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With over 100 staff members on five continents, the International CrisisGroup is an independent non-profit organization that is dedicated to utilizing field-based analysis and advocacy "to prevent and resolve deadly conflict". The Group is well-known for its various efforts, and visitors can learn about the current organization and its latest annual report in the "About CrisisGroup" section of the site. The homepage of the site is organized in an efficient manner, and also provides direct access to the Group's latest reports and briefings, such as "Coca, Drugs and Social Protest in Bolivia and Peru" and "Macedonia: Not out of the Woods Yet". Visitors may also want to browse the Group's current outreach efforts by looking through the "Programs" area, which lists activities and publications from different parts of the world. Visitors may also elect to sign up to receive email updates about the Group's work as well.
|Parents who live with and deal with anorexia nervosa in a daughter often find themselves in crisis. The parent group is one response to that crisis. This study surveyed 30 Montana treatment centers, the 13 Montana AA high schools, and the 12 Montana colleges, universities, and junior colleges to determine what, if any, parent groups existed and…
Phylogenetic, morphological, and biological species concepts were determined and compared within a complex of species of the genus Crepidotus termed the Sphaerula group, many of which occur in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of the Eastern United States. Sexual intercompatibility tests were appl...
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of indocyanine greenangiography (ICG)-guided laser photocoagulation in eyes withage-related macular degeneration (AMD) and occult choroidalneovascularization (O-CNV), appearing as a well-defined focalspot on ICG. Methods: Eyes with extrafoveal or juxtafovealfocal spot on ICG, either without PED (Group A) or with PED(Group B) at baseline, were selected. The hyperfluorescentarea was photocoagulated by krypton red laser within 24
Stefano Da Pozzo; Maurizio Battaglia Parodi; Giuseppe Ravalico
Epidemic contagion dynamic model can better reflect the dynamics of crisis in the enterprise group. Based on computer simulation method, studied the enterprise risk management mechanism and given the countermeasure.
Geospatial information is a fundamental component of many crisis management activities. However, current geospatial technologies do not support work by crisis management personnel, most of whom are not technology specialists—a key impediment is that the technologies require the user to learn the system’s language. In addition, geospatial technologies are not ‘collaboration friendly’—they impede rather than facilitate group work. In this
Background Gene expression technologies have opened up new ways to diagnose and treat cancer and other diseases. Clustering algorithms are a useful approach with which to analyze genome expression data. They attempt to partition the genes into groups exhibiting similar patterns of variation in expression level. An important problem associated with gene classification is to discern whether the clustering process can find a relevant partition as well as the identification of new genes classes. There are two key aspects to classification: the estimation of the number of clusters, and the decision as to whether a new unit (gene, tumor sample...) belongs to one of these previously identified clusters or to a new group. Results ICGE is a user-friendly R package which provides many functions related to this problem: identify the number of clusters using mixed variables, usually found by applied biomedical researchers; detect whether the data have a cluster structure; identify whether a new unit belongs to one of the pre-identified clusters or to a novel group, and classify new units into the corresponding cluster. The functions in the ICGE package are accompanied by help files and easy examples to facilitate its use. Conclusions We demonstrate the utility of ICGE by analyzing simulated and real data sets. The results show that ICGE could be very useful to a broad research community.
Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA approved tricarbocyanine dye. This dye, with a strong absorbance in the near infrared (NIR) region, has been extensively used for fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging in vivo. ICG in its free form, however, has a few drawbacks that limit its in vivo applications, such as non-targetability, tendency to form aggregates which changes its optical properties, fast degradation, short plasma lifetime and reduced fluorescence at body temperature. In order to bypass these inherent drawbacks, we demonstrate a polyacrylamide based nanocarrier that was particularly designed to carry the negatively charged ICG molecules. These nanocarriers are biodegradable, biocompatible and can be specifically targeted to any cell or tissue. Using these nanocarriers we avoid all the problems associated with free ICG, such as degradation, aggregation and short plasma lifetime, and also enhance demonstrate its ability towards photoacoustics and fluorescence imaging.
This paper considers a key aspect of the 'risk society' thesis: the belief that we should be able to manage risks and control the world around us. In particular it focuses on the interface between risk and risk events as socially constructed and the insights that 'critical situations' give us into 'the routine and mundane', the otherwise taken for granted assumptions underlying risk regulation. It does this with reference to the events precipitated by the April 2010 volcanic eruption in the Eyjafjallajökull area of Iceland. The resulting cloud of volcanic ash spread across Europe and much of Europe's airspace was closed to civil aviation for six days, with far reaching consequences including huge financial losses for airlines. The social processes of defining and reacting to risk and crisis both reveal and generate dilemmas and challenges in regulation. This paper examines the role of different interest groups in defining risk expectations and thereby redefining the ash crisis as a regulatory crisis. PMID:23998317
This article describes some ideas, theoretical and clinical, related to group treatment of residents in a New York City homeless shelter for mentally ill persons immediately subsequent to the World Trade Center disaster. I provide details concerning this group as it dealt with community-level crises that were both acute, as they related to the World Trade Center disaster, and chronic,
Method. The analysis method employed is based on the premises that dye filling of the chorio- capillaris is more rapid (because it is pulsatile) than dye filling of the underlying larger diame- ter vessels, and that fluorescence from these two overlapping layers is additive. The described analysis algorithm was applied to high-speed ICG fluorescence angiograms to emphasize infor- mation about
Movies acquired from fundus imaging using Indocyanine Green (ICG) and a scanning laser ophthalmoscope provide information for identifying vascular and other retinal abnormalities. Today, the main limitation of this modality is that it requires esoteric training for interpretation. A straightforward interpretation of these movies by objective measurements would aid in eliminating this training barrier. A software program has been developed
Sean Larkin; Alessandro Invernizzi; David Beecher; Giovanni Staurenghi; Tim Holmes
Financial crisis has brought about serious challenges for human resource management of enterprises in China. Based on analyzing the new problems faced by human resource management of Chinese enterprises in the context of financial crisis, and combining with the human resource strategies of China's largest e-commerce enterprises - Alibaba Group response to the financial crisis, the paper pointed out that
Indocyanine green (ICG) is an FDA approved near infrared dye used in assessment of hepatic function and ophthalmological vascular imaging. However, given the rapid clearance of ICG from the blood stream, its imaging and phototherapeutic applications remain very limited. As a potential method to increase circulation time of ICG, and extend its clinical applications, we have encapsulated ICG within polymeric based nanoconstructs whose surface can be coated with various materials including polyethylene glycol (PEG). To gain an understanding of the interaction between ICG-containing nanocapsules (ICG-NCs) and vascular cells, we are characterizing the uptake of the nanocapsules coated with various materials by human peripheral blood monocytes and human spleen macrophages using fluorescence microscopy. Results of these studies will be useful in identifying the appropriate coating material that will result in increased circulation time of ICG-NCs within the vasculature.
We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. Other than providing a new photoacoustic contrast agent, the ICG encapsulated double emulsion, when imaged with photoacoustic tomography, could facilitate spatial and quantitative monitoring of ultrasound initiated drug delivery.
Wang, Xueding; Rajian, Justin R.; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.
Microscopic indocyanine green videoangiography (mICG-VA) has gained wide acceptance during intracranial aneurysm surgery by lowering rates of incomplete clipping and occlusion of surrounding vessels. However, mICG-VA images are limited to the microscopic view and some deeper areas, including the aneurysm sac/neck posterior side, cannot be efficiently assessed as they are hidden by the aneurysm, clips, or surrounding structures. Contrarily, endoscopes allow a wider area of visualization, but neurosurgical endoscopes to date only provided visual data. We describe the first application of endoscope ICG-integrated technology (eICG) applied in an initial case of anterior communicating artery aneurysm clipping. This new technique provided also relevant information regarding aneurysm occlusion and patency of parent and branching vessels and small perforating arteries. eICG-VA provided additional information compared to mICG-VA by magnifying areas of interest and improving the ability to view less accessible regions, especially posterior to the aneurysm clip. Obtaining eICG sequences required currently the microscope to be moved away from the operating field. eICG-VA was only recorded under infrared illumination which prevented tissue handling, but white-infrared light views could be interchanged instantaneously. Further development of angled endoscopes integrating the ICG technology and dedicated filters blocking the microscopic light could improve visualization capacities even further. In conclusion, as a result of its ability to reveal structures around corners, the eICG-VA technology could be beneficial when used in combination with mICG-VA to visualize and confirm vessel patency in areas that were previously hidden from the microscope. PMID:22918545
Bruneau, Michaël; Appelboom, Geoffrey; Rynkowski, Michal; Van Cutsem, Nathalie; Mine, Benjamin; De Witte, Olivier
Indocyanine Green (ICG) is clinically used as a fluorescent dye for imaging purposes. Its rapid circulation kinetics and minimal toxicity has prompted investigation into ICG's utility as a photosentitizer for therapeutic applications. Traditionally, optically mediated tumor therapy has focused on photodynamic therapy, which employs a photochemical mechanism resulting from the absorption of low intensity CW laser light by localized photosensitizers
Mohammad A. Yaseen; Parmeswaran Diagaradjane; Brian M. Pikkula; Jie Yu; Michael S. Wong; Bahman Anvari
This qualitative focus group study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training for police officers. Thematic analysis of transcripts of focus group discussions revealed that officers report increased knowledge of mental illnesses (which manifests as an improved ability to recognize and respond, reduced stereotyping/stigmatization, greater empathy toward consumers and their caregivers, more patience when dealing with consumers, and fewer arrests/more redirection toward treatment), as well as practical application of learned skills (evidenced by an ability to put individuals with mental illnesses at ease, reduced unpredictability of the crisis situation, and reduced risk of injury). Results highlight the potential for collaboration between law enforcement (and other public safety/criminal justice professions) and the mental health professions in the expanding CIT collaborative model. PMID:18465226
Hanafi, Sonya; Bahora, Masuma; Demir, Berivan N; Compton, Michael T
In this work, we present spatially resolved pharmacokinetic rate images of indocyanine green (ICG) obtained from three breast cancer patients using near infrared imaging methods. We used a two-compartment model, namely, plasma and extracellular extravascular (EES), to model ICG kinetics around the tumor region. We introduced extended Kalman filtering (EKF) framework to estimate the ICG pharmacokinetic rate images. The EKF framework allows simultaneous estimation of pharmacokinetic rates and the ICG concentrations in each compartment. Based on the pharmacokinetic rate images, we observed that the rates from inside and outside the tumor region are statistically different with a p-value of 0.0001 for each patient. Additionally, we observed that the ICG concentrations in plasma and the EES compartments are higher around the tumors agreeing with the hypothesis that ICG may act as a diffusible extravascular flow in leaky capillary of cancer vessels. Our study shows that spatially resolved pharmacokinetic rate images can be potentially useful for breast cancer screening and diagnosis.
The absorption spectrum of indocyanine green (ICG), a nontoxic dye used for medical diagnostics, depends upon its concentration as well as the nature of its environment, i.e., the solvent medium into which it is dissolved. In blood, ICG binds with plasma proteins, thus causing changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. We propose that these changes in the photoacoustic spectrum of the ICG emulsion in blood, coupled with photoacoustic tomography, could be used to spatially and quantitatively monitor ultrasound initiated drug delivery. In addition, we suggest that the photoacoustic spectral change induced by ultrasound exposure could also be used as contrast in photoacoustic imaging to obtain a background free image.
Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding
The absorption spectrum of indocyanine green (ICG), a nontoxic dye used for medical diagnostics, depends upon its concentration as well as the nature of its environment, i.e., the solvent medium into which it is dissolved. In blood, ICG binds with plasma proteins, thus causing changes in its photoacoustic spectrum. We successfully encapsulated ICG in an ultrasound-triggerable perfluorocarbon double emulsion that prevents ICG from binding with plasma proteins. Photoacoustic spectral measurements on point target as well as 2-D photoacoustic images of blood vessels revealed that the photoacoustic spectrum changes significantly in blood when the ICG-loaded emulsion undergoes acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV), which is the conversion of liquid droplets into gas bubbles using ultrasound. We propose that these changes in the photoacoustic spectrum of the ICG emulsion in blood, coupled with photoacoustic tomography, could be used to spatially and quantitatively monitor ultrasound initiated drug delivery. In addition, we suggest that the photoacoustic spectral change induced by ultrasound exposure could also be used as contrast in photoacoustic imaging to obtain a background free image.
Rajian, Justin Rajesh; Fabiilli, Mario L.; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Carson, Paul L.; Wang, Xueding
The Department of Defense has rules and procedures to minimize the opportunity for error and improper behavior among those with access to strategic weapons, but no psychiatric screening system can predict with assurance who will or will not behave rationally during a crisis. Personal problems and institutional decision-making pressures may destroy nuclear deterrence. Certain features of military life, including drug and alcohol abuse, heavy responsibility, tension, and group decision making, can destreoy rationality. 12 references.
A comprehensive understanding of international and interethnic conflict must include a psychological dimension. This paper explores concepts of individual and large-group identity, their inherent connection, and some essential large-group rituals that aim to repair and maintain them. Human psychological development not only involves dynamics associated with one's parents, family, and intimate environment, but also those of one's ethic, religious or national group. Although this may simply be called "acculturation", the evolution of large-group identity involves specific psychological processes. When a large group perceives that its identity is threatened, the group and its individual members typically experience anxiety which is then expressed in certain ritualistic behaviors that can range from benign to highly malignant. Social scientists, diplomats and others who seek to analyze social and political phenomena and formulate policies related to them could benefit from a better understanding of these aspects of human interaction. PMID:10554346
SUMMARY. The emergence of fathers' rights groups, predominantly composed of men who have been personally affected by child support and custody laws, have been understudied up until this point. This arti- cle, based on 158 in-depth interviews, identifies individual motivations of members who join these groups, as well as their impressions on over- coming obstacles to further growth. Contrary to
En-face OCT acquired simultaneously with paired confocal ophthalmoscopic (CO) images provides unprecedented point-to-point correlation between surface and subsurface anatomy of the retina. An advanced prototype of a dual channel OCT/CO instrument was developed in terms of signal to noise ratio and image size. The system can operate in A, B and C-scan regimes. The design is such that there is a strict pixel to pixel correspondence between the OCT and confocal images. An extensive array of clinic pathologies were studied including macular degeneration, central serous retinopathy (CSR), macular hole, macular pucker, cystoid macular edema (CME), diabetic maculopathy, and macular trauma. We report observation of reoccurring patterns in the en-face OCT images which could be identified with different diseases. The system can also simultaneously produce en-face OCT and indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence images where the same source is used to produce the OCT image and excite the ICG. The system is compact and assembled on a chin rest and it enables the clinician to visualise the same area of the eye fundus in terms of both en face OCT slices and ICG angiograms, displayed side by side. The images are collected by fast en-face scanning (T-scan) followed by slower scanning along a transverse direction and depth scanning. The system is capable of providing chosen OCT B-scans at selected points from the ICG image.
Podoleanu, Adrian G.; Rosen, Richard B.; Dobre, George; Rogers, John A.; Garcia, Patricia; Pedro, Justin; Dunne, Shane; Jackson, David A.; Weitz, Rishard
Indocyanine Green (ICG) is clinically used as a fluorescent dye for imaging purposes. Its rapid circulation kinetics and minimal toxicity has prompted investigation into ICG's utility as a photosentitizer for therapeutic applications. Traditionally, optically mediated tumor therapy has focused on photodynamic therapy, which employs a photochemical mechanism resulting from the absorption of low intensity CW laser light by localized photosensitizers such as Photofrin II, Benzoporphyrin Derivative (BPD), ICG. Treatment of cutaneous vascular malformations such as port-wine stains, on the other hand, is based on a photothermal mechanism resulting from the absorption of high intensity pulsed laser light by hemoglobin. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of combining photochemical and photothermal mechanisms during application of ICG in conjunction with laser irradiation with the intention that the combined approach may lead to a reduction in the threshold dose of pulsed laser light required to treat hypervascular malformations. The blood vessels in rabbit ears were used as an in vivo model for targeted vasculature. Irradiation of the ears with IR light (?=785 nm, ?? = 3 min, Io = 120 mW) was used to elicit photochemical damage, while photothermal damage was brought about using pulses from a ruby laser (?=694 nm, ? = 3 ms) with different fluences. For the combined modality, photochemical damage was induced first and followed by photothermal irradiation. This modality was compared with photothermal irradiation alone. The effectiveness of each irradiation scheme was assessed using histopathological analysis. We present preliminary data that suggests that pretreatment with photodynamic therapy before photothermal coagulation results in more severe vascular damage with lower photothermal fluence levels. The results of this study provide the foundation work for further exploration of the therapeutic potentials of photochemical and photothermal effects during application of ICG in conjunction with laser irradiation.
Yaseen, Mohammad A.; Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Pikkula, Brian M.; Yu, Jie; Wong, Michael S.; Anvari, Bahman
|The attitudes and behaviour of 1040 pupils aged 12-14 years have been measured at the beginning and end of the school year with a battery of attitude, motivation and personality tests in an investigation of the differential effects of group work compared to whole-class learning. A total of 44 secondary teachers of English, mathematics and science…
Pell, Tony; Galton, Maurice; Steward, Susan; Page, Charlotte; Hargreaves, Linda
The task of community mental health is to provide quality services to clients despite funding cutbacks. This paper describes\\u000a the recent evolution in conceptualization and service delivery in one center. The outcomes are a philosophy that is customer\\u000a oriented, and treatment that draws upon brief techniques, in group and long term contexts.
The attitudes and behaviour of 1040 pupils aged 12–14 years have been measured at the beginning and end of the school year with a battery of attitude, motivation and personality tests in an investigation of the differential effects of group work compared to whole?class learning. A total of 44 secondary teachers of English, mathematics and science and their classes have
Tony Pell; Maurice Galton; Susan Steward; Charlotte Page; Linda Hargreaves
|In this column, Crisis Management in the Schools Interest Group members summarize recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized was a meta-analysis of the risk factors associated with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among adults. The second study looked at the presence of life stressors among students who were expelled…
The adult mammalian heart has limited capability for self-repair after myocardial infarction. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that improve post-infarct cardiac function are critically needed. The small molecule ICG-001 modulates Wnt signaling and increased the expression of genes beneficial for cardiac regeneration in epicardial cells. Lineage tracing experiments, demonstrated the importance of ?-catenin/p300 mediated transcription for epicardial progenitor contribution to the myocardium. Female rats given ICG-001 for 10 days post-occlusion significantly improved ejection fraction by 8.4%, compared to controls (P<0.05). Taken together, Wnt modulation via ?-catenin/CBP inhibition offers a promising therapeutic strategy towards restoration of myocardial tissues and an enhancement of cardiac functions following infarction. PMID:24069374
Sasaki, Tomoyo; Hwang, Hyosook; Nguyen, Cu; Kloner, Robert A; Kahn, Michael
The adult mammalian heart has limited capability for self-repair after myocardial infarction. Therefore, therapeutic strategies that improve post-infarct cardiac function are critically needed. The small molecule ICG-001 modulates Wnt signaling and increased the expression of genes beneficial for cardiac regeneration in epicardial cells. Lineage tracing experiments, demonstrated the importance of ?-catenin/p300 mediated transcription for epicardial progenitor contribution to the myocardium. Female rats given ICG-001 for 10 days post-occlusion significantly improved ejection fraction by 8.4%, compared to controls (P<0.05). Taken together, Wnt modulation via ?-catenin/CBP inhibition offers a promising therapeutic strategy towards restoration of myocardial tissues and an enhancement of cardiac functions following infarction.
ICG videoangiography has widely demonstrated its importance as an investigation method in several ocular pathologies. By means of an optoelectronic system developed by the authors, many cases of age related macular degeneration and central serous coroidopathy affecting patients of different ages have been investigated. The analysis of the eye fundus infrared-light images obtained allows the clinician to draw medical conclusions otherwise not obtainable with traditional visible-light techniques. A comprehensive survey and discussion of the most significant cases are presented.
Longobardi, Giuseppe; Ciamberlini, Claudio; Guarnieri, V.; Panzardi, G.; Donati, M. C.
We recently reported construction of a new type of optical nano-construct composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with Indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore. We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. To utilize OVGs as effective nano-probes in fluorescence imaging applications, their fluorescence quantum yield needs to be maximized. In this study, we investigate the effect of altering the CP to ICG mass ratio on the fluorescent quantum yield of OVGs. Results of this study provide the basis for construction of OVGs with optimal amounts of CP and ICG to yield maximal fluorescence quantum yield.
Gupta, Sharad; Ico, Gerardo; Matsumura, Paul; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, Valentine; Anvari, Bahman
We demonstrate the feasibility of mapping a sentinel lymph node (SLN) and urinary bladder by using modified single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a nonionizing photoacoustic (PA) contrast agent. To improve the PA sensitivity, indocyanine green (ICG) was conjugated with SWNTs and the optical absorption of SWNTs-ICG was enhanced by approximately four times compared to that of plain SWNTs at a concentration of 0.3 µM. In vivo PA imaging results showed that the SLN and bladder were clearly visualized due to accumulation of SWNTs-ICG. This implies that the SWNTs-ICG could be potentially utilized to identify SLNs in breast cancer patients and tracking vesicoureteral reflux in combination with PA imaging.
Koo, Jasung; Jeon, Mansik; Oh, Yunok; Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jeehyun; Kim, Chulhong; Oh, Junghwan
Background Secondary lymphedema causes swelling in limbs due to lymph retention following lymph node dissection in cancer therapy. Initiation of treatment soon after appearance of edema is very important, but there is no method for early diagnosis of lymphedema. In this study, we compared the utility of four diagnostic imaging methods: magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), lymphoscintigraphy, and Indocyanine Green (ICG) lymphography. Patients and Methods Between April 2010 and November 2011, we examined 21 female patients (42 arms) with unilateral mild upper limb lymphedema using the four methods. The mean age of the patients was 60.4 years old (35–81 years old). Biopsies of skin and collecting lymphatic vessels were performed in 7 patients who underwent lymphaticovenous anastomosis. Results The specificity was 1 for all four methods. The sensitivity was 1 in ICG lymphography and MRI, 0.62 in lymphoscintigraphy, and 0.33 in CT. These results show that MRI and ICG lymphography are superior to lymphoscintigraphy or CT for diagnosis of lymphedema. In some cases, biopsy findings suggested abnormalities in skin and lymphatic vessels for which lymphoscintigraphy showed no abnormal findings. ICG lymphography showed a dermal backflow pattern in these cases. Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance of dual diagnosis by examination of the lymphatic system using ICG lymphography and evaluation of edema in subcutaneous fat tissue using MRI.
Compartmental modeling of indocyanine green (ICG) pharmacokinetics, as measured by near infrared (NIR) techniques, has the potential to provide diagnostic information for tumor differentiation. In this paper, we present three different compartmental models to model the pharmacokinetics of ICG in cancerous tumors. We introduce a systematic and robust approach to model and analyze ICG pharmacokinetics based on the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) framework. The proposed EKF framework effectively models multiple-compartment and multiple-measurement systems in the presence of measurement noise and uncertainties in model dynamics. It provides simultaneous estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters and ICG concentrations in each compartment. Moreover, the recursive nature of the Kalman filter estimator potentially allows real-time monitoring of time varying pharmacokinetic rates and concentration changes in different compartments. Additionally, we introduce an information theoretic criteria for the best compartmental model order selection, and residual analysis for the statistical validation of the estimates. We tested our approach using the ICG concentration data acquired from four Fischer rats carrying adenocarcinoma tumor cells. Our study indicates that, in addition to the pharmacokinetic rates, the EKF model may provide parameters that may be useful for tumor differentiation. PMID:17019849
In this study, we present a novel photoacoustic contrast agent which is based on bis-carboxylic acid derivative of Indocyanine green (ICG) covalently conjugated to single-wall carbon nanotubes (ICG/SWCNT). Covalently attaching ICG to the functionalized SWCNT provides a more robust system that delivers much more ICG to the tumor site. The detection sensitivity of the new contrast agent in mouse tumor model is demonstrated in vivo by our custom built photoacoustic imaging system. PAT summation signal is defined to show the long-term light absorption of tumor areas in ICG injected mice and ICG/SWCNT injected mice. It is shown that ICG is able to provide 33% enhancement at approximately 20 minutes peak response time referred to pre-injection PAT summation level, while ICG/SWCNT provides 128% enhancement at 80 minutes and even higher enhancement of 196% at the end point of experiments (120 minutes on average). Additionally, the ICG/SWCNT enhancement was mainly observed at the tumor periphery as confirmed by fluorescence images of the tumor samples. This feature is highly valuable in guiding surgeons to assess tumor boundaries and dimensions in vivo and improve surgical resection of tumors for achieving clean tumor margins.
Laser tissue soldering is a technique for the closure of incisions, which provides an immediate air- and watertight bond. Previous studies have shown that this method can bond tracheal incisions with the aid of stay sutures or solid albumin strips. In this study we investigated whether soldering using a diode laser and indocyanine green (ICG) dyed liquid albumin solution as solder, was efficacious for the repair of tracheal incisions without the need for additional strengthening aids. A transverse incision was made in isolated pig tracheas. The incision was smeared with liquid solder composed of 42% bovine albumin and 0.1 mg/ml ICG, and soldered using a temperature-controlled fiberoptic diode laser system. The soldered tracheal ends were sealed and the burst pressure measured. In a series of experiments the burst pressure was found to be higher than 382 mm Hg. These preliminary results demonstrate that diode laser tissue soldering of tracheal incisions provides better results than with a CO2 laser, and that it is possible to achieve considerable soldering strength without the use of any additional strengthening procedures.
It is argued the current eurozone crisis is neither new nor surprising. Fiscal discipline in the eurozone was weak from its creation in 1999, but ongoing economic prosperity limited the damage. Economic recession deepened the impact of crisis on public finance and pushed some eurozone countries to the edge of bankruptcy. Options available now are costly and painful: foreign bailouts,
University Behavioral HealthCare, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in partnership with the New Jersey Department of Personnel established a program entitled "Cop 2 Cop" in 1999 to assist law enforcement personnel within the state. The events of September 11, 2001, demanded an unprecedented response to address the behavioral health care needs of those individuals in New Jersey and New York. Although the Cop 2 Cop program was initiated as a crisis intervention hotline, the legislature which established the program also identified facilitating Critical Incident Stress Management services for New Jersey law enforcement and their families as needed to be within the scope of function. This paper describes the Cop 2 Cop program interventions with the Port Authority Police Department (PAPD) which involved service provision to over 1,200 PAPD officers and an intensified process entitled an "Acute Stress Management Reentry Program" created for over 200 officers with unprecedented exposure to traumatic events. PMID:14730762
Regular monitoring of brain perfusion at the bedside in neurointensive care is desirable. Currently used imaging modalities are not suited for constant monitoring and often require a transport of the patient. Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with an injection of a safe dye (indocyanine green, ICG) could serve as a quasi-continuous brain perfusion monitor. In this work, we evaluate prerequisites for the development of a brain perfusion monitor using continuous wave (cw) NIRS technique. We present results from a high-resolution diffuse optical tomography (HR-DOT) experiment in humans demonstrating the separation of signals from skin from the brain. This technique can help to monitor neurointensive care patients on a regular basis, detecting changes in cortical perfusion in time.
Multiple recent disasters have put crisis management in the limelight. Consequently, many IT-related research efforts are under way to bring transformational changes to first responder and response organizations’ ability to contain and mitigate crises.
Whether healthcare security is directly or indirectly involved in a crisis that will involve the media, it will pay to better familiarize yourself with the kind of planned responses discussed in this article to mitigate negative outcomes. PMID:18409459
|To handle unforeseen crises, Albuquerque Public Schools established a critical-incident response team with a simple, understandable chain of command. The group aims to ensure maximum safety and people' well-being, develop a districtwide crisis-response-management plan, coordinate necessary training, and collaborate with community agencies…
Water crisis was not considered seriously at the Dublin and Rio conferences. It was put on the world agenda primarily by the Stockholm Water Symposia. Water management is likely to change more during the next twenty years compared to the past 2,000 years. The paper reviews the global water situtation based on the latest data available. In terms of water
|This paper presents summaries of four articles relevant to school crisis response. The first article, "Peritraumatic Dissociation Predicts Posttraumatic Stress in Youth Following Accidents" summarized by Jim Matthews, suggests that peritraumatic dissociation is a powerful predictor of PTSD symptoms among youth who have been in a car accident. The…
... considered a hypertensive crisis. To reduce morbidity and mortality in this situation, early evaluation of organ function ... not wait to see if your pressure comes down on its own. Seek emergency medical ... away. This content was last reviewed on 04/04/2012.
In June 2011, 70 researchers from the disciplines of cognitive science, genetics, psychology, psychiatry, neurobiology, and computer science gathered in Os, Norway, for the first Imaging and Cognition Genetics meeting. The aim of the conference was to discuss progress, enhance collaboration, and maximize the sharing of resources within this new field. In this Perspective, we summarize the major themes that emerged from ICG 2011. The first is the importance of defining cognitive and imaging phenotypes and endophenotypes suitable for genetic analysis. These can come from differential psychology, cognitive science, structural MRI, tractography, and functional imaging. The second theme is the emergence of new methods for the analysis of complex traits. These include advanced computational and statistical techniques for analyzing complex datasets, and new ways of interpreting data from genome-wide association studies, such as jointly evaluating the contribution of SNPs in specific genes and pathways rather than considering single SNPs in isolation. The final theme is the importance of establishing functional correlates of newly identified genetic variants.
Shigella species Gram-negative bacteria which cause a diarrheal disease, known as shigellosis, by invading and destroying the colonic mucosa and inducing a robust inflammatory response. With no vaccine available, shigellosis annually kills over 600,000 children in developing countries. This study demonstrates the utility of combining high-throughput bioinformatic methods with in vitro and in vivo assays to provide new insights into pathogenesis. Comparisons of in vivo and in vitro gene expression identified genes associated with intracellular growth. Additional bioinformatics analyses identified genes that are present in S. flexneri isolates but not in the three other Shigella species. Comparison of these two analyses revealed nine genes that are differentially expressed during invasion and that are specific to S. flexneri. One gene, a DeoR family transcriptional regulator with decreased expression during invasion, was further characterized and is now designated icgR, for intracellular growth regulator. Deletion of icgR caused no difference in growth in vitro but resulted in increased intracellular replication in HCT-8 cells. Further in vitro and in vivo studies using high-throughput sequencing of RNA transcripts (RNA-seq) of an isogenic ?icgR mutant identified 34 genes that were upregulated under both growth conditions. This combined informatics and functional approach has allowed the characterization of a gene and pathway previously unknown in Shigella pathogenesis and provides a framework for further identification of novel virulence factors and regulatory pathways. PMID:23753632
Morris, Carolyn R; Grassel, Christen L; Redman, Julia C; Sahl, Jason W; Barry, Eileen M; Rasko, David A
The euro zone crisis is commonly regarded as a sovereign debt crisis. This definition certainly applies to Greece, but the Irish case represents an almost pure specimen of a banking crisis voluntarily transformed into a sovereign crisis. A debt crisis in two small, peripheral economies could become systemic because the financial system of the euro area is overstretched and highly
This article reviews field research on the violent response on the part of animals to conditions of crowding. Monkey species in zoos have consistently been noted to be more quarrelsome and violent than their counterparts in the wild. Up to a certain critical population density various animal species form cooperative social units; however, a surplus population upsets this balance. In addition, under conditions of intense crowding, mammal's care and protection of the young is transformed into indifference, neglect, competition, domination, and ultimately murder. The reversal of social behavior under crowded conditions can be understood as a means of response to a population crisis, in which population is in danger of outrunning resources. In the absence of confinement, tensions among monkeys lead to war between bands. A community weakened by crowding also is more likely to succumb to certain stress diseases and to have less resilience against parasites. Under various special conditions, tolerance may evolve to permit temporary compression without violence; on the other hand, when a violent response is suppressed, the response tends to be explosive when it does occur. If population reduction is delayed too long, the result may be violence, famine, and permanent damage to the environment from overgrazing. In human society there has generally been a lag in the full development of the violent response to crowding. Given the power of modern military technology, it is imperative that human populations avert a population crisis response by substituting voluntary fertility control for involuntary mortality control. PMID:12340737
Based on resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly, Regional Centres for Space Science and Technology Education were established in India, Morocco, Nigeria, Brazil and Mexico. Simultaneously, education curricula were developed for the core disciplines of remote sensing, satellite communications, satellite meteorology, and space and atmospheric science. This paper provides a brief summary on the status of the operation of the regional centres with a view to use them as information centres of the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG), and draws attention to their educational activities.
This paper presents results of a study of risk perceptions and risk communication issues arising from the “Fowl Pest Crisis” in Belgium. During the crisis, various unanticipated groups emerged as influential stakeholders – such as pigeon fancier associations, zoos or collectors of exotic birds. These stakeholders were not used to communicating with the public authorities responsible for the food chain
It was reported that time-resolved reflectance measurements carried out during inflow and washout of an optical contrast agent may provide information on the blood supply to the brain cortex of human adults. It was also shown that a measurement of fluorescence excited in the dye circulating in the brain is feasible. Unfortunately, patterns of time-resolved fluorescence signals observed during in vivo measurements are difficult to interpret. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of several factors on the fluorescence signals measured during in vivo experiments. A laboratory instrument for recording the distributions of arrival of fluorescence photons was constructed and optimized for measurements on humans. Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory measurements on liquid phantoms as well as in vivo measurements on healthy volunteers were carried out. An influence of source-detector separation, position of the source-detector pair on the head, as well as a dose of the injected indocyanine green (ICG) on the fluorescence signals were studied in detail. It was shown that even for a small dose of ICG (0.025 mg kg-1) the time-resolved signals can be successfully detected on the surface of the head. Strong influence of the studied factors on the fluorescence signals was observed. It was also noted that the changes in moments of distributions of arrival times of fluorescence photons depend on the anatomical structure of the tissues located between the source and the detector.
The financial crisis of 2008 offers an ideal ‘critical moment’ to investigate the reproduction of hegemony. In contrast to the widely held belief that a crisis undermines the legitimacy, and thus the hegemony, of a particular group, this article shows how, before the current crisis, finance capital gained in strength through a series of financial crises, to the point where
|Discusses crisis-management planning for college and university campuses that can contribute to effective and rapid response and wise decision making during not only natural disasters, but also those that are manmade. Crisis-management tips are highlighted. (GR)|
We describe applications of silica (core)\\/gold (shell) nanoparticles and ICG dye to photothermal treatment of phantoms, biotissue and spontaneous tumor of cats and dogs. The laser irradiation parameters were optimized by preliminary experiments with laboratory rats. Three dimensional dynamics of temperature fields in tissue and solution samples was measured with a thermal imaging system. It is shown that the temperature
Georgy G. Akchurin; Akchurin G. Garif; Irina L. Maksimova; Alexander A. Skaptsov; Georgy S. Terentyuk; Boris N. Khlebtsov; Nikolai G. Khlebtsov; Valery V. Tuchin
This paper addresses the need for simulation of voice and data communication demands during civil and military crisis events. Modeling of federal, state, and local civilian agencies in addition to military forces can lead to better planning and execution decisions during the crisis. The need has become particularly acute following recent terrorists attacks on the United States. Preliminary crisis communication
The article argues, against the conventional wisdom, that the current Korean crisis is a crisis from underregulation, rather than from overregulation. It argues that ill-managed financial liberalization, abandonment of investment coordination, and poor exchange rate management were the underlying causes of the crisis. It then argues that, while certain structural changes made such policy shifts somewhat inevitable, there were also
|Urges Catholic educators to develop a crisis communication plan to ensure that all communication with the press and public is handled promptly and thoroughly by a designated spokesperson. Describes workshops which simulate real-life challenges as a means of testing crisis management plans. Offers guidelines for the development of a crisis…
Considers management of information and effective communication at times of crisis. Examines recent crises to illustrate how and why poor management of information and communication has had disastrous effects. Discusses basic rules together with preparation and training for crisis management, including a crisis checklist, phone lines, spokespersons, conveying the message and training support staff. Comments on the need for the
|Crisis management, or crisis communication, is never a good thing for a business to experience. It is, however, a public relations' professional moment to shine and put their honed skills to good use. A good crisis management plan is not only action during the crisis but preparation and reflection. Hiring a PR firm that deals with crisis…
In recent years, crisis response has become cyber- physical in nature because of the increased use of computing technologies by the responders. As such, crisis preparedness requires objective evaluation of crisis response in addition to the traditional drills. This paper develops a generic Crisis Response Evaluation Tool (CRET) for off-line objective crisis response evaluation to improve preparedness. The evaluation is
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the\\u000a renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management\\u000a of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it\\u000a is associated with signs
We describe applications of silica (core)/gold (shell) nanoparticles and ICG dye to photothermal treatment of phantoms, biotissue and spontaneous tumor of cats and dogs. The laser irradiation parameters were optimized by preliminary experiments with laboratory rats. Three dimensional dynamics of temperature fields in tissue and solution samples was measured with a thermal imaging system. It is shown that the temperature in the volume region of nanoparticles localization can substantially exceed the surface temperature recorded by the thermal imaging system. We have demonstrated effective optical destruction of cancer cells by local injection of plasmon-resonant gold nanoshells and ICG dye followed by continuous wave (CW) diode laser irradiation at wavelength 808 nm.
Akchurin, Georgy G.; Garif, Akchurin G.; Maksimova, Irina L.; Skaptsov, Alexander A.; Terentyuk, Georgy S.; Khlebtsov, Boris N.; Khlebtsov, Nikolai G.; Tuchin, Valery V.
Background As the expression of human sperm protein 17 (Sp17) in normal tissue is limited and the function is obscure, its aberrant expression in malignant tumors makes it to be a candidated molecular marker for tumor imaging diagnosis and targeting therapy of the diseases.The aim of this research is to evaluate the targeting effects of anti-sperm protein 17 monoclonal antibody (anti-Sp17) on cancer in vivo and investigate its usefulness as a reagent for molecular imaging diagnosis. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the expression of Sp17 in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line and tumor xenograft specimens. A near infrared fluorescence dye, ICG-Der-02, was covalently linked to anti-Sp17 for in vivo imaging. The immuno-activity of the anti-Sp17-ICG-Der-02 complex was tested in vitro by ELISA; it was then injected into tumor-bearing nude mice through the caudal vein to evaluate its tumor targeting effect by near infrared imaging system. Results Overexpression of Sp17 on the surface of the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 was demonstrated. Anti-Sp17-ICG-Der-02 with immuno-activity was successfully synthesized. The immuno-activity and photo stability of anti-Sp17- ICG-Der-02 showed good targeting capability for Sp17 expressing tumor models (SMMC-7721) in vivo, and its accumulation in the tumor lasted for at least 7 days. Conclusions Anti-Sp17 antibody targeted and accumulated in Sp17 positive tumors in vivo, which demonstrated its capability of serving as a diagnostic reagent.
A combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer therapy. To ensure the chemotherapeutic drug and photothermal agent could be simultaneously delivered to a tumor region to exert their synergistic effect, a safe and efficient delivery system is highly desirable. Herein, we fabricated doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-lecithin-polyethylene glycol (PEG) nanoparticles (DINPs) using a single-step sonication method. The DINPs exhibited good monodispersity, excellent fluorescence/size stability, and consistent spectra characteristics compared with free ICG or DOX. Moreover, the DINPs showed higher temperature response, faster DOX release under laser irradiation, and longer retention time in tumor. In the meantime, the fluorescence of DOX and ICG in DINPs was also visualized for the process of subcellular location in vitro and metabolic distribution in vivo. In comparison with chemo or photothermal treatment alone, the combined treatment of DINPs with laser irradiation synergistically induced the apoptosis and death of DOX-sensitive MCF-7 and DOX-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells, and suppressed MCF-7 and MCF-7/ADR tumor growth in vivo. Notably, no tumor recurrence was observed after only a single dose of DINPs with laser irradiation. Hence, the well-defined DINPs exhibited great potential in targeting cancer imaging and chemo-photothermal therapy. PMID:23413798
|School crises may be categorized as emergency situations, human-made crises, natural events, medical emergencies, and mechanical crises. Central to any successful crisis-management plan are onsite and district-level crisis response teams. Plans should specify staff responsibilities; provide for communication codes, devices, and procedures;…
|This paper suggests that educational resources and opportunities currently in operation in rural Australia are brought forward during times of crisis. The paper discusses five aspects of education in rural Australia that are a response to the perceived sense of crisis and that have improved the general and comparative quality of rural education,…
As heads of state and government prepare to mark the 60 anniversary of the UN with a grand meeting in New York in September 2005, the sense of crisis and uncertainty that has surrounded the world body since the start of the war in Iraq is still very much present. The enduring nature of the crisis has contributed to the
The housing crisis is one of the most significant social problems the United States has faced since the recession of the early 1990s, and indeed has been called the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. American homeowners faced this cataclysmic crisis which changed the landscape of homeownership in the United States. The 2006-current housing crisis forced many homeowners to
This study analyzes the role of third party crisis communication during the expansive food contamination crisis caused by Peanut Corporation of America (PCA). The information void caused by PCA's mismanagement of the crisis and subsequent reticence was filled by third party organizations serving as proxy crisis communicators. The need for organizations to plan for and engage in proxy communication when
Alyssa G. Millner; Shari R. Veil; Timothy L. Sellnow
Real estate crisis, financial crisis and economic crisis will necessarily bring about also a lifestyle crisis. It will be essential to adapt. Conception of sustainable progression was frequently understood (and still is understood) as permanently sustainable growth. Practically speaking it is impossible, limitations will necessarily come. The perception of a sustainable growth and a sustainable lifestyle level and wealth increase
This paper places Husserl's mature work, The Crisis of the European Sciences, in the context of his engagement with--and critique of--experimental psychology at the time. I begin by showing (a) that Husserl accorded psychology a crucial role in his philosophy, i.e., that of providing a scientific analysis of subjectivity, and (b) that he viewed contemporary psychology--due to its naturalism--as having failed to pursue this goal in the appropriate manner. I then provide an analysis of Husserl's views about naturalism and scientific philosophy. Some central themes of the Crisis are traced back to Husserl's earlier work and to his relationship with his teacher, Franz Brentano, with whom he disagreed about the status of "inner perception" as the proper scientific method for a phenomenological analysis. The paper then shows that Husserl was well aware of at least one publication about the crisis of psychology (Bühler's 1927 book), and it teases out some aspects of the complicated relationship between Husserl and members of the Würzburg School of thought psychology: The latter had drawn on Husserl's writings, but Husserl felt that they had misunderstood his central thesis. I conclude by placing Husserl's work in the wider context of scientific, cultural, and political crisis-discourses at the time. PMID:22520198
The financial crisis of 2008 is put in relation with two bubbles, financial and housing. Easy credit is at the origin of both bubbles. Risky bonds were issued to mobilize mortgages originated in the housing market, and bad bonds entered a fantastic number of institutional and private portfolios all over the world without any perception of the their risk. Unfortunately,
While community based crisis response teams offer needed resources to schools impacted by crisis, they are often not asked to help. Reports from crisis team leaders at the school shooting incidents at James W. Parker Middle School, Edinboro, Pennsylvania and Columbine High School, Littleton, Colorado are contrasted regarding utilization of community resources. Factors limiting the usefulness of community based teams include unfamiliarity with school organization, culture, and procedures. Key differences in school vs. community team precepts, decision-making, and strategic paradigms render team coordination difficult. Successful cross training presents opportunities for school-community partnership and utilization of community teams for school duty. PMID:11232098
A crisis is an episode of acute disorganization with apparition of symptoms, leading the individual and his relatives to have recourse to the health system in emergency. It refers to a period of intra-psychic or interpersonal balance discontinuity. The management of the crisis, as it was proposed in psychiatric models since the seventies, aims not only to provide a psychological and immediate answer but also to use this crucial moment as an opportunity of change. Based on our experience in an acute care unit for demented patients, we discuss how the concept of crisis can be applied in psychiatric care of demented patients. PMID:16753585
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a vital role in coordinating crisis response be- tween pre-hospital services and emergency depart- ments of hospitals. In spite of the advances in these technologies, there remain a variety of challenges to their usage during a crisis. To identify these chal- lenges, we conducted focus group interviews with emergency department (ED) and emergency medical
Sharoda A. Paul; Madhu Reddy; Joanna Abraham; Christopher DeFlitch
The current crisis in the quality and instruction of pre-college mathematics/science education is acknowledged to be one of the major problems confronting American education. Such future demographic changes as increasing numbers of immigrant and minority-group students in the school population will make the crisis more acute. Many factors need to…
In cosmology we are facing the dark energy crisis: How can we survive huge vacuum energy, meanwhile living with tiny dark energy? For the solution to this crisis, we raise several clues and hints, in particular, supersymmetry and the double hierarchy, Mp-MSM-MDE (Planck-Standard Model-dark energy scales). These two clues naturally lead to a solution with a supersymmetry-breaking brane-world. The train of thought from the clues to the solution is elucidated.
Mobile agent systems (MAS) suffer from security holes that in a crisisdisaster management system can be fatal. Trusted computing group's TPM chip can be used to solve the problem but only partially. The extreme physical conditions and particularities of the crisis management agent platform do not permit the full exploitation of the TPM's features. To solve this problem the use
|This bibliography of research on family crises includes theoretical and clinical material as well as research devoted to substantive crisis areas. Over 400 entries are grouped under 15 separate categories: theoretical and clinical, alcoholism, death and dying, divorce, exceptional children, illness, mental illness, widowhood, other situational…
Public relations is an important element in almost all successful crisis mana ment efforts. Newly developed theory in crisis public relations, though, suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. The well-accepted tactics and techniques advocated by practitioners need to be replaced with strategies and beliefs from a new perspective—a perspective or paradigm that defines excellent crisis
In this paper a different type of crisis in random map is studied. The trigger of this crisis is the tunnel effect induced by a backward tangent bifurcation, while the previously reported crises are all caused by the collision of the chaotic attractor with an unstable orbit. In studying the intermittency behaviors induced by the crisis, two different characteristic times
A crisis can place an organization and its stakeholders at risk for significant losses. Crisis management has emerged as a means to reduce those losses. Crisis response strategies, what the organization says and does after a crisis, are critical resources in crisis management. It is not surprising that crisis response has emerged as a vibrant research area. The focus of
This Final Technical Report documents research on developing a prototype executive aid for crisis management. The report contains four chapters, four appendices, and a bibliography. Chapter 1 describes the effort in the context of ARPA's Crisis Management...
In this paper we continue the study ofalg 1 (S) for minimal surfaces of general type S satisfying K2 S < 3?(S). We show that, if K 2 S = 3?(S) 1 and |?alg 1 (S)| = 8, then S is a Campedelli surface. In view of the results of (MP1) and (MP2), this implies that the fundamental group of
Background: Intraoperative surgical crisis management is learned in an unstructured manner. In aviation, simulation training allows aircrews to coordinate and standardize recovery strategies. Our aim was to develop a surgical crisis simulation and evaluate its feasibility, realism, and validity of the measures used to assess performance. Methods: Surgical trainees were exposed to a bleeding crisis in a simulated operating theater. Assessment of performance consisted of a trainee’s technical ability to control the bleeding and of their team/human factors skills. This assessment was performed in a blinded manner by 2 surgeons and one human factors expert. Other measures consisted of time measures such as time to diagnose the bleeding (TD), inform team members (TT), achieve control (TC), and close the laceration (TL). Blood loss was used as a surrogate outcome measures. Results: There were considerable variations within both senior (n = 10) and junior (n = 10) trainees for technical and team skills. However, while the senior trainees scored higher than the juniors for technical skills (P = 0.001), there were no differences in human factors skills. There were also significant differences between the 2 groups for TD (P = 0.01), TC (P = 0.001), and TL (0.001). The blood loss was higher in the junior group. Conclusions: We have described the development of a novel simulated setting for the training of crisis management skills and the variability in performance both in between and within the 2 groups.
The way in which a school community deals with a crisis situation is a test of its sense of community. This guidebook, intended for Catholic-school principals, presents a detailed plan to help schools establish crisis-management teams and offers directions for their operation. Chapter 1 presents an overview of crisis management and focuses on how…
|Many schools are able to avoid disasters by creating a strong, deliberate crisis plan and knowing how to implement it effectively. Good crisis preparedness requires leadership from the top, a critical mass of trained staff members, careful planning, and excellent communication. This article discusses how to prepare for a crisis.|
This paper examines how organizations integrate the Internet into crisis communication. The findings of a 7-year longitudinal study provide a taxonomy explaining how mediated communication creates new possibilities for crisis response. We translate the study findings into suggestions for how public relations managers can integrate new communication media into their mix of communication tactics in crisis and risk management.
|This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…
This handbook aids in planning for effective crisis communication at institutions of higher education. The book opens with a behind-the-scenes look at a particular crisis--the 1990 murders of five students at the University of Florida. This first section offers tested advice from a campus communicator, an account of the crisis and the…
The author describes his work integrating psychodynamic theory and therapeutic methods in a crisis center. Crises can be seen as situational mediators that place an individual's typical defenses and resistances in question. This state of crisis can allow for dynamic change, beyond the relief of symptoms typically expected in crisis work. PMID:9861424
The volume includes many of the Central Intelligence Agency's (CIA's) most important documents on the Cuban missile crisis. It contains the 'honeymoon cables' that Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) John A. McCone sent to Headquarters from France a mo...
The role of local capacity building is central to the achievement of urban management objectives, particularly in the fields of regeneration and renewal. This is particularly the case in situations where local communities are attempting to respond to an urban crisis, where established relational webs and networks and the mobilisation capacity of the local policy community is critical. This paper
|Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age…
|As the events of Virginia Tech tragedy recede in time, leaders of other colleges and universities are sure to look at Virginia Tech president Charles W. Steger's performance and question the readiness of presidents to act like corporate executives, take visible control of a campus in crisis, manage the onslaught of cameras and microphones, and…
|School officials put a crisis communications plan into action after two Ohio students died and a third became critically ill from meningitis in May 2001. A mass immunization program prevented a major outbreak, and rumor control helped calm the public's fears. Recounts things learned from the experience. (MLF)|
|Based on multi-disciplinary academic research and professional practice, this book is a response to the current political and policy debates in Britain that maintain that "childhood" is in a state of "crisis"; that there is a breakdown in discipline, professional, or parental guidance; and that young people lack any sense of social…
Analyzes the Asian economic crisis and media messages about it. Promotes education for sustainability, which has broader goals of social transformation. Describes new forms of social learning that are necessary to resolve the global crises of the environment and development. (SK)
At the London G20 Summit, participants reaffirmed their commitment to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and to increasing official development assistance (ODA). This aid will be important in helping the poorest countries meet the MDGs that were agreed before the crisis, but it will probably be insufficient to tackle the additional problems caused by the current economic downturn. (...)
The crisis in Greece and other mainly southern Eurozone countries has been discussed primarily as a fiscal issue. Current account deficits of the same countries have received less attention in spite of the relatedness of current account and fiscal deficits. We argue that the failure of many countries within the Eurozone to develop adequate internal adjustment mechanisms is also an
Organizations frequently find themselves in situations we would define as a crisis. Consider but a few examples: Union Carbide's devastating chemical release in Bhopal; Carrefour suffering from protests at its stores in China because of French attacks on the Olympic torch relay; customers experiencing E. coli at Taco Bell; rumors about designer Tommy Hilfiger's racist comments; Tyco executives steal- ing
The SARS epidemic will be remembered for being the closest the world has been in the 21st century to a real outbreak of a deadly disease at the global level. Using a process tracing method applied to the study of crisis management from a cognitive-institutional perspective, this article draws in particular from case studies on the management of SARS in
|This article presents a summary of recent crisis management publications. The first research report summarized, "Predictors of PTSD," was a study of predictor variables for responses to the World Trade Center attack. The second paper, "Effective Mental Health Response to Catastrophic Events," looked at effective responses following Hurricane…
Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Zhe, Elizabeth; Torem, Chris; Comeaux, Natashia; Dempsey, Allison
|Analyzes the Asian economic crisis and media messages about it. Promotes education for sustainability, which has broader goals of social transformation. Describes new forms of social learning that are necessary to resolve the global crises of the environment and development. (SK)|
Discusses ways to manage crises such as homicides, suicides, natural calamities, and improprieties to minimize their negative impact and enhance the school's reputation. Suggestions include developing and practicing a crisis plan, keeping people informed, remembering the victims, and dealing with the media. (JOW)
|If one relies on newspaper headlines for education funding information, one might conclude that America's schools suffer from a perpetual fiscal crisis, every year perched precariously on the brink of financial ruin, never knowing whether there will be sufficient funding to continue operating. Budgetary shortfalls, school district bankruptcies,…
Sub-Saharan Africa is facing deep economic crisis. A situation has reached where there is total stagnation with zero per cent growth rate and no hope of recovery. Hunger is hovering over vast areas of Africa threatening the lives of 150 million people and every day people are dying of starvation. It is said, that nature and international economic relations are
|This paper suggests that all life is polar because polarity is the underlying context of life. The idea of polarity is based on two halves that originally belonged together to form a whole. These two halves are constantly trying to come together to regain their wholeness. The philosophical view of crisis presented in this paper is that the…
|Because schools are entrusted with children's safety, any crisis (particularly food poisoning) affecting that inviolable trust is fodder for a ravenous media. Proactive school business officials and food-service personnel work together to publicize the school nutrition department's good work. Communicating clearly and assigning a food-service…
Reports the key issues discussed at a national two-day forum of the National Academy of Sciences held in Washington, D.C. The symposium sought answers to problems brought on by the energy crisis and focused on future alternatives and risks. (JR)
Both the nation's health-care and nursing education systems are in crisis. While the care provided by registered nurses (RNs) is essential to patients' recovery from acute illness and to the effective management of their chronic conditions, the United States is experiencing a nursing shortage that is anticipated to increase as baby boomers age and…
How hospitable will the global environment be for economic growth in the developing world as we come out of the present financial crisis? The answer depends on how well we manage the following tension. On the one hand, global macro stability requires that we prevent external imbalances from getting too large. On the other hand, growth in poor nations requires
These reports from the International CrisisGroup (ICG) provide information about the volatile socio-political situation in the South Balkans, specifically in the nations of Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
In order to provide a more refined understanding of crisis situations, especially crises resulting from race issues, the researchers identified crisis dynamic variables from existing literature (e.g., Coombs & Holladay, 2002) and connected these links in a model. The cognitive processing model of crisis communication investigates how pre- crisis corporate social responsibility (CSR) practice and different crisis-response strategies affect stakeholders'
At approximately 1:15 a.m. on September 19, 2008, a fatal machinery accident occurred in the Mac & Nellie cut through area of the ICG Hazard, LLC, East Mac & Nellie mine near Ary, Perry County, Kentucky. Harold Lee Graham, a 53 year old equipment operator...
Crisis management involves prevention, mitigation, actual response, recovery (Heck, 1991;Rosenthal and Pijnenberg, 1991)recovery of control over events (Green, 1992); optimal use of time and resources (Regester, 1989); and fact finding, analysis, damage control and communication (Mitroff and Pearson, 1993). Practitioner approaches include the Incident Command System and use of ad hoc groups (Barton, 1993). This paper introduces an integrated management
On the basis of literature review on complex project crisis management, it points out the insufficiency of existing complex project crisis management: dispersed resources, lack of collaborative work and weak capacity of dynamic crisis management. It designs complex project crisis management grid system according to the structure of complex project gird elements and complex project crisis management procedure. The system
Prominent crisis communication researchers have suggested that practitioners should work with the media as partners when managing a crisis (Ulmer, Sellnow, & Seeger, 2007). This study provides an example of a crisis case in which the media was embraced as a partner in the crisis response. Specifically, the partnership established with the media as part of the crisis response following
An Addisonian crisis marks an acute adrenocortical failure which can be caused by decompensation of a chronic insufficiency due to stress, an infarct or bleeding of the adrenal cortex and also abrupt termination of a long-term glucocorticoid medication. This article reports the case of a 25-year-old patient with Crohn's disease who suffered an Addisonian crisis with hypotension, hyponatriemia and hypoglycemia during an emergency laparotomy after he had terminated prednisolone medication on his own authority. This necessitated an aggressive volume therapy in addition to an initial therapy with 100 mg hydrocortisone, 8 g glucose and a continuous administration of catecholamines. Under this treatment regimen hemodynamic stabilization was achieved. Reduction of the administration of hydrocortisone after 3 days resulted in cardiovascular insufficiency which required an escalation of the hydrocortisone substitution. PMID:22695777
In the run-up to this week’s European Council, Karel Lannoo offers his assessment of what has been put on the table so far in response to the euro crisis – and what more needs to be done. He starts with an assessment of the measures taken in the ‘six-pack’ and the debate on the Euro-plus Pact and then addresses some
Palestine is experiencing a severe water crisis caused mainly by the lack of control over the Palestinian water resources. At present the average per capita water consumption by the Palestinian population is approximately 55 l\\/c\\/d, or 55% of the WHO minimum standard of 100 l\\/c\\/d. The above statements show that the communal water supply for the Palestinian population is substantially
As mentioned in this Web site -- a free Web Focus from the journal Nature -- over one billion people in the world already lack access to clean water, a crisis that will only intensify as the global population swells and freshwater resource continue to dwindle. Nature offers an analysis of the situation with news stories, features and editorials, interactive graphics, and an archived article from the journal.
``The history of science, to my knowledge,'' wrote Thomas Kuhn, describing the years just prior to the development of matrix and wave mechanics, ``offers no equally clear, detailed, and cogent example of the creative functions of normal science and crisis.'' By 1924, most quantum theorists shared a sense that there was much wrong with all extant atomic models. Yet not all shared equally in the sense that the failure was either terribly surprising or particularly demoralizing. Not all agreed, that is, that a crisis for Bohr-like models was a crisis for quantum theory. This paper attempts to answer four questions: two about history, two about memory. First, which sub-groups of the quantum theoretical community saw themselves and their field in a state of crisis in the early 1920s? Second, why did they do so, and how was a sense of crisis related to their theoretical practices in physics? Third, do we regard the years before 1925 as a crisis because they were followed by the quantum mechanical revolution? And fourth, to reverse the last question, were we to call into the question the existence of a crisis (for some at least) does that make a subsequent revolution less revolutionary?
Managing crises requires collecting geographical intelligence and making spatial decisions through collaborative efforts among multiple, distributed agencies and task groups. Crisis management also requires close coordination among individuals and groups of individuals who need to collaboratively derive information from geospatial data and use that information in coordinated ways. However, geospatial information systems do not currently support group work and can
Guoray Cai; Alan M. Maceachren; Isaac Brewer; Michael D. Mcneese; Rajeev Sharma; Sven Fuhrmann
|Suggests a relationship between organizational crisis experience and the placement of the public relations function. Notes a relationship between organization size and crisis experience. Uncovers an alarming absence of crisis planning and training in organizations. (SR)|
We conducted a longitudinal survey of public response to the economic crisis to understand the trajectory of risk perception amidst an ongoing crisis. A nation-wide panel responded to seven surveys beginning in late September 2008 at the peak of the crisis and concluded in October 2009. At least 600 respondents participated in each survey, with 413 completing all seven surveys. Our online survey focused on perceptions of risk (savings, investments, retirement, job), negative emotions toward the financial crisis (sadness, anxiety, fear, anger, worry, stress), confidence in national leaders to manage the crisis (President Obama, Congress, Treasury Secretary, business leaders), and belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives despite the crisis. We employed latent growth curve modeling to analyze change in risk perception throughout the crisis. Our results suggest that, in general, people's perceptions of risk appear to decrease most rapidly during the initial phase of a crisis and then begin to level off. Negative emotion about the crisis was the most predictive of increased risk perception, supporting the notion of risk as feelings. Belief in one's ability to realize personal objectives was also predictive. Confidence in national leaders, however, was not predictive of perceived risk. Finally, our results demonstrate that groups may experience a crisis differently depending on a combination of personal characteristics such as gender, income, numeracy, and political attitude. Risk management and communication should work in sync with these mechanisms and differences across groups. PMID:22150242
This research paper is a review of Air Force crisis communication training for commanders. As the primary spokesperson for their organization, commanders must know how to communicate during a crisis. This leads to the research question. How does the Air F...
The global financial and economic downturn that affected tourism from 2007 through to 2010 and beyond has cast substantial attention on the role that crisis events play in tourism. These concerns have only been exacerbated by natural disasters, such as the 2010 Icelandic volcanic plume, pandemics, and the potential of future global change. The potential effects of crisis events on
Investigates the conventional wisdom concerning consumer responses associated with product defect during a product-harm crisis. Reports on an experiment relying primarily on three generally recognized factors: company?s reputation, external effects from regulatory agencies and the press, and organizational responses. Shows that over-reliance on these areas may mask hidden variables which can prove counterproductive to crisis abatement.
A crisis, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is “a decisive moment”, “a turning point”, “a time of great difficulty”. If this is the case, then marketing cannot possibly be in crisis. Crises are temporary states of heightened anxiety, whereas marketing is in a semi-permanent philosophical pickle. Or so scholarly commentators would have us believe. This paper argues that there
The ability of governments to discern and solve different types of crisis situations is a topic of long-standing academic interest (see, for example, Pal 1985; Pollit et al. 1990; Dimock 1991; Micklethwait and Wooldridge 1996; Roe 2001). In particular, we have the protracted debates surrounding Graham Allison’s (1971) analysis of the Cuban Missile crisis (see also Allison and Zelikow 1999).
|Argues that newly developed theory in crisis public relations suggests a shift is necessary in the way practitioners view crises. Notes that the new paradigm defines excellent crisis public relations very differently from the literature of the past 20 years. (RS)|
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a vital role in coordinating crisis response between pre-hospital services and emergency departments of hospitals. In spite of the advances in these technologies, there remain a variety of challenges to their usage during a crisis. To identify these challenges, we conducted focus group interviews with emergency department (ED) and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. We found that ED and EMS personnel have widely varying perceptions about the usefulness and ease-of-use of information tools and communication tools used in crisis management. We discuss the importance of bringing together communication and information tools into integrated networks of ICTs for effective crisis response. We also highlight design features of ICTs which can support seamless and effective communication and coordination between ED and EMS teams. PMID:18998898
|Describes the activities of Indiana University's crisis communications team during the Bob Knight controversy. Discusses how the school's response was based on four crisis communications principles: create a plan, appoint a single spokesperson, respond with open and continuous communications, and expect the unexpected. (EV)|
This essay is a speculative attempt to explain the operation of four interaction elements that exist in an urban crisis situation. The relations of “polarization”; “communication,”; “isolation”; and “confrontation”; are viewed structurally as constituent elements in the creation or alleviation of crisis tensions. Communication is suggested as an alter?native technique of confrontation in tension modification.
This paper presents the results and recommendations from a survey regarding arena crisis management. The survey was completed by 150 members of the International Association of Assembly Managers (IAAM). Results indicate a heavy reliance on the two-way radio as a means of communication at the outset, and during, an arena crisis.
Meredith Craig; Bolanle A. Olaniran; Juliann C. Scholl; David E. Williams
Purpose – Proposes exploring the opportunities for reciprocal learning between the fields of crisis management and services marketing, and stimulating research on crises experienced by service organisations through the adoption of an interdisciplinary approach. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Initially, an overview and summary are given of a crisis management approach by organisations, in order to demonstrate the contrast between the research perspectives
|The impact of crises on organizations has been stronger than ever. This article explores the role of organizational learning in crisis management, an area that has received little attention from HRD community. Recognizing the dynamics and interconnectedness of crisis management, organizational learning, and organizational change, the article…
The objective of this paper is to investigate the effects of inequality on the current economic crisis. Inequality is defined as unequal opportunities for economical and educational activities among people of a nation and among nations. In this paper, it is argued that, most of the current economic crisis are generated by the income and wealth inequality through contemporary leadership
To get a picture of the impact of the current economic and financial crisis on educational building programmes so far, the OECD Centre for Effective Learning Environments (CELE) has been conducting a survey of member countries and regions. The survey focuses on three main issues: the impact of the crisis on publicly funded projects, the impact on…
As 2007 began, historians prepared to reflect on several anniversaries of financial turmoil. It had been 10 years since the East Asian crisis, 20 years since the Black Monday stock market crash, 100 years since the Panic of 1907, and 150 years since the Hamburg financial crisis of 1857. Not many, however, could have predicted that 2007 would write its
This study investigates the moderating impact of the timing of crisis disclosure on the effect of crisis response strategies on organizational post-crisis reputation. It proposes that self-disclosing a crisis allows organizations to avoid explicitly taking or rejecting responsibility by means of a crisis response strategy. A 2 (crisis timing strategy: ex-ante vs. ex-post)×2 (crisis response strategy: response strategy vs. objective
The thyrotoxic crisis is a medical emergency caused by an exacerbation of the hyperthyroid state characterized by decompensation of one or more organ systems. Early recognition and aggressive treatment are fundamental in limiting the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition. The crisis has an abrupt onset, and is evoked by a precipitating factor such as infectious diseases, ketoacidosis, acute trauma, thyroidal surgery, 131-I radio-metabolic treatment, administration of iodine-containing materials (amiodarone), parturition. The clinical picture is characterized by four main features: fever, tachycardia or supraventricular arrhythmias, central nervous system symptoms and finally gastrointestinal symptoms. The diagnosis of thyrotoxic crises is often made on the basis of clinical findings alone, since it is difficult in most emergency departments to obtain rapid confirmatory laboratory or nuclear medicine tests. The ultrasound thyroid scan, if available in the emergency room, may suggest an hyperthyroid state showing typical images of Basedow's disease or nodular goiter with their characteristic color-Doppler pattern of hyperactivity, easily distinguishable from a normal gland. The principles of thyroid storm treatments are: reduction of circulating TH's levels; inhibition of the peripheral effects of circulating thyroid hormones (TH); supportive care, in order to reverse systemic decompensation and treatment of the underlying precipitating event. PMID:15850146
Migneco, A; Ojetti, V; Testa, A; De Lorenzo, A; Gentiloni Silveri, N
From a postmodernist perspective, it is possible to see crisis as a disruption in the dominant narrative that members of an organization's power elite wish to perpetuate. The crisis itself often evolves into a multiplicity of competing narratives. Much standard advice given by crisis communication experts—such as to tell the truth, choose a single spokesperson, and establish a crisis command
Being able to effectively respond in the event a crisis is relevant to an organization's survival. Whether or not an organization is prepared for a potential crisis depends upon senior officials, and other personnel operating within the company. Corporations with established crisis management teams are able to communicate and effectively respond in the event of a crisis. The purpose of
Management of public crisis is an important function of modern government. From the perspective of political science, public crisis management is a government responsibility. The author in the article attempts to explore the inherent causality between public crisis and government responsibility. On the one hand, the characteristics of public crisis determine the need of government responsibility; on the other hand,
The global credit crunch, food crisis and oil crisis has once again highlighted the fragility of capitalism, as the fallout from the credit crunch and the wider economic crisis continues, demands for alternatives are certain to grow. This paper focuses on financial crisis in the global conventional financial market and points out the various factors that have contributed to the
This article reveals that a company’s perceptions of crises have a profound effect on primary crisis management activities. Although briefly reviewing the technical aspects of crisis management, the research examines the effects that threat and opportunity constructs have on crisis planning. The article concludes with some recommendations concerning the communication of a crisis’s dual nature before, during, and after a
The U.S. entered a recession in December 2007. Coming in train with a foreclosure crisis that began in late 2006 and its associated financial crisis that began in August 2007, there is a tendency for analysts to attribute the recession to the financial crisis. The worst aspects of the financial crisis that attract attention today did not begin until September
We model the spreading of a crisis by constructing a global economic network and applying the susceptible-infected-recovered (SIR) epidemic model with a variable probability of infection. The probability of infection depends on the strength of economic relations between a given pair of countries and the strength of the target country. It is expected that a crisis that originates in a large country, such as the USA, has the potential to spread globally, such as the recent crisis. Surprisingly, we also show that countries with a much lower GDP, such as Belgium, are able to initiate a global crisis. Using the k-shell decomposition method to quantify the spreading power (of a node), we obtain a measure of 'centrality' as a spreader of each country in the economic network. We thus rank the different countries according to the shell they belong to, and find the 12 most central ones. These countries are the most likely to spread a crisis globally. Of these 12, only six are large economies, while the other six are medium/small ones, a result that could not have been otherwise anticipated. Furthermore, we use our model to predict the crisis spreading potential of countries belonging to different shells according to the crisis magnitude.
Abstract This article considers the role of American International Group (AIG) and the insurance sector in the 2007–2009 financial crisis and the implications for insurance regulation. Following an overview of the causes of the crisis, I explore the events and policies that contributed to federal government intervention to prevent bankruptcy of AIG and the scope of federal assistance to AIG.
Purpose – This paper aims to develop a theoretical understanding of how multiple crisis experience affects preparedness issues, and how the learning potential of municipal crisis experience can be developed. The focus is on municipal decision-makers. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Two group interviews were conducted with a total of 13 municipal Chief Officers and Politicians. Data were analysed by a grounded theory
This week's In the News examines Japan's struggle against economic recession. The nine resources discussed provide an overview on various aspects of the topic. Due to economic crisis throughout Asia, the Japanese economy was severely strained this week as the yen continued to fall against the dollar in Tokyo trading. A "weak domestic financial sector" and shrinking private-sector investments and exports also contributed to Japanese economic woes, according to Economic Planning Minister Shimpei Nukaya. Although many top Japanese governmental officials believe their nation's economy can be revived through financial reform and international monetary support, some United States analysts remain uncertain. With a weak GDP, a weak yen, and ownership of over half the world's savings, international concern for Japanese impact on other economies is growing. To alleviate these fears, President Clinton bolstered the yen with US dollar sales on June 17, 1998. The long-term effects of this intervention remain to be seen.
The Transatlantic Banking Crisis has strongly raised debt-GDP ratios in many OECD countries and this is undermining the economic\\u000a recovery. As regards the euro zone there are special problems which are partly related to lack of fiscal discipline in Greece\\u000a and to the Irish economic crisis which—largely unknown—basically reflects total failure of prudential supervision to apply\\u000a EU directives and legislation,
The energy crisis in Japan is discussed in terms of market reliance on petroleum imports. Retrospective treatment is given the energy situation as it has existed in the economic milieu since the second World War. The requirements, possibilities, and diffi...
Big disasters remind executives that crisis communications is a critical part of strategic planning. But consciousness fades quickly, and with it, response time. Don't be caught unprepared. PMID:10125351
Today's executive manager is increasingly expected to make decisions based on paradigms that depart from traditional rationality and information processing models. This is particularly so under crisis conditions, where there is little time and information...
|Describes the solar-hydrogen technologies at the East Valley Institute of Technology, the only technology center in the nations that offers this class. Describes its focus on solving the energy crisis. (JOW)|
The current economic crisis is not just another rough spell. Today's mix of urgency, high stakes, and uncertainty will continue even after the recession ends. The immediate crisis--which we will get through with policy makers' expert technical adjustments--sets the stage for a sustained, or even permanent, crisis, a relentless series of challenges no one has encountered before. Instead of hunkering down and relying on their familiar expertise to deal with the sustained crisis, people in positions of authority--whether they are CEOs or managers heading up a company initiative--must practice what the authors call adaptive leadership. They must, of course, tackle the underlying causes of the crisis, but they must also simultaneously make the changes that will allow their organizations to thrive in turbulent environments. Adaptive leadership is an improvisational and experimental art, requiring some new practices. Like Julie Gilbert, who overcame internal resistance to reorient Best Buy toward female purchasers, adaptive leaders get things done to meet today's challenges and then modify those things to thrive in tomorrow's world. They also embrace disequilibrium, using turbulence as an opportunity to build crucial new capacities, as Paul Levy did to rescue Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center from a profound financial crisis. Finally, adaptive leaders, such as Egon Zehnder, the founder of an executive search firm, draw out the leadership skills that reside deep in the organization, recognizing the interdependence of all employees and mobilizing everyone to generate solutions. PMID:19630256
The topic of this week's in the news is the renewed Iraqi crisis. The eleven resources discussed offer information, analysis, and commentary from a variety of political and cultural viewpoints. Despite a noted lack of enthusiasm from neighboring Middle East nations and in the UN, the US and Britain appeared ready to take military action against Iraq to punish Saddam Hussein for once again interfering with the United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) inspections. While both governments received strong support from their legislatures, opinion within the US and UK, and certainly within the wider world community, appears to be much more divided on the necessity or effectiveness of air strikes in forcing Iraq to comply to the UN mandate. An agreement reached between Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Saddam Hussein on February 22 appears to be defusing the situation by restoring, free and unfettered inspections by the UN Special Commission, known by its acronym, Unscom. While the US government is clearly relieved by a diplomatic solution, it seems just as clearly prepared to take military action should Iraq fail to honor the agreement.
On June 1, 2001, Indonesia's President Wahid announced that he dismissed four members of his Cabinet and the police chief, depicting the move as a peace overture to his main political rival, vice-president Megawati Sukarnoputri. Sukarnoputri's party, the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), is at the forefront of the effort to impeach President Wahid and remove him office. The PDIP won by far the largest number of votes in the last election two years ago, but Ms. Sukarnoputri was unable to broker any deals to secure an outright majority in the parliament and win the presidency for herself. Instead, the job went to Abdurrahman Wahid, a compromise candidate. Wahid's nineteen months in power have seen a number of crises and political spats, culminating in the vote by parliament on Wednesday to hold an impeachment hearing against the president over claims of corruption and incompetence on August 1. Most analysts agree that there is a firm majority in the body in favor of unseating Wahid. In addition to the cabinet reshuffle, Wahid has on several occasions raised the possibility of martial law. Neither move, it seems, is likely to satisfy parliament or Sukarnoputri's supporters. The final outcome of the current crisis is still an open question. If Sukarnoputri does take office and steps into the shoes of her illustrious father Sukarno, Indonesia's first president, she will find that the question at the heart of the present struggle -- the balance of power between the parliament and the president -- remains.
This article reports on the crisis facing reefs throughout the world and the struggle to save them. Coral reefs, one of the biological wonders of the world, are among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on earth, having been evolved between 200 and 450 million years ago. Located mostly in the Pacific region, most established coral reefs are now dead and only the upper layer is covered by a thin changeable skin of living coral. Reefs, over the years, have been the main source of animal protein for over 1 billion people in Asia. Countries near the coastlines, which relied on the seas, have resorted to dynamite fishing, poisoning and other illegal and dangerous techniques. Overpopulation and pollution has caused the deteriorating conditions of the 600,000 sq. km of coral reefs worldwide. Despite these conditions, the government has ignored this problem as they struggle to develop their economies at the expense of common resources. In addition, this article narrates the efforts that are exerted by governments in promoting coral reef protection and management of these coastal resources, setting the Apo Island in the Philippines as an example of good management and sustainability. PMID:12295817
Coastal areas are staggering under an onslaught of human activity. We are presently in the process of destroying 70 percent of the world`s 600,000 square kilometers of coral reefs, an ecosystem containing some 200,000 different species and rivaling tropical rain forests in biodiversity. A combination of pollution, habitat destruction, and gross overfishing has led to the collapse of major fisheries and paved the way for malnutrition and disease in regions where people fish for subsistence. Globally, little is being done to manage the crisis of our coasts. Management strategies, if they exist at all, often deal with economic development along a wafer-thin strip of coastal land. Resource degradation is ignored, and watershed management is mostly rhetoric. Although some 55 countries have drawn up coastal management plans, only a handful have been properly implemented. Coasts must be managed in an integrated manner that takes into account the full range of human activities. Initiating this process is costly, time-consuming, and difficult. Yet we have more than three decades of accumulated experience to draw on.
Sensemaking is the process of understanding an unfamiliar situation in order to act effectively. Crisis response requires emergency departments and emergency medical services teams to collaboratively make sense of an uncertain and unfamiliar situation. We conducted focus groups to examine how information and communication technologies help collaborative sensemaking across response teams. We found that communication of information was a key
In this paper we develop a model in which social conflict and adjustment costs induce delayed inflation stabilization. We show that the longer this delay is the less demanding are the conditions that some groups will accept in order to stabilize. In the context of the Latin American debt crisis, our model gives a rationale for the time lag between
The global economic crisis has accelerated the fear that the United States' international power is fading. It has also made clear the need for American higher education to engage more deeply with the rest of the world, not run from it. That was the consensus among a group of presidents and provosts who met in New York this month as part of "Higher…
Mental Health concomitants of the AIDS crisis are reviewed along with recommendations for a community mental health response. Proposed interventions range from traditional clinical services to support groups, case management, day treatment, training of caregivers, outreach, consultation, and community education. It is recommended that, at the very least, each community mental health center identify an AIDS specialist who will keep
The crisis in Poland in 19801981 imposed great demands on the U.S. intelligence community. On the one hand, U.S. intelligence analysts sought to determine whether the Soviet Union might send troops into Poland to crush the Solidarity movement. On the other hand, a small group of senior intelligence and national security officials who were privy to reports from Colonel Ryszard
We have extended our studies of optimal strategies for nuclear exchanges to include the question of stability under crisis. Using a transparent, but effective algorithm we discuss ways in which a superpower exchange can be examined as strategic force postures change on the two sides. Results can be applied to determine how variations in force structures benefit or harm both sides, and this in turn allows a comparison of the degree of crisis stability descriptive of a given base scenario and variations to it. The simplicity of the model obviates the need for extensive computational support, allowing most researchers to make quantitative studies of stability. Application of this way of thinking to scenarios similar to that existing in the present US-USSR confrontation leads to a rather intuitive result: strategic strike forces which are vulnerable to prevenient (preemptive) attack by the opponent do not enhance crisis stability. What is rather less intuitive is the observation that crisis stability does not necessarily degrade when force deployments made by one side benefit that side at the expense of the opponent. This is particularly relevant in the case of improvements made by the weaker side. The examples used underline the difference between crisis stability and the commonly accepted meaning of deterrence. Most would agree that even though deterrence exists, a desirable degree of stability does not.
Many of the 250 physician organizations that provide care to California's sixteen million health maintenance organization enrollees are in a state of crisis, squeezed between constrained revenues, rising practice costs, and consumer sentiment that favors unconstrained choice over integrated delivery. Medical groups and independent practice associations are retrenching to their core geographic areas, reducing capitation for drug benefits and hospital services, and abandoning dreams of displacing health plans. Consolidation is accelerating in some areas, as medical groups join with hospitals to extract higher payment rates from insurers and employers. The conjunction of consumerism and premium inflation creates new opportunities for organizations that truly can manage health care, but the challenges roiling California's medical groups may preclude meaningful efforts to seize the initiative. PMID:11463094
This PhD research focuses on the crisis management approaches of the company and government during a mudflow crisis in Sidoarjo, Indonesia, and the victims perceived a crisis management including the communication strategy and the programs of public relations conducted by officials from the Lapindo Incorporation (Inc) during efforts to deal with a mudflow crisis in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. The community, ranging
|Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic setting. Courses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication.|
Drug overdose precipitated sickle cell crisis leading to death in four cases. Toxicologic studies in life and postmortem examinations showed the deaths to be caused by a combination of the ingested drugs and associated sickle cell crisis. Both the homozyg...
Objectives: Students will demonstrate research, decision making, team building, and public speaking skills, while applying issues management and crisis communication concepts in a realistic settingCourses: Introduction to Public Relations, Public Relations Cases, Crisis Communication
The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.
This short piece introduces the papers in the special issue on the California Energy Crisis of 2000\\/2001. The papers illustrate aspects of the crisis, such as the role of the gas market, future trends for investment, and the crisis’ impact on consumers. Three papers analyze policy-makers’ responses to the crisis, with case studies of over-lapping regulation, the trade-off between prices,
Purpose – Crisis planning, which symbolizes an organization's crisis preparedness and often conceptualized at the corporate headquarters, is increasingly decentralized to regional centers of global companies. These centers, in turn, synchronize their crisis master plans with its national units for expeditious management of localized crises. The purpose of this paper is to capture the decision-making processes that practitioners at a
|Argues that teachers seeking to identify what constitutes a crisis for children must consider the child's response to and feelings about the experience, not just the event itself. Reviews common physical, psychological, and social symptoms of crisis. Discusses ways to help children in crisis while maintaining appropriate boundaries. (PAA)|
The domain of crisis planning and scheduling taxes human response managers due to high levels of urgency and un- certainty. Such applications require assistant technologies (in contrast to automation technologies) and provide special challenges for interface design. We present I NCA, the IN- teractive Crisis Assistant, that helps users develop effective crisis response plans and schedules in a timely manner.
The domain of crisis planning and scheduling taxes human response managers due to high levels of urgency and un-certainty. Such applications require assistant technologies (in contrast to automation technologies) and provide special challenges for interface design. We present INCA, the IN-teractive Crisis Assistant, that helps users develop effective crisis response plans and schedules in a timely manner. INCA also adapts
Critically evaluates crisis intervention studies conducted (a) in community suicide prevention\\/crisis intervention programs, (b) in psychiatric settings, and (c) with surgical patients. In the 1st area, the impracticality of suicide as an outcome measure and the need for shifting evaluation emphasis from crisis worker performance to client behavior change measures is stressed. Also, the virtual impossibility of demonstrating overall program
Since the beginning of 2010, the Euro Area faces a severe sovereign debt crisis, now generally known as the Euro Crisis. While the Euro Crisis has its origin in Greece, problems have now spread to several other European countries as well. Dynamic conditional correlation models (DCC) are estimated in order to assess if contagious effects are identifiable during the Euro
Contemporary media saturation requires us to rethink the notion of crisis. This paper characterizes crisis not in terms of isolable moments and significant events, but as a generalized and routine background condition—a persistent crisis-readiness. It is sustained and performed by a new media configuration: an assemblage of mediation, representation and experience that we call “media witnessing.” Focusing on how media
Purpose – This paper aims to examine the current financial crisis, suggesting that most analyses have attributed the crisis to a lack of business ethics, the rise of greed and lax regulation. Prescriptions offered to address this crisis draw accordingly on the need for greater regulation of market behaviour, business practices and boardroom pay. Whilst these reforms are necessary, they
|This paper examines Korea's employment dynamics and analyzes how adverse impacts could be mitigated during the recent economic crisis in comparison with the 1997 to 1998 Asian crisis. A clear lesson is that policies to mitigate adverse impacts of financial crisis on the macroeconomic level should be given priority for preserving employment. In…
This paper examines the emerging trends in the new crisis management landscape. A four-stage framework is used that follows the progression of a modern crisis management approach. The four stages examined are: landscape survey, strategic planning, crisis management, and organizational learning. Each stage is examined in terms of its impact on the internal and external environments of the organization.
The policy debate over the Latin American debt crisis has shifted from the issue of short-term adjustment to that of long-term restructuring. The history of import substituting industrialization (IS) is reviewed in order to establish a context for the current restructuring debates. We argue that the demise of the IS model was primarily due to narrow domestic markets, heavy imports
The purpose of this paper is to show empirically that the ‘debt crisis' of 1982, and its still lingering effects, played a major role in the dramatic downturn of domestic investment in most lesser developed countries (LDCs). The hypothesis of a nested model incorporating variables reflecting indebtedness could not be rejected for ten of thirteen Latin American countries sampled. In
This article is a result of the usual debates taking place within our research centre, being conducted by the research team that has been dealing for several years with the adoption of the euro by the new member states of the European Union (EU). The recent financial crisis brought in the middle of many assessments the question of the euro
Napoleon Pop; Iulia Lupu; Camelia Milea; Adina Criste; Floarea Iordache; Alina Georgeta Alinca
There is an urgent need for cost-effective strategies for the sustainable control of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Rhodesian) sleeping sickness, which is a fatal zoonotic disease that has caused devastating epidemics during the past century. Sleeping sickness continues to be controlled by crisis management, using active case detection, treatment and vector control - activities that occur only during major epidemics; during
Susan C. Welburn; Paul G. Coleman; Ian Maudlin; Eric M. Fèvre; Martin Odiit; Mark C. Eisler
The world is facing an impinging crisis on water as population growth continues, energy use increases, and affluence (standard of living) increases all requiring more water. Agriculture must find ways to use water more productively while improving the impact of agriculture on the environment. Agri...
A drinking water quality crisis occurred in Sydney, Australia, from July through September 1998. High concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were repeatedly observed in water samples collected in the distribution system, although no increase in waterborne disease was detected. The reported concentrations of both cysts and oocysts ranged from nondetects to thousands of parasites per 100 L of
|Because of their automotive lifestyles, Americans account for the greatest portion of fossil fuel consumption in the world. The desirable leisure lifestyle traits of the past should be incorporated into contemporary American culture. Americans need to wean themselves away from the automobile if the energy crisis is to be solved. (JN)|
This paper outlines a theoretical model for presenting diagnoses to parents of autistic children. The model is based on crisis theory. Actual professional practice, as determined by interviews with the parents of 22 autistic children of various ages, is compared with the theoretical model. This, study demonstrated that professional practice did not seem to have given adequate recognition to mourning
Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…
Since August 1982 the international debt crisis has dominated economic policymaking in the developing countries, economic relations between the debtor and creditor countries, the attention of the multilateral institutions in their dealings with the debtor nations, and private sector decisions on lending to the developing countries. The period since 1982 has seen some progress. Neither the commercial nor central banks
This guide for crisis debriefing teams (CDTs) in the Aurora public schools (APS) in Colorado is intended to provide immediate guidelines for schools to access trained support to deal with crises (such as serious injury or death) that can affect school communities. It is intended for use by counselors, psychologists, nurses, social workers, and…
|In this article, the author focuses on technology use related to campus crisis and shows the impact that newer technologies have on making the world seem much smaller and united. When crises occur, such as at Virginia Tech shootings or Hurricane Katrina, students across the United States and even the world reach out to one another through new…
This article discusses the importance of systematics in evaluating the global biodiversity crisis. Topics covered include the following: what systematic biology is; the diversity of species and higher taxa; biodiversity undersiege; systematics and conservation; systematics and global climatic change. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Savage, J.M. [Univ. of Miami, Coral Gables, FL (United States)
Because of their automotive lifestyles, Americans account for the greatest portion of fossil fuel consumption in the world. The desirable leisure lifestyle traits of the past should be incorporated into contemporary American culture. Americans need to wean themselves away from the automobile if the energy crisis is to be solved. (JN)
Discusses what steps were taken by the Cooperative Extension Service in Oklahoma, after the energy crisis began, to help landowners make better decisions regarding oil and gas leases. Oklahoma's Extension educational efforts in mineral rights management have been successful because they met the needs of the people. (EM)
The energy crisis has proved to be a boon to the National Science Foundation. The Foundation has requested approximately $788.2 million for 1975. Nearly all the increase over the 1974 budget and about 1/3 of the total budget is energy related. (RH)
|Describes a press conference that was used as a "teachable moment" when owl pellets being used for instructional purposes were found to be contaminated with Salmonella. The incident highlighted the need for safe handling of owl pellets, having a crisis management plan, and the importance of conveying accurate information to concerned parents.…
Understanding the present ecological crisis by understanding its conceptual background is discussed. Assessed are early Indian, colonial, puritan, and eighteenth and nineteenth century American concepts and beliefs of man's relationship to his environment. Principles and beliefs necessary to restore and maintain the environment are developed. (BL)
|Suggests guidelines for college administrators who deal with the media. Discusses social responsibility theory and presents suggestions for student affairs personnel in planning for crisis communication. Stresses the need for accurate, honest information which doesn't compromise the institution legally. (JAC)|
In this presentation, the authors argue that not all developing countries are innocent victims of the current global financial-economic crisis. In the case of Latin America, the structural transformations of the last decades have left the region highly exposed to changes in the global economy. In this sense, Mexico offers a noteworthy extreme. While many Latin American countries have made
In 2008, the Sanlu Group, a former giant in the Chinese dairy industry and a quintessential Chinese organization, was confronted with the melamine-contaminated milk crisis. Its products were blamed for causing at least six babies' deaths and damaging the kidneys of about 294,000 babies. Sanlu was criticized for its crisis handling, which resulted in its collapse several months later. Using
This article presents the results of a survey of Bulgarian industrial organizations with respect to their clashes with the world financial and economic crisis’s effects on local economy. The crisis manifestations under business environment specificity factors and important cultural aspects of dominating managerial behavior in these companies are described and analyzed. The concrete research encompasses two groups of industrial companies,
The crisis in Darfur began in February 2003, when two rebel groups emerged to challenge the National Congress Party (NCP) government in Darfur. The crisis in Darfur in western Sudan has led to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 2.45 million ...
The crisis in Darfur began in February 2003, when two rebel groups emerged to challenge the National Congress Party (NCP) government in Darfur. The crisis in Darfur in western Sudan has led to a major humanitarian disaster, with an estimated 2.7 million p...
The setting up of the Greek Stakeholders Group in the framework of the EC Food and Agriculture Restoration Management Involving Networked Groups (FARMING) project is described. The Group included members from more than 20 governmental and non-governmental organisations, having interest and/or responsibilities in the management of a crisis following a nuclear accident. The stakeholders, during their meetings in 2002, discussed the agricultural countermeasures and rural waste disposal options which have been compiled by the EC Sustainable Restoration and Long-Term Management of Contaminated Rural, Urban and Industrial Ecosystems (STRATEGY) project. All stakeholders agreed that the most preferable were those options that ensure public acceptance, minimise environmental impact and maintain farming practices and acceptable living and working conditions. Their views are synoptically presented along with the major conclusions from the stakeholders meetings regarding nuclear crisis management. PMID:15961200
Ioannides, K G; Tzialla, C E; Papachristodoulou, C A; Papanikolaou, C; Apostolopoulos, C
|Indian cities are growing rapidly due to natural increase and migration from rural areas. This has caused huge pollution problems and has resulted in overcrowded schools and hospitals. Conflict between religious groups has increased; so has crime. India is modernizing, but not fast enough. (CS)|
|When the Commission on Children At Risk--a group of 33 children's doctors, research scientists, mental health and youth service professionals--presented to the Nation its report on the crises of deteriorating mental and behavioral health of children in the US, the 83-page report was entitled "Hardwired to Connect: The New Scientific Case for…
The global economic and financial crisis is having and impact on the Italian healthcare system which is undergoing a devolution process from the central government to regions and where about one third of the regional governments (mainly in the central and southern part of the country) are facing large financial deficits. The paper briefly describes the current macro scenario and the main responses taken to face the crisis and highlights the downside risks of introducing "linear" cuts in the allocation of resources. While justified by the risk of a national debt default, present fiscal policies might increase inequalities in access to care, deteriorate overall health indicators and population wellbeing, and sharpen existing difference in the quality of care between regions. Preliminary evidence shows that the crisis is affecting the quality of nutrition and the incidence of psychiatric disorders. During this difficult financial situation Italy is also facing the risk of a major reduction in investments for preventive medicine, Evidence Based Medicine infrastructures, health information systems and physical capital renewal. This cost-cutting strategy may have negative long term consequences Also, important achievement in terms of limiting waiting lists, improving continuity of care and patients' centeredness, and promoting integration between social and health care may be negatively affected by unprecedented resources' cuts. It is essential that in such a period of public funding constraints health authorities monitor incidence of diseases and access to care of the most vulnerable groups and specifically target interventions to those who may be disproportionally hit by the crisis. PMID:22551787
de Belvis, Antonio Giulio; Ferrè, Francesca; Specchia, Maria Lucia; Valerio, Luca; Fattore, Giovanni; Ricciardi, Walter
What makes crisis management in financial institutions fairly unique and particularly complex is the accompanying crisis contagion or systemic risk. The subprime mortgage crisis currently happening in the USA is a typical example. In order to further deepen our understanding of how crisis contagion occurs and enhance information interchange and knowledge sharing among related entities, ontologies for crisis contagion management
Kang Ye; Shanshan Wang; Jiaqi Yan; Huaiqing Wang; Baiqi Miao
Customer relationship management plays an important role in enterprise crisis management. Successful crisis management can not only effectively resolve the crisis, but also increase public understanding of the enterprise through crisis management measures and rebuild good corporate image. While unsuccessful crisis management caused corporate image was seriously damaged, which leads to declined customer satisfaction. Enterprises will lose a large number
|This three-part manual is intended for principals and other administrators responsible for developing and managing school crisis plans. Part 1, preparation for a school crisis, includes sections on the selection and training of members of the school crisis team, steps in developing a school crisis plan, and four crisis scenarios to train team…
The purpose of this study is to develop a crisis management index that can gauge a corporation's integrated crisis management capabilities. Although most crisis management models have been devised in Western countries, no full-scale crisis management index has been developed outside the Western hemisphere. This study deploys multiple research stages that reflect the characteristics of crisis management. First, the study
AsiaSource (originally reviewed in the September 3, 1999 Scout Report) provides an Asian perspective on the terrorist attacks on New York City and Washington, DC. The site contains information on the attacks and how they have and will affect Asia's peoples and governments. It also provides links on the suspected terrorists' groups, Pakistan, Afghanistan, the religion of Islam, reference maps of the area, and much more.
Experts warn that US per capita use of 2000 gallons of water per day may lead to a resource crisis in the 1990s comparable to the energy crisis of the 70s. The drain on groundwater and the Ogallala and other aquifers for irrigation and industry is causing water tables to drop, ground to subside, seawater contamination, and other problems. Wornout and rusted water systems in the Northeast waste as much as 40% of the water they carry. Conservation efforts include user fees designed to increase awareness of the value of water, water recycling, and coordinated efforts to prevent pollution. Geologists blame the recent drop in water consumption on economic conditions, and warn that public policy must still come to grips with a program to manage supply and demand. Some farmers and businesses, however, are already employing water-saving techniques. 6 figures. (DCK)
This week's In the News returns to Kosovo, where humanitarian workers and government officials warn that the refugee crisis is rapidly spinning out of control. What appears to be an organized and systematic expulsion of the ethnic Albanian population from Kosovo has created the worst humanitarian disaster in Europe since World War II. According to UN refugee officials, over 220,000 persons have fled or been expelled from Kosovo over the last ten days, to Albania, Macedonia, or Montenegro. With entry into Macedonia ground to an almost complete halt, Albania swollen with over 120,000 refugees, and thousands still behind them, the Kosovo-Macedonia border in particular has become a humanitarian nightmare; little food, shelter, or sanitation is available for people who have been forced from their homes with almost nothing. The sites listed provide information about this refugee crisis.
Sclerodermic renal crisis is defined as a severe arterial hypertension or rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis in a sclerodermic patient, associated with anuria due to no other cause but systemic sclerodermia. It constitutes a rare and dangerous complication. The renal prognosis can be effectively improved by converting enzyme inhibitors, allowing a better arterial hypertension control. However, the associated mortality remains high, a follow up must be instaured in order to prevent the apparition of renal lesions in all sclerodermic patients. We report a case of rapidly progressive renal failure with hypertension in a patient with no previous problems, which preceded the development of scleroderma diffuse cutaneous form. The biopsy showed a microangiopathy in the context of scleroderma renal crisis. The evolution was marked by the presence of chronic renal insufficiency which necessitated the dialysing start. PMID:20829139
This overview of the energy crisis concludes that the U.S. must reverse present anti-energy policies that have slowed development of domestic sources and reduced world confidence in the dollar--and should adopt new policies that combine conservation and reduce foreign oil dependency while making imports more reliable during the interim. The public must be helped to understand the situation and to
This United States Geological Survey publication (Circular 1075) is the first of a planned group of monographs in a series called "Public Issues in Earth Science." It discusses the dangers posed to coasts and coastal communities by "development, recreation, and waste disposal," among other activities. It describes the ever changing nature of coastlines, and both the natural and human causes of coastal change. Four case studies are very briefly described. While not an exhaustive treatment of its subject, this is an effective introduction that may encourage further study. A small bibliography is provided.
Comparing crisis management strategies of the recent past with contemporary tactics, the author illustrates why modern nuclear forces and their complex, exceedingly vulnerable command and control make a superpower crisis so difficult to manage and what can be done to prevent nuclear crises and to increase the chances of survival if one were to occur. The author makes several recommendations, both political and technical, that he believes would reduce crisis instability, and with it the likelihood of war.
I proposes a comprehensive approach towards crisis management and explore the relation of crisis management to European politics.\\u000a Drawing insight from my work as Special Co-ordinator of the Stability Pact for South Eastern Europe, I propose ten lessons\\u000a for crisis management that could provide a perspective for both the future of conflict prevention and the European project.\\u000a The profound changes
This paper presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization are discussed. The implications for crisis communication as an area of practice and inquiry are explored.
Using a multiplicatively enhanced version of cognitive mapping techniques, this study first analyzes two of President Kennedy's speeches during the Carribean Crisis (known in the United States as the Cuban Missile Crisis). Text analysis shows a sharp decline in the ratio of controlled to uncontrolled events, an increased role for environmental variables, and crisis tangles with multiple negative effects on
V. M. Sergeev; V. P. Akimov; V. B. Lukov; P. B. Parshin
|This study examines the system of crisis leadership in higher education. Using case study methods, five crisis leadership participants were interviewed to develop a deep understanding of how they perceive their university crisis leadership system. Two participants were from a private institution, and three were from a public institution. Higher…
This research focuses on the crisis management approaches of government and business during a mudflow crisis in Sidoarjo, Indonesia and community responses to the crisis itself. The community that lost their houses perceived that Lapindo Inc, an oil company, was responsible for the mudflow - through a drilling mistake. However, the Indonesian courts supported experts that said an earthquake had
Historians and political scientists continue to study the Cuban missile crisis of 1962 as a pivotal example of crisis diplomacy and national decisionmaking. The conventional version of that crisis may be summarized as follows: although there were unconfir...
There is an urgent need for cost-effective strategies for the sustainable control of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense (Rhodesian) sleeping sickness, which is a fatal zoonotic disease that has caused devastating epidemics during the past century. Sleeping sickness continues to be controlled by crisis management, using active case detection, treatment and vector control - activities that occur only during major epidemics; during the intervening periods, farmers and communities must fend for themselves. There are several methods for assessing the burden of this disease and there is a series of farmer-led methodologies that can be applied to reduce the burden of human and animal trypanosomiases. PMID:16458071
Welburn, Susan C; Coleman, Paul G; Maudlin, Ian; Fèvre, Eric M; Odiit, Martin; Eisler, Mark C
This study's objective was to investigate how peer support relates to psychiatric hospitalization and crisis stabilization utilization outcomes. The likelihood of experiencing a psychiatric hospitalization or a crisis stabilization was modeled for consumers using peer support services and a control group of consumers using community mental health services but not peer support with 2003 and 2004 Georgia Medicaid claims data; 2003 and 2004 Mental Health, Developmental Disability, and Addictive Diseases (MHDDAD) Community Information System data; and 2003 and 2004 MHDDAD Hospital Information System data. Peer support was associated with an increased likelihood (odds = 1.345) of crisis stabilization, a decreased but statistically insignificant likelihood (odds = 0.871) of psychiatric hospitalization overall, and a decreased and statistically significant (odds = .766) likelihood of psychiatric hospitalization for those who did not have a crisis stabilization episode. PMID:19551502
Leadership during a crisis that involves the physical safety and emotional or financial wellbeing of those being led offers an intense environment that may not allow for on-the-job training. One of the challenges faced by crisis leaders is to communicate effectively the courses of action needed to allow for a reduction of harm to individuals and the ultimate restoration of the group, organisation or community. The six principles of crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC) give leaders tools to navigate the harsh realities of speaking to employees, media, partners and stakeholders during an intense crisis. CERC also helps leaders to avoid the five most common communication mistakes during crises. Much of the harmful individual and group behaviour predicted in a profound crisis can be mitigated with effective crisis and emergency risk communication. A leader must anticipate what mental stresses followers will be experiencing and apply appropriate communication strategies to attempt to manage these stresses among staff or the public and preserve or repair the organisation's reputation. In an emergency, the right message at the right time is a 'resource multiplier' - it helps leaders to get their job done. PMID:20826389
“Gaudeamus igitur, juvenes dum sumus!” Young people have not quite completed the developmental tasks of adolescence by the time they leave home to attend university. Geographical separation from family offers an opportunity for learning and personal growth, with the ultimate objective the acquisition of an education in the broadest sense of the word. University life with its peer pressures and academic stresses offers its own challenges and rewards. Unless there is close co-operation between family doctors and student-health physicians, the medical care of young adults degenerates into crisis management with loss of all the benefits of continuity of care.
The crisis of medical liability has resulted in drastic increases in insurance premiums and reduced access for patients to specialty care, particularly in areas such as obstetrics/gynecology, neurosurgery, and orthopaedic surgery. The current liability environment neither effectively compensates persons injured from medical negligence nor encourages addressing system errors to improve patient safety. The author reviews trends across the nation and reports on the efforts of an organization called “Doctors for Medical Liability Reform” to educate the public and lawmakers on the need for solutions to the chaotic process of adjudicating medical malpractice claims in the United States.
This paper explores the methods that nursing has used to introduce new practice to the clinical environment. The implementation of the nursing process will provide an example of how nursing has attempted to change practice in totality and why the methods used perhaps undermined the original objectives. The use of 'change-agents' and action research to effect change in the ward environment will then be discussed. Particular attention will be paid to the idea of an 'energy crisis'--which may be an inevitable side effect of the change process--and how the programme of development at Ladywell Hospital has taken account of, and acted upon, this problem. PMID:2263284
The most critical activity during emergencies or crises is making decisions about what to do next. This paper provides insights into the challenges that people face in making decisions at any time, but particularly during emergencies and crises. It also introduces the reader to the concept of different sense-making/decision-making domains, the human behaviours that can adversely affect decision making - decision derailers - and ways in which emergency responders can leverage this knowledge to make better decisions. While the literature on decision making is extensive, this paper is focused on those aspects that apply particularly to decision making in emergencies or times of crisis. PMID:24113638
The author provides an overview of several articles on the impact of the energy crisis which examine key ideas, emerging theories, findings, and methodologies that are guiding current social research. The articles deal with energy policy and how energy conservation fits into national policy, the social psychological context for energy conservation research on behavior and attitudes, and how to facilitate the adoption of conservation measures that increase the efficiency of energy use. The papers review psychological theory on the adoption of innovations, and offer modifications and extensions that tailor it to fit the adoption of energy-conserving innovations. 7 references.
|Presents a synthesis of the views of participants and counterviews of scholars concerning the Cuban missile crisis of 1962. Reviews historical and analytical accounts of the crisis. Describes critical areas of conflicting interpretations by historians and participants. Includes an annotated bibliography of teaching resources. (NL)|
In this study I revisit the Cuban missile crisis of 1962, in order to gain additional perspective on the relationship between organizational decision making and crisis outcomes. This exercise is an historical “counterfactual” or “what if” excursion, using recently declassified documents and simulated exchange calculations, from which I hope to draw three principal benefits. First, the study may shed some
The Cuban Missile Crisis served as a prime example of the importance of photointelligence in the successful management of an international crisis. President Kennedy was provided with excellent, but not faultless, intelligence through the use of photointelligence. Kennedy used photointelligence to decide upon his policy of quarantine. The quarantine and subsequent diplomatic efforts led to a successful resolution of the
The global availability of 24-hour broadcast news establishes the media as a critical link to communicating with the public in times of crisis. As a result, the broadcast news media play a significant role in shaping how the public reacts in a crisis. Sin...
The purpose of this study was to field test the Juxtaposed Integration Matrix, a crisis communication tool, in real and simulated crisis scenarios by U.S. Air Force public affairs officers. Practitioners at three test locations found the matrix validated ...
This study compares differences in crisis preparation, information-seeking patterns, and media use on the basis of race in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina. Surveys are collected from 935 Katrina evacuees relocated in different areas of the United States. Results indicate differences in crisis preparation and information seeking on the basis of race. Results also demonstrate a continued need to create
Patric R. Spence; Kenneth A. Lachlan; Donyale R. Griffin
Argues for the need to develop a crisis communication programme, well in advance of any catastrophe. An organization must have a definite policy and procedures to be followed during a disaster. Shows the need for organizations to wake up to the immediacy of mass media coverage and learn how to handle public relations in a crisis situation.
The credibility crisis of Community regulation is symbolized by the recurrent food scares, and even more by official reactions such as the refusals of the German and French governments to abide by the decision of the Commission to lift the ban on exports of British beef. However, the crisis is not new, nor is it limited to food safety. Problems
|Data from therapists who were treating 26 patients when they committed suicide were utilized to identify warning signs. Problems in communication between patient and therapist were identified as factors interfering with crisis recognition. Evaluation of the identified affects and behaviors may help therapists recognize a suicide crisis. (BF)|
Hendin, Herbert; Maltsberger, John T.; Lipschitz, Alan; Haas, Ann Pollinger; Kyle, Jennifer
|Schools can reduce their vulnerability to violence and other hazards by analyzing foreseeable risks, assembling a broad-based crisis-management team (CMT), providing adequate staff training, and developing a crisis manual. Common response problems concerning decision-making authority, communication, and performance expectations for CMTs are…
Critical aspects of crisis management in U.S. higher education and the historical development of the education system over the last 100 years are reviewed. It is proposed that crisis strategies in higher education have largely revolved around the use of a stratification strategy and the establishment of ideological hegemony. Historical periods…
This paper discusses a combination of factors that fuelled the BSE crisis in Portugal and highlights the relevant changes\\u000a that the BSE epidemic compelled in the beef chain and products of bovine origin. An emphasis is made on the dilemma of communicating\\u000a out of a food safety crisis.
Construction crisis management research is in an exploratory state where contemplated questions are of more value than hasty answers. For this reason, this paper is more concerned with theory formulation than theory testing. More specifically, it derives a grounded theory of construction crisis management which forms a useful basis for future research. It does so from an investigation of the
No sooner had the cold war ended than the gulf crisis was upon us. The timing may have been fortuitous, but the crisis has demonstrated that the passing of the cold war will have its drawbacks as well as its benefits. However the current state of the international system is characterizedwhether as unipolarity, American hegemony, or merely a temporary lull
This paper deals with the international financial crisis that began around July 2007 and became evident in September 2008. It is true that to date, many of the ideas focus on the possible consequences of this crisis on the real economy and on the evaluation of the maximum time of its influence and its effect on the progress of the
of BCR\\/ABL with genes dysregulated dur- ing disease progression. Most genetic abnormalities of CML blast crisis have a direct or indirect effect on p53 or Rb (or both) gene activity, which are primarily required for cell proliferation and sur- vival, but not differentiation. Thus, the differentiation arrest of CML blast crisis cells is a secondary consequence of these abnormalities or
With the development of the society and economy, the diversity of the campus environment makes campus security facing many new challenges. This article, in the perspective of modern information technology, analysis of the three stages of crisis management in schools, propose the construction of the initial model of school crisis management platform, to provide timely and accurate decision-making reference for
It is no overstatement to say that crisis seems to be unstable and may outbreak whenever and wherever possible. There is a growing awareness that enterprises will be greatly threatened as the increase of the fierce market competition. Various kinds of crisis events give rise to the test of blood and fire towards enterprises. Consumers' trust, brand reputation and even
The global problem of fresh water depletion is addressed. The seriousness and the need to have concern about this crisis are emphasized. The causes for this crisis and some suggestions in handling this alarming situation at the local level with reference to Indian conditions are discussed in detail.
Despite the successful launch of a new round of multilateral trade negotiations at Doha, the World Trade Organization faces a legitimacy crisis. Protests continue to rock major international economic meetings, and the WTO s role in globalization is being questioned by many observers. This paper examines the contours of this crisis and explores the possibility that the WTO s indirect
|Although certain crises cannot be prevented, reactions to many can be planned. A crisis-management team should be organized for each building. Critical crisis-plan elements include telephone trees, forms, reference articles, sample letters, and processes for dealing with local media. Spokespersons should have facts straight before speaking. (MLH)|
This article deals basically with the dynamic environment of today’s businesses. Despite all of the efforts a company puts forth to scan the environmental issues, crises can occur and have to be managed. We have first reviewed several crises in businesses during the recent times, to define and identify the nature of a crisis. Then the anatomy of a crisis
|From natural disasters to the financial debacle, it is clear to the educational community that crises know no boundaries. Far from a passing fad, crisis planning must be an integrated part of effective school district leadership. Two studies explore the status of crisis management in selected public school systems and offer recommendations for…
|"Professional" crisis caregivers (e.g., emergency responders, mental health providers, medical professionals, victim assistance counselors, and faith leaders) are trained to handle exposure to images of destruction and loss and to help victims or survivors cope with the impact of a crisis. They try to help individuals, schools, and communities…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between foreign debt, economic growth and economic crisis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – This paper constructs a Ramsey-Cass-Koopmans model theoretically and examines empirically the relationship between foreign debt, economic growth and economic crisis using US data over the period of 2003 and 2008. Findings – The paper finds that if the
|Surveyed 102 women about their experience with miscarriage. Found that family resource variables were a much stronger predictor of level of crisis and recovery than were personal or community resource variables. Adaptation and cohesion were significant predictors of speed or recovery and level of crisis, respectively. (Author/NB)|
Deploying space-based interceptors (SBIs) to defend offensive forces dominated by submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) increases crisis stability. SBIs increase the fraction of land missiles and aircraft that survive the first strike, which is stabilizing. For small numbers of SLBMs, first and second strikes and costs become similar, and stability increases. This note gives numerical and analytic estimates of the crisis
Media plays a crucial role in a political crisis, that of a Watchdog and Director; objectively informing the masses about the crisis. This paper attempts to highlight the fact that media is not doing what is expected of it. There is a high level of public interest in political crises, generally because of a provocative and over-hyped coverage by the
|The article builds on a number of recent critical reviews to argue that claims that we are experiencing an obesity crisis are almost entirely without foundation. The possibility is explored that this crisis is manufactured through a complex process of the social production of knowledge. The article marshals evidence to challenge the basis upon…
|Following a brief summary of research relating to midlife crisis, a theory of the midlife crisis is presented that is based on the philosophical insights of Plato and Heidegger: The emotional pain at midlife is associated with a collapse of a person's ontic field (relationships with others, to things, and to institutions) or a stagnation of a…
|On June 2003, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC) faced a frightening crisis when an employee was diagnosed with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). In this article, the author looks back and identifies four factors that enabled the university to navigate this crisis. These factors were: (1) leadership at every level; (2)…
|Children and adolescents in the United States and in many countries are projected to have shorter life spans than their parents, partly because of the obesity crisis engulfing the developed world. Exposure to electronic media is often implicated in this crisis because media use, including electronic game play, may promote sedentary behavior and…
Calvert, Sandra L.; Staiano, Amanda E.; Bond, Bradley J.
The leadership attributes and skills required of school leaders in times of crisis are fundamentally different from those generally required as part of the ‘normal’ school environment. Strong school leadership generally is about positioning the school for the future, and about supporting and empowering staff and students in the pursuit of teaching and learning excellence. Leadership in times of crisis
The international economic crisis hit Ireland hard from 2007 on. Ireland’s membership of the Euro had a significant effect on the policy configuration in the run-up to the crisis, as this had shaped credit availability, bank incentives, fiscal priorities, and wage bargaining practices in a variety of ways. But domestic political choices shaped the terms on which Ireland experienced the
|During a crisis, parents can do a great deal to help their child deal with grief and anxiety. This special issue provides information and promising practices that might be helpful in dealing with various crisis situations. Provides the following articles: (1) "Children Killing Children" (Kevin Dwyer); (2) "Disaster: Helping Children Cope" (Debbie…
|Explores communication behaviors and reactions of employees during crisis periods, using a qualitative case study of Eastern Airlines pilots. Finds that useful theories for crisis communication can be developed only after sufficient inquiry into the communication needs and behaviors of message receivers. (MS)|
|Applies risk management models to child care administration. These models have been used by corporations to plan for crisis management. The formation of a crisis management policy and procedure is described, and features of effective communication during crises are outlined. (GLR)|
This paper will examine the effects of the federal government response to the 2008 financial crisis and will explore the likely strategic impacts to the US Army, its operations, and its finances. The crisis originated in America and quickly spread to all ...
Purpose – Many managers would like to take a strategic approach to preparing the organisation to avoid impending crisis but instead find themselves fire-fighting to mitigate its impact. This paper seeks to examine an organisation which made major strategic changes in order to respond to the full effect of a crisis which would be realised over a two to three
Duncan Shaw; Matthew Hall; John S. Edwards; Brad Baker
Purpose – It is very important to understand the current (2007-2009) economic crisis because it is the most severe since the Second World War and is having a tremendous impact on global and national economic environments. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to explain the main factors (savings attributes and cultural factors) that created the crisis and better understand
We study the dynamics of correlation and variance in systems under the load of environmental factors. A universal effect in ensembles of similar systems under the load of similar factors is described: in crisis, typically, even before obvious symptoms of crisis appear, correlation increases, and, at the same time, variance (and volatility) increases too. This effect is supported by many experiments and observations of groups of humans, mice, trees, grassy plants, and on financial time series. A general approach to the explanation of the effect through dynamics of individual adaptation of similar non-interactive individuals to a similar system of external factors is developed. Qualitatively, this approach follows Selye’s idea about adaptation energy.
Gorban, Alexander N.; Smirnova, Elena V.; Tyukina, Tatiana A.
The objective of this paper is to highlight the dimensions characterising the socialisation process in a crisis context. Based on the definition of organisational socialisation advanced by Van Maanen and Schein (1979) and employed later by Jones (1986), a crisis is presented as a passage from a 'normal' situation to an 'exceptional' situation. A crisis represents a socialisation context in the sense that it is a novel state in which actors must develop a different way of mobilising their knowledge, utilising their skills, and practicing their trade or profession. The paper discusses certain findings that have emerged from the literature on organisational socialisation, as well as from the testimony of actors who participated in efforts to manage the Quebec ice-storm crisis of early 1998. It is hoped that this exploratory study's data will give rise to fruitful interaction between the field of organisational socialisation and that of crisis management. PMID:19863567
A number of theories have been proposed on the causation of child abuse, and many of these theories assign some role to stress. Stress is variously conceptualized as a continuous state resulting from poverty, poor housing, and the like, or as an immediate crisis such as an argument or the breakdown of an appliance. An alternate perspective on stress identifies it with life change events which require readjustment in the lifestyle of a person. When an excessive number or magnitude of such life change events occur, the person affected may be said to be in a state of life crisis. Such states of life crisis have been found to be associated with the onset of physical illness and with the occurrence of accidents and injuries. In this study, a questionnaire was administered to 35 abusing parents and 35 matched controls who had experienced problems with their children but had not been abusive. The two groups were compared for their life change scores on the Social Readjustment Rating Scale for the year before their abuse or problems began with their children. The mean score of the nonabusers was 124, which does not indicate a life crisis. For the abusers, the mean score was 234, which indicates a moderate life crisis. These means are significantly different at the .001 level by the t test. The role of symbiosis, an emotiontional attachment in which a person seeks to be taken care of by another person, was also explored. It is argued that abusive parents are competing with each other and with their children for the role of being cared for. This kind of behavior seems to make the person particularly vulnerable to life changes, which in turn produce stress. Support for this view was found in the responses to the questionnaire. Prevention strategies aimed at reducing change and stress might include better provision of crisis-intervention services, measures aimed at reducing unemployment or lack of opportunity, effective health maintenance services, and greater provision of counseling and mental health services. Use of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale in a preventive program of early intervention is also possible.
A little known report issued in early 2005 by a group of experts might contain the seeds for solving the current Iranian crisis. The group, convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), examined the technical aspects of a number of options for multinationalizing the nuclear fuel cycle as a way of assuring all countries in good standing with the
This article reports results of a qualitative study that examined communication challenges decision makers experience during the response stage of crisis management. Response is perhaps the most critical of the three stages (prevention, response, recovery) identified in crisis research literature. Response is the point when crisis managers make decisions that may save lives and mitigate the effects of the crisis.
|Suggests that crisis communication should be a part of the larger issues of communication policy and strategy. Builds a case for the need to consider crisis communication in a larger context. Proposes a model of crisis communication content that may serve as a framework for research into the efficacy of communication during crisis episodes. (RS)|
This study utilizes existing literature to explain how mobile technologies are ideally suited to assist in crisis response communication and coordination. By examining the needs of crisis responders, fifteen criteria are proposed and a framework is developed that compares the needs of crisis responders to the features of mobile technology. The framework demonstrates how crisis responders may select the best
The populations of European societies are heterogeneous and a crucial part of effective crisis preparedness is to customize contingency planning and crisis communication to these populations. The aim of this study is therefore to develop a theoretically based model of organizations' crisis preparedness in heterogeneous societies. Through theoretical and empirical analyses the model for ‘Organizational Crisis Preparedness in Heterogeneous societies’,
Firms involved in international business are affected by many crisis and crisis-like events not generally associated with normal operations. Crisis management provides a business firm with a systematic, orderly response to crisis situations. Many crises can be prevented – or at least coped with more effectively – through early detection. The real challenge is not just to recognize crises, but
This booklet presents information on school-crisis management, based on the work of a New Haven, Connecticut, regional crisis team that was initially created to address the mental-health needs of school children during the Persian Gulf War. The goals of the regional crisis committee were to develop a school-crisis intervention model, train…
Purpose – A recovery crisis is an occasion when there is a subsequent calamity after a major crisis such as the recovery crisis following the 9\\/11 World Trade Center tragedy or the recovery crisis following the devastation in New Orleans caused by Hurricane Katrina. Consequently, this paper seeks to focus on what can be done to prevent or limit the
|In this article, agrofuels are examined in the context of the world food price crisis and the "food sovereignty" proposal for addressing the crisis. Both short- and long-term causes of the crisis are examined, and while agrofuels are presently not a prime causal factor they are clearly contraindicated by the crisis. Food sovereignty, including a…
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to characterize the danger period which extends before a crisis and to position issue management as an effective crisis prevention discipline. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper explores scholarship regarding the developing concept of active pre-crisis management, the growing acceptance of crisis management as an integrated process and the implications of this holistic approach
The effect that defenses have on crisis stability is one of the central issues in the current debate over the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Crisis stability would be threatened in a situation in which either the United States or the Soviet Union feels pressure to strike first in the hope of producing a more favorable outcome to what appears to be inevitable nuclear war. This note examines various issues surrounding the question of crisis stability. In particular, it considers options for ameliorating any potential instabilities that might arise during a transition to higher levels of strategic defenses. The authors suggest that a crisis-stable transition is possible, that the mutual survivability of strategic offensive forces is crucial to maintaining crisis stability, that space-based defenses of strategic offensive forces (SOF) are potentially crisis-destabilizing unless they are backed up by terminal defenses of SOF, and that the mutual survivability of strategic defenses and defense suppression forces is also critical to crisis stability.
Wilkening, D.; Watman, K.; Kennedy, M.; Darilek, R.
In October 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first Earth-circling artificial satellite and the crisis that resulted led to numerous actions in the United States aimed at "remediating" a Cold War crisis. This included the establishment of a separate civilian space agency charged with the conduct of an official program of scientific and technological space exploration, consolidation of Department of Defense space activities, the passage of the National Defense Education Act, the creation of a Presidential Science Advisor, and a host of lesser actions. The politics of these changes is fascinating, and has been interpreted as an appropriate political response to a unique crisis situation. Interest groups, all for differing reasons, prodded national leaders to undertake large-scale efforts, something the president thought unnecessarily expensive and once set in place impossible to dismantle. But was the Sputnik crisis truly a crisis in any real sense? Was it made into one by interest groups who used it for their own ends? This paper will trace briefly some of the major themes associated with the IGY and Sputnik and describe the political construction of the crisis as it emerged in 1957- 1958. It will also discuss something about the transformation of federal science and technology that took place in the aftermath of the "crisis" and how it set in train a series of processes and policies that did not unravel until the end of the Cold War.
Biofuel shortage in peasant economies is often reported to reach crisis proportions in conditions of high population density. As a group, peasants are portrayed as engaging in irrational biofuel resource abuse. At times this abuse is treated as the inevitable outcome of excess biofuel demand. Otherwise, an explanation is often given in terms of resource-use problems inherent in common property. An alternative explanation is proposed in this dissertation. Rather than the effect of common property (a structure), such crises are more likely the result of capitalist expansion (a process). Systems of common foraging are prone to ownership conflict during transitions to private property. This conflict provides a more cogent explanation for biofuel shortage than any structural flaw in common-use systems. Contemporary rural Java contradicts mechanistic applications of supply/demand models of biofuel shortage. Despite high population pressure, biofuel is not inordinately scarce. There is little basis for the crisis predictions. While assessments of biofuel demand and supply can provide scarcity indicators, they ought not be used to predict overuse. The traditional crisis predictions of supply/demand balancing and common property analysis must be replaced by a more skeptical multi-disciplinary approach.
This report gives a preliminary discussion of the crisis stability characteristics of the new world order through calculations calibrated for the current order. If finds that crisis stability indices have qualitatively similar behavior in the new order, but significantly more comforting values than in the old. The recent summit proposed significant cuts in MIRVed and heavy intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs), and strategic weapons generally, that take the world into an apparently new order. This report gives a preliminary discussion of the crisis stability characteristics of that new order and of the interaction of offenses and defenses with stability indices in it.
A crisis can hit any business. It can hurt cash flow, productivity, the public's faith, and the company's image. The adverse effects come in two major areas: public image and cash flow, both of which can be devastating. Lack of planning ensures maximum pain and the greatest chance of future collapse. A proactive stance can lessen the pain and give the best chance of recovery. Like a forest fire, a crisis can be sniffed early or it can destroy thousands of 'acres.' The best manager will have plans for crisis management and will be able to smell the smoke before the blaze consumes the forest. PMID:10313369
Helping young people deal with crises can be a difficult task, and is something that should not be taken lightly. The National Association of School Psychologists has brought together a set of valuable resources on this site for professionals who work with children. The resources are divided into eight different sections, and they include links to other online resources, and those that deal with specific subjects, such as suicide, trauma, and natural disasters. The natural disaster section includes fact sheets on how to help children after a wildfire and in the aftermath of a tsunami. Moving on, the suicide section contains like-minded materials on how to address teen suicide and preventive measures. The site is rounded out with a selection of crisis resources in Spanish.
The U.S. oil and gas industry has been dramatically weakened by the recent oil price collapse. Domestic drilling activity reached a new post-World War II low during the summer of 1986. Given a weak, unstable oil price outlook, U.S. capability will continue to deteriorate. In the last year U.S. imports of foreign oil have risen significantly, and if market forces alone dominate, U.S. dependence is expected to rise from 32% in 1983 to the 50 to 70% level in the not-too-distant future. The 1973 oil embargo and the subsequent attempts to improve U.S. energy security vividly demonstrated the huge costs and long periods of time required to change our energy system. These facts, coupled with the nation's generally short-term orientation, suggest a strong likelihood of a new U.S. energy crisis in the early to middle 1990s. PMID:17775008
Purpose – To offer a complexity-informed framework for the design of an effective organizational crisis response system. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – A narrative analysis of the crisis response in a hotel chain facing a major food poisoning outbreak, seen from a complexity theory perspective. Data were collected through 17 in-depth interviews of persons involved in the crisis response and through analysis of
Following an overview of the economics of the current financial crisis, and the phenomenon of the Irish ‘Celtic Tiger’, this\\u000a article argues that the current Irish-crisis and purported Euro-crisis are specific examples of the failure of banks internationally\\u000a to exercise appropriate prudential care when making loans to both individuals and governments. The policy issue is thus one\\u000a of banking supervision
After implementation of the National Economic and Social Development Plan (1961-1966), Thailand experienced increasing high rates of economic growth. However by mid 1997, Thailand's economy was slipping into the so-called 'Thailand financial crisis': fall...
The article discusses the analogy and distinguishing features of heat-exchange crises in steam-generating channels of thermosiphon circuits. A chart of the crisis phenomena in channels with natural and forced circulation is presented.
This week's meeting of the International Monetary Fund at Toronto will avoid an immediate crisis. But more international credit will not allow rich and poor to behave as if they live on different planets.
Many states and localities have implemented Crisis Information Management Systems (CIMS) to integrate situational awareness, notification and disaster assessment tools utilized in Emergency Operation Centers (EOC)s and to eliminate separate stovepipe comm...
|Offers steps to making school security equipment and emergency plans more effective through proper planning and staff training. Key components of effective communication for controlling and responding to crisis are highlighted. (GR)|
Final report of a project to develop a prototype plan for public communications to support Crisis Relocation Planning. Report includes a review of the literature related to communications involved in large scale evacuations, formulation of communications ...
|Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)|
This essay considers the challenges of responding to the Sandusky child sex-abuse scandal while in the midst of said crisis. It discusses how the authors chose to respond as scholars and teachers of rhetoric concerned with deliberation.
Heather Adams; Jeremy Engels; Michael J. Faris; Debra Hawhee; Mark Hlavacik
The 'liability insurance crisis' is still a serious problem for certain categories of business -- especially daycare providers, architects, engineers, manufacturers, bars and restaurants, and recreation and sports organization. These business types suffer...
|Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)|
Divides the components of the energy crisis into those which demand immediate, moderate term, and long term research efforts. Delineates specific topics in each category and solicits physicists' efforts in these areas. (CP)
Examines the status of the energy crisis in Australia. Outlines energy alternatives for the 1990's and describes the present status of solar energy research and the economics of solar energy systems. (GS)
Discusses legislation recently passed by Congress in response to the energy crisis, and the Nixon Administration's proposal for creating a new Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and a Nuclear Energy Commission (NEC). (JR)
To school business managers, the energy crisis is a continuing economic disaster as energy costs continue to climb and schools are without money to make necessary renovations to reduce energy consumption. (Author/IRT)
A unit to be used as a means of assisting students in formalizing their position on the fundamental issues within the energy crisis includes objectives, learning activities, and a resource list. (Author/KM)
The report presents the results of analyses made of the Crisis Home Alerting Technique (CHAT) as they would apply to the major broadcasting media. The investigations centered on the following factors: homes covered, technical and operational problems, pub...
In most crisis cases, press coverage will occur. If you are prepared and rehearsed, you can often minimize the damage, reduce the amount of coverage and control what is being said so that it is less negative. PMID:10302627
Worry on the part of residents of the three states now accepting most of the commercial low-level wastes that their states were becoming national nuclear dumping grounds resulted in a two-year program in North Carolina aimed at reducing the volume of low-level wastes to be buried from 2.4 to 1.2 million cubic feet per year. The Hanford, Washington site will only accept commercial medical wastes after July, 1981, while Nevada is seeking ways to close the Beatty facility. These states want other states to cooperate in developing regional sites, an arrangement that is unconstitutional without Congressional authority. The American Nuclear Energy Council is urging Congress to require each state to be responsible for its own wastes. Some states are meeting together in anticipation that Congress will respond with legislation requiring compacts among states before there is a national low-level crisis. Citizen groups have been active in Washington State in an effort to keep the Hanford site open until the legal questions are settled. Utilities are working to increase their on-site storage capability. (DCK)
AbstractAs scholars in fields such as media studies, crisis studies and public policy studies have argued, there exists a fundamental link between crises and the media. Once an event has been interpreted as a crisis, questions of accountability inevitably appear on the media agenda, and the struggle to attribute blame and responsibility to a specific entity or entities—the blame game—thus
The effect of liquid subcooling below the saturation temperature on the third heat transfer crisis was studied experimentally\\u000a at pool boiling. Experimental data on the threshold values of superheating and heat fluxes, above which the evaporation front\\u000a and third heat transfer crisis for acetone at subcooling from 0.3 to 10 K are formed, were shown. Formation of evaporation\\u000a fronts is
Deploying space-based interceptors (SBIs) to defend offensive forces dominated by submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) increases crisis stability. SBIs increase the fraction of land missiles and aircraft that survive the first strike, which is stabilizing. For small numbers of SLBMs, first and second strikes and costs become similar, and stability increases. This note gives numerical and analytic estimates of the crisis stability of SLBM-dominated build downs stabilized with SBIs, using the stability analysis derived in earlier reports.
Pheochromocytoma crisis is a rare life-threatening event that may appear with a variety of clinical symptoms. We present three cases of life-threatening crisis in which mag- nesium sulfate was particularly beneficial in controlling symptoms and signs when more conventional forms of therapy had failed. Two patients presented with hyper- tensive encephalopathy, and the third presented with catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy. All three
This paper explores principal-principal conflicts in corporate governance during times of economic crisis. We address the\\u000a question: What external and internal governance mechanisms can best protect minority shareholders? Drawing on 877 publicly\\u000a listed large corporations with concentrated ownership in seven Asian countries and regions, we compare different control structures\\u000a between family firms and non-family firms during crisis. We find that
July 2000After Mexico's financial crisis in 1994, the distribution of income and labor earnings improved. But financial income and rising labor earnings in higher-income brackets are growing sources of inequality in Mexico.After Mexico's financial crisis in 1994, the distribution of income and labor earnings improved. Did inequality increase during the recession, as one would expect, since the rich have more
When and how often to release information on television are important issues in crisis and emergency risk communication. There is a lot of crisis information, including warnings and news, to which people should have access, but most of it is not significantly urgent to interrupt the broadcasting of television programmes. Hence, the right timing for the release of crisis information should be selected based on the importance of the crisis and any associated communication requirements. Using recursive methods, this paper builds an audience coverage model of crisis information release. Based on 2007 Household Using TV (HUT) data for Hefei City, China, the optimal combination of broadcasting sequence (with frequencies between one and eight times) is obtained using the implicit enumeration method. The developed model is applicable to effective transmission of crisis information, with the aim of reducing interference with the normal television transmission process and decreasing the psychological effect on audiences. The same model can be employed for other purposes, such as news coverage and weather and road information. PMID:20572851
Wei, Jiuchang; Zhao, Dingtao; Yang, Feng; Du, Shaofu; Marinova, Dora
|Presents key concepts of chaos theory (CT) as a general framework for describing organizational crisis and crisis communication. Discusses principles of predictability, sensitive dependence on initial conditions, bifurcation as system breakdown, emergent self-organization, and fractals and strange attractors as principles of organization.…
This study suggests the use of elements of risk communication for use by crisis communication practitioners who will face an increasing industrial reliance on new technology which might be associated with potential health and environmental harm. A case study of a small company crisis revealed that the elements of anticipation, public involvement, public trust, technological comparison, and media tolerance might
|Explains a comprehensive, prescriptive, situational approach for responding to crises and protecting organizational reputation: the situational crisis communication theory (SCCT). Notes undergraduate students read two crisis case studies from a set of 13 cases and responded to questions following the case. Validates a key assumption in SCCT and…
|Suggests use of elements of risk communication by crisis communication practitioners facing increasing industrial reliance on new technologies which might be associated with potential health/environment harm. Studies a small company crisis which reveals that elements of anticipation, public involvement/trust, technological comparison, and media…
We construct four market-specific Financial Stress Indices (FSIs) and overall FSIs for the ASEAN-5 economies from 1997 to 2009. Using the FSIs, we establish stylized features of financial stress and characterize the connectivity of financial markets. The results show that stress was most severe during the Asian Crisis, followed by the Tech Burst and the recent Global Crisis. Principal component
Increasingly in the last decade, adolescent patients have come to the attention of psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers. Characteristically, when a teenager comes for help, he is in a state of crisis. After dealing for two years with adolescents in crisis, the Outpatient Clinic at McLean Hospital has learned to subdivide the great…
Implications of the modern Marxist theory create the opportunity to show the inevitability, the reasons and the main features of the first world crisis of the XXI century. It has been generated by deregulation of economy, which caused the classical crisis of overproduction, and by the new contradictions of late capitalism, in particular, by persistent over-accumulation of capital and by
This paper introduces the details and characteristics of disclosures of crisis management scenarios and simulations of countries and regions based on some of the information collected in research activities for a project on constructing a new macroeconomic model and identifying the right economic policies to take in times of crisis. The paper also identifies some of the implications to Japan's
In this paper, we show that there is a simple and intuitive relation between crisis-induced intermittency and a boundary crisis in unimodal maps and in a family of chaotic flows with strong volume contraction. This point of view allows us to identify a set of ‘target points’ directly from the time series of the considered system that can be used
Samuel Zambrano; Inés P Mariño; Miguel A F Sanjuán
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to extend current theories in crisis communication, by developing a more systemic approach to understanding the role of emotions in crises and the strategies organizations can use to respond. The authors' integrated crisis mapping (ICM) model is premised on a public-based, emotion-driven perspective where different crises are mapped on two continua, the
In this paper, we show that there is a simple and intuitive relation between crisis-induced intermittency and a boundary crisis in unimodal maps and in a family of chaotic flows with strong volume contraction. This point of view allows us to identify a set of 'target points' directly from the time series of the considered system that can be used
Samuel Zambrano; Inés P. Mariño; Miguel A. F. Sanjuán
Social media provides the means for creating new communities and for reenergizing old communities. Recently, a new kind of quickly formulated, powerful community has formed as existing social media communities, news organizations, and users have converged in social media spaces to respond to sudden tragedies. This article addresses the ad-hoc crisis community, whith uses the social madia as a crisis
This paper examines crisis discourse that emphasizes renewal and growth over issues of blame, responsibility, and liability. Three categories of renewal are discussed in light of the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks. These categories include renewal based upon stakeholder commitment, commitment to correction, and core values. This paper concludes with crisis communication implications for both theory and practice.
The cold dark matter (CDM) theory predicts a wealth of substructure within dark halos. These predictions match observations of galaxy clusters like the nearby Virgo Cluster. However, CDM has a ``small-scale crisis'': galaxies dominate the halo with little substructure, even though the model predicts that galaxies should be scaled versions of galaxy clusters, with abundant substructure. Compared to CDM predictions, the Milky Way and Andromeda are ``missing'' objects with velocity dispersions of ?>=10 km s-1. The energy scale of these missing satellites is low enough that stellar winds and supernovae might remove gas and suppress the formation of their luminous stellar components. Here we show that the small-scale crisis persists in fossil groups that have masses of up to 40% of the nearby Virgo Cluster of galaxies. Fossil groups are missing satellites with luminosities that occur at the predicted frequency in the Virgo Cluster. Moreover, the ``missing galaxies'' in fossil groups are nearly as luminous as the Milky Way, with a velocity dispersion of ?<=150 km s-1.
Adults in midlife can be significantly helped through group treatment that is sensitive to the developmental issues of the age period. The author suggests that the developmental crisis of midlife--Generativity versus Stagnation--can, through unconscious processes, become a groupcrisis as well. A group state of stagnation, enveloping the members as well as the leader, if understood and worked through, can significantly facilitate the developmental progress of its midlife members. A clinical example demonstrates how a therapist helped his midlife group move out of stagnation and toward generativity. PMID:7759180
The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…
Federal funding supports the growth and development of public health infrastructure and preparedness. The New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services used federal funds to increase local public health infrastructure that included the hiring of health educators or risk communicators (HERCs). The HERCs are a diverse group of health and communications professionals trained in emergency communication. They provide crisis
Laura Taylor; Suzanne Miro; Sylvia H. Bookbinder; Thomas Slater
The purpose of this paper is to analyse household decision-making regarding resource allocation in the aftermath of a food crisis in rural Niger. International attention had resulted in humanitarian agencies launching emergency nutrition programmes to alleviate persistently high levels of acute child malnutrition. We conducted participant observation, 93 in-depth interviews, 15 focus groups, 44 feeding and illness histories for children
Katherine Rebecca Hampshire; Catherine Panter-Brick; Kate Kilpatrick; Rachel E. Casiday
|Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of an industrial company's top management team (TMT) that fought to survive an economic crisis. Specifically, the article seeks to focus on describing the TMT's composition, group processes, and work during a period of high external pressure; analysing the TMT's work in…
A group of SRI International scholars looks beyond the technical difficulties of the energy crisis to determine the basic reasons for the severity of our energy and environmental problems, and finds them in our individual choices of life style. The authors depict two detailed energy-use scenarios for the year 2050, using California as a model. One scenario portrays a future
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to present the results of a study of an industrial company's top management team (TMT) that fought to survive an economic crisis. Specifically, the article seeks to focus on describing the TMT's composition, group processes, and work during a period of high external pressure; analysing the TMT's work in…
There is emerging evidence that crisis resolution services can provide alternatives to hospital admission, reducing demand on inpatient beds. Following a public consultation exercise in Lancashire (England), a team of nurses undertook a study, using interactive research methodology, to gain an understanding of how users and carers define a crisis and what range of crisis services, resources and interventions service users and carers thought would help avoid unnecessary hospital admission. Data collection comprised postal questionnaires and 24 group meetings with service users and carers, which were held during 2006. Data were analysed, and seven themes were identified: (1) definitions of a crisis; (2) access to services; (3) interventions; (4) range of services required (before, during and after crisis); (5) place of treatment; (6) recovery and rehabilitation; and (7) community support. We conclude that expressed preferences of service users and carers for pre-emptive services that are delivered flexibly will present a challenge for service commissioners and providers, particularly where stringent access criteria are used. Home-based pre-emptive services that reduce the need for unnecessary hospital treatment may avoid progression to social exclusion of service users. PMID:19538598
In the wake of the financial crisis, sovereign debt crisis has emerged and is severely affecting some countries in the European Union, threatening the viability of the euro and even the EU itself. This paper applies recent developments in econophysics, in particular the minimum spanning tree approach and the associate hierarchical tree, to analyze the asynchronization between the four most affected countries and other resilient countries in the euro area. For this purpose, daily government bond yield rates are used, covering the period from April 2007 to October 2010, thus including yield rates before, during and after the financial crises. The results show an increasing separation of the two groups of euro countries with the deepening of the government bond crisis.
This research explores the transformation of rape crisis centers and whether directors, staff, interns, and volunteers see changes as beneficial or detrimental to rape crisis centers and the victims they serve. Data from 63 interviews with directors, staff, interns, and volunteers from six rape crisis centers located in four East Coast states indicate that although centers may have been formed for different reasons depending on when they opened, all have become more professional, rely less on volunteers, engage in more collaboration with other agencies, and have largely abandoned their traditional activism agenda. Traditional activism through political protests and membership in consciousness raising groups has been replaced by community education and outreach. Some of these changes are viewed as positive whereas others are viewed as negative. PMID:22083657
Crisis management teams (CMT) are necessary to ensure adequate and appropriate crisis management planning and response to unforeseen, adverse events. This study investigated the existence of CMTs, the membership of CMTs, and the degree of training received by CMTs in Australian health and allied health organisations. This cross-sectional study draws on data provided by executive decision makers in a broad selection of health and allied health organisations. Crisis management teams were found in 44.2 per cent of the health-related organisations surveyed, which is ten per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. Membership of these CMTs was not ideal and did not conform to standard CMT membership profiles. Similarly, the extent of crisis management training in health-related organisations is 20 per cent lower than the figure for business organisations. If organisations do not become pro-active in their crisis management practices, the onus is on government to improve the situation through regulation and the provision of more physical, monetary and skill resources to ensure that the health services of Australia are sufficiently prepared to respond to adverse events. PMID:22576140
For years, controversy has raged over what seemingly should be a well-established property of our Sun, the solar oxygen abundance. Spectroscopic estimates early last decade based on advanced 3D time-dependent photospheric convection simulations, suggested that the true oxygen abundance was almost 40% lower than the value (680 ppm relative to hydrogen) recommended only a few years prior. The unexpectedly low value sparked what has come to be called the ``Solar Oxygen Crisis,'' because the previous higher abundance was almost exactly what was required by helioseismology to reproduce the interior sound speed profile, well-characterized from surface p-mode measurements. Although in most other parts of Astronomy, agreement to within a factor of two is cause for celebration, in this case -- despite intense efforts on both sides -- there did not seem to be an easy way to reconcile the disparate results from the inside and outside of the Sun. In this study, I examine the surface spectroscopy side of the issue, bringing to bear additional diagnostics, such as center-to-limb behavior, on the one hand to validate the thermal properties of the 3D convection models, and on the other to provide additional leverage on the abundance issue. The main conclusion is that existing 3D models can reproduce the key continuum center-limb effect in the visible, showing that the mean thermal gradient in the deep atmosphere is accurate, but the same models misunderestimate intensities in the inner wings of the H and K resonance lines of ionized calcium, a signature of too-low temperatures in the middle photosphere (where key oxygen bearing CO and OH reside). Implications for a unified description of the oxygen abundance from atomic and molecular species are discussed. This work supported by NSF.
There are many lessons that can still be learned from the Cuban Missile Crisis. There is no other incident of this magnitude between the Superpowers, that can be considered representative of effective crisis management and national security decision makin...
Current crisis communication plans and guidance at all levels of government focus almost exclusively on communication during a crisis, rather than a comprehensive approach that also addresses the timeframe well before and well after a disaster. Furthermor...
The implications of modern Marxist theory reveal the inevitability, the causes, and the main features of the first global crisis of the twenty-first century. The crisis has been generated by deregulation of economyâwhich caused the \\
This report has instrumented the existing prototype multi-user crisis management system in preparation for conducting cognitive studies on factors that influence cognitive load and human performance in crisis management situations.
This thesis addresses the need for a structured mapping of academic literature relating to crisis management. An overview of current crisis management literature is provided, highlighting the gap and concentrating on predominant themes that have been iden...
|Uses the 1979 Three Mile Island nuclear plant accident to illustrate the communication problems embedded in a crisis. Describes the reactions created by the stress related to crisis. Suggests business communication strategies for improving communication to the public. (SR)|
The surprising social phenomena of the Arab Spring and the Occupy Wall Street movement posit the question of whether the active role of committed groups may produce political changes of significant importance. Under what conditions are the convictions of a minority going to dominate the future direction of a society? We use a Cooperative Decision Making (CDM) model to study the effect of committed minorities on group behavior in time of crisis. The CDM model has been shown to generate consensus through a phase-transition process that at criticality establishes long-range correlations among the individuals within a model society. In a condition of high consensus, the correlation function vanishes, thereby making the network recover the ordinary locality condition. However, this state is not permanent and times of crisis occur when there is an ambiguity concerning a given social issue. The correlation function within the cooperative system becomes similarly extended as it is observed at criticality. This combination of independence (free will) and long-range correlation makes it possible for very small but committed minorities to produce substantial changes in social consensus.
Turalska, Malgorzata; Grigolini, Paolo; West, Bruce J.
There is an epistemological crisis in genomics. At issue is what constitutes scientific knowledge in genomic science, or systems biology in general. Does this crisis require a new perspective on knowledge heretofore absent from science or is it merely a matter of interpreting new scientific developments in an existing epistemological framework? This paper discusses the manner in which the experimental method, as developed and understood over recent centuries, leads naturally to a scientific epistemology grounded in an experimental-mathematical duality. It places genomics into this epistemological framework and examines the current situation in genomics. Meaning and the constitution of scientific knowledge are key concerns for genomics, and the nature of the epistemological crisis in genomics depends on how these are understood.
Recent attempts to regulate Crisis Pregnancy Centers, pseudoclinics that surreptitiously aim to dissuade pregnant women from choosing abortion, have confronted the thorny problem of how to define commercial speech. The Supreme Court has offered three potential answers to this definitional quandary. This Note uses the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases to demonstrate that courts should use one of these solutions, the factor-based approach of Bolger v. Youngs Drugs Products Corp., to define commercial speech in the Crisis Pregnancy Center cases and elsewhere. In principle and in application, the Bolger factor-based approach succeeds in structuring commercial speech analysis at the margins of the doctrine. PMID:23461000
Background The crisis resolution\\/home treatment (CR\\/HT) model has brought significant reform of acute mental health care in the UK and\\u000a beyond. The complex issue of conceptualising crisis is, however, overlooked in CR\\/HT literature. This study aimed to investigate\\u000a how crisis is understood amongst those working in CR\\/HT teams.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method Framework analysis was applied to semi-structured interviews with 39 CR\\/HT workers representative of
In this paper, we show that there is a simple and intuitive relation between crisis-induced intermittency and a boundary crisis in unimodal maps and in a family of chaotic flows with strong volume contraction. This point of view allows us to identify a set of 'target points' directly from the time series of the considered system that can be used to tame crisis-induced intermittency. To do this, we use an advantageous adaptation of a control scheme that was typically used in the context of control of transient chaos. We illustrate here these ideas with the quadratic map and Rössler flow.
Zambrano, Samuel; Mariño, Inés P.; Sanjuán, Miguel A. F.
These reports from the International CrisisGroup (ICG) provide information about the volatile socio-political situation in the South Balkans, specifically in the nations of Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia. Macedonia: New faces in Skopje analyzes the recent parliamentary elections and the change of government in Macedonia.
Aripiprazole is the third generation atypical antipsychotic and a dopamine serotonin system stabilizer (DSS) effective against positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. It has a low propensity for extrapyramidal side effects, causes minimal weight gain or sedation, produces no elevation in serum prolactin levels, and does not cause prolongation of QTc interval. This case report is of a patient suffering from schizophrenia (paranoid). The patient developed oculogyric crisis (acute dystonia) with aripiprazole dose uptitration. Dystonic reaction resolved with promethazine administration. Naranjo's causality assessment reveals probable association of aripiprazole with oculogyric crisis. A thorough workup and vigilance is required prior to initiation of aripiprazole in the case of schizophrenia.
The Cross-Departmental Analysis and Reports Team (CD/ART) of the International Labor Organization provide this report, prepared for discussion at the High-Level Tripartite Meeting on Social Responses to the Financial Crisis in East and South-East Asian Countries, held in Bangkok Thailand in April 1998. The four chapter report explains the origins of the crisis; its social impacts in terms of such topics as unemployment, poverty, and women and migrant workers; ameliorative policies; and lessons for future policy. The first chapter is accompanied by numerous references, many of which are hyperlinked to full text.
This study examines crisis-management practices in the Israeli restaurant industry. The study uses a questionnaire for evaluating the importance and usage of different practices for crisis management. The findings show that managers are generally consistent in crisis management and that they generally use the most important practices. The findings illustrate the significance of government support in external crises and suggest
As the business community becomes more complex, crisis events are likely to increase in both prevalence and severity. Whether management scholarship has kept pace with this new reality is debatable. Moreover, much of the existing crisis research—perhaps understandably—stems from a negative frame: crises are threats or problems to be overcome. Such research has produced relevant insight into crisis handling, has
Erika Hayes James; Lynn Perry Wooten; Kelly Dushek
The paper provides an overview of salient features of the Asian currency crisis and its resolution; seeks to explain the different phases of the crisis in terms of the underlying economic mechanism and operation of exogenous factors; and draws some preventive as also prescriptive policy conclusions. The Asian crisis, it appears, was characterised by a single cycle in the real
This paper is a discussion of crisis communication in order to gain a better understanding of the U.S. Navy's crisis communications actions after the submarine collided with the Japanese fishing boat. This paper will analyze the crisis management performa...
The description of ''best practices'' is widely used to improve organizational and professional practice. This analysis describes best practices in crisis communication as a form of grounded theoretical approach for improving the effectiveness of crisis communication specifically within the context of large publicly-managed crises. The results of a panel of crisis communication experts are reviewed. Ten best practices for effective
|Administrators can prepare for crisis situations by conducting safety assessments at all schools and district facilities, involving community resources, updating district and school discipline and crisis-communication plans, establishing a crisis-intervention team, providing staff training, establishing "suspicious behavior" reporting procedures,…
|Considers how crisis situations can cause internal and external stakeholders to question the legitimacy of organizations. Notes that when faced with a crisis, organizations are compelled to communicate strategically with stakeholders to manage legitimacy. Synthesizes literature on organizational legitimacy, crisis management, and niche-width…
In this study, we describe how to use innovative techniques to improve the decision-making process in crisis response organizations. The focus was on building situation awareness of a crisis and overcoming pitfalls such as tunnel vision and information bias through using critical thinking. We started by observing typical difficulties in crisis management in a field study. The essential elements of
Crisis response poses many of the most difficult information technology in crisis management. It requires information and communication-intensive efforts, utilized for reducing uncertainty, calculating and comparing costs and benefits, and managing resources in a fashion beyond those regularly available to handle routine problems. In this paper, we explore the benefits of artificial intelligence technologies in crisis response. This paper discusses
Khaled M. Khalil; M. Abdel-Aziz; Taymour T. Nazmy; Abdel-Badeeh M. Salem
Scholars have devoted increasing efforts to understanding crisis response networks especially networks comprised of disparate members who acknowledge no higher organizational authority. Coordination within these networks is difficult for several reasons, including the chaotic nature of the crisis, a need to balance shared goals (crisis amelioration) and organization-specific goals, and the lack of a central organizing authority. More recently, scholars
Life including mankind will not survive on earth without sufficient clean fresh water. The world is facing a water crisis of apocalyptic proportion. In part, the crisis was created by well-intended actions, waste, and ambivalence of mankind. The crisis is...
The subprime crisis engulfed not only the US economy, but has also put the global economies under dark clouds of uncertainty. This paper is an attempt to understand the financial crisis and causative factors for the same, the genesis of structured investment vehicles (SIVs), their nature, their business model and their contribution to the subprime crisis. Further, we intend to
The euro area's sovereign debt crisis continues though significant steps have been taken to resolve it. This paper proposes a comprehensive solution to the crisis based on three pillars: a plan to restore banking sector soundness in the whole euro area, a resolution of sovereign debt crisis -including a revision of EU assistance facilities and a reduction of the Greek
The euro area’s sovereign debt crisis continues though significant steps have been taken to resolve it. This paper proposes a comprehensive solution to the crisis based on three pillars: a plan to restore banking sector soundness in the whole euro area, a resolution of sovereign debt crisis - including a revision of EU assistance facilities and a reduction of the
The euro crisis is fundamentally a political crisis. At its core the crisis is about national sovereignty and the process in which European governments can agree to transfer it to new, required euro area institutions governing banking sectors and fiscal policies. This transfer of national control over domestic banking sectors and fiscal policy, say Bergsten and Kirkegaard, will happen only
Paroxysmal public crisis management reflects operating capability of the government. Knowledge is favorable resource in crisis management, but how to make good use of it is still a cordial knot. Based on the theory of supernetwork, this paper proposes a supernetwork model of knowledge management in paroxysmal public crisis, which consists of three-tiers: knowledge network, personal network and knowledge medium
The article examines the causes of the origin and manifestation of the current global financial crisis and the policies adopted in developed countries in 2007-8 to deal with the crisis. It considers the effects of the financial crisis on Russia's economy and monetary policy of the Central Bank in the current conditions as well as the main guidelines for the
|The purpose of this study is to analyze crisis management plans of schools that have experienced crisis situations in the past. The plans used by these schools to manage these crisis situations will be evaluated for their effectiveness or ineffectiveness in re-establishing stability to their organization. With such information, other schools may…
A well thought-out crisis plan can help management respond and control damage to the organization's reputation, financial condition, market share, and brand value. Everyone, from senior management to receptionists, will have a predetermined role to play in an anticipated crisis. A facility crisis-training program should familiarize employees with the plan, including deployment of resources, notification and protection of guests, communication
The root cause of the financial crisis that erupted in 2008 is psychological. In the events which led up to the crisis, heuristics, biases, and framing effects strongly influenced the judgments and decisions of financial firms, rating agencies, elected officials, government regulators, and institutional investors. Among the many lessons to be learned from the crisis is the importance of focusing
In this paper a new type of crisis in random maps is studied. The trigger of this new crisis is the tunnel effect induced by a backward tangent bifurcation. This is different from the formerly reported crises caused by the collision of the chaotic attractor with an unstable orbit. The reasons why the characteristic time of this new crisis is
The Thompson School District recognized after the Columbine incident in the spring of 1999 that it was lacking an adequate plan for crisis response. Colorado legislation led to a mandate for having a crisis response plan so the district purchased a "canned" crisis response plan that served the needs of response in a very immediate but impersonal…
Hancock, Kathy; Malvey, Michelle; Rastatter, Dennis
|Outlines the development process and essential elements of a crisis communication strategy. Key steps include: (1) selecting a spokesperson; (2) publicizing the spokesperson's identity; (3) preparing a crisis notebook; (4) providing cell phones; (5) choosing a news conference location; (6) rehearsing crisis scenarios; and (7) obtaining interview…
This article describes a model of communication known as crisis and emergency risk communication (CERC). The model is outlined as a merger of many traditional notions of health and risk communication with work in crisis and disaster communication. The specific kinds of communication activities that should be called for at various stages of disaster or crisis development are outlined. Although
The best way to manage a crisis that requires communication with stakeholders is to plan for a variety of emergencies. In some cases, anticipating a crisis can even go a long way toward preventing one. Crisis can come in many forms -- from a product recall to a class-action lawsuit to an SEC investigation. Being prepared to communicate quickly and
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to study the magnitude and various causes of the global food crisis. Further, the paper aims to suggest policy measures towards the solution of global food crisis problem. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – To verify the problem of global food crisis, the paper mainly utilizes food price index of UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
Many are currently studying the origins of the financial crisis in an attempt to answer two seemingly simple questions: why did it happen, and can another crisis be prevented? Those two questions have proved incredibly divisive. The majority opinion of The United States Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission was submitted with two dissenting positions. Furthermore, The 2010 Economic Report of the
|Examines how developing nations' agrarian economy fared in the 1980s in the wake of the world economic crisis. Discusses how the economic crisis affected agricultural development and whether the performance of the agrarian economy was responsible for the economic crisis. (JOW)|
The global financial crisis and ensuing economic downturn has raised many questions concerning the future of global economic growth. Prior to the financial crisis, global growth was characterized by growing imbalances, reflected primarily in large trade surpluses in China, Japan, Germany, and the oil exporting countries and rapidly growing deficits, primarily in the United States. The global crisis raises the
The Department of Communication of any organization must be prepared to prevent and manage crisis situations. Once inside a crisis, an organization apparently fails adnis very difficult to recover the costs (the image and, ultimately, financial). Obviously, profesionals from Public Relations Department will have an important role in resolving a crisis especially when it affects the organization’s external publics. However,
Given that public opinion about a company's performance during a crisis is highly influenced by the way news media cover crisis events, studies that look at news media's choice of crisis issues, tones and frames are extremely valuable. This paper presents the main findings of a study on how the Italian and international press framed the Italian national airline Alitalia
My dissertation aims at understanding three critical issues confronting the financial world: contagion of a crisis, corporate governance, and credit rating. It contains four chapters. Through examining the contagion of a crisis, Chapter 1 presents a model in which the contagion of a liquidity crisis between two non-financial institutions occurs due to the learning within a common creditor pool. After
Modern economies are characterized by endemic financial crisis, a good performance of the financial systems requiring the guarantee of the deposits and the regulating authority of the central bank. The current economic and financial crisis has as real causes the increase in the prices of certain goods, such as food products, the global economic conjuncture, which preceded the crisis, characterized
This paper reviews research on the origins of the financial crisis of 2008–2009, highlights the key events that triggered a financial panic in September 2008, and summarizes the extraordinary policy actions the United States (US) has taken to ameliorate the crisis. We discuss the proximate causes of the crisis, including the characteristics and growth of the subprime mortgage market, and
Bar-Siman-Tov, Y. Crisis Management by Military Cooperation with a Small Ally: American-Israeli Cooperation in the Syrian-Jordanian Crisis, September 1970. Cooperation and Conflict, XVII, 1982, 151-162.The aim of this study is to examine the American—Israeli military cooperation in the Jordanian-Syrian crisis of September 1970, as an illustrative case of crisis management by military cooperation with a small ally, in a situation
This study investigated the responses of consumers to information about an organizational crisis. Three hundred and eighty-five individuals from Hong Kong responded to hypothetical scenarios describing a plane crash. The scenarios manipulated causal attribution (internal and external), the organizations’ crisis response (shifting the blame, minimization, no comment, apology, compensation, and corrective action), and crisis severity (severe and extremely severe). Results
This study investigated the effects of a human interest frame and types of crisis in news coverage of a corporate crisis on people's responses to the crisis. To examine the effects, this study used 2 (human interest frame versus non-human interest frame)×2 (an accident versus a transgression) mixed factorial design. The results indicate that the human interest frame influenced participants’
The Mexican financial crisis broke out at the end of 1994, reached its most serious stage in the first quarter of 1995, and had basically concluded in the first half of 1995; by the end of 1995 Mexico had shaken off the crisis. The Southeast Asian crisis, on the other hand, broke out in early July 1997, has gone through
Ethnic minorities from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds report increased utilization of mental health emergency services;\\u000a however findings have been inconsistent across ethnic\\/racial groups. In this study we describe patients who present to a rural\\u000a crisis unit in Southern California, examine rates of psychiatric hospitalizations across ethnic\\/racial groups, and investigate\\u000a factors that are associated with increased psychiatric hospitalizations in this sample. This
Alvaro Camacho; Bernardo Ng; Anabel Bejarano; Alan Simmons; Denise Chavira
Geographic Information Systems (GIS) specialists from the Volcano Hazards Program (VHP) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), including personnel at Menlo Park, California, the Cascades Volcano Observatory in Vancouver, Washington, the Alaska Volcano Observatory in Anchorage and Fairbanks, Alaska, the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory in Hawaii National Park, Hawaii, and the Smithsonian Institution Global Volcanism Program in Washington, DC, are developing a GIS response plan in the event of a volcano crisis. This plan, referred to as "Crisis GIS", outlines how VHP can ensure rapid, reliable delivery of spatial and ancillary information for data analysis and visualization at any required location during a volcanic crisis or event within the United States. An effective Crisis GIS needs the capacity to store multiple, large datasets, including: base layer data, elevation data, geologic maps, hazard assessment maps, satellite data, and aerial photography for volcanoes around the U.S. It must be readily accessible by VHP GIS specialists stationed around the Nation. Such a GIS should also support installations of monitoring instruments and telemetry equipment that relay monitoring signals, and provision of updates to public officials, the media, and the public during a crisis. GIS technology has proven to be an invaluable tool for crisis response. Recently, GIS was applied as part of the response efforts to two large-scale crises: the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, and the Southern California wildfires of Fall 2003. In each case, GIS was used to organize large quantities of spatial data and to produce electronic and paper maps that illustrated hazards, supported decision making, and communicated developing situations to responsible emergency-management authorities and to the populace affected (Kant, 2002, and Pratt, 2003). VHP GIS specialists are currently testing the software and hardware employed in recent major crisis response efforts and are learning to adapt the technology for volcano crisis response.
Ramsey, D. W.; Robinson, J. E.; Schilling, S. P.; Schaefer, J. R.; Kimberly, P.; Trusdell, F. A.; Guffanti, M. C.; Mayberry, G. C.; Cameron, C. E.; Smith, J. G.; McIntire, J. A.; Snedigar, S.; Ewert, J. W.
The severity of the financial and economic crisis which started in 2007 cannot be understood without examining the medium- to long-run developments in the world economy since the early 1980s. The following long-run causes for the crisis can be identified: inefficient regulation of financial markets, increasing inequality in the distribution of income, and rising imbalances at the global (and at
The severity of the financial and economic crisis which started in 2007 cannot be understood without examining the medium- to long-run developments in the world economy since the early 1980s. The following long-run causes for the crisis can be identified: inefficient regulation of financial markets, increasing inequality in the distribution of income, and rising imbalances at the global (and at
Objective: The purpose of this study is to identify the major challenges to coordination between emergency department (ED) teams and emergency medical services (EMS) teams. Design: We conducted a series of focus groups involving both ED and EMS team mem- bers using a crisis scenario as the basis of the focus group discussion. We also collected organizational workflow data. Results:
Madhu C. Reddy; Sharoda A. Paul; Joanna Abraham; Michael D. Mcneese; Christopher Deflitch; John Yen
This paper captures the impact of the Global Economic Crisis on educational programs serving minority groups in developing countries. It has been established that the most vulnerable groupings include nomadic and pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, children in war zones, and women. Various educational interventions such as mobile schooling,…
Moscow's surreptitious dispatch of nuclear-capable SS-4 and SS-5 surface-to-surface missiles to Cuba in 1962 upset the strategic balance in an alarming way. The resulting show down-which the Russians call the Caribbean Crisis and the Cubans call the Octob...
The events leading up to and including the so called 'Cuban Missile Crisis' are presented as an example of show of strength as a deterrent. US leadership was found to be not as firm as had been pictured, but a nuclear war was averted and this has to be co...
|Presents a secondary lesson plan based on primary sources recently released by the Central Intelligence Agency on the Cuban Missile Crisis. Provides a background essay on the event. Includes five maps and three documents, all of which have been declassified from top secret or secret status. (CFR)|
|Argues that a course or unit in crisis management/communication is an excellent way of teaching public relations theory, management concepts, information management, problem solving, and communication management. Identifies course objectives, discusses main topics and student evaluation, and concludes with advice and a list of readings. (SR)|
|Describes the theory of image restoration discourse as an approach for understanding corporate crisis situations. States this theory can be used by practitioners to help design messages during crises and by critics or educators to critically evaluate such messages. Describes and illustrates the theory's basic concepts. Offers suggestions for…
|The leadership attributes and skills required of school leaders in times of crisis are fundamentally different from those generally required as part of the "normal" school environment. Strong school leadership generally is about positioning the school for the future, and about supporting and empowering staff and students in the pursuit of…
|In recent years, campus tragedies across the country have prompted leaders of education institutions to redouble their crisis planning efforts. Too often, however, these emergency plans focus almost exclusively on facilities, hardware and systems without sufficient consideration for the people they potentially affect. People, not equipment, will…
|This study reviewed school-based crisis planning resources and guidelines provided by 40 state departments of education and offices of safe and drug-free schools. Content was examined for indications of cultural competency. The most frequently reported topics included: (a) assisting students with mental and physical disabilities, (b) tapping into…
Reliable communication systems are one of the key success factors for a successful first response mission. Current crisis response communication systems suffer from damaged or destroyed infrastructure or are just overstressed in the case of a large scale disaster. We provide an outline for a distributed communication approach, which fulfills the requirements of first responders. It is based on a
Dirk Bradler; TU Darmstadt; Benjamin Schiller; Erwin Aitenbichler; Nicolas Liebau
|Examines Prudential's actions regarding misleading sales practices, its response to the ethical crisis, and the ways in which the organization communicated its response to stakeholders. Concludes that Prudential is making amends to its customers who were harmed by egregious sales practices, but considers how it may take the organization a long…
|A disturbing escalation in campus emergencies compels school districts to draft effective crisis-management action plans. Effective plans can be devised that relieve burdens on principals and other school personnel, by diminishing chaos and panic, disseminating accurate information, attending to emotional strain on staff and students, and…
|Applies exponential growth and the speed of doubling times to the energy crises. Increases comprehension of this mathematical law and the significance of findings made through its use. Examines statements from authoritative sources on energy to illustrate the lack of understanding of arithmetic's relationship to the energy crisis. Suggests ways…
Despite their unstable nature, crises are frequently defined as opportunities for managers to make strategic decisions in terms of bringing new configurations into play. According to this perspective, research is undertaken to discover new forms taken on by organisations during times of crisis. Relying on the experience of Local Centres of Community Services in Quebec during the ice storm of
The Army Communications Command is the operating communications organization of the U.S. Army around the world. The key to the control of forces and to crisis management is the Worldwide Military Command and Control System. Communications-electronics subsystems for command centers or command and control facilities are considered. Attention is given to telecommunications for command and control facilities of major Army
If there's one quality that WICHE's home region, the West, is famous for, it's endurance in the face of crisis. And if there's another, it's the ability to find--and make--opportunities even in tough times. Over the last fiscal year, WICHE has done just that. The organization has been highly successful in terms of developing new projects and…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2011
Public higher education has faced a crisis of massive proportions in the first decade of this millennium. Nevertheless, for higher education, this year represents a turning point and, yes, an opportunity. The opportunity, then, for the West is one that generations of Americans are familiar with: to do more with less. Dealing with scarcity--whether…
Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2010
Reports on the design of a multi-week cooperative learning activity for an undergraduate introductory volcanology class which culminates in the simulation of a volcanic monitoring crisis. Suggests that this activity creates an effective and exciting learning environment in which students have the opportunity to apply theoretical concepts to a more…
The term energy crisis was apparently first used in the later 1960s, by whom I am not sure. Presumably it means a situation where the available energy supplies are so low as to prevent or even reverse economic growth. The underlying idea is that energy is mostly derived from fossil fuels which will be exhausted within relatively few years. Although
The development of the university system in Peru is described and attention drawn to the periods of rapid expansion. The economic crisis of the 1980s led to some doubts about the wisdom of maintaining such a high growth rate. The fall in the number of university entrants in the period 1974 to 1978 is analyzed in the context of the
This article presents a new model based on the loan-pushing model by Basu (1991) to show how a domestic debt crisis can occur in a low-income country following donor herding. The model focuses on the rational herding behaviour of donors due to payoff and information externalities. Although there are many theoretical models on herding behaviour, these models have not formally
Russia's foreign debt problems worsened substantially after the financial crisis of 1998. The paper focuses on the key role of the government in servicing foreign debt and promoting institution building by showing how foreign debt influences the choice between official and unofficial taxation. The enterprise sector is assumed to reallocate its resources between domestic investment and capital flight. It is
Claudia M. Buch; Ralph P. Heinrich; Lusine Lusinyan; Mechthild Schrooten
Critical incidents in or involving schools include shootings, stabbings, other forms of homicide, terrorist activity, suicide, road traffic accidents, major fires and natural disasters, which result or might result in death and\\/or serious injury to students and staff. Where crisis management plans exist, they might be based on 'common sense' or clinical judgement, risking worsening rather than improving outcomes. The
|The president of the University of Miami (Florida) at the time of Hurricane Andrew discusses the challenges of coping with widespread campus destruction and the resulting organizational crisis, and offers guidelines for responding rapidly and effectively to the needs and concerns of various constituents. (MSE)|
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to initially contribute the literature linking the global financial crisis and the Islamic finance model which is competent of playing down the severity and frequency of financial crises, by introducing the financial system based on sharing in the risk. It links credit expansion to the growth of the real economy by allowing
Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic performance can suffer and schools as communities may never recover.
The current crisis is an outcome of the financialisation of contemporary capitalism. It arose in the USA because of the enormous expansion of mortgage lending, including to the poorest layers of the working class. It became general because of the trading of debt by financial institutions. These phenomena are integral to financialisation. During the last three decades large enterprises have
In this research report IDEAS explores the current euro crisis by looking at the debates preceding the conception of the euro. How can the early days of EU monetary cooperation help us understand today's predicament? And what lessons can we draw from them for the euro? Emmanuel Mourlon-Druol is Pinto Fellow at LSE IDEAS. Today's debates about the viability of
In mid-September 2008, a global financial crisis erupted which was followed by the most serious worldwide economic recession for decades. As in many other regions of the world, governments in the euro area stepped in with a wide range of emergency measures to stabilise the financial sector and to cushion the negative consequences for their economies. This paper examines how
While the use of public resources is critical to cushion the impact of the financial crisis on the euro-area economy, it is key that the entailed fiscal costs not be seen by markets as undermining fiscal sustainability. From this perspective, to what extent do movements in euro area sovereign spreads reflect country-specific solvency concerns? In line with previous studies, the
Since its handover from the UK to the People’s Republic of China on 30 June 1997, Hong Kong has been struck by a number of crises. This paper reports the results of an empirical investigation of how Hong Kong companies prepare for crisis. The research design was based on a replication and extension of a study originally conducted in the
Concentrates on the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962, using a number of sources, recreating the background, to provide an event diary (from the US perspective), and looking at lessons that could be drawn. Investigates how the events led up to the Bay of Pigs invasion and goes on to give in-depth explanations of how President John F Kennedy and the
In recent years, Pakistan has suffered from severe water shortages, flooding and declining water quality. The worsening water crisis must be resolved if the country is ever to achieve stability and develop. Using water more efficiently is a necessary but insufficient strategy. Far deeper changes are required, including cultural and social paradigm shifts that will help the country evolve from
Climatic records for the last 15 years indicate that Bulgaria is experiencing a period of exceptionally low precipitation. During 1993, significant water supply problems emerged, approaching crisis proportions in Sofia, the nation's capital, by the end of 1994. The record-setting drought of 1993 can be explained from a synoptic climatic perspective. Whether consequences of the continuing drought could have been
C. Gregory Knight; Stefan B. Velev; Marieta P. Staneva
The economic crisis has brought significant changes not only in the organization but also in the way of thinking and perception of employees. There are a few cases in which, for a signifiant number of employees, motivation meant more than physiological or secure needs (according to Maslow's theory). Nowadays, as a result of the existing economic situation, some of those
|Thanks to the proliferation of handheld devices and social media such as Facebook and Twitter, people can share information instantly and succinctly. The December 8, 2011, shooting on the Virginia Tech campus underscores how important it is for information to go out quickly but accurately to help school administrators effectively manage a crisis.…
The crisis problem is one of the dominant macroeconomic features of our age. Itsprominence suggests questions like the following: Are crises growing more frequent? Are theybecoming more disruptive? Are economies taking longer to recover? These are fundamentallyhistorical questions, which can be answered only by comparing the present with the past. To this end,this paper develops and analyzes a database spanning
Michael Bordo; Barry Eichengreen; Daniela Klingebiel; Maria Soledad Martinez-Peria
There is an emerging consensus both inside the Pentagon and on Capitol Hill that we face a defense budget crisis. It is caused by too few dollars to support both current military operations and the planned modernization of U.S. Armed Forces. The more basi...
|Describes how Los Rios Community College District (LRCCD), California, the major provider of nursing graduates to the Sacramento area, addressed the issue of the nursing shortage crisis. LRCCD faced the dual issues of student/faculty ratio restrictions of 10/1 and funding that accommodated a 40/1 ratio. Describes LRCCD's new off-campus,…
The paper evaluates the claim, made by a range of commentators but most prominently by Akerlof and Shiller in Animal Spirits, that the recent financial crisis illustrates gaps in the normative picture incorporated into standard macroeconomics that are plugged by insights due to behavioral economics. It is argued that Akerlof and Shiller's contention that we cannot understand what happened unless
Describes how counselors served as consultants to school division that had large student population of military dependents during Persian Gulf War. Examines impact of Persian Gulf War on the school division and its students and presents model for counselors who serve as consultants during crisis. Discusses counselors working as team with teachers,…
This article provides perspective on today's planetary crisis by seeing it as a transition within the larger picture of human social evolution. There are certain ground qualities that were present at the beginnings of our social evolution - natural living, belonging, vitality, community, equality. Over the span of human history certain emergent qualities have developed to give us greater power
Starting from the effects of the socially redistribution of wealth generated by inflation, the authors aim to identify the system of interests that supports this process, namely the connections with the economic crisis. In this aim, this work launches the hypothesis that the contagious disease of the market imbalances represents the basis for the manifestation of the inflationary process. By
|This collection of essays addresses the need for continued research in race-related issues on college campuses. The book examines the causes and the impact of campus racial tensions by studying some key university case studies and by investigating some of the underlying elements of the crisis. Essays and their authors are as follows: "The Racial…
|There is a common belief that economic crisis will lead to a decrease in subjective wellbeing. Previous studies indicate that income is correlated with happiness and unemployment with unhappiness. The relationship between increased income and happiness is well documented while the impact of decreased income has been less explored. The aim of this…
|Describes how counselors served as consultants to school division that had large student population of military dependents during Persian Gulf War. Examines impact of Persian Gulf War on the school division and its students and presents model for counselors who serve as consultants during crisis. Discusses counselors working as team with…
The vulnerability of early childhood to crisis is an ongoing concern for psychologists. Far from attempting to define the ideal conditions for child emotional growth, we still have not defined the long?term effects of less than ideal conditions. Theoretical biases add to this problem by offering often dramatic alternative explanations for empirical findings. This article discusses some of these issues
Crowd sourced crisis mapping technologies aggregate information from individuals, trusted networks of informants, and publicly available media sources for use in informing decision making and response. Deploying this technology in conflict zones introduces a new set of vulnerabilities that can be exploited by hostile actors who have developed or adopted network surveillance and attack capabilities. Successful infiltration or compromise of
Since Lehman Brothers’ filing for Chapter 11 bankruptcy on September 2008, and as a result of the ensuing financial crisis and worldwide recession, policymakers all across the globe responded with a policy mix to better withstand the potential nefarious effects expected by experts and financial markets alike. The series of unprecedented phenomena since World War II1 resulted in a combination
|The issue of the "boy gap" or "boy crisis" in education has been the subject of increasing attention across a number of Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Given the importance of this issue and the need to better understand the situation in boys' education, this report draws on material and data from a review…
|Dunblane Primary School, Scotland, and Columbine High School, USA. Two headline tragedies that have led to trauma for their pupils and staff. Trauma that could be devastating because of the psychological impact and the practical requirements a crisis brings. Children's social and personal development can be negatively affected, their academic…
Outlines a 14-step process for establishing a suicide prevention program, including collecting data; gaining administrative approval; seeking legal advice; establishing an ad hoc crisis intervention committee; collecting sample forms; appraising agency resources; developing a written policy; appraising community resources; involving the media;…
The Thai financial crisis was touched off by the fact that Thailand became intoxicated with its achievements in economic growth, that it hoped to replace Hong Kong as an international center of finance, and opened up its capital market too quickly, with the result that international speculative capital entered in a big way and continuously impacted the fixed exchange rate
|Three studies conducted by the National Air Pollution Manpower Development Advisory Committee concluded there is a crisis in air pollution manpower development within the United States today. The studies investigated the existing federal manpower program, air pollution educational requirements and the quality of graduate level university…
One only has to recall a few well-documented incidents such as Johnson & Johnson's Tylenol tampering crisis of the early 198Os, the Exxon Valdez oil disaster of the late 198Os, and the Dow Coming breast implant lawsuits that began in the early l99Os and c...
The global situation of economic crisis is also an opportunity to reflect on the evaluation tools used for cultural activities. From one side, especially the economic impact analyses are crucial to assess the economical effects of the cultural activities in order to show the benefits on a local society; from the other one - due to the lack of other
|This guide documents cost effective methods of providing community-based alternative court intervention services to youth. The service program was designed to assist adolescent status offenders and their families in resolving the underlying problems which bring the youths to the attention of the juvenile system. A Family Crisis Intervention…
|Camps should have crisis management plans. Steps to formulating a plan include involving appropriate off-site agencies, identifying potential threats, gathering resources, crafting an appropriate response, training via role-playing, managing incoming and outgoing information, and writing it down. Sidebars present resources, successful response…
The global integration of trade and financial markets that has been the hallmark of the past 30 years of neoliberal globalization means that local economies can be shaped by economic events seemingly unrelated to the scale or geography where women's empowerment projects unfold. These global–local interactions raise questions so far largely absent in public discussions of the 2008 crisis precipitated
In this article, the author discusses the creation of a threat-assessment team to be utilized in order to analyze each threat and the usage of threat-assessment protocols for the purpose of guiding school administrators through a crisis. These are actually developed with the advice from the US Department of Education and the Secret Service. When a…
The routing in complex buildings is provided by inf ormation systems. But during a crisis situation, th ese systems may collapse due to certain incidents like an explo sion, a fire or sabotage. The task of guiding peopl e in this situation has to be handled in some way. In this pa per we present a possible solution to this
The aim of this paper was to examine the intellectual crisis and the potential sources of reveille in clinical research in psychiatry. Current prevailing conceptual models in psychiatry are critically examined, with particular reference to neurobiology, clinical psychopharmacology, assessment, and the therapeutic process. Biological reductionism, neglect of individual responses to treatment, massive propaganda from the pharmaceutical industry, misleading effects of
The role of Community Mental Health Centers (CMHCs) in the context of community needs generated by response to school desegregation crisis in the City of Boston was studied. It was demonstrated that CMHCs can play innovative and useful roles in communitie...
Does the global economic crisis negatively impact the prospects of democratization around the world? This is a time-series, cross-national study that tests the effects of the economic meltdown on the level of democratization for new democracies around the world for 2007 to 2009. It tests economic growth measured as the quarterly economic rate growth against different indexes of democracy, and
|In this article, Vicki Jacobs argues that as the nation strives to improve the literacy achievement of U.S. adolescents, educators must reframe the current "crisis" as a critical point on a continuum of historical efforts to address the particular challenges of postprimary-grade reading. Specifically, Jacobs examines the definition of adolescent…
This article places the debate between prescribing illiquidity and prescribing insolvency in historical perspective, by comparing Asia's current debt crisis with Latin America's during the 1980s. It is then suggested that none of the Asian economies is in any meaningful sense ‘insolvent,’ and that those who oppose the IMF?led ‘bailout’ fall into three equally misguided camps; ? fiscal conservatives, left
Crisis interventionists frequently confront a moral dilemma when violating client trust seems necessary if self-destructive behavior is to be prevented. Concern for client welfare and respect for client rights and autonomy which are grounded in Utilitarianism and Kantian Formalism, respectively, conflict in such cases. These theories are examined,…
An article in the October 11 "New York Times" attributed the almost universal failure to anticipate the current economic crisis to "insanity"--more precisely, to a psychological inability to give proper weight to past events, so that if there is prosperity today people assume that it will last forever, even though they know that in the past booms…
In this paper I try to contrast the Efficient Markets Hypothesis (EMH) with the Financial Instability Hypothesis (FIH) held by Hyman Minsky taking into account the dynamic complexity of financial markets and the role of fundamental uncertainty and organic interdependence. In my opinion this approach may provide indeed analytical tools to explain crisis through processes endogenous to contemporary economics. The
Using daily data from the stock markets of nine European transition economies, this paper tests for stock market contagion during the 1998 Russian financial crisis by utilizing both univariate and bivariate correlation analysis. The results of the linear model indicate that there is no evidence of contagion, while the bivariate analysis, based on the newly developed Corsetti-Pericoli-Sbracia (CPS) test, reveals
Examines what is believed to be the forgotten fundamental of the energy crisis, the elementary arithmetic of growth. The arithmetic is applied to what is known about the reserves of fossil fuels. A large number of erroneous pronouncements from public figures and news media are collected here. (SA)
Applies exponential growth and the speed of doubling times to the energy crises. Increases comprehension of this mathematical law and the significance of findings made through its use. Examines statements from authoritative sources on energy to illustrate the lack of understanding of arithmetic's relationship to the energy crisis. Suggests ways to…
The American energy crisis is real in that our supplies of fuel which can meet standards imposed on utility emissions are short, and their price is high. It is artificial in that many of the standards could be partially relaxed, and cheaper fuel used by utilities without significant public insult. ...Nuclear power from fission is our best bet."…
The author describes his training conducted by Anna Freud and the emergence of his concepts of identity and identity crisis. He recapitulates his conceptual ancestry, insofar as it originates in psychoanalysis, in order to indicate that psychoanalysis represents a very special admixture of laboratory conditions, methodological climate, and…
|Presents a case study for use in business communication classes to help students understand and learn both the context and the strategies for communication with business and management. Deals with an electrical company that finds itself with an environmental crisis on its hands. Includes five assignments as well as five samples. (SR)|
Purpose – This paper aims to provide insights into the what, why, and how of recognising corporate brand crisis through a synthesis of organisational experiences with threats to brand reputation, and to offer guidelines for analytic approaches and suggested organisational actions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach takes the form of a clinical set of examinations and interpretation of a substantial number
This paper tests for evidence of contagion between the financial markets of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, and the Philippines. Cross-country correlations among currencies and sovereign spreads are found to increase significantly during the crisis period, whereas the equity market correlations offer mixed evidence. A set of dummy variables using daily news is constructed to capture the impact of own-country and
This paper tests for evidence of contagion between the financial markets of Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, and the Philippines. We find that correlations in currency and sovereign spreads increase significantly during the crisis period, whereas the equity market correlations offer mixed evidence. We construct a set of dummy variables using daily news to capture the impact of own-country and cross-border
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to trace the cultural roots of the presently ongoing crisis. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The approach is to collect rankings of perceived goals of business leaders in 17 countries, from their employees who are attending evening MBA courses. Findings – There are marked differences in goal ranking between countries; overall ranking across countries follows
In the course of the recent financial crisis, the issue of asset valuation has regularly moved to center stage, due both to the sharp fluctuations observed in numerous assets, making economic measurement difficult, but also to the impact that fluctuations can have on the behaviour of economic agents that are required to submit annual financial statements –or even interim or
|Educational planning is presently confronted by an identity crisis. As long as it was believed that educational expansion was a principal ingredient for securing economic growth, democratic political processes, and greater equality of economics and social participation, the tenets and practice of educational planning were rarely questioned.…
Crisis theory is discussed in relation to a mental health consultation project with visiting teachers. Case illustrations of preventive intervention are offered, and characteristics of cases which best lend themselves to this type of intervention are delineated. The adaptability of the supervisory model in social work to the consultation task is demonstrated. Caplan's theory of the theme interference type of
This paper examines the health care delivery crisis that has emerged in corporate America. Health care costs now account for 17% of the total GDP with the United States spending two trillion in health care costs (Herzlinger, 2007). The paper also discusses the major strategies that business leaders have implemented to reduce health care delivery costs while maintaining quality care