an attempt to investigate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained  

E-print Network

proportions of hay were replaced by ground barley until the final diet contained 24% hay, 66- zyme activities of SAM were not modified between 0 and 55% barley in the diet, ex- cept a small decrease with the 20% barley diet. Beyond 55 % barley, all enzyme ac- tivities dropped, and particularly

Boyer, Edmond

298

WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack  

E-print Network

WHEAT AND BARLEY New Jersey producers have expressed concern over the lack of Revenue coverage for wheat and barley. Both have had Yield coverage available, but producers wanted to protect their revenue Coverage for wheat and barley! The prices for barley will be based on a percentage of the Chicago Board

Goodman, Robert M.

299

Whole Grains and Fiber  

MedlinePLUS

... peas, rice bran, barley, citrus fruits, strawberries and apple pulp. Insoluble fiber has been associated with decreased ... carrots, Brussels sprouts, turnips, caul if lower and apple skin. Many commercial oat bran and wheat bran ...

300

Lactic Acid and Thermal Treatments Trigger the Hydrolysis of Myo-Inositol Hexakisphosphate and Modify the Abundance of Lower Myo-Inositol Phosphates in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

PubMed Central

Barley is an important source of dietary minerals, but it also contains myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP6) that lowers their absorption. This study evaluated the effects of increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, and 5%, vol/vol) of lactic acid (LA), without or with an additional thermal treatment at 55°C (LA-H), on InsP6 hydrolysis, formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates, and changes in chemical composition of barley grain. Increasing LA concentrations and thermal treatment linearly reduced (P<0.001) InsP6-phosphate (InsP6-P) by 0.5 to 1 g compared to the native barley. In particular, treating barley with 5% LA-H was the most efficient treatment to reduce the concentrations of InsP6-P, and stimulate the formation of lower phosphorylated myo-inositol phosphates such as myo-inositol tetraphosphate (InsP4) and myo-inositol pentaphosphates (InsP5). Also, LA and thermal treatment changed the abundance of InsP4 and InsP5 isomers with Ins(1,2,5,6)P4 and Ins(1,2,3,4,5)P5 as the dominating isomers with 5% LA, 1% LA-H and 5% LA-H treatment of barley, resembling to profiles found when microbial 6-phytase is applied. Treating barley with LA at room temperature (22°C) increased the concentration of resistant starch and dietary fiber but lowered those of total starch and crude ash. Interestingly, total phosphorus (P) was only reduced (P<0.05) in barley treated with LA-H but not after processing of barley with LA at room temperature. In conclusion, LA and LA-H treatment may be effective processing techniques to reduce InsP6 in cereals used in animal feeding with the highest degradation of InsP6 at 5% LA-H. Further in vivo studies are warranted to determine the actual intestinal P availability and to assess the impact of changes in nutrient composition of LA treated barley on animal performance. PMID:24967651

Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U.; Deckardt, Kathrin; Schollenberger, Margit; Rodehutscord, Markus; Zebeli, Qendrim

2014-01-01

301

Mycological and mycotoxicological evaluation of grain.  

PubMed

Grain storage conditions affect its quality. In Lithuania, different types of farms have various harvesting, processing and storing conditions. Grain samples were tested from agricultural granaries of 3 different types with different grain storage conditions in Lithuania. During March-April in 2001 the investigation on mycological and mycotoxicological state of stored grain from different types of agricultural granaries were performed. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) samples (n = 33) were tested from small, medium and large granaries. Barley (Hordeum distichon L.) (n = 22) was tested from small and medium granaries. Considering this issue, 31 species of micromycetes ascribed to 8 genera were isolated and identified. The results obtained indicate that highest levels of micromycetes contamination are found in small granaries with good storing and drying equipment. Micromycetes of some species belonging to the Penicillium Link, Aspergillus Mich. Ex Fr., Fusarium Link, and other genera, are able to produce secondary metabolites - mycotoxins of various compositions that are toxic to plants, animals, and humans. The levels of mycotoxins zearalenone and ochratoxin A were established. The highest concentration of zearalenone and ochratoxin A were found in grains from small farm granaries. PMID:14677916

Baliukoniene, Violeta; Bakutis, Bronius; Stankevicius, Henrikas

2003-01-01

302

Distribution of wild wheats and barley.  

PubMed

If we accept the evidence at face value, we are led to conclude that emmer was probably domesticated in the upper Jordan watershed and that einkorn was domesticated in southeast Turkey. Barley could have been domesticated almost anywhere within the arc bordering the fertile crescent. All three cereals may well have been harvested in the wild state throughout their regions of adaptation long before actual farming began. The primary habitats for barley, however, are not the same as those for the wheats. Wild barley is more xerophytic and extends farther downslope and into the steppes and deserts along the wadis. It seems likely that, while all three early cereals were domesticated within an are flanking the fertile crescent, each was domesticated in a different subregion of the zone. Lest anyone should be led to think the problem is solved, we wish to close with a caveat. Domestication may not have taken place where the wild cereals were most abundant. Why should anyone cultivate a cereal where natural stands are as dense as a cultivated field? If wild cereal grasses can be harvested in unlimited quantities, why should anyone bother to till the soil and plant the seed? We suspect that we shall find, when the full story is unfolded, that here and there harvesting of wild cereals lingered on long after some people had learned to farm, and that farming itself may have orig inated in areas adjacent to, rather than in, the regions of greatest abundance of wild cereals. We need far more specific information on the climate during incipient domestication and many more carefully conducted excavations of sites in the appropriate time range. The problem is far from solved, but some knowledge of the present distribution of the wild forms should be helpful. PMID:17737582

Harlan, J R; Zohary, D

1966-09-01

303

Systemic signalling in barley through action potentials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using apoplastic voltage- and ion selective microprobes, in barley leaves action potentials (APs) have been measured, which\\u000a propagate acropetally as well as basipetally from leaf to leaf or from root to leaf following the application of mild salt\\u000a stress (e.g. 30–50 mM KCl or NH4Cl) or amino acids (e.g. 1 mM glutamic acid or 5 mM GABA). Voltage changes were biphasic, followed an

Hubert H. Felle; Matthias R. Zimmermann

2007-01-01

304

Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.  

PubMed

In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of ?-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, ?-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

2015-03-01

305

Correlation-maximizing surrogate gene space for visual mining of gene expression patterns in developing barley endosperm tissue  

PubMed Central

Background Micro- and macroarray technologies help acquire thousands of gene expression patterns covering important biological processes during plant ontogeny. Particularly, faithful visualization methods are beneficial for revealing interesting gene expression patterns and functional relationships of coexpressed genes. Such screening helps to gain deeper insights into regulatory behavior and cellular responses, as will be discussed for expression data of developing barley endosperm tissue. For that purpose, high-throughput multidimensional scaling (HiT-MDS), a recent method for similarity-preserving data embedding, is substantially refined and used for (a) assessing the quality and reliability of centroid gene expression patterns, and for (b) derivation of functional relationships of coexpressed genes of endosperm tissue during barley grain development (0–26 days after flowering). Results Temporal expression profiles of 4824 genes at 14 time points are faithfully embedded into two-dimensional displays. Thereby, similar shapes of coexpressed genes get closely grouped by a correlation-based similarity measure. As a main result, by using power transformation of correlation terms, a characteristic cloud of points with bipolar sandglass shape is obtained that is inherently connected to expression patterns of pre-storage, intermediate and storage phase of endosperm development. Conclusion The new HiT-MDS-2 method helps to create global views of expression patterns and to validate centroids obtained from clustering programs. Furthermore, functional gene annotation for developing endosperm barley tissue is successfully mapped to the visualization, making easy localization of major centroids of enriched functional categories possible. PMID:17519012

Strickert, Marc; Sreenivasulu, Nese; Usadel, Björn; Seiffert, Udo

2007-01-01

306

DAMAGE POTENTIAL OF GRASSHOPPERS (ORTHOPTERA: ACRIDIDAE) ON EARLY GROWTH STAGES OF SMALL-GRAINS AND CANOLA UNDER SUBARCTIC CONDITIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Small-grains, such as barley and oats, have been successfully grown under subarctic conditions but little is known about their response to herbivory by grasshoppers, especially during seedling stages. A growth chamber study quantified and characterized damage to above- and below-ground plant parts ...

307

LUTEOVIRUS AND POLEROVIRUS FOUND IN SMALL GRAINS FOR THE FIRST TIME IN THE MATANUSKA-SUSITNA REGION OF ALASKA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Surveys for viruses belonging to the family Luteovirideae in small grains were conducted in the Matanuska-Susitna Valley. In 2002, barley (Hordeum vulgare) and oat (Avena sativum) plants had an unusually high incidence of leaves with bright yellow or red leaves, respectively. These plants were targe...

308

Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia-treated barley straw  

E-print Network

Effect of particle size on rate and extent of degradation of alfalfa hay, barley straw and ammonia experiment alfalfa hay (A, 57.4 % DOM), barley straw (S, 40.2 % DOM) and ammonia-treated barley straw (TS, 51 characteristics were also studied for alfalfa hay. Average dry matter (DM) intakes were 74.5, 29.2 and 45.9 g

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

309

The Quantum Mixed-Spin Heme State of Barley Peroxidase: A Paradigm for Class III Peroxidases  

SciTech Connect

Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values both at room temperature and 20 K are . reported, together with EPR spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species co-exists with 6- and 5-cHS heroes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the presently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling maybe necessary for the QS state.

Howes, B.D.; Ma, J.; Marzocchi, M.P.; Schiodt, C.B.; Shelnutt, J.A.; Smulevich, G.; Welinder, K.G.; Zhang, J.

1999-03-23

310

A complete ancient RNA genome: identification, reconstruction and evolutionary history of archaeological Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus  

PubMed Central

The origins of many plant diseases appear to be recent and associated with the rise of domestication, the spread of agriculture or recent global movements of crops. Distinguishing between these possibilities is problematic because of the difficulty of determining rates of molecular evolution over short time frames. Heterochronous approaches using recent and historical samples show that plant viruses exhibit highly variable and often rapid rates of molecular evolution. The accuracy of estimated evolution rates and age of origin can be greatly improved with the inclusion of older molecular data from archaeological material. Here we present the first reconstruction of an archaeological RNA genome, which is of Barley Stripe Mosaic Virus (BSMV) isolated from barley grain ~750 years of age. Phylogenetic analysis of BSMV that includes this genome indicates the divergence of BSMV and its closest relative prior to this time, most likely around 2000 years ago. However, exclusion of the archaeological data results in an apparently much more recent origin of the virus that postdates even the archaeological sample. We conclude that this viral lineage originated in the Near East or North Africa, and spread to North America and East Asia with their hosts along historical trade routes. PMID:24499968

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

311

The quantum mixed-spin heme state of barley peroxidase: A paradigm for class III peroxidases.  

PubMed Central

Electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectra of the ferric form of barley grain peroxidase (BP 1) at various pH values, at both room temperature and 20 K, are reported, together with electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at 10 K. The ferrous forms and the ferric complex with fluoride have also been studied. A quantum mechanically mixed-spin (QS) state has been identified. The QS heme species coexists with 6- and 5-cHS hemes; the relative populations of these three spin states are found to be dependent on pH and temperature. However, the QS species remains in all cases the dominant heme spin species. Barley peroxidase appears to be further characterized by a splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes, indicating that the vinyl groups are differently conjugated with the porphyrin. An analysis of the currently available spectroscopic data for proteins from all three peroxidase classes suggests that the simultaneous occurrence of the QS heme state as well as the splitting of the two vinyl stretching modes is confined to class III enzymes. The former point is discussed in terms of the possible influences of heme deformations on heme spin state. It is found that moderate saddling alone is probably not enough to cause the QS state, although some saddling may be necessary for the QS state. PMID:10388773

Howes, B D; Schiodt, C B; Welinder, K G; Marzocchi, M P; Ma, J G; Zhang, J; Shelnutt, J A; Smulevich, G

1999-01-01

312

Efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in progenies of factorial crosses between European and exotic cultivars of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

Previous observations suggested that some landraces, primitive cultivars and other barleys originating from the harsh conditions of the Middle East, North Africa and Tibet might serve as interesting sources of adaptation to low-input agriculture. This opportunity was verified in field experiments performed under reduced rates of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization. Genetic variation in major components of the efficiency of N and P utilization was examined among F2 and F3 generations of crosses between four European female and seven exotic male lines of spring barley. Preponderance of general combining ability effects was found for most efficiency components, suggesting that the characters are mainly controlled by additive gene action. Non-additive effects appeared to be less or non-significant. Under reduced fertilization, hybrid progenies of the Syrian cv. M.Dingo/D.Alla 106 and the Moroccan cv. Moroc 9-75 exhibit an enhanced yielding and the highest capacity to utilize N and P efficiently in grain mass formation. The results proved that the exotic barleys appear to be particularly useful for breeding programs aiming at improved barley adaptation to less favourable fertilization regimes. PMID:19029682

Górny, Andrzej G; Ratajczak, Dominika

2008-01-01

313

Metabolomics reveals unhealthy alterations in rumen metabolism with increased proportion of cereal grain in the diet of dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents the first application of metabolomics to evaluate changes in rumen metabolites of dairy cows fed increasing\\u000a proportions of barley grain (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of diet dry matter). 1H-NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze rumen fluid samples representing 4 different diets. Results showed that for cows fed\\u000a 30 and 45% grain, increases were observed in

Burim N. AmetajQendrim; Qendrim Zebeli; Fozia Saleem; Nikolaos Psychogios; Michael J. Lewis; Suzanna M. Dunn; Jianguo Xia; David S. Wishart

2010-01-01

314

Chemiosmotic Principles of Solute Transport in Barley Roots  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This exercise will demonstrate to students the fluxes of certain inorganic ions in the roots of barley plants. It will familiarize them with the chemiosmotic principles that are involved in ATP synthesis and give them an understanding of solute transport .

Anthony D. M. Glass (University of British Columbia; )

1984-06-11

315

Conversion of deoxynivalenol to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol in barley-derived fuel ethanol co-products with yeast expressing trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases  

PubMed Central

Background The trichothecene mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) may be concentrated in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; a co-product of fuel ethanol fermentation) when grain containing DON is used to produce fuel ethanol. Even low levels of DON (? 5 ppm) in DDGS sold as feed pose a significant threat to the health of monogastric animals. New and improved strategies to reduce DON in DDGS need to be developed and implemented to address this problem. Enzymes known as trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases convert DON to 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3ADON), and may reduce its toxicity in plants and animals. Results Two Fusarium trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferases (FgTRI101 and FfTRI201) were cloned and expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during a series of small-scale ethanol fermentations using barley (Hordeum vulgare). DON was concentrated 1.6 to 8.2 times in DDGS compared with the starting ground grain. During the fermentation process, FgTRI101 converted 9.2% to 55.3% of the DON to 3ADON, resulting in DDGS with reductions in DON and increases in 3ADON in the Virginia winter barley cultivars Eve, Thoroughbred and Price, and the experimental line VA06H-25. Analysis of barley mashes prepared from the barley line VA04B-125 showed that yeast expressing FfTRI201 were more effective at acetylating DON than those expressing FgTRI101; DON conversion for FfTRI201 ranged from 26.1% to 28.3%, whereas DON conversion for FgTRI101 ranged from 18.3% to 21.8% in VA04B-125 mashes. Ethanol yields were highest with the industrial yeast strain Ethanol Red®, which also consumed galactose when present in the mash. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential of using yeast expressing a trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase to modify DON during commercial fuel ethanol fermentation. PMID:21888629

2011-01-01

316

Lactic acid fermentation on barley flour without additional nutrients  

Microsoft Academic Search

An amylolytic lactic acid producing Lactobacillus amylovorus produced 36 g\\/l of lactic acid in mixed cultures with L. casei without additional nutrients at 37 °C in 48 h, when barley flour concentration was 180 g\\/l (appr. 108 g\\/l starch) and barley malt quantity 0.8% of flour weight. This represented an improvement of up to 20% in comparison to the fermentation

P. Javanainen; Y.-Y. Linko

1995-01-01

317

Metabolomics technology to phenotype resistance in barley against Gibberella zeae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms of resistance in barley to fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Gibberella zeae are complex. Metabolomics technology was explored to phenotype resistance. Spikelets of barley genotypes with contrasting\\u000a levels of resistance to FHB, mock inoculated or with the pathogen, were extracted with aqueous methanol and the metabolites\\u000a were analyzed using liquid chromatography and hybrid mass spectrometry. Peaks were

G. Kenchappa Kumaraswamy; Venkatesh Bollina; Ajjamada C. Kushalappa; Thin M. Choo; Yves Dion; Sylvie Rioux; Orval Mamer; Denis Faubert

2011-01-01

318

Slender barley: A constitutive gibberellin-response mutant  

Microsoft Academic Search

In barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Herta), slender (sln1) is a single-locus recessive mutation which causes a plant to appear as if it had been grown in sturating concentrations of gibberellin (GA). We have investigated two of the GA-mediated processes in slender barley, shoot elongation and the induction of hydrolytic enzymes in aleurone layers. Shoot elongation is severely retarded in

Michael B. Lanahan; Tuan-Hua David Ho

1988-01-01

319

Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination  

PubMed Central

Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID:24558366

Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

2014-01-01

320

High-throughput Agrobacterium-mediated barley transformation  

PubMed Central

Background Plant transformation is an invaluable tool for basic plant research, as well as a useful technique for the direct improvement of commercial crops. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is the fourth most abundant cereal crop in the world. It also provides a useful model for the study of wheat, which has a larger and more complex genome. Most existing barley transformation methodologies are either complex or have low (<10%) transformation efficiencies. Results A robust, simple and reproducible barley transformation protocol has been developed that yields average transformation efficiencies of 25%. This protocol is based on the infection of immature barley embryos with Agrobacterium strain AGL1, carrying vectors from the pBract series that contain the hpt gene (conferring hygromycin resistance) as a selectable marker. Results of large scale experiments utilising the luc (firefly luciferase) gene as a reporter are described. The method presented here has been used to produce hundreds of independent, transgenic plant lines and we show that a large proportion of these lines contain single copies of the luc gene. Conclusion This protocol demonstrates significant improvements in both efficiency and ease of use over existing barley transformation methods. This opens up opportunities for the development of functional genomics resources in barley. PMID:18822125

Bartlett, Joanne G; Alves, Sílvia C; Smedley, Mark; Snape, John W; Harwood, Wendy A

2008-01-01

321

Triple hybridization with cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).  

PubMed

A crossing programme for trispecific hybridization including cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) as the third parent was carried out. The primary hybrids comprised 11 interspecific combinations, each of which had either H. jubatum or H. lechleri as one of the parents. The second parent represented species closely or distantly related to H. jubatum and H. lechleri. In trispecific crosses with diploid barley, the seed set was 5.7%. Crosses with tetraploid barley were highly unsuccessful (0.2% seed set). Three lines of diploid barley were used in the crosses, i.e. 'Gull', 'Golden Promise' and 'Vada'. Generally, cv 'Gull' had high crossability in crosses with related species in the primary hybrid. It is suggested that 'Gull' has a genetic factor for crossability not present in cv 'Vada' and cv 'Golden Promise'. One accession of H. brachyantherum used in the primary hybrid had a very high crossability (seed set 54.7%) in combination with cv 'Vada' but no viable offspring was produced. In all, two trispecific hybrids were raised, viz. (H. lechleri x H. brevisubulatum) x 'Gull' (2n=7-30) and (H. jubatum x H. lechleri) x 'Gull' (2n=20-22). The first combination invariably had a full complement of seven barley chromosomes plus an additional chromosome no. 7, but a varying number of chromosomes (19-22) of the wild-species hybrid. The second combination had a full set of barley chromosomes. The meiotic pairing was low in both combinations. PMID:24226012

von Bothmer, R; Claesson, L; Flink, J; Linde-Laursen, I

1989-12-01

322

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Barley Plastidial ADP-Glucose Transporter (HvBT1)  

PubMed Central

In cereals, ADP-glucose transporter protein plays an important role in starch biosynthesis. It acts as a main gate for the transport of ADP-glucose, the main precursor for starch biosynthesis during grain filling, from the cytosol into the amyloplasts of endospermic cells. In this study, we have shed some light on the molecular and biochemical characteristics of barley plastidial ADP-glucose transporter, HvBT1. Phylogenetic analysis of several BT1 homologues revealed that BT1 homologues are divided into two distinct groups. The HvBT1 is assigned to the group that represents BT homologues from monocotyledonous species. Some members of this group mainly work as nucleotide sugar transporters. Southern blot analysis showed the presence of a single copy of HvBT1 in barley genome. Gene expression analysis indicated that HvBT1 is mainly expressed in endospermic cells during grain filling; however, low level of its expression was detected in the autotrophic tissues, suggesting the possible role of HvBT1 in autotrophic tissues. The cellular and subcellular localization of HvBT1 provided additional evidence that HvBT1 targets the amyloplast membrane of the endospermic cells. Biochemical characterization of HvBT1 using E. coli system revealed that HvBT1 is able to transport ADP-glucose into E. coli cells with an affinity of 614.5 µM and in counter exchange of ADP with an affinity of 334.7 µM. The study also showed that AMP is another possible exchange substrate. The effect of non-labeled ADP-glucose and ADP on the uptake rate of [?-32P] ADP-glucose indicated the substrate specificity of HvBT1 for ADP-glucose and ADP. PMID:24892865

Soliman, Atta; Ayele, Belay T.; Daayf, Fouad

2014-01-01

323

Tissue Metabolic Responses to Salt Stress in Wild and Cultivated Barley  

PubMed Central

A thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying barley salt tolerance and exploitation of elite genetic resource are essential for utilizing wild barley germplasm in developing barley varieties with salt tolerance. In order to reveal the physiological and molecular difference in salt tolerance between Tibetan wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare), profiles of 82 key metabolites were studies in wild and cultivated barley in response to salinity. According to shoot dry biomass under salt stress, XZ16 is a fast growing and salt tolerant wild barley. The results of metabolite profiling analysis suggested osmotic adjustment was a basic mechanism, and polyols played important roles in developing salt tolerance only in roots, and high level of sugars and energy in roots and active photosynthesis in leaves were important for barley to develop salt tolerance. The metabolites involved in tolerance enhancement differed between roots and shoots, and also between genotypes. Tibetan wild barley, XZ16 had higher chlorophyll content and higher contents of compatible solutes than CM72, while the cultivated barley, CM72 probably enhanced its salt tolerance mainly through increasing glycolysis and energy consumption, when the plants were exposed to high salinity. The current research extends our understanding of the mechanisms involved in barley salt tolerance and provides possible utilization of Tibetan wild barley in developing barley cultivars with salt tolerance. PMID:23383190

Wu, Dezhi; Cai, Shengguan; Chen, Mingxian; Ye, Lingzhen; Chen, Zhonghua; Zhang, Haitao; Dai, Fei; Wu, Feibo; Zhang, Guoping

2013-01-01

324

Selective expression of a probable amylase/protease inhibitor in barley aleurone cells: Comparison to the barley amylase/subtilisin inhibitor.  

PubMed

We have cloned and sequenced a 650-nucleotide cDNA from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) aleurone layers encoding a protein that is closely related to a known ?-amylase inhibitor from Indian finger millet (Eleusine coracana Gaertn.), and that has homologies to certain plant trypsin inhibitors. mRNA for this probable amylase/protease inhibitor (PAPI) is expressed primarily in aleurone tissue during late development of the grain, as compared to that for the amylase/subtilisin inhibitor, which is expressed in endosperm during the peak of storage-protein synthesis. PAPI mRNA is present at high levels in aleurone tissue of desiccated, mature grain, and in incubated aleurone layers prepared from rehydrated mature seeds. Its expression in those layers is not affected by either abscisic acid or gibberellic acid, hormones that, respectively, increase and decrease the abundance of mRNA for the amylase/subtilisin inhibitor. PAPI mRNA is almost as abundant in gibberellic acid-treated aleurone layers as that for ?-amylase, and PAPI protein is synthesized in that tissue at levels that are comparable to ?-amylase. PAPI protein is secreted from aleurone layers into the incubation medium. PMID:24232429

Mundy, J; Rogers, J C

1986-03-01

325

Combined Noninvasive Imaging and Modeling Approaches Reveal Metabolic Compartmentation in the Barley Endosperm[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The starchy endosperm of cereals is a priori taken as a metabolically uniform tissue. By applying a noninvasive assay based on 13C/1H-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains, we uncovered metabolic compartmentation in the endosperm. 13C-Suc feeding during grain filling showed that the primary site of Ala synthesis was the central region of the endosperm, the part of the caryopsis experiencing the highest level of hypoxia. Region-specific metabolism in the endosperm was characterized by flux balance analysis (FBA) and metabolite profiling. FBA predicts that in the central region of the endosperm, the tricarboxylic acid cycle shifts to a noncyclic mode, accompanied by elevated glycolytic flux and the accumulation of Ala. The metabolic compartmentation within the endosperm is advantageous for the grain's carbon and energy economy, with a prominent role being played by Ala aminotransferase. An investigation of caryopses with a genetically perturbed tissue pattern demonstrated that Ala accumulation is a consequence of oxygen status, rather than being either tissue specific or dependent on the supply of Suc. Hence the 13C-Ala gradient can be used as an in vivo marker for hypoxia. The combination of MRI and metabolic modeling offers opportunities for the noninvasive analysis of metabolic compartmentation in plants. PMID:21856793

Rolletschek, Hardy; Melkus, Gerd; Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Fuchs, Johannes; Heinzel, Nicolas; Schreiber, Falk; Jakob, Peter M.; Borisjuk, Ljudmilla

2011-01-01

326

Analysis of expressed sequence tags from cDNA library of Fusarium culmorum infected barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots.  

PubMed

Fusarium culmorum is one of the most common and globally important causal agent of root and crown rot diseases of cereals. These diseases cause grain yield loss and reduced grain quality in barley. In this study, we have analyzed an expressed sequence tag (EST) database derived from F. culmorum infected barley root tissues available at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). The 2294 sequences were assembled into 1619 non-redundant sequences consisting of 359 contigs and 1260 singletons using the program CAP3. BLASTX analysis for these sequences was conducted in order to find similar sequences in all databases. Gene Ontology search, enzyme search, KEGG mapping and InterProScan search were done using Blast2GO 3.0.7 tool. By BLASTX analysis, 41.7%, 7.7%, 3.2% and 47.4% of ESTs were categorized as annotated, unannotated, not mapping and without blast hits, respectively. BLASTX analysis revealed that the majority of top hits were barley proteins (43.5%). Based on Gene Ontology classification, 38.3%, 31.3%, and 16% of ESTs were assigned to molecular function, biological process, and cellular component GO terms, respectively. Most abundant GO terms were as follows: 157 sequences were related to response to stress (biological process), 207 sequences were related to ion binding (molecular function), and 160 sequences were related to plastid (cellular component). Furthermore, based on KEGG mapping, 369 sequences could be assigned to 264 enzymes and 83 different KEGG pathways. According to Enzyme Commission (EC) distribution; 94 sequences were transferases (EC2) while 70 sequences were hydrolases (EC3). PMID:25780278

Tufan, Feyza; Uçarl?, Cüneyt; Gürel, Filiz

2015-01-01

327

Potassium fertilization and (137)Cs transfer from soil to grass and barley in Sweden after the Chernobyl fallout.  

PubMed

Fertilization of soils contaminated by radionuclides with potassium (K) and its effect on (137)Cs transfer from soil to crops is well studied in field conditions; however experiments over many years are few. The effects of potassium fertilization on cesium-137 ((137)Cs) transfer to hay, pasture grass, and barley growing on organic rich soils and mineral sand and loam soils in a number of field experimental sites situated in different environments in Sweden are summarized and discussed. The basic experimental treatments were control (no K fertilizers were applied), 50, 100, and 200 kg K ha(-1). In the experiment, which lasted over 3-6 years, (137)Cs transfer factors in control treatments ranged between 0.0004 m(2) kg(-1) (barley grain on sand soil) and 0.07 m(2) kg(-1) (pasture grass on organic rich soil). Potassium application on soils with low clay content i.e. mineral sand and organic rich soils was effective at the 50-100 kg ha(-1) level. Application of 200 kg K ha(-1) resulted in a five-fold reduction in (137)Cs transfer for hay and up to four-fold for barley grain. The effects of potassium application were generally greater on sand than organic rich soil and were observed already in the first cut. After K application, the reduction in (137)Cs transfer to crops was correlated with (137)Cs:K ratios in plant material. Additional application of zeolite caused a 1.4 reduction of (137)Cs transfer to hay on sand and 1.8-fold reduction on organic rich soil; whereas, application of potash-magnesia and CaO had no effect. PMID:24412815

Rosén, K; Vinichuk, M

2014-04-01

328

Changes caused by genotype and environmental conditions in beta-glucan content of spring barley for dietetically beneficial human nutrition.  

PubMed

Over the 5-year period (2000-2004), a significantly higher beta-glucan content was detected in the waxy varieties Washonubet, Wabet, and Wanubet (6.8-7.6%) and lines formed by crossing these varieties with malting varieties (5.8-7.1%). Conversely, the non-waxy hulled malting-type varieties Kompakt (4.0%) and Krona (4.3%) had significantly lower contents of beta-glucan. The observations also showed that concentrations of beta-glucans in 2000-2004 were significantly affected not only by varieties, but also environmental conditions in the growing periods and interactions of these two factors. Higher precipitation during the flowering time and grain filling period and lower temperatures during the flowering time in 2002 had negative effects on concentration of beta-glucans. Conversely, drier and warmer weather in 2003 enhanced the content of beta-glucans. The results show that it is possible to increase the content of beta-glucan in spring barley grain by implementing selective breeding practices. Compared to the parental malting varieties, the mean content of beta-glucans in F(4)-F(8) generations was increased by 1.8 and 2.0% by recombination in lines Kompakt x Wabet and Wanubet x Krona, respectively. Significant effect of environmental conditions and their interactions with varieties indicated the necessity to assess standard qualities of barley as a food material. PMID:18551369

Ehrenbergerová, J; Brezinová Belcredi, N; Psota, V; Hrstková, P; Cerkal, R; Newman, C W

2008-09-01

329

Molecular Characterization of Barley 3H Semi-Dwarf Genes  

PubMed Central

The barley chromosome 3H accommodates many semi-dwarfing genes. To characterize these genes, the two-rowed semi-dwarf Chinese barley landrace ‘TX9425’ was crossed with the Australian barley variety ‘Franklin’ to generate a doubled haploid (DH) population, and major QTLs controlling plant height have been identified in our previous study. The major QTL derived from ‘TX9425’ was targeted to investigate the allelism of the semi-dwarf gene uzu in barley. Twelve sets of near-isogenic lines and a large NILF2 fine mapping population segregating only for the dwarfing gene from ‘TX9425’ were developed. The semi-dwarfing gene in ‘TX9425’ was located within a 2.8 cM region close to the centromere on chromosome 3H by fine mapping. Molecular cloning and sequence analyses showed that the ‘TX9425’-derived allele contained a single nucleotide substitution from A to G at position 2612 of the HvBRI1 gene. This was apparently the same mutation as that reported in six-rowed uzu barley. Markers co-segregating with the QTL were developed from the sequence of the HvBRI1 gene and were validated in the ‘TX9425’/‘Franklin’ DH population. The other major dwarfing QTL derived from the Franklin variety was distally located on chromosome 3HL and co-segregated with the sdw1 diagnostic marker hv20ox2. A third dwarfing gene, expressed only in winter-sown trials, was identified and located on chromosome 3HS. The effects and interactions of these dwarfing genes under different growing conditions are discussed. These results improve our understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling semi-dwarf stature in barley and provide diagnostic markers for the selection of semi-dwarfness in barley breeding programs. PMID:25826380

Li, Haobing; Chen, Guangdeng; Yan, Wei

2015-01-01

330

Genetic Diversity among Xanthomonas campestris Strains Pathogenic for Small Grains  

PubMed Central

A collection of 51 Xanthomonas campestris strains from throughout the world was studied to detect and assess genetic diversity among pathogens of small grains. Isolates from barley, bread wheat, bromegrass, canary grass, cassava, maize, orchard grass, rice, rough-stalked meadow grass, rye, timothy, and triticale were analyzed by pathogenicity tests on bread wheat cv. Alondra and barley cv. Corona, indirect immunofluorescence, and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Three probes were used for the RFLP analysis. They were an acetylaminofluorene-labelled 16S+23S rRNA probe from Escherichia coli and two (sup32)P-labelled restriction fragments from either plasmidic (pBSF2) or chromosomal (pBS8) DNA of X. campestris pv. manihotis. Strains clustered in 9 and 20 groups with the rRNA probe and the pBSF2 DNA probe, respectively. Strains of X. campestris pv. graminis, X. campestris pv. phleipratensis, and X. campestris pv. poae are shown to be related but are also distinguishable by RFLP patterns, serology, and pathogenicity on bread wheat. Strains pathogenic only for barley and not for wheat grouped together. Another group is temporarily designated deviant X. campestris pv. undulosa. These South American isolates from bread wheat did not react by indirect immunofluorescence and produced atypical lesions in pathogenicity tests. The results stress the need to perform pathogenicity tests before strains are named at the pathovar level. The importance of the different probes used for epidemiological studies or phylogenetic studies of closely related strains is underlined. PMID:16534952

Bragard, C.; Verdier, V.; Maraite, H.

1995-01-01

331

Identification of wheat-barley addition lines with N-banding of chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seven chromosomes of barley (Hordeum vulgare) have been identified individually by their distinctive N-banding pattern. Furthermore all of the barley chromosome N-banding patterns were found to be recognizably different from those exhibited by wheat chromosomes, making it possible to identify individual barley chromosomes when present in a wheat background. N-banding has therefore been used to identify the individual barley

A. K. M. R. Islam

1980-01-01

332

Unified microwave moisture sensing technique for grain and seed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A unified method for moisture sensing in cereal grain and oilseed from a single calibration equation, which is obtained from measurement of dielectric properties at a single microwave frequency, is presented. The method is based on a complex permittivity calibration function that is independent of both bulk density and kind of material. Performance of the method was tested for soybeans, corn, wheat, sorghum, barley and oats at 7 GHz and about 23 °C. The standard error of calibration for moisture prediction from complex permittivity measurements was 0.8%.

Trabelsi, Samir; Nelson, Stuart O.

2007-04-01

333

Grains and Starchy Vegetables  

MedlinePLUS

... grain but will say it contains whole grain on the front of the package. For all cereals and grains, read ... Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know Your Rights We Can ... of Events Local Offices Volunteer Opportunities Signature Events Diabetes ...

334

Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP® is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A.

2011-05-01

335

Simulation of the Manufacturing of Non-Crimp Fabric-Reinforced Composite Wind Turbine Blades to Predict the Formation of Wave Defects  

SciTech Connect

NCFs (Non-Crimp Fabrics) are commonly used in the design of wind turbine blades and other complex systems due to their ability to conform to complex shapes without the wrinkling that is typically experienced with woven fabrics or prepreg tapes. In the current research, a form of vacuum assisted resin transfer molding known as SCRIMP registered is used to manufacture wind turbine blades. Often, during the compacting of the fabric layers by the vacuum pressure, several plies may bunch together out-of-plane and form wave defects. When the resin is infused, the areas beneath the waves become resin rich and can compromise the structural integrity of the blade. A reliable simulation tool is valuable to help predict where waves and other defects may appear as a result of the manufacturing process. Forming simulations often focus on the in-plane shearing and tensile behavior of fabrics and do not necessarily consider the bending stiffness of the fabrics, which is important to predict the formation of wrinkles and/or waves. This study incorporates experimentally determined in-plane shearing, tensile, and bending stiffness information of NCFs into a finite element model (ABAQUS/Explicit) of a 9-meter wind turbine blade to investigate the mechanical behaviors that can lead to the formation of waves as a result of the manufacturing process.

Fetfatsidis, K. A.; Sherwood, J. A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Lowell One University Ave., Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

2011-05-04

336

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2-encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus  

E-print Network

Movement of bymoviruses and functions of RNA2- encoded proteins of barley yellow mosaic virus P and experimental data that were obtained from plants infected with bymoviruses such as barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV), barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), or wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) suggested

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

337

Effects of barley variety fed to steers on carcass characteristics and color of meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study evaluated the effect of bar- ley varieties in the diets of finishing steers on carcass composition,fat,andleancolorandthefattyacidprofile of subcutaneous fat. Crossbred steers (391 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to one of five finishing diets composed primarily of corn (n = 9), Morex barley (n = 9), Steptoe barley, (n = 9), or two experimental barley varieties SM3 (n

J. A. Boles; J. G. Bowman; L. M. M. Surber; D. L. Boss

2010-01-01

338

A root hairless barley mutant for elucidating genetic of root hairs and phosphorus uptake  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a new barley mutant missing root hairs. The mutant was spontaneously discovered among the population of wild type (Pallas, a spring barley cultivar), producing normal, 0.8 mm long root hairs. We have called the mutant bald root barley (brb). Root anatomical studies confirmed the lack of root hairs on mutant roots. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analyses

Tara S. Gahoonia; Niels Erik Nielsen; Priyavadan A. Joshi; Ahmed Jahoor

2001-01-01

339

MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline  

E-print Network

MSU University News New wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties okayed for pipeline February 03, 2004 Several new wheat, barley and specialty crop varieties were approved during the January meeting new research lines of wheat, barley and specialty crops, approving some for release

Maxwell, Bruce D.

340

Expression Analysis of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Receptor Genes From Barley Embryo and Tissue Culture  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ethylene affects regeneration of green plants from barley tissue culture. With the availability of the HarvEST barley database and barley GeneChip, genome-wide expression studies have focused on differential development between Morex and Golden Promise at various stages of plant growth. The data f...

341

Molecular mapping of a recessive gene for resistance to stripe rust in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei, is one of the most important barley (Hordeum vulgare) diseases in the United States. The disease is best controlled using resistant cultivars. Barley genotype Grannenlose Zweizeilige (GZ) has a recessive gene (rpsGZ) that is effective against all races of P. striiformis f. sp. hordei identified so far in the USA.

G. P. Yan; X. M. Chen

2006-01-01

342

Influences of lactic acid bacteria on technological, nutritional, and sensory properties of barley sour dough bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley bread was baked with and without admixture of barley sour doughs, individually fermented with seven starter cultures containing lactic acid bacteria (including two with ?-glucanase activity).The aim of the study was to investigate how starter cultures influenced the baking-technological, nutritional and sensory properties of barley bread. Could degradation of ?-glucans caused by sour dough admixture result in bread that

Ingela Marklinder; Ĺsa Haglund; Lisbeth Johansson

1996-01-01

343

Use of advanced recombinant lines to study the impact and potential of mutations affecting starch synthesis in barley?  

PubMed Central

The effects on barley starch and grain properties of four starch synthesis mutations were studied during the introgression of the mutations from diverse backgrounds into an elite variety. The lys5f (ADPglucose transporter), wax (granule-bound starch synthase), isa1 (debranching enzyme isoamylase 1) and sex6 (starch synthase IIa) mutations were introgressed into NFC Tipple to give mutant and wild-type BC2F4 families with different genomic contributions of the donor parent. Comparison of starch and grain properties between the donor parents, the BC2F4 families and NFC Tipple allowed the effects of the mutations to be distinguished from genetic background effects. The wax and sex6 mutations had marked effects on starch properties regardless of genetic background. The sex6 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but the wax mutation did not. The lys5 mutation conditioned low grain weight and starch content, but exceptionally high ?-glucan contents. The isa1 mutation promotes synthesis of soluble ?-glucan (phytoglycogen). Its introgression into NFC Tipple increased grain weight and total ?-glucan content relative to the donor parent, but reduced the ratio of phytoglycogen to starch. This study shows that introgression of mutations into a common, commercial background provides new insights that could not be gained from the donor parent. PMID:24748716

Howard, Thomas P.; Fahy, Brendan; Leigh, Fiona; Howell, Phil; Powell, Wayne; Greenland, Andy; Trafford, Kay; Smith, Alison M.

2014-01-01

344

Ingestion of oats and barley in patients with celiac disease mobilizes cross-reactive T cells activated by avenin peptides and immuno-dominant hordein peptides.  

PubMed

Celiac disease (CD) is a common CD4(+) T cell mediated enteropathy driven by gluten in wheat, rye, and barley. Whilst clinical feeding studies generally support the safety of oats ingestion in CD, the avenin protein from oats can stimulate intestinal gluten-reactive T cells isolated from some CD patients in vitro. Our objective was to establish whether ingestion of oats or other grains toxic in CD stimulate an avenin-specific T cell response in vivo. We fed participants a meal of oats (100 g/day over 3 days) to measure the in vivo polyclonal avenin-specific T cell responses to peptides contained within comprehensive avenin peptide libraries in 73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients. Grain cross-reactivity was investigated using oral challenge with wheat, barley, and rye. Avenin-specific responses were observed in 6/73 HLA-DQ2.5(+) CD patients (8%), against four closely related peptides. Oral barley challenge efficiently induced cross-reactive avenin/hordein-specific T cells in most CD patients, whereas wheat or rye challenge did not. In vitro, immunogenic avenin peptides were susceptible to digestive endopeptidases and showed weak HLA-DQ2.5 binding stability. Our findings indicate that CD patients possess T cells capable of responding to immuno-dominant hordein epitopes and homologous avenin peptides ex vivo, but the frequency and consistency of these T cells in blood is substantially higher after oral challenge with barley compared to oats. The low rates of T cell activation after a substantial oats challenge (100 g/d) suggests that doses of oats commonly consumed are insufficient to cause clinical relapse, and supports the safety of oats demonstrated in long-term feeding studies. PMID:25457306

Hardy, Melinda Y; Tye-Din, Jason A; Stewart, Jessica A; Schmitz, Frederike; Dudek, Nadine L; Hanchapola, Iresha; Purcell, Anthony W; Anderson, Robert P

2015-01-01

345

Palladium exposure of barley: uptake and effects.  

PubMed

Motor vehicles are now equipped with exhaust gas catalytic converters containing rare metals, such as palladium (Pd), platinum and rhodium, as catalytic active materials, leading to significantly increased emission of these metals. Compared with platinum and rhodium, low concentrations of Pd have been shown to have more serious effects on cells and organisms. In the present study, uptake of Pd by barley and behaviour of Pd nanoparticles in nutrient solutions used to grow plants were observed in order to develop a model of Pd exposure of plant systems. Pd determination was performed using a selective separation and pre-concentration procedure, which was further developed for this study, and coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The results show that uptake of Pd depends on Pd particle diameter. Compared to other toxic metals, like mercury, Pd causes stress effects in leaves at lower concentrations in nutrient solutions. Furthermore, Pd particles are dissolved at different rates, depending on size, in the nutrient solution during plant growth. PMID:18304202

Battke, F; Leopold, K; Maier, M; Schmidhalter, U; Schuster, M

2008-03-01

346

Characterization of the Microchemical Structure of Seed Endosperm within a Cellular Dimension among Six Barley Varieties with Distinct Degradation Kinetics, Using Ultraspatially Resolved Synchrotron-Based Infrared Synchrotron-Based Infrared  

SciTech Connect

Barley varieties have similar chemical composition but exhibit different rumen degradation kinetics and nutrient availability. These biological differences may be related to molecular, structural, and chemical makeup among the seed endosperm tissue. No detailed study was carried out. The objectives of this study were: (1) to use a molecular spectroscopy technique, synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM), to determine the microchemical-structural features in seed endosperm tissue of six developed barley varieties; (2) to study the relationship among molecular-structural characteristics, degradation kinetics, and nutrient availability in six genotypes of barley. The results showed that inherent microchemical-structural differences in the endosperm among the six barley varieties were detected by the synchrotron-based analytical technique, SFTIRM, with the univariate molecular spectral analysis. The SFTIRM spectral profiles differed (P < 0.05) among the barley samples in terms of the peak ratio and peak area and height intensities of amides I (ca. 1650 cm{sup -1}) and II (ca. 1550 cm{sup -1}), cellulosic compounds (ca. 1240 cm{sup -1}), CHO component peaks (the first peak at the region ca. 1184-1132 cm{sup -1}, the second peak at ca. 1132-1066 cm{sup -1}, and the third peak at ca. 1066-950 cm{sup -1}). With the SFTIRM technique, the structural characteristics of the cereal seeds were illuminated among different cultivars at an ultraspatial resolution. The structural differences of barley seeds may be one reason for the various digestive behaviors and nutritive values in ruminants. The results show weak correlations between the functional groups spectral data (peak area, height intensities, and ratios) and rumen biodegradation kinetics (rate and extent of nutrient degradation). Weak correlations may indicate that limited variations of these six barley varieties might not be sufficient to interpret the relationship between spectroscopic information and the nutrient value of barley grain, although significant differences in biodegradation kinetics were observed. In conclusion, the studies demonstrated the potential of ultraspatially resolved synchrotron based technology (SFTIRM) to reveal the structural and chemical makeup within cellular and subcellular dimensions without destruction of the inherent structure of cereal grain tissue.

Liu, N.; Yu, P

2010-01-01

347

Comparison of the efficacy of chitosan with that of a fluorescent pseudomonad for the control of Fusarium head blight disease of cereals and associated mycotoxin contamination of grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium culmorum can cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease of cereals, resulting in yield loss and contamination of grain with the trichothecene mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, we compared the efficacy of a biological control agent (Pseudomonas fluorescens strain MKB 158) with the biochemical chitosan (the deacetylated derivative of chitin) in controlling FHB disease of wheat and barley. Both

Mojibur R. Khan; Fiona M. Doohan

2009-01-01

348

miRNA regulation in the early development of barley seed  

PubMed Central

Background During the early stages of seed development many genes are under dynamic regulation to ensure the proper differentiation and establishment of the tissue that will constitute the mature grain. To investigate how miRNA regulation contributes to this process in barley, a combination of small RNA and mRNA degradome analyses were used to identify miRNAs and their targets. Results Our analysis identified 84 known miRNAs and 7 new miRNAs together with 96 putative miRNA target genes regulated through a slicing mechanism in grain tissues during the first 15?days post anthesis. We also identified many potential miRNAs including several belonging to known miRNA families. Our data gave us evidence for an increase in miRNA-mediated regulation during the transition between pre-storage and storage phases. Potential miRNA targets were found in various signalling pathways including components of four phytohormone pathways (ABA, GA, auxin, ethylene) and the defence response to powdery mildew infection. Among the putative miRNA targets we identified were two essential genes controlling the GA response, a GA3oxidase1 and a homolog of the receptor GID1, and a homolog of the ACC oxidase which catalyses the last step of ethylene biosynthesis. We found that two MLA genes are potentially miRNA regulated, establishing a direct link between miRNAs and the R gene response. Conclusion Our dataset provides a useful source of information on miRNA regulation during the early development of cereal grains and our analysis suggests that miRNAs contribute to the control of development of the cereal grain, notably through the regulation of phytohormone response pathways. PMID:22838835

2012-01-01

349

78 FR 76098 - Rail Transportation of Grain, Rate Regulation Review  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Regulation Reforms, EP 715; Alliance for Rail Competition, Montana Wheat & Barley Committee, Colorado Wheat Administrative Committee, Idaho Barley Commission, Idaho Wheat Commission, Montana Farmers Union, Nebraska Wheat Board,...

2013-12-16

350

Grain Grading and Handling.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication provides an introduction to grain grading and handling for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in five chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the jobs performed at a grain elevator and of the techniques used to grade grain. The first chapter introduces the grain industry and…

Rendleman, Matt; Legacy, James

351

Mapping-by-sequencing accelerates forward genetics in barley  

PubMed Central

Mapping-by-sequencing has emerged as a powerful technique for genetic mapping in several plant and animal species. As this resequencing-based method requires a reference genome, its application to complex plant genomes with incomplete and fragmented sequence resources remains challenging. We perform exome sequencing of phenotypic bulks of a mapping population of barley segregating for a mutant phenotype that increases the rate of leaf initiation. Read depth analysis identifies a candidate gene, which is confirmed by the analysis of independent mutant alleles. Our method illustrates how the genomic resources of barley together with exome resequencing can underpin mapping-by-sequencing. PMID:24917130

2014-01-01

352

Heat-stable proteins and abscisic acid action in barley aleurone cells  

SciTech Connect

({sup 35}S)Methionine labeling experiments showed that abscisic acid (ABA) induced the synthesis of at least 25 polypeptides in mature barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone cells. The polypeptides were not secreted. Whereas most of the proteins extracted from aleurone cells were coagulated by heating to 100{degree}C for 10 minutes, most of the ABA-induced polypeptides remained in solution (heat-stable). ABA had little effect on the spectrum of polypeptides that were synthesized and secreted by aleurone cells, and most of these secreted polypeptides were also heat-stable. Coomassie blue staining of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gels indicated that ABA-induced polypeptides already occurred in high amounts in mature aleurone layers having accumulated during grain development. About 60% of the total protein extracted from mature aleurone was heat stable. Amino acid analyses of total preparations of heat-stable and heat-labile proteins showed that, compared to heat-labile proteins, heat-stable intracellular proteins were characterized by higher glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx) and glycine levels and lower levels of neutral amino acids. Secreted heat-stable proteins were rich in Glx and proline. The possibilities that the accumulation of the heat-stable polypeptides during grain development is controlled by ABA and that the function of these polypeptides is related to their abundance and extraordinary heat stability are considered.

Jacobsen, J.V. (CSIRO, Canberra (Australia)); Shaw, D.C. (Australian National Univ., Canberra (Australia))

1989-12-01

353

KTP laser stapedotomy with a self-crimping, thermal shape memory Nitinol piston: follow-up study reporting intermediate-term hearing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was an evaluation of the mid-term hearing results after the implantation of a self-crimping heat memory Nitinol piston in stapes surgery. The 12-month postoperative results were compared with those at a minimum of 3 years (maximum 6.7, average 4.4 years). The medical records of all 44 patients who underwent surgery with a Nitinol piston for stapes fixation between November 2005 and January 2007 were evaluated retrospectively. The prostheses used in all cases measured either 4.5 or 4.75 × 0.6 mm. We hypothesized that the 12-month postoperative hearing results would be permanent after an average follow-up of 4.4 years. Thirty-two of the 44 consecutive patients were females and 12 were males. Their mean age was 40.4 years (range 27-69). All underwent a 12-month postoperative audiometric evaluation. 38 (30 females, 8 males, average age 45, range 28-77 years) of the 44 were available for mid-term 4.4-year (minimum 3 years, maximum 6.7 years) postoperative audiometric evaluation. The mean air-bone gap (ABG) for the frequencies 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kHz at the 12-month postoperative follow-up was 11 dB (SD 4.1) and that after an average 4.4-year postoperative evaluation was 6.4 dB (SD 3.6). The mean decrease in ABG after 12 months was 19.5 dB, and that after the average 4.4 years was 21.3 dB. ABG closure within 10 dB was achieved in 77.2 % after 12 months and in 89.5 % after the average 4.4 years. No patient with an ABG > 20 dB was recorded after the average 4.4 years. The mean air conduction threshold at 4 kHz was examined pre and postoperatively so as to indicate any possible inner ear damage. At the 12-month follow-up, the difference between the pre and postoperative values was -2.5 dB, whereas after the average 4.4 years the difference was surprisingly +13 dB. The individual AC improvements were also demonstrated with the use of Amsterdam Hearing Evaluation Plots (AHEPs). The Nitinol prosthesis allowed excellent intraoperative handling and no postoperative complication was reported. As compared with conventional stapes prostheses, the Nitinol-based SMart prosthesis is a safe and reliable stapes prosthesis. Our mid-term audiometric evaluations revealed that the audiometric parameters demonstrated a hearing improvement between the postoperative 12-month and average 4.4-year examinations. We consider the elimination of manual crimping and the use of a "non-touch" hand-held laser technique has a positive impact on the mid-term audiometric results. Most of the previous studies presented only relatively short-term (from 6 weeks up to 6-12 months) audiometric evaluations. Complications are rare, but a longer follow-up is needed to establish the long-term stability. PMID:24253384

Gerlinger, Imre; Bakó, Péter; Piski, Zalán; Révész, Péter; Ráth, Gábor; Karosi, Tamás; Lujber, László

2014-12-01

354

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades PreK-1: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

355

USDA Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1  

E-print Network

USDA ­ Ag in the Classroom-www.agclassroom.org Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow -Grades 2-5: S-1 Oats, Peas, Beans and Barley Grow (do the motions while singing) Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Oats, peas, beans and barley grow, Can you or I or anyone know How oats, peas, beans and barley grow

Mathis, Wayne N.

356

Transmission of Two Viruses that Cause Barley Yellow Dwarf is Controlled by Different Loci in the Aphid, Schizaphis graminum  

PubMed Central

Clonal populations of the aphid, Schizaphis graminum, have been separated into biotypes based on host preference and their ability to overcome resistance genes in wheat. Recently, several biotypes were found to differ in their ability to transmit one or more of the viruses that cause barley yellow dwarf disease in grain crops, and vector competence was linked to host preference. The genetics of host preference has been studied in S. graminum, but how this may relate to the transmission of plant viruses is unknown. Sexual morphs of a vector and nonvector S. graminum genotype were induced from parthenogenetic females and reciprocal crosses made. Eighty-nine hybrids were generated and maintained by parthenogenesis. Each hybrid was evaluated for its ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV, and for its ability to colonize two wheat genotypes each expressing a different gene that confers resistance to S. graminum. The F1 genotypes were genetically variable for their ability to transmit virus and to colonize the aphid resistant wheat, but these traits were not genetically correlated. Individual F1 genotypes ranged in transmission efficiency from 0–100% for both viruses, although the overall mean transmission efficiency was similar to the transmission competent parent, indicating directional dominance. The direction of the cross did not significantly affect the vector competency for either virus, suggesting that maternally inherited cytoplasmic factors, or bacterial endosymbionts, did not contribute significantly to the inheritance of vector competency in S. graminum. Importantly, there was no genetic correlation between the ability to transmit Barley yellow dwarf virus and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV in the F1 genotypes. These results taken together indicate that multiple loci are involved in the circulative transmission, and that the successful transmission of these closely related viruses is regulated by different sets of aphid genes. PMID:20302539

Gray, Stewart M.; Caillaud, Marina C; Burrows, Mary; Smith, Dawn M.

2007-01-01

357

Biotic stress in barley: disease problems and solutions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is cultivated over a wider geographic range than almost any other major crop species. It can be found growing from the tropics to the high latitudes and from the seacoast to the highest arable mountaintops. On marginal lands where alkaline soils, drought, or cold summer t...

358

The B-hordein prolamin family of barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The spectrum of B-hordein prolamins and genes in the single barley cultivar Barke is described from an in silico analysis of 1452 B-hordein ESTs and available genomic DNA. Eleven unique B-hordein proteins are derived from EST contigs. Ten contigs encode apparent full-length B-hordeins and the ele...

359

Artificial seeds in barley: encapsulation of microspore-derived embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in vitro culture system has been developed for barley (Hordeum vulgare), which yields high frequencies of high quality microspore-derived embryos without an intervening callus phase. The embryos are very similar to zygotic embryos with regard to their morphology and germination capacity. These embryos were encapsulated in sodium alginate to produce individual beads containing one embryo each. In accordance with

S. K. Datta; I. Potrykus

1989-01-01

360

Serine proteinases from barley malt may degrade beta-amylase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley seed proteinases are critically important to seed germination and malting in that they generate amino acids from seed N reserves, supporting embryo growth during germination and yeast fermentation during brewing. However, relatively little is known regarding the endogenous protein substrate ...

361

Combinatorial Pooling Enables Selective Sequencing of the Barley Gene Space  

E-print Network

that it is quite successful in reconstructing the gene sequences within BACs. In the case of plants such as barley show that combinatorial pooling is a cost- effective and practical alternative to exhaustive DNA barcoding when preparing sequencing libraries for hundreds or thousands of DNA samples, such as in this case

Lonardi, Stefano

362

Combined mapping of AFLP and RFLP markers in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

AFLP marker technology allows efficient DNA fingerprinting and the analysis of large numbers of polymorphic restriction fragments on polyacrylamide gels. Using the doubled haploids from the F1 of the cross Proctor × Nudinka, 118 AFLP markers were mapped onto a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) RFLP map, also including five microsatellite and four protein marker loci. The AFLP markers mapped to

Jörg Becker; Pieter Vos; Martin Kuiper; Francesco Salamini; Manfred Heun

1995-01-01

363

PREGERMINATION IN THE 2002 MIDWESTERN BARLEY CROP: ASSESSMENT AND OCCURRENCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rainfall received during harvest resulted in a substantial portion of the 2002 Midwestern barley crop exhibiting pregermination (preharvest sprouting). The fact that the incidence was the most wide spread in more than 20 years, has provided a unique opportunity to evaluate and compare methodology f...

364

THE OMANI BARLEY LANDRAC BAHTINI. I. VARIABILITY FOR SALT TOLERANCE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

One-hundred-twenty-five accessions representing seven ecotypes of the Omani barley landrace "Batini" were selected from a collection of 3,000 accessions based on their agronomic performance under optimum growing conditions. The 125 accessions were evaluated for biomass production, in a hydroponics s...

365

Relative toxicity of cadmium, lead, and zinc on barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative toxicity of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) on the growth performance of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was measured. Lead and Zn resulted in an increase in dry matter production at the lower additions. All the Cd and the higher Pb and Zn additions resulted in significant decreases in growth over the controls, the roots showing a

N. C. Aery; B. L. Jagetiya

1997-01-01

366

Resolution of Dual Mechanisms of Potassium Absorption by Barley Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between the rates of absorption of K and Rb by barley ; roots and the concentration of these ions in the external solution, over the ; range 0.002 to 50 mM, is predictable on the assumption that two carrier sites ; bind and transport the ions. One of these operates at half-maximal velocity at a ; concentration of

Emanuel Epstein; D. W. Rains; O. E. Elzam

1963-01-01

367

BARLEY PROMOTERS FOR ORGANS SUSCEPTIBLE TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium Head Blight (FHB, or scab) is a fungal disease that causes significant seed yield and quality losses in barley and wheat worldwide. The fungus lowers yield and deposits toxic levels of mycotoxins. The pericarp and lemma/palea (hull) are readily infected by Fusarium graminearum. The restrict...

368

Genetical Genomic Dissection of Stem Rust Infection in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To identify breeding and biochemical targets that will mitigate a stem rust epidemic currently threatening barley and wheat crops worldwide, we have performed QTL and eQTL mapping experiments to connect genetic loci that confer stem rust resistance with gene expression networks that are responsive t...

369

Chromium uptake and transport in barley seedlings ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potassium chromate is more toxic to the growth of barley in solution culture than chromic chloride, though apparent uptake of the latter is much faster. Inhibitor studies indicate that CrO42- uptake is “active” whereas Cr3+ uptake is passive, demonstrating that the two forms do not share a common uptake mechanism. Studies on the form of Cr inside root cells show

R. A. Skeffington; P. R. Shewry; P. J. Peterson

1976-01-01

370

Conserved transcriptional regulatory programs underlying rice and barley germination  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Seed germination is accompanied with concerted transcriptional expression of many genes and biological pathways. Barley and rice germinations have been divergent from each other for 50-60 million years. However, there is little knowledge about the conservation and divergence in transcriptional regul...

371

Registration of ‘Transit’ High ß-glucan Spring Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transit’ (Reg. No. ______PI ); a two-rowed spring high ß-glucan barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was developed and submitted for release in 2009 by the Agricultural Research Service-USDA, Aberdeen, ID, in cooperation with the University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station. Transit is a sel...

372

BARLEY SEED OSMOLYTE CONCENTRATION AS AN INDICATOR OF PREHARVEST SPROUTING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley seed osmolyte concentrations can be used as an indicator of preharvest sprouting (PHS). Osmolyte concentrations from the 2002 Minnesota and North Dakota crops were compared to pearling and other techniques for assessment of PHS. Approxim...

373

COMPREHENSIVE MUTANT ANALYSIS OF THE BARLEY LTP6 GENE PROMOTER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Differential display was used to identify a transcript that was highly expressed in the pericarp epidermis but not in leaves of barley. The sequence and its promoter were cloned. The ORF encoded a polypeptide of 124 amino acids showing 87% identity with WBP1A, a wheat lipid transfer protein (LTP) ...

374

Structural and Functional Characterization of a Winter Malting Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of winter malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties is emerging as a worldwide priority due to the numerous advantages of these varieties over spring types. However, the complexity of both malting quality and winter hardiness phenotypes makes simultaneous improvement a challenge....

375

FREEZING-STRESS-RESPONSIVE GENES AND THEIR EXPRESSION IN BARLEY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Injury of barley plants by spring freezing is a major cause of crop loss, but most cold tolerance research has focused on cold acclimation, which confers freezing tolerance upon exposure to low nonfreezing temperatures. In order to address freezing tolerance per se, we have chosen a cold sensitive ...

376

Original article Screening barley germplasm for resistance to a new  

E-print Network

be detected using a RFLP marker (MWG10), linked to ym4, the recessive gene conferring resistance to barley' showed that resistance in 'L 541' is conferred by a single recessive gene. (© Inra/Elsevier, Paris mosaic virus disease is originated from the variety 'Ragusa' that pos- sesses a recessive gene (ym4

Boyer, Edmond

377

Intake of Tibetan Hull-Less Barley is Associated with a Reduced Risk of Metabolic Related Syndrome in Rats Fed High-Fat-Sucrose Diets  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of whole grain Tibetan hull-less barley on metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets in rats. The diets were designed to reflect the dietary patterns of Chinese individuals (>30% energy fat) with refined wheat flour (HFS-W) or Tibetan hull-less barley (HFS-THB) as the main carbohydrate sources. Rats fed HFS-W had increased body weight, abdominal fat deposition, liver weight, liver fat deposition, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood glucose (FBG), serum fasting insulin (FINS), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels compared to rats fed a basal diet (BD). However, rats fed HFS-THB had reduced body weight gain, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. These findings indicate that whole Tibetan hull-less barley is a functional food that can reduce the prevalence of metabolic related syndrome induced by high-fat-sucrose diets. PMID:24763110

Gong, Lingxiao; Gong, Lingyun; Zhang, Ying

2014-01-01

378

Varietal and chromosome 2H locus-specific frost tolerance in reproductive tissues of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detected using a frost simulation chamber.  

PubMed

Exposure of flowering cereal crops to frost can cause sterility and grain damage, resulting in significant losses. However, efforts to breed for improved low temperature tolerance in reproductive tissues (LTR tolerance) has been hampered by the variable nature of natural frost events and the confounding effects of heading time on frost-induced damage in these tissues. Here, we establish conditions for detection of LTR tolerance in barley under reproducible simulated frost conditions in a custom-built frost chamber. An ice nucleator spray was used to minimize potential effects arising from variation in naturally occurring extrinsic nucleation factors. Barley genotypes differing in their field tolerance could be distinguished. Additionally, an LTR tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL) on the long arm of barley chromosome 2H could be detected in segregating families. In a recombinant family, the QTL was shown to be separable from the effects of the nearby flowering time locus Flt-2L. At a minimum temperature of -3.5 degrees C for 2 h, detection of the LTR tolerance locus was dependent on the presence of the nucleator spray, suggesting that the tolerance relates to freezing rather than chilling, and that it is not the result of plant-encoded variation in ice-nucleating properties of the tiller surface. PMID:19484216

Chen, Andrew; Gusta, Lawrence V; Brűlé-Babel, Anita; Leach, Richard; Baumann, Ute; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Collins, Nicholas C

2009-08-01

379

Crude protein degradability, protein digestible in the intestine and net energy for lactation of whole crop barley in various vegetative stages.  

PubMed

Crude protein degradability (CP deg), protein digestible in the intestine (PDI) and net energy of lactation (NEL) content of whole crop spring barley were estimated by means of the in situ method using three steers fitted with rumen cannulas and fed near the maintenance level of nutrition. Barley was cut in five consecutive vegetative stages (end of the earing, S1, end of the flowering, S2, middle of the milky stage of the grain, S3, beginning of the dough stage, S4, middle of the dough stage, S5, including S5 silage). CP deg, PDI and NEL were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by the growth stage. The relationships of the CP deg (%), PDI (g/kg DM) and NEL (MJ/kg DM) to the vegetative stage of barley quantified on a decimal scale (X) were as follows: CP deg = 40.1 + 0.46X (I2yx = 82%), PDI = -330.8 + 12.86X-0.1007 X2 (I2yx = 83%), and NEL = -0.48 + 0.0802X (I2yx = 86%), resp. Compared with drying at 60 degrees C ensiling increased CP deg (P < 0.01) and NEL (P < 0.05), whereas PDI was not affected (P > 0.05). PMID:8988317

Komprda, T; Dolezal, P

1996-01-01

380

Biochemical properties and hormonal regulation of barley nuclease.  

PubMed

The amino acid composition and NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of barley nuclease (EC 3.1.30.2) were determined. The amino acid composition is similar to that of mung bean nuclease, and therefore the biochemical properties of barley nuclease were characterized and compared with those of mung bean and other plant nucleases. The 3'-nucleotidase activity of barley nuclease is greater for purine than for pyrimidine ribonucleotides. The enzyme has little activity towards ribonucleoside 2' and 5'-monophosphates, and deoxyribonucleoside 3' and 5'-monophosphates, and is also inactive towards the 3'-phosphoester linkage of nucleoside cyclic 2',3' and 3',5'-monophosphates. The enzyme hydrolyzes dinucleoside monophosphates, showing strong preference for purine nucleosides as the 5' residues. Barley nuclease shows significant base preference for homoribonucleic acids, catalyzing the hydrolysis of polycytidylic acid greater than polyuridylic acid greater than polyadenylic acid much greater than polyguanylic acid. The enzyme also has preference for single-stranded nucleic acids. Hydrolysis of nucleic acids is primarily endonucleolytic, whereas the products of digestion possess 5'-phosphomonoester groups. Nuclease activity is inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and zinc is required for reactivation. Secretion of nuclease from barley aleurone layers is dependent on the hormone gibberellic acid [Brown, P.H. and Ho, T.-h. D. (1986) Plant Physiol. 82, 801-806]. Consistent with these results, gibberellic acid induces up to an eight-fold increase in the de novo synthesis of nuclease in aleurone layers. The secreted enzyme is a glycoprotein having an apparent molecular mass of 35 kDa. It consists of a single polypeptide having an asparagine-linked, high-mannose oligosaccharide. The protein portion of the molecule has a molecular mass of 33 kDa. PMID:2822411

Brown, P H; Ho, T H

1987-10-15

381

An aluminum-activated citrate transporter in barley.  

PubMed

Soluble ionic aluminum (Al) inhibits root growth and reduces crop production on acid soils. Al-resistant cultivars of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) detoxify Al by secreting citrate from the roots, but the responsible gene has not been identified yet. Here, we identified a gene (HvAACT1) responsible for the Al-activated citrate secretion by fine mapping combined with microarray analysis, using an Al-resistant cultivar, Murasakimochi, and an Al-sensitive cultivar, Morex. This gene belongs to the multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) family and was constitutively expressed mainly in the roots of the Al-resistant barley cultivar. Heterologous expression of HvAACT1 in Xenopus oocytes showed efflux activity for (14)C-labeled citrate, but not for malate. Two-electrode voltage clamp analysis also showed transport activity of citrate in the HvAACT1-expressing oocytes in the presence of Al. Overexpression of this gene in tobacco enhanced citrate secretion and Al resistance compared with the wild-type plants. Transiently expressed green fluorescent protein-tagged HvAACT1 was localized at the plasma membrane of the onion epidermal cells, and immunostaining showed that HvAACT1 was localized in the epidermal cells of the barley root tips. A good correlation was found between the expression of HvAACT1 and citrate secretion in 10 barley cultivars differing in Al resistance. Taken together, our results demonstrate that HvAACT1 is an Al-activated citrate transporter responsible for Al resistance in barley. PMID:17634181

Furukawa, Jun; Yamaji, Naoki; Wang, Hua; Mitani, Namiki; Murata, Yoshiko; Sato, Kazuhiro; Katsuhara, Maki; Takeda, Kazuyoshi; Ma, Jian Feng

2007-08-01

382

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain  

PubMed Central

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E.; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-01-01

383

Iron transport, deposition and bioavailability in the wheat and barley grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the increasing knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underlying mineral uptake, transport, homeostasis and\\u000a deposition within plants, has paved the way for a more targeted approach to improving the nutrient status of crop plants based\\u000a on biotechnology. In the present paper we will briefly review existing knowledge on the distribution and transport pathways\\u000a of iron in the two

Sřren Borg; Henrik Brinch-Pedersen; Birgitte Tauris; Preben B. Holm

2009-01-01

384

Forage and grain production of four F? barley hybrids and their inbred parents  

E-print Network

and the augmentation of vigor. Science 32:627-628. 1910. Davenport, C. B. Degeneration, albinism, and inbreeding. Science 28:4. 54-455. 1908. 4 DeKalb Association Inc. Letter to: Persons interested in hybrid wheat. 1962. 5 Dickson, J. G. , Diseases of Field Crops... throughout the field studies, and in the preparation of this manuscript. Dr. I. M. Atkins for his suggestions and assistance. Dr. J. D. Smith for suggestions on the statistical analysis of the data and patience in reviewing this manuscript. TABLE GF...

Van Dijk, Albert Heinrich

1964-01-01

385

Drought stress variability in ancient Near Eastern agricultural systems evidenced by ?13C in barley grain.  

PubMed

The collapse and resilience of political systems in the ancient Near East and their relationship with agricultural development have been of wide interest in archaeology and anthropology. Despite attempts to link the archaeological evidence to local paleoclimate data, the precise role of environmental conditions in ancient agricultural production remains poorly understood. Recently, stable isotope analysis has been used for reconstructing site-specific ancient growing conditions for crop species in semiarid and arid landscapes. To open the discussion of the role of regional diversity in past agricultural production as a factor in societal development, we present 1.037 new stable carbon isotope measurements from 33 archaeological sites and modern fields in the geographic area of the Fertile Crescent, spanning the Aceramic Neolithic [10,000 calibrated years (cal) B.C.] to the later Iron Age (500 cal B.C.), alongside modern data from 13 locations. Our data show that drought stress was an issue in many agricultural settlements in the ancient Near East, particularly in correlation with the major Holocene climatic fluctuations, but its regional impact was diverse and influenced by geographic factors. Although cereals growing in the coastal areas of the northern Levant were relatively unaffected by Holocene climatic fluctuations, farmers of regions further inland had to apply irrigation to cope with increased water stress. However, inland agricultural strategies showed a high degree of variability. Our findings suggest that regional differences in climatic effects led to diversified strategies in ancient subsistence and economy even within spatially limited cultural units. PMID:25114225

Riehl, Simone; Pustovoytov, Konstantin E; Weippert, Heike; Klett, Stefan; Hole, Frank

2014-08-26

386

Chemical composition of teff (Eragrostis tef) compared with that of wheat, barley and grain sorghum  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of teff, analyzed from uncontaminated seeds, revealed the superiority of the species in mineral nutritive\\u000a value. Teff’s exceedingly high iron and calcium content was confirmed. The high iron content of teff reported by the Ethiopia\\u000a Nutrition Survey must have been due to certain inherent factors of the species, not only a result of contamination. The magnitude\\u000a of

Melak H. Mengesha

1966-01-01

387

iTAG Barley: A 9-12 classroom module to explore gene expression and segregation using Oregon Wolfe Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Oregon Wolfe Barleys (OWBs) are a model resource for genetics research and instruction (http://barleyworld.org/oregonwolfe ; http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/ggpages/OWB_gallery/ISS-OWB/index.htm). The population of 94 doubled haploid lines was developed from an F1 of a cross between dominant and reces...

388

Tocopherols and tocotrienols in barley oil prepared from germ and other fractions from scarification and sieving of hulless barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two cultivars of hulless barley (Doyce and Merlin), were scarified to abrade the outer layers of the kernels (germ, pericarp, and aleurone). The resulting scarification fines fractions were then separated into four particle size subfractions using sieves. Each of the size subfractions was then extr...

389

Primary structure of the (1?3,1?4)-?-D-glucan 4-glucohydrolase from barley aleurone  

PubMed Central

During germination of barley grains, the cell walls of the starchy endosperm are degraded by (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanases (EC 3.2.1.73) secreted from the aleurone and scutellar tissues. The complete sequence of the aleurone (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase isoenzyme II comprises 306 amino acids and was determined by sequencing nine tryptic peptides (110 residues) and aligning them with the amino acid sequence deduced from a cDNA clone encoding the 291 NH2-terminal residues. Although no amino acid sequence homology with a bacterial (1?3)(1?4)-?-glucanase is apparent, close to 50% homology is found with two large regions of a (1?3)-?-glucanase from tobacco pith tissue. The gene for barley (1?3,1?4)-?-glucanase isoenzyme II shares with that for the ?-amylase isoenzyme 1 a strongly preferred use of codons with G and C in the wobble position (94% and 90%, respectively). Both enzymes are secreted from the aleurone cells during germination. Such one-sided codon usage is not characteristic for the gene encoding the (1?3)-?-glucanase of tobacco pith tissue or the hor2-4 gene encoding the B1 hordein storage protein in the endosperm. Images PMID:16593676

Fincher, Geoffrey B.; Lock, Peter A.; Morgan, Margaret M.; Lingelbach, Klaus; Wettenhall, Richard E. H.; Mercer, Julian F. B.; Brandt, Anders; Thomsen, Karl Kristian

1986-01-01

390

Physiological Effects of Gibberellic Acid. X. The Release of Gibberellin-Like Substances by Germinating Barley Embryos  

PubMed Central

Barley embryos, completely free from endosperm, were excised from germinating grain at various times and allowed to diffuse into an aqueous medium for varying lengths of time. At the end of this time, the embryos and ambient solutions were separately extracted. Gibberellin-like activity in the extracts was determined with the barley endosperm bioassay using seed from the same variety, harvest and treatment schedule as was employed for the embryo diffusion experiments. Gibberellin-like substances were released by embryos throughout the 60 hour germination period, though at no time during this period could sufficient activity be extracted from the embryos themselves to account for the observed release. Solvent partitioning and chromatography identified at least one major acidic component migrating at an Rf similar to that of GA3. It is concluded that the endogenous gibberellin-like substance(s) originates within the embryo during germination, and that the release of this substance(s) is temporally consistent with, and quantitatively sufficient to account for the in vivo endosperm mobilization response syndrome. A gibberellin-like substance is undoubtedly the endosperm mobilizing hormone. PMID:16656651

Cohen, D.; Paleg, L. G.

1967-01-01

391

Effect of co-milled wheat, green gram and barley on the rheological and quality characteristics of cookies.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out on the co-milling of wheat (W), green gram (GG) and barley (BR) grains using a roller milling system. The co-milled straight run flours obtained by varying proportions of wheat, barley and green gram WGGBR-1 (90:5:5), WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and WGGBR-3 (70:15:15) were used in the cookie baking experiments. As the amount of GG and BR increased in blend, water absorption increased (56.5-58.4%) and dough stability and extensibility values decreased (104-92?mm). Hardness of cookie doughs and spread ratio (7.70-6.00) of cookies decreased and breaking strength values increased from 2900 to 3700?g in cookies made using co-milled blends WGGBR-1, WGGBR-2 and WGGBR-3. The highest breaking strength value (3700?g), large islands, gummy mouth feel and lowest overall quality score of 51.5 were recorded for cookies made with blend WGGBR-3 indicating that the cookies had unacceptable hard texture. The optimum blend for cookies was WGGBR-2 (80:10:10) and the cookies possessed slightly small islands, crisp, light texture and a pleasant taste. These cookies had 12.30 and 8.00% protein and dietary fibre as against the control cookie values of 8 and 4%, respectively. The in vitro protein digestibility of the control cookies was 61% and it was 51% for cookies made with WGGBR-2 blend. PMID:25217023

Tulse, Siddharth B; V, Reshma; Rajiv, Jyotsna; Sakhare, Suresh D

2014-09-12

392

Physiological effects of gibberellic Acid. X. The release of gibberellin-like substances by germinating barley embryos.  

PubMed

Barley embryos, completely free from endosperm, were excised from germinating grain at various times and allowed to diffuse into an aqueous medium for varying lengths of time. At the end of this time, the embryos and ambient solutions were separately extracted. Gibberellin-like activity in the extracts was determined with the barley endosperm bioassay using seed from the same variety, harvest and treatment schedule as was employed for the embryo diffusion experiments. Gibberellin-like substances were released by embryos throughout the 60 hour germination period, though at no time during this period could sufficient activity be extracted from the embryos themselves to account for the observed release. Solvent partitioning and chromatography identified at least one major acidic component migrating at an Rf similar to that of GA(3).It is concluded that the endogenous gibberellin-like substance(s) originates within the embryo during germination, and that the release of this substance(s) is temporally consistent with, and quantitatively sufficient to account for the in vivo endosperm mobilization response syndrome. A gibberellin-like substance is undoubtedly the endosperm mobilizing hormone. PMID:16656651

Cohen, D; Paleg, L G

1967-09-01

393

Effects of adlay, buckwheat, and barley on transit time and the antioxidative system in obesity induced rats  

PubMed Central

In the present study, we examined whether four grains including adlay (AD), buckwheat (BW), glutinous barley (GB), and white rice (WR) affect the duration of food residence in the gastrointestinal tract and hepatic enzyme activities in rats fed different combinations of the grains. The rats were raised for 4 weeks on a high fat diet based on the American Institute of Nutrition-93 (AIN-93G) diets containing 1% cholesterol and 20% dietary lipids. Forty male rats were divided into four groups and raised for 4 weeks with a diet containing one of the grains. Corresponding to the dietary fiber contents of the experimental grains, gut transit time was shortest in the rats fed GB and increased in the order of BW, AD, and WR. In addition, the accumulated shortest transit time occurred in the GB group. Gut transit time affected weight gain and major organ weight, as it was closely related to the absorption of nutrients. The level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in liver was higher in rats fed WR, AD, BW, and GB, indicating that the other grains decreased oxidative stress in vivo more than WR. Glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase levels in the AD, BW, and GB groups were significantly higher than those in the WR group. In conclusion, reduced colonic transit time has been implicated in reducing the incidence of colon cancer, as evidenced by populations consuming diets rich in fiber. Whole grains such as AD, BW, and GB may contribute to a significant supply of antioxidants to prevent oxidative stress if they are consumed in large amounts. PMID:22808344

Kim, Jung Yun; Son, Bo Kyung

2012-01-01

394

Presolar Grains in Meteorites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site offers information about presolar grains. It discusses what they are, how to identify them, the different kinds, and what can be learned from presolar grains. If you need more information there are additional links to go to.

Nittler, Larry R.

395

Marketing Farm Grain Crops.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

Ridenour, Harlan E.

396

Quantitative and Qualitative Stem Rust Resistance Factors in Barley Are Associated with Transcriptional Suppression of Defense Regulons  

PubMed Central

Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici; Pgt) is a devastating fungal disease of wheat and barley. Pgt race TTKSK (isolate Ug99) is a serious threat to these Triticeae grain crops because resistance is rare. In barley, the complex Rpg-TTKSK locus on chromosome 5H is presently the only known source of qualitative resistance to this aggressive Pgt race. Segregation for resistance observed on seedlings of the Q21861 × SM89010 (QSM) doubled-haploid (DH) population was found to be predominantly qualitative, with little of the remaining variance explained by loci other than Rpg-TTKSK. In contrast, analysis of adult QSM DH plants infected by field inoculum of Pgt race TTKSK in Njoro, Kenya, revealed several additional quantitative trait loci that contribute to resistance. To molecularly characterize these loci, Barley1 GeneChips were used to measure the expression of 22,792 genes in the QSM population after inoculation with Pgt race TTKSK or mock-inoculation. Comparison of expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) between treatments revealed an inoculation-dependent expression polymorphism implicating Actin depolymerizing factor3 (within the Rpg-TTKSK locus) as a candidate susceptibility gene. In parallel, we identified a chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that co-segregates with an enhancer of Rpg-TTKSK-mediated, adult plant resistance discovered through the Njoro field trials. Our genome-wide eQTL studies demonstrate that transcript accumulation of 25% of barley genes is altered following challenge by Pgt race TTKSK, but that few of these genes are regulated by the qualitative Rpg-TTKSK on chromosome 5H. It is instead the chromosome 2H trans-eQTL hotspot that orchestrates the largest inoculation-specific responses, where enhanced resistance is associated with transcriptional suppression of hundreds of genes scattered throughout the genome. Hence, the present study associates the early suppression of genes expressed in this host–pathogen interaction with enhancement of R-gene mediated resistance. PMID:21829384

Moscou, Matthew J.; Lauter, Nick; Steffenson, Brian; Wise, Roger P.

2011-01-01

397

Genomic methylation patterns in archaeological barley show de-methylation as a time-dependent diagenetic process  

PubMed Central

Genomic methylation is variable under biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In particular, viral infection is thought to significantly increase genomic methylation with particularly high activity around transposable elements. Here we present the genomic methylation profiles of grains of archaeological barley (Hordeum vulgare) from several strata from a site in southern Egypt, from the Napatan to the Islamic periods (800 BCE – 1812 CE). One sample tested positive for viral infection and exhibits an unusually high degree of genomic methylation compared to the rest. A decreasing trend in global methylation levels according to deposition date shows in-situ de-methylation of 5-methylcytosine, which can be described as a diagenetic process. This is most likely a deamination mediated de-methylation process and is expected to lead to 5?mC > T base modifications in addition to the C > U modifications due to cytosine deamination, so represents a time-dependent process of DNA diagenesis in ancient DNA. PMID:24993353

Smith, Oliver; Clapham, Alan J.; Rose, Pam; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Jun; Allaby, Robin G.

2014-01-01

398

Acid phosphatases and growth of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars under diverse phosphorus nutrition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The morphological and physiological responses of barley to moderate Pi deficiency and the ability of barley to grow on phytate\\u000a were investigated. Barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L., Promyk, Skald and Stratus) were grown for 1–3 weeks on different nutrient media with contrasting phosphorus source: KH2PO4 (control), phytic acid (PA) and without phosphate (?P). The growth on ?P medium strongly decreased Pi

Iwona CiereszkoEwa; Ewa ?ebrowska; Marta Ruminowicz

399

Ribosomal DNA Spacer-Length Polymorphisms in Barley: Mendelian Inheritance, Chromosomal Location, and Population Dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spacer-length (sl) variation in ribosomal RNA gene clusters (rDNA) was surveyed in 502 individual barley plants, including samples from 50 accessions of cultivated barley, 25 accessions of its wild ancestor, and five generations of composite cross II (CCII), an experimental population of barley. In total, 17 rDNA sl phenotypes, made up of 15 different rDNA sl variants, were observed. The

M. A. Saghai-Maroof; K. M. Soliman; R. A. Jorgensen; R. W. Allard

1984-01-01

400

Machine vision methods for use in grain variety discrimination and quality analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Decreasing cost of computer technology has made it feasible to incorporate machine vision technology into the agriculture industry. The biggest attraction to using a machine vision system is the computer's ability to be completely consistent and objective. One use is in the variety discrimination and quality inspection of grains. Algorithms have been developed using Fourier descriptors and neural networks for use in variety discrimination of barley seeds. RGB and morphology features have been used in the quality analysis of lentils, and probability distribution functions and L,a,b color values for borage dockage testing. These methods have been shown to be very accurate and have a high potential for agriculture. This paper presents the techniques used and results obtained from projects including: a lentil quality discriminator, a barley variety classifier, a borage dockage tester, a popcorn quality analyzer, and a pistachio nut grading system.

Winter, Philip W.; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Wood, Hugh C.

1996-12-01

401

Improvement of stress tolerance of wheat and barley by modulation of expression of DREB/CBF factors.  

PubMed

Transcription factors have been shown to control the activity of multiple stress response genes in a coordinated manner and therefore represent attractive targets for application in molecular plant breeding. We investigated the possibility of modulating the transcriptional regulation of drought and cold responses in the agriculturally important species, wheat and barley, with a view to increase drought and frost tolerance. Transgenic wheat and barley plants were generated showing constitutive (double 35S) and drought-inducible (maize Rab17) expression of the TaDREB2 and TaDREB3 transcription factors isolated from wheat grain. Transgenic populations with constitutive over-expression showed slower growth, delayed flowering and lower grain yields relative to the nontransgenic controls. However, both the TaDREB2 and TaDREB3 transgenic plants showed improved survival under severe drought conditions relative to nontransgenic controls. There were two components to the drought tolerance: real (activation of drought-stress-inducible genes) and 'seeming' (consumption of less water as a result of smaller size and/or slower growth of transgenics compared to controls). The undesired changes in plant development associated with the 'seeming' component of tolerance could be alleviated by using a drought-inducible promoter. In addition to drought tolerance, both TaDREB2 and TaDREB3 transgenic plants with constitutive over-expression of the transgene showed a significant improvement in frost tolerance. The increased expression of TaDREB2 and TaDREB3 lead to elevated expression in the transgenics of 10 other CBF/DREB genes and a large number of stress responsive LEA/COR/DHN genes known to be responsible for the protection of cell from damage and desiccation under stress. PMID:20642740

Morran, Sarah; Eini, Omid; Pyvovarenko, Tatiana; Parent, Boris; Singh, Rohan; Ismagul, Ainur; Eliby, Serik; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Lopato, Sergiy

2011-02-01

402

Diagnosis and Management of Grain-Induced Asthma  

PubMed Central

Grain-induced asthma is a frequent occupational allergic disease mainly caused by inhalation of cereal flour or powder. The main professions affected are bakers, confectioners, pastry factory workers, millers, farmers, and cereal handlers. This disorder is usually due to an IgE-mediated allergic response to inhalation of cereal flour proteins. The major causative allergens of grain-related asthma are proteins derived from wheat, rye and barley flour, although baking additives, such as fungal ?-amylase are also important. This review deals with the current diagnosis and treatment of grain-induced asthma, emphasizing the role of cereal allergens as molecular tools to enhance diagnosis and management of this disorder. Asthma-like symptoms caused by endotoxin exposure among grain workers are beyond the scope of this review. Progress is being made in the characterization of grain and bakery allergens, particularly cereal-derived allergens, as well as in the standardization of allergy tests. Salt-soluble proteins (albumins plus globulins), particularly members of the ?-amylase/trypsin inhibitor family, thioredoxins, peroxidase, lipid transfer protein and other soluble enzymes show the strongest IgE reactivities in wheat flour. In addition, prolamins (not extractable by salt solutions) have also been claimed as potential allergens. However, the large variability of IgE-binding patterns of cereal proteins among patients with grain-induced asthma, together with the great differences in the concentrations of potential allergens observed in commercial cereal extracts used for diagnosis, highlight the necessity to standardize and improve the diagnostic tools. Removal from exposure to the offending agents is the cornerstone of the management of grain-induced asthma. The availability of purified allergens should be very helpful for a more refined diagnosis, and new immunomodulatory treatments, including allergen immunotherapy and biological drugs, should aid in the management of patients with this disorder. PMID:24179680

Diaz-Perales, Araceli

2013-01-01

403

Volatile Compound-Mediated Interactions between Barley and Pathogenic Fungi in the Soil  

PubMed Central

Plants are able to interact with their environment by emitting volatile organic compounds. We investigated the volatile interactions that take place below ground between barley roots and two pathogenic fungi, Cochliobolus sativus and Fusarium culmorum. The volatile molecules emitted by each fungus, by non-infected barley roots and by barley roots infected with one of the fungi or the two of them were extracted by head-space solid phase micro extraction and analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The effect of fungal volatiles on barley growth and the effect of barley root volatiles on fungal growth were assessed by cultivating both organisms in a shared atmosphere without any physical contact. The results show that volatile organic compounds, especially terpenes, are newly emitted during the interaction between fungi and barley roots. The volatile molecules released by non-infected barley roots did not significantly affect fungal growth, whereas the volatile molecules released by pathogenic fungi decreased the length of barley roots by 19 to 21.5% and the surface of aerial parts by 15%. The spectrum of the volatiles released by infected barley roots had no significant effect on F. culmorum growth, but decreased C. sativus growth by 13 to 17%. This paper identifies the volatile organic compounds emitted by two pathogenic fungi and shows that pathogenic fungi can modify volatile emission by infected plants. Our results open promising perspectives concerning the biological control of edaphic diseases. PMID:23818966

Fiers, Marie; Lognay, Georges; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Jijakli, M. Haďssam

2013-01-01

404

Karyotyping of barley chromosomes by a new fluorescence banding technique combined with scanning probe microscopy.  

PubMed

Fluorescence banding has been used to classify chromosomes, except those of barley. Four of the seven barley chromosomes are indistinguishable by length or arm ratio. C-banding has been used for classification; however, it requires a long aging period. Here, we describe a new fluorescence banding method for barley. The chromosomes are treated with warm acetate followed by staining with a fluorescent dye, YOYO-1. Using this method, all seven barley chromosomes can be clearly distinguished. Atomic force microscopy and scanning near-field microscopy analyses revealed that the surfaces of the banded chromosomes were flat, indicating that the fluorescence intensity reflected the internal DNA density or condensation of chromatin. PMID:22058025

Sugiyama, Shigeru; Yoshino, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Tamaki; Ohtani, Toshio

2012-01-01

405

Investigations of barley stripe mosaic virus as a gene silencing vector in barley roots and in Brachypodium distachyon and oat  

PubMed Central

Background Gene silencing vectors based on Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) are used extensively in cereals to study gene function, but nearly all studies have been limited to genes expressed in leaves of barley and wheat. However since many important aspects of plant biology are based on root-expressed genes we wanted to explore the potential of BSMV for silencing genes in root tissues. Furthermore, the newly completed genome sequence of the emerging cereal model species Brachypodium distachyon as well as the increasing amount of EST sequence information available for oat (Avena species) have created a need for tools to study gene function in these species. Results Here we demonstrate the successful BSMV-mediated virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) of three different genes in barley roots, i.e. the barley homologues of the IPS1, PHR1, and PHO2 genes known to participate in Pi uptake and reallocation in Arabidopsis. Attempts to silence two other genes, the Pi transporter gene HvPht1;1 and the endo-?-1,4-glucanase gene HvCel1, in barley roots were unsuccessful, probably due to instability of the plant gene inserts in the viral vector. In B. distachyon leaves, significant silencing of the PHYTOENE DESATURASE (BdPDS) gene was obtained as shown by photobleaching as well as quantitative RT-PCR analysis. On the other hand, only very limited silencing of the oat AsPDS gene was observed in both hexaploid (A. sativa) and diploid (A. strigosa) oat. Finally, two modifications of the BSMV vector are presented, allowing ligation-free cloning of DNA fragments into the BSMV-? component. Conclusions Our results show that BSMV can be used as a vector for gene silencing in barley roots and in B. distachyon leaves and possibly roots, opening up possibilities for using VIGS to study cereal root biology and to exploit the wealth of genome information in the new cereal model plant B. distachyon. On the other hand, the silencing induced by BSMV in oat seemed too weak to be of practical use. The new BSMV vectors modified for ligation-free cloning will allow rapid insertion of plant gene fragments for future experiments. PMID:21118486

2010-01-01

406

Low GI Food with Barley in Space Foods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The construction of the life-support system to perform space, moon base, Mars emigration is demanded. The space foods will play a very important role of life support on this occasion. Particularly, in environment of the microgravity, our metabolism becomes less than the face of the Earth. The management of the blood sugar level is very important. We need to eat the meal which will be rise in blood sugar level slowly. The barley which includes much water-soluble dietary fibers is helpful to make low GI space food. After eating 30% barley with unpolished rice, blood sugar level was rise slowly. The cooking process is very important to our body in thinking about digestion and absorption. Soft foods, long-heated foods and grind-foods are easy to digest. After eating these-foods, our blood sugar level will rise, easily. We introduce the space foods with 30% wheat that the blood sugar level is hard to rising.

Katayama, Naomi; Sugimoto, Manabu; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Kihara, Makoto; Yamashita, Masamichi; Space Agriculture Task Force

407

A comparison of hydroponic and soil-based screening methods to identify salt tolerance in the field in barley  

PubMed Central

Success in breeding crops for yield and other quantitative traits depends on the use of methods to evaluate genotypes accurately under field conditions. Although many screening criteria have been suggested to distinguish between genotypes for their salt tolerance under controlled environmental conditions, there is a need to test these criteria in the field. In this study, the salt tolerance, ion concentrations, and accumulation of compatible solutes of genotypes of barley with a range of putative salt tolerance were investigated using three growing conditions (hydroponics, soil in pots, and natural saline field). Initially, 60 genotypes of barley were screened for their salt tolerance and uptake of Na+, Cl–, and K+ at 150 mM NaCl and, based on this, a subset of 15 genotypes was selected for testing in pots and in the field. Expression of salt tolerance in saline solution culture was not a reliable indicator of the differences in salt tolerance between barley plants that were evident in saline soil-based comparisons. Significant correlations were observed in the rankings of genotypes on the basis of their grain yield production at a moderately saline field site and their relative shoot growth in pots at ECe 7.2 [Spearman’s rank correlation (rs)=0.79] and ECe 15.3 (rs=0.82) and the crucial parameter of leaf Na+ (rs=0.72) and Cl– (rs=0.82) concentrations at ECe 7.2 dS m?1. This work has established screening procedures that correlated well with grain yield at sites with moderate levels of soil salinity. This study also showed that both salt exclusion and osmotic tolerance are involved in salt tolerance and that the relative importance of these traits may differ with the severity of the salt stress. In soil, ion exclusion tended to be more important at low to moderate levels of stress but osmotic stress became more important at higher stress levels. Salt exclusion coupled with a synthesis of organic solutes were shown to be important components of salt tolerance in the tolerant genotypes and further field tests of these plants under stress conditions will help to verify their potential utility in crop-improvement programmes. PMID:22442423

Tavakkoli, Ehsan; Fatehi, Foad; Rengasamy, Pichu; McDonald, Glenn K.

2012-01-01

408

Methane production, digestion, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, and milk production of cows fed corn silage- or barley silage-based diets.  

PubMed

This study evaluated the effects of replacing barley silage (BS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion, milk production, and N balance. Nine ruminally cannulated lactating cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design (32-d period) and fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (TMR; forage:concentrate ratio 60:40; dry matter basis) with the forage portion consisting of either barley silage (0% CS; 0% CS and 54.4% BS in the TMR), a 50:50 mixture of both silages (27% CS; 27.2% CS and 27.2% BS in the TMR), or corn silage (54% CS; 0% BS and 54.4% CS in the TMR). Increasing the CS proportion (i.e., at the expense of BS) also involved increasing the proportion of corn grain (at the expense of barley grain). Intake and digestibility of dry matter and milk production increased linearly as the proportion of CS increased in the diet. Increasing dietary CS proportion decreased linearly the acetate molar proportion and increased linearly that of propionate. Daily CH4 emissions tended to respond quadratically to increasing proportions of CS in the diet (487, 540, and 523 g/d for 0, 27, and 54% CS, respectively). Methane production adjusted for dry matter or gross energy intake declined as the amount of CS increased in the diet; this effect was more pronounced when cows were fed the 54% CS diet than the 27% CS diet. Increasing the CS proportion in the diet improved N utilization, as reflected by decreases in ruminal ammonia concentration and urinary N excretion and higher use of dietary N for milk protein secretion. Total replacement of BS with CS in dairy cow diets offers a strategy to decrease CH4 energy losses and control N losses without negatively affecting milk performance. PMID:24359826

Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

2014-02-01

409

Starch bioengineering affects cereal grain germination and seedling establishment  

PubMed Central

Cereal grain germination is central for plant early development, and efficient germination has a major role in crop propagation and malting. Endosperm starch is the prime energy reserve in germination and seedling establishment. In this study, it was hypothesized that optimized starch granule structure, and not only the endosperm starch content per se, is important for germination and seedling establishment. For that purpose, wild-type (WT), and specifically engineered degradable hyperphosphorylated (HP) starch and more resistant amylose-only (AO) starch barley lines were used. The transgenics showed no severe phenotypes and the WT and HP lines degraded the starch similarly, having 30% residual starch after 12 d of germination. However, the AO line showed significant resistance to degradation, having 57% residual starch. Interestingly, protein and ?-glucan (BG) degradation was stimulated for both HP and AO lines as compared with the WT. At late seedling establishment stages, specific sugars were rapidly consumed in the AO line. ?-Amylase activity was distinctly suppressed in both the HP and the AO lines. Pre-germination ?-amylase deposition was low in the AO grains and ?-amylase was generally suppressed in both HP and AO lines throughout germination. As further supported by scanning electron microscopy and histochemical analyses on grain and seedlings, it was concluded that inadequate starch granule deposition in combination with the suppressed hydrolase activity leads to temporal and compensating re-direction of starch, sugar, and protein catabolism important to maintain metabolic dynamics during grain germination and seedling establishment. PMID:24642850

Hebelstrup, Kim H.; Blennow, Andreas

2014-01-01

410

Golgi Localized Barley MTP8 Proteins Facilitate Mn Transport  

PubMed Central

Many metabolic processes in plants are regulated by manganese (Mn) but limited information is available on the molecular mechanisms controlling cellular Mn homeostasis. In this study, a yeast assay was used to isolate and characterize two genes, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2, which encode membrane-bound proteins belonging to the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family in the cereal species barley (Hordeum vulgare). Transient expression in onion epidermal cells showed that MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 proteins fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) are localized to Golgi. When heterologously expressed in yeast, MTP8.1 and MTP8.2 were found to be Mn transporters catalysing Mn efflux in a similar manner as the Golgi localized endogenous yeast protein Pmr1p. The level of MTP8.1 transcripts in barley roots increased with external Mn supply ranging from deficiency to toxicity, while MTP8.2 transcripts decreased under the same conditions, indicating non-overlapping functions for the two genes. In barley leaves, the expression of both MTP8 genes declined in response to toxic Mn additions to the roots suggesting a role in ensuring proper delivery of Mn to Golgi. Based on the above we suggest that barley MTP8 proteins are involved in Mn loading to the Golgi apparatus and play a role in Mn homeostasis by delivering Mn to Mn-dependent enzymes and/or by facilitating Mn efflux via secretory vesicles. This study highlights the importance of MTP transporters in Mn homeostasis and is the first report of Golgi localized Mn2+ transport proteins in a monocot plant species. PMID:25486417

Pedas, Pai; Schiller Stokholm, Michaela; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Ladegĺrd, Anne Hald; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Husted, Sřren

2014-01-01

411

Molecular Approaches and Breeding Strategies for Drought Tolerance in Barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley genotypes, in particular landraces and wild species, represent an important source of variation for adaptive traits\\u000a that may contribute to increase yield and yield stability under drought conditions, and that could be introgressed into improved\\u000a varieties. Traits that have been investigated include physiological\\/biochemical and developmental\\/ morphological traits. Yield\\u000a performance under drought is particularly a complex phenomenon, and plants exhibit

Michael Baum; MARIA VON KORFF; Peiguo Guo; Berhane Lakew; Aladdin Hamwieh; Samer Lababidi; Sripada M. Udupa; Haitham Sayed; Wafa Choumane; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli

412

RAPD divergence caused by microsite edaphic selection in wild barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPDPCR) was used to assess genetic diversity in four subpopulations\\u000a (86 individuals) of wild barley, Hordeum spontaneum, sampled from Tabigha microsite near the Sea of Galilee, Israel. The microsite\\u000a consists of two 100?m transects that are topographically separated by 100?m, each equally subdivided into 50?m of basalt and\\u000a terra rossa soil types. Despite

Edward D. Owuor; Tzion Fahima; Alex Beharav; Abraham Korol; Eviatar Nevo

1999-01-01

413

A high-throughput DNA extraction method for barley seed  

Microsoft Academic Search

A non-destructive, quick DNA extraction method for barley seed is described. The method is simple and consists of drilling\\u000a out a sample from the seed, adding sodium hydroxide, heating in a microwave oven and neutralizing with Tris-HCl. The seed\\u000a DNA extract can be used directly for PCR with extra cycles added to the PCR programme compared to PCR programmes used

Rebecka von Post; Lars von Post; Christophe Dayteg; Marie Nilsson; Brian P. Forster; Stine Tuvesson

2003-01-01

414

Salinity-induced calcium deficiencies in wheat and barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salinity-calcium interactions, which have been shown to be important in plants grown in dryland saline soils of the Canadian prairies, were studied in two species differing in salt tolerance. In solution culture, wheat showed a greater reduction in growth and a higher incidence of foliar Ca deficiency symptoms than barley when grown under MgSO4 or Na2SO4 plus MgSO4 salt stress.

D. L. Ehret; R. E. Redmann; B. L. Harvey; A. Cipywnyk

1990-01-01

415

The relative sensitivity of algae to decomposing barley straw  

Microsoft Academic Search

Decomposing barley straw has previously been shown to inhibit the growth of a limited number of algae under both laboratory\\u000a and field conditions. Bioassays were conducted on a range of algae to evaluate their relative sensitivities to straw-derived\\u000a inhibitor(s). A range of sensitivities was found, including some species that were resistant to the straw-derived inhibitor(s).\\u000a A microcystin-producing strain of Microcystis

Derek Martin; Irene Ridge

1999-01-01

416

Comparison of Gibberellins in Normal and Slender Barley Seedlings  

PubMed Central

Gibberellins A1, A3, A8, A19, A20, and A29 were identified by full scan gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in leaf sheath segments of 7-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise) seedlings grown at 20°C under long days. In a segregating population of barley, cv Herta (Cb 3014), containing the recessive slender allele, (sln 1) the concentration of GA1 and GA3 was reduced by 10-fold and 6-fold, respectively, in rapidly growing homozygous slender, compared with normal, leaf sheath segments. However, the concentration of the C20 precursor, GA19, was nearly 2-fold greater in slender than in normal seedlings. There was little difference in the ABA content of sheath segments between the two genotypes. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, reduced the final sheath length of normal segregants (50% inhibition at 15 micromolar) but had no effect on the growth of slender seedlings at concentrations below 100 micromolar. There was a 15-fold and 4-fold reduction in GA1 and GA3, respectively, in sheath segments of 8-day-old normal seedlings following application of 10 micromolar paclobutrazol. The same treatment also reduced the already low concentrations of these gibberellins in slender segregants. The results show that the pool sizes of gibberellins A1 and A3 are small in slender barley and that leaf sheath extension in this genotype appears to be gibberellin-independent. The relationship between gibberellin status and tissue growth-rate in slender barley is contrasted with other gibberellin nonresponsive, but dwarf, mutants of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and maize (Zea mays). PMID:16667686

Croker, Stephen J.; Hedden, Peter; Lenton, John R.; Stoddart, John L.

1990-01-01

417

Arabinogalactan proteins are involved in root hair development in barley  

PubMed Central

The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are involved in a range of plant processes, including cell differentiation and expansion. Here, barley root hair mutants and their wild-type parent cultivars were used, as a model system, to reveal the role of AGPs in root hair development. The treatment of roots with different concentrations of ?GlcY (a reagent which binds to all classes of AGPs) inhibited or totally suppressed the development of root hairs in all of the cultivars. Three groups of AGP (recognized by the monoclonal antibodies LM2, LM14, and MAC207) were diversely localized in trichoblasts and atrichoblasts of root hair-producing plants. The relevant epitopes were present in wild-type trichoblast cell walls and cytoplasm, whereas in wild-type atrichoblasts and in all epidermal cells of a root hairless mutant, they were only present in the cytoplasm. In all of cultivars the higher expression of LM2, LM14, and MAC207 was observed in trichoblasts at an early stage of development. Additionally, the LM2 epitope was detected on the surface of primordia and root hair tubes in plants able to generate root hairs. The major conclusion was that the AGPs recognized by LM2, LM14, and MAC207 are involved in the differentiation of barley root epidermal cells, thereby implying a requirement for these AGPs for root hair development in barley. PMID:25465033

Marzec, Marek; Szarejko, Iwona; Melzer, Michael

2015-01-01

418

Analysis of the barley chromosome 2 region containing the six-rowed spike gene vrs1 reveals a breakdown of rice-barley micro collinearity by a transposition.  

PubMed

In cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare), six-rowed spikes produce three times as many seeds per spike as do two-rowed spikes. The determinant of this trait is the Mendelian gene vrs1, located on chromosome 2H, which is syntenous with rice (Oryza sativa) chromosomes 4 and 7. We exploited barley-rice micro-synteny to increase marker density in the vrs1 region as a prelude to its map-based cloning. The rice genomic sequence, covering a 980 kb contig, identified barley ESTs linked to vrs1. A high level of conservation of gene sequence was obtained between barley chromosome 2H and rice chromosome 4. A total of 22 EST-based STS markers were placed within the target region, and the linear order of these markers in barley and rice was identical. The genetic window containing vrs1 was narrowed from 0.5 to 0.06 cM, which facilitated covering the vrs1 region by a 518 kb barley BAC contig. An analysis of the contig sequence revealed that a rice Vrs1 orthologue is present on chromosome 7, suggesting a transposition of the chromosomal segment containing Vrs1 within barley chromosome 2H. The breakdown of micro-collinearity illustrates the limitations of synteny cloning, and stresses the importance of implementing genomic studies directly in the target species. PMID:17375281

Pourkheirandish, M; Wicker, T; Stein, N; Fujimura, T; Komatsuda, T

2007-05-01

419

Carotenoids of aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn and wheat differentially inhibit oxidative stress.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of carotenoids from aleurone, germ, and endosperm fractions of barley, corn, and wheat has been evaluated. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of lutein and zeaxanthin carotenoids (nd-15139 ?g/kg) in extracts of cereal grain fractions. The antioxidant properties using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) assays revealed significantly higher (P < 0.001) antioxidant activity in the germ than in the aleurone and endosperm fractions. Using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 2,2'azobis (2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride (AAPH)-induced cell loss was effectively reduced by preincubating Caco-2, HT-29, and FHs 74 Int cells with carotenoid extracts. Moreover, carotenoid extracts reduced (P < 0.001) AAPH-induced intracellular oxidation in the cell lines, suggesting antioxidant activity. Of the 84 antioxidant pathway genes included in microarray array analysis (HT-29 cells), the expressions of 28 genes were enhanced (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that carotenoids of germ, aleurone, and endosperm fractions improved antioxidant capacity and thus have the potential to mitigate oxidative stress. PMID:25706713

Masisi, Kabo; Diehl-Jones, William L; Gordon, Joseph; Chapman, Donald; Moghadasian, Mohammed H; Beta, Trust

2015-03-18

420

Ectoparasitic growth of Magnaporthe on barley triggers expression of the putative barley wax biosynthesis gene CYP96B22 which is involved in penetration resistance  

PubMed Central

Background Head blast caused by the fungal plant pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is an upcoming threat for wheat and barley cultivation. We investigated the nonhost response of barley to an isolate of the Magnaporthe species complex which is pathogenic on Pennisetum spp. as a potential source for novel resistance traits. Results Array experiments identified a barley gene encoding a putative cytochrome P450 monooxygenase whose transcripts accumulate to a higher concentration in the nonhost as compared to the host interaction. The gene clusters within the CYP96 clade of the P450 plant gene family and is designated as CYP96B22. Expression of CYP96B22 was triggered during the ectoparasitic growth of the pathogen on the outside of the leaf. Usage of a fungicidal treatment and a Magnaporthe mutant confirmed that penetration was not necessary for this early activation of CYP96B22. Transcriptional silencing of CYP96B22 using Barley stripe mosaic virus led to a decrease in penetration resistance of barley plants to Magnaporthe host and nonhost isolates. This phenotype seems to be specific for the barley-Magnaporthe interaction, since penetration of the adapted barley powdery mildew fungus was not altered in similarly treated plants. Conclusion Taken together our results suggest a cross-talk between barley and Magnaporthe isolates across the plant surface. Since members of the plant CYP96 family are known to be involved in synthesis of epicuticular waxes, these substances or their derivatives might act as signal components. We propose a functional overlap of CYP96B22 in the execution of penetration resistance during basal and nonhost resistance of barley against different Magnaporthe species. PMID:24423145

2014-01-01

421

Utilization of fermented barley extract obtained from a by-product of barley shochu for nisin production.  

PubMed

Fermented barley extract (FBE) obtained from a barley shochu by-product (shochu kasu) and its ethanol fractions were evaluated as a medium and supplement, respectively, for nisin A production by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454. A Brix 2.5 FBE medium supplemented with glucose provided a high level of nisin A production with a nisin yield comparable to that from a nutritionally rich laboratory medium (basal medium). By adding the ethanol-insoluble (EI) fraction of FBE to the basal medium, nisin A production was enhanced concomitant with an increase in bacterial cell growth, while the ethanol-soluble (ES) fraction had a negative effect on nisin A production. These findings indicate that FBE obtained from shochu kasu can be utilized as a preferable medium for nisin A production and could be converted into a value-added food product having preservative functions. The procedure developed in this study would promote recycling of shochu kasu. PMID:19000617

Furuta, Yoshifumi; Maruoka, Naruyuki; Nakamura, Akihiro; Omori, Toshiro; Sonomoto, Kenji

2008-10-01

422

Metabolites of lesser grain borer in grains.  

PubMed

Many volatile alcohol and ester metabolites of the lesser grain borer (LGB, Rhyzopertha dominica) cultured on wheat grain were identified. Volatiles from infested samples at 80 degrees C were collected on Tenax absorbent, thermally desorbed, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) using infrared (IR) and mass (MS) detectors for component identification. A solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique was used to analyze selected samples with a GC-MS system set up for obtaining chemical ionization mass spectra. SPME was also used in a synthesis process required to identify ester metabolites. Predominant compounds in LGB-infested grains were 2-pentanol and its esters of 2-methyl-2-pentenoic (A) and 2,4-dimethyl-2-pentenoic (B) acids, which are known aggregation pheromones, dominicalures 1 and 2. 2-Pentanol esters of saturated A, beta-keto- and beta-hydroxy derivatives of A and B, homologues of A and B, and acid moieties lacking the 2-methyl substitution were found. Other straight- and branched-chain secondary alcohols and their esters were also observed. Reexamination of GC-MS-IR data acquired in previous investigations of LGB cultured on sorghum grain and commercial samples in a grain odor study showed the presence of many LGB metabolites in addition to the known dominicalures. PMID:14969548

Seitz, Larry M; Ram, M S

2004-02-25

423

Barley ?-amylase bound to its endogenous protein inhibitor BASI: crystal structure of the complex at 1.9 ĺ resolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Barley ?-amylase is a 45 kDa enzyme which is involved in starch degradation during barley seed germination. The released sugars provide the plant embryo with energy for growth. The major barley ?-amylase isozyme (AMY2) binds with high affinity to the endogenous inhibitor BASI (barley ?-amylase\\/subtilisin inhibitor) whereas the minor isozyme (AMY1) is not inhibited. BASI is a 19.6 kDa

François Vallée; Anders Kadziola; Yves Bourne; Michel Juy; Kees W Rodenburg; Birte Svensson; Richard Haser

1998-01-01

424

Validation of rice blast resistance genes in barley using a QTL mapping population and near-isolines.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

There are prior reports of Pyricularia grisea – the causal agent of blast of rice – causing disease in barley. In order to determine the specificity of this resistance in barley, we extended our previous mapping efforts to include blast isolates from barley and rice grown in Thailand and we assesse...

425

Genetic diversity analysis of wild close relatives of barley from Tibet and the Middle East by ISSR and SSR markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genetic diversity analysis of 90 barley samples, including 45 wild close relatives of barley from the Tibet region of China and 45 wild accessions from different countries throughout the Middle East, were carried out using ISSR and SSR markers. The results showed that Tibetan wild close relatives of barley had a higher genetic diversity than those from the Middle

Aihua Wang; Zhiyong Yu; Yi Ding

2009-01-01

426

Necrotrophic effector-triggered susceptibility (NETS) underlies the barley-Pyrenophora teres f. teres interaction specific to chromosome 6H  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley net form net blotch, caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres, is a destructive foliar disease in barley-growing regions worldwide. Our overall understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the barley- P. teres f. teres interaction is limited. Intercellular wash fluids (IWF) from infected...

427

Evaluating the potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of barley and wheat microsatellite markers for genetic analysis of Elymus trachycaulus complex species was evaluated. A set of 25 barley and 3 wheat microsatellite markers were tested for their ability to cross-amplify DNA from four accessions of E. trachycaulus and two accessions Pseudoroegneria spicata. Thirteen barley (52%) and two (68%) wheat primer pairs successfully amplified consistent products

D. MacRitchie; G. Sun

2004-01-01

428

Removal and isolation of germ-rich fractions from hull-less barley using a fitzpatrick comminuting mill  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process was developed to produce a germ-enriched fraction from hull-less barley using a Fitzpatrick Comminuting Mill followed by sieving. Hulled and hull-less barleys contain 1.5-2.5% oil and, like wheat kernels which contain wheat germ oil, much of the oil in barley kernels is in the germ fracti...

429

A genome-wide association study of malting quality across eight U.S. barley breeding programs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study leverages the breeding data of 1,862 breeding lines evaluated in 97 field trials for genome-wide association study of malting quality traits in barley. The breeding lines were six-row and two-row barley advanced breeding lines from eight barley breeding populations established at six pub...

430

Origins of GEMS Grains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the chemical compositions of GEMS grains are extremely heterogeneous and seem to rule out this possibility. Based on their solar isotopic compositions and their non-solar elemental compositions we propose that most GEMS grains formed in the nebula as late-stage non-equilibrium condensates.

Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

2012-01-01

431

Crop stand density enhances competitive ability of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the research was to establish weediness, competitive ability and productivity of the crop. The experimental object was agrophytocenoses of spring barley – Hordeum vulgare L. – crop of spring barley ‘Aura’ and unsown soil, and weeds growing in them. The crop was formed sowing 0, 120, 200 and 280 kg ha (0, 2.7, 4.5 and 6.2 million

Vytautas Pilipavicius; Regina Romaneckiene; Kestutis Romaneckas

2011-01-01

432

VIABILITY AND BAR EXPRESSION ARE NEGATIVELY CORRELATED IN OREGON WOLFE BARLEY DOMINANT HYBRIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The expression level of the selectable marker bar, which encodes phosphinothricin acetyl transferase (PAT), was negatively correlated with the viability of barley hybrids between 20 Golden Promise-derived transgenic lines (Ds-bar lines) and a specialized marker stock, Oregon Wolfe Barley Dominant (O...

433

A Comparison Of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Thermostabilities As Indicators Of Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt amylolytic enzyme thermostabilities would correlate negatively with malt sugar concentrations. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germinated in a micromalter for 6 days. At 2...

434

Relationship between gibberellins, height, and stress tolerance in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between gibberellin (GA) levels, height, and stress tolerance was investigated using barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings, which were exposed to heat stress (50 °C for 3 h) and a free radical generator (Paraquat). Barley cv. Perth seedlings were treated with GA-inhibitors, either a triazole or one of two acylcyclohexanediones. They were tested along with four mutants that were

Sunita Sarkar; Michel R. Perras; Duane E. Falk; Ruichuan Zhang; Richard P. Pharis; R. Austin Fletcher

2004-01-01

435

A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germi...

436

A Comparison of Barley Malt Amylolytic Enzyme Activities and Malt Sugar Concentrations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that barley malt alpha-amylase activity would correlate better with malt sugar concentrations than the activities of beta-amylase, or limit dextrinase. Seeds of four two-row and four six-row North American elite barley cultivars were steeped and germin...

437

MILLING ALTERNATIVES OF BARLEY TO PRODUCE ETHANOL AND VALUE-ADDED FRACTIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New varieties are being developed to widen the applications of barley to nontraditional food and non-food value-added applications, such as ethanol production. The objective of this study was to fractionate a new hulless barley variety, Doyce, to produce starch rich fractions using two methods: (a) ...

438

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau  

PubMed Central

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called “Qingke” in Chinese and “Ne” in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

2015-01-01

439

LIGHT-DEPENDENT BLEACHING OF DETACHED BARLEY LEAF TISSUE BY DEOXYNIVALENOL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulates in wheat and barley heads infected with Fusarium graminearum. To assess the effects of DON on green plant tissues, we partially stripped the abaxial epidermis from detached Robust barley leaf segments (1 cm long) and floated them with stripped mesophyl...

440

Transgenic Field Trials for FHB Resistance and Related Research in Wheat and Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Transgenic wheat and barley lines expressing genes with the potential to reduce FHB and DON have been tested in field trials in Minnesota since 1997 and in North Dakota since 2001 (barley only). Replicated trials are planted, grown, and harvested to meet containment regulations of the Animal and Pla...

441

Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield and Quality  

E-print Network

Fertilizer Facts: December 2000, Number 24 Nitrogen Fertilization of Dryland Malt Barley for Yield factors as well as yield. Fourteen experiments from Central, North central, and the Western Triangle areas-row, malt barley cultivars with similar yield potential (Harrington and Clark). Nitrogen and K fertilizers

Lawrence, Rick L.

442

Population structure and linkage disequilibrium in US barley germplasm: implications for association mapping  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies have shown that there is considerable population structure in cultivated barley, with the strongest structure corresponding to differences in row number and growth habit. US barley breeding programs include 6-row and 2-row types and winter and spring types in all combinations. To fa...

443

How can varieties and rain-fed production environments affect malting quality in spring barley?  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rain-fed barley production environments can be highly variable across a region and across years. Almost all malting barley production in Washington State is under rain-fed conditions. The industry has noticed that in some cases malt beta-glucan levels and other malting quality parameters have been u...

444

Biothanol production from barley hull using SAA (Soaking in aqueous ammonia) pretreatment  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley hull, a type of lignocellulosic biomass, was pretreated using aqueous ammonia to improve its enzymatic saccharification. Barley hull was soaked in 15-30 wt.% aqueous ammonia (SAA method) at 30-75'C for 1 day-11 weeks using a batch reactor. Under these conditions, SAA (soaking in aqueous ammon...

445

Cytokinin enhancement of the light induction of nitrate reductase transcript levels in etiolated barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

To investigate the molecular mechanism of cytokinin regulation of nitrate reductase (NR) activity, the influence of benzyladenine (BA) on the level of NR transcript was studied in etiolated barley leaves using a barley NR cDNA as a probe. Northern blot analyses of the levels of NR poly (A)+ RNA indicate that the amount present is proportional to the concentration of

Jia-ling Lu; John R. Ertl; Chong-maw Chen

1990-01-01

446

The draft genome of Tibetan hulless barley reveals adaptive patterns to the high stressful Tibetan Plateau.  

PubMed

The Tibetan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. nudum), also called "Qingke" in Chinese and "Ne" in Tibetan, is the staple food for Tibetans and an important livestock feed in the Tibetan Plateau. The diploid nature and adaptation to diverse environments of the highland give it unique resources for genetic research and crop improvement. Here we produced a 3.89-Gb draft assembly of Tibetan hulless barley with 36,151 predicted protein-coding genes. Comparative analyses revealed the divergence times and synteny between barley and other representative Poaceae genomes. The expansion of the gene family related to stress responses was found in Tibetan hulless barley. Resequencing of 10 barley accessions uncovered high levels of genetic variation in Tibetan wild barley and genetic divergence between Tibetan and non-Tibetan barley genomes. Selective sweep analyses demonstrate adaptive correlations of genes under selection with extensive environmental variables. Our results not only construct a genomic framework for crop improvement but also provide evolutionary insights of highland adaptation of Tibetan hulless barley. PMID:25583503

Zeng, Xingquan; Long, Hai; Wang, Zhuo; Zhao, Shancen; Tang, Yawei; Huang, Zhiyong; Wang, Yulin; Xu, Qijun; Mao, Likai; Deng, Guangbing; Yao, Xiaoming; Li, Xiangfeng; Bai, Lijun; Yuan, Hongjun; Pan, Zhifen; Liu, Renjian; Chen, Xin; WangMu, QiMei; Chen, Ming; Yu, Lili; Liang, Junjun; DunZhu, DaWa; Zheng, Yuan; Yu, Shuiyang; LuoBu, ZhaXi; Guang, Xuanmin; Li, Jiang; Deng, Cao; Hu, Wushu; Chen, Chunhai; TaBa, XiongNu; Gao, Liyun; Lv, Xiaodan; Abu, Yuval Ben; Fang, Xiaodong; Nevo, Eviatar; Yu, Maoqun; Wang, Jun; Tashi, Nyima

2015-01-27

447

Cytologically Integrated Physical Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Maps for the Barley Genome Based on Translocation Breakpoints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a new technique for the physical mapping of barley chromosomes using microdis- sected translocation chromosomes for PCR with sequence-tagged site primers derived from .300 geneti- cally mapped RFLP probes. The positions of 240 translocation breakpoints were integrated as physical landmarks into linkage maps of the seven barley chromosomes. This strategy proved to be highly efficient in relating

Gottfried Kunzel; Larissa Korzun; Armin Meister

448

Pathogenicity of fungi associated with wheat and barley seedling emergence and fungicide efficacy of seed treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presented study focused on the influence of Cochliobolus sativus isolates origin on pathogenicity towards wheat and barley seedlings in comparison with pathogenicity of certain Fusarium species and Microdochium nivale. The efficacy of fungicide seed treatment against C. sativus was estimated. The C. sativus isolates were collected from different locations and were isolated from wheat, barley and sunflower seeds. The pathogenicity

Kamil Hudec

2007-01-01

449

Minimizing Risk by Maximizing Production Through Barley as a Rotational Crop  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A CD was produced that contained the presentations of the speakers, plus supplemental material. This was an effort at showing growers the benefits of rotating with barley, and educating growers in barley breeding, weeds, diseases, economics and government support programs. It was sponsored by the ...

450

FIGHTING FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT OF BARLEY WITH MEMBERS OF THE THIONIN GENE FAMILY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops in the U.S. and elsewhere by causing scab (Fusarium head blight) and depositing mycotoxins such as DON. These make the harvest unsuitable for food, feed or malting. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusa...

451

Energy dispersive X?ray fluorescence for rapid potassium, calcium, and chloride diagnosis in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Doriru) leaf samples were collected from a field comprising three plots, plot F chemical fertilizer treated, plot S receiving sewage sludge and sawdust mixed compost, and plot H receiving sewage sludge and rice husk mixed compost. Relative concentrations of selected elements, potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and chloride (Cl) of young, mature, and old barley leaves

M. Y. Miah; M. K. Wang; M. Chino

1999-01-01

452

Greenhouse evaluation of transgenic barley expressing gastrodianin for resistance to Fusarium head blight  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The 2010 field screening nursery, with 88 barley plots was located at UMore Park, Rosemount MN. Trial entries (n=18) and an the untransformed 2-row control Conlon (susceptible) were submitted by USDA-ARS, RRVARC Fargo. Barley lines with known reactions to Fusarium head blight (FHB) were also incl...

453

Development and Implementation of High-Throughput SNP Genotyping in Barley  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Approximately 22,000 SNPs were identified from barley ESTs and sequenced amplicons; 4,596 of them were tested for performance in three pilot phase Illumina GoldenGate assays. Pilot phase data from three barley doubled haploid mapping populations supported the production of an initial consensus map, ...

454

Compositional equivalence of barleys differing only in low and normal phytate levels  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recent breeding advances have led to the development of several barley lines with reduced levels of phytate. One of them was further developed and released as a hulless low phytate cultivar (Clearwater). Because barley oil contains high levels of tocotrienols and other functional lipids, we conduc...

455

BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase (http://barleybase.org/) and its successor, PLEXdb (http://plexdb.org/), are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...

456

Characterisation of bacteria in soils under barley monoculture and crop rotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhizobacterial populations on barley roots, originating from experimental fields with barley monoculture (MC) and crop rotation (CR), were analyzed for their fatty profiles. In the first part of the study, the profiles of 1188 isolates were statistically analyzed to identify clusters of bacteria with a possible high prevalence in MC or CR soil. One such cluster was found, termed Ps4-C4,

Stig Olsson; Sadhna Alström

2000-01-01

457

A walk on the wild side: mining wild wheat and barley collections for rust resistance genes  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf rust, stem rust, and stripe rust are among the most important diseases of wheat and barley worldwide and are best controlled using genetic resistance. To increase the diversity of rust resistance in wheat and barley, a project was initiated to identify and characterize rust resistance genes fr...

458

Comparison of Pretreatment Strategies for Enzymatic Saccharification and Fermentation of Barley Straw to Ethanol  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley straw used in this study contained 34.1±0.6% cellulose, 22.6±0.4% hemicellulose, and 13.3±0.2% lignin (moisture, 6.5±0.0%). Several pretreatments (dilute acid, lime, and alkaline peroxide) and enzymatic saccharification procedures were evaluated for the conversion of barley straw to monomeri...

459

Limited Effects of Barley Straw on Algae and Zooplankton in a Midwestern Pond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the United Kingdom have reported that barley straw can be used to control a variety of planktonic algae, as well as the filamentous alga Cladophora spp. This method appears to be cost-effective, user-friendly, and environmentally sound. If these results could be obtained in the United States, using barley straw would be a good alternative to using copper sulfate.

Joseph D. Boylan; Joseph E. Morris

2003-01-01

460

The 1980 US/Canada wheat and barley exploratory experiment. Volume 2: Addenda  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Three study areas supporting the U.S./Canada Wheat and Barley Exploratory Experiment are discussed including an evaluation of the experiment shakedown test analyst labeling results, an evaluation of the crop proportion estimate procedure 1A component, and the evaluation of spring wheat and barley crop calendar models for the 1979 crop year.

Bizzell, R. M.; Prior, H. L.; Payne, R. W.; Disler, J. M.

1983-01-01