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Sample records for critical level position

  1. Tbx Protein Level Critical for Clock-Mediated Somite Positioning Is Regulated through Interaction between Tbx and Ripply

    PubMed Central

    Wanglar, Chimwar; Takahashi, Jun; Yabe, Taijiro; Takada, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Somitogenesis in vertebrates is a complex and dynamic process involving many sequences of events generated from the segmentation clock. Previous studies with mouse embryos revealed that the presumptive somite boundary is periodically created at the anterior border of the expression domain of Tbx6 protein. Ripply1 and Ripply2 are required for the determination of the Tbx6 protein border, but the mechanism by which this Tbx6 domain is regulated remains unclear. Furthermore, since zebrafish and frog Ripplys are known to be able to suppress Tbx6 function at the transcription level, it is also unclear whether Ripply-mediated mechanism of Tbx6 regulation is conserved among different species. Here, we tested the generality of Tbx6 protein-mediated process in somite segmentation by using zebrafish and further examined the mechanism of regulation of Tbx6 protein. By utilizing an antibody against zebrafish Tbx6/Fss, previously referred to as Tbx24, we found that the anterior border of Tbx6 domain coincided with the presumptive intersomitic boundary even in the zebrafish and it shifted dynamically during 1 cycle of segmentation. Consistent with the findings in mice, the tbx6 mRNA domain was located far anterior to its protein domain, indicating the possibility of posttranscriptional regulation. When both ripply1/2 were knockdown, the Tbx6 domain was anteriorly expanded. We further directly demonstrated that Ripply could reduce the expression level of Tbx6 protein depending on physical interaction between Ripply and Tbx6. Moreover, the onset of ripply1 and ripply2 expression occurred after reduction of FGF signaling at the anterior PSM, but this expression initiated much earlier on treatment with SU5402, a chemical inhibitor of FGF signaling. These results strongly suggest that Ripply is a direct regulator of the Tbx6 protein level for the establishment of intersomitic boundaries and mediates a reduction in FGF signaling for the positioning of the presumptive intersomitic

  2. Testing College-Level Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facione, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    At the college level, the obstacles to machine-testing of critical thinking are more pedagogical and practical than theoretical and include creating an operational definition, differentiating critical thinking skills and subskills, and establishing test reliability and validity. (MSE)

  3. Centimeter-level relative positioning with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Abbot, R. I.; Gourevitch, S. A.; King, R. W.; Paradis, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Although the Global Positioning System (GPS) was designed primarily for real-time navigation and positioning applications at the decameter level of accuracy, the GPS has been used to determine all three relative position coordinates of fixed points with centimeter-level accuracy, when the distance between the points has been of the order of 10 km. For intersite distances less than 1 km the uncertainty is about 3 mm, and for distances greater than 10 km the uncertainty in each coordinate is about 1-2 ppm of the distance. These results have been obtained with commercially available production equipment (Macrometer model V-1000 interferometric surveyors) operated by regular surveying personnel under real field conditions, not just by university scientists under ideal laboratory conditions. Techniques that promise to reduce the uncertainty to 0.1 ppm for distances greater than 10 km are being developed.

  4. Obtaining a critical care pharmacist position: a marketing case study.

    PubMed

    Stratton, T P; Wu, B; Nakagawa, R S

    1993-06-01

    Marketing theory is used to explain how Pharmacy Department managers at a Vancouver-area hospital secured a new ICU pharmacist position in a period of severe fiscal constraint. Market segmentation, target marketing and pull marketing strategy were combined to obtain support for the new position. Improved drug information services for ICU nurses were promoted to Nursing Administration and enhanced pharmacotherapy monitoring was promoted to the two critical care physicians primarily responsible for patient care in the ICU. These physicians and Nursing Administration voiced their support for the new position to the V.P. of Nursing (the functional officer for Pharmacy), who then promoted the new position to Hospital Administration. A half-time DUR commitment by the ICU pharmacist was offered to Hospital Administration, expanding this already successful service and guaranteeing cost recovery for the new position. Hospital Administration approved the new ICU clinical pharmacist position in a budget which saw other hospital departments lose several positions. PMID:10126865

  5. Critical pollution levels in Umguza River, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinyama, A.; Ncube, R.; Ela, W.

    2016-06-01

    In most countries worldwide regulatory bodies set effluent discharge limits into rivers and other natural water bodies. These limits specify the maximum permissible concentration of defined pollutants that may be discharged into the water body. This limit is conceptually based on the self-purification (assimilative) capacity of the receiving water. However, this self-purification constant is itself a function of the water's pollutant loading. Umguza River situated south west of Zimbabwe, is fed by tributaries that drain an urban catchment and as such is prone to pollution due to human activities in the catchment. This study investigated the levels of pollution in Umguza River that would affect its self-purification capacity. This was achieved by characterising the spatial distribution of a selected range of water quality parameters as well as determining the self-purification capacity of a stretch of the river. Critical pollutant concentrations were determined for some of the parameters that showed high values along the stretch. The selected parameters of interest were dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, phosphates, nitrates, COD, turbidity, ammonia, pH, alkalinity and temperature. The study was carried out from January 2014 to April 2014. The self-purification capacity was determined using a formula that compares the mass flux of a pollutant upstream and downstream of the selected stretch of the river. Statistical analysis was used to establish relationships between the pollutants and the self-purification capacity of the river. The study found that the levels of ammonia and phosphates were very high compared to the regulated limits (2 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l; and 8 mg/l vs 0.5 mg/l respectively). It was also found that the self-purification capacity varied significantly across pollutants. It was therefore concluded that a critical pollutant concentration exists above which the river completely loses its natural ability to assimilate and decrease its pollutant load over

  6. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section 319.102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS General § 319.102 Senior-level positions. (a) SL positions are positions classified above...

  7. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401 Section 319.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Recruitment and Examination § 319.401 Senior-level positions. (a) General. SL positions...

  8. Developing a Critical Consciousness: Positionality, Pedagogy, and Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamudio, Margaret; Bridgeman, Jacquelyn; Russell, Caskey; Rios, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article relies on Critical Race Theory (CRT) to examine the development of a critical consciousness necessary to understand the contradictions between the post-civil rights notion of abstract equality and the reality of structurally entrenched inequality. The authors' ground their analysis in narratives on the development of their own…

  9. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section.... (a) SL positions are positions classified above GS-15 pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5108 that are not covered by other pay systems (e.g. the SES and ST systems). (b) Positions in agencies that are excluded...

  10. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section.... (a) SL positions are positions classified above GS-15 pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5108 that are not covered by other pay systems (e.g. the SES and ST systems). (b) Positions in agencies that are excluded...

  11. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section.... (a) SL positions are positions classified above GS-15 pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5108 that are not covered by other pay systems (e.g. the SES and ST systems). (b) Positions in agencies that are excluded...

  12. 5 CFR 319.102 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.102 Section.... (a) SL positions are positions classified above GS-15 pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 5108 that are not covered by other pay systems (e.g. the SES and ST systems). (b) Positions in agencies that are excluded...

  13. The sitting position in neurosurgery: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Porter, J M; Pidgeon, C; Cunningham, A J

    1999-01-01

    The potential for serious complications after venous air embolism and successful malpractice liability claims are the principle reasons for the dramatic decline in the use of the sitting position in neurosurgical practice. Although there have been several studies substantiating the relative safety compared with the prone or park bench positions, its use will continue to decline as neurosurgeons abandon its application and trainees in neurosurgery are not exposed to its relative merits. How can individual surgeons continue to use this position? Will individual, difficult surgical access cases be denied the obvious technical advantages of the sitting position? Limited use of the sitting position should remain in the neurosurgeon's armamentarium. However, several caveats must be emphasized. Assessment of the relative risk-benefit, based on the individual patient's physical status and surgical implications for the particular intracranial pathology, is of paramount importance. The patient should be informed of the specific risks of venous air embolism, quadriparesis and peripheral nerve palsies. Appropriate charting of patient information provided and special consent issues are essential. An anaesthetic input into the decision to use the sitting position is a sine qua non. The presence of a patient foramen ovale is an absolute contraindication. Preoperative contrast echocardiography should be used as a screening technique to detect the population at risk of paradoxical air embolism caused by the presence of a patent foramen ovale. The technique involves i.v. injection of saline agitated with air and a Valsalva manoeuvre is applied and released. Use of this position necessitates supplementary monitoring to promptly detect and treat venous air embolism. Doppler ultrasonography is the most sensitive of the generally available monitors to detect intracardiac air. The use of a central venous catheter is recommended, with the tip positioned close to the superior vena cava

  14. Identifying relevant positions in proteins by Critical Variable Selection.

    PubMed

    Grigolon, Silvia; Franz, Silvio; Marsili, Matteo

    2016-06-21

    Evolution in its course has found a variety of solutions to the same optimisation problem. The advent of high-throughput genomic sequencing has made available extensive data from which, in principle, one can infer the underlying structure on which biological functions rely. In this paper, we present a new method aimed at the extraction of sites encoding structural and functional properties from a set of protein primary sequences, namely a multiple sequence alignment. The method, called critical variable selection, is based on the idea that subsets of relevant sites correspond to subsequences that occur with a particularly broad frequency distribution in the dataset. By applying this algorithm to in silico sequences, to the response regulator receiver and to the voltage sensor domain of ion channels, we show that this procedure recovers not only the information encoded in single site statistics and pairwise correlations but also captures dependencies going beyond pairwise correlations. The method proposed here is complementary to statistical coupling analysis, in that the most relevant sites predicted by the two methods differ markedly. We find robust and consistent results for datasets as small as few hundred sequences that reveal a hidden hierarchy of sites that are consistent with the present knowledge on biologically relevant sites and evolutionary dynamics. This suggests that critical variable selection is capable of identifying a core of sites encoding functional and structural information in a multiple sequence alignment. PMID:26974515

  15. Voices of Women at Entry Level Positions of Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Catherine Eggleston

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of organizational culture on women's professional lives. It focuses on women in entry-level positions in educational administration and explores the interaction of organizational attitudes and expectations with the participants' personalities, epistemological positions, work needs, performance self-esteem, and sense…

  16. Paths to Upper Level Positions in Public Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Patrick J.

    2010-01-01

    Preparation for a career in the field of public relations (PR) is based on a set of unique core competencies typically found in liberal arts. Though PR professionals rarely gain business degrees, they acquire knowledge, skills, perspectives, and strategies well-suited to executive-level positions in business. Additionally, managerial positions in…

  17. Criticality safety considerations for low-level-waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-04-01

    The nuclear criticality safety for handling and burial of certain special nuclear materials (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities is licensed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Recently, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff assisted the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, in developing technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 235}Pu in LLW facilities. This assistance resulted in a set of nuclear criticality safety criteria that can be uniformly applied to the review of LLW package burial facility license applications. These criteria were developed through the coupling of the historic surface-density criterion with current computational technique to establish safety criteria considering SNM material form and reflector influences. This paper presents a summary of the approach used to establish and to apply the criteria to the licensing review process.

  18. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2011-11-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds have been established, such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations). For Mediterranean ecosystems, few studies have been carried out to assess these parameters. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. For that we have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, which have been shown to be one of the most sensitive to excessive N. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done under Mediterranean climate, in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, by sampling lichen functional diversity and annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations and modelling N deposition downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). By modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition, the critical load was estimated to be below 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. By modelling the highly significant relationship of lichen functional groups with annual atmospheric ammonia concentration, the critical level was estimated to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should be taken into account in policies that aim at protecting Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  19. Leadership: Industry Needs for Entry-Level Engineering Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartmann, Beth Lin; Jahren, Charles T.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study that sought to identify what companies mean by the word "leadership" when used a job descriptions for entry-level, full-time engineering positions. Seven years of job posting data was analyzed to first understand the frequency and use of the word "leadership" in job descriptions. Using…

  20. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the excepted service is covered by 5 CFR, part 302. (1) Agency heads are delegated authority to... offices must be notified of the vacancy in accordance with 5 CFR 330.102. Publication in OPM's listing of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401...

  1. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the excepted service is covered by 5 CFR, part 302. (1) Agency heads are delegated authority to... offices must be notified of the vacancy in accordance with 5 CFR 330.102. Publication in OPM's listing of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401...

  2. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the excepted service is covered by 5 CFR, part 302. (1) Agency heads are delegated authority to... offices must be notified of the vacancy in accordance with 5 CFR 330.102. Publication in OPM's listing of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401...

  3. 5 CFR 319.401 - Senior-level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the excepted service is covered by 5 CFR, part 302. (1) Agency heads are delegated authority to... offices must be notified of the vacancy in accordance with 5 CFR 330.102. Publication in OPM's listing of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Senior-level positions. 319.401...

  4. Stable superconducting magnet. [high current levels below critical temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boom, R. W. (Inventor)

    1967-01-01

    Operation of a superconducting magnet is considered. A method is described for; (1) obtaining a relatively high current in a superconducting magnet positioned in a bath of a gas refrigerant; (2) operating a superconducting magnet at a relatively high current level without training; and (3) operating a superconducting magnet containing a plurality of turns of a niobium zirconium wire at a relatively high current level without training.

  5. Positive minimizers of the best constants and solutions to coupled critical quasilinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Dongsheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, systems of quasilinear elliptic equations are investigated, which involve critical homogeneous nonlinearities and deferent Hardy-type terms. By variational methods and careful analysis, positive minimizers of the related best Sobolev constants are found and the existence of positive solutions to the systems is verified. The results are new even in the case p = 2.

  6. Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Justin

    2012-03-01

    Positioning positivism, critical realism and social constructionism in the health sciences: a philosophical orientation This article starts by considering the differences within the positivist tradition and then it moves on to compare two of the most prominent schools of postpositivism, namely critical realism and social constructionism. Critical realists hold, with positivism, that knowledge should be positively applied, but reject the positivist method for doing this, arguing that causal explanations have to be based not on empirical regularities but on references to unobservable structures. Social constructionists take a different approach to postpositivism and endorse a relativist rejection of truth and hold that the task of research is to foster a scepticism that undermines any positive truth claim made. It is argued that social constructionism is a contradictory position. PMID:22212371

  7. Buoyancy Wave Interaction with Critical Levels in the Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rõõm, Rein; Zirk, Marko

    2013-04-01

    General non-linear internal buoyancy wave equation (BWE) is developed, which has the second (differential) order in space but the third order in time. The wave operator splitting method is then applied to the stationary BWE to get the orographically generated buoyancy waves in the thermally stratified atmosphere for altitude-variable wind conditions. The splitting method is further generalized to a critical level (CL) containing atmosphere. The CLs, which appear in the atmosphere (including the planetary boundary layer) if the wind weakens and changes direction or rotates with the altitude, will provide a break-up of the atmosphere to the regular (for BWE) layers separated by singular critical levels at which the differential order of the BWE is lowered. This lowering will cause either partial or full reflection of waves, though in the special fast wind altering case, the CL can prove transparent, too. The wave modelling examples for different CLs are provided. Classification of the wind situations with respect to the various reflection-transparency types of CL is vital for wave stress (vertical flux of mean horizontal momentum) and upper-level wave breaking study. ------------------------------------------------------------------ This research is supported by Estonian Science Foundation Grant 9134 and Estonian Research Council TF Project SF0180038s08.

  8. Critical noise levels for low-density parity check decoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourik, J. Van; Saad, D.; Kabashima, Y.

    2002-08-01

    We determine the critical noise level for decoding low-density parity check error-correcting codes based on the magnetization enumerator (M), rather than on the weight enumerator (W) employed in the information theory literature. The interpretation of our method is appealingly simple, and the relation between the different decoding schemes such as typical pairs decoding, MAP, and finite temperature decoding (MPM) becomes clear. In addition, our analysis provides an explanation for the difference in performance between MN and Gallager codes. Our results are more optimistic than those derived using the methods of information theory and are in excellent agreement with recent results from another statistical physics approach.

  9. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  10. The Offlap Break Position Vs Sea Level: A Discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tropeano, M.; Pieri, P.; Pomar, L.; Sabato, L.

    Sedimentary lithosomes with subhorizontal topsets, basinward prograding foresets and subhorizontal bottomsets are common in the geologic record, and most of them display similar bedding architectures and/or seismic reflection patterns (i.e. Gylbert- type deltas and shelf wedges). Nevertheless, in shallow marine settings these bodies may form in distinct sedimentary environments and they result from different sed- imentary processes. The offlap break (topset edge) occurs in relation to the posi- tion of baselevel and two main groups of lithosomes can be differentiated with re- spect to the position of the offlap break within the shelf profile. The baselevel of the first group is the sea level (or lake level); the topsets are mainly composed by continental- or very-shallow-water sedimentary facies and the offlap break practi- cally corresponds to the shoreline. Exemples of these lithosomes are high-constructive deltas (river-dominated deltas) and prograding beaches. For the second group, base- level corresponds to the base of wave/tide traction, and their topsets are mostly composed by shoreface/nearshore deposits. Examples of these lithosomes are high- destructive deltas (wave/tide-dominated deltas) and infralittoral prograding wedges (i.e Hernandez-Molina et al., 2000). The offlap break corresponds to the shelf edge (shoreface edge), which is located at the transition between nearshore and offshore set- tings, where a terrace prodelta- or transition-slope may develop (Pomar &Tropeano, 2001). Two main problems derive from these alternative interpretations of shallow- marine seaward prograding lithosomes: 1) both in ancient sedimentary shallow-marine successios (showing seaward prograding foresets) and in high resolution seismic pro- files (showing shelf wedges), the offlap break is commonly considered to correspond to the sea-level (shoreline) and used to inferr paleo sea-level positions and to construct sea-level curves. Without a good facies control, this use of

  11. [Respiratory care with prone position for diffuse atelectasis in critically ill patients].

    PubMed

    Shichinohe, Y; Ujike, Y; Kurihara, M; Yamamoto, S; Oota, K; Tsukamoto, M; Imaizumi, H; Kaneko, M

    1991-01-01

    Diffuse atelectasis often occurs in the dorsal region of the lung of critically ill patients under long term mechanical ventilation. Conventional physical therapies (ex. PEEP, Sigh) have little effect on diffuse dorsal atelectasis. We provided respiratory care with prone position for 7 patients with severe respiratory distress (Two patients were treated twice). Improvement of their Respiratory Indexes (RI, mean 2.97) was obtained in the prone position for 6-163 (mean 35.8) hours. Ventilation efficiency also improved. Static lung compliance didn't change. It was assumed that the prone position was the factor responsible for the improvement of pulmonary V/Q ratio, the change of movement pattern of the diaphragm, and the ease of postural drainage of sputum. There were no complications. We conclude that prone position respiratory care has high utility for critically ill patients with diffuse dorsal atelectasis. PMID:2024073

  12. Positive or sign-changing solutions for a critical semilinear nonlocal equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Wei; Yang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    We consider the following critical semilinear nonlocal equation involving the fractional Laplacian (-Δ)su = K(|x|)|u|^{2^{*}s-2}u,quad in {R}^N, where {K(|x|)} is a positive radial function, {N > 2 + 2s, 0 < s < 1}, and {2^{*}s = 2N/N-2s}. Under some asymptotic assumptions on K( x) at an extreme point, we show that this problem has infinitely many nonradial positive or sign-changing solutions.

  13. FEATURES, EVENTS, AND PROCESSES: SYSTEM-LEVEL AND CRITICALITY

    SciTech Connect

    D.L. McGregor

    2000-12-20

    The primary purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to identify and document the screening analyses for the features, events, and processes (FEPs) that do not easily fit into the existing Process Model Report (PMR) structure. These FEPs include the 3 1 FEPs designated as System-Level Primary FEPs and the 22 FEPs designated as Criticality Primary FEPs. A list of these FEPs is provided in Section 1.1. This AMR (AN-WIS-MD-000019) documents the Screening Decision and Regulatory Basis, Screening Argument, and Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Disposition for each of the subject Primary FEPs. This AMR provides screening information and decisions for the TSPA-SR report and provides the same information for incorporation into a project-specific FEPs database. This AMR may also assist reviewers during the licensing-review process.

  14. Jordanian TEFL Graduate Students' Use of Critical Thinking Skills (as Measured by the Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level Z)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bataineh, Ruba Fahmi; Zghoul, Lamma Hmoud

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the critical thinking skills of 50 students currently enrolled in the Master's TEFL Programme at Yarmouk University, Jordan. The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level Z is utilised to test the students' use, or lack thereof, of the critical thinking skills of deduction, semantics, credibility, induction, definition and…

  15. Spiraling through the Glass Ceiling: Seven Critical Lessons for Negotiating a Leadership Position in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutcher, Ronald A.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses seven critical lessons for navigating a leadership position in higher education. The author focuses on developing a personal means of remaining centered regardless of circumstances or situations as well as building an ethical foundation for one's work. He uses spiraling as a metaphor to describe his own…

  16. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer L.; May, Seth L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (PBIS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing PBIS. School teams completed the…

  17. Critical Features Predicting Sustained Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Susanna; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer; May, Seth

    2014-01-01

    The current study explored the extent to which a common measure of perceived implementation of critical features of School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) predicted fidelity of implementation 3 years later. Respondents included school personnel from 261 schools across the United States implementing SWPBS. School teams completed the…

  18. Stakeholder Perceptions of the Positive Benefits and Critical Challenges Involved in Student Service-Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohenthal, K. Darcy

    2010-01-01

    The Bolman and Deal (2003) Four-Frame Model was adapted in this qualitative phenomenological research study to describe how stakeholders experience student service-learning. The study presents how students perceive the positive benefits and critical challenges encountered in their service-learning experience; how professors perceive the positive…

  19. The Expression Level of Septin12 Is Critical for Spermiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Hung; Lin, Yung-Ming; Wang, Ya-Yun; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Yi-Wen; Wang, Yun-Han; Wu, Ching-Ming; Pan, Hsien-An; Chao, Shin-Chih; Yen, Pauline H.; Lin, Shu-Wha; Kuo, Pao-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Septins belong to a family of polymerizing GTP-binding proteins that are required for many cellular functions, such as membrane compartmentalization, vesicular trafficking, mitosis, and cytoskeletal remodeling. One family member, septin12, is expressed specifically in the testis. In this study, we found septin12 expressed in multiple subcellular compartments during terminal differentiation of mouse germ cells. In humans, the testicular tissues of men with either hypospermatogenesis or maturation arrest had lower levels of SEPTIN12 transcripts than normal men. In addition, increased numbers of spermatozoa with abnormal head, neck, and tail morphologies lacked SEPT12 immunostaining signals, as compared with normal spermatozoa. To elucidate the role of septin12, we generated 129 embryonic stem cells containing a septin12 mutant allele with a deletion in the exons that encode the N-terminal GTP-binding domain. Most chimeras derived from the targeted embryonic stem cells were infertile, and the few fertile chimeras only produced offspring with a C57BL/6 background. Semen analysis of the infertile chimeras showed a decreased sperm count, decreased sperm motility, and spermatozoa with defects involving all subcellular compartments. The testicular phenotypes included maturation arrest of germ cells at the spermatid stage, sloughing of round spermatids, and increased apoptosis of germ cells. Electron microscopic examination of spermatozoa showed misshapen nuclei, disorganized mitochondria, and broken acrosomes. Our data indicate that Septin12 expression levels are critical for mammalian spermiogenesis. PMID:19359518

  20. Terahertz spectroscopy of concrete for evaluating the critical hydration level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, Jyotirmayee; Ray, Shaumik; Nallappan, Kathirvel; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Pesala, Bala

    2014-03-01

    Concrete, a mixture of cement, coarse aggregate, sand and filler material (if any), is widely used in the construction industry. Cement, mainly composed of Tricalcium Silicate (C3S) and Dicalcium Silicate (C2S) reacts readily with water, a process known as hydration. The hydration process forms a solid material known as hardened cement paste which is mainly composed of Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H), Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. To quantify the critical hydration level, an accurate and fast technique is highly desired. However, in conventional XRD technique, the peaks of the constituents of anhydrated and hydrated cement cannot be resolved properly, where as Mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy has low penetration depth and hence cannot be used to determine the hydration level of thicker concrete samples easily. Further, MIR spectroscopy cannot be used to effectively track the formation of Calcium Hydroxide, a key by-product during the hydration process. This paper describes a promising approach to quantify the hydration dynamics of cement using Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy. This technique has been employed to track the time dependent reaction mechanism of the key constituents of cement that react with water and form the products in the hydrated cement, viz., C-S-H, Calcium Hydroxide and Calcium Carbonate. This study helps in providing an improved understanding on the hydration kinetics of cement and also to optimise the physio-mechanical characteristics of concrete.

  1. Critical Design Decisions of The Planck LFI Level 1 Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisset, N.; Rohlfs, R.; Türler, M.; Meharga, M.; Binko, P.; Beck, M.; Frailis, M.; Zacchei, A.

    2010-12-01

    The PLANCK satellite with two on-board instruments, a Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and a High Frequency Instrument (HFI) has been launched on May 14th with Ariane 5. The ISDC Data Centre for Astrophysics in Versoix, Switzerland has developed and maintains the Planck LFI Level 1 software for the Data Processing Centre (DPC) in Trieste, Italy. The main tasks of the Level 1 processing are to retrieve the daily available scientific and housekeeping (HK) data of the LFI instrument, the Sorption Cooler and the 4k Cooler data from Mission Operation Centre (MOC) in Darmstadt; to sort them by time and by type (detector, observing mode, etc...); to extract the spacecraft attitude information from auxiliary files; to flag the data according to several criteria; and to archive the resulting Time Ordered Information (TOI), which will then be used to produce maps of the sky in different spectral bands. The output of the Level 1 software are the TOI files in FITS format, later ingested into the Data Management Component (DMC) database. This software has been used during different phases of the LFI instrument development. We started to reuse some ISDC components for the LFI Qualification Model (QM) and we completely rework the software for the Flight Model (FM). This was motivated by critical design decisions taken jointly with the DPC. The main questions were: a) the choice of the data format: FITS or DMC? b) the design of the pipelines: use of the Planck Process Coordinator (ProC) or a simple Perl script? c) do we adapt the existing QM software or do we restart from scratch? The timeline and available manpower are also important issues to be taken into account. We present here the orientation of our choices and discuss their pertinence based on the experience of the final pre-launch tests and the start of real Planck LFI operations.

  2. Existence and concentration of positive ground states for a Kirchhoff equation involving critical Sobolev exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhisu; Guo, Shangjiang

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we consider the following semilinear Kirchhoff type equation where is a small parameter, , a, b are positive constants, μ > 0 is a parameter, and the nonlinear growth of | u|4 u reaches the Sobolev critical exponent since 2* = 6 for three spatial dimensions. We prove the existence of a positive ground state solution with exponential decay at infinity for μ > 0 and sufficiently small under some suitable conditions on the nonnegative functions V, K and Q. Moreover, concentrates around a global minimum point of V as . The methods used here are based on the concentration-compactness principle of Lions.

  3. Mobile subjectivities: positioning the nonunitary self in critical feminist and postmodern research.

    PubMed

    Ogle, Kaye Robyn; Glass, Nel

    2006-01-01

    Most scholarly work is written from the perspective of the author being a unitary subject occupying a sole, rational, and unified position. This article argues that scholarship may be enhanced by the author adopting multiple subject positions as a methodological framework. Such an adoption is advantageous in working against the romance of the notion of a single truth while also maintaining teleological values congruent with critical and feminist agendas. This article outlines the conceptual development of this methodological framework, the rationale for its development, an explication of the concept of multiple subjectivity, and an exemplar of its application within nursing research. PMID:16717496

  4. Adapting Entry-Level Engineering Courses to Emphasize Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagerty, D. Joseph; Rockaway, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Louisville recently developed a Quality Enhancement Plan (QEP) to improve undergraduate instruction across all disciplines as part of its ongoing accreditation requirements. Central elements of the plan are emphasis on critical thinking; integration of critical thinking throughout the curriculum; service learning for…

  5. High-Level Fluorescence Labeling of Gram-Positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Aymanns, Simone; Mauerer, Stefanie; van Zandbergen, Ger; Wolz, Christiane; Spellerberg, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescence labeling of bacterial pathogens has a broad range of interesting applications including the observation of living bacteria within host cells. We constructed a novel vector based on the E. coli streptococcal shuttle plasmid pAT28 that can propagate in numerous bacterial species from different genera. The plasmid harbors a promoterless copy of the green fluorescent variant gene egfp under the control of the CAMP-factor gene (cfb) promoter of Streptococcus agalactiae and was designated pBSU101. Upon transfer of the plasmid into streptococci, the bacteria show a distinct and easily detectable fluorescence using a standard fluorescence microscope and quantification by FACS-analysis demonstrated values that were 10–50 times increased over the respective controls. To assess the suitability of the construct for high efficiency fluorescence labeling in different gram-positive pathogens, numerous species were transformed. We successfully labeled Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus anginosus and Staphylococcus aureus strains utilizing the EGFP reporter plasmid pBSU101. In all of these species the presence of the cfb promoter construct resulted in high-level EGFP expression that could be further increased by growing the streptococcal and enterococcal cultures under high oxygen conditions through continuous aeration. PMID:21731607

  6. Deep UV Positive Resists For Two-Level Photoresist Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichmanis, E.; Smolinsky, G.

    1984-05-01

    trimethylsilylstyrene and chlorostyrene, shows excellent resistance to oxygen RIE. Similar trimethylsilylstyrene-chloromethylstyrene copolymers have been described by Suzuki et al. Negative resists, however, may swell during development and thus limit the degree of resolution. Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)3 and various substituted methacrylates 8,9 are well known, high resolution, positive deep UV resists. However they are not sufficiently resistant to an oxygen plasma to be usable in a two-level process employing RIE pattern transfer. Ideally, the etching rate ratios for the planarizing material vs. resist should be >10:1 and preferably >20:1 in order to minimize the effects of line width erosion and allow optimization of the thickness of the lower layer. This ratio may also be maximized through appropriate selection of the planarizing layer material. Our initial efforts have concentrated on effecting an improvement in the oxygen RIE resistance of PMMA, without destroying its high resolution characteristics. Improvements by factors of over 30 have been accomplished through the incorporation of siloxane substituted esters in the poly-mers; these effects are described as a function of silicon content. A preliminary litho-graphic evaluation of the materials is presented and while the etching rate ratio of HPR-204 vs. the P(DS-A-M) polymer employed is only ≍7 it is demonstrated that these new deep UV resists show promise as oxygen RIE masks for a two-level photoresist system employing dry etching pattern transfer techniques.

  7. A positive feedback at the cellular level promotes robustness and modulation at the circuit level.

    PubMed

    Dethier, Julie; Drion, Guillaume; Franci, Alessio; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2015-10-01

    This article highlights the role of a positive feedback gating mechanism at the cellular level in the robustness and modulation properties of rhythmic activities at the circuit level. The results are presented in the context of half-center oscillators, which are simple rhythmic circuits composed of two reciprocally connected inhibitory neuronal populations. Specifically, we focus on rhythms that rely on a particular excitability property, the postinhibitory rebound, an intrinsic cellular property that elicits transient membrane depolarization when released from hyperpolarization. Two distinct ionic currents can evoke this transient depolarization: a hyperpolarization-activated cation current and a low-threshold T-type calcium current. The presence of a slow activation is specific to the T-type calcium current and provides a slow positive feedback at the cellular level that is absent in the cation current. We show that this slow positive feedback is required to endow the network rhythm with physiological modulation and robustness properties. This study thereby identifies an essential cellular property to be retained at the network level in modeling network robustness and modulation. PMID:26311181

  8. Creating a Positive School Climate at the Junior High Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Licata, Vincent F.

    One of the seven correlates of an effective school, as identified by the Effective Schools Research, is a positive school climate: a positive attitude on the part of the entire staff and student body exhibited through overt behavior that creates a warm, orderly learning environment. Development of such an environment depends upon: (1) strong…

  9. Positive-overlap transition and critical exponents in mean field spin glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostini, Alessandra; Barra, Adriano; DeSanctis, Luca

    2006-11-01

    In this paper we obtain two results for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, and we show that they both emerge from a single approach. First, we prove that the average of the overlap takes positive values when it is non-zero. More specifically, the average of the overlap, which is naively expected to take values in the whole interval [-1,+1], becomes positive if we 'first' apply an external field, so as to destroy the gauge invariance of the model, and 'then' remove it in the thermodynamic limit. This phenomenon emerges at the critical point. This first result is weaker than the one obtained by Talagrand (not limited to the average of the overlap), but we show here that, at least on average, the overlap is proven to be non-negative with no use of the Ghirlanda-Guerra identities. The latter are instead needed to obtain the second result, which is to control the behaviour of the overlap at the critical point: we find the critical exponents of all the overlap correlation functions.

  10. Critical cell wall hole size for lysis in Gram-positive bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Gabriel; Wiesenfeld, Kurt; Nelson, Daniel; Weitz, Joshua

    2013-03-01

    Gram-positive bacteria transport molecules necessary for their survival through holes in their cell wall. The holes in cell walls need to be large enough to let critical nutrients pass through. However, the cell wall must also function to prevent the bacteria's membrane from protruding through a large hole into the environment and lysing the cell. As such, we hypothesize that there exists a range of cell wall hole sizes that allow for molecule transport but prevent membrane protrusion. Here we develop and analyze a biophysical theory of the response of a Gram-positive cell's membrane to the formation of a hole in the cell wall. We predict a critical hole size in the range 15-24nm beyond which lysis occurs. To test our theory, we measured hole sizes in Streptococcus pyogenes cells undergoing enzymatic lysis via transmission electron microscopy. The measured hole sizes are in strong agreement with our theoretical prediction. Together, the theory and experiments provide a means to quantify the mechanisms of death of Gram-positive cells via enzymatically mediated lysis and provides insight into the range of cell wall hole sizes compatible with bacterial homeostasis.

  11. Multiple positive solutions for nonlinear critical fractional elliptic equations involving sign-changing weight functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quaas, Alexander; Xia, Aliang

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we prove the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions for the following fractional elliptic equation with sign-changing weight functions: (-Δ)^α u= a_λ(x)|u|^{q-2}u+b(x)|u|^{2^*_α-1}u &in Ω, u=0&in {R}^N{setminus} Ω, where {0 < α < 1}, {Ω} is a bounded domain with smooth boundary in {{R}^N} with {N > 2 α} and {2^*_{α}=2N/(N-2α)} is the fractional critical Sobolev exponent. Our multiplicity results are based on studying the decomposition of the Nehari manifold and the Lusternik-Schnirelmann category.

  12. Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-04-01

    High rates of wave-induced erosion along salt marsh boundaries challenge the idea that marsh survival is dictated by the competition between vertical sediment accretion and relative sea-level rise. Because waves pounding marshes are often locally generated in enclosed basins, the depth and width of surrounding tidal flats have a pivoting control on marsh erosion. Here, we show the existence of a threshold width for tidal flats bordering salt marshes. Once this threshold is exceeded, irreversible marsh erosion takes place even in the absence of sea-level rise. This catastrophic collapse occurs because of the positive feedbacks among tidal flat widening by wave-induced marsh erosion, tidal flat deepening driven by wave bed shear stress, and local wind wave generation. The threshold width is determined by analyzing the 50-y evolution of 54 marsh basins along the US Atlantic Coast. The presence of a critical basin width is predicted by a dynamic model that accounts for both horizontal marsh migration and vertical adjustment of marshes and tidal flats. Variability in sediment supply, rather than in relative sea-level rise or wind regime, explains the different critical width, and hence erosion vulnerability, found at different sites. We conclude that sediment starvation of coastlines produced by river dredging and damming is a major anthropogenic driver of marsh loss at the study sites and generates effects at least comparable to the accelerating sea-level rise due to global warming. PMID:23513219

  13. Critical width of tidal flats triggers marsh collapse in the absence of sea-level rise

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti, Giulio; Fagherazzi, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    High rates of wave-induced erosion along salt marsh boundaries challenge the idea that marsh survival is dictated by the competition between vertical sediment accretion and relative sea-level rise. Because waves pounding marshes are often locally generated in enclosed basins, the depth and width of surrounding tidal flats have a pivoting control on marsh erosion. Here, we show the existence of a threshold width for tidal flats bordering salt marshes. Once this threshold is exceeded, irreversible marsh erosion takes place even in the absence of sea-level rise. This catastrophic collapse occurs because of the positive feedbacks among tidal flat widening by wave-induced marsh erosion, tidal flat deepening driven by wave bed shear stress, and local wind wave generation. The threshold width is determined by analyzing the 50-y evolution of 54 marsh basins along the US Atlantic Coast. The presence of a critical basin width is predicted by a dynamic model that accounts for both horizontal marsh migration and vertical adjustment of marshes and tidal flats. Variability in sediment supply, rather than in relative sea-level rise or wind regime, explains the different critical width, and hence erosion vulnerability, found at different sites. We conclude that sediment starvation of coastlines produced by river dredging and damming is a major anthropogenic driver of marsh loss at the study sites and generates effects at least comparable to the accelerating sea-level rise due to global warming. PMID:23513219

  14. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic pay for executive level positions... executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations may not exceed the rate for level III of the Executive Schedule....

  15. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Basic pay for executive level positions... executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations may not exceed the rate for level III of the Executive Schedule....

  16. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Basic pay for executive level positions... executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations may not exceed the rate for level III of the Executive Schedule....

  17. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic pay for executive level positions... executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations may not exceed the rate for level III of the Executive Schedule....

  18. 5 CFR 534.303 - Basic pay for executive level positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic pay for executive level positions... executive level positions. Rates of basic pay for executive level positions of temporary organizations may not exceed the rate for level III of the Executive Schedule....

  19. Critical loads of nitrogen deposition and critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinho, P.; Theobald, M. R.; Dias, T.; Tang, Y. S.; Cruz, C.; Martins-Loução, M. A.; Máguas, C.; Sutton, M.; Branquinho, C.

    2012-03-01

    Nitrogen (N) has emerged in recent years as a key factor associated with global changes, with impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems functioning and human health. In order to ameliorate the effects of excessive N, safety thresholds such as critical loads (deposition fluxes) and levels (concentrations) can be established. Few studies have assessed these thresholds for semi-natural Mediterranean ecosystems. Our objective was therefore to determine the critical loads of N deposition and long-term critical levels of atmospheric ammonia for semi-natural Mediterranean evergreen woodlands. We have considered changes in epiphytic lichen communities, one of the most sensitive comunity indicators of excessive N in the atmosphere. Based on a classification of lichen species according to their tolerance to N we grouped species into response functional groups, which we used as a tool to determine the critical loads and levels. This was done for a Mediterranean climate in evergreen cork-oak woodlands, based on the relation between lichen functional diversity and modelled N deposition for critical loads and measured annual atmospheric ammonia concentrations for critical levels, evaluated downwind from a reduced N source (a cattle barn). Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and annual atmospheric ammonia concentration showed the critical level to be below 1.9 μg m-3, in agreement with recent studies for other ecosystems. Modelling the highly significant relationship between lichen functional groups and N deposition showed that the critical load was lower than 26 kg (N) ha-1 yr-1, which is within the upper range established for other semi-natural ecosystems. Taking into account the high sensitivity of lichen communities to excessive N, these values should aid development of policies to protect Mediterranean woodlands from the initial effects of excessive N.

  20. Building District-Level Capacity for Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Heather Peshak; Kincaid, Don K.

    2008-01-01

    As more and more schools adopt school-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS) as a model for school improvement and the success of initial demonstration sites becomes evident, districts are faced with expansion and sustainability issues. Careful planning of these implementation efforts requires district personnel to be familiar with the resources…

  1. Criticality safety of high-level tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, C.A.

    1995-07-01

    Radioactive waste containing low concentrations of fissile isotopes is stored in underground storage tanks on the Hanford Site in Washington State. The goal of criticality safety is to ensure that this waste remains subcritical into the indefinite future without supervision. A large ratio of solids to plutonium provides an effective way of ensuring a low plutonium concentration. Since the first waste discharge, a program of audits and appraisals has ensured that operations are conducted according to limits and controls applied to them. In addition, a program of surveillance and characterization maintains watch over waste after discharge.

  2. Construction of the Mid-Level Management Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyrell, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The role of the mid-level manager as an organizer, communicator, and problem-solver in student affairs has been examined within the literature, but current discussion generally excludes the perspective of managers at community colleges. This chapter focuses on the importance of managerial identity and roles, particularly as it is enacted within a…

  3. College Students' Expectations for Entry-Level Broadcast Positions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funkhouser, Edward; Savage, Arthur L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Investigates whether entry-level, college-educated broadcast employees have job expectations that broadcast managers do not understand. Indicates that students' desire for rapid professional advancement has increased between 1979 and 1980. Revealed that managers accurately perceived the rank order students assigned to the 20 outcomes, but…

  4. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  5. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  6. Instructors' Positive Emotions: Effects on Student Engagement and Critical Thinking in U.S. and Chinese Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jibiao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used the broaden-and-build theory and emotional response theory as the framework to examine the effects of instructors' positive emotions on student engagement and critical thinking in U.S. and Chinese classrooms, as well as the mediating role of students' positive emotions in their relationships. MANOVA results…

  7. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  8. Treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma: ongoing trials, critical issues and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mirghani, H; Amen, F; Blanchard, P; Moreau, F; Guigay, J; Hartl, D M; Lacau St Guily, J

    2015-04-01

    Due to the generally poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), treatment has been intensified, these last decades, leading to an increase of serious side effects. High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection has been recently etiologically linked to a subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), which is on the increase. These tumors are different, at the clinical and molecular level, when compared to tumors caused by traditional risk factors. Additionally, their prognosis is much more favorable which has led the medical community to consider new treatment strategies. Indeed, it is possible that less intensive treatment regimens could achieve similar efficacy with less toxicity and improved quality of life. Several clinical trials, investigating different ways to de-escalate treatment, are currently ongoing. In this article, we review these main approaches, discuss the rationale behind them and the issues raised by treatment de-escalation in HPV-positive OPSCC. PMID:24622970

  9. Integrating Levels of Critical Thinking into Writing Assignments for Introductory Psychology Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, A. Sandra

    Short analytical writing exercises were designed to develop critical thinking and writing skills; stimulate creative thinking and writing; promote learning of psychological concepts; and to assess student knowledge. Design of these assignments was based on Bloom's taxonomy of multiple levels of critical thinking: recall, comprehension,…

  10. On the Determination of the Critical Level of Market Concentration in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borland, Melvin V.; Howsen, Roy M.

    1993-01-01

    Attempts to estimate a critical level of market concentration within the educational sector for Kentucky. The critical Herfindahl was estimated at 0.50. Counties experiencing a Herfindahl index at or above this number can expect, on average, a 1.6 percentage point decrease (or a 3% reduction) in student achievement scores. (MLH)

  11. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  12. Utilization of critical periods during development to study the effects of low levels of environmental agents

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L. B.

    1980-01-01

    Careful definition of critical periods in the development of selected characters can result in experimental systems that may be highly useful in studying risk at low levels of exposure. Three examples are presented. Epidemiological investigations can lose much of their value unless critical periods are known for the end points being studied.

  13. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  14. New stomatal flux-based critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Gina; Pleijel, Håkan; Braun, Sabine; Büker, Patrick; Bermejo, Victoria; Calvo, Esperanza; Danielsson, Helena; Emberson, Lisa; Fernández, Ignacio González; Grünhage, Ludger; Harmens, Harry; Hayes, Felicity; Karlsson, Per-Erik; Simpson, David

    2011-09-01

    The critical levels for ozone effects on vegetation have been reviewed and revised by the LRTAP Convention. Eight new or revised critical levels based on the accumulated stomatal flux of ozone (POD Y, the Phytotoxic Ozone Dose above a threshold flux of Y nmol m -2 PLA s -1, where PLA is the projected leaf area) have been agreed. For each receptor, data were combined from experiments conducted under naturally fluctuating environmental conditions in 2-4 countries, resulting in linear dose-response relationships with response variables specific to each receptor ( r2 = 0.49-0.87, p < 0.001 for all). For crops, critical levels were derived for effects on wheat (grain yield, grain mass, and protein yield), potato (tuber yield) and tomato (fruit yield). For forest trees, critical levels were derived for effects on changes in annual increment in whole tree biomass for beech and birch, and Norway spruce. For (semi-)natural vegetation, the critical level for effects on productive and high conservation value perennial grasslands was based on effects on important component species of the genus Trifolium (clover species). These critical levels can be used to assess protection against the damaging effects of ozone on food security, important ecosystem services provided by forest trees (roundwood production, C sequestration, soil stability and flood prevention) and the vitality of pasture.

  15. DDE in birds' eggs: Comparisons of two methods for estimating critical levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The sample egg technique and eggshell thickness-residue regression analysis were comparatively evaluated as tools in estimating critical levels of DDE in birds? eggs that seriously affect reproductive successa nd population starts....In comparing critical values of DDE that were derived from the two methods, the estimates were lower using the sample egg technique for both the Brown Pelican (3 ?g/g vs 8 ?g/g) and the Black-crowned Night-Heron (12?g/g/ vs 54 ?g/g) assuming a critical value of eggshell thinning at 20%....Extension of the regression line beyond the eggshell thickness-DDE residue data base is likely to result in spurious critical values of DDE. When sufficient thickness and residue data are available for estimating critical values of DDE from the regression equation, the estimates are meaningful but are likely to be inflated because adverse effects unrelated to eggshell thinning such as parental behavior and embryotoxicity unrelated to eggshell deficiencies are not taken into account.....Establishing critical levels of pollutants in eggs and tissues is a necessary procedure in assessing effects of these chemicals on individuals and populations of sensitive species. There are inherent difficulties in quantifying the effects of any pollutant on population trends and declines in productivity. The sample egg technique is apparently a more sensitive method for estimating critical levels of DDE, but some subjective interpretation is required for results obtained by both methods.

  16. Critical exposure level of cadmium for elevated urinary metallothionein-An occupational population study in China

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liang; Jin Taiyi . E-mail: tyjin@shmu.edu.cn; Huang, Bo; Nordberg, Gunnar; Nordberg, Monica

    2006-08-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxic agent with extremely long biological half-time of 15-30 years in humans. To prevent nephrotoxicity induced by cadmium, it is necessary to identify specific and sensitive biomarkers of cadmium exposure and renal damage, and to define critical exposure levels related to minimal nephrotoxicity in humans. In this study, urinary cadmium (UCd) and blood cadmium (BCd) were used as cadmium exposure indicators, urinary {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin (UB2M), N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (UNAG) and albumin (UALB) were applied as the effect biomarkers of tubular and glomerular dysfunction. The relationship between urinary metallothionein (UMT) and cadmium exposure biomarkers as well as effect biomarkers was examined. Significant correlations were found between the UMT and BCd, and UCd. At the same time, UB2M, UALB and UNAG showed positive correlation with UMT as well. According to this result, cadmium-exposed individuals with renal dysfunction excreted more metallothionein than those without. Dose-response relationships between UCd and urinary indicators of renal dysfunction were studied. The critical concentration of UCd was quantitatively estimated by the benchmark dose (BMD) method. The lower confidence limit of the BMD-10 (BMDL) of UCd (3.1 {mu}g/g Cr) related to increased excretion of urinary metallothionein was slightly higher than that for UNAG (2.7 {mu}g/g Cr), but lower than those of UB2M (3.4 {mu}g/g Cr) and UALB (4.2 {mu}g/g Cr). The results demonstrate that UMT may be used as a sensitive biomarker of renal tubular dysfunction in cadmium-exposed populations.

  17. Voices of Women in the Field--Obtaining a Higher Education Faculty Position: The Critical Role Mentoring Plays for Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This instrumental case study outlines the critical role a graduate female faculty member played in mentoring a female doctoral student in obtaining a graduate faculty position in higher education. For the female mentee, mentoring behaviors of "championing, acceptance and confirmation" (Levesque, 2005, p. 6) were valuable in increasing professional…

  18. Students' Critical Thinking Ability: Description Based on Academic Level and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zetriuslita, Hj.; Ariawan, Rezi; Nufus, Hayatun

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to describe students' critical thinking ability based on the level academic and gender. The populations of this study were 132 students participating in five classes of Calculus course. The research data obtained through technical tests and interview techniques. This study found that the high level of capability, both male…

  19. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Brigitte C.

    2013-01-01

    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  20. The Genomic Landscape of Position Effects on Protein Expression Level and Noise in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-05-25

    Position effect, the influence of the chromosomal location of a gene on its activity, is a fundamental property of the genome. By placing a GFP gene cassette at 482 different locations across all chromosomes in budding yeast, we quantified the position effects on protein expression level and noise at the genomic scale. The position effects are significant, altering the mean protein expression level by up to 15 times and expression noise by up to 20 times. DNA replication timing, 3D chromosomal conformation, and several histone modifications are major covariates of position effects. Essential genes are enriched in genomic regions with inherently low expression noise, supporting the hypothesis that chromosomal clustering of essential genes results from selection against their expressional stochasticity. Position effects exhibit significant interactions with promoters. Together, our results suggest that position effects have shaped the evolution of chromosome organization and should inform future genome engineering efforts. PMID:27185547

  1. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocken, Christian; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Young, Larry E.; Purcell, George H., Jr.; Wolf, Susan Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was examined. An experiment was conducted on the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California from December 13-15, 1989. A GPS-equipped buoy was deployed about 100 m off the pier. Two fixed reference GPS receivers, located on the pier and about 80 km away on Monument Peak, were used to estimate the relative position of the floater. Kinematic GPS processing software, developed at the National Geodetic Survey, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GPS Infrared Processing System software were used to determine the floater position relative to land-fixing receivers. Calculations were made of sea level and ocean wave spectra from GPS measurements. It is found that the GPS sea level for the short 100 m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1 cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours.

  2. Positioning and Classroom Literacy Research: A Polyvocal Re-presentational Critical Re-view.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udell, Risa; Meyer, Richard

    In an effort to create a polyphonic critical response to the roles of the researcher and the researched in classroom-based literacy research, this paper is formatted as a play--indented parts are direct quotes from others spoken by the speakers. It articulates questions of classroom literacy research as it considers the methods, goals, and…

  3. Interplay between Energy-Level Position and Charging Effect of Manganese Phthalocyanines on an Atomically Thin Insulator.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liwei; Dienel, Thomas; Widmer, Roland; Gröning, Oliver

    2015-10-27

    Understanding the energy-level alignment and charge transfer of organic molecules at large bandgap semiconductors is of crucial importance to optimize device performance in organic electronics. We have studied submonolayer coverage of manganese phthalocyanine (MnPc) on hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) on Rh(111) as a model system by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS). The adsorbed molecules show three distinctly different bias-dependent topographic signatures, which depend on their adsorption positions on the h-BN. Among these three types of MnPc, one shows pronounced charging because of the proximity of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to the Fermi level on the decoupling h-BN substrate. The charging of the MnPc from its neutral to the MnPc(+) state leads to a down shift of the Mn 3d-related orbital by 840 meV as determined from the difference in energy position between high- and low-bias charging. We find that the charging field is linearly related to the HOMO position with respect to the Fermi level, with a clear correlation to the adsorption orientations of the MnPc. Our results show how critically energy level alignment and field-induced charge transfer process can depend on adsorption configurations, even on an apparently low-interacting substrate like metal supported monolayer h-BN. PMID:26390030

  4. Opt Out: Women with Children Leaving Mid-Level Student Affairs Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebreard, Dana

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study is about the decision-making process of women with young children at the mid-level student affairs position who decide to opt out of their career for a minimum of one year, and for some, return to higher education. The study is based on interviews with 17 mid-level college administrators and mothers of young children,…

  5. Positive solution for a quasilinear elliptic equation involving critical or supercritical exponent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haidong

    2016-04-01

    This paper concerns the quasilinear elliptic equation - Δ u + u - Δ ( u 2 ) u = |" separators=" u | p - 2 u + μ |" separators=" u | q - 2 u in R N , where N ≥ 3, 2 < p < 2 ṡ 2∗ = 4N/(N - 2) ≤ q, and μ is a positive parameter. For μ > 0 sufficiently small, existence of a positive solution will be proved via variational methods together with truncation technique and L∞-estimate. The main novelty is that no growth condition is required for the nonlinearity.

  6. Developing "The Critic's Corner": Computer-Assisted Language Learning for Upper-Level Russian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholas, Mary A.; Toporski, Neil

    1993-01-01

    A Lehigh University project to develop interactive video materials for use in upper-level Russian language courses is reported. Russian film clips on laser disc are used to improve writing and speaking skills, stimulate students' critical thinking, and encourage students' collaborative learning. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/LB)

  7. Leveling of Critical Thinking Abilities of Students of Mathematics Education in Mathematical Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasiman

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…

  8. Expanding Opportunity through Critical Restorative Justice Portraits of Resilience at the Individual and School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David; Wadhwa, Anita

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we tackle the disadvantaging conditions of zero tolerance policies in school settings and advocate using an alternative approach--critical restorative justice through peacemaking circles--to nurture resilience and open opportunity at the school level. In the process, this article builds on theory and qualitative research and…

  9. Developing Critical Awareness at the Middle Level: Using Texts as Tools for Critique and Pleasure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Holly; Freedman, Lauren

    2005-01-01

    Young adolescents need and want more than a diet of worksheets and rote skills that asks them to think little and talk less. This book presents an instructional approach that mixes critique and pleasure, allowing middle-level students to read literature they enjoy while they develop critical awareness and address issues of social justice.…

  10. Occupational Education in the Great Cities; A Statement of Position and Critical Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Great Cities Research Council, Chicago, IL.

    A position statement developed by representatives of 16 cities to broaden vocational education opportunities and improve program quality resulted in the following principles: (1) Programs of occupational education must be an integral part of the educational process, (2) Occupational education must be sufficiently broad and varied in scope and be…

  11. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... incentives under 5 CFR part 575; (12) An explanation regarding why the position should be designated a... qualifications, and other pertinent factors, to provide a reliable comparison; (11) Assessment of why the agency... assessment must include a justification as to why the agency could not, as an effective alternative,...

  12. 5 CFR 535.104 - Requests for and granting critical position pay authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... incentives under 5 CFR part 575; (12) An explanation regarding why the position should be designated a... qualifications, and other pertinent factors, to provide a reliable comparison; (11) Assessment of why the agency... assessment must include a justification as to why the agency could not, as an effective alternative,...

  13. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years within a…

  14. Critical Incidents in Sustaining School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Theresa E.; McIntosh, Kent; Ross, Scott W.; Kahn, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify, categorize, and describe practitioners' perspectives regarding factors that help and hinder sustainability of Tier I (universal) systems within School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS). Seventeen participants involved in sustaining Tier I SWPBIS over several years…

  15. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the global positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rocken, C.; Kelecy, T.M.; Born, G.H. ); Young, L.E.; Purcell, G.H. Jr.; Wolf, S.K. )

    1990-11-01

    High-accuracy sea surface positioning is required for sea floor geodesy, satellite altimeter verification, and the study of sea level. An experiment to study the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was conducted. A GPS-equipped buoy (floater) was deployed off the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California during December 13-15, 1989. Two reference GPS receivers were placed on land, one within {approximately}100 m of the floater, and the other about 80 km inland at the laser ranging site on Monument Peak. The position of the floater was determined relative to the land-fixed receivers using: (a) kinematic GPS processing software developed at the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), and (b) the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GIPSY (GPS Inferred Positioning SYstem) software. Sea level and ocean wave spectra were calculated from GPPS measurements. These results were compared to measurements made with a NOAA tide gauge and a Paros{trademark} pressure transducer (PPT). GPS sea level for the short 100-m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1-cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours. Agreement between results with the two independent GPS analyses is on the order of a few millimeters. Processing of the longer Monument Peak - floater baseline is in progress and will require orbit adjustments and tropospheric modeling to obtain results comparable to the short baseline.

  16. From Bottom-Up Approaches to Levels of Organization and Extended Critical Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Giuseppe; Montévil, Maël; Pocheville, Arnaud

    2012-01-01

    Biological thinking is structured by the notion of level of organization. We will show that this notion acquires a precise meaning in critical phenomena: they disrupt, by the appearance of infinite quantities, the mathematical (possibly equational) determination at a given level, when moving at an “higher” one. As a result, their analysis cannot be called genuinely bottom-up, even though it remains upward in a restricted sense. At the same time, criticality and related phenomena are very common in biology. Because of this, we claim that bottom-up approaches are not sufficient, in principle, to capture biological phenomena. In the second part of this paper, following (Bailly, 1991b), we discuss a strong criterium of level transition. The core idea of the criterium is to start from the breaking of the symmetries and determination at a “first” level in order to “move” at the others. If biological phenomena have multiple, sustained levels of organization in this sense, then they should be interpreted as extended critical transitions. PMID:22934001

  17. The critical difference: scope of optometry practice vs. entry level competency.

    PubMed

    Barresi, B J

    1994-02-01

    This paper proposes a survey-based approach on how optometry can define the critical difference in competency levels between entry level and experienced practitioners. The report describes the design and pilot testing of a survey instrument on clinical competencies. This work is still in an early stage, and these preliminary findings are meant to encourage other individuals to work on empirical models for defining entry level clinical competencies. The pilot study concludes that a full scale project to describe empirically the entry level competencies for optometrists is feasible and worthy of effort. The findings of a descriptive study can help gauge at an institutional or national level what is the extent and diversity of views about what constitutes entry level clinical competencies for optometry. PMID:8152748

  18. Serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Dongmei; Yin, Quhua; Yan, Xiaoli; Song, Huaidong; Gao, Guanqi; Liang, Jun; Zhao, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate serum cholesterol levels in middle-aged euthyroid subjects with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs). Methods: We screened 1607 euthyroid subjects aged 35-65 years old. All the subjects were divided into 2 groups (i.e., TPOAb-positive group, n=205; TPOAb-negative group, n=1402) according to the level of TPOAb. The subjects were then subgrouped according to serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels; those with a TSH level of 0.3-0.99 mIU/L, 1.0-1.89 mIU/L, and 1.9-4.80 mIU/L were classified into the low-normal, mid-range, and high-normal TSH subgroups, respectively). Each TSH group further subdivided into TPOAb-positive and TPOAb-negative subgroup. Data regarding the subjects’ height, body weight, blood pressure, and levels of serum TSH, TPOAb, fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were collected. Results: Compared with TPOAb-negative subjects, TPOAb-positive patients had higher levels of TSH, TC, and HDL-C (P=0.001, P=0.012, and P=0.049 respectively) with a tendency for increased LDL-C levels (P=0.053). In the low-normal TSH subgroup, subjects with and without TPOAb had similar levels of TSH, TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C (P>0.05). In mid-range TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher HDL-C levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P=0.008) and a tendency for increased TC levels (P=0.121). In the high-normal TSH subgroup, TPOAb-positive patients had higher TSH and TC levels compared to TPOAb-negative subjects (P<0.001 and P=0.046 respectively). Conclusions: High TPOAb levels above the normal range appears in euthyroid population, dyslipidemia have begun. PMID:26885115

  19. Circulating Irisin Levels Are Positively Associated with Metabolic Risk Factors in Sedentary Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, María; Moreno-Navarrete, José María; Serrano, Marta; Ortega, Francisco; Delgado, Elías; Sanchez-Ragnarsson, Cecilia; Valdés, Sergio; Botas, Patricia; Ricart, Wifredo; Fernández-Real, José Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A physically active life-style plays an independent role in the protection against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Irisin, a novel exercise-induced myokine, activates thermogenesis in rodents through increasing beige fat cells abundance within white fat. We aimed to investigate circulating irisin levels in association with the degree of physical activity and various metabolic parameters in humans. Methods Circulating irisin levels (ELISA) and metabolic parameters were analyzed in 428 subjects (195 men/233 women). Participants were classified according to their self-reported physical activity and to their area of residence. Results Circulating irisin levels were higher in active than in sedentary subjects (p= 0.006). Rural inhabitants showed higher circulating irisin levels than urban subjects (p < 0.0001). The increase in irisin levels related to an active lifestyle was only observed in rural citizens (p = 0.014). Among sedentary participants, irisin levels were positively associated with metabolic risk factors (BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA and fasting triglycerides). The area of residence (β= - 0.592, p= < 0.0001) contributed independently to circulating irisin levels variance after controlling for age, gender, BMI, HOMAIR, triglycerides and physical activity. Conclusions In sedentary participants, circulating irisin levels were positively associated with parameters related to an increased cardiometabolic risk. The present study confirmed that an active lifestyle increases circulating irisin levels, but only among subjects living in a rural environment. Area of residence might be a determinant of irisin levels. PMID:25897751

  20. Determination of vertical deflections using the global positioning system and geodetic leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, T.; Carlson, A.E. Jr.; Evans, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurately determining geodetic quantities are well established. Nevertheless, no comparison between deflections of the vertical as determined through GPS with leveling and values conventionally computer by astrogeodetic methods has yet been published. This investigation demonstrates that the accurate deflections of the vertical components ({eta}, {xi}) can be obtained independently of classical astronomic observations by combining geodetic leveling with satellite GOS positioning. The approach uses a radial configuration of baselines to determine the best (in a least square sense) values of ({eta}, {xi}) at the central station.

  1. Effect of the chiral chemical potential on the position of the critical endpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bin; Wang, Yong-Long; Cui, Zhu-Fang; Zong, Hong-Shi

    2015-02-01

    The effect of chiral imbalance on the QCD phase structure is studied in a framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. It is found that the chiral phase transition is always a crossover in the T -μ5 plane when μ is 0 MeV or small values. The trail of the critical endpoints (CEPs) along with the variation of the chiral chemical potential is given. We find that the effect of μ5 is somewhat different from the existing chiral model calculations; namely, the CEP first moves roughly along the phase boundary of T -μ plane in a smaller μ direction, as in the chiral model calculations, but turns in the opposite direction to move away from the small chemical potential region, which has never been observed before. In addition, we also discuss the possibility of whether the study at finite temperature and chiral chemical potential can provide some useful information for the detection of the CEP at finite temperature and baryon chemical potential, since the former can be calculated in lattice QCD without the sign problem.

  2. Analysis of heart rate variability in individuals subjected to different positive end expiratory pressure levels using expiratory positive airway pressure

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Thiago Lorentz; Costa, Ivan Peres; Kawaguchi, Leandro Yukio Alves; de Carvalho, Flávio Aimbire Soares; de Carvalho, Regiane Albertini

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The increase in the number of studies has led to greater security in the application of this method and the determination of its effectiveness in adults.. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate heart rate variability in healthy individuals submitted to different levels of positive expiratory pressure using an expiratory positive airway pressure (EPAP) device. Material and methods The study involved 27 healthy male individuals ranging in age from 20 to 35 years. Patient histories were taken and the subjects were submitted to a physical examination. The volunteers were monitored using the Polar 810s® and submitted to the EPAP experiment. Analyses were performed on variables of the frequency domain. Sympathetic and parasympathetic bands and their relationship with sympathovagal response were also analyzed. Results The mean value of this variable was 526.89 (55.50) ms2 in the first period, 2811.0 (721.10) ms2 in the fourth period and 726.52 (123.41) ms2 in the fifth period. Regarding the parasympathetic area, significant differences were detected when Periods 1 and 5 (no load) were compared with periods in which the individuals were subjected to the use of the therapy. Sympathetic and parasympathetic areas together, a significant difference was detected regarding the sympathetic/parasympathetic ratio in the comparison between Periods 1 and 4 (p < 0.01) as well as Periods 2 and 4 (p < 0.05). Conclusions The findings of the present study suggest that the therapeutic use of EPAP significantly alters the parameters of heart rate variability in the frequency domain, highlighting the importance of monitoring and care during the practice of EPAP. PMID:24049524

  3. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation as treatment for acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Massimo; Conti, Giorgio

    2000-01-01

    Our current state of knowledge on noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and technical aspects are discussed in the present review. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NPPV can be considered a valid therapeutic option to prevent endotracheal intubation. Evidence suggests that, before eventual endotracheal intubation, NPPV should be considered as first-line intervention in the early phases of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Small randomized and non-randomized studies on the application of NPPV in patients with acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure showed promising results, with reduction in complications such as sinusitis and ventilator-associated pneumonia, and in the duration of intensive care unit stay. The conventional use of NPPV in hypoxaemic acute respiratory failure still remains controversial, however. Large randomized studies are still needed before extensive clinical application in this condition. PMID:11094492

  4. Empirical Confirmation of the Critical Level for Zero and Near Zero Background Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, D P; Simpson, T

    2001-06-01

    The alpha spectroscopy system of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Hazards Control Department evaluates electroplated samples, typically urine and feces, for alpha emitting radionuclides. Most of the samples processed by the alpha spectroscopy system are evaluated for Plutonium-239 (Pu-239), an important radionuclide used in research. This paper evaluates the Pu-239 background response of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Hazards Control Department's alpha spectroscopy system. Background measurements of the alpha spectroscopy system have been studied to determine an appropriate method for establishing the a postori critical level for detection of plutonium alpha activity. Several methods of establishing the 95% confidence interval for over 4,900 background measurements were evaluated. Two methods appear to provide reasonable results so as to assure an appropriate 95% confidence interval. This report provides the results of this evaluation and the comparison of the various methods tested to establish an empirical evaluation of the critical level using a commercially available analysis program.

  5. Critical levels of brain atrophy associated with homocysteine and cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    de Jager, Celeste A

    2014-09-01

    Few B-vitamin trials to lower homocysteine (Hcy) have reported evidence of beneficial effects on cognition in older adults with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease. This article reviews the role of Hcy in cognitive decline. It also considers some reasons why meta-analyses have failed to find effects of B-vitamin treatment. Findings from the successful VITACOG trial are examined from a new perspective of critical levels of Hcy and brain atrophy that may impact on the efficacy of B-vitamin treatment. It appears that there is a critical level of brain shrinkage, possibly mediated by elevated Hcy, which when reached, results in cognitive decline, especially in episodic memory performance. Supplements, food sources, and effects of folic acid fortification are discussed in relation to B12 deficiency. PMID:24927906

  6. Criticality safety criteria for license review of low-level waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, C.M.; Odegaarden, R.H.; Parks, C.V.; Fox, P.B.

    1995-03-01

    The handling and burial of specified quantities of special nuclear material (SNM) at low-level-waste (LLW) facilities require a license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). With assistance from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) staff, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material Safety and Safeguards, Low-Level-Waste and Decommissioning Projects Branch, has developed technical specifications for the nuclear criticality safety of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu in LLW facilities. The objective of the development of these technical specifications was to establish a set of review criteria that are rigorously defensible that can be applied uniformly to all license applications, and that conservatively ensures that buried SNM will not pose a criticality safety concern.

  7. Critical boron-doping levels for generation of dislocations in synthetic diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Alegre, M. P. Araújo, D.; Pinero, J. C.; Lloret, F.; Villar, M. P.; Fiori, A.; Achatz, P.; Chicot, G.; Bustarret, E.; Jomard, F.

    2014-10-27

    Defects induced by boron doping in diamond layers were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The existence of a critical boron doping level above which defects are generated is reported. This level is found to be dependent on the CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} molar ratios and on growth directions. The critical boron concentration lied in the 6.5–17.0 × 10{sup 20}at/cm{sup 3} range in the 〈111〉 direction and at 3.2 × 10{sup 21 }at/cm{sup 3} for the 〈001〉 one. Strain related effects induced by the doping are shown not to be responsible. From the location of dislocations and their Burger vectors, a model is proposed, together with their generation mechanism.

  8. Air pollution critical levels in central México protected natural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Suarez, L.; Andraca Ayala, G.; Mar Morales, B.; Garcia-reynoso, J.; Torres-JArdon, R.

    2013-05-01

    All the Natural Protected Areas (NPA) within the Central Mexico City Belt comprising five metropolitan areas including MCMA are under strong impact from air pollution. Ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide exceed critical levels for several types of vegetation. In this work we show the critical level maps for ozone, nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide for Sierra of Chichinautzin, the mountain that acts as the physical barrier to air pollution dispersion south of Mexico City Metropolitan Area, what makes of it a receptor area to MCMA pollution. Maps were made combining model outputs from WRF-Chem and passive samplers. We also describe a proposal to extend the observation network to all natural protected areas within the Central Mexico City Belt.

  9. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-02-01

    Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated.The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels.In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4.At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month.In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively associated with

  10. Serum Levels of Follistatin Are Positively Associated With Serum-Free Thyroxine Levels in Patients With Hyperthyroidism or Euthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Fen-Yu; Chen, Yen-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chao; Chen, Pei-Lung; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Follistatin is a glycoprotein with various biologic functions that plays a role in adipocyte differentiation, muscle stimulation, anti-inflammation, and energy homeostasis. Thyroid hormones influence energy expenditure, glucose, and lipid metabolism. The association between serum follistatin level and thyroid function statuses has seldom been evaluated. The objectives of this study were to compare serum follistatin concentrations in different thyroid function statuses and to evaluate the associations between serum follistatin and free thyroxine (fT4) levels. In this study, 30 patients with hyperthyroidism (HY group) and 30 euthyroid individuals (EU group) were recruited. The patients of HY group were treated with antithyroid regimens as clinically indicated, whereas no medication was given to EU group. The demographic and anthropometric characteristics, biochemical data, serum levels of follistatin, and thyroid function of both groups at baseline and at the 6th month were compared. Data of all patients were pooled for the analysis of the associations between the levels of follistatin and fT4. At baseline, the HY group had significantly higher serum follistatin levels than the EU group (median [Q1, Q3]: 1.81 [1.33, 2.78] vs 1.13 [0.39, 1.45] ng/mL, P < 0.001). When treated with antithyroid regimens, the follistatin serum levels in HY group decreased to 1.54 [1.00, 1.88] ng/mL at the 6th month. In all patients, the serum levels of follistatin were positively associated with fT4 levels at baseline (β = 0.54, P = 0.005) and at the 6th month (β = 0.59, P < 0.001). The association between follistatin and fT4 levels remained significant in the stepwise multivariate regression analysis, both initially and at the 6th month. In comparison to the EU group, patients with hyperthyroidism had higher serum follistatin levels, which decreased after receiving antithyroid treatment. In addition, the serum follistatin concentrations were positively

  11. Simulated Microgravity: Critical Review on the Use of Random Positioning Machines for Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Simon L.; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach. PMID:25649075

  12. The journey of positioning self as both mental health nurse and qualitative researcher: a critical reflection.

    PubMed

    Brunero, S J; Jeon, Y H; Foster, K

    2015-09-01

    This paper discusses the development of a mental health nurse clinician to a mental health nurse researcher. Understanding the theoretical and professional drives that shape mental health nurses clinical practice and how that links to becoming a researcher is discussed. Mental health nurses who conduct research have to often move between their clinical roles and that of the researcher, doing this safely using a reflective supervision approach enables the nurse to conduct the research from a stronger professional and ethical standpoint. The intention of the paper is to encourage mental health nurses to engage in research and development. Shifting between the positions of a mental health nurse clinician and a qualitative researcher has some parallels to the processes in the nurse-service user relationship. This paper addresses this development from practitioner to researcher in one mental health nurse's journey through a PhD study using constructivist grounded theory. The paper examines theoretical and professional drives that have shaped my clinical practice and the role of the researcher in constructivist grounded theory, the notion of the researcher shifting between insider and outsider status, and the importance of reflexivity in conducting research. These influences will be discussed in the context of the development of a constructivist grounded theory study of the delivery of health care to service users with a mental illness in general hospital wards. PMID:26234189

  13. Classroom-Level Positive Behavior Supports in Schools Implementing SW-PBIS: Identifying Areas for Enhancement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Stormont, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the use of classroom-level behavior management strategies that align with School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS). Direct observations of universal classroom management strategies were conducted across 33 elementary classrooms in elementary schools implementing SW-PBIS with high fidelity. Findings…

  14. Telemarketing. Curriculum Guides and Content Outlines for Telemarketing: Entry-Level Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepard, Del

    This curriculum guide and content outline for the telemarketing entry-level position contains seven sections: (1) specialized telemarketing tasks; (2) telemarketing selling skills; (3) marketing tasks; (4) business-related tasks; (5) business-specific tasks; (6) personnel/human resources-related tasks; and (7) communications and minimum skill…

  15. Assessment of Positive Psychology Course According to Comments and Life Satisfaction Levels of Counselor Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Asli Uz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the "Positive Psychology" course according to comments and life satisfaction levels of counselor candidates. The course was offered in Guidance and Psychological Counseling undergraduate program as an elective course. The participants of the study were 56 senior undergraduate students attended…

  16. Implementation of CTRLPOS, a VENTURE module for control rod position criticality searches, control rod worth curve calculations, and general criticality searches

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A module in the VENTURE reactor analysis code system, CTRLPOS, is developed to position control rods and perform control rod position criticality searches. The module is variably dimensioned so that calculations can be performed with any number of control rod banks each having any number of control rods. CTRLPOS can also calculate control rod worth curves for a single control rod or a bank of control rods. Control rod depletion can be calculated to provide radiation source terms. These radiation source terms can be used to predict radiation doses to personnel and estimate the shielding and long-term storage requirements for spent control rods. All of these operations are completely automated. The numerous features of the module are discussed in detail. The necessary input data for the CTRLPOS module is explained. Several sample problems are presented to show the flexibility of the module. The results presented with the sample problems show that the CTRLPOS module is a powerful tool which allows a wide variety of calculations to be easily performed.

  17. Observational and model evidence for positive low-level cloud feedback.

    PubMed

    Clement, Amy C; Burgman, Robert; Norris, Joel R

    2009-07-24

    Feedbacks involving low-level clouds remain a primary cause of uncertainty in global climate model projections. This issue was addressed by examining changes in low-level clouds over the Northeast Pacific in observations and climate models. Decadal fluctuations were identified in multiple, independent cloud data sets, and changes in cloud cover appeared to be linked to changes in both local temperature structure and large-scale circulation. This observational analysis further indicated that clouds act as a positive feedback in this region on decadal time scales. The observed relationships between cloud cover and regional meteorological conditions provide a more complete way of testing the realism of the cloud simulation in current-generation climate models. The only model that passed this test simulated a reduction in cloud cover over much of the Pacific when greenhouse gases were increased, providing modeling evidence for a positive low-level cloud feedback. PMID:19628865

  18. AAGP position statement: disaster preparedness for older Americans: critical issues for the preservation of mental health.

    PubMed

    Sakauye, Kenneth M; Streim, Joel E; Kennedy, Gary J; Kirwin, Paul D; Llorente, Maria D; Schultz, Susan K; Srinivasan, Shilpa

    2009-11-01

    The Disaster Preparedness Task Force of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry was formed after Hurricane Katrina devastated New Orleans to identify and address needs of the elderly after the disaster that led to excess health disability and markedly increased rates of hopelessness, suicidality, serious mental illness (reported to exceed 60% from baseline levels), and cognitive impairment. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) outlines risk groups which fail to address later effects from chronic stress and loss and disruption of social support networks. Range of interventions recommended for Preparation, Early Response, and Late Response reviewed in the report were not applied to elderly for a variety of reasons. It was evident that addressing the needs of elderly will not be made without a stronger mandate to do so from major governmental agencies (Federal Emergency Management Agency [FEMA] and SAMHSA). The recommendation to designate frail elderly and dementia patients as a particularly high-risk group and a list of specific recommendations for research and service and clinical reference list are provided. PMID:20104050

  19. Nasal high-flow therapy delivers low level positive airway pressure

    PubMed Central

    Parke, R.; McGuinness, S.; Eccleston, M.

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of this prospective study was to determine whether a level of positive airway pressure was generated in participants receiving nasal high flow (NHF) delivered by the Optiflow™ system (Fisher and Paykel Healthcare Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand) in a cardiothoracic and vascular intensive care unit (ICU). Methods Nasopharyngeal airway pressure was measured in 15 postoperative cardiac surgery adult patients who received both NHF and standard facemask therapy at a flow rate of 35 litre min−1. Measurements were repeated in the open mouth and closed mouth positions. Mean airway pressure was determined by averaging the pressures at the peak of inspiration of each breath within a 1 min period, allowing the entire pressure profile of each breath to be included within the calculation. Results Low level positive pressure was demonstrated with NHF at 35 litre min−1 with mouth closed when compared with a facemask. NHF generated a mean nasopharyngeal airway pressure of mean (sd) 2.7 (1.04) cm H2O with the mouth closed. Airway pressure was significantly higher when breathing with mouth closed compared with mouth open (P≤0.0001). Conclusions This study demonstrated that a low level of positive pressure was generated with NHF at 35 litre min−1 of gas flow. This is consistent with results obtained in healthy volunteers. Australian Clinical Trials Registry www.actr.org.au ACTRN012606000139572. PMID:19846404

  20. The Association of Levels of and Decline in Grip Strength in Old Age with Trajectories of Life Course Occupational Position

    PubMed Central

    Fritzell, Johan; Hoffmann, Rasmus

    2016-01-01

    Background The study of the influence of life course occupational position (OP) on health in old age demands analysis of time patterns in both OP and health. We study associations between life course time patterns of OP and decline in grip strength in old age. Methods We analyze 5 waves from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 5108, ages 65–90). We use a pattern-mixture latent growth model to predict the level and decline in grip strength in old age by trajectory of life course OP. We extend and generalize the structured regression approach to establish the explanatory power of different life course models for both the level and decline of grip strength. Results Grip strength declined linearly by 0.70 kg (95% CI -0.74;-0.66) for men and 0.42 kg (95% CI -0.45;-0.39) for women per year. The level of men’s grip strength can best be explained by a critical period during midlife, with those exposed to low OP during this period having 1.67 kg (95% CI -2.33;-1.00) less grip strength. These differences remain constant over age. For women, no association between OP and levels of or decline in grip strength was found. Conclusions Men’s OP in midlife seems to be a critical period for the level of grip strength in old age. Inequalities remain constant over age. The integration of the structured regression approach and latent growth modelling offers new possibilities for life course epidemiology. PMID:27232696

  1. Multi-Step Ahead Predictions for Critical Levels in Physiological Time Series.

    PubMed

    ElMoaqet, Hisham; Tilbury, Dawn M; Ramachandran, Satya Krishna

    2016-07-01

    Standard modeling and evaluation methods have been classically used in analyzing engineering dynamical systems where the fundamental problem is to minimize the (mean) error between the real and predicted systems. Although these methods have been applied to multi-step ahead predictions of physiological signals, it is often more important to predict clinically relevant events than just to match these signals. Adverse clinical events, which occur after a physiological signal breaches a clinically defined critical threshold, are a popular class of such events. This paper presents a framework for multi-step ahead predictions of critical levels of abnormality in physiological signals. First, a performance metric is presented for evaluating multi-step ahead predictions. Then, this metric is used to identify personalized models optimized with respect to predictions of critical levels of abnormality. To address the paucity of adverse events, weighted support vector machines and cost-sensitive learning are used to optimize the proposed framework with respect to statistical metrics that can take into account the relative rarity of such events. PMID:27244754

  2. Critically Evaluated Energy Levels and Spectral Lines of Singly Ionized Indium (In II)

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, A

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive list of the best measured wavelengths in the In II spectrum has been compiled. Uncertainties of the wavelength measurements have been analyzed, and existing inconsistencies have been resolved. An optimized set of fine-structure energy levels that fits all observed wavelengths has been derived. Uncertainties of the energy level values have been reduced by an order of magnitude. An improved value of the ionization limit of In II has been determined by fitting quantum-defect and polarization formulas for several series of levels. Intensities of lines observed by different authors have been analyzed and converted to a uniform scale. A set of recommended values of radiative transition rates has been critically compiled, and uncertainties of these rates have been estimated. The hyperfine structure interval in the 5s 2S ground state of In III has been determined from the measurements of the 5sng and 5snh series in In II. PMID:26401424

  3. Energized by love: thinking about romantic relationships increases positive affect and blood glucose levels.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Sarah C E; Campbell, Lorne; Loving, Timothy J

    2014-10-01

    We assessed the impact of thinking of a current romantic partner on acute blood glucose responses and positive affect over a short period of time. Participants in romantic relationships were randomly assigned to reflect on their partner, an opposite-sex friend, or their morning routine. Blood glucose levels were assessed prior to reflection, as well as at 10 and 25 min postreflection. Results revealed that individuals in the routine and friend conditions exhibited a decline in glucose over time, whereas individuals in the partner condition did not exhibit this decline (rather, a slight increase) in glucose over time. Reported positive affect following reflection was positively associated with increases in glucose, but only for individuals who reflected on their partner, suggesting this physiological response reflects eustress. These findings add to the literature on eustress in relationships and have implications for relationship processes. PMID:24924647

  4. Positive Association between Blood 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Pterygium after Control for Sunlight Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Jee, Donghyun; Kim, Eun Chul; Cho, Eunyoung; Arroyo, Jorge G.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium. Methods Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2011 were used for the present epidemiologic study. A total of 19,178 participants aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated for blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and performed ophthalmic slit lamp examinations. Pterygium was considered as a growth of fibrovascular tissue over the cornea. Results The average blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were 18.6 ng/mL, and prevalence of pterygium was 6.5%. The odds of pterygium significantly increased across blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D quintiles after controlling sun exposure time as well as other confounders such as sex, age, smoking, diabetes, hypertension (P < 0.001). The odds ratios (OR) for pterygium was 1.51 (95% Confidence Interval[95%CI]; 1.19–1.92) in the highest blood vitamin D quintile. Stratified analysis by sex showed a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in both men (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.68, 95%CI; 1.19–2.37) and women (quintile 5 versus 1, OR; 1.37, 95% CI; 1.00–1.88). Conclusions Even after controlling sun light exposure time, we found a positive association between blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and pterygium in a representative Korean population. The mechanism underlying this association is unknown. PMID:27286036

  5. Positive Mental Health and Well-Being among a Third Level Student Population

    PubMed Central

    Davoren, Martin P.; Fitzgerald, Eimear; Shiely, Frances; Perry, Ivan J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Much research on the health and well-being of third level students is focused on poor mental health leading to a dearth of information on positive mental health and well-being. Recently, the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale (WEMWBS) was developed as a measurement of positive mental health and well-being. The aim of this research is to investigate the distribution and determinants of positive mental health and well-being in a large, broadly representative sample of third level students using WEMWBS. Methods Undergraduate students from one large third level institution were sampled using probability proportional to size sampling. Questionnaires were distributed to students attending lectures in the randomly selected degrees. A total of 2,332 self-completed questionnaires were obtained, yielding a response rate of 51% based on students registered to relevant modules and 84% based on attendance. One-way ANOVAs and multivariate logistic regression were utilised to investigate factors associated with positive mental health and well-being. Results The sample was predominantly female (62.66%), in first year (46.9%) and living in their parents’ house (42.4%) or in a rented house or flat (40.8%). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age and stratified by gender, no significant differences in WEMWBS score were observed by area of study, alcohol, smoking or drug use. WEMWBS scores were higher among male students with low levels of physical activity (p=0.04). Men and women reporting one or more sexual partners (p<0.001) were also more likely to report above average mental health and well-being. Conclusion This is the first study to examine positive mental health and well-being scores in a third level student sample using WEMWBS. The findings suggest that students with a relatively adverse health and lifestyle profile have higher than average mental health and well-being. To confirm these results, this work needs to be replicated across other third level

  6. Baseline acetylcholinesterase activity and serotonin plasma levels are not associated with delirium in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Salluh, Jorge; Soares, Márcio; Vuolo, Francieli; Zanatta, Francieli; Constantino, Larissa de Souza; Zugno, Alexandra Ioppi; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma serotonin levels or acetylcholinesterase activities determined upon intensive care unit admission could predict the occurrence of acute brain dysfunction in intensive care unit patients. Methods A prospective cohort study was conducted with a sample of 77 non-consecutive patients observed between May 2009 and September 2010. Delirium was determined using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool, and the acetylcholinesterase and serotonin measurements were determined from blood samples collected up to a maximum of 24 h after the admission of the patient to the intensive care unit. Results In the present study, 38 (49.6%) patients developed delirium during their intensive care unit stays. Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was independently associated with delirium. No significant correlations of acetylcholinesterase activity or serotonin level with delirium/coma-free days were observed, but in the patients who developed delirium, there was a strong negative correlation between the acetylcholinesterase level and the number of delirium/coma-free days, indicating that higher acetylcholinesterase levels are associated with fewer days alive without delirium or coma. No associations were found between the biomarkers and mortality. Conclusions Neither serum acetylcholinesterase activity nor serotonin level was associated with delirium or acute brain dysfunction in critically ill patients. Sepsis did not modify these relationships. PMID:26340158

  7. High blood glucose level and increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Dhungel, Sanjib; Bista, Sukirti

    2007-03-01

    102 patients, 38 from ICU and 64 from postoperative ward were evaluated. Out of these, 49 of the patients had random blood glucose level < 100 mg/dl, 46 had in the range 100 to 140 mg/dl and 7 had > 140 mg/dl. The mean random blood glucose level in medical patients was 146 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 20 and that in the post operative patients was 94.3 mg/dl with a standard deviation of 10. There was an overall mortality of 13.7% (14 patients), of which medical patients were 78.6% (11 patients) and surgical patients were 21.4% (3 patients). Amongst the dead, 81.8% had random blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl and all were medical patients. However all 3 deaths (18.2%) in surgical patients had their random blood glucose level < 110 mg/dl. Higher blood glucose level was observed in critically ill medical patients and mortality was higher among patients with random blood glucose level > 110 mg/dl. PMID:17593678

  8. Testing the Effect of Medical Positive Reinforcement Training on Salivary Cortisol Levels in Bonobos and Orangutans

    PubMed Central

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M. G.; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  9. Testing the effect of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol levels in bonobos and orangutans.

    PubMed

    Behringer, Verena; Stevens, Jeroen M G; Hohmann, Gottfried; Möstl, Erich; Selzer, Dieter; Deschner, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The management of captive animals has been improved by the establishment of positive reinforcement training as a tool to facilitate interactions between caretakers and animals. In great apes, positive reinforcement training has also been used to train individuals to participate in simple medical procedures to monitor physical health. One aim of positive reinforcement training is to establish a relaxed atmosphere for situations that, without training, might be very stressful. This is especially true for simple medical procedures that can require animals to engage in behaviours that are unusual or use unfamiliar medical devices that can be upsetting. Therefore, one cannot exclude the possibility that the training itself is a source of stress. In this study, we explored the effects of medical positive reinforcement training on salivary cortisol in two groups of captive ape species, orangutans and bonobos, which were familiar to this procedure. Furthermore, we successfully biologically validated the salivary cortisol assay, which had already been validated for bonobos, for orangutans. For the biological validation, we found that cortisol levels in orangutan saliva collected during baseline conditions were lower than in samples collected during three periods that were potentially stressful for the animals. However, we did not find significant changes in salivary cortisol during medical positive reinforcement training for either bonobos or orangutans. Therefore, for bonobos and orangutans with previous exposure to medical PRT, the procedure is not stressful. Thus, medical PRT provides a helpful tool for the captive management of the two species. PMID:25250566

  10. Tentative critical levels of tropospheric ozone for agricultural crops in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonekura, T.

    2010-12-01

    Ground level ozone concentrations have increased year by year in Japan. High ozone concentrations have been known to affect growth and yield of agricultural crops. In the US and Europe, much effort has been directed to establish regulatory policies such as secondary air quality standard and critical levels to protect vegetation against ozone. On the contrary, in Japan, there is a few data of agricultural crops sensitivity to ozone. Furthermore, there is no information about the ozone risk of agricultural crop loss by based on ozone index (e.g. AOT40, SUM06, W126)-crop response relationship, yet. The objects of our research are: (1) to screen sensitivity of ozone on 10 crops cultivated in urban area in Japan. (2) to establish critical levels of ozone for protecting agricultural crops based on ozone index-crop response relationship. The 10 Japanese agricultural crops such as Japanese rice, Hanegi (Welsh onion), Shungiku (Crown daisy), Saradana (Lettus), Hatsukadaikon (Radish), Kokabu (Small Turnip), Santosai (Chinese cabbage), Tasai (Spinach mustard), Komatsuna (Japanese mustard spinach) and Chingensai (Bok Choy), were fumigated to three levels of ozone (clean air (< 5 ppbv), ambient level of ozone, 1.5 times ambient ozone) in open-top chambers during 30 to 120 days. Those experiments were repeated five times during two growing season. Throughout the experimental period, the growth or yield were measured, and the relationship between growth (or yield) and ozone index was examined. As a result, the influences of ozone on growth or yield were different among 10 crops. Relatively good correlations of coefficients of determination (r2) for linear regressions to growth or yield were obtained with “8h means” and “AOT40” rather than “SUM00”, “SUM06” and “W126”. Critical level for 10 crops in terms of an AOT40 were 1.1 to 2.1 ppm h per month. The ozone sensitive crop in our study was sound to be 1.0 ppm h per month in AOT40.

  11. Correlates and Longitudinal Renal and Cardiovascular Implications of FGF23 Levels in HIV-Positive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Mohamed G.; Estrella, Michelle M.; Fine, Derek M.; Zook, Katie; Monroy Trujillo, Jose Manuel; Stein, James H.; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor23 (FGF23), an early marker of kidney dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular death. Its role in HIV-positive individuals is unknown. We measured FGF23 in 100 HIV-negative and 191 HIV-positive nondiabetic adults with normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We measured GFR by iohexol annually, albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) every 6 months, as well as pulse wave velocity, carotid plaque, and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) at baseline and 2 years. Progressive albuminuria was defined as follow-up ACR ≥2-fold than baseline and ≥30 mg/g. Regression models assessed associations of FGF23 with baseline factors and longitudinal changes in disease markers. FGF23 levels were similar in HIV serostatus. Among HIV-positive persons, factors independently associated with higher baseline FGF23 levels included female (adjusted ratio of geometric means [95% CI],1.46 [1.21,1.76]), serum phosphorus (1.20 [1.03,1.40]), HCV (1.31 [1.10,1.56]) and non-suppressed HIV RNA (1.27 [1.01,1.76]). At baseline, FGF23 was not associated with GFR, albuminuria, carotid plaque, or carotid IMT in cross-sectionally adjusted analysis of HIV-positive individuals. However, higher baseline FGF23 was associated with progressive albuminuria (odds ratio1.48 [95% CI]:1.05,2.08) and a more rapid increase in IMT (13 μm/year, 95% CI,3,24). These findings suggest a role for FGF23 in HIV-positive populations in identifying patients at greater risk for cardiovascular and kidney disease. PMID:27176000

  12. Prognostic value of circulating DNA levels in critically ill and trauma patients.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues Filho, Edison Moraes; Ikuta, Nilo; Simon, Daniel; Regner, Andrea Pereira

    2014-01-01

    The number of studies investigating circulating nucleic acids as potential biomarkers has increased in recent years. The detection of such biomarkers is a minimally invasive alternative for the diagnosis and prognosis of various clinical conditions. The value of circulating DNA levels as a predictive biomarker has been demonstrated in patients suffering from numerous acute pathologies that have a high risk of intensive care needs and in-hospital deaths. The mechanism by which circulating DNA levels increase in patients with these conditions remains unclear. In this review, we focused on the potential use of this biomarker for prognosis prediction in critically ill and trauma patients. The literature review was performed by searching MedLine using PubMed in the English language. PMID:25295826

  13. Critical oxygen levels and metabolic suppression in oceanic oxygen minimum zones.

    PubMed

    Seibel, Brad A

    2011-01-15

    The survival of oceanic organisms in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) depends on their total oxygen demand and the capacities for oxygen extraction and transport, anaerobic ATP production and metabolic suppression. Anaerobic metabolism and metabolic suppression are required for daytime forays into the most extreme OMZs. Critical oxygen partial pressures are, within a range, evolved to match the minimum oxygen level to which a species is exposed. This fact demands that low oxygen habitats be defined by the biological response to low oxygen rather than by some arbitrary oxygen concentration. A broad comparative analysis of oxygen tolerance facilitates the identification of two oxygen thresholds that may prove useful for policy makers as OMZs expand due to climate change. Between these thresholds, specific physiological adaptations to low oxygen are required of virtually all species. The lower threshold represents a limit to evolved oxygen extraction capacity. Climate change that pushes oxygen concentrations below the lower threshold (~0.8 kPa) will certainly result in a transition from an ecosystem dominated by a diverse midwater fauna to one dominated by diel migrant biota that must return to surface waters at night. Animal physiology and, in particular, the response of animals to expanding hypoxia, is a critical, but understudied, component of biogeochemical cycles and oceanic ecology. Here, I discuss the definition of hypoxia and critical oxygen levels, review adaptations of animals to OMZs and discuss the capacity for, and prevalence of, metabolic suppression as a response to temporary residence in OMZs and the possible consequences of climate change on OMZ ecology. PMID:21177952

  14. Pixel-Level Analysis Techniques for False-Positive Identification in Kepler Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Jenkins, J.; Gilliland, R.; Batalha, N.; Gautier, T. N.; Rowe, J.; Dunham, E.; Latham, D.; Caldwell, D.; Twicken, J.; Tenenbaum, P.; Clarke, B.; Li, J.; Wu, H.; Quintana, E.; Ciardi, D.; Torres, G.; Dotson, J.; Still, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Kepler mission seeks to identify Earth-size exoplanets by detecting transits of their parent star. The resulting transit signature will be small ( 100 ppm). Several astrophysical phenomena can mimic an Earth-size transit signature, most notably background eclipsing binaries (BGEBs). As part of a larger false-positive identification effort, pixel-level analysis of the Kepler data has proven crucial in identifying the likelihood of these confounding signals. Pixel-level analysis is primarily useful for the case of the transit being a BGEB. Several analysis techniques are presented, including: - measurement of centroid motion in and out of transit compared with detailed modeling of expected centroid motion, including an estimate of the transit source location - transit source location determination through a high-precision PSF-fit of the difference between in- and out-of-transit pixels, directly measuring the location of the transit source - source location determination through fitting the observed summed flux time series (or the light curve derived from the transit model) to each pixel's time series data. These techniques have been automated and are being considered for inclusion in the Kepler Science Operations Center Data Analysis Pipeline. They are supplemented by various diagnostic plots of the Kepler data as well as comparison with background stars identified by the Kepler Follow-up Observing Program (FOP). The final determination of whether an observed transit is a false positive integrates several sources, including pixel-level analysis and FOP results. Pixel-level techniques can identify BGEBs that are separated from the Kepler target star by more than a certain radius, called the "radius of confusion". The determination of the radius of confusion, and the role it plays in assigning the probability of the transit being due to a planet, is briefly discussed. The statistics from the latest false-positive list are provided. Funding for this mission provided

  15. Cortisol levels are positively associated with pup-feeding rates in male meerkats.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Anne A; Manser, Marta B; Young, Andrew J; Russell, Andrew F; Jordan, Neil R; McNeilly, Alan S; Clutton-Brock, Tim

    2006-03-01

    In societies of cooperative vertebrates, individual differences in contributions to offspring care are commonly substantial. Recent attempts to explain the causes of this variation have focused on correlations between contributions to care and the protein hormone prolactin, or the steroid hormone testosterone. However, such studies have seldom considered the importance of other hormones or controlled for non-hormonal factors that are correlative with both individual hormone levels and contributions to care. Using multivariate statistics, we show that hormone levels explain significant variation in contributions to pup-feeding by male meerkats, even after controlling for non-hormonal effects. However, long-term contributions to pup provisioning were significantly and positively correlated with plasma levels of cortisol rather than prolactin, while plasma levels of testosterone were not related to individual patterns of pup-feeding. Furthermore, a playback experiment that used pup begging calls to increase the feeding rates of male helpers gave rise to parallel increases in plasma cortisol levels, whilst prolactin and testosterone levels remained unchanged. Our findings confirm that hormones can explain significant amounts of variation in contributions to offspring feeding, and that cortisol, not prolactin, is the hormone most strongly associated with pup-feeding in cooperative male meerkats. PMID:16537128

  16. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  17. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly.We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index.The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435).Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  18. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  19. When less is more: positive population-level effects of mortality.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Arne; van Leeuwen, Anieke; Cameron, Tom C

    2014-11-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies show that mortality imposed on a population can counter-intuitively increase the density of a specific life-history stage or total population density. Understanding positive population-level effects of mortality is advancing, illuminating implications for population, community, and applied ecology. Reconciling theory and data, we found that the mathematical models used to study mortality effects vary in the effects predicted and mechanisms proposed. Experiments predominantly demonstrate stage-specific density increases in response to mortality. We argue that the empirical evidence supports theory based on stage-structured population models but not on unstructured models. We conclude that stage-specific positive mortality effects are likely to be common in nature and that accounting for within-population individual variation is essential for developing ecological theory. PMID:25262501

  20. Dose critical in-vivo detection of anti-cancer drug levels in blood

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Holly H.; Hirschfeld, deceased, Tomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for the in vivo and in vitro detection and measurement of dose critical levels of DNA-binding anti-cancer drug levels in biological fluids. The apparatus comprises a laser based fiber optic sensor (optrode) which utilizes the secondary interactions between the drug and an intercalating fluorochrome bound to a probe DNA, which in turn is attached to the fiber tip at one end thereof. The other end of the optical fiber is attached to an illumination source, detector and recorder. The fluorescence intensity is measured as a function of the drug concentration and its binding constant to the probe DNA. Anticancer drugs which lend themselves to analysis by the use of the method and the optrode of the present invention include doxorubicin, daunorubicin, carminomycin, aclacinomycin, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, 5-uracil, arabinosyl cytosine, mitomycin, cis-platinum 11 diamine dichloride procarbazine, vinblastine vincristine and the like. The present method and device are suitable for the continuous monitoring of the levels of these and other anticancer drugs in biological fluids such as blood, serum, urine and the like. The optrode of the instant invention also enables the measurement of the levels of these drugs from a remote location and from multiple samples.

  1. Allosteric underwinding of DNA is a critical step in positive control of transcription by Hg-MerR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Aseem Z.; Chael, Mark L.; O'Halloran, Thomas V.

    1992-01-01

    POSITIVE control of transcription often involves stimulatory protein-protein interactions between regulatory factors and RNA polymerase1. Critical steps in the activation process itself are seldom ascribed to protein-DNA distortions. Activator-induced DNA bending is typically assigned a role in binding-site recognition2, alterations in DNA loop structures3 or optimal positioning of the activator for interaction with polymerase4. Here we present a transcriptional activation mechanism that does not require a signal-induced DNA bend but rather a receptor-induced untwisting of duplex DNA. The allosterically modulated transcription factor MerR is a represser and an Hg(II)-responsive activator of bacterial mercury-resistance genes5-7.Escherichia coliRNA polymerase binds to the MerR-promoter complex but cannot proceed to a transcriptionally active open complex until Hg(II) binds to MerR (ref. 6). Chemical nuclease studies show that the activator form, but not the represser, induces a unique alteration of the helical structure localized at the centre of the DNA-binding site6. Data presented here indicate that this Hg-MerR-induced DNA distortion corresponds to a local underwinding of the spacer region of the promoter by about 33° relative to the MerR-operator complex. The magnitude and the direction of the Hg-MerR-induced change in twist angle are consistent with a positive control mechanism involving reorientation of conserved, but suboptimally phased, promoter elements and are consistent with a role for torsional stress in formation of an open complex.

  2. Critical Care staffs' attitudes, confidence levels and educational needs correlate with countries' donation rates: data from the Donor Action database.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Spaight, Caroline; Smits, Jacqueline; Cohen, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate on the impact of Critical Care (CC) staffs' attitudes to donation, their acceptance of the brain death (BD) concept, their confidence with donation-related tasks and educational needs on national donation rates. Donor Action (DA) Hospital Attitude Survey (HAS) data were collected from 19 537 CC staff in 11 countries, including personal attitudes to donation, self-reported knowledge, involvement and comfort levels with donation-related tasks and educational requirements. Countries' donation performance was expressed as Procurement Efficiency Index (PEI) (organs procured and transplanted/deaths from eligible causes). National PEI rates correlated well with CC staffs' average support to donation (R = 0.700, P = 0.014), acceptance of the BD concept (R = 0.742, P = 0.007), confidence levels (R = 0.796, P = 0.002) and average educational requirements with donation-related tasks (R = -0.661, P = 0.025). Nurses reported significantly lower positive attitudes (P < 0.0001), acceptance of the BD concept (P < 0.0001), comfort levels (P < 0.0001) and requested more education (P = 0.0025) than medical staff members. DA's HAS is a powerful, standardized tool to assess CC staffs' attitudes and donation-related skills in different environments. Measures to improve countries' donation performance should focus on guidance and education of CC staff so as to ensure that all practitioners have sufficient knowledge and feel comfortable with donation-related issues. PMID:20210934

  3. A Weak, Positive Feedback Between Sea Level and the Earth's Planetary Energy Budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzeion, B.; Levermann, A.

    2014-12-01

    Increases in global mean temperature lead to increasing sea level mostly by loss of land ice mass and thermal expansion of the ocean. On millennial timescales, a warming of 5 K leads to flooding of about 1.6 % of Earth's current land surface, when taking into account the spatial distribution of relative sea-level rise caused by mass redistribution and isostatic rebound (Marzeion & Levermann, 2014). While there is great seasonal and spatial variability, the planetary albedo over the ocean is generally slightly lower than over land. We use millennial-scale, spatially explicit projections of relative sea-level rise, and the observed spatio-temporal distribution of planetary albedo and incident shortwave radiation, to determine the strength of the feedback between sea-level rise and the planetary energy budget. We find that the feedback is positive, but very weak. While the spatial pattern of sea-level rise is varying strongly with temperature, we find that the strength of the feedback is relatively independent of the temperature change, and around 0.8±0.1 %; i.e., an external forcing of 1 W/m2 will result in 1.008 W/m2 change of the energy balance.

  4. Negative and positive hysteresis in double-cavity optical bistability in a three-level atom

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, H. Aswath; Wanare, Harshawardhan

    2011-03-15

    We present dual hysteretic behavior of a three-level ladder system exhibiting optical bistability in a double-cavity configuration in the mean-field limit. The two fields coupling the atomic system experience competing cooperative effects along the two transitions. We observe a hump-like feature in the bistable curve arising due to cavity-induced inversion, which transforms into a negative-hysteresis loop. Apart from negative- and positive-hysteresis regions, the system offers a variety of controllable nonlinear dynamical features, ranging from switching, periodic self-pulsing to chaos.

  5. A Critical Compilation of Energy Levels, Spectral Lines, and Transition Probabilities of Singly Ionized Silver, Ag II

    PubMed Central

    Kramida, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    All available experimental measurements of the spectrum of the Ag+ ion are critically reviewed. Systematic shifts are removed from the measured wavelengths. The compiled list of critically evaluated wavelengths is used to derive a comprehensive list of energy levels with well-defined uncertainties. Eigenvector compositions and level designations are found in two alternate coupling schemes. Some of the older work is found to be incorrect. A revised value of the ionization energy, 173283(7) cm−1, equivalent to 21.4844(8) eV, is derived from the new energy levels. A set of critically evaluated transition probabilities is given. PMID:26401429

  6. The effects of rock type and landscape position on solution chemistry of soils in the Biosphere 2 Desert Site of the Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penprase, S. B.; Abramson, N.; LaSharr, K.; Chorover, J.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of near surface soil water with surrounding rock and soil matter plays a crucial role in determining the chemical composition of biogeological systems. This interaction drives subsurface processes such as erosion, mineralization, and depletion. However, how and why soil pore water chemistry fluctuates based on localized conditions such as rock type and landscape position is not fully understood. This study examines the role these two factors play in altering soil water chemistry by analyzing samples collected from schist and granite field sites within the Biosphere 2 Desert Site of the Santa Catalina Mountains Critical Zone Observatory. We hypothesized that soil water from the schist site would have higher solute concentrations than the granite site because schist is a more weatherable rock and, thus, is more susceptible to chemical erosion. We also hypothesized that soil water from convergent positions would have higher solute concentrations than those from divergent positions due to a longer upgradient flow path. Each field site was situated within a Zero Order Basin (ZOB) with seven Zero Tension Lysimeters (ZTL). At the schist site, there were 3 convergent (SC 1-3) and 4 divergent (SD 1-4) ZTL positions. For the granite site, there were 4 convergent (GC 1-2, 4-5) and 3 divergent (GD 1-3) ZTLs. Samples were collected following rainstorms from July 2011-July 2013. Each solution sample was analyzed for major and trace cations, anions, pH, EC, and organic and inorganic carbon. Comparisons between SC and GC and all schist and all granite are consistent with the hypotheses for multiple elements. Results also indicate higher solute levels for SC relative to SD. Thus, our analyses suggest that rock type and landscape position influence the chemical composition of soil water at these two sites.

  7. Investigating students' levels of engagement with mathematics: critical events, motivations, and influences on behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grehan, Martin; Bhaird, Ciarán Mac an; O'Shea, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Universities invest significant resources in the provision of mathematics tuition to first year students, through both traditional and non-traditional means. Research has shown that a significant minority of students do not engage with these resources appropriately. This paper presents findings from a study of two groups of students at Maynooth University. Both groups had similar mathematical backgrounds on entry to university. The first group consisted of seven students who had failed first year mathematics and had very low levels of engagement with available supports. The second group consisted of nine students who had passed first year mathematics and had engaged with the supports to a significant extent. It emerged that while both groups initially displayed similar tactics and encountered similar difficulties, their levels of reaction to a number of critical events in their mathematical education were key to their engagement levels and their subsequent progression. Further analysis revealed aspects of the students' behaviour which caused them to approach or avoid difficulties. The reasons behind the different student behaviours were investigated, and the main categories of influence on student behaviour which emerged from the interview data were fear, social factors, and motivation.

  8. A demonstration of centimeter-level monitoring of polar motion with the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindqwister, U. J.; Freedman, A. P.; Blewitt, G.

    1992-01-01

    Daily estimates of the Earth's pole position were obtained with the Global Positioning System (GPS) by using measurements obtained during the GPS IERS (International Earth Rotation Service) and Geodynamics (GIG'91) experiment from 22 Jan. to 13 Feb. 1991. Data from a globally distributed network consisting of 21 Rogue GPS receivers were chosen for the analysis. A comparison of the GPS polar motion series with nine 24-hour very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) estimates yielded agreement in the day-to-day pole position of about 1.5 cm for both X and Y polar motion. A similar comparison of GPS and satellite laser ranging (SLR) data showed agreement to about 1.0 cm. These preliminary results indicate that polar motion can be determined by GPS independent of, and at a level comparable to, that which is obtained from either VLBI or SLR. Furthermore, GPS can provide these data with a daily frequency that neither alternative technique can readily achieve. Thus, GPS promises to be a powerful tool for determining high-frequency platform parameter variation, essential for the ultraprecise spacecraft-tracking requirements of the coming years.

  9. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Williams, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  10. Cumulative experiences with life adversity: Identifying critical levels for targeting prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Tynes, Brendesha; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Williams, David

    2015-08-01

    This paper aims to assess the role of individual types and cumulative life adversity for understanding depressive symptomatology and aggressive behavior. Data were collected in 2011 as part of the Teen Life Online and in Schools Study from 916 ethnically-diverse students from 12 middle, K-8, 6-12 and high schools in the Midwest United States. Youth reported an average of 4.1 non-victimization adversities and chronic stressors in their lifetimes. There was a linear relationship between number of adversities and depression and aggression scores. Youth reporting the highest number of adversities (7 or more) had significantly higher depression and aggression scores than youth reporting any other number of adversities suggesting exposure at this level is a critical tipping point for mental health concerns. Findings underscore an urgent need to support youth as they attempt to negotiate, manage, and cope with adversity in their social worlds. PMID:26057876

  11. Disparities in Children's Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sinye; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Son, Mia; Kwon, Ho-Jang

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02-9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02-6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09-12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03-11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36-3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27-6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76-2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40-1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is

  12. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (Pcrit)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Nicholas J.; Urbina, Mauricio A.; Reardon, Erin E.; McKenzie, David J.; Wilson, Rod W.

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (Pcrit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of Pcrit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining Pcrit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on Pcrit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with Pcrit; 20% of variation in the Pcrit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of Pcrit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid–base balance and Pcrit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of physiological

  13. Cigarette smoking has a positive and independent effect on testosterone levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yang, Xiaobo; Liang, Jianbo; Liao, Ming; Zhang, Haiying; Qin, Xue; Mo, Linjian; Lv, Wenxin; Mo, Zengnan

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that testosterone levels are linked to a variety of diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, erectile dysfunction, depression, stroke and osteoporosis. Since cigarette smoking is a major health problem and highly prevalent among men, several groups have studied the effects of cigarette smoking on testosterone levels in men. However, the results have been conflicting. Our objectives were to examine the association of cigarette smoking and serum levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (TT) and free testosterone (FT) in a large male population. Data from 2,021 men (989 nonsmokers and 1,032 smokers), aged 20-69, were collected from the Fangchenggang Area Male Health and Examination survey using an in-person interview and self-administered questionnaires from September to December, 2009. We have found the following: (a) smokers had significantly higher TT and FT levels compared to nonsmokers, even after stratification as per age, BMI, triglycerides and alcohol consumption. (b) Both TT (r = -0.083, P <0.001) and FT (r = -0.271, P <0.001) levels were negatively correlated to the amount of tobacco exposure. (c) Smoking was an independent influencing factor for the levels of both TT (unadjusted OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.33-2.01, P <0.001; adjusted OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.34-2.13, P <0.001) and FT (unadjusted OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.08-1.61, P = 0.007; adjusted OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1-1.61, P = 0.050) levels in multivariate logistic regression models before and after adjusting for age, BMI, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, alcohol consumption and estradiol. (d) Smoking was not found to be an independent predictor of SHBG level after adjustment for confounders in multivariate regression model (P >0.05), although a positive association between increasing pack-years and SHBG level was observed (r = 0.174, P <0.001). More research is needed to elucidate the biological mechanisms and

  14. Association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mortality in the critically ill

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Andrea; Chang, Domingo; Mahadevappa, Karthik; Gibbons, Fiona K.; Liu, Yan; Giovannucci, Edward; Christopher, Kenneth B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We hypothesized that deficiency in 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) prior to hospital admission would be associated with all cause mortality in the critically ill. Design Multicenter observational study of patients treated in medical and surgical intensive care units. Setting 209 medical and surgical intensive care beds in two teaching hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts Patients 2,399 patients, age ≥ 18 years, in whom 25(OH)D was measured prior to hospitalization between 1998 and 2009. Measurements Pre-admission 25(OH)D was categorized as deficiency in 25(OH)D (≤15ng/mL), insufficiency (16–29ng/mL) and sufficiency (≥30ng/mL). Logistic regression examined death by days 30, 90 and 365 post-ICU admission, in hospital mortality and blood culture positivity. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Interventions None Key Results Pre-admission 25(OH)D deficiency is predictive for short term and long term mortality. 30 days following ICU admission, patients with 25(OH)D deficiency have an OR for mortality of 1.69(95%CI, 1.28–2.23;P<.0001) relative to patients with 25(OH)D sufficiency. 25(OH)D deficiency remains a significant predictor of mortality at 30 days following ICU admission following multivariable adjustment (adjusted OR 1.69; 95%CI, 1.26–2.26;P<.0001). 30 days following ICU admission, patients with 25(OH)D insufficiency have an OR of 1.32(95%CI, 1.02–1.72; P=0.036) and an adjusted OR of 1.36(95%CI, 1.03–1.79;P=0.029) relative to patients with 25(OH)D sufficiency. Results were similar at 90 and 365 days following ICU admission and for in hospital mortality. In a subgroup analysis of patients who had blood cultures drawn (n=1,160), 25(OH)D deficiency was associated with increased risk of blood culture positivity. Patients with 25(OH)D insufficiency have an OR for blood culture positivity of 1.64(95%CI, 1.05–2.55;P=0.03) relative to patients with 25(OH)D sufficiency which remains significant following

  15. Serotonin at the level of the amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex modulates distinct aspects of positive emotion in primates

    PubMed Central

    Man, Mei-See; Mikheenko, Yevheniia; Braesicke, Katrin; Cockcroft, Gemma; Roberts, Angela C.

    2012-01-01

    Impaired top-down regulation of the amygdala, and its modulation by serotonin (5-HT), is strongly implicated in the dysregulation of negative emotion that characterizes a number of affective disorders. However, the contribution of these mechanisms to the regulation of positive emotion is not well understood. This study investigated the role of 5-HT within the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), on the expression of appetitive Pavlovian conditioned emotional responses and their reversal in a primate, the common marmoset. Its effects were compared to those of the amygdala itself. Having developed conditioned autonomic and behavioural responses to an appetitive cue prior to surgery, marmosets with excitotoxic amygdala lesions failed to display such conditioned autonomic arousal at retention, but still displayed intact cue-directed conditioned behaviours. In contrast, 5,7-DHT infusions into the amygdala, reducing extracellular 5-HT levels, selectively enhanced the expression of appetitive conditioned behaviour at retention. Similar infusions into the OFC, producing marked reductions in post-mortem 5-HT tissue levels, had no overall effect on autonomic or behavioural responses, either at retention or during reversal learning, but caused an uncoupling of these responses, thereby fractionating emotional output. These data demonstrate the critical role of the amygdala in the expression of appetitive autonomic conditioning, and the region-selective contribution of 5-HT in the amygdala and OFC, respectively, to the expression of conditioned behaviour and the overall coordination of the emotional response. They provide insight into the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the regulation of positive emotional responses, advancing our understanding of the neural basis of pathologically dysregulated emotion. PMID:21726490

  16. The Effect of Relaxation Interventions on Cortisol Levels in HIV-Sero-Positive Women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Owens, Mary; Kumar, Mahendra; Cook, Ryan; Weiss, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, assessed in terms of cortisol levels, may enhance the ability of HIV to infect lymphocytes and downregulate the immune system, accelerating disease progression. This study sought to determine the effects of relaxation techniques on cortisol levels in HIV-sero-positive women. Methods Women (n = 150) were randomized to a group cognitive–behavioral stress management (CBSM) condition or an individual information condition and underwent 3 types of relaxation training (progressive muscle relaxation, imagery, and autogenic training). Cortisol levels were obtained pre- and postrelaxation. Results Guided imagery was effective in reducing cortisol in the group condition (t = 3.90, P < .001), and muscle relaxation reduced cortisol in the individual condition (t = 3.11, P = .012). Among participants in the group condition attending all sessions, the magnitude of pre- to postsession reduction became greater over time. Conclusions Results suggest that specific relaxation techniques may be partially responsible for cortisol decreases associated with relaxation and CBSM. PMID:23715264

  17. A level set method for determining critical curvatures for drainage and imbibition.

    PubMed

    Prodanović, Masa; Bryant, Steven L

    2006-12-15

    An accurate description of the mechanics of pore level displacement of immiscible fluids could significantly improve the predictions from pore network models of capillary pressure-saturation curves, interfacial areas and relative permeability in real porous media. If we assume quasi-static displacement, at constant pressure and surface tension, pore scale interfaces are modeled as constant mean curvature surfaces, which are not easy to calculate. Moreover, the extremely irregular geometry of natural porous media makes it difficult to evaluate surface curvature values and corresponding geometric configurations of two fluids. Finally, accounting for the topological changes of the interface, such as splitting or merging, is nontrivial. We apply the level set method for tracking and propagating interfaces in order to robustly handle topological changes and to obtain geometrically correct interfaces. We describe a simple but robust model for determining critical curvatures for throat drainage and pore imbibition. The model is set up for quasi-static displacements but it nevertheless captures both reversible and irreversible behavior (Haines jump, pore body imbibition). The pore scale grain boundary conditions are extracted from model porous media and from imaged geometries in real rocks. The method gives quantitative agreement with measurements and with other theories and computational approaches. PMID:17027812

  18. Critical Literacy Development in a College-Level English Reading Class in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Mei-yun Barbara

    2010-01-01

    This case study explored a critical literacy-oriented English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading class in Taiwan for one semester. The inquiry included how an EFL college teacher incorporated critical literacy in an English reading curriculum, how such instruction helped the EFL students critically engage with texts, and how EFL learners' English…

  19. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college. PMID:22990572

  20. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Soler, German A; Edgar, Graham J; Thomson, Russell J; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Barrett, Neville S; Bernard, Anthony T F; Galván, David E; Willis, Trevor J; Alexander, Timothy J; Stuart-Smith, Rick D

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  1. Reef Fishes at All Trophic Levels Respond Positively to Effective Marine Protected Areas

    PubMed Central

    Soler, German A.; Edgar, Graham J.; Thomson, Russell J.; Kininmonth, Stuart; Campbell, Stuart J.; Dawson, Terence P.; Barrett, Neville S.; Bernard, Anthony T. F.; Galván, David E.; Willis, Trevor J.; Alexander, Timothy J.; Stuart-Smith, Rick D.

    2015-01-01

    Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) offer a unique opportunity to test the assumption that fishing pressure affects some trophic groups more than others. Removal of larger predators through fishing is often suggested to have positive flow-on effects for some lower trophic groups, in which case protection from fishing should result in suppression of lower trophic groups as predator populations recover. We tested this by assessing differences in the trophic structure of reef fish communities associated with 79 MPAs and open-access sites worldwide, using a standardised quantitative dataset on reef fish community structure. The biomass of all major trophic groups (higher carnivores, benthic carnivores, planktivores and herbivores) was significantly greater (by 40% - 200%) in effective no-take MPAs relative to fished open-access areas. This effect was most pronounced for individuals in large size classes, but with no size class of any trophic group showing signs of depressed biomass in MPAs, as predicted from higher predator abundance. Thus, greater biomass in effective MPAs implies that exploitation on shallow rocky and coral reefs negatively affects biomass of all fish trophic groups and size classes. These direct effects of fishing on trophic structure appear stronger than any top down effects on lower trophic levels that would be imposed by intact predator populations. We propose that exploitation affects fish assemblages at all trophic levels, and that local ecosystem function is generally modified by fishing. PMID:26461104

  2. Effect of Different Levels of Localized Muscle Fatigue on Knee Position Sense

    PubMed Central

    Gear, William S.

    2011-01-01

    There is little information available regarding how proprioceptive abilities decline as the amount of exertion increases during exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of different levels of fatigue on knee joint position sense. A repeated measures design was used to examine changes in active joint reposition sense (AJRS) prior to and following three levels of fatigue. Eighteen participants performed knee extension and flexion isokinetic exercise until torque output was 90%, 70%, or 50% of the peak hamstring torque for three consecutive repetitions. Active joint reposition sense at 15, 30, or 45 degrees was tested following the isokinetic exercise session. Following testing of the first independent measure, participants were given a 20 minute rest period. Testing procedures were repeated for two more exercise sessions following the other levels of fatigue. Testing of each AJRS test angle was conducted on three separate days with 48 hours between test days. Significant main effect for fatigue was indicated (p = 0.001). Pairwise comparisons indicated a significant difference between the pre-test and following 90% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02) and between the pre-test and following 50% of peak hamstring torque (p = 0.02). Fatigue has long been theorized to be a contributing factor in decreased proprioceptive acuity, and therefore a contributing factor to joint injury. The findings of the present study indicate that fatigue may have an effect on proprioception following mild and maximum fatigue. Key points A repeated measures design was used to examine the effect of different levels of fatigue on active joint reposition sense (AJRS) of the knee at joint angles of 15°, 30° and 45° of flexion. A statistically significant main effect for fatigue was found, specifically between no fatigue and mild fatigue and no fatigue and maximum fatigue. A statistically significant interaction effect between AJRS and fatigue was not found. Secondary

  3. The Regression Level of Constructivist Learning Environment Characteristics on Classroom Environment Characteristics Supporting Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunca, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: One of the main aims of constructivism is to improve critical thinking skills/tendencies via experiences. In this sense, it is believed that the more the constructivist-learning environment is improved, the more the appropriateness of supporting critical thinking is improved. However, no study has yet statistically tested this…

  4. Leveling the Field: Negotiating Positions of Power as a Preservice Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Amy; Meacham, Mark; Schieble, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Set in an undergraduate Secondary English Education Program, this qualitative study draws on theories of power, positioning, and identity to explore how positions of power affect teacher identity construction. Drawn from a larger study, the authors examine how one preservice teacher negotiated positions of power with students in ways that enabled…

  5. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Shi, T.; Liu, Y.; Khatri, N. D.; Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Xiong, X.; Lei, C.; Soloveichik, S.; Galstyan, E.; Majkic, G.

    2013-03-01

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process, enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition, including 3.83 MA cm-2 in 15 at.% Zr-added 1.1 μm thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape, corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m-3. The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second-phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  6. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y; Shi, T; Liu, Y; Khatri, ND; Liu, J; Yao, Y; Xiong, X; Lei, C; Soloveichik, S; Galstyan, E; Majkic, G

    2013-01-21

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process,enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition,including 3.83 MA cm(-2) in 15 at.% Zr- added 1.1 mu m thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/ 12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y) BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape,corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m(-3). The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second- phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  7. Caustic leaching of high-level radioactive tank sludge: A critical literature review

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Hunt, R.D.

    1998-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) must treat and safely dispose of its radioactive tank contents, which can be separated into high-level waste (HLW) and low-level waste (LLW) fractions. Since the unit costs of treatment and disposal are much higher for HLW than for LLW, technologies to reduce the amount of HLW are being developed. A key process currently being studied to reduce the volume of HLW sludges is called enhanced sludge washing (ESW). This process removes, by water washes, soluble constituents such as sodium salts, and the washed sludge is then leached with 2--3 M NaOH at 60--100 C to remove nonradioactive metals such as aluminum. The remaining solids are considered to be HLW while the solutions are LLW after radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs have been removed. Results of bench-scale tests have shown that the ESW will probably remove the required amounts of inert constituents. While both experimental and theoretical results have shown that leaching efficiency increases as the time and temperature of the leach are increased, increases in the caustic concentration above 2--3 M will only marginally improve the leach factors. However, these tests were not designed to validate the assumption that the caustic used in the ESW process will generate only a small increase (10 Mkg) in the amount of LLW; instead the test conditions were selected to maximize leaching in a short period and used more water and caustic than is planned during full-scale operations. Even though calculations indicate that the estimate for the amount of LLW generated by the ESW process appears to be reasonable, a detailed study of the amount of LLW from the ESW process is still required. If the LLW analysis indicates that sodium management is critical, then a more comprehensive evaluation of the clean salt process or caustic recycle would be needed. Finally, experimental and theoretical studies have clearly demonstrated the need for the control of solids formation during and after leaching.

  8. Early life low-level cadmium exposure is positively associated with increased oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Kippler, Maria; Bakhtiar Hossain, Mohammad; Lindh, Christian; Moore, Sophie E.; Kabir, Iqbal; Vahter, Marie; Broberg, Karin

    2012-01-15

    Environmental exposure to cadmium (Cd) is known to induce oxidative stress, a state of imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the ability to detoxify them, in adults. However, data are lacking on potential effects in early-life. We evaluated urinary concentrations of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2 Prime -deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a recognized marker of oxidative DNA damage, in relation to Cd exposure in 96 predominantly breast-fed infants (11-17 weeks of age) in rural Bangladesh. Urinary 8-oxodG was measured using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and Cd in urine and breast milk by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Median concentration of 8-oxodG was 3.9 nmol/L, urinary Cd 0.30 {mu}g/L, and breast-milk Cd 0.13 {mu}g/L. In linear regression analyses, urinary 8-oxodG was positively associated with Cd in both urine (p=0.00067) and breast milk (p=0.0021), and negatively associated with body weight (kg; p=0.0041). Adjustment for age, body weight, socio-economic status, urinary arsenic, as well as magnesium, calcium, and copper in breast milk did not change the association between Cd exposure and urinary 8-oxodG. These findings suggest that early-life low-level exposure to Cd via breast milk induces oxidative stress. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether this oxidative stress is associated with impaired child health and development.

  9. The potential for criticality following disposal of uranium at low-level waste facilities: Uranium blended with soil

    SciTech Connect

    Toran, L.E.; Hopper, C.M.; Naney, M.T.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not fissile uranium in low-level-waste (LLW) facilities can be concentrated by hydrogeochemical processes to permit nuclear criticality. A team of experts in hydrology, geology, geochemistry, soil chemistry, and criticality safety was formed to develop achievable scenarios for hydrogeochemical increases in concentration of special nuclear material (SNM), and to use these scenarios to aid in evaluating the potential for nuclear criticality. The team`s approach was to perform simultaneous hydrogeochemical and nuclear criticality studies to (1) identify some achievable scenarios for uranium migration and concentration increase at LLW disposal facilities, (2) model groundwater transport and subsequent concentration increase via sorption or precipitation of uranium, and (3) evaluate the potential for nuclear criticality resulting from potential increases in uranium concentration over disposal limits. The analysis of SNM was restricted to {sup 235}U in the present scope of work. The outcome of the work indicates that criticality is possible given established regulatory limits on SNM disposal. However, a review based on actual disposal records of an existing site operation indicates that the potential for criticality is not a concern under current burial practices.

  10. Recognition for Positive Behavior as a Critical Youth Development Construct: Conceptual Bases and Implications on Youth Service Development

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ben M. F.; Siu, Andrew M. H.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition for positive behavior is an appropriate response of the social environment to elicit desirable external behavior among the youth. Such positive responses, rendered from various social systems, include tangible and intangible reinforcements. The following theories are used to explain the importance of recognizing positive behavior: operational conditioning, observational learning, self-determination, and humanistic perspective. In the current work, culturally and socially desirable behaviors are discussed in detail with reference to Chinese adolescents. Positive behavior recognition is especially important to adolescent development because it promotes identity formation as well as cultivates moral reasoning and social perspective thinking from various social systems. The significance of recognizing positive behavior is illustrated through the support, tutorage, invitation, and subsidy provided by Hong Kong's social systems in recognition of adolescent volunteerism. The practical implications of positive behavior recognition on youth development programs are also discussed in this work. PMID:22666155

  11. Effectiveness of flow inflating device in providing Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for critically ill children in limited-resource settings: A prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, G. Fatima Shirly; Velmurugan, Lakshmi; Sangareddi, Shanthi; Nedunchelian, Krishnamurthy; Selvaraj, Vinoth

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is an emerging popular concept, which includes bi-level positive airway pressure or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). In settings with scarce resources for NIV machines, CPAP can be provided through various indigenous means and one such mode is flow inflating device - Jackson-Rees circuit (JR)/Bain circuit. The study analyses the epidemiology, various clinical indications, predictors of CPAP failure, and stresses the usefulness of flow inflating device as an indigenous way of providing CPAP. Methods: A prospective observational study was undertaken in the critical care unit of a Government Tertiary Care Hospital, from November 2013 to September 2014. All children who required CPAP in the age group 1 month to 12 years of both sexes were included in this study. They were started on indigenous CPAP through flow inflating device on clinical grounds based on the pediatric assessment triangle, and the duration and outcome were analyzed. Results: This study population included 214 children. CPAP through flow inflating device was successful in 89.7% of cases, of which bronchiolitis accounted for 98.3%. A prolonged duration of CPAP support of >96 h was required in pneumonia. CPAP failure was noted in 10.3% of cases, the major risk factors being children <1 year and pneumonia with septic shock. Conclusion: We conclude that flow inflating devices - JR/Bain circuit are effective as an indigenous CPAP in limited resource settings. Despite its benefits, CPAP is not a substitute for invasive ventilation, as when the need for intubation arises timely intervention is needed.

  12. External Ventricular Catheters: Is It Appropriate to Use an Open/Monitor Position to Adequately Trend Intracranial Pressure in a Neuroscience Critical Care Environment?

    PubMed

    Sunderland, Nicole E; Villanueva, Nancy E; Pazuchanics, Susan J

    2016-10-01

    Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring can be an important assessment tool in critically and acutely ill patients. An external ventricular drain offers a comprehensive way to monitor ICP and drain cerebrospinal fluid. The Monro-Kellie hypothesis, Pascal's principle, and fluid dynamics were used to formulate an assumption that an open/monitor position on the stopcock is an adequate trending measure for ICP monitoring while concurrently draining cerebrospinal fluid. Data were collected from 50 patients and totaled 1053 separate number sets. The open/monitor position was compared with the clamped position every hour. An order for "open to drain" was needed for appropriate measurement and nursing care. Results showed the absolute average differences between open/monitor and clamped positions at 1.6268 mm Hg. This finding suggests that it is appropriate to use an open/monitor position via an external ventricular drain for adequate trending of patients' ICP. PMID:27579963

  13. Supervisory-level interruption recovery in time-critical control tasks.

    PubMed

    Sasangohar, Farzan; Scott, Stacey D; Cummings, M L

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the effectiveness of providing interruption recovery assistance in the form of an interactive visual timeline of historical events on a peripheral display in support of team supervision in time-critical settings. As interruptions can have detrimental effects on task performance, particularly in time-critical work environments, there is growing interest in the design of tools to assist people in resuming their pre-interruption activity. A user study was conducted to evaluate the use of an interactive event timeline that provides assistance to human supervisors in time-critical settings. The study was conducted in an experimental platform that emulated a team of operators and a mission commander performing a time-critical unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) mission. The study results showed that providing interruption assistance enabled people to recover from interruptions faster and more accurately. These results have implications for interface design that could be adopted in similar time-critical environments such as air-traffic control, process control, and first responders. PMID:24581931

  14. Reactor Testing and Qualification: Prioritized High-level Criticality Testing Needs

    SciTech Connect

    S. Bragg-Sitton; J. Bess; J. Werner; G. Harms; S. Bailey

    2011-09-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) were tasked with reviewing possible criticality testing needs to support development of the fission surface power system reactor design. Reactor physics testing can provide significant information to aid in development of technologies associated with small, fast spectrum reactors that could be applied for non-terrestrial power systems, leading to eventual system qualification. Several studies have been conducted in recent years to assess the data and analyses required to design and build a space fission power system with high confidence that the system will perform as designed [Marcille, 2004a, 2004b; Weaver, 2007; Parry et al., 2008]. This report will provide a summary of previous critical tests and physics measurements that are potentially applicable to the current reactor design (both those that have been benchmarked and those not yet benchmarked), summarize recent studies of potential nuclear testing needs for space reactor development and their applicability to the current baseline fission surface power (FSP) system design, and provide an overview of a suite of tests (separate effects, sub-critical or critical) that could fill in the information database to improve the accuracy of physics modeling efforts as the FSP design is refined. Some recommendations for tasks that could be completed in the near term are also included. Specific recommendations on critical test configurations will be reserved until after the sensitivity analyses being conducted by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are completed (due August 2011).

  15. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-01-01

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. PMID:26703614

  16. Instantaneous Real-Time Kinematic Decimeter-Level Positioning with BeiDou Triple-Frequency Signals over Medium Baselines.

    PubMed

    He, Xiyang; Zhang, Xiaohong; Tang, Long; Liu, Wanke

    2015-01-01

    Many applications, such as marine navigation, land vehicles location, etc., require real time precise positioning under medium or long baseline conditions. In this contribution, we develop a model of real-time kinematic decimeter-level positioning with BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) triple-frequency signals over medium distances. The ambiguities of two extra-wide-lane (EWL) combinations are fixed first, and then a wide lane (WL) combination is reformed based on the two EWL combinations for positioning. Theoretical analysis and empirical analysis is given of the ambiguity fixing rate and the positioning accuracy of the presented method. The results indicate that the ambiguity fixing rate can be up to more than 98% when using BDS medium baseline observations, which is much higher than that of dual-frequency Hatch-Melbourne-Wübbena (HMW) method. As for positioning accuracy, decimeter level accuracy can be achieved with this method, which is comparable to that of carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. Signal interruption simulation experiment indicates that the proposed method can realize fast high-precision positioning whereas the carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method needs several hundreds of seconds for obtaining high precision results. We can conclude that a relatively high accuracy and high fixing rate can be achieved for triple-frequency WL method with single-epoch observations, displaying significant advantage comparing to traditional carrier-smoothed code differential positioning method. PMID:26703614

  17. Relationship between Critical Thinking Levels and Attitudes towards Reading Habits among Pre-Service Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…

  18. Examining a Financial Climate of Support: How Institutional-Level Financial Aid Relates to Teamwork, Leadership, and Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Julie J.; Denson, Nida; Johnson, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in college access and student success. It plays an increasingly important role as the college-going population continues to diversify and the cost of college continues to rise at both public and private institutions. In this study, the authors examined whether institutional level financial aid has any direct…

  19. Radar based Ground Level Reconstruction Utilizing a Hypocycloid Antenna Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Christoph; Musch, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we introduce a novel radar positioning system. It makes use of a mathematical curve, called hypocycloid, for a slanting movement of the radar antenna. By means of a planetary gear, a ball, and a universal joint as well as a stepping motor, a two dimensional positioning is provided by a uniaxial drive shaft exclusively. The fundamental position calculation and different signal processing algorithms are presented. By means of an 80 GHz FMCW radar system we performed several measurements on objects with discrete heights as well as on objects with continuous surfaces. The results of these investigations are essential part of this contribution and are discussed in detail.

  20. Circulating MicroRNA-223 Serum Levels Do Not Predict Sepsis or Survival in Patients with Critical Illness

    PubMed Central

    Benz, Fabian; Tacke, Frank; Luedde, Mark; Trautwein, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Koch, Alexander; Roderburg, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Dysregulation of miR-223 was recently linked to various diseases associated with systemic inflammatory responses such as type 2 diabetes, cancer, and bacterial infections. However, contradictory results are available on potential alterations of miR-223 serum levels during sepsis. We thus aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-223 serum concentrations in patients with critical illness and sepsis. Methods. We used i.v. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as cecal pole ligation and puncture (CLP) for induction of polymicrobial sepsis in mice and measured alterations in serum levels of miR-223. These results from mice were translated into a large and well-characterized cohort of critically ill patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (ICU). Finally, results from analysis in patients were correlated with clinical data and extensive sets of routine and experimental biomarkers. Results. Although LPS injection induced moderately elevated serum miR-223 levels in mice, no significant alterations in miR-223 serum levels were found in mice after CLP-induced sepsis. In accordance with these results from animal models, serum miR-223 levels did not differ between critically ill patients and healthy controls. However, ICU patients with more severe disease (APACHE-II score) showed moderately reduced circulating miR-223. Strikingly, no differences in miR-223 levels were found in critically ill patients with or without sepsis, and serum levels of miR-223 did not correlate with classical markers of inflammation or bacterial infection. Finally, low miR-223 serum levels were moderately associated with an unfavorable prognosis of patients during the ICU treatment but did not predict long-term mortality. Conclusion. Recent reports on alterations in miR-223 serum levels during sepsis revealed contradictory results, preventing a potential use of this miRNA in clinical routine. We clearly show that miR-223 serum levels do not

  1. What's Our Position? A Critical Media Literacy Study of Popular Culture Websites with Eighth-Grade Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesler, Ted; Tinio, Pablo P. L.; Nolan, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project with 9 eighth-grade special education students in a self-contained classroom in an urban public school. The 1st author, in collaboration with the classroom teacher (3rd author), taught the students a critical media literacy framework to explore popular culture websites. Students learned to analyze…

  2. Demonstration of decimeter-level real-time positioning of an airborne platform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armatys, M.; Muellerschoen, R.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Meyer, R.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of the NASA Global Differential GPS System to support 10 to 20 cm accurate real-time airplane positioning, anywhere in the world, independent of local navigational aids or infrastructure.

  3. Effects of foot-pedal positions by inexperienced cyclists at the highest aerobic level.

    PubMed

    Millslagle, Duane; Rubbelke, Sara; Mullin, Tom; Keener, John; Swetkovich, Ryan

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether the platform foot-pedal position affected maximal oxygen intake (VO2 max) at the highest aerobic demand in cycling. 21 inexperienced cyclists completed two exercise tests, one in the "normal" platform foot-pedal position and the other in the Biopedal forefoot varus foot-pedal position, cycling on an exercise ergometer. The time between tests ranged from 1 to 3 days depending on the subject's reported fatigue and muscle soreness. The highest aerobic demand was the subject's VO2 max at the point just below the subject's anaerobic threshold. A one-way analysis of variance indicated that the subject's VO2 max performance was similar between the foot-pedal positions. These results did not support the assumption that the Biopedal forefoot varus foot-pedal position would enable the cyclist to be more efficient at the highest aerobic demand when compared to a standard platform foot-pedal position. PMID:15209323

  4. Critical Friendship as a Contribution to Master's-Level Work in an International Programme of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Swet, Jacqueline; Smit, Ben H. J.; Corvers, Louise; van Dijk, Ineke

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an action research project in which the value of critical friendship for students doing research and writing their dissertations within an international master's course has been explored. This course is run jointly by Roehampton University (London, UK), Charles University (Prague, Czech Republic) together with Fontys OSO…

  5. Treating 'AIDS blindness': a critical pedagogical approach to HIV education at tertiary level.

    PubMed

    Wood, Lesley; Rens, Julialet

    2014-01-01

    HIV and AIDS affect all South Africans, irrespective of gender, race, age and economic status. Teachers should therefore be able to meaningfully integrate HIV content into the school curriculum. However, pre-service teacher education programmes still do not pay adequate attention to HIV education, particularly in institutions where students are being prepared to work in environments that are perceived to be unaffected by the consequences of the pandemic. This article advocates that HIV education should be integrated into contexts of privilege and presents evidence of the influence that a critical pedagogical approach can have on changing student perceptions of the need to address HIV in and through their teaching. We led 109 Post-graduate Certificate of Education students through a series of activities that required them to critically reflect on their feelings, attitudes and perceived skills with regard to HIV and AIDS education; to identify potential areas of personal change; and to begin to imagine alternative professional possibilities. We generated qualitative data through drawings, group discussions, individual written reflections, and a voluntary focus group. A content analysis of the data revealed that the participating students initially felt incompetent to incorporate HIV and related issues into their teaching, and felt hesitant and uncomfortable at the prospect. However, a critical reflection on their thinking, both individually and in a group setting, served to shift them towards a more holistic, critical and humanising understanding of the pandemic and the role they could play as future teachers in helping to mitigate its impact. The findings provide evidence that a critical pedagogical approach - particularly with groups who believe that HIV and AIDS is not something that concerns them - can provide an effective way to mediate the knowledge, skills and attitudes that competent teachers need in today's world. PMID:25174517

  6. Determination of Critical Point of pO2 Level in the Production of Lactic Acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel, Maizirwan; Karim, Mohamed Ismail Abdul; Salleh, Mohamad Ramlan Mohamed; Abdullah, Rohane

    The study was conducted to determine the critical point of pO2 level in the production of lactic acid by Lactobacillus rhamnosus. The fermentation process was successfully carried out in laboratory scale fermenter/bioreactor using different pO2 level (the main parameter that significantly affects the growth of L. rhamnosus and lactic acid production) together with two other parameters; the agitation rate and pH. From the result, it was observed that the best production of lactic acid with the concentration of 16.85 g L-1 or 1.68% production yield has been obtained at the operating parameters of 5% pO2 level, agitation speed of 100 rpm and sample pH 6. The critical point of pO2 was found to be between 5 and 10%.

  7. Positive correlation between the cyclotron line energy and luminosity in sub-critical X-ray pulsars: Doppler effect in the accretion channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushtukov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Serber, Alexander V.; Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri

    2015-12-01

    Cyclotron resonance scattering features observed in the spectra of some X-ray pulsars show significant changes of the line centroid energy with the pulsar luminosity. Whereas for bright sources above the so-called critical luminosity, these variations are established to be connected with the appearance of the high-accretion column above the neutron star surface, at low, sub-critical luminosities the nature of the variations (but with the opposite sign) has not been discussed widely. We argue here that the cyclotron line is formed when the radiation from a hotspot propagates through the plasma falling with a mildly relativistic velocity on to the neutron star surface. The position of the cyclotron resonance is determined by the Doppler effect. The change of the cyclotron line position in the spectrum with luminosity is caused by variations of the velocity profile in the line-forming region affected by the radiation pressure force. The presented model has several characteristic features: (i) the line centroid energy is positively correlated with the luminosity; (ii) the line width is positively correlated with the luminosity as well; (iii) the position and the width of the cyclotron absorption line are variable over the pulse phase; (iv) the line has a more complicated shape than widely used Lorentzian or Gaussian profiles; (v) the phase-resolved cyclotron line centroid energy and the width are negatively and positively correlated with the pulse intensity, respectively. The predictions of the proposed theory are compared with the variations of the cyclotron line parameters in the X-ray pulsar GX 304-1 over a wide range of sub-critical luminosities as seen by the INTEGRAL observatory.

  8. Comparing the Level of Positive Tendency in a Life Satisfaction Evaluation between Chinese and Western People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shih-jung; Wu, Chia-huei

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that people from Chinese cultural backgrounds have a smaller positive tendency in life evaluation compared to people in typical Western cultures. Participants first described their imagined best and worst life and then rated their current life on scale anchored by those imaginings (Mellor et al. "International Journal of Social…

  9. Nickel cadmium cell designs negative to positive material ratio and precharge levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review is made of the factors affecting the choices of negative-to-positive materials ratio and negative precharge in nickel-cadmium cells. The effects of these variables on performance are given, and the different methods for setting precharge are evaluated. The effects of special operating requirements on the design are also discussed.

  10. Are you positive? The influence of life orientation on the anxiety levels of nursing students.

    PubMed

    Warning, Lila M

    2011-01-01

    Is there a relationship between nursing student's anxiety levels and orientation to life, optimism, or pessimism? Participants are 1st year nursing students prior to the first acute care clinical experience in a small, Midwestern city in the United States. An inverse relationship is noted between student's life orientation and level of anxiety. PMID:21832930

  11. Parental Education Level Positively Affects Self-Esteem of Turkish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ertugrul; Barut, Yasar; Ersanli, Ercüment

    2013-01-01

    Although the literature on self-esteem has a long and prolific history in Turkey regarding which demographics may influence the self-esteem of adolescents. The research findings are intricate and undermine the need of further research in Turkey. This cross-sectional study re-examined the effects of age, grade level and education level of a mother…

  12. Serum Levels of TNF Receptor Ligands Are Dysregulated in Sepsis and Predict Mortality in Critically Ill Patients

    PubMed Central

    Roderburg, Christoph; Benz, Fabian; Schüller, Florian; Pombeiro, Ines; Hippe, Hans-Joerg; Frey, Norbert; Trautwein, Christian; Luedde, Tom; Koch, Alexander; Tacke, Frank; Luedde, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction TNF superfamily members, including TNF-related weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and Glucocorticoid-Induced TNFR-Related Protein Ligand (GITRL) have been described as serum based biomarkers for inflammatory and immune mediated diseases. However, up to now the role of TWEAK and GITRL has not been analyzed in critical illness and sepsis. Methods GITRL and TWEAK serum concentrations were measured in 121 critically ill patients (84 fulfilled with septic disease), in comparison to 50 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data. Results Serum levels of TWEAK and GITRL were strongly decreased in critically ill patients compared with healthy controls. Concentrations of TWEAK (but not GITRL) were further decreased in patients with sepsis and correlated with routinely used markers of inflammation and bacterial infection such as C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and Interleukin-6. Notably, we failed to detect a correlation to other TNFR ligands such as TNF or APRIL. Finally, TWEAK levels of the upper quartile of the cohort were prognostic for mortality during ICU treatment. Conclusion TWEAK and GITRL levels were lower in intensive care unit medical patients. Levels of TWEAK were further decreased in septic patients, and alterations in TWEAK concentrations were linked to an unfavorable outcome. Together with recently published results on other TNFR ligands, these data indicate specific functions of the different TNFR ligands in septic diseases. PMID:27124414

  13. Lactoferrin Levels in the Gastric Tissue of Helicobacter pylori-Positive and -Negative Patients and Its Effect on Anemia

    PubMed Central

    Doğan, Yaşar; Erkan, Tülay; Önal, Zerrin; Usta, Merve; Doğusoy, Gülen; Çokuğraş, Fügen Çullu; Kutlu, Tufan

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To determine gastric tissue lactoferrin (Lf) levels of Helicobacter pylori- (Hp-) positive and -negative patients and its effect on anemia. Methods. Cases in which initial presentation was of abdominal pain and that were Hp-positive at endoscopy were included. Hp-positive cases and -negative controls were divided into two groups. Results. The study included 64 cases (average: 10.2 ± 0.4 years, 39 male and 25 female). Lf levels were subsequently studied on 61 cases. 45 (73.8%) of these were Hp-positive, while 16 (22.2%) were Hp-negative. In Hp-positive cases, mean staining percentages and density of glands in the antral mucosa were 45.5 ± 4.7% and 1.9 ± 0.1, respectively. Hp-negative cases showed significantly different values of 17.8 ± 4.5% and 1.3 ± 0.2, respectively. Hemoglobin and serum ferritin values of Hp-positive cases were 12.7 ± 0.2 g/dL and 32.5 ± 2 ng/mL, but these were comparable with Hp-negative cases (12.6 ± 0.1 g/dL and 30.7 ± 4.4 ng/mL). Conclusions. Tissue Lf was significantly higher in Hp-positive cases compared to Hp-negative cases, but no difference was observed between the two groups with regards to hemoglobin and ferritin level. As a result, it is difficult to say that this rise in Lf plays a role in the development of iron deficiency anemia in Hp-positive patients. PMID:22529520

  14. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  15. Procalcitonin Levels in Gram-Positive, Gram-Negative, and Fungal Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ferranti, Marta; Moretti, Amedeo; Al Dhahab, Zainab Salim; Cenci, Elio; Mencacci, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) can discriminate bacterial from viral systemic infections and true bacteremia from contaminated blood cultures. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCT diagnostic accuracy in discriminating Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and fungal bloodstream infections. A total of 1,949 samples from patients with suspected bloodstream infections were included in the study. Median PCT value in Gram-negative (13.8 ng/mL, interquartile range (IQR) 3.4–44.1) bacteremias was significantly higher than in Gram-positive (2.1 ng/mL, IQR 0.6–7.6) or fungal (0.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.4–1) infections (P < 0.0001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) for PCT of 0.765 (95% CI 0.725–0.805, P < 0.0001) in discriminating Gram-negatives from Gram-positives at the best cut-off value of 10.8 ng/mL and an AUC of 0.944 (95% CI 0.919–0.969, P < 0.0001) in discriminating Gram-negatives from fungi at the best cut-off of 1.6 ng/mL. Additional results showed a significant difference in median PCT values between Enterobacteriaceae and nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria (17.1 ng/mL, IQR 5.9–48.5 versus 3.5 ng/mL, IQR 0.8–21.5; P < 0.0001). This study suggests that PCT may be of value to distinguish Gram-negative from Gram-positive and fungal bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, its utility to predict different microorganisms needs to be assessed in further studies. PMID:25852221

  16. B-DNA structure is intrinsically polymorphic: even at the level of base pair positions

    SciTech Connect

    Maehigashi, Tatsuya; Hsiao, Chiaolong; Woods, Kristen Kruger; Moulaei, Tinoush; Hud, Nicholas V.; Williams, Loren Dean

    2012-10-23

    Increasingly exact measurement of single crystal X-ray diffraction data offers detailed characterization of DNA conformation, hydration and electrostatics. However, instead of providing a more clear and unambiguous image of DNA, highly accurate diffraction data reveal polymorphism of the DNA atomic positions and conformation and hydration. Here we describe an accurate X-ray structure of B-DNA, painstakingly fit to a multistate model that contains multiple competing positions of most of the backbone and of entire base pairs. Two of ten base-pairs of CCAGGCCTGG are in multiple states distinguished primarily by differences in slide. Similarly, all the surrounding ions are seen to fractionally occupy discrete competing and overlapping sites. And finally, the vast majority of water molecules show strong evidence of multiple competing sites. Conventional resolution appears to give a false sense of homogeneity in conformation and interactions of DNA. In addition, conventional resolution yields an average structure that is not accurate, in that it is different from any of the multiple discrete structures observed at high resolution. Because base pair positional heterogeneity has not always been incorporated into model-building, even some high and ultrahigh-resolution structures of DNA do not indicate the full extent of conformational polymorphism.

  17. International overview of high-level simulation education initiatives in relation to critical care.

    PubMed

    Alinier, Guillaume; Platt, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The use of simulation in health care education has become very topical across all professions and specialties in order to improve patient safety and quality of care. In the last decade, the adoption of more realistic simulation-based teaching methodologies, which serves as a bridge between the acquisition and application of clinical skills, knowledge, and attributes, has been accompanied by the development of a multitude of international and national simulation societies. These serve as important exchange fora for educators, clinicians, researchers, and engineers who desire to learn and share their experience and knowledge around simulation-based education. Several countries have derived their own strategy in order to promote the use of such training methodology. Current key national strategies will be presented in this paper alongside a discussion of their expected impact. Various approaches have been adopted and each has their own place and the potential to be adopted by other nations depending on their political, economic or even geographic context. Within the critical care arena, simulation has generated considerable interest and there is a growing evidence base for its use as a learning and teaching strategy within this environment. A number of critical care-related associations and societies are now recognizing simulation as an appropriate pedagogical approach and acknowledging its potential to improve patient care and clinical outcomes. Its implementation should be carefully considered to ensure that developments are based on current best educational practice to maximize the efficiency of these educational interventions. PMID:24400608

  18. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    PubMed

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  19. Workforce Diversity in Higher Education: Career Support Factors Influencing Ascendancy of African American Women to Senior-Level Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackstone, Tondelaya K.

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…

  20. Characterization to species level of Mycobacterium avium complex strains from human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients.

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakopoulos, A M; Tassios, P T; Matsiota-Bernard, P; Marinis, E; Tsaousidou, S; Legakis, N J

    1997-01-01

    Forty human clinical Mycobacterium avium-M. intracellulare complex strains isolated in Greece were characterized to the species level by PCR with three sets of primers specific for one or both species. M. avium predominated in both human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients, but the frequency of M. intracellulare isolation appeared to be higher in the latter. PMID:9350780

  1. Lethal and sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms: a critical discussion about ''safety levels''

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, K.R.

    1983-12-01

    The applicability of terms such as ''safety level'' and ''safety factor'' for the purpose of risk assessment in the frame of the marine dumping conventions is discussed. In view of a series of experiments on sublethal effects of cadmium on marine organisms it is stated that the dose-response relationships cover a range of 10(4), and that there is no indication that the lowest level found so far is actually just above a no-effect threshold.

  2. Ischemia-modified albumin levels in the prediction of acute critical neurological findings in carbon monoxide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Daş, Murat; Çevik, Yunsur; Erel, Özcan; Çorbacioğlu, Şeref Kerem

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether serum ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels in patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning were higher compared with a control group of healthy volunteers. In addition, the study sought to determine if there was a correlation between serum IMA levels and carboxyhemoglobin (COHB) levels and other critical neurological findings (CNFs). In this prospective study, the IMA levels of 100 patients with CO poisoning and 50 control individuals were compared. In addition, the IMA and COHB levels were analyzed according to absence or presence CNFs in patients with CO poisoning. The levels of IMA (mg/dL) on admittance, and during the 1(st) hour and 3(rd) hour, in patients with CO poisoning (49.90 ± 35.43, 30.21 ± 14.81, and 21.87 ± 6.03) were significantly higher, compared with the control individuals (17.30 ± 2.88). The levels of IMA in the 6(th) hour were not higher compared with control individuals. The levels of IMA on admittance, and during the 1(st) hour, 3(rd) hour, and 6(th) hour, and COHB (%) levels in patients who had CNFs were higher compared with IMA levels and COHB levels in patients who had no CNFs (p < 0.001). However, when the multivariate model was created, it was observed that IMA level on admittance was a poor indicator for prediction of CNFs (odds ratio = 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.08). We therefore concluded that serum IMA levels could be helpful in the diagnosis of CO poisoning. However, we believe that IMA levels cannot be used to predict which patients will develop CNFs due to CO poisoning. PMID:27185603

  3. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor, Part III: Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H216O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Al Derzi, Afaf R.; Fábri, Csaba; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Mizus, Irina I.

    2013-03-01

    This is the third of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed labels and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents experimental line positions, experimental-quality energy levels, and validated labels for rotational-vibrational transitions of the most abundant isotopologue of water, H216O. The latest version of the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) line-inversion procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels of the electronic ground state of H216O from experimentally measured lines, together with their self-consistent uncertainties, for the spectral region up to the first dissociation limit. The spectroscopic network of H216O containstwo components, an ortho (o) and a para (p) one. For o-H216O and p-H216O, experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions were analyzed from more than 100 sources. The measured lines come from one-photon spectra recorded at room temperature in absorption, from hot samples with temperatures up to 3000 K recorded in emission, and from multiresonance excitation spectra which sample levels up to dissociation. The total number of transitions considered is 184 667 of which 182 156 are validated: 68 027 between para states and 114 129 ortho ones. These transitions give rise to 18 486 validated energy levels, of which 10 446 and 8040 belong to o-H216O and p-H216O, respectively. The energy levels, including their labeling with approximate normal-mode and rigid-rotor quantum numbers, have been checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators as well as against previous compilations of energy levels. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the supplementary data of this paper, as well as in a distributed information system

  4. Experimental demonstration of interaction region beam waist position knob for luminosity leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Hao, Yue; Bai, Mei; Duan, Zhe; Luo, Yun; Marusic, Aljosa; Robert-Demolaize, Guillaume; Shen, Xiaozhe

    2015-05-03

    In this paper, we report the experimental implementation of the model-dependent control of the interaction region beam waist position (s* knob) at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The s* adjustment provides an alternative way of controlling the luminosity and is only known method to control the luminosity and reduce the pinch effect of the future eRHIC. In this paper, we will first demonstrate the effectiveness of the s* knob in luminosity controlling and its application in the future electron ion collider, eRHIC, followed by the detail experimental demonstration of such knob in RHIC.

  5. A New Centimeter-Level Real-Time Global Navigation and Positioning Capability with GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz

    2001-01-01

    NASA/JPL has developed a new, precise, global, GPS-based capability for real-time terrestrial and space platform navigation. It has been demonstrated on Earth's surface and is 10 times more accurate than other real-time GPS-based systems. The new system poses certain advantages for Earth science remote sensing, including: the onboard generation of science data products in real-time, sensor control and reduction of data transmission bandwidth, improved environmental forecasting, autonomous and intelligent platform control, operations cost savings, and technology transfer and commercial partnership opportunities. The system's measurement capabilities and applications, demonstrated orbit accuracies, and precision LEO and spacecraft positioning and timing are highlighted.

  6. Metamodeling and the Critic-based approach to multi-level optimization.

    PubMed

    Werbos, Ludmilla; Kozma, Robert; Silva-Lugo, Rodrigo; Pazienza, Giovanni E; Werbos, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Large-scale networks with hundreds of thousands of variables and constraints are becoming more and more common in logistics, communications, and distribution domains. Traditionally, the utility functions defined on such networks are optimized using some variation of Linear Programming, such as Mixed Integer Programming (MIP). Despite enormous progress both in hardware (multiprocessor systems and specialized processors) and software (Gurobi) we are reaching the limits of what these tools can handle in real time. Modern logistic problems, for example, call for expanding the problem both vertically (from one day up to several days) and horizontally (combining separate solution stages into an integrated model). The complexity of such integrated models calls for alternative methods of solution, such as Approximate Dynamic Programming (ADP), which provide a further increase in the performance necessary for the daily operation. In this paper, we present the theoretical basis and related experiments for solving the multistage decision problems based on the results obtained for shorter periods, as building blocks for the models and the solution, via Critic-Model-Action cycles, where various types of neural networks are combined with traditional MIP models in a unified optimization system. In this system architecture, fast and simple feed-forward networks are trained to reasonably initialize more complicated recurrent networks, which serve as approximators of the value function (Critic). The combination of interrelated neural networks and optimization modules allows for multiple queries for the same system, providing flexibility and optimizing performance for large-scale real-life problems. A MATLAB implementation of our solution procedure for a realistic set of data and constraints shows promising results, compared to the iterative MIP approach. PMID:22386785

  7. Raising the Level of the Debate: The Effects of Computer Mediated Communication on Group Dynamics and Critical Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettinger, Gary

    This study investigated the use of computer mediated communication (CMC) to increase the cognitive level of student discourse by allowing students to reflect on difficult concepts on an as needed basis. The role of electronic mail (e-mail) interaction in producing a positive group feeling and closer personal relationships is also examined. Field…

  8. The Use of Blended Learning to Facilitate Critical Thinking in Entry Level Occupational Therapy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    The popularity of using online instruction (both in blended and complete distance learning) in higher education settings is increasing (Appana, 2008; Newton, 2006; Oh, 2006). Occupational therapy educators are using blended learning methods under the assumption that this learning platform will facilitate in their students the required level of…

  9. A Critical Analysis of Conventional Descriptions of Levels Employed in the Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ian; McElwee, John; Ming, Siri

    2010-01-01

    The Assessment of Basic Learning Abilities (ABLA) is a tabletop-based protocol employing manipulables that is used to gauge whether individuals with severe developmental disabilities can learn to perform a series of discrimination tasks of varying levels of difficulty. Empirical research suggests that the ABLA is useful in terms of predicting…

  10. Intra-subject variability of snoring sounds in relation to body position, sleep stage, and blood oxygen level.

    PubMed

    Azarbarzin, Ali; Moussavi, Zahra

    2013-04-01

    In a multidimensional feature space, the snoring sounds can extend from a very compact cluster to highly distinct clusters. In this study, we investigated the cause of snoring sound's variation within the snorers. It is known that a change in body position and sleep stage can affect snoring during sleep but it is unclear whether positional, sleep state, and blood oxygen level variations cause the snoring sounds to have different characteristics, and if it does how significant that effect would be. We extracted 12 characteristic features from snoring sound segments of 57 snorers and transformed them into a 4-D feature space using principal component analysis (PCA). Then, they were grouped based on the body position (side, supine, and prone), sleep stage (NREM, REM, and Arousal), and blood oxygen level (Normal and Desaturation). The probability density function of the transformed features was calculated for each class of categorical variables. The distance between the class-densities were calculated to determine which of these parameters affects the snoring sounds significantly. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was run for each categorical variable. The results show that the positional change has the highest effect on the snoring sounds; it results in forming distinct clusters of snoring sounds. Also, sleep state and blood oxygen level variation have been found to moderately affect the snoring sounds. PMID:23269579

  11. Analysis of speed performance in soccer by a playing position and a sports level using a laser system.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Amelia; Villacieros, Jorge; Floría, Pablo; Graupera, Jose L

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic variables that identify the quality of velocity in soccer players at different competitive levels and playing positions. This study had two independent variables: 1) a competitive level (competitive and non-competitive players); and 2) a playing position, with four levels (central defenders, wide defenders/midfielders, central midfielders and forwards). Forty-two soccer players took part in a 30 m sprint-test, which was measured using a laser sensor-type 1 (LDM301-Jenoptik) at 2000 Hz. Absolute and relative times, average velocities and absolute and relative maximum velocities over 10 m sections were analyzed at 200 Hz with BioLaserSport(®). There were no significant differences in average velocity between competitive and non-competitive players; however, the former reached a greater maximum velocity in the 10-20 m section. Average velocity in the 0-10 m section identified specificity among playing positions in competitive players. The forwards were the fastest followed by the central midfielders, the wide defenders/midfielders and the central defenders. No differences were found among the non-competitive players. Average velocity over the 0-10 meter section may be an important indicator when assigning a playing position for competitive players. These results support the use of more accurate systems, such as a laser system, to identify soccer players' speed qualities (including maximum velocity) during short sprints. PMID:25713675

  12. Analysis of Speed Performance In Soccer by a Playing Position and a Sports Level Using a Laser System

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Amelia; Villacieros, Jorge; Floría, Pablo; Graupera, Jose L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the kinematic variables that identify the quality of velocity in soccer players at different competitive levels and playing positions. This study had two independent variables: 1) a competitive level (competitive and non-competitive players); and 2) a playing position, with four levels (central defenders, wide defenders/midfielders, central midfielders and forwards). Forty-two soccer players took part in a 30 m sprint-test, which was measured using a laser sensor-type 1 (LDM301-Jenoptik) at 2000 Hz. Absolute and relative times, average velocities and absolute and relative maximum velocities over 10 m sections were analyzed at 200 Hz with BioLaserSport®. There were no significant differences in average velocity between competitive and non-competitive players; however, the former reached a greater maximum velocity in the 10–20 m section. Average velocity in the 0–10 m section identified specificity among playing positions in competitive players. The forwards were the fastest followed by the central midfielders, the wide defenders/midfielders and the central defenders. No differences were found among the non-competitive players. Average velocity over the 0–10 meter section may be an important indicator when assigning a playing position for competitive players. These results support the use of more accurate systems, such as a laser system, to identify soccer players’ speed qualities (including maximum velocity) during short sprints. PMID:25713675

  13. About Weichselian Ice-Marginal Positions South of the Baltic Sea - Stratigraphy and Critical Discussion of Age Estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boese, Margot; Hardt, Jacob

    2015-04-01

    In the classical research area of glacial morphology south of the Baltic Sea, the supposed main ice-marginal positions of the Weichselian glaciation have been documented on various maps. The lines in the maps suggest a similar timing of the ice margin along these hypothetical lines and represent a traditional morphostratigraphical approach. Nevertheless, more recent research resulting in stratigraphical interpretations of the related sediments give controversial results about the connectivity of ice-marginal features in the landscape. In addition, the development of new dating techniques reveals more diversified ice dynamics of the Scandinavian ice sheet as well as a time transgressiveness of the formation of major end moraine belts. On the other hand, age estimates generated by various methods don't give an unambiguous pattern of ice advances and retreat phases. The interpretation of geochronological data is a highly sensitive challenge in respect to the methods themselves and in respect to landscape processes induced by Late Glacial climatic phases, the relief, and by human impact during the Holocene. The Pomeranian ice margin will be taken as an example for the diverse interpretations of data obtained by Surface Exposure Dating, Optically Stimulated Luminescence, and Radiocarbon data. The dating methods require material of different origin, such as boulders at the surface, fine grained sediment, and organic material. All methods have been applied for dating the same ice marginal position. The remaining question is to which extent the reactions of the ice margins of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet can be brought into accordance with the general climatic record of long term climate archives or whether local weather conditions linked to changes in the atmospheric flow pattern influenced small scale ice advances or retreat along the fringe of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet.

  14. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-Glucosaminidase Levels are Positively Correlated With 2-Hr Plasma Glucose Levels During Oral Glucose Tolerance Testing in Prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ouchi, Motoshi; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Masao; Motoyama, Masayuki; Ohara, Makoto; Suzuki, Kazunari; Igari, Yoshimasa; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakano, Hiroshi; Oba, Kenzo

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) excretion is increased in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This study investigated when during the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) the plasma glucose, urine glucose, and insulin levels correlate most strongly with urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG) levels in prediabetic subjects. Methods The OGTT was administered to 80 subjects who had not yet received a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and in whom HbA1c levels were ≤6.8% and fasting plasma glucose levels were <7.0 mmol/l. Forty-two subjects had normal glucose tolerance (NGT), 31 had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 7 had DM according to World Health Organization criteria. Serum levels of cystatin C, the estimated glomerular filtration rate, the urinary albumin-to-creatinine (Cr) ratio, urinary and serum β2-microglobulin, and urinary NAG were measured as markers of renal function. Results NAG levels were significantly higher in subjects with DM and in subjects with IGT than in subjects with NGT. No significant associations were observed between glycemic status and other markers of renal function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the NAG level was positively correlated with plasma glucose levels at 120 min of the OGTT and was associated with the glycemic status of prediabetic patients. Conclusion These results suggest that postprandial hyperglycemia is an independent factor that causes renal tubular damage in prediabetes patients. PMID:23143631

  15. Resistance of Gram-positive bacteria to nisin is not determined by lipid II levels.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Naomi E; Smid, Eddy J; Kok, Jan; de Kruijff, Ben; Kuipers, Oscar P; Breukink, Eefjan

    2004-10-01

    Lipid II is essential for nisin-mediated pore formation at nano-molar concentrations. We tested whether nisin resistance could result from different Lipid II levels, by comparing the maximal Lipid II pool in Micrococcus flavus (sensitive) and Listeria monocytogenes (relatively insensitive) and their nisin-resistant variants, with a newly developed method. No correlation was observed between the maximal Lipid II pool and nisin sensitivity, as was further corroborated by using spheroplasts of nisin-resistant and wild-type strains of M. flavus, which were equally sensitive to nisin. PMID:15451114

  16. Serum creatinine level, a surrogate of muscle mass, predicts mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit

    2016-01-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) has been widely used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine generation could be reduced in the setting of low skeletal muscle mass. Thus, SCr has also been used as a surrogate of muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Recently, studies have demonstrated high mortality in ICU patients with low admission SCr levels, reflecting that low muscle mass or malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality. However, SCr levels can also be influenced by multiple GFR- and non-GFR-related factors including age, diet, exercise, stress, pregnancy, and kidney disease. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, have recently been studied for muscle mass assessment and demonstrated promising data. This article aims to present the perspectives of the uses of SCr and other methods for prediction of muscle mass and outcomes of ICU patients. PMID:27162688

  17. Serum creatinine level, a surrogate of muscle mass, predicts mortality in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit; Kashani, Kianoush

    2016-05-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) has been widely used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine generation could be reduced in the setting of low skeletal muscle mass. Thus, SCr has also been used as a surrogate of muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Recently, studies have demonstrated high mortality in ICU patients with low admission SCr levels, reflecting that low muscle mass or malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality. However, SCr levels can also be influenced by multiple GFR- and non-GFR-related factors including age, diet, exercise, stress, pregnancy, and kidney disease. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, have recently been studied for muscle mass assessment and demonstrated promising data. This article aims to present the perspectives of the uses of SCr and other methods for prediction of muscle mass and outcomes of ICU patients. PMID:27162688

  18. A critical assessment of the upper intake levels for infants and children.

    PubMed

    Zlotkin, Stanley

    2006-02-01

    The dietary reference intake (DRI) committees of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine were charged with establishing DRIs for all of the essential nutrients, including fat and energy. These reference values are quantitative estimates of the nutrient intakes to be used to plan and assess the diets of healthy people. The reference values include both recommended intakes and tolerable upper intake levels (ULs). The ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in the general population." As intake increases above the UL, the risk of adverse effects increases. The term "tolerable intake" was chosen to avoid the implication of a possible beneficial effect. Instead, the term is intended to connote a level of intake that can, with a high probability, be tolerated biologically. Yet, with intakes above the ULs, the risk of adverse health effects increases. Thus, there is no obvious benefit for healthy individuals to consume quantities of nutrients above the UL. PMID:16424135

  19. Measurement of position-specific 13C isotopic composition of propane at the nanomole level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Suda, Konomi; Ueno, Yuichiro; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a novel method for analyzing intramolecular carbon isotopic distribution of propane as a potential new tracer of its origin. The method is based on on-line pyrolysis of propane followed by analysis of carbon isotope ratios of the pyrolytic products methane, ethylene and ethane. Using propane samples spiked with 13C at the terminal methyl carbon, we characterize the origin of the pyrolytic fragments. We show that the exchange between C-atoms during the pyrolytic process is negligible, and thus that relative intramolecular isotope composition can be calculated. Preliminary data from 3 samples show that site-preference (SP) values, defined as the difference of δ13C values between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions of propane, range from -1.8‰ to -12.9‰. In addition, SP value obtained using our method for a thermogenic natural gas sample is consistent with that expected from theoretical models of thermal cracking, suggesting that the isotope fractionation associated with propane pyrolysis is negligible. The method will provide novel insights into the characterization of the origin of propane and will help better understand the biogeochemistry of natural gas deposits.

  20. Plants Level of Chromium and Nickel at a Refuse Site, Any Positive Impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ololade, I. A.; Ashoghon, A. O.; Adeyemi, O.

    Trace metals, including heavy metals can be dangerous to the biota and human beings. Consequently, a study of the accumulation of two unpopular heavy metals, Chromium (Cr) and Nickel (Ni), in four species of plants were carried out. At Ojota refuse sites (Old and New) in Lagos State, Nigeria, from where samples were taken; knowledge about these metals were scarce. The results obtained from the analysis of leaves and roots of plants showed that the sites were heavily polluted by chromium and nickel containing substances, which were indiscriminately dumped at the sites. Values were far above the background level with higher concentrations being recorded at the New Refuse Site (NRS). The concentrations obtained were also found to correlate strongly with the results of some soil physico-chemical properties, which were determined during the study. The plants used in the present research were observed to display a higher level of tolerance to metal concentration, an important characteristic of hyper-accumulator plants in phytoremediation study. Consequently, they are recommended for cultivation in non-grazing heavy metal polluted sites. However, livestock feedings and vegetable consumption at the present sites should be discouraged to avoid metal poisoning.

  1. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    PubMed Central

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that ‘for approved indications, GH is safe’; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement. PMID:26563978

  2. Rabies virus (RV) glycoprotein expression levels are not critical for pathogenicity of RV.

    PubMed

    Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J

    2011-01-01

    Previous comparisons of different rabies virus (RV) strains suggested an inverse relationship between pathogenicity and the amount of glycoprotein produced in infected cells. In order to provide more insight into this relationship, we pursued an experimental approach that allowed us to alter the glycoprotein expression level without altering the glycoprotein sequence, thereby eliminating the contribution of amino acid changes to differences in viral virulence. To this end, we constructed an infectious clone of the highly pathogenic rabies virus strain CVS-N2c and replaced its cognate glycoprotein gene with synthetic versions in which silent mutations were introduced to replace wild-type codons with the most or least frequently used synonymous codons. A recombinant N2c variant containing the fully codon-optimized G gene and three variants carrying a partially codon-deoptimized G gene were recovered on mouse neuroblastoma cells and shown to express 2- to 3-fold more and less glycoprotein, respectively, than wild-type N2c. Pathogenicity studies in mice revealed the WT-N2c virus to be the most pathogenic strain. Variants containing partially codon-deoptimized glycoprotein genes or the codon-optimized gene were less pathogenic than WT-N2c but still caused significant mortality. We conclude that the expression level of the glycoprotein gene does have an impact on pathogenicity but is not a dominant factor that determines pathogenicity. Thus, strategies such as changes in codon usage that aim solely at altering the expression level of the glycoprotein gene do not suffice to render a pathogenic rabies virus apathogenic and are not a viable and safe approach for attenuation of a pathogenic strain. PMID:21068252

  3. Rabies Virus (RV) Glycoprotein Expression Levels Are Not Critical for Pathogenicity of RV▿

    PubMed Central

    Wirblich, Christoph; Schnell, Matthias J.

    2011-01-01

    Previous comparisons of different rabies virus (RV) strains suggested an inverse relationship between pathogenicity and the amount of glycoprotein produced in infected cells. In order to provide more insight into this relationship, we pursued an experimental approach that allowed us to alter the glycoprotein expression level without altering the glycoprotein sequence, thereby eliminating the contribution of amino acid changes to differences in viral virulence. To this end, we constructed an infectious clone of the highly pathogenic rabies virus strain CVS-N2c and replaced its cognate glycoprotein gene with synthetic versions in which silent mutations were introduced to replace wild-type codons with the most or least frequently used synonymous codons. A recombinant N2c variant containing the fully codon-optimized G gene and three variants carrying a partially codon-deoptimized G gene were recovered on mouse neuroblastoma cells and shown to express 2- to 3-fold more and less glycoprotein, respectively, than wild-type N2c. Pathogenicity studies in mice revealed the WT-N2c virus to be the most pathogenic strain. Variants containing partially codon-deoptimized glycoprotein genes or the codon-optimized gene were less pathogenic than WT-N2c but still caused significant mortality. We conclude that the expression level of the glycoprotein gene does have an impact on pathogenicity but is not a dominant factor that determines pathogenicity. Thus, strategies such as changes in codon usage that aim solely at altering the expression level of the glycoprotein gene do not suffice to render a pathogenic rabies virus apathogenic and are not a viable and safe approach for attenuation of a pathogenic strain. PMID:21068252

  4. Vitamin D and L-cysteine levels correlate positively with GSH and negatively with insulin resistance levels in the blood of type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S K; Micinski, D; Huning, L; Kahlon, G; Bass, P F; Levine, S N

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Vitamin D, L-cysteine (LC) and glutathione (GSH) levels are lower in the blood of diabetic patients. This study examined the hypothesis that the levels of vitamin D and LC correlate with those of GSH in the blood of type 2 diabetic patients (T2D), and that vitamin D and LC upregulate glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCLC), which catalyzes GSH biosynthesis, in cultured monocytes. Subjects/Methods: Fasting blood was obtained after written informed consent from T2D (n=79) and healthy controls (n=22). U937 monocytes were pretreated with 1,25 (OH)2 vitamin D (0–25 nM) or LC (0–500 μM) for 24 h and then exposed to control or high glucose (25 mM) for 4 h. Results: Plasma levels of vitamin D, LC, GSH and GCLC protein were significantly lower in T2D versus those in age-matched healthy controls. Multiple linear regression analyses and adjustment for body weight showed a significant positive correlation between plasma levels of vitamin D (r=0.26, P=0.05) and LC (r=0.81, P=0.001) and that of GSH, and between LC and vitamin D (r=0.27, P=0.045) levels. Plasma levels of GSH (r=−0.34, P=0.01) and LC (r=−0.33, r=0.01) showed a negative correlation with triglyceride levels. Vitamin D correlated inversely with HbA1C (−0.30, P=0.01) and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (r=−0.31, P=0.03), which showed a significant positive correlation with triglycerides (r=0.44, P=0.001) in T2D. Cell culture studies demonstrate that supplementation with vitamin D and LC significantly increased GCLC expression and GSH formation in control and high-glucose-treated monocytes. Conclusions: This study suggests a positive relationship between the concentrations of the micronutrients vitamin D and LC and that of GSH. Some of the beneficial effects of vitamin D and LC supplementation may be mediated by an increase in the levels of GSH and a decrease in triglyceride levels in T2D patients. PMID:24961547

  5. RADIOACTIVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE TANK PITTING PREDICTIONS: AN INVESTIGATION INTO CRITICAL SOLUTION CONCENTRATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, E.

    2012-11-08

    A series of cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests was performed on samples of ASTM A537 carbon steel in support of a probability-based approach to evaluate the effect of chloride and sulfate on corrosion the steel's susceptibility to pitting corrosion. Testing solutions were chosen to systemically evaluate the influence of the secondary aggressive species, chloride, and sulfate, in the nitrate based, high-level wastes. The results suggest that evaluating the combined effect of all aggressive species, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate, provides a consistent response for determining corrosion susceptibility. The results of this work emphasize the importance for not only nitrate concentration limits, but also chloride and sulfate concentration limits.

  6. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Maijer, Karen I.; Neumann, Elena; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Drop, Daniël A. C. A. D.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Choi, Ivy Y. K.; Gerlag, Daniëlle M.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Tak, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and synovial tissue of subjects at risk of RA. Methods Fifty-one individuals positive for immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), without arthritis, were included in this prospective study. Levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, leptin, chemerin and omentin were determined in baseline fasting serum samples (n = 27). Synovial tissue was obtained by arthroscopy at baseline and we examined the expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin by immunohistochemistry. Results The development of clinically manifest arthritis after follow-up was associated with baseline serum vaspin levels (HR1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2); p = 0.020), also after adjustment for overweight (HR1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.5); p = 0.016). This association was not seen for other adipokines. Various serum adipokine levels correlated with BMI (adiponectin r = -0.538, leptin r = 0.664; chemerin r = 0.529) and systemic markers of inflammation such as CRP levels at baseline (adiponectin r = -0.449, omentin r = -0.557, leptin r = 0.635, chemerin r = 0.619, resistin r = 0.520) and ESR (leptin r = 0.512, chemerin r = 0.708), p-value<0.05. Synovial expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin was not associated with development of clinically manifest arthritis. Conclusions In this exploratory study, serum adipokines were associated with an increased inflammatory state in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing RA. Furthermore, serum vaspin levels may assist in predicting the development of arthritis in these individuals. PMID:26670468

  7. Temporal weighting functions for interaural time and level differences. III. Temporal weighting for lateral position judgments

    PubMed Central

    Stecker, G. Christopher; Ostreicher, Jennifer D.; Brown, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    Temporal variation in listeners' sensitivity to interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD) was assessed using the temporal weighting function (TWF) paradigm [Stecker and Hafter (2002). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 112, 1046–1057] in the context of sound-source lateralization. Brief Gabor click trains were presented over headphones with overall ITD and/or ILD ranging ±500 μs ITD and/or ±5 dB ILD across trials; values for individual clicks within each train varied by an additional ±100 μs or ±2 dB to allow TWF calculation by multiple regression. In separate conditions, TWFs were measured for (i) ITD alone, (ii) ILD alone, (iii) ITD and ILD covarying (“in agreement”), and (iv) ITD and ILD varying independently across clicks. Consistent with past studies that measured TWF for binaural discrimination, TWFs demonstrated high weight on the first click for stimuli with short interclick interval (ICI = 2 ms), but flatter weighting for longer ICI (5–10 ms). Some conditions additionally demonstrated greater weight for clicks near the offset than near the middle of the train [Stecker and Hafter (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125, 3914–3924]. The latter result was observed only when stimuli carried ILD, and appeared more reliably for 5 ms than for 2 or 10 ms ICI. PMID:23927122

  8. Critical Infrastructures as Complex Systems: A Multi-level Protection Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assogna, Pierluigi; Bertocchi, Glauco; Dicarlo, Antonio; Milicchio, Franco; Paoluzzi, Alberto; Scorzelli, Giorgio; Vicentino, Michele; Zollo, Roberto

    This paper describes a security platform as a complex system of holonic communities, that are hierarchically organized, but self-reconfigurable when some of them are detached or cannot otherwise operate. Furthermore, every possible subset of holons may work autonomously, while maintaining self-conscience of its own mission, action lines and goals. Each holonic unit, either elementary or composite, retains some capabilities for sensing (perception), transmissive apparatus (communication), computational processes (elaboration), authentication/authorization (information security), support for data exchange (visualization & interaction), actuators (mission), ambient representation (geometric reasoning), knowledge representation (logic reasoning), situation representation and forecasting (simulation), intelligent feedback (command & control). The higher the organizational level of the holonic unit, the more complex and sophisticated each of its characteristic features.

  9. Generating Safety-Critical PLC Code From a High-Level Application Software Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The benefits of automatic-application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. These benefits include raised abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at Kennedy Space Center recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing the new ground checkout and launch processing system, called the Launch Control System (LCS). Engineers developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. All the computer hardware in the LCS is planned to be commercial off the shelf (COTS), including industrial controllers or PLCs that are connected to the sensors and end items out in the field. Most of the software in LCS is also planned to be COTS, with only small adapter software modules that must be developed in order to interface between the various COTS software products. A domain-specific language (DSL) is a programming language designed to perform tasks and to solve problems in a particular domain, such as ground processing of launch vehicles. The LCS engineers created a DSL for developing test sequences of ground checkout and launch operations of future launch vehicle and spacecraft elements, and they are developing a tabular specification format that uses the DSL keywords and functions familiar to the ground and flight system users. The tabular specification format, or tabular spec, allows most ground and flight system users to document how the application software is intended to function and requires little or no software programming knowledge or experience. A small sample from a prototype tabular spec application is

  10. Joint positioning sense, perceived force level and two-point discrimination tests of young and active elderly adults

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Priscila G.; Santos, Karini B.; Rodacki, André L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changes in the proprioceptive system are associated with aging. Proprioception is important to maintaining and/or recovering balance and to reducing the risk of falls. Objective: To compare the performance of young and active elderly adults in three proprioceptive tests. Method: Twenty-one active elderly participants (66.9±5.5 years) and 21 healthy young participants (24.6±3.9 years) were evaluated in the following tests: perception of position of the ankle and hip joints, perceived force level of the ankle joint, and two-point discrimination of the sole of the foot. Results: No differences (p>0.05) were found between groups for the joint position and perceived force level. On the other hand, the elderly participants showed lower sensitivity in the two-point discrimination (higher threshold) when compared to the young participants (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Except for the cutaneous plantar sensitivity, the active elderly participants had maintained proprioception. Their physical activity status may explain similarities between groups for the joint position sense and perceived force level, however it may not be sufficient to prevent sensory degeneration with aging. PMID:26443978

  11. A lane-level LBS system for vehicle network with high-precision BDS/GPS positioning.

    PubMed

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. PMID:25755665

  12. A Lane-Level LBS System for Vehicle Network with High-Precision BDS/GPS Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chi; Guo, Wenfei; Cao, Guangyi; Dong, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, research on vehicle network location service has begun to focus on its intelligence and precision. The accuracy of space-time information has become a core factor for vehicle network systems in a mobile environment. However, difficulties persist in vehicle satellite positioning since deficiencies in the provision of high-quality space-time references greatly limit the development and application of vehicle networks. In this paper, we propose a high-precision-based vehicle network location service to solve this problem. The major components of this study include the following: (1) application of wide-area precise positioning technology to the vehicle network system. An adaptive correction message broadcast protocol is designed to satisfy the requirements for large-scale target precise positioning in the mobile Internet environment; (2) development of a concurrence service system with a flexible virtual expansion architecture to guarantee reliable data interaction between vehicles and the background; (3) verification of the positioning precision and service quality in the urban environment. Based on this high-precision positioning service platform, a lane-level location service is designed to solve a typical traffic safety problem. PMID:25755665

  13. Noninvasive and invasive positive pressure ventilation for acute respiratory failure in critically ill patients: a comparative cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Meeder, Annelijn M.; Tjan, Dave H. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) for acute respiratory failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a marked reduction in intubation rate, complications, hospital length of stay and mortality. Multiple studies have indicated that patients failing NPPV have worse outcomes compared with patients with successful NPPV treatment; however limited data is available on risks associated with NPPV failure resulting in (delayed) intubation and outcomes compared with initial intubation. The purpose of this study is to assess rates and predictors of NPPV failure and to compare hospital outcomes of patients with NPPV failure with those patients primarily intubated without a prior NPPV trial. Methods A retrospective observational study using data from patients with acute respiratory failure admitted to the ICU in the period 2013–2014. All patients treated with NPPV were evaluated. A sample of patients who were primarily intubated was randomly selected to serve as controls for the group of patients who failed NPPV. Results NPPV failure was recorded in 30.8% of noninvasively ventilated patients and was associated with longer ICU stay [OR, 1.16, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.04–1.30] and lower survival rates (OR, 0.10, 95% CI: 0.02–0.59) compared with NPPV success. Multivariate analysis showed presence of severe sepsis at study entry, higher Simplified Acute Physiology II Score (SAPS-II) score, lower ratio of arterial oxygen tension to fraction of inspired oxygen (PF-ratio) and lower plasma glucose were predictors for NPPV failure. After controlling for potential confounders, patients with NPPV failure did not show any difference in hospital outcomes compared with patients who were primarily intubated. Conclusions Patients with acute respiratory failure and NPPV failure have worse outcomes compared with NPPV success patients, however not worse than initially intubated patients. An initial trial of NPPV therefore may be suitable

  14. Evaluation of constructivist pedagogy: Influence on critical thinking skills, science fair participation and level of performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foxx, Robbie Evelyn

    Science education reform, driven by a rapidly advancing technological society, demands the attention of both elementary and middle school curriculum-developers. Science education training in current standards (National Research Council [NRC] Standards 1996) emphasize inquiry, which is reported to be a basic tenet of the theory known as constructivism (NAASP, 1996; Cohen, 1988; Conley, 1993; Friedman, 1999; Newman, Marks, & Gamoran, 1996; Smerdon & Burkam 1999; Sizer 1992; Talbert & McLaughlin 1993; Tobin & Gallagher, 1987; Yager, 1991, 2000). Pedagogy focusing on the tenets of constructivist theory, at the intermediate level, can address current science standards. Many science educators believe participation in science fairs helps students develop the attitudes, skills, and knowledge that will help them to be comfortable and successful in the scientific and technological society (Czerniak, 1996). Competing in science fairs is one vehicle which allows students to apply science to societal issues, solve problems and model those things scientists do. Moreover, constructing a science fair project is suggested as being an excellent means to foster the development of concepts necessary in promoting scientific literacy (Czerniak, 1996). Research further suggests that through science fairs or other inquiry activities, students construct their knowledge with fewer misconceptions as they explore and discover the nature of science (NRC 1996). Tohn 's study (as cited in Bellipanni, 1994) stated that science fairs are a major campaign to increase student skills and to allow students a chance to have fun with science. The purpose of this research was twofold: (1) to assess science problem solving skills of students instructed using constructivist pedagogy, and (2) to explore the effects of constructivist pedagogy's influence(s) on science fair participation/placement. Students' attitudes resulting from these experiences were examined as well.

  15. Social network analysis - centrality parameters and individual network positions of agonistic behavior in pigs over three different age levels.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Kathrin; Scheffler, Katharina; Czycholl, Irena; Krieter, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of the network structure of agonistic interactions helps to understand the formation and the development of aggressive behavior. Therefore, video observation data of 149 pigs over three different age levels were investigated for 2 days each directly after mixing (65 groups in the rearing area, 24 groups in the growing stable and 12 groups in the breeding stable). The aim of the study was to use network analysis to investigate the development of individual network positions of specific animals and to determine whether centrality parameters in previous mixing situations have an impact on the future behavior of the animals. The results of the weighted degree centrality indicated that weaned pigs had a higher fighting intensity directly after mixing compared to growing pigs and gilts. Also, the number of different opponents (degree centrality) was higher compared to the older age groups. The betweenness centrality showed relatively small values and no significant differences between the different age levels, whereas the closeness centrality showed high values at all observed age levels. Experiences gained in previous agonistic interactions had an impact on the centrality parameters in subsequent mixing situations. It was shown that the position of individual animals in agonistic interaction networks can be characterized using social network analysis and that changes over different age levels can be detected. Therefore, social network analysis provides insights into the formation and evolution of behavioral patterns which could be of particular interest for the identification of key factors with regard to abnormal behavior (e.g. tail biting). PMID:25932371

  16. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attard, Catherine R. M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Möller, Luciana M.

    2016-03-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) – a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal – by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation.

  17. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations.

    PubMed

    Attard, Catherine R M; Beheregaray, Luciano B; Möller, Luciana M

    2016-01-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) - a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal - by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation. PMID:26951747

  18. Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations

    PubMed Central

    Attard, Catherine R. M.; Beheregaray, Luciano B.; Möller, Luciana M.

    2016-01-01

    Population-level conservation is required to prevent biodiversity loss within a species, but it first necessitates determining the number and distribution of populations. Many whale populations are still depleted due to 20th century whaling. Whales are one of the most logistically difficult and expensive animals to study because of their mobility, pelagic lifestyle and often remote habitat. We tackle the question of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) – a critically endangered subspecies and the largest extant animal – by capitalizing on the largest genetic dataset to date for Antarctic blue whales. We found evidence of three populations that are sympatric in the Antarctic feeding grounds and likely occupy separate breeding grounds. Our study adds to knowledge of population structure in the Antarctic blue whale. Future research should invest in locating the breeding grounds and migratory routes of Antarctic blue whales through satellite telemetry to confirm their population structure and allow population-level conservation. PMID:26951747

  19. Coupled sensor/platform control design for low-level chemical detection with position-adaptive micro-UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Thomas; Carr, Ryan; Mitra, Atindra K.; Selmic, Rastko R.

    2009-05-01

    We discuss the development of Position-Adaptive Sensors [1] for purposes for detecting embedded chemical substances in challenging environments. This concept is a generalization of patented Position-Adaptive Radar Concepts developed at AFRL for challenging conditions such as urban environments. For purposes of investigating the detection of chemical substances using multiple MAV (Micro-UAV) platforms, we have designed and implemented an experimental testbed with sample structures such as wooden carts that contain controlled leakage points. Under this general concept, some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "transmitters" by blowing air over the cart and some of the members of a MAV swarm can serve as external position-adaptive "receivers" that are equipped with chemical or biological (chem/bio) sensors that function as "electronic noses". The objective can be defined as improving the particle count of chem/bio concentrations that impinge on a MAV-based position-adaptive sensor that surrounds a chemical repository, such as a cart, via the development of intelligent position-adaptive control algorithms. The overall effect is to improve the detection and false-alarm statistics of the overall system. Within the major sections of this paper, we discuss a number of different aspects of developing our initial MAV-Based Sensor Testbed. This testbed includes blowers to simulate position-adaptive excitations and a MAV from Draganfly Innovations Inc. with stable design modifications to accommodate our chem/bio sensor boom design. We include details with respect to several critical phases of the development effort including development of the wireless sensor network and experimental apparatus, development of the stable sensor boom for the MAV, integration of chem/bio sensors and sensor node onto the MAV and boom, development of position-adaptive control algorithms and initial tests at IDCAST (Institute for the Development and

  20. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence.

    PubMed

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-09-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro-macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings--which remains to be proven by future research--is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  1. On the positive correlation between education and fertility intentions in Europe: Individual- and country-level evidence☆

    PubMed Central

    Testa, Maria Rita

    2014-01-01

    Increasing shares of European women are making large investments in their human capital. Whether and to what extent these investments are in conflict with reproductive behaviour are issues that have repercussions for fertility levels. Using two Eurobarometer survey data (2006 and 2011) on individuals clustered in the 27 EU countries, I investigate the relationship between women's education and lifetime fertility intentions. Results suggest that a positive association between women's level of education and lifetime fertility intentions exists at both the individual and country levels, as well as in a micro–macro integrated framework. The main explanation for these findings—which remains to be proven by future research—is that, in institutional contexts allowing highly educated women to have large families, women of reproductive ages are more prone to make investments in both human capital and family size, because these choices are not seen as incompatible alternatives. PMID:26047540

  2. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    PubMed

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated. PMID:19124060

  3. Dietary Triacylglycerols with Palmitic Acid in the sn-2 Position Modulate Levels of N-Acylethanolamides in Rat Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lisai, Sara; Sirigu, Annarita; Piras, Antonio; Collu, Maria; Batetta, Barbara; Gambelli, Luisa; Banni, Sebastiano

    2015-01-01

    Background Several evidences suggest that the position of palmitic acid (PA) in dietary triacylglycerol (TAG) influences different biological functions. We aimed at evaluating whether dietary fat with highly enriched (87%) PA in sn-2 position (Hsn-2 PA), by increasing PA incorporation into tissue phospholipids (PL), modifies fatty acid profile and biosynthesis of fatty acid—derived bioactive lipids, such as endocannabinoids and their congeners. Study Design Rats were fed for 5 weeks diets containing Hsn-2 PA or fat with PA randomly distributed in TAG with 18.8% PA in sn-2 position (Lsn-2 PA), and similar total PA concentration. Fatty acid profile in different lipid fractions, endocannabinoids and congeners were measured in intestine, liver, visceral adipose tissue, muscle and brain. Results Rats on Hsn-2 PA diet had lower levels of anandamide with concomitant increase of its congener palmitoylethanolamide and its precursor PA into visceral adipose tissue phospholipids. In addition, we found an increase of oleoylethanolamide, an avid PPAR alpha ligand, in liver, muscle and brain, associated to higher levels of its precursor oleic acid in liver and muscle, probably derived by elongation and further delta 9 desaturation of PA. Changes in endocannabinoids and congeners were associated to a decrease of circulating TNF alpha after LPS challenge, and to an improved feed efficiency. Conclusions Dietary Hsn-2 PA, by modifying endocannabinoids and congeners biosynthesis in different tissues may potentially concur in the physiological regulation of energy metabolism, brain function and body fat distribution. PMID:25775474

  4. A New Class Of Bilevel And Mono-Level Positive Resist Systems Based On A Chemically Stable Imide Polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legenza, M. W.; Vidusek, D. A.; de Grandpre, M.

    1985-04-01

    A new resin system, comprising a thermoplastic polymer backbone with chemically stable imide functionality, has been adapted for use in three different positive resist product types. These include an advanced bilayer system, a near, mid and deep UV monolevel resist; and an antireflective coating. The key features of the imide polymer system which are utilized for the new resist products are: 1. Novolac-like solubility in aqueous base. This property allows formulation of resists, including the planarizing layer of a bilevel system, with conventional types of positive resist photoactive compounds and aqueous base developers, unlike the situation with PMMA which is not base soluble. 2. Transparency to wavelengths above 260nm. This permits use of the polymer as the matrix for systems which utilize mid and deep UV exposure, including the planarizing layer for a bilevel system and mid and deep UV monolayer resists. This is in contrast to novolac resin wHch absorbs strongly in the deep UV region. 3. Insolubility in solvents used for conventional positive resists. This property is critical to use of the resin in planarizing layers of bilevel systems, including antirefiective coatings. It eliminates the intermixing problems which represent a major problem in conventional PMMA bilevel systems. 4. High Tg (185°C). This value is about 80°C higher than that of PMMA and allows higher temperature processing without pattern distortion. 5. Chemical stability and plasma resistance. Unlike conventional reactive polyimide resins the subject polymer is chemically unreactive and is stable to temperatures above 300°C. Further, the polymer has significantly greater resistance to plasma than does PMMA.

  5. Modeling of trap-assisted tunneling on performance of charge trapping memory with consideration of trap position and energy level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lun, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yun; Zhao, Kai; Du, Gang; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yi

    2016-08-01

    In this work, the trap-assisted tunneling (TAT) mechanism is modeled as a two-step physical process for charge trapping memory (CTM). The influence of the TAT mechanism on CTM performance is investigated in consideration of various trap positions and energy levels. For the simulated CTM structure, simulation results indicate that the positions of oxide traps related to the maximum TAT current contribution shift towards the substrate interface and charge storage layer interface during time evolutions in programming and retention operations, respectively. Lower programming voltage and retention operations under higher temperature are found to be more sensitive to tunneling oxide degradation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61404005, 61421005, and 91434201).

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency and Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis in Children and Adolescents: a Critical Vitamin D Level for This Association?

    PubMed Central

    Evliyaoğlu, Olcay; Acar, Manolya; Özcabı, Bahar; Erginöz, Ethem; Bucak, Feride; Ercan, Oya; Kucur, Mine

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Vitamin D has been suggested to be active as an immunomodulator in autoimmune diseases such as Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT). The goal of the present study was to investigate the vitamin D status in HT patients. Methods: This prevalence case-control study was conducted on 90 patients with HT (of ages 12.32±2.87 years) and 79 age-matched healthy controls (11.85±2.28 years). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] levels were measured in all 169 subjects. Results: The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in HT patients (64 of 90; 71.1%) was significantly higher than that in the control group (41 of 79; 51.9%) (p=0.025). Mean serum 25(OH)D3 level in the HT group was significantly lower compared to the control group (16.67±11.65 vs. 20.99±9.86 ng/mL, p=0.001). HT was observed 2.28 times more frequently in individuals with 25(OH)D3 levels <20 ng/mL (OR: 2.28, CI: 1.21-4.3). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with HT in children and adolescents. Levels lower than 20 ng/mL seem to be critical. The mechanism for this association is not clear. PMID:26316435

  7. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees.

    PubMed

    Cape, J N

    1993-01-01

    The concept of critical levels was developed in order to define short-term and long-term average concentrations of gaseous pollutants above which plants may be damaged. Although the usual way in which pollutants in precipitation (wet deposition) influence vegetation is by affecting soil processes, plant foliage exposed to fog and cloud, which often contain much greater concentrations of pollutant ions than rain, may be damaged directly. The idea of a critical level has been extended to define concentrations of pollutants in wet deposition above which direct damage to plants is likely. Concentrations of acidity and sulphate measured in mountain and coastal cloud are summarised. Vegetation at risk of injury is identified as montane forest growing close to the cloud base, where ion concentrations are highest. The direct effects of acidic precipitation on trees are reviewed, based on experimental exposure of plants to simulated acidic rain, fog or mist. Although most experiments have reported results in terms of pH (H(+) concentration), the accompanying anion is important, with sulphate being more damaging than nitrate. Both conifers and broadleaved tree seedlings showing subtle changes in the structural characteristics of leaf surfaces after exposure to mist or rain at or about pH 3.5, or sulphate concentration of 150 micromol litre(-1). Visible lesions on leaf surfaces occur at around pH 3 (500 micromol litre(-1) sulphate), broadleaved species tending to be more sensitive than conifers. Effects on photosynthesis and water relations, and interactions with other stresses (e.g. frost), have usually been observed only for treatments which have also caused visible injury to the leaf surface. Few experiments on the direct effects of polluted cloud have been conducted under field conditions with mature trees, which unlike seedlings in controlled conditions, may suffer a growth reduction in the absence of visible injury. Although leaching of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+)) is

  8. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position

    PubMed Central

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010–2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  9. Compliance is nonlinear over tidal volume irrespective of positive end-expiratory pressure level in surfactant-depleted piglets.

    PubMed

    Lichtwarck-Aschoff, M; Mols, G; Hedlund, A J; Kessler, V; Markström, A M; Guttmann, J; Hedenstierna, G; Sjöstrand, U H

    2000-12-01

    Between the lower and the upper inflection point of a quasistatic pressure-volume (PV) curve, a segment usually appears in which the PV relationship is steep and linear (i.e., compliance is high, with maximal volume change per pressure change, and is constant). Traditionally it is assumed that when positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) and tidal volume (V T) are titrated such that the end-inspiratory volume is positioned at this linear segment of the PV curve, compliance is constant over VT during ongoing ventilation. The validity of this assumption was addressed in this study. In 14 surfactant-deficient piglets, PEEP was increased from 3 cm H(2)O to 24 cm H(2)O, and the compliance associated with 10 consecutive volume increments up to full VT was determined with a modified multiple-occlusion method at the different PEEP levels. With PEEP at approximately the lower inflection point, compliance was minimal in most lungs and decreased markedly over VT, indicating overdistension. Compliance both increased and decreased within the same breath at intermediate PEEP levels. It is concluded that a PEEP that results in constant compliance over the full VT range is difficult to find, and cannot be derived from conventional respiratory-mechanical analyses; nor does this PEEP level coincide with maximal gas exchange. PMID:11112126

  10. The Relative Age Effect in Spanish Female Soccer Players. Influence of the Competitive Level and a Playing Position.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Vaeyens, Roel; Redondo, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-27

    The purposes of the study were to examine relative age effects (RAEs) in Spanish female soccer and to identify the influence of a playing position. The sample comprised all female players (n=4035) of five different competitive levels in the 2010-2013 seasons: First, Second and Third divisions (n=936, n=1711 and n=870, respectively), and National and Regional (n=232 and n=286, respectively) teams were included. Differences between the observed and expected birth-date distributions were tested based on data from the general Spanish population, using the chi-square statistic followed up by calculating odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results revealed that the birth-date distributions of almost all groups of football players showed an overrepresentation of players born in the first quartile. Only in the lowest level was age distribution not significantly different from that of the general population. Moreover, the RAE risk progressively increased with a higher level of involvement. It was also observed that at some playing positions the birth-date distributions were significantly biased. That was the case for goalkeepers and defenders. It could be concluded that in the current structure of Spanish female soccer there is a relative age effect, probably due to the early processes of talent identification. PMID:26240656

  11. TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B₄-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kentaro; Ye, Yi; Viet, Chi T; Dang, Dongmin; Schmidt, Brian L

    2015-05-01

    Differential thermal nociception across inbred mouse strains has genetic determinants. Thermal nociception is largely attributed to the heat/capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1); however, the contribution of this channel to the genetics of thermal nociception has not been revealed. In this study we compared TRPV1 expression levels and electrophysiological properties in primary sensory neurons and thermal nociceptive behaviors between two (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) inbred mouse strains. Using immunofluorescence and patch-clamp physiology methods, we demonstrated that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive trigeminal sensory neurons of C57BL/6 relative to BALB/c; the expression in IB4-negative neurons was similar between the strains. Furthermore, using electrophysiological cell classification (current signature method), we showed differences between the two strains in capsaicin sensitivity in IB4-positive neuronal cell types 2 and 13, which were previously reported as skin nociceptors. Otherwise electrophysiological membrane properties of the classified cell types were similar in the two mouse strains. In publicly available nocifensive behavior data and our own behavior data from the using the two mouse strains, C57BL/6 exhibited higher sensitivity to heat stimulation than BALB/c, independent of sex and anatomical location of thermal testing (the tail, hind paw, and whisker pad). The TRPV1-selective antagonist JNJ-17203212 inhibited thermal nociception in both strains; however, removing IB4-positive trigeminal sensory neurons with IB4-conjugated saporin inhibited thermal nociception on the whisker pad in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c. These results suggest that TRPV1 expression levels in IB4-positive type 2 and 13 neurons contributed to differential thermal nociception in skin of C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c. PMID:25787958

  12. GRIK1 Genotype Moderates Topiramate's Effects on Daily Drinking Level, Expectations of Alcohol's Positive Effects, and Desire to Drink

    PubMed Central

    Kranzler, Henry R.; Armeli, Stephen; Feinn, Richard; Tennen, Howard; Gelernter, Joel; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    We (Kranzler et al. 2014) reported that topiramate 200 mg/day reduced heavy drinking days and increased abstinent days in 138 heavy drinkers whose treatment goal was to reduce drinking to safe levels. In that 12-week, placebo-controlled study, we measured drinking using the Timeline Follow-back method at each treatment visit. In addition to the intent-to-treat effects of topiramate, we found that a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs2832407) in GRIK1, encoding the GluK1 subunit of the kainate receptor, moderated the treatment effect in European Americans (EAs; n=122). Topiramate reduced heavy drinking only in rs2832407*C allele homozygotes. Here, we augment those analyses by using patients’ daily reports obtained using interactive voice response technology (a) to validate the interactive effects of GRIK1 and topiramate as predictors of drinking level and (b) to examine changes in expected positive effects of drinking (i.e., positive outcome expectancies) and desire to drink. We found that rs2832407*C allele homozygotes treated with topiramate drank less overall during treatment than those receiving placebo, validating our earlier findings for heavy drinking days (Kranzler et al. 2014). There was also a study day × medication group × genotype group interaction that predicted both positive alcohol expectancies and desire to drink, with rs2832407*C-allele homozygotes treated with topiramate showing the largest decreases in these outcomes during the study period. Changes in positive alcohol expectancies or desire to drink did not mediate the effects on drinking. These findings validate and extend our previous pharmacogenetic findings with topiramate. PMID:24786948

  13. Positive feedback regulation between adiponectin and T-cadherin impacts adiponectin levels in tissue and plasma of male mice.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Keisuke; Fujishima, Yuya; Maeda, Norikazu; Mori, Takuya; Hirata, Ayumu; Sekimoto, Ryohei; Tsushima, Yu; Masuda, Shigeki; Yamaoka, Masaya; Inoue, Kana; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Kita, Shunbun; Ranscht, Barbara; Funahashi, Tohru; Shimomura, Iichiro

    2015-03-01

    Adiponectin (Adipo), a multimeric adipocyte-secreted protein abundant in the circulation, is implicated in cardiovascular protective functions. Recent work documented that Adipo locally associates with responsive tissues through interactions with T-cadherin (Tcad), an atypical, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cadherin cell surface glycoprotein. Mice deficient for Tcad lack tissue-associated Adipo, accumulate Adipo in the circulation, and mimic the Adipo knockout (KO) cardiovascular phenotype. In reverse, Tcad protein is visibly reduced from cardiac tissue in Adipo-KO mice, suggesting interdependent regulation of the 2 proteins. Here, we evaluate the effect of Adipo on Tcad protein expression. Adipo and Tcad proteins were colocalized in aorta, heart, and skeletal muscle. Adipo positively regulated levels of Tcad protein in vivo and in endothelial cell (EC) cultures. In Tcad-KO mice, binding of endogenous and exogenously administered Adipo to cardiovascular tissues was dramatically reduced. Consistently, knockdown of Tcad in cultured murine vascular ECs significantly diminished Adipo binding. In search for a possible mechanism, we found that enzymatic cleavage of Tcad with phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C increases plasma Adipo while decreasing tissue-bound levels. Similarly, pretreatment of cultured ECs with serum containing Adipo attenuated phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C-mediated Tcad cleavage. In vivo administration of adenovirus producing Adipo suppressed plasma levels of GPI phospholipase D, the endogenous cleavage enzyme for GPI-anchored proteins. In conclusion, our data show that both circulating and tissue-bound Adipo levels are dependent on Tcad and, in reverse, regulate tissue Tcad levels through a positive feedback loop that operates by suppressing phospholipase-mediated Tcad release from the cell surface. PMID:25514086

  14. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  15. Serum Ferritin Levels Are Positively Associated With Metabolically Obese Normal Weight: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Woo; Kim, Do Hoon; Roh, Yong Kyun; Ju, Sang Yhun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between serum ferritin levels and metabolically obese normal weight (MONW) and to determine the appropriate cut-off value of serum ferritin for the prediction of clinical metabolic status in nonobese Korean adults. Data from 9411 participants in the fourth (2008) and fifth (2010) annual Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used in this study. MONW was determined by combining National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, Wildman criteria, and homeostatic model assessment criteria for metabolic healthy obesity. The mean serum ferritin level was 103.5 ± 1.2 ng/mL in men and 45.5 ± 0.6 ng/mL in women. The estimated cutoff value of serum ferritin for the prediction of MONW was 127.03 ng/mL in men and 46.87 ng/mL in women. Both men and women who had higher serum ferritin levels than the cutoff value had a higher prevalence of MONW than those individuals who had lower serum ferritin levels than the cutoff value. In the final multivariable adjusted logistic regression model, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of MONW in the subjects who had higher serum ferritin levels than the cutoff value was 1.631 (1.312-2.028) in men and 1.298 (1-1.685) in women. In this study, serum ferritin levels were positively associated with MONW, and those subjects who had higher serum ferritin levels than the cutoff value had a higher prevalence and a higher adjusted odds ratio for MONW despite being nonobese. PMID:26717370

  16. Clinical and microbiological outcome in septic patients with extremely low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels at initiation of critical care.

    PubMed

    De Pascale, G; Vallecoccia, M S; Schiattarella, A; Di Gravio, V; Cutuli, S L; Bello, G; Montini, L; Pennisi, M A; Spanu, T; Zuppi, C; Quraishi, S A; Antonelli, M

    2016-05-01

    A relationship between vitamin D status and mortality in patients in intensive care units (ICU) has been documented. The present study aims to describe the clinical profile and sepsis-related outcome of critically ill septic patients with extremely low (<7 ng/mL) vitamin D levels at ICU admission. We conducted an observational study in the ICU of a teaching hospital including all patients admitted with severe sepsis/septic shock and undergoing 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) testing within the first 24 hours from admission. We studied 107 patients over 12 months. At ICU admission vitamin D deficiency (≤20 ng/mL) was observed in 93.5% of the patients: 57 (53.3%) showed levels <7 ng/mL. As primary outcome, sepsis-related mortality rate was higher in patients with vitamin D levels <7 ng/mL (50.9% versus 26%). Multivariate regression analysis showed that vitamin D concentration <7 ng/mL on ICU admission (p 0.01) and higher mean SAPS II (p <0.01) score were independent predictors of sepsis-related mortality. Patients with very low vitamin D levels suffered higher rate of microbiologically confirmed infections but a lower percentage of microbiological eradication with respect to patients whose values were >7 ng/mL (80.7% versus 58%, p 0.02; 35.3% versus 68%; p 0.03, respectively). Post hoc analysis showed that, in the extremely low vitamin D group, the 52 patients with pneumonia showed a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (9 days (3.75-12.5 days) versus 4 days (2-9 days), p 0.04) and the 66 with septic shock needed vasopressor support for a longer period of time (7 days (4-10 days) versus 4 days (2-7.25 days), p 0.02). Our results suggest that in critical septic patients extremely low vitamin D levels on admission may be a major determinant of clinical outcome. Benefits of vitamin D replacement therapy in this population should be elucidated. PMID:26721785

  17. Critical level of intergranular fracture to affect the toughness of embrittled 2.25Cr-1Mo steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. A.; Knott, J. F.; Bowen, P.

    2004-10-01

    In general, the low-temperature brittle fracture mode of unembrittled ferritic steel is transgranular cleavage. During temper embrittlement, impurity elements, such as sulfur (S), phosphorus (P), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), and tin (Sn), segregate to prior austenite grain boundaries, which results in a decrease in the grain boundary cohesive strength. As a result, the brittle transgranular cleavage fracture mode changes to intergranular decohesion in association with the decrease in the critical fracture (stress (σ F) as well as the fracture toughness (K). However, the appearance of intergranular facets on the fracture surface does not cause a decrease in the K and σ F values. In this work, quenched and fully tempered 2.25Cr-1Mo steel (in an unembrittled condition that exhibits almost 100% brittle transgranular cleavage fracture) has been embrittled for 24, 96, and 210 h at 520 °C to produce different proportions of intergranular fracture. These unembrittled and embrittled steel specimens were tested to measure K (at -120 and -196 °C) and σ F (at -196 °C). The experimental results and detailed fractographic observations show that the K and σ F values decrease with an increase in the area fraction of intergranular fracture, provided that the area fraction of the intergranular facet on the brittle fracture surface exceeded a certain critical level, approximately 20 22%.

  18. Long-Term Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy Normalizes High Exhaled Nitric Oxide Levels in Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ai-Ping; Aboussouan, Loutfi S.; Minai, Omar A.; Paschke, Kelly; Laskowski, Daniel; Dweik, Raed A.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Upper airway inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and may be linked to cardiovascular consequences. We prospectively examined fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), a surrogate marker of upper airway inflammation using a portable nitric oxide analyzer (NIOX MINO). Design: In consecutive adult nonsmokers with suspected OSA, FENO was measured immediately before and after polysomnographic studies, and within 1-3 months following continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Measurement and Results: FENO levels were increased in the 75 patients with OSA compared to the 29 controls, both before sleep (13.4 ± 6.5 ppb vs. 6.5 ± 3.5; p < 0.001) and after sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 6.9 ± 3.7; p < 0.001). Furthermore, in patients with OSA, FENO levels were significantly higher post-sleep than pre-sleep (19.0 ± 7.7 ppb vs. 13.4 ± 6.5; p < 0.001), while there was no significant overnight change in patients without OSA. The rise in FENO correlated with the apnea-hypopnea index (r = 0.65, p < 0.001), nadir oxygen saturation (r = 0.54, p < 0.001), and arousal index (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). Thirty-seven of these patients underwent CPAP titration and treatment. Successful titration was associated with a lower overnight increase in FENO (7.2 ± 3.3 vs. 11.0 ± 4.3, p = 0.02). FENO levels declined after 1-3 months of CPAP therapy (11.7 ± 4.4 ppb, p < 0.001). Conclusions: FENO levels are elevated in OSA, correlate with severity, and decrease after positive pressure therapy. This study supports the role of upper airway inflammation in OSA pathogenesis and a possible role for FENO in monitoring CPAP therapy. Citation: Chua AP; Aboussouan LS; Minai OA; Paschke K; Laskowski D; Dweik RA. Long-term continuous positive airway pressure therapy normalizes high exhaled nitric oxide levels in obstructive sleep apnea. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(6):529-535. PMID:23772184

  19. Critical peripheral ischemia precipitated by severe episode of Raynaud's phenomenon in a patient with aPL-positive systemic lupus erythematosus, upon high titer anti-RNP seroconversion.

    PubMed

    Levy, O; Maslakov, I; Vosco, S; Markov, A; Amit-Vazina, M; Tishler, M

    2015-03-01

    A 35-year-old female with long standing aPL-positive lupus without history of thromboembolic events, who has developed critical peripheral ischemia (CPI) is described. An episode of severe Raynaud's phenomenon rapidly progressed to an extensive digit-threatening ischemia, involving bilateral hands and feet. She was successfully treated with corticosteroids, anticoagulation, iloprost, sildenafil, and nifedipine. Her serological studies were remarkable for the emergence of high titer anti-RNP seroconversion and an increase in aPL titer, suggesting that these autoantibodies played a role in the pathogenesis of CPI. It is important to note that such observation should herald this potentially devastating complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:25467391

  20. Arabidopsis LIP5, a Positive Regulator of Multivesicular Body Biogenesis, Is a Critical Target of Pathogen-Responsive MAPK Cascade in Plant Basal Defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Shang, Yifen; Fan, Baofang; Yu, Jing-Quan; Chen, Zhixiang

    2014-01-01

    Multivesicular bodies (MVBs) play essential roles in many cellular processes. The MVB pathway requires reversible membrane association of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transports (ESCRTs) for sustained protein trafficking. Membrane dissociation of ESCRTs is catalyzed by the AAA ATPase SKD1, which is stimulated by LYST-INTERACTING PROTEIN 5 (LIP5). We report here that LIP5 is a target of pathogen-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases (MPKs) and plays a critical role in plant basal resistance. Arabidopsis LIP5 interacts with MPK6 and MPK3 and is phosphorylated in vitro by activated MPK3 and MPK6 and in vivo upon expression of MPK3/6-activating NtMEK2DD and pathogen infection. Disruption of LIP5 has little effects on flg22-, salicylic acid-induced defense responses but compromises basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. The critical role of LIP5 in plant basal resistance is dependent on its ability to interact with SKD1. Mutation of MPK phosphorylation sites in LIP5 does not affect interaction with SKD1 but reduces the stability and compromises the ability to complement the lip5 mutant phenotypes. Using the membrane-selective FM1–43 dye and transmission electron microscopy, we demonstrated that pathogen infection increases formation of both intracellular MVBs and exosome-like paramural vesicles situated between the plasma membrane and the cell wall in a largely LIP5-dependent manner. These results indicate that the MVB pathway is positively regulated by pathogen-responsive MPK3/6 through LIP5 phosphorylation and plays a critical role in plant immune system likely through relocalization of defense-related molecules. PMID:25010425

  1. Improved optimization of perturbation theory: Applications to the oscillator energy levels and Bose-Einstein condensate critical temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneur, Jean-Loïc; Neveu, André; Pinto, Marcus B.

    2004-05-01

    Improving perturbation theory via a variational optimization has generally produced in higher orders an embarrassingly large set of solutions, most of them unphysical (complex). We introduce an extension of the optimized perturbation method which leads to a drastic reduction of the number of acceptable solutions. The properties of this method are studied and it is then applied to the calculation of relevant quantities in different ϕ4 models, such as the anharmonic oscillator energy levels and the critical Bose-Einstein condensation temperature shift Δ Tc recently investigated by various authors. Our present estimates of Δ Tc , incorporating the most recently available six and seven loop perturbative information, are in excellent agreement with all the available lattice numerical simulations. This represents a very substantial improvement over previous treatments.

  2. The critical levels and the maximum metal uptake for wheat and rice plants when applying metal oxides to soil

    SciTech Connect

    Muramoto, S.; Nishizaki, H.; Aoyama, I. )

    1990-04-01

    Wheat is more sensitive to CdO and ZnO compared with rice plant. The yield of wheat decreased by 30% in the presence of 30 ppm Cd, but that of rice plants by only 8%. The critical levels of meal uptake by wheat and rice plants for applying metal oxides to soil (CdO, ZnO, PbO) were determined. The highest concentration obtained for wheat grain was 141 micrograms/g Cd at the Cd 10,000 ppm in soil. This value is higher than the value of 4.97 micrograms/g for unpolished rice and higher than any other we have seen in the reports for treatment with CdO. Also, concentration of more than 1.0 micrograms/g Cd in wheat was observed at 5 pm Cd, while similar concentrations for rice plants were observed at 30 ppm Cd in soil.

  3. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) and acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO) in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Murray, Sarah

    2002-05-01

    Patients in acute respiratory failure (ARF) frequently present to the emergency department (ED). Traditionally management has involved mechanical ventilation via endotracheal intubation. Such invasive forms of treatment, however, correlate with a higher incidence of infection, mortality, length of stay and contribute to the costs of intensive care. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) such as bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) may therefore provide an alternative and preferable form of treatment. Whilst contemporary literature supports the use of BiPAP in hypercapnic ARF, its role in acute hypoxaemic presentations remains elusive. Specifically, the efficacy and safety of BiPAP in the treatment of acute cardiogenic pulmonary oedema (ACPO) remains a contentious issue. The aim of this paper is to explore the physiological rationale for treatment of ACPO with BiPAP. Particular attention will focus on the comparative theoretical advantages of BiPAP in relation to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a review of recent research. Discussion will incorporate timeliness in the application of BiPAP, indicators of successful treatment, appropriate manipulation of pressure settings, nursing workload and management of patients beyond the ED. Whilst the theoretical advantages of BiPAP ventilation are acknowledged, larger randomised controlled research studies are recommended in order to clearly ensure its safe and effective application in the treatment of ACPO. PMID:12154698

  4. A new analysis of hypoxia tolerance in fishes using a database of critical oxygen level (P crit).

    PubMed

    Rogers, Nicholas J; Urbina, Mauricio A; Reardon, Erin E; McKenzie, David J; Wilson, Rod W

    2016-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common occurrence in aquatic habitats, and it is becoming an increasingly frequent and widespread environmental perturbation, primarily as the result of anthropogenic nutrient enrichment and climate change. An in-depth understanding of the hypoxia tolerance of fishes, and how this varies among individuals and species, is required to make accurate predictions of future ecological impacts and to provide better information for conservation and fisheries management. The critical oxygen level (P crit) has been widely used as a quantifiable trait of hypoxia tolerance. It is defined as the oxygen level below which the animal can no longer maintain a stable rate of oxygen uptake (oxyregulate) and uptake becomes dependent on ambient oxygen availability (the animal transitions to oxyconforming). A comprehensive database of P crit values, comprising 331 measurements from 96 published studies, covering 151 fish species from 58 families, provides the most extensive and up-to-date analysis of hypoxia tolerance in teleosts. Methodologies for determining P crit are critically examined to evaluate its usefulness as an indicator of hypoxia tolerance in fishes. Various abiotic and biotic factors that interact with hypoxia are analysed for their effect on P crit, including temperature, CO2, acidification, toxic metals and feeding. Salinity, temperature, body mass and routine metabolic rate were strongly correlated with P crit; 20% of variation in the P crit data set was explained by these four variables. An important methodological issue not previously considered is the inconsistent increase in partial pressure of CO2 within a closed respirometer during the measurement of P crit. Modelling suggests that the final partial pressure of CO2 reached can vary from 650 to 3500 µatm depending on the ambient pH and salinity, with potentially major effects on blood acid-base balance and P crit itself. This database will form part of a widely accessible repository of

  5. Keratin 19-positive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma with elevated serum cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 level: A case report

    PubMed Central

    UEDA, MISATO; YASUDA, MICHINORI; SHIBAOKA, YOSHIE; KUROKAWA, ICHIRO; KAKUNO, AYAKO; TSUBURA, AIRO

    2016-01-01

    cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 (CYFRA21-1) is a marker of lung cancer useful for evaluating clinical diagnosis and prognosis. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with high levels of CYFRA21-1 to date. We herein report a case of a 79-year-old man with a large subcutaneous tumor of the left shoulder, which was diagnosed as primary cutaneous poorly differentiated SCC. The tumor nests were composed of poorly differentiated atypical squamous cells exhibiting high-grade malignancy and mitotic figures; multinuclear cells were also identified inside lymph vessels. Keratin 19 (K19) was intensely expressed in tumor cells. A significantly elevated level of CYFRA21-1 (33 ng/ml) was observed preoperatively. After surgery, the level of CYFRA21-1 was significantly decreased (from 33 to 5.0 ng/ml). Our case demonstrated that K19-positive primary cutaneous undifferentiated SCC induced high levels of CYFRA21-1 in the serum. Thus, CYFRA 21-1 may be a marker indicative of poorly differentiated cutaneous SCC exhibiting K19 expression. PMID:27313859

  6. Testosterone Levels Are Negatively Associated with Childlessness in Males, but Positively Related to Offspring Count in Fathers

    PubMed Central

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Cobey, Kelly D.; van der Meij, Leander

    2013-01-01

    Variation in testosterone (T) is thought to affect the allocation of effort between reproductive and parenting strategies. Here, using a large sample of elderly American men (n = 754) and women (n = 669) we examined the relationship between T and self-reported parenthood, as well as the relationship between T and number of reported children. Results supported previous findings from the literature, showing that fathers had lower T levels than men who report no children. Furthermore, we found that among fathers T levels were positively associated with the number of children a man reports close to the end of his lifespan. Results were maintained when controlling for a number of relevant factors such as time of T sampling, participant age, educational attainment, BMI, marital status and reported number of sex partners. In contrast, T was not associated with either motherhood or the number of children women had, suggesting that, at least in this sample, T does not influence the allocation of effort between reproductive and parenting strategies among women. Findings from this study contribute to the growing body of literature suggesting that, among men, pair bonding and paternal care are associated with lower T levels, while searching and acquiring sex partners is associated with higher T levels. PMID:23573228

  7. A critical appraisal of positive cooperativity in oral streptococcal adhesion: Scatchard analyses of adhesion data versus analyses of the spatial arrangement of adhering bacteria.

    PubMed

    Van der Mei, H C; Cox, S D; Geertsema-Doornbusch, G I; Doyle, R J; Busscher, H J

    1993-05-01

    Positive cooperativity is a mechanism proposed to account for the adhesion of bacteria to surfaces. In this paper, two methods that both claim to assess experimentally cooperative phenomena, viz. Scatchard analysis of adhesion data (using adhesion to vials) and analysis of the spatial arrangement of adhering cells (using a flow chamber), were compared and critically evaluated. Three oral strains were used and the substrata involved were glass (hydrophilic) and silicone-coated glass (hydrophobic) employed with or without a salivary coating. Scatchard analysis and near-neighbour analysis of adhering cells yield similar conclusions with regard to the mechanism of adhesion of the cells, provided that adhering cells are sufficiently immobilized under the experimental conditions. In the case of incomplete immobilization, near-neighbour collection results from sliding of adhering cells rather than from cooperative phenomena. Also, the agreement between the conclusions from both methods seems to be better, the more reversibly the cells adhere. Positive cooperativity can be absent or present on saliva-coated substrata with a distinct effect of the substratum hydrophobicity, despite the presence of an adsorbed film. This suggests that a different pellicle develops on a hydrophobic substratum than on a hydrophilic substratum. This is confirmed by our observation that the amino acid composition of salivary films is different on both types of substratum. PMID:8336110

  8. Diacylglycerol kinase ζ (DGKζ) is a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via modulation of c-Fos levels in osteoclasts†

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Ali; Decker, Corinne; Cremasco, Viviana; Hughes, Lindsey; Novack, Deborah V.; Faccio, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Increased diacylglycerol (DAG) levels are observed in numerous pathologies, including conditions associated with bone loss. However, the effects of DAG accumulation on the skeleton have never been directly examined. Because DAG is strictly controlled by tissue specific diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs), we sought to examine the biological consequences of DAG accumulation on bone homeostasis by genetic deletion of DGKζ, a highly expressed DGK isoform in osteoclasts (OCs). Strikingly, DGKζ−/− mice are osteoporotic due to a marked increase in OC numbers. In vitro, DGKζ−/− bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) form more numerous, larger and highly resorptive OCs. Surprisingly, while increased DAG levels do not alter RANK/RANKL osteoclastogenic pathway, DGKζ deficiency increases responsiveness to the proliferative and pro-survival cytokine M-CSF. We find that M-CSF is responsible for increased DGKζ−/− OC differentiation by promoting higher expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, and c-Fos knockdown in DGKζ−/− cultures dose-dependently reduces OC differentiation. Using a c-Fos luciferase reporter assay lacking the TRE responsive element, we also demonstrate that M-CSF induces optimal c-Fos expression through DAG production. Finally, to demonstrate the importance of the M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis on regulation of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, we turned to PLCγ2+/− BMMs, which have reduced DAG levels and form fewer OCs due to impaired expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis NFATc1 and c-Fos. Strikingly, genetic deletion of DGKζ in PLCγ2+/− mice rescues OC formation and normalizes c-Fos levels without altering NFATc1 expression. To our knowledge, this is the first report implicating M-CSF/DGKζ/DAG axis as a critical regulator of bone homeostasis via its actions on OC differentiation and c-Fos expression. PMID:25891971

  9. Enteral n-3 fatty acids and micronutrients enhance percentage of positive neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion molecules: a potential mediator of pressure ulcer healing in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Theilla, Miriam; Schwartz, Betty; Zimra, Yael; Shapiro, Haim; Anbar, Ronit; Rabizadeh, Esther; Cohen, Jonathan; Singer, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    n-3 Fatty acids are recognised as influencing both wound healing and immunity. We assessed the impact of a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula (study formula) on the healing of pressure ulcers and on immune function in critically ill patients in an intensive care unit. A total of forty patients with pressure ulcers and receiving nutritional support were enrolled (intervention group, n 20, received study formula; and a control group, n 20, received an isoenergetic formula). Total and differential leucocyte count and percentage of adhesion molecule positive granulocyte and lymphocyte cells (CD11a, CD11b, CD18 and CD49b) were measured on days 0, 7 and 14. Percentage of positive lymphocytes for CD54, CD49b, CD49d and CD8 were also measured on days 0, 7 and 14. The state of pressure ulcers was assessed by using the pressure ulcer scale for healing tool score on days 7, 14 and 28 of treatment. No between-group differences in patient demographics, anthropometry or diagnostic class were observed. Patients who received the study formula showed significant increases in the percentage of positive CD18 and CD11a lymphocytes and of CD49b granulocytes as compared to controls (P < 0·05). While the severity of pressure ulcers was not significantly different between the two groups on admission, severity increased significantly over time for the control group (P < 0·05), but not for the study group. The present study suggests that a fish oil- and micronutrient-enriched formula may prevent worsening of pressure ulcers and that this effect may be mediated by an effect on adhesion molecule expression. PMID:22040465

  10. Raising the Level of Awareness of Nurse-to-Nurse Lateral Violence in a Critical Access Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Embree, Jennifer L.; Bruner, Deborah A.; White, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Background/Significance of Problem. Nurse-to-nurse lateral violence (NNLV) has been internationally reported for greater than two decades and results in new nurse turnover and serious negative outcomes. Clinical Question/Project Objective. Will NNLV and cognitive rehearsal (CR) education result in a decrease in perceived nurse-to-nurse lateral violence in a critical access hospital (CAH)? The scope of this project was to determine perceived extent and increase awareness of NNLV through an educational project about NNLV and CR. Clinical Appraisal of Literature/Best Evidence. Trends of NNLV were assessed through an extensive literature review from Health Source, CINAHL, ProQuest Health, and Medical Complete. An educational forum about NNLV with CR was advocated for newly licensed nurses and current nurses (potential perpetrators of NNLV) with the goal of liberation of oppressed individuals. Integration into Practice/Discussion of Results. An interventional study with one group and pre-/postintervention was used to determine NNLV and CR education on perceived levels of lateral violence. Evidence-based measurement occurred through use of the Nurse Workplace Scale and the Silencing the Self-Work Scale. Outcomes were analyzed quantitatively through independent t-tests. Awareness of NNLV was increased. Evaluation of Evidence-Based Practice/Implications. Organizations must learn to eliminate NNLV. With increased levels of awareness of NNLV, nurses requested additional assistance in dealing with inappropriate behavior. PMID:23991337

  11. An epidemiological assessment of stomatal ozone flux-based critical levels for visible ozone injury in Southern European forests.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Pierre; De Marco, Alessandra; Dalstein-Richier, Laurence; Tagliaferro, Francesco; Renou, Camille; Paoletti, Elena

    2016-01-15

    Southern forests are at the highest ozone (O3) risk in Europe where ground-level O3 is a pressing sanitary problem for ecosystem health. Exposure-based standards for protecting vegetation are not representative of actual field conditions. A biologically-sound stomatal flux-based standard has been proposed, although critical levels for protection still need to be validated. This innovative epidemiological assessment of forest responses to O3 was carried out in 54 plots in Southeastern France and Northwestern Italy in 2012 and 2013. Three O3 indices, namely the accumulated exposure AOT40, and the accumulated stomatal flux with and without an hourly threshold of uptake (POD1 and POD0) were compared. Stomatal O3 fluxes were modeled (DO3SE) and correlated to measured forest-response indicators, i.e. crown defoliation, crown discoloration and visible foliar O3 injury. Soil water content, a key variable affecting the severity of visible foliar O3 injury, was included in DO3SE. Based on flux-effect relationships, we developed species-specific flux-based critical levels (CLef) for forest protection against visible O3 injury. For O3 sensitive conifers, CLef of 19 mmol m(-2) for Pinus cembra (high O3 sensitivity) and 32 mmol m(-2) for Pinus halepensis (moderate O3 sensitivity) were calculated. For broadleaved species, we obtained a CLef of 25 mmol m(-2) for Fagus sylvatica (moderate O3 sensitivity) and of 19 mmol m(-2) for Fraxinus excelsior (high O3 sensitivity). We showed that an assessment based on PODY and on real plant symptoms is more appropriated than the concentration-based method. Indeed, POD0 was better correlated with visible foliar O3 injury than AOT40, whereas AOT40 was better correlated with crown discoloration and defoliation (aspecific indicators). To avoid an underestimation of the real O3 uptake, we recommend the use of POD0 calculated for hours with a non-null global radiation over the 24-h O3 accumulation window. PMID:26437347

  12. Blood Oxygenation Level-Dependent CMR-Derived Measures in Critical Limb Ischemia and Changes With Revascularization

    PubMed Central

    Bajwa, Adnan; Wesolowski, Roman; Patel, Ashish; Saha, Prakash; Ludwinski, Francesca; Ikram, Mohammed; Albayati, Mostafa; Smith, Alberto; Nagel, Eike; Modarai, Bijan

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of blood oxygenation level-dependent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (BOLD-CMR) to assess perfusion in the lower limb has been hampered by poor reproducibility and a failure to reliably detect post-revascularization improvements in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Objectives This study sought to develop BOLD-CMR as an objective, reliable clinical tool for measuring calf muscle perfusion in patients with CLI. Methods The calf was imaged at 3-T in young healthy control subjects (n = 12), age-matched control subjects (n = 10), and patients with CLI (n = 34). Signal intensity time curves were generated for each muscle group and curve parameters, including signal reduction during ischemia (SRi) and gradient during reactive hyperemia (Grad). BOLD-CMR was used to assess changes in perfusion following revascularization in 12 CLI patients. Muscle biopsies (n = 28), obtained at the level of BOLD-CMR measurement and from healthy proximal muscle of patients undergoing lower limb amputation (n = 3), were analyzed for capillary-fiber ratio. Results There was good interuser and interscan reproducibility for Grad and SRi (all p < 0.0001). The ischemic limb had lower Grad and SRi compared with the contralateral asymptomatic limb, age-matched control subjects, and young control subjects (p < 0.001 for all comparisons). Successful revascularization resulted in improvement in Grad (p < 0.0001) and SRi (p < 0.0005). There was a significant correlation between capillary-fiber ratio (p < 0.01) in muscle biopsies from amputated limbs and Grad measured pre-operatively at the corresponding level. Conclusions BOLD-CMR showed promise as a reliable tool for assessing perfusion in the lower limb musculature and merits further investigation in a clinical trial. PMID:26821631

  13. Position-dependent oscillated decay of a two-level atom immersed in a two-dimensional photon fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiongfeng; Yin, Miao; Liang, Wenyao

    2016-01-01

    A Weisskopf-Wigner theory has been used to investigate the spontaneous emission of a two-level atom placed in a photon superfluid. It is found that the atom decays exponentially. However, the atomic decay rate changes periodically with the position of the atom and it is minimal when the atom is located at the wave nodes. The largest decay rate of the atom in photon superfluid has the same order of magnitude as it is in vacuum of free space. Moreover, the analytical result shows that the decay of an atom in photon superfluid, compared with that in planar cavity without photon superfluid, will be inhibited. The physical origin of atomic decay inhibition is also discussed.

  14. Forkhead Transcription Factor FOXO3a Levels Are Increased in Huntington Disease Because of Overactivated Positive Autofeedback Loop*

    PubMed Central

    Kannike, Kaja; Sepp, Mari; Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2014-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh7/7 (wild type), Hdh7/109 (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh109/109 (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh7/7 cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop. PMID:25271153

  15. Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a levels are increased in Huntington disease because of overactivated positive autofeedback loop.

    PubMed

    Kannike, Kaja; Sepp, Mari; Zuccato, Chiara; Cattaneo, Elena; Timmusk, Tõnis

    2014-11-21

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by an increased number of CAG repeats in the HTT gene coding for huntingtin. Decreased neurotrophic support and increased mitochondrial and excitotoxic stress have been reported in HD striatal and cortical neurons. The members of the class O forkhead (FOXO) transcription factor family, including FOXO3a, act as sensor proteins that are activated upon decreased survival signals and/or increased cellular stress. Using immunocytochemical screening in mouse striatal Hdh(7/7) (wild type), Hdh(7/109) (heterozygous for HD mutation), and Hdh(109/109) (homozygous for HD mutation) cells, we identified FOXO3a as a differentially regulated transcription factor in HD. We report increased nuclear FOXO3a levels in mutant Hdh cells. Additionally, we show that treatment with mitochondrial toxin 3-nitropropionic acid results in enhanced nuclear localization of FOXO3a in wild type Hdh(7/7) cells and in rat primary cortical neurons. Furthermore, mRNA levels of Foxo3a are increased in mutant Hdh cells compared with wild type cells and in 3-nitropropionic acid-treated primary neurons compared with untreated neurons. A similar increase was observed in the cortex of R6/2 mice and HD patient post-mortem caudate tissue compared with controls. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter assays, we demonstrate that FOXO3a regulates its own transcription by binding to the conserved response element in Foxo3a promoter. Altogether, the findings of this study suggest that FOXO3a levels are increased in HD cells as a result of overactive positive feedback loop. PMID:25271153

  16. Positive correlation of trophic level and proportion of sexual taxa of oribatid mites (Acari: Oribatida) in alpine soil systems.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Barbara M; Meyer, Erwin; Maraun, Mark

    2014-08-01

    We investigated community structure, trophic ecology (using stable isotope ratios; (15)N/(14)N, (13)C/(12)C) and reproductive mode of oribatid mites (Acari, Oribatida) along an altitudinal gradient (2,050-2,900 m) in the Central Alps (Obergurgl, Austria). We hypothesized that (1) the community structure changes with altitude, (2) oribatid mites span over four trophic levels, (3) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with altitude, and (4) the proportion of sexual taxa increases with trophic level, i.e. is positively correlated with the δ(15)N signatures. Oribatid mite community structure changed with altitude indicating that oribatid mites occupy different niches at different altitudes. Oribatid mites spanned over 12 δ(15)N units, i.e. about four trophic levels, which is similar to lowland forest ecosystems. The proportion of sexually reproducing taxa increased from 2,050 to 2,900 m suggesting that limited resource availability at high altitudes favors sexual reproduction. Sexual taxa more frequently occurred higher in the food web indicating that the reproductive mode is related to nutrition of oribatid mites. Generally, oribatid mite community structure changed from being decomposer dominated at lower altitude to being dominated by fungal and lichen feeders, and predators at higher altitude. This supports the view that resources from dead organic material become less available with increasing altitude forcing species to feed on living resources such as fungi, lichens and nematodes. Our findings support the hypothesis that limited resource accessibility (at high altitudes) favors sexually reproducing species whereas ample resource supply (at lower altitudes) favors parthenogenetic species. PMID:24687174

  17. A synthesis of AOT40-based response functions and critical levels of ozone for agricultural and horticultural crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, G.; Buse, A.; Gimeno, B.; Bermejo, V.; Holland, M.; Emberson, L.; Pleijel, H.

    Crop-response data from over 700 published papers and conference proceedings have been analysed with the aim of establishing ozone dose-response functions for a wide range of European agricultural and horticultural crops. Data that met rigorous selection criteria (e.g. field-based, ozone concentrations within European range, full season exposure period) were used to derive AOT40-yield response functions for 19 crops by first converting the published ozone concentration data into AOT40 (AOT40 is the hourly mean ozone concentration accumulated over a threshold ozone concentration of 40 ppb during daylight hours, units ppm h). For any individual crop, there were no significant differences in the linear response functions derived for experiments conducted in the USA or Europe, or for individual cultivars. Three statistically independent groups were identified: ozone sensitive crops (wheat, water melon, pulses, cotton, turnip, tomato, onion, soybean and lettuce); moderately sensitive crops (sugar beet, potato, oilseed rape, tobacco, rice, maize, grape and broccoli) and ozone resistant (barley and fruit represented by plum and strawberry). Critical levels of a 3 month AOT40 of 3 ppm h and a 3.5 month AOT40 of 6 ppm h were derived from the functions for wheat and tomato, respectively.

  18. Erectile Dysfunction and Sexual Hormone Levels in Men With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Efficacy of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Bin; Lin, Qi-Chang; Zeng, Hui-Qing; Jiang, Xing-Tang; Chen, Bo; Chen, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) and serum sexual hormone levels were evaluated in men with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In these patients, the efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) was determined. The 207 men (mean age 44.0 ± 11.1 years) enrolled in the study were stratified within four groups based on their apnea-hypopnea index score: simple snoring (n = 32), mild OSA (n = 29), moderate OSA (n = 38), and severe OSA (n = 108). The International Index of Erectile Dysfunction-5 (IIEF-5) score was obtained from each patient, and blood samples for the analysis of sexual hormones (prolactin, luteotropin, follicle-stimulating hormone, estradiol, progestin, and testosterone) were drawn in the morning after polysomnography. The IIEF-5 test and serum sexual hormone measurements were repeated after 3 months of CPAP treatment in 53 men with severe OSA. The prevalence of ED was 60.6 % in OSA patients overall and 72.2 % in those with severe OSA. Compared with the simple snoring group, patients with severe OSA had significantly lower testosterone levels (14.06 ± 5.62 vs. 17.02 ± 4.68, p = .018) and lower IIEF-5 scores (16.33 ± 6.50 vs. 24.09 ± 1.94, p = .001). The differences in the other sexual hormones between groups were not significant. After 3 months of CPAP treatment, there were no significant changes in sexual hormone levels, but the IIEF-5 score had improved significantly (18.21 ± 4.05 vs. 19.21 ± 3.86, p = .001). Severe OSA patients have low testosterone concentration and high ED prevalence. IIEF-5 scores increased significantly after CPAP treatment, but there was no effect on serum testosterone levels. PMID:26370402

  19. Impact of fire, landscape position, aspect, and soil depth on microbial extracellular enzyme activities in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairbanks, D.; Murphy, M. A.; Frost, G.; Chorover, J.; Gallery, R. E.; Rich, V. I.

    2014-12-01

    Fire frequency and severity are increasing across the western US, and post-fire recovery and effects on critical zone structure are not fully understood. Resident microbiota (bacteria and fungi) transform the majority of carbon in ecosystems, and the structure of these communities influence seedling establishment and the trajectory of vegetative recovery as well as biogeochemical cycling. We surveyed changes in microbial composition and activity after wildfire to better understand soil microbial resilience and fire ecology. Specifically, we assessed potential extracellular enzyme activities in response to fire severity across landscape position and aspect. We sampled 18 days after containment of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, across a gradient of burn severities in a mixed-conifer zero order basin. We subsampled six depths through the surface soil profile and measured potential activities of seven hydrolytic enzymes using established fluorometric techniques. Four of these enzymes hydrolyze C-rich substrates (β-glucosidase [BG], β-D-cellubiosidase [CB], xylosidase [XYL], and α-glucosidase [AG], two hydrolyze N-rich substrates N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase [NAG] and leucine aminopeptidase [LAP]), and one hydrolyzes a P-rich substrate (acid phosphatase [PHOS]). Results showed decreased activities with depth for BG, CB, and LAP. Significantly higher potential enzyme activity was observed for convergent sites relative to planar or divergent sites across all depths sampled. Additionally, we looked at shifts in enzyme nutrient acquisition ratios that correspond with resource limitations relative to microbial stoichiometric demands. Higher acquisition potential is interpreted as greater resource allocation towards nutrient acquisition. Results showed a variance in resource acquisition potential with depth for C relative to N, with greater resources being allocated towards acquiring C at shallower depth. Conversely

  20. CD1A-positive cells and HSP60 (HSPD1) levels in keratoacanthoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cabibi, Daniela; Conway de Macario, Everly; Ingrao, Sabrina; Porcasi, Rossana; Zucco, Francesco; Macario, Alberto J L; Cappello, Francesco; Rappa, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    CD1a is involved in presentation to the immune system of lipid antigen derived from tumor cells with subsequent T cell activation. Hsp60 is a molecular chaperone implicated in carcinogenesis by, for instance, modulating the immune reaction against the tumor. We have previously postulated a synergism between CD1a and Hsp60 as a key factor in the activation of an effective antitumor immune response in squamous epithelia. Keratoacantomas (KAs) are benign tumors that however can transform into squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), but the reasons for this malignization are unknown. In a previous study, we found that CD1a-positive cells are significantly more numerous in KA than in SCC. In this study, we analyzed a series of KAs and SCCs by immunohistochemistry for CD1a and Hsp60. Our results show that the levels of both are significantly lower in KA than in SCC and support the hypothesis that KA may evolve towards SCC if there is a failure of the local modulation of the antitumor immune response. The data also show that immunohistochemistry for CD1a and Hsp60 can be of help in differential diagnosis between KAs and well-differentiated forms of SCC. PMID:26442925

  1. Fermented goat milk consumption improves melatonin levels and influences positively the antioxidant status during nutritional ferropenic anemia recovery.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fernandez, Jorge; Diaz-Castro, Javier; Alférez, M José M; Nestares, Teresa; Ochoa, Julio J; Sánchez-Alcover, Ana; López-Aliaga, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of fermented goat or cow milk on melatonin levels and antioxidant status and during anemia recovery. Eighty male Wistar rats were placed on a pre-experimental period of 40 days and randomly divided into two groups, a control group receiving normal-Fe diet (45 mg kg(-1)) and the Fe-deficient group receiving low-Fe diet (5 mg kg(-1)). Then, the rats were fed with fermented goat or cow milk-based diets with a normal-Fe content or Fe-overload (450 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days. After 30 days of feeding the fermented milks, the total antioxidant status (TAS) was higher in both groups of animals fed fermented goat milk with the normal-Fe content. Plasma and urine 8-OHdG were lower in control and anemic rats fed fermented goat milk. Melatonin and corticosterone increased in the anemic groups during Fe replenishment with both fermented milks. Urine isoprostanes were lower in both groups fed fermented goat milk. Lipid and protein oxidative damage were higher in all tissues with fermented cow milk. During anemia instauration, an increase in melatonin was observed, a fact that would improve the energy metabolism and impaired inflammatory signaling, however, during anemia recovery, fermented goat milk had positive effects on melatonin and TAS, even in the case of Fe-overload, limiting the evoked oxidative damage. PMID:26662041

  2. Bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation in an infant with central hypoventilation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Villa, M P; Dotta, A; Castello, D; Piro, S; Pagani, J; Palamides, S; Ronchetti, R

    1997-07-01

    A 4-month-old baby girl, after a period of apparent good health, began to have aphonia, dyspnea, difficulties with swallowing, cyanosis, apnea, and hypopnea during sleep that resulted in admission to an intensive care unit for intubation and mechanical ventilation. At the age of 9 months she was admitted to our hospital with a possible diagnosis of central hypoventilation syndrome. A polysomnographic study showed apnea and hypopnea (apnea + hypopnea index = 47.1), hypercapnia (mean end-tidal PCO2 89 +/- 15.0 mmHg), and arterial desaturation (mean SaO2 91 +/- 1.7%; lowest SaO2 < 50%; 68% of total sleep time at SaO2 below 93%); the study also showed an absent ventilatory response to CO2, absent cardiac responses to apnea during sleep, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Nocturnal nasal bi-level positive airway pressure (BIPAP), applied initially at 6 cmH2O and gradually increased to 16 cmH2O, caused the sleep-related abnormal respiratory events to disappear. End-tidal PCO2 decreased to 39 mmHg, and SaO2 increased to 94%. After 6 months of nocturnal BiPAP ventricular right hypertrophy reversed and arrested growth and hypotonia normalized. The child has tolerated and has remained on BiPAP support up to her current age of 3 years and continues to use this form of ventilatory assistance without difficulties. PMID:9261857

  3. Species-level view of population structure and gene flow for a critically endangered primate (Varecia variegata)

    PubMed Central

    Baden, Andrea L; Holmes, Sheila M; Johnson, Steig E; Engberg, Shannon E; Louis, Edward E; Bradley, Brenda J

    2014-01-01

    Lemurs are among the world's most threatened mammals. The critically endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata), in particular, has recently experienced rapid population declines due to habitat loss, ecological sensitivities to habitat degradation, and extensive human hunting pressure. Despite this, a recent study indicates that ruffed lemurs retain among the highest levels of genetic diversity for primates. Identifying how this diversity is apportioned and whether gene flow is maintained among remnant populations will help to diagnose and target conservation priorities. We sampled 209 individuals from 19 sites throughout the remaining V. variegata range. We used 10 polymorphic microsatellite loci and ∼550 bp of mtDNA sequence data to evaluate genetic structure and population dynamics, including dispersal patterns and recent population declines. Bayesian cluster analyses identified two distinct genetic clusters, which optimally partitioned data into populations occurring on either side of the Mangoro River. Localities north of the Mangoro were characterized by greater genetic diversity, greater gene flow (lower genetic differentiation) and higher mtDNA haplotype and nucleotide diversity than those in the south. Despite this, genetic differentiation across all sites was high, as indicated by high average FST (0.247) and ΦST (0.544), and followed a pattern of isolation-by-distance. We use these results to suggest future conservation strategies that include an effort to maintain genetic diversity in the north and restore connectivity in the south. We also note the discordance between patterns of genetic differentiation and current subspecies taxonomy, and encourage a re-evaluation of conservation management units moving forward. PMID:25077019

  4. Electrochemiluminescence signal amplification combined with a conformation-switched hairpin DNA probe for determining the methylation level and position in the Hsp53 tumor suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Meixing; Fan, Mengxing; Gu, Jinxing; Wu, Ping; Cai, Chenxin

    2014-03-18

    We report a new strategy for detection of the methylation level and position in the Hsp53 tumor suppressor gene based on the electrochemiluminescence signal amplification combined with a conformation-switched hairpin DNA probe for improving selectivity. PMID:24501739

  5. Susceptibility of HPV16 and 18 to high level disinfectants indicated for semi-critical ultrasound probes.

    PubMed

    Ryndock, Eric; Robison, Richard; Meyers, Craig

    2016-06-01

    Ultrasound probes used in endocavitary procedures have been shown to be contaminated with high-risk HPV after routine use and HPV is also known to be resistant to some high level disinfectants (HLDs). This study compared efficacy of two leading ultrasound probe HLD methods; liquid ortho-phthalaldehyde (Cidex® OPA) and an automated device using sonicated hydrogen peroxide (trophon® EPR) against HPV16 and HPV18 in a hard-surface carrier test. Native HPV16 and HPV18 virions were generated in organotypic epithelial raft cultures. Viral lysates were dried onto carriers with a 5% (v/v) protein soil. Efficacy tests were performed against the automated device at 35% and 31.5% H2 O2 and 0.55% OPA in quadruplicate with matched input, neutralization, and cytotoxicity controls. Hypochlorite was included as a positive control. Infectivity was determined by the abundance (qRT-PCR) of the spliced E1^E4 transcript in infected recipient cells. The automated HLD device showed excellent efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 (>5 log10 reductions in infectivity) whereas OPA showed minimal efficacy (<0.6 log10 reductions). While HPV is highly resistant to OPA, sonicated hydrogen peroxide offers an effective disinfection solution for ultrasound probes. Disinfection methods that are effective against HPV should be adopted where possible. PMID:26519866

  6. License To Lead: A Middle Level Curriculum that Develops Awareness of Positive Leadership and Decision Making in the School and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankford, David; McKay, Linda

    This curriculum is designed to increase middle level students' understanding of positive leadership through ethical decision making, and to help them apply knowledge learned to realistic situations. The program objectives are to: (1) provide students with an understanding of the characteristics needed for positive leadership; (2) provide…

  7. Branch technical position on the use of expert elicitation in the high-level radioactive waste program

    SciTech Connect

    Kotra, J.P.; Lee, M.P.; Eisenberg, N.A.; DeWispelare, A.R.

    1996-11-01

    Should the site be found suitable, DOE will apply to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for permission to construct and then operate a proposed geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and other high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain. In deciding whether to grant or deny DOE`s license application for a geologic repository, NRC will closely examine the facts and expert judgment set forth in any potential DOE license application. NRC expects that subjective judgments of individual experts and, in some cases, groups of experts, will be used by DOE to interpret data obtained during site characterization and to address the many technical issues and inherent uncertainties associated with predicting the performance of a repository system for thousands of years. NRC has traditionally accepted, for review, expert judgment to evaluate and interpret the factual bases of license applications and is expected to give appropriate consideration to the judgments of DOE`s experts regarding the geologic repository. Such consideration, however, envisions DOE using expert judgments to complement and supplement other sources of scientific and technical information, such as data collection, analyses, and experimentation. In this document, the NRC staff has set forth technical positions that: (1) provide general guidelines on those circumstances that may warrant the use of a formal process for obtaining the judgments of more than one expert (i.e., expert elicitation); and (2) describe acceptable procedures for conducting expert elicitation when formally elicited judgments are used to support a demonstration of compliance with NRC`s geologic disposal regulation, currently set forth in 10 CFR Part 60. 76 refs.

  8. CMC as Written Conversation: A Critical Social-Constructivist View of Multiple Identities and Cultural Positioning in the L2/C2 Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildner-Bassett, Mary E.

    2005-01-01

    This article proposes a model for a critical social-constructivist (CS-C) approach to the use of computer-mediated communication (CMC) in language/culture education. CS-C theories emphasize a critical approach to social interactions, interpersonal relations, communication, and the influence that these activities have on learning. I will use the…

  9. Case report: false positive elevated serum-galactomannan levels after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation caused by oral nutritional supplements.

    PubMed

    Rachow, Tobias; Dornaus, Sebastian; Sayer, Herbert G; Hermann, Beate; Hochhaus, Andreas; von Lilienfeld-Toal, Marie

    2016-05-01

    Positive galactomannan tests in patients who underwent chemotherapy without any clinical signs of a fungal infection should lead the clinician to consideration of a false-positive test result. Oral nutritional supplements may be a cause, especially in the case of concomitant disturbance of the gastrointestinal mucosal barrier because of mucositis. PMID:27188260

  10. Second-Language Education Policy in Quebec: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of English as a Compulsory Subject at the Early Primary Level in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Gerald; Rublik, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical policy study of language planning and policy in Quebec regarding the new policy direction requiring the compulsory teaching of English at the early primary level (grades 1-2, Cycle 1) in francophone public schools. Based on the analysis of policy documents, archives, and narratives from interviews, the goal of this policy study…

  11. Association of high viral load and abnormal liver function with high aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct levels in HIV-positive Ghanaians: preliminary observations

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, P.E.; Shuaib, F.M.; Jiang, Y.; Preko, P.; Baidoo, J.; Stiles, J.K.; Wang, J.-S.; Phillips, T.D.; Williams, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association between certain clinical factors and aflatoxin B1–albumin adduct (AF-ALB) levels in HIV-positive people. Plasma samples collected from 314 (155 HIV-positive and 159 HIV-negative) people were tested for AF-ALB levels, viral load, CD4+ T-cell count, liver function profile, malaria parasitaemia, and hepatitis B and C virus infections. HIV-positive participants were divided into high and low groups based on their median AF-ALB of 0.93 pmol mg−1 albumin and multivariable logistic and linear regression methods used to assess relationships between clinical conditions and AF-ALB levels. Multivariable logistic regression showed statistically significant increased odds of having higher HIV viral loads (OR=2.84; 95% CI=1.17–7.78) and higher direct bilirubin levels (OR=5.47; 95% CI=1.03–22.85) among HIV-positive participants in the high AF-ALB group. There were also higher levels of total bilirubin and lower levels of albumin in association with high AF-ALB. Thus, aflatoxin exposure may contribute to high viral loads and abnormal liver function in HIV-positive people and so promote disease progression. PMID:21749228

  12. The effect of bi-level positive airway pressure on postoperative pulmonary function following gastric surgery for obesity.

    PubMed

    Ebeo, C T; Benotti, P N; Byrd, R P; Elmaghraby, Z; Lui, J

    2002-09-01

    The severely obese patient has varying degrees of intrinsic reduction of expiratory flow rates and lung volumes. Thus, the severely obese patient is predisposed to postoperative atelectasis, ineffective clearing of respiratory secretions, and other pulmonary complications. This study evaluated the effect of bi-level positive airway pressure (BiPAP) on pulmonary function in obese patients following open gastric bypass surgery Patients with a body mass index (BMI) of at least 40 kg/m2 who were undergoing elective gastric bypass were eligible to be randomized to receive either BiPAP during the first 24 h postoperatively or conventional postoperative care. Patients with significant cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases were excluded from the study. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and percent hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) were measured preoperatively, and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3. Twenty-seven patients were entered in the study 14 received BiPAP and 13 received conventional postoperative care. There was no significant difference preoperatively between the study and control groups in regards to age, BMI, FVC, FEV1.0, PEFR or SpO2. Postoperatively expiratory flow was decreased in both groups. However, the FVC and FEV1.0 were significantly higher on each of the three consecutive postoperative days in the patients who received BiPAP therapy. The SpO2 was significantly decreased in the control group over the same time period. Prophylactic BiPAP during the first 12-24 h postoperatively resulted in significantly higher measures of pulmonary function in severely obese patients who had undergone elective gastric bypass surgery. These improved measures of pulmonary function, however, did not translate into fewer hospital days or a lower complication rate in our study population of otherwise healthy obese patients. Further study is necessary to determine if BiPAP therapy in the first 24

  13. Critical Skill Sets of Entry-Level IT Professionals: An Empirical Examination of Perceptions from Field Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrey, Mark E.; Downey, James P.; Zeltmann, Steven M.; Friedman, William H.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the skill sets required of IT personnel is a critical endeavor for both business organizations and academic or training institutions. Companies spend crucial resources training personnel, particularly new IT employees, and educational institutions must know what skills are essential in order to plan an effective curriculum. Rapid…

  14. The Impact of Blended Learning Model on Student Attitudes towards Geography Course and Their Critical Thinking Dispositions and Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen; Karakus, Ufuk

    2009-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the impact of blended learning model on student attitudes towards Geography course and their critical thinking dispositions and skills. An experimental pattern with pretest-posttest control group was used in the study. The study group consists of a total of 57 students--28 in the experiment group and 29 in the…

  15. The presence of family members during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care and European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement.

    PubMed

    Fulbrook, Paul; Latour, Jos; Albarran, John; de Graaf, Wouter; Lynch, Fiona; Devictor, Denis; Norekvål, Tone

    2007-12-01

    This paper presents the European federation of Critical Care Nursing associations, the European Society of Paediatric and Neonatal Intensive Care, and the European Society of Cardiology Council on Cardiovascular Nursing and Allied Professions Joint Position Statement on The Presence of Family Members During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. PMID:17919981

  16. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part IV. Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for D216O, D217O, and D218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Császár, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Dénes, Nóra; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Hu, Shui-Ming; Szidarovszky, Tamás; Vasilenko, Irina A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the fourth of a series of papers reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependences, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This paper presents energy level and transition data for the following doubly and triply substituted isotopologues of water: D216O, D217O, and D218O. The MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) procedure is used to determine the levels, the lines, and their self-consistent uncertainties for the spectral regions 0-14 016, 0-7969, and 0-9108 cm-1 for D216O, D217O, and D218O, respectively. For D216O, D217O, and D218O, 53 534, 600, and 12 167 lines are considered, respectively, from spectra recorded in absorption at room temperature and in emission at elevated temperatures. The number of validated energy levels is 12 269, 338, and 3351 for D216O, D217O, and D218O, respectively. The energy levels have been checked against the ones determined, with an average accuracy of about 0.03 cm-1, from variational rovibrational computations employing exact kinetic energy operators and an accurate potential energy surface. Furthermore, the rovibrational labels of the energy levels have been validated by an analysis of the computed wavefunctions using the rigid-rotor decomposition (RRD) scheme. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained is deposited in the Supplementary Material of this paper, in a distributed information system applied to water, W@DIS, and on the official MARVEL website, where they can easily be retrieved.

  17. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  18. Acceptability of the Universal Level of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support among Elementary and High School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvall, Corrina C.

    2009-01-01

    Concern about school safety has increased in recent years (Sprague et al., 1999), leading to a greater interest in methods such as Positive Behavior Support (PBS), which has been found to be successful at creating safe environments through use of preventive methods and the development of proactive systems for at-risk student populations (Horner,…

  19. Background for Community-Level Work on Positive Citizenship in Adolescence: Reviewing the Literature on Contributing Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaff, Jonathan F.; Michelsen, Erik

    Although American youth seem to be knowledgeable about civic matters and say they wish to participate in civic activities, a relatively low percentage of youth are engaged in their communities. This review examines various antecedents of positive citizenship among 12- to 18-year-olds, focusing on proximal and distal influences on organized forms…

  20. Self-Monitoring across Age and Ability Levels: Teaching Students to Implement Their Own Positive Behavioral Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganz, Jennifer B.

    2008-01-01

    The author aims to provide practitioners (e.g., teachers, clinicians, parents) with a review of the research on the use of self-monitoring, a positive behavioral support, with children with disabilities. The author includes a description of the steps used to implement self-monitoring; examples of the implementation of self-monitoring with children…

  1. Angular Dependence of Transport AC Losses in Superconducting Wire with Position-Dependent Critical Current Density in a DC Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xing-liang; Xiong, Li-ting; Gao, Yuan-wen; Zhou, You-he

    2013-07-01

    Transport AC losses play a very important role in high temperature superconductors (HTSs), which usually carry AC transport current under applied magnetic field in typical application-like conditions. In this paper, we propose the analytical formula for transport AC losses in HTS wire by considering critical current density of both inhomogeneous and anisotropic field dependent. The angular dependence of critical current density is described by effective mass theory, and the HTS wire has inhomogeneous distribution cross-section of critical current density. We calculate the angular dependence of normalized AC losses under different DC applied magnetic fields. The numerical results of this formula agree well with the experiment data and are better than the results of Norris formula. This analytical formula can explain the deviation of experimental transport current losses from the Norris formula and apply to calculate transport AC losses in realistic practical condition.

  2. A Qualitative Descriptive Case Study of the Requirements of the IT Industry for Entry-Level IT Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuerherm, Todd Michael

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative descriptive case study explored the requirements of the IT industry for education, IT certification, and work experience for entry-level IT professionals. Research has shown a growing problem where IT graduates were not able to meet the requirements for entry-level IT jobs. IT enrollment has decreased considerably over the past…

  3. Effects of substitution and high-dose thyroid hormone therapy on deiodination, sulfoconjugation, and tissue thyroid hormone levels in prolonged critically ill rabbits.

    PubMed

    Debaveye, Yves; Ellger, Björn; Mebis, Liese; Visser, Theo J; Darras, Veerle M; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2008-08-01

    To delineate the metabolic fate of thyroid hormone in prolonged critically ill rabbits, we investigated the impact of two dose regimes of thyroid hormone on plasma 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T(2)) and T(4)S, deiodinase type 1 (D1) and D3 activity, and tissue iodothyronine levels in liver and kidney, as compared with saline and TRH. D2-expressing tissues were ignored. The regimens comprised either substitution dose or a 3- to 5- fold higher dose of T(4) and T(3), either alone or combined, targeted to achieve plasma thyroid hormone levels obtained by TRH. Compared with healthy animals, saline-treated ill rabbits revealed lower plasma T(3) (P=0.006), hepatic T(3) (P=0.02), and hepatic D1 activity (P=0.01). Substitution-dosed thyroid hormone therapy did not affect these changes except a further decline in plasma (P=0.0006) and tissue T(4) (P=0.04). High-dosed thyroid hormone therapy elevated plasma and tissue iodothyronine levels and hepatic D1 activity, as did TRH. Changes in iodothyronine tissue levels mimicked changes in plasma. Tissue T(3) and tissue T(3)/reverse T(3) ratio correlated with deiodinase activities. Neither substitution- nor high-dose treatment altered plasma T(2). Plasma T(4)S was increased only by T(4) in high dose. We conclude that in prolonged critically ill rabbits, low plasma T(3) levels were associated with low liver and kidney T(3) levels. Restoration of plasma and liver and kidney tissue iodothyronine levels was not achieved by thyroid hormone in substitution dose but instead required severalfold this dose. This indicates thyroid hormone hypermetabolism, which in this model of critical illness is not entirely explained by deiodination or by sulfoconjugation. PMID:18450965

  4. Positive Youth Development in Turkey: A Critical Review of Research on the Social and Emotional Learning Needs of Turkish Adolescents, 2000-2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Robin Ann; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a critical and systematic review of 52 articles published from 2000 to 2012 about research conducted in Turkey concerning adolescents' social and emotional learning needs. In correspondence with international research, articles were examined across three categories in which adolescent needs could be addressed by educational…

  5. Strong positive associations between seafood, vegetables, and alcohol with blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels in the Korean adult population.

    PubMed

    Park, Sunmin; Lee, Byung-Kook

    2013-01-01

    Blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels are more than fivefold greater in the Korean population compared with those of the United States. This may be related to the foods people consumed. Therefore, we examined the associations between food categories and mercury and arsenic exposure in the Korean adult population. Data regarding nutritional, biochemical, and health-related parameters were obtained from a cross-sectional study, the 2008-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (3,404 men and women age ≥ 20 years). The log-transformed blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels were regressed against the frequency tertiles of each food group after covariate adjustment for sex, age, residence area, education level, smoking status, and drinking status using food-frequency data. Blood mercury levels in the high consumption groups compared to the low consumption groups were elevated by about 20 percents with salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, bluefish, and alcohol, and by about 9-14 percents with seaweeds, green vegetables, fruits and tea, whereas rice did not affect blood mercury levels. Urinary arsenic levels were markedly increased with consumption of rice, bluefish, salted fish, shellfish, whitefish, and seaweed, whereas they were moderately increased with consumption of grains, green and white vegetables, fruits, coffee, and alcohol. The remaining food categories tended to lower these levels only minimally. In conclusion, the typical Asian diet, which is high in rice, salted fish, shellfish, vegetables, alcoholic beverages, and tea, may be associated with greater blood mercury and urinary arsenic levels. This study suggests that mercury and arsenic contents should be monitored and controlled in soil and water used for agriculture to decrease health risks from heavy-metal contamination. PMID:23011092

  6. Comparison of the head and neck position of elite dressage horses during top-level competitions in 1992 versus 2008.

    PubMed

    Lashley, Morgan J J O; Nauwelaerts, Sandra; Vernooij, J C M; Back, W; Clayton, Hilary M

    2014-12-01

    Among veterinary surgeons, interest has recently increased in the role of the horse's neck as a causative factor in complex locomotor disturbances. Specifically, controversy surrounds the trend for the head to be carried behind the vertical (BHV) in contravention of Fédération Equestre Internationale (FEI) rules. The aim of this study was to determine whether the head angulation of elite dressage horses has changed over the last 25 years, and whether head angulation correlates with the competition score awarded. Head angle was measured from videos recorded during the Grand Prix test at the 1992 Olympic Games and the 2008 World Cup Final, during collected canter (CC), collected trot (CT), passage (Pa), and piaffe (Pi). Head angulations were BHV in CC and CT in both 1992 and 2008. The likelihood of being BHV during Pa or Pi was significantly greater in 2008 than in 1992 (P <0.05). Higher scores correlated significantly with head positions that were further BHV during Pi in 2008 (P <0.05). Head angulations were orientated BHV in all paces in 2008, whereas in 1992 this was only the case for CT and CC. These findings support the hypothesis that, in recent years, FEI dressage judges have not penalised horses for a head position BHV. The findings also support the need for further studies of the effects of head and neck position on the health of horses. PMID:25296851

  7. Alternative diagnosis to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia in two critically ill patients despite a positive PF4/heparin-antibody test

    PubMed Central

    Hron, Gregor; Knutson, Folke; Thiele, Thomas; Althaus, Karina; Busemann, Christoph; Friesecke, Sigrun; Greinacher, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia can cause diagnostic challenges in patients who have received heparin. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is often considered in the differential diagnosis, and a positive screening can be mistaken as confirmation of the disorder. We present two patients who both received low-molecular-weight heparin for several days. In the first patient, clinical judgment rejected the suspicion of HIT despite a positive screening assay, and treatment for the alternative diagnosis of post-transfusion purpura was correctly initiated. In the second patient, the inaccurate diagnosis HIT was pursued due to a positive screening assay, while the alternative diagnosis of drug-dependent thrombocytopenia caused by piperacillin/tazobactam was rejected. This resulted in re-exposure to piperacillin/tazobactam which caused a second episode of severe thrombocytopenia. A positive screening assay for platelet factor 4/heparin-antibody should be verified by a functional assay, especially in patients with low pretest probability for HIT. PMID:24102149

  8. The Impact of Item Position in Multiple-Choice Test on Student Performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollennu, Sam Nii Nmai; Etsey, Y. K. A.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of item position in multiple-choice test on student performance at the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) level in Ghana. The sample consisted of 810 Junior Secondary School (JSS) Form 3 students selected from 12 different schools. A quasi-experimental design was used. The instrument for the project…

  9. Gender differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and the level of posttraumatic growth among a Polish sample of HIV-positive individuals.

    PubMed

    Rzeszutek, Marcin; Oniszczenko, Włodzimierz; Firląg-Burkacka, Ewa

    2016-11-01

    The main goal of the current study was to investigate gender differences in the relationship between the level of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSSs) and the intensity of posttraumatic growth (PTG), treated as the explained variable, among a Polish sample of HIV-positive individuals (n = 250) while controlling for participants' ages and time since HIV diagnosis. The level of PTG was measured using the Polish adaptation of the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. The level of PTSSs was assessed using the PTSD Factorial Version Inventory. HIV-positive women scored higher for some PTSSs (intrusion/arousal) and for a particular PTG dimension (spiritual change). In addition, the PTSSs that occurred were negatively related to the PTG level but only among HIV-positive women. Given the important health-related benefits associated with PTG among HIV-positive people, it is vital to shape competencies for effective growth promotion among these individuals, taking into account gender differences within this phenomenon. PMID:27611837

  10. Quantification of Maize Fine Streak Virus Genomic and Positive-sense RNAs in Infected Maize Reveals High Level Accumulation of ORF 3 and 4 MFSV Transcripts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of Maize fine streak virus genomic and positive-sense RNAs in infected maize reveals high level accumulation of ORF 3 and 4 MFSV transcripts. We improved methods to analyze RNA produced by Maize fine streak virus (MVSF) within infected maize tissue using real-time RT-qPCR. We designe...

  11. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  12. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  13. Research on critical groundwater level under the threshold value of land subsidence in the typical region of Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Liu, J.-R.; Luo, Y.; Yang, Y.; Tian, F.; Lei, K.-C.

    2015-11-01

    Groundwater in Beijing has been excessively exploited in a long time, causing the groundwater level continued to declining and land subsidence areas expanding, which restrained the economic and social sustainable development. Long years of study show good time-space corresponding relationship between groundwater level and land subsidence. To providing scientific basis for the following land subsidence prevention and treatment, quantitative research between groundwater level and settlement is necessary. Multi-linear regression models are set up by long series factual monitoring data about layered water table and settlement in the Tianzhu monitoring station. The results show that: layered settlement is closely related to water table, water level variation and amplitude, especially the water table. Finally, according to the threshold value in the land subsidence prevention and control plan of China (45, 30, 25 mm), the minimum allowable layered water level in this region while settlement achieving the threshold value is calculated between -18.448 and -10.082 m. The results provide a reasonable and operable control target of groundwater level for rational adjustment of groundwater exploited horizon in the future.

  14. Variation of band-edge position with errors in the monitoring of layer termination level for long- and short-wave pass filters.

    PubMed

    Willey, R R; Machado, D E

    1999-09-01

    Optical monitoring of periodic thin-film stacks by the termination of each layer at the same constant photometric level has certain advantages. One of these principal advantages is the error compensation effect in the vicinity of the monitoring wavelength. In this study, we examine, by simulation, the effect of an error in the knowledge of the absolute value of the photometric termination level on the probable stability in the manufacture of the edge position of a blocked band. The results include equations that allow the determination of the appropriate values of parameters associated with the optimum termination levels to minimize the effects of such errors. PMID:18324052

  15. Positive and negative symptoms of schizotypy and the Five-factor model: a domain and facet level analysis.

    PubMed

    Ross, Scott R; Lutz, Catherine J; Bailley, Steven E

    2002-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the Five-factor model in the concurrent prediction of positive symptom schizotypy as measured by the Magical Ideation (Eckblad & Chapman, 1983) and Perceptual Aberration (Chapman, Chapman, & Raulin, 1978) scales and negative symptom schizotypy as measured by the Physical Anhedonia (Chapman, Chapman, & Raulin, 1976) and Revised Social Anhedonia (Eckblad, Chapman, Chapman, & Mishlove, 1982; Mishlove & Chapman, 1985) scales. Previous studies suggest that these measures reflect the core symptoms found in schizotypal and schizoid personality disorder (Bailey, West, Widiger, & Freiman, 1993). Negative symptoms were significantly predicted by Neuroticism (+), Extraversion (-), Openness (-), and Agreeableness (-) domains of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Additionally, positive symptoms were significantly predicted by Neuroticism (+), Openness (+), and Agreeableness (-). In addition, we examined the validity of lower order traits in de- scribing these symptoms of character pathology. These findings lend further support for the use of domain and facet scales of the NEO-PI-R in the identification of personality pathology. PMID:12227668

  16. Increasing the Responsibility Levels of Fourth Grade Gifted Children by Promoting Positive Character Traits and Caring Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Marliese G.

    This paper describes a project to improve the responsibility levels of 16 gifted students in fourth grade attending a daily 2-hour language arts gifted education class. Students had become inconsistent about completing assignments, maintaining an orderly environment, and communicating necessary information to parents. A teacher-developed checklist…

  17. Overview of the 2006 NCHEC Advanced-Level Certification Feasibility Study Results: The Impetus of a Positive Legacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Dixie L.; Alley, Kelly Bishop; Aduroja, Amos

    2008-01-01

    Through the 6-year National Health Educator Competencies Update Project (CUP), in 2004, the National Commission for Health Education Credentialing, Inc. (NCHEC), American Association for Health Education (AAHE), and Society for Public Health Education (SOPHE) completed verification of advanced-level competencies and subcompetencies for health…

  18. The Preparation of Master's-Level Professional Counselors for Positions in College and University Counseling Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Brian M.; Remley, Theodore P., Jr.; Ward, Christine

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated college and university counseling center directors' perceptions of the adequacy of the preparation of master's-level counselors for work in college and university counseling centers. Results indicated that counselors were rated on average as prepared; however, many directors had concerns about counselors'…

  19. Position-dependent energy-level shifts of an accelerated atom in the presence of a boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Zhiying; Yu Hongwei

    2010-10-15

    We consider a uniformly accelerated atom interacting with a vacuum electromagnetic field in the presence of an infinite conducting plane boundary and calculate separately the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the atomic energy-level shift. We analyze in detail the behavior of the total energy shift in three different regimes of the distance in both the low-acceleration and high-acceleration limits. Our results show that, in general, an accelerated atom does not behave as if immersed in a thermal bath at the Unruh temperature in terms of the atomic energy-level shifts, and the effect of the acceleration on the atomic energy-level shifts may in principle become appreciable in certain circumstances, although it may not be realistic for actual experimental measurements. We also examine the effects of the acceleration on the level shifts when the acceleration is of the order of the transition frequency of the atom and we find some features which differ from what was obtained in the existing literature.

  20. Defining the Risk of Involvement for Each Neck Nodal Level in Patients With Early T-Stage Node-Positive Oropharyngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe Califano, Joseph; Stafford, Edward; Fox, Jana; Koch, Wayne; Tufano, Ralph; Sormani, Maria Pia; Forastiere, Arlene

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the risk of ipsilateral subclinical neck nodal involvement for early T-stage/node-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Patients undergoing multilevel upfront neck dissection (ND) at Johns Hopkins Hospital within the last 10 years for early clinical T-stage (cT1-2) node-positive (cN+) oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Pathologic involvement of Levels IB-V was determined. For each nodal level, the negative predictive value of imaging results was computed by using sensitivity/specificity data for computed tomography (CT). This was used to calculate 1 - negative predictive value, or the risk that a negative level on CT harbors subclinical disease. Results: One hundred three patients met the criteria. Radical ND was performed in 14.6%; modified radical ND, in 70.9%; and selective ND, in 14.6%. Pathologic positivity rates were 9.5%, 91.3%, 40.8%, 18.0%, and 3.3% for Levels IB-V, respectively. Risks of subclinical disease despite negative CT imaging results were calculated as 3.1%, 76.3%, 17.5%, 6.3%, and 1.0% for Levels IB-V, respectively. Conclusions: Levels IB and V are at very low (<5%) risk of involvement, even with ipsilateral to pathologically proven neck disease; this can guide radiation planning. Levels II and III should be included in high-risk volumes regardless of imaging results, and Level IV should be included within the lowest risk volume.

  1. Splitting of the Low Landau Levels into a Set of Positive Lebesgue Measure under Small Periodic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinaburg, E. I.; Sinai, Ya. G.; Soshnikov, A. B.

    We study the spectral properties of a two-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a uniform magnetic field and a small external periodic field: where and , are small parameters. Representing as the direct integral of one-dimensional quasi-periodic difference operators with long-range potential and employing recent results of E.I.Dinaburg about Anderson localization for such operators (we assume to be typical irrational) we construct the full set of generalised eigenfunctions for the low Landau bands. We also show that the Lebesgue measure of the low bands is positive and proportional in the main order to .

  2. A Conditional Zebrafish MITF Mutation Reveals MITF Levels Are Critical for Melanoma Promotion vs. Regression In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lister, James A; Capper, Amy; Zeng, Zhiqiang; Mathers, Marie E; Richardson, Jennifer; Paranthaman, Karthika; Jackson, Ian J; Patton, E Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is the “master melanocyte transcription factor” with a complex role in melanoma. MITF protein levels vary between and within clinical specimens, and amplifications and gain- and loss-of-function mutations have been identified in melanoma. How MITF functions in melanoma development and the effects of targeting MITF in vivo are unknown because MITF levels have not been directly tested in a genetic animal model. Here, we use a temperature-sensitive mitf zebrafish mutant to conditionally control endogenous MITF activity. We show that low levels of endogenous MITF activity are oncogenic with BRAFV600E to promote melanoma that reflects the pathology of the human disease. Remarkably, abrogating MITF activity in BRAFV600Emitf melanoma leads to dramatic tumor regression marked by melanophage infiltration and increased apoptosis. These studies are significant because they show that targeting MITF activity is a potent antitumor mechanism, but also show that caution is required because low levels of wild-type MITF activity are oncogenic. PMID:23831555

  3. The clarinet: how blowing pressure, lip force, lip position and reed "hardness" affect pitch, sound level, and spectrum.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Andre; George, David; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2013-09-01

    Using an automated clarinet playing system, the frequency f, sound level L, and spectral characteristics are measured as functions of blowing pressure P and the force F applied by the mechanical lip at different places on the reed. The playing regime on the (P,F) plane lies below an extinction line F(P) with a negative slope of a few square centimeters and above a pressure threshold with a more negative slope. Lower values of F and P can produce squeaks. Over much of the playing regime, lines of equal frequency have negative slope. This is qualitatively consistent with passive reed behavior: Increasing F or P gradually closes the reed, reducing its equivalent acoustic compliance, which increases the frequency of the peaks of the parallel impedance of bore and reed. High P and low F produce the highest sound levels and stronger higher harmonics. At low P, sound level can be increased at constant frequency by increasing P while simultaneously decreasing F. At high P, where lines of equal f and of equal L are nearly parallel, this compensation is less effective. Applying F further from the mouthpiece tip moves the playing regime to higher F and P, as does a stiffer reed. PMID:23967954

  4. College/University Physical Activity Instruction Programs: A Critical Piece in the Education of Young Adults. A Position Paper from the National Association for Sport and Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (NJ1), 2007

    2007-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) and the College and University Physical Education Council (CUPEC) that all colleges and universities uphold a physical activity instructional program for students as a strong and integral part of the academic curriculum. Bombarded by popular culture, newfound…

  5. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin; Cahoon, Edgar B

    2015-08-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. PMID:26048882

  6. Quantitative Hepatitis B Core Antibody Level Is a New Predictor for Treatment Response In HBeAg-positive Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Peginterferon

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Feng-Qin; Song, Liu-Wei; Yuan, Quan; Fang, Lin-Lin; Ge, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Jun; Sheng, Ji-Fang; Xie, Dong-Ying; Shang, Jia; Wu, Shu-Huan; Sun, Yong-Tao; Wei, Shao-Feng; Wang, Mao-Rong; Wan, Mo-Bin; Jia, Ji-Dong; Luo, Guang-Han; Tang, Hong; Li, Shu-Chen; Niu, Jun-Qi; Zhou, Wei-dong; Sun, Li; Xia, Ning-Shao; Wang, Gui-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    A recent study revealed that quantitative hepatitis B core antibody (qAnti-HBc) level could serve as a novel marker for predicting treatment response. In the present study, we further investigated the predictive value of qAnti-HBc level in HBeAg-positive patients undergoing PEG-IFN therapy. A total of 140 HBeAg-positive patients who underwent PEG-IFN therapy for 48 weeks and follow-up for 24 weeks were enrolled in this study. Serum samples were taken every 12 weeks post-treatment. The predictive value of the baseline qAnti-HBc level for treatment response was evaluated. Patients were further divided into 2 groups according to the baseline qAnti-HBc level, and the response rate was compared. Additionally, the kinetics of the virological and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Patients who achieved response had a significantly higher baseline qAnti-HBc level (serological response [SR], 4.52±0.36 vs. 4.19±0.58, p=0.001; virological response [VR], 4.53±0.35 vs. 4.22±0.57, p=0.005; combined response [CR], 4.50±0.36 vs. 4.22±0.58, p=0.009)). Baseline qAnti-HBc was the only parameter that was independently correlated with SR (p=0.008), VR (p=0.010) and CR(p=0.019). Patients with baseline qAnti-HBc levels ≥30,000 IU/mL had significantly higher response rates, more HBV DNA suppression, and better hepatitis control in PEG-IFN treatment. In conclusion, qAnti-HBc level may be a novel biomarker for predicting treatment response in HBeAg-positive patients receiving PEG-IFN therapy. PMID:25553110

  7. Using Daily Plasma-Free Hemoglobin Levels for Diagnosis of Critical Pump Thrombus in Patients Undergoing ECMO or VAD Support.

    PubMed

    Neal, James R; Quintana, Eduard; Pike, Roxann B; Hoyer, James D; Joyce, Lyle D; Schears, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    Patients supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) or short-term centrifugal ventricular assist devices (VADs) are at risk for potential elevation of plasma-free hemoglobin (pfHb) during treatment. The use of pfHb testing allows detection of subclinical events with avoidance of propagating injury. Among 146 patients undergoing ECMO and VAD from 2009 to 2014, five patients experienced rapid increases in pfHb levels over 100 mg/dL. These patients were supported with CardioHelp, Centrimag, or Pedimag centrifugal pumps. Revolutions per minute of the pump head and flow in the circuit in three of the patients did not change, to maintain patient flow during the period that pfHb level spiked. Two patients had unusual vibrations originating from the pump head during the pfHb spike. Four patients had pump head replacement. Following intervention, trending pfHb levels demonstrated a rapid decline over the next 12 hours, returning to baseline within 48 hours. Two of the three patients who survived to discharge also experienced acute kidney injury, which was attributed to pfHb elevations. The kidney injury resolved over time. The architecture of centrifugal pumps may have indirectly contributed to red blood cell damage due to thrombus, originally from the venous line or venous cannula, being snared in the pump fins or pump head. PMID:26405358

  8. Experimental Study of the Ion Critical-Gradient Length and Stiffness Level and the Impact of Rotation in the JET Tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Mantica, P.; Strintzi, D.; Tala, T.; Giroud, C.; Leggate, H.; Sharapov, S.; Vries, P. C. de; Zabeo, L.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Peeters, A. G.; Salmi, A.

    2009-05-01

    Experiments were carried out in the JET tokamak to determine the critical ion temperature inverse gradient length (R/L{sub Ti}=R|{nabla}T{sub i}|/T{sub i}) for the onset of ion temperature gradient modes and the stiffness of T{sub i} profiles with respect to deviations from the critical value. Threshold and stiffness have been compared with linear and nonlinear predictions of the gyrokinetic code GS2. Plasmas with higher values of toroidal rotation show a significant increase in R/L{sub Ti}, which is found to be mainly due to a decrease of the stiffness level. This finding has implications on the extrapolation to future machines of present day results on the role of rotation on confinement.

  9. The Effects of High Level Magnesium Dialysis/Substitution Fluid on Magnesium Homeostasis under Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill

    PubMed Central

    Los, Ferdinand; Brodska, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Background The requirements for magnesium (Mg) supplementation increase under regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA) because citrate acts by chelation of bivalent cations within the blood circuit. The level of magnesium in commercially available fluids for continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) may not be sufficient to prevent hypomagnesemia. Methods Patients (n = 45) on CRRT (2,000 ml/h, blood flow (Qb) 100 ml/min) with RCA modality (4% trisodium citrate) using calcium free fluid with 0.75 mmol/l of Mg with additional magnesium substitution were observed after switch to the calcium-free fluid with magnesium concentration of 1.50 mmol/l (n = 42) and no extra magnesium replenishment. All patients had renal indications for CRRT, were treated with the same devices, filters and the same postfilter ionized calcium endpoint (<0.4 mmol/l) of prefilter citrate dosage. Under the high level Mg fluid the Qb, dosages of citrate and CRRT were consequently escalated in 9h steps to test various settings. Results Median balance of Mg was -0.91 (-1.18 to -0.53) mmol/h with Mg 0.75 mmol/l and 0.2 (0.06–0.35) mmol/h when fluid with Mg 1.50 mmol/l was used. It was close to zero (0.02 (-0.12–0.18) mmol/h) with higher blood flow and dosage of citrate, increased again to 0.15 (-0.11–0.25) mmol/h with 3,000 ml/h of high magnesium containing fluid (p<0.001). The arterial levels of Mg were mildly increased after the change for high level magnesium containing fluid (p<0.01). Conclusions Compared to ordinary dialysis fluid the mildly hypermagnesemic fluid provided even balances and adequate levels within ordinary configurations of CRRT with RCA and without a need for extra magnesium replenishment. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01361581 PMID:27391902

  10. Successes and challenges of measuring and modeling atmospheric mercury at the part per quadrillion level: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sexauer Gustin, M.; Amos, H. M.; Huang, J.; Miller, M. B.; Heidecorn, K.

    2015-02-01

    Measurements of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are being increasingly incorporated into monitoring networks worldwide. These data are expected to support and inform regulatory decision making aimed at protecting human and wildlife health. Here we critically review current efforts to measure Hg concentrations in the atmosphere and interpret these data with Hg models. There are three operationally defined forms of atmospheric Hg: Gaseous Elemental (GEM), Gaseous Oxidized (GOM), and Particulate Bound (PBM). While there is relative confidence in GEM measurements, GOM and PBM are less well understood. Field and laboratory investigations suggest the methods to measure GOM and PBM are impacted by analytical interferences that vary with environmental setting (e.g., ozone, relative humidity) and GOM concentrations can be biased low by a factor of 1.6-12 times depending on the chemical compound. Importantly, efforts to understand the fundamental limitations of atmospheric Hg measurement methods have provided clear evidence that the composition of GOM (e.g., HgBr2, HgCl2, HgBrOH) varies across space and time. This has significant implications for refining existing measurement methods and developing new ones, model/measurement comparisons, model development, and assessing trends. In addition, unclear features of previously published data may now be re-examined and possibly explained, which we present as a case study. Lastly, we outline recommendations for needed research directions as the Hg field moves forward. Priorities include GOM and PBM calibration systems, identification of GOM compounds in ambient air, and identification of redox mechanisms and associated rate coefficients. Determination of a quantitative correction factor for biased GOM and PBM data is also needed to facilitate model-measurement comparisons.

  11. Serum lipocalin-2 levels are positively associated with not only total body fat but also visceral fat area in Chinese men.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqi; Ma, Xiaojing; Pan, Xiaoping; Xu, Yiting; Xiong, Qin; Xiao, Yunfeng; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

    2016-07-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 (LCN2) plays an important role in the regulation of the obesity-associated dysmetabolic state and cardiovascular disease. However, relatively little is known about the relationship between serum LCN2 levels and body fat content and distribution. We examined the associations of total body fat content and abdominal fat distribution with serum LCN2 levels in Chinese men.The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of data for 1203 Chinese men aged 22 to 78 years from the Shanghai Obesity Study. Body fat percentage (fat%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging was adopted to quantify the visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA). Serum levels of LCN2 were measured with a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method.Subjects with a high fat% had higher serum LCN2 levels than those with a normal fat% regardless of their body mass index category (<25 and ≥25 kg/m). The frequency of isolated high VFA was increased with increasing quintiles of serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001), but the frequency of isolated high SFA did not differ between quintiles of serum LCN2 levels. A trend of increasing VFA was observed with increasing serum LCN2 levels (P < 0.001). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that VFA was positively associated with serum LCN2 levels, independent of overall obesity and other confounding factors (standardized β = 0.082, P = 0.008).Serum LCN2 levels are positively correlated with body fat content and independently associated with VFA in Chinese men. PMID:27472678

  12. Temporal Variation and Association of Aflatoxin B1 Albumin-Adduct Levels with Socio-Economic and Food Consumption Factors in HIV Positive Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jolly, Pauline E.; Akinyemiju, Tomi F.; Jha, Megha; Aban, Inmaculada; Gonzalez-Falero, Andrea; Joseph, Dnika

    2015-01-01

    The association between aflatoxin exposure and alteration in immune responses observed in humans suggest that aflatoxin could suppress the immune system and work synergistically with HIV to increase disease severity and progression to AIDS. No longitudinal study has been conducted to assess exposure to aflatoxin (AF) among HIV positive individuals. We examined temporal variation in AFB1 albumin adducts (AF-ALB) in HIV positive Ghanaians, and assessed the association with socioeconomic and food consumption factors. We collected socioeconomic and food consumption data for 307 HIV positive antiretroviral naive adults and examined AF-ALB levels at recruitment (baseline) and at six (follow-up 1) and 12 (follow-up 2) months post-recruitment, by age, gender, socioeconomic status (SES) and food consumption patterns. Generalized linear models were used to examine the influence of socioeconomic and food consumption factors on changes in AF-ALB levels over the study period, adjusting for other covariates. AF-ALB levels (pg/mg albumin) were lower at baseline (mean AF-ALB: 14.9, SD: 15.9), higher at six months (mean AF-ALB: 23.3, SD: 26.6), and lower at 12 months (mean AF-ALB: 15.3, SD: 15.4). Participants with the lowest SES had the highest AF-ALB levels at baseline and follow up-2 compared with those with higher SES. Participants who bought less than 20% of their food and who stored maize for less than two months had lower AF-ALB levels. In the adjusted models, there was a statistically significant association between follow up time and season (dry or rainy season) on AF-ALB levels over time (p = 0.04). Asymptomatic HIV-positive Ghanaians had high plasma AF-ALB levels that varied according to season, socioeconomic status, and food consumption patterns. Steps need to be taken to ensure the safety and security of the food supply for the population, but in particular for the most vulnerable groups such as HIV positive people. PMID:26633502

  13. Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: critical need for revision upwards.

    PubMed

    Vieth, Reinhold

    2006-04-01

    The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D is 50 mcg/d (2000 iu/d) in North America and in Europe. In the United Kingdom a guidance level exists for vitamin D, 25 mcg/d (1000 iu/d), defined as the dose "of vitamins and minerals that potentially susceptible individuals could take daily on a life-long basis, without medical supervision in reasonable safety." Exposure of skin to sunshine can safely provide an adult with vitamin D in an amount equivalent to an oral dose of 250 mcg/d. The incremental consumption of 1 mcg/d of vitamin D3 raises serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D ] by approximately 1 nmol/L (0.4 microg/L). Published reports suggest toxicity may occur with 25(OH)D concentrations beyond 500 nmol/L (200 microg/L). Older adults are advised to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nmol/L. The preceding numbers indicate that vitamin D3 intake at the UL raises 25(OH)D by approximately 50 nmol/L and that this may be more desirable than harmful. The past decade has produced separate North American, European, and U.K. reports that address UL or guidance-level values for vitamin D. Despite similar well-defined models for risk assessment, each report has failed to adapt its message to new evidence of no adverse effects at higher doses. Inappropriately low UL values, or guidance values, for vitamin D have hindered objective clinical research on vitamin D nutrition, they have hindered our understanding of its role in disease prevention, and restricted the amount of vitamin D in multivitamins and foods to doses too low to benefit public health. PMID:16549491

  14. Role of Quantum and Surface-State Effects in the Bulk Fermi-Level Position of Ultrathin Bi Films.

    PubMed

    Hirahara, T; Shirai, T; Hajiri, T; Matsunami, M; Tanaka, K; Kimura, S; Hasegawa, S; Kobayashi, K

    2015-09-01

    We performed high-resolution photon-energy and polarization-dependent ARPES measurements on ultrathin Bi(111) films [6-180 bilayers (BL), 2.5-70 nm thick] formed on Si(111). In addition to the extensively studied surface states (SSs), the edge of the bulk valence band was clearly measured by using S-polarized light. We found direct evidence that this valence band edge, which forms a hole pocket in the bulk Bi crystal, does not cross the Fermi level for the 180 BL thick film. This is consistent with the predicted semimetal-to-semiconductor transition due to the quantum-size effect [V.B. Sandomirskii, Sov. Phys. JETP 25, 101 (1967)]. However, it became metallic again when the film thickness was decreased (below 30 BL). A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is the modification of the charge neutrality condition due to the size effect of the SSs. PMID:26382694

  15. Variability in decision-making and critical cue use by different road users at rail level crossings.

    PubMed

    Beanland, Vanessa; Lenné, Michael G; Salmon, Paul M; Stanton, Neville A

    2016-06-01

    Collisions at rail level crossings (RLXs) are typically high-severity and high-cost, often involving serious injuries, fatalities and major disruptions to the transport network. Most research examining behaviour at RLXs has focused exclusively on drivers and consequently there is little knowledge on how other road users make decisions at RLXs. We collected drivers', motorcyclists', bicyclists' and pedestrians' self-reported daily experiences at RLXs for two weeks, focusing on behaviour, decision-making and information use in the presence of a train and/or activated RLX signals. Both information use and behaviour differed between road users. Visual information (e.g. flashing lights) was more influential for motorists, whereas pedestrians and cyclists relied more on auditory information (e.g. bells). Pedestrians were also more likely to violate active RLX warnings and/or cross before an approaching train. These results emphasise the importance of adopting holistic RLX design approaches that support cognition and behaviour across for all road users. Practitioner Summary: This study explores how information use and decision-making at rail level crossings (RLXs) differ between road user groups, using a two-week self-report study. Most users make safe decisions, but pedestrians are most likely to violate RLX warnings. Information use (visual vs. auditory) also differs substantially between road user groups. PMID:26394762

  16. Serum Levels of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients: Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Nena, Evangelia; Papanas, Nikolaos; Xanthoudaki, Maria; Hatzizisi, Olga; Kyriazis, Georgios; Tsara, Venetia; Maltezos, Efstratios; Froudarakis, Marios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Hypoxia, a major feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), modifies Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3) levels, which contribute to atherogenesis and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events. We assessed and compared serum levels of VEGF and IGFBP-3 in newly diagnosed OSA patients and controls, to explore associations with anthropometric and sleep parameters and to study the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on these levels. Materials and Methods: Serum levels of VEGF and IGFBP-3 were measured in 65 OSA patients and 31 age- and body mass index- matched controls. In OSA patients, measurements were repeated after 6 months of CPAP therapy. All participants were non-smokers, without any comorbidities or systemic medication use. Results: At baseline, serum VEGF levels in OSA patients were higher compared with controls (p<0.001), while IGFBP-3 levels were lower (1.41±0.56 vs. 1.61±0.38 μg/ml, p=0.039). VEGF levels correlated with apnea-hypopnea index (r=0.336, p=0.001) and oxygen desaturation index (r=0.282, p=0.007). After 6 months on CPAP treatment, VEGF levels decreased in OSA patients (p<0.001), while IGFBP-3 levels increased (p<0.001). Conclusion: In newly diagnosed OSA patients, serum levels of VEGF are elevated, while IGFBP-3 levels are low. After 6 months of CPAP treatment these levels change. These results may reflect an increased CV risk in untreated OSA patients, which is ameliorated after CPAP therapy. PMID:27006717

  17. A kinematic study of critical and non-critical articulators in emotional speech production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jangwon; Toutios, Asterios; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2015-03-01

    This study explores one aspect of the articulatory mechanism that underlies emotional speech production, namely, the behavior of linguistically critical and non-critical articulators in the encoding of emotional information. The hypothesis is that the possible larger kinematic variability in the behavior of non-critical articulators enables revealing underlying emotional expression goal more explicitly than that of the critical articulators; the critical articulators are strictly controlled in service of achieving linguistic goals and exhibit smaller kinematic variability. This hypothesis is examined by kinematic analysis of the movements of critical and non-critical speech articulators gathered using eletromagnetic articulography during spoken expressions of five categorical emotions. Analysis results at the level of consonant-vowel-consonant segments reveal that critical articulators for the consonants show more (less) peripheral articulations during production of the consonant-vowel-consonant syllables for high (low) arousal emotions, while non-critical articulators show less sensitive emotional variation of articulatory position to the linguistic gestures. Analysis results at the individual phonetic targets show that overall, between- and within-emotion variability in articulatory positions is larger for non-critical cases than for critical cases. Finally, the results of simulation experiments suggest that the postural variation of non-critical articulators depending on emotion is significantly associated with the controls of critical articulators. PMID:25786953

  18. Sodium levels of human pancreatic donors are a critical factor for determination of islet efficacy and survival.

    PubMed

    Qi, Meirigeng; Luis, Valiente; Bilbao, Shiela; Omori, Keiko; Rawson, Jeffrey; McFadden, Brian; Juan, Jemily; Nair, Indu; Mullen, Yoko; El-Shahawy, Mohamed; Dafoe, Donald; Kandeel, Fouad; Al-Abdullah, Ismail H

    2015-03-01

    Organs from hypernatremia (elevated Na+) donors when used for transplantation have had dismal outcomes. However, islet isolation from hypernatremic donors for both transplantation and research applications has not yet been investigated. A retrospective analysis of in vivo and in vitro islet function studies was performed on islets isolated from hypernatremic (serum sodium levels≥160 meq/l) and normal control (serum sodium levels≤155 meq/l) donors. Twelve isolations from 32 hypernatremic and 53 isolations from 222 normal donors were randomly transplanted into diabetic NOD Scid mice. Sodium levels upon pancreas procurement were significantly elevated in the hypernatremia group (163.5±0.6 meq/l) compared with the normal control group (145.9±0.4 meq/l) (P<0.001). The postculture islet recovery rate was significantly lower in the hypernatremia (59.1±3.8%) group compared with the normal (73.6±1.8%) group (P=0.005). The duration of hypernatremia was inversely correlated with the recovery rate (r2=0.370, P<0.001). Furthermore, the percentage of successful graft function when transplanted into diabetic NOD Scid mice was significantly lower in the hypernatremia (42%) group compared with the normal control (85%) group (P<0.001). The ability to predict islet graft function posttransplantation using donor sodium levels and duration of hypernatremia was significant (ROC analysis, P=0.022 and 0.042, respectively). In conclusion, duration of donor hypernatremia is associated with reduced islet recovery postculture. The efficacy of islets from hypernatremia donors diminished when transplanted into diabetic recipients. PMID:25537495

  19. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain.

    PubMed

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. PMID:26609811

  20. Optimal level activity of matrix metalloproteinases is critical for adult visual plasticity in the healthy and stroke-affected brain

    PubMed Central

    Pielecka-Fortuna, Justyna; Kalogeraki, Evgenia; Fortuna, Michal G; Löwel, Siegrid

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the adult brain to undergo plastic changes is of particular interest in medicine, especially regarding recovery from injuries or improving learning and cognition. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been associated with juvenile experience-dependent primary visual cortex (V1) plasticity, yet little is known about their role in this process in the adult V1. Activation of MMPs is a crucial step facilitating structural changes in a healthy brain; however, upon brain injury, upregulated MMPs promote the spread of a lesion and impair recovery. To clarify these seemingly opposing outcomes of MMP-activation, we examined the effects of MMP-inhibition on experience-induced plasticity in healthy and stoke-affected adult mice. In healthy animals, 7-day application of MMP-inhibitor prevented visual plasticity. Additionally, treatment with MMP-inhibitor once but not twice following stroke rescued plasticity, normally lost under these conditions. Our data imply that an optimal level of MMP-activity is crucial for adult visual plasticity to occur. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11290.001 PMID:26609811

  1. A critical review of NanoSIMS in analysis of microbial metabolic activities at single-cell level.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dawen; Huang, Xiaoli; Tao, Yu

    2016-10-01

    Over 3.8 billion years of evolution has enabled many microbial species a versatile metabolism. However, limited by experimental methods, some unique metabolism remains unknown or unclear. A major obstacle is to attribute the incorporation of certain nutrients into a noncultivable species out of a complex microbial community. Such difficulty could be solved if we are able to directly observe substrate uptake at the single-cell level. Nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) is a powerful tool for revealing element distribution in nanometer-scale resolution in the fields such as material sciences, geosciences and astronomy. In this review, we focus on another applicability of NanoSIMS in microbiology. In such fields, physiological properties and metabolic activities of microorganisms can be revealed with a single-cell scale resolution by NanoSIMS solely or in combination with other techniques. This review will highlight the features of NanoSIMS in analyzing the metabolic activities of carbon, nitrogen, metal irons by mixed-culture assemblies. Some values of NanoSIMS in environmental microbiology are expected to be discussed via this review. PMID:26177334

  2. Respiratory controversies in the critical care setting. Should noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation be used in all forms of acute respiratory failure?

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R; Fessler, Henry E

    2007-05-01

    Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) has been a major advance in the management of acute respiratory failure. Over the past decade alone, NPPV has been the subject of over 1,500 scientific papers, including 14 meta-analyses. NPPV's utility in many clinical settings has been well established, with demonstration in randomized trials of lower intubation rate, mortality, hospital stay, and advantages in other important clinical outcomes. However, it is still used in a minority of patients with acute respiratory failure. While there probably are situations in which NPPV is commonly under-utilized, there are other situations in which it is unlikely to be of benefit or likely to inflict harm. This paper debates the data for and against the more widespread application of NPPV. It will assist the clinician to identify both good and poor candidates for NPPV and thereby devote respiratory care resources where they will be most effective, and optimize patient outcomes. PMID:17484789

  3. Positive correlation between patency and mRNA levels for cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra.

    PubMed

    Tamada, Hiromichi; Adachi, Nahoko; Kawate, Noritoshi; Inaba, Toshio; Hatoya, Shingo; Sawada, Tsutomu

    2016-03-01

    Factors involved in patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra remain to be clarified. This study examined relationship between patency and mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Levels of mRNA expression were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cervical patency was positively correlated with mRNA levels for COX-2 and PGES, but not those for iNOS and COX-1. The results suggest that gene expression of COX-2 and PGES may be involved in the regulation of patency in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. PMID:26596635

  4. Positive correlation between patency and mRNA levels for cyclooxygenase-2 and prostaglandin E synthase in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra

    PubMed Central

    TAMADA, Hiromichi; ADACHI, Nahoko; KAWATE, Noritoshi; INABA, Toshio; HATOYA, Shingo; SAWADA, Tsutomu

    2015-01-01

    Factors involved in patency of uterine cervices in the bitch with pyometra remain to be clarified. This study examined relationship between patency and mRNA levels for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, COX-2 and prostaglandin E synthase (PGES) in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. Cervical patency was measured by inserting the stainless steel rods with different diameter into cervical canals. Levels of mRNA expression were determined by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The cervical patency was positively correlated with mRNA levels for COX-2 and PGES, but not those for iNOS and COX-1. The results suggest that gene expression of COX-2 and PGES may be involved in the regulation of patency in the uterine cervix of bitches with pyometra. PMID:26596635

  5. Shoulder Surgery in the Beach Chair Position is Associated with Diminished Cerebral Autoregulation but no Differences in Postoperative Cognition or Brain Injury Biomarker Levels Compared with Supine Positioning: The Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation Beach Chair Study

    PubMed Central

    Laflam, Andrew; Joshi, Brijen; Brady, Kenneth; Yenokyan, Gayane; Brown, Charles; Everett, Allen; Selnes, Ola; McFarland, Edward; Hogue, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although controversial, failing to consider the gravitational effects of head elevation on cerebral perfusion is speculated to increase susceptibility to rare, but devastating, neurologic complications after shoulder surgery in the beach chair position (BCP). We hypothesized that patients in the BCP have diminished cerebral blood flow autoregulation than those who undergo surgery in the lateral decubitus position (LDP). A secondary aim was to examine whether there is a relationship between patient positioning during surgery and postoperative cognition or serum brain injury biomarker levels. Methods Patients undergoing shoulder surgery in the BCP (n=109) or LDP (n=109) had mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. A continuous, moving Pearson’s correlation coefficient was calculated between MAP and rScO2, generating the variable cerebral oximetry index (COx). When MAP is in the autoregulated range, COx approaches zero because there is no correlation between cerebral blood flow and arterial blood pressure. In contrast, when MAP is below the limit of autoregulation, COx is higher because there is a direct relationship between lower arterial blood pressure and lower cerebral blood flow. Thus, diminished autoregulation would be manifest as higher COx. Psychometric testing was performed before surgery and then 7–10 days and 4–6 weeks after surgery. A composite cognitive outcome was determined as the Z-score. Serum S100β, neuron-specific enolase, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were measured at baseline, after surgery, and on postoperative day 1. Results After adjusting for age and history of hypertension, COx (p=0.035) was higher and rScO2 lower (p<0.0001) in the BCP group than in the LDP group. After adjusting for baseline composite cognitive outcome, there was no difference in Z-score 7 to 10 day (p=0.530) or 4 to 6 weeks (p=0.202) after surgery between the BCP and

  6. Plasma Periostin Levels Are Increased in Chinese Subjects with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes and Are Positively Correlated with Glucose and Lipid Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yuanyuan; Qu, Hua; Wang, Hang; Wei, Huili; Wu, Jing; Duan, Yang; Liu, Dan; Deng, Huacong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relations among plasma periostin, glucose and lipid metabolism, insulin resistance and inflammation in Chinese patients with obesity (OB), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Plasma periostin levels in the T2DM group were significantly higher than the NGT group (P < 0.01). Patients with both OB and T2DM had the highest periostin levels. Correlation analysis showed that plasma periostin levels were positively correlated with weight, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2 h postchallenge plasma glucose (2 h PG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), fasting insulin (FINS), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TNF-α, and IL-6 (P < 0.05 or 0.001) and negatively correlated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that TG, TNF-α, and HOMA-IR were independent related factors in influencing the levels of plasma periostin (P < 0.001). These results suggested that Chinese patients with obesity and T2DM had significantly higher plasma periostin levels. Plasma periostin levels were strongly associated with plasma TG, chronic inflammation, and insulin resistance. PMID:27313402

  7. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels from 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Effects of 2003 and Full-Allocation Withdrawals in Critical Area 2, Southern New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system within Water Supply Critical Area 2 in the southern New Jersey Coastal Plain have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated in the early 1990s. The Critical Area consists of the depleted zone and the threatened margin. The Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system consists of the Upper, Middle, and Lower aquifers. Generally, ground-water withdrawals from these aquifers declined 5 to 10 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) and water levels recovered 0 to 40 ft (foot) from 1988 to 2003. In order to reevaluate water-allocation restrictions in Critical Area 2 in response to changes in the ground-water-flow system and demands for additional water supply due to increased development, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) needs information about the effects of changes in those allocations. Therefore, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the NJDEP, used an existing ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain to evaluate the effects of withdrawal alternatives on hydraulic heads in the Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system in Critical Area 2. The U.S. Geological Survey Regional Aquifer System Analysis model was used to simulate steady-state ground-water flow. Two withdrawal conditions were tested by using the model to evaluate hydraulic heads and differences in heads in these aquifers: 2003 withdrawals and full-allocation withdrawals (17.4 Mgal/d greater than 2003 withdrawals). Model results are presented using head maps and head-difference maps that compare 2003 to full-allocation withdrawals. Mandated hydrologic conditions for Critical Area protection are that the simulated -30-ft head contour not extend beyond the boundary of the depleted zone and (or) be at least 5 mi (miles) updip from the 250-mg/L (milligram per liter) isochlor in all three aquifers. Simulation results indicate that, for 2003 withdrawals, the simulated -30-ft head

  8. Critical re-examination of the specificity of auto-anti-Rh antibodies in patients with a positive direct antiglobulin test.

    PubMed

    Issitt, P D; Pavone, B G

    1978-01-01

    Forty-eight autoantibodies with apparent 'simple' anti-Rh specificity (anti-e, -E, -c, -D, -C, -Ce, -G), have been studied by means of multiple absorption tests. The finding that 34 (70.8%) of these antibodies could bind to red blood cells lacking the antigens that the antibodies appeared to define, indicated that the antibodies had different specificities than seemed to be the case in initial antibody identification tests. Those autoantibodies that at first appeared to be directed against the Rh antigens e, E or c, most often had anti-Hr or anti-Hro specificity. These data explain why some apparent anti-Rh autoantibodies can be eluted from the red blood cells of patients negative for the antigens that the antibodi:s appear to define. However, they also illustrate that the phenomenon of autoantibodies mimicking specificities that they do not possess is common in patients positive for the antigens against which their autoantibodies appear to be directed. An explanation for the mode of action of these autoantibodies in complexing with the Rh agglutinogen is proposed, and the significance of the antibodies in transfusion therapy is considered. PMID:416845

  9. Positive Effect of Large Birth Intervals on Early Childhood Hemoglobin Levels in Africa Is Limited to Girls: Cross-Sectional DHS Study

    PubMed Central

    Afeworki, Robel; Smits, Jeroen; Tolboom, Jules; van der Ven, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Short birth intervals are independently associated with increased risk of adverse maternal, perinatal, infant and child outcomes. Anemia in children, which is highly prevalent in Africa, is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Birth spacing is advocated as a tool to reduce anemia in preschool African children, but the role of gender differences and contextual factors has been neglected. The present study aims to determine to what extent the length of preceding birth interval influences the hemoglobin levels of African preschool children in general, as well as for boys and girls separately, and which contextual factors thereby play a crucial role. Methods and Findings This cross-sectional study uses data from Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted between 2003 and 2011 in 20 African countries. All preschool children aged 6–59 months with a valid hemoglobin measurement and a preceding birth interval of 7–72 months as well as their corresponding multigravida mothers aged 21–49 years were included in the study. Hemoglobin levels of children and mothers were measured in g/l, while birth intervals were calculated as months difference between consecutive births. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the relationship between length of preceding birth interval and child hemoglobin levels, adjusted for factors at the individual, household, community, district, and country level. A positive linear relationship was observed between birth interval and the 49,260 included children’s hemoglobin level, whereby age and sex of the child, hemoglobin level of the mother, household wealth, mother’s education and urbanization of place of residence also showed positive associations. In the interaction models, the effect of a month increase in birth interval is associated with an average increase of 0.025 g/l in hemoglobin level (P = 0.001) in girls, while for boys the effect was not significant. In addition, for girls, the effect

  10. Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosome positioning is not only related to genomic DNA compaction but also to other biological functions. After the chromatin is digested by micrococcal nuclease, nucleosomal (nucleosome-bound) DNA fragments can be sequenced and mapped on the genomic DNA sequence. Due to the development of modern DNA sequencing technology, genome-wide nucleosome mapping has been performed in a wide range of eukaryotic species. Comparative analyses of the nucleosome positions have revealed that the nucleosome is more frequently formed in exonic than intronic regions, and that most of transcription start and translation (or transcription) end sites are located in nucleosome linker DNA regions, indicating that nucleosome positioning influences transcription initiation, transcription termination, and gene splicing. In addition, nucleosomal DNA contains guanine and cytosine (G + C)-rich sequences and a high level of cytosine methylation. Thus, the nucleosome positioning system has been conserved during eukaryotic evolution.

  11. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  12. [TLR9 expression is positively correlated with the levels of CD38, HLA-DR and CD95 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells in chronic HBV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xuefeng; Peng, Lishan; Liu, Xian; Yang, Yang; Wang, Qihui; Wang, Dengrong; Xiao, Jian; Leng, Jing

    2016-05-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between the expression of TLR9 and the levels of CD38, HLA-DR and CD95 on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected patients. Methods70 chronic HBV infected patients and 12 healthy donors were enrolled in this study, and density gradient centrifugation was used to isolate PBMCs from peripheral blood with EDTA for anticoagulation. Flow cytometry was used to detect the levels of TLR9, CD38, HLA-DR and CD95 on PBMCs. Results Compared to the healthy donors, chronic HBV infected patients with low viral load or high viral load had significantly higher levels of TLR9, HLA-DR and CD95 on PMBCs. Furthermore, the co-expression rates of TLR9 and CD38, HLA-DR, CD95 on PBMCs were obviously higher than those of the healthy donors. Correlation analysis showed that the expression of TLR9 was positively correlated with CD38 (r=0.345), HLA-DR (r=0.334), CD95 (r=0.227) on PBMCs in the patients with chronic HBV infection. Conclusion The expression of TLR9 increased and was positively associated with CD38, HLA-DR and CD95 on PBMCs during chronic HBV infection. PMID:27126946

  13. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  14. Serum ferritin levels are positively associated with bone mineral density in elderly Korean men: the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung Shik; Jang, Ji Su; Lee, Dong Ryul; Kim, Yang Hyun; Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Byoung-Duck; Do Han, Kyung; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Seon Mee; Choi, Youn Seon; Kim, Do Hoon

    2014-11-01

    A possible negative effect of iron overload on bone metabolism has been suggested by the fact that patients with hemochromatosis, thalassemia, and sickle cell anemia have lower bone mineral density than the general population. However, the influence of iron overload on bone health in the general population is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum ferritin levels and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly Koreans. A total of 2,943 subjects aged 65 years and over who participated in the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were included in this study. Age, physical activity, current smoking status, alcohol consumption, education level, household income, and dietary assessment were surveyed by a face-to-face interview. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine and femur by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and other biochemical markers, including serum ferritin, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, serum alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone, were assayed. After adjusting for age and body mass index, we found an association between BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck and levels of alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, vitamin D3, and daily intake of calcium and protein. Serum ferritin levels were positively associated with BMD of the total lumbar spine, total femur, and femur neck after adjusting for all covariates in men, but not in women. This study suggests a positive association between serum ferritin levels and BMD in elderly South Korean men without hematologic disorders. Further study is warranted to verify the effects of iron on bone metabolism. PMID:24337956

  15. The positive response of Ty1 retrotransposition test to carcinogens is due to increased levels of reactive oxygen species generated by the genotoxins.

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, Martin; Venkov, Pencho; Pesheva, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    In previous laboratory and environmental studies, the Ty1 short-term test showed positive responses (i.e. induced mobility of the Ty1 retrotransposon) to carcinogenic genotoxins. Here, we provide evidence for a causal relationship between increased level of reactive oxygen species and induction the mobility of the Ty1 retrotransposon. Results obtained in concentration and time-dependent experiments after treatment, the tester cells with carcinogenic genotoxins [benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, ethylmethanesulfonate, formamide], free bile acids (chenodeoxycholic, lithocholic acids) and metals (arsenic, hexavelant chromium, lead) showed a simultaneous increase in both cellular level of the superoxide anions and Ty1 retrotransposition rates. Treatment with the noncarcinogenic genotoxins [benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)anthracen, anthracene], conjugated bile acids (taurodeoxycholic, glycodeoxycholic acids) and metals (zinc, trivalent chromium) did not change significantly superoxide anions level and Ty1 retrotransposition rate. The induction by carcinogens of the Ty1 mobility seems to depend on the accumulation of superoxide anions, since the addition of the scavenger N-acetylcysteine resulted in loss of both increased amount of superoxide anions and induced Ty1 retrotransposition. Increased hydrogen peroxide levels are also involved in the induction of Ty1 retrotransposition rates in response to treatment with carcinogenic genotoxins, as evidenced by disruption of YAP1 gene in the tester cells. It is concluded that the carcinogen-induced high level of reactive oxygen species play a primary and key role in determination the selective response of Ty1 test to carcinogenic genotoxins. PMID:20401468

  16. LSm14A Plays a Critical Role in Antiviral Immune Responses by Regulating MITA Level in a Cell-Specific Manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tian-Tian; Yang, Qing; Li, Mi; Zhong, Bo; Ran, Yong; Liu, Li-Li; Yang, Yan; Wang, Yan-Yi; Shu, Hong-Bing

    2016-06-15

    Viral infection triggers induction of antiviral cytokines and effectors, which are critical mediators of innate antiviral immune response. It has been shown that the processing body-associated protein LSm14A is involved in the induction of antiviral cytokines in cell lines but in vivo evidence is lacking. By generating LSm14A-deficient mice, in this study, we show that LSm14A plays a critical and specific role in the induction of antiviral cytokines in dendritic cells (DCs) but not in macrophages and fibroblasts. Induction of antiviral cytokines triggered by the DNA viruses HSV-1 and murid herpesvirus 68 and the RNA virus vesicular stomatitis virus but not Sendai virus was impaired in Lsm14a(-/-) DCs, which is correlated to the functions of the adaptor protein MITA/STING in the antiviral signaling pathways. LSm14A deficiency specifically downregulated MITA/STING level in DCs by impairing its nuclear mRNA precursor processing and subsequently impaired antiviral innate and adaptive immune responses. Our findings reveal a nuclear mRNA precursor processing and cell-specific regulatory mechanism of antiviral immune responses. PMID:27183626

  17. Positive correlation between plasma PCSK9 and tissue factors levels in patients with angiographically diagnosed coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mei; Li, Yan-Fang; Guo, Yan-Ging; Chen, Meng-Meng; Jiang, Zhi-Li; Song, Jun-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background Pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a secreted protein that influences plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Both oxidized LDL and tissue factor (TF) contributed to the development of prothrombotic state. The present study aims to explore the relationship between plasma level of PCSK9 and that of TF in patient with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods From July 2013 to March 2014, we enrolled 197 consecutive patients who underwent coronary angiography because of suspected CAD at Beijing Anzhen Hospital in this study. All patients had no history of using lipid-lowering medication. Of these 197 patients (131 male and 66 female, mean age 56.9 ± 11.8 years), 81 had angiographically diagnosed CAD. Clinical data were collected. Plasma PCSK9 and TF were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Levels of plasma PCSK9 and TF were compared and their correlation analyzed among different patient groups. Results Both plasma levels of PCSK9 (279.8 ± 60.4 µg/L vs. 216.5 ± 45.3 µg/L, P < 0.01) and TF (156.4 ± 26.6 µg/mL vs. 112.1 ± 38.3 µg/L, P < 0.01) were significantly higher in patients with CAD, as compared with those without CAD. Correlation analysis showed plasma level of PCSK9 was significantly correlated with that of TF in both patients with and without CAD. However, multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for age, gender, smoking, alcohol, hypertension and hyperlipidemia showed that only in CAD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, there was significant positive correlation between plasma levels of PCSK9 and TF (β = 0.353, P < 0.01). Conclusions The plasma level of PCSK9 is independently and positively associated with that of TF in CAD patients with diabetes mellitus, but not in those without diabetes mellitus. Further study is needed to investigate the underlying mechanism.

  18. Nearest Neighbor Averaging and its Effect on the Critical Level and Minimum Detectable Concentration for Scanning Radiological Survey Instruments that Perform Facility Release Surveys.

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, Sean Donovan; Beall, Patrick S; Miller, Mark L.

    2014-08-01

    Through the SNL New Mexico Small Business Assistance (NMSBA) program, several Sandia engineers worked with the Environmental Restoration Group (ERG) Inc. to verify and validate a novel algorithm used to determine the scanning Critical Level (L c ) and Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) (or Minimum Detectable Areal Activity) for the 102F scanning system. Through the use of Monte Carlo statistical simulations the algorithm mathematically demonstrates accuracy in determining the L c and MDC when a nearest-neighbor averaging (NNA) technique was used. To empirically validate this approach, SNL prepared several spiked sources and ran a test with the ERG 102F instrument on a bare concrete floor known to have no radiological contamination other than background naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). The tests conclude that the NNA technique increases the sensitivity (decreases the L c and MDC) for high-density data maps that are obtained by scanning radiological survey instruments.

  19. Critical Thinking, Parenting, and the Dance of Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargant, Hope

    2002-01-01

    A parent of a gifted preteen discusses how parents can promote critical thinking in their gifted adolescents. Parents are urged to focus three levels of cognition where critical thinking is believed to take place: analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Examples of positive interactions and questioning techniques are provided. (Contains 1 reference.)…

  20. Sensitivity of Fermi level position at Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN surfaces to vacuum and air ambient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Łukasz; Ramírez-López, Manolo; Misiewicz, Jan; Cywiński, Grzegorz; Boćkowski, Michał; Muzioł, Grzegorz; Chèze, Caroline; Sawicka, Marta; Skierbiszewski, Czesław; Kudrawiec, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Ga-polar, N-polar, and nonpolar m-plane GaN UN+ structures have been examined in air and vacuum ambient by contactless electroreflectance (CER). This technique is very sensitive to the surface electric field that varies with the Fermi level position at the surface. For UN+ GaN structures [i.e., GaN (undoped)/GaN (n-type)/substrate], a homogeneous built-in electric field is expected in the undoped GaN layer that is manifested by Franz–Keldysh oscillation (FKO) in CER spectra. A clear change in FKO has been observed in CER spectra for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane structures when changing from air to vacuum ambient. This means that those surfaces are very sensitive to ambient atmosphere. In contrast to that, only a small change in FKO can be seen in the Ga-polar structure. This clearly shows that the ambient sensitivity of the Fermi level position at the GaN surface varies with the crystallographic orientation and is very high for N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces. This feature of the N-polar and nonpolar m-plane surfaces can be very important for GaN-based devices grown on these crystallographic orientations and can be utilized in some of the devices, e.g., sensors.

  1. Plasma Levels of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in HIV-Positive Patients With Oral Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi Mousavi, Seyyed Amin; Asadikaram, Gholamreza; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Izadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cell-mediated immunity (CMI) by CD4 + Th (T helper)-type cells is the predominant host defense mechanism against Oral Candidiasis (OC) in HIV-infected individuals. Weakened CMI and depletion of CD4 + T cells are the main factor contributing to the output of OC in HIV-positive individuals. The cytokines produced by Th1, Th2 and Th17 cells play a role in mediating an increased susceptibility to OC during HIV infection. Objectives: The present study investigated plasma concentration of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 in HIV-1 patients suffering from OC. Patients and Methods: In total, 98 samples in four groups (HIV-positive and HIV-negative persons with and without OC) were obtained from the oral cavities and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and CHROMagar. Also blood samples were obtained to assess plasma level of IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-17 using ELISA technique. Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the plasma concentration of IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-17 but not about IL-4. Our findings suggest a significant interaction between fungal infection and HIV on expression of assessed cytokines. Conclusions: Fungal infection and HIV alone and together could seriously alter immune system function as assessed by measuring the levels of the plasma cytokines. Therefore, these results provide important new information relative to the putative immune-based factors associated with resistance and/or susceptibility to OC in HIV-positive persons. PMID:27127595

  2. Recovery of Ground-Water Levels From 1988 to 2003 and Analysis of Potential Water-Supply Management Options in Critical Area 1, East-Central New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spitz, Frederick J.; Watt, Martha K.; dePaul, Vincent T.

    2008-01-01

    Water levels in four confined aquifers in the New Jersey Coastal Plain within Water Supply Critical Area 1 have recovered as a result of reductions in ground-water withdrawals initiated by the State in the late 1980s. The aquifers are the Wenonah-Mount Laurel, the Upper and Middle Potomac-Raritan-Magothy, and Englishtown aquifer system. Because of increased water demand due to increased development in Monmouth, Ocean, and Middlesex Counties, five base and nine alternate management models were designed for the four aquifers to evaluate the effects resulting from potential reallocation of part of the Critical Area 1 reductions in withdrawals. The change in withdrawals and associated water-level changes in the aquifers for 1988-2003 are discussed. Generally, withdrawals decreased 25 to 30 Mgal/d (million gallons per day), and water levels increased 0 to 80 ft (feet). The Regional Aquifer-System Analysis (RASA) ground-water-flow model of the New Jersey Coastal Plain developed by the U.S. Geological Survey was used to simulate ground-water flow and optimize withdrawals using the Ground-Water Management Process (GWM) for MODFLOW. Results of the model were used to evaluate the effects of several possible water-supply management options in order to provide the information to water managers. The optimization method, which provides a means to set constraints that support mandated hydrologic conditions, then determine the maximum withdrawals that meet the constraints, is a more cost-effective approach than simulating a range of withdrawals to determine the effects on the aquifer system. The optimization method is particularly beneficial for a regional-scale study of this kind because of the large number of wells to be evaluated. Before the model was run, a buffer analysis was done to define an area with no additional withdrawals that minimizes changes in simulated streamflow in aquifer outcrop areas and simulated movement of ground water toward the wells from areas of

  3. Prospective Evaluation of Weight-Based Prophylactic Enoxaparin Dosing in Critically Ill Trauma Patients: Adequacy of AntiXa Levels Is Improved.

    PubMed

    Nunez, Jade M; Becher, Robert D; Rebo, Gerald J; Farrah, Jason P; Borgerding, Erika M; Stirparo, Joseph J; Lauer, Cynthia; Kilgo, Patrick; Miller, Preston R

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of death in multisystem trauma patients; the importance of VTE prevention is well recognized. Presently, standard dose enoxaparin (30 mg BID) is used as chemical prophylaxis, regardless of weight or physiologic status. However, evidence suggests decreased bioavailability of enoxaparin in critically ill patients. Therefore, we hypothesized that a weight-based enoxaparin dosing regimen would provide more adequate prophylaxis (as indicated by antifactor Xa levels) for patients in our trauma intensive care unit (TICU).These data were prospectively collected in TICU patients admitted over a 5-month period given twice daily 0.6 mg/kg enoxaparin (actual body weight). Patients were compared with a historical cohort receiving standard dosing. Anti-Xa levels were collected at 11.5 hours (trough, goal ≥ 0.1 IU/mL) after each evening administration. Patient demographics, admission weight, dose, and daily anti-Xa levels were recorded. Patients with renal insufficiency or brain, spine, or spinal cord injury were excluded. Data were collected from 26 patients in the standard-dose group and 37 in the weight-based group. Sixty-four trough anti-Xa measurements were taken in the standard dose group and 74 collected in the weight-based group. Evaluating only levels measured after the third dose, the change in dosing of enoxaparin from 30 to 0.6 mg/kg resulted in an increased percentage of patients with goal antifactor Xa levels from 8 per cent to 61 per cent (P < 0.0001). Examining all troughs, the change in dose resulted in an increase in patients with a goal anti-Xa level from 19 to 59 per cent (P < 0.0001). Weight-based dosing of enoxaparin in trauma ICU patients yields superior results with respect to adequate anti-Xa levels when compared with standard dosing. These findings suggest that weight-based dosing may provide superior VTE prophylaxis in TICU patients. Evaluation of the effects of this dosing paradigm on actual VTE rate is

  4. A new positive relationship between pCO2 and stomatal frequency in Quercus guyavifolia (Fagaceae): a potential proxy for palaeo-CO2 levels

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jin-Jin; Xing, Yao-Wu; Turkington, Roy; Jacques, Frédéric M. B.; Su, Tao; Huang, Yong-Jiang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The inverse relationship between atmospheric CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) and stomatal frequency in many species of plants has been widely used to estimate palaeoatmospheric CO2 (palaeo-CO2) levels; however, the results obtained have been quite variable. This study attempts to find a potential new proxy for palaeo-CO2 levels by analysing stomatal frequency in Quercus guyavifolia (Q. guajavifolia, Fagaceae), an extant dominant species of sclerophyllous forests in the Himalayas with abundant fossil relatives. Methods Stomatal frequency was analysed for extant samples of Q. guyavifolia collected from17 field sites at altitudes ranging between 2493 and 4497 m. Herbarium specimens collected between 1926 and 2011 were also examined. Correlations of pCO2–stomatal frequency were determined using samples from both sources, and these were then applied to Q. preguyavaefolia fossils in order to estimate palaeo-CO2 concentrations for two late-Pliocene floras in south-western China. Key Results In contrast to the negative correlations detected for most other species that have been studied, a positive correlation between pCO2 and stomatal frequency was determined in Q. guyavifolia sampled from both extant field collections and historical herbarium specimens. Palaeo-CO2 concentrations were estimated to be approx. 180–240 ppm in the late Pliocene, which is consistent with most other previous estimates. Conclusions A new positive relationship between pCO2 and stomatal frequency in Q. guyavifolia is presented, which can be applied to the fossils closely related to this species that are widely distributed in the late-Cenozoic strata in order to estimate palaeo-CO2 concentrations. The results show that it is valid to use a positive relationship to estimate palaeo-CO2 concentrations, and the study adds to the variety of stomatal density/index relationships that available for estimating pCO2. The physiological mechanisms underlying this positive response are

  5. Neopterin and Soluble CD14 Levels as Indicators of Immune Activation in Cases with Indeterminate Pattern and True Positive HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Uysal, Hayriye Kırkoyun; Sohrabi, Pari; Habip, Zafer; Saribas, Suat; Kocazeybek, Emre; Seyhan, Fatih; Calışkan, Reyhan; Bonabi, Esad; Yuksel, Pelin; Birinci, Ilhan; Uysal, Omer; Kocazeybek, Bekir

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the roles of the plasma immune activation biomarkers neopterin and soluble CD14 (sCD14) in the indirect assessment of the immune activation status of patients with the indeterminate HIV-1 (IHIV-1) pattern and a true HIV-1-positive infection (PCG). Methods This cross-sectional and descriptive study included eighty-eight patients with the IHIV-1 pattern, 100 patients in the PCG, and 100 people in a healthy control group (HCG). Neopterin and sCD14 levels were determined by competitive and sandwich ELISA methods, respectively. Results Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among those with the IHIV-1 pattern were significantly lower than among the PCG (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively), but they were similiar to those in the HCG (p = 0.57 and p = 0.66, respectively. Mean neopterin and sCD14 levels among the PCG were found to be significantly higher than among those with the IHIV-1 pattern (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively) and among those in the HCG (p = 0.001, p < 0.001, respectively). Neopterin did not have adequate predictive value for identifying those in the PCG (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.534; 95% CI, 0.463–0.605; p = 0.4256); sCD14 also had poor predictive value but high specificity (100%) for identifying those in the PCG (AUC = 0.627; 95% CI, 0.556–0.694; p = 0.0036). Conclusions While low levels of these two biomarkers were detected among those with the IHIV-1 pattern, they were found in high levels among those in the PCG. These two markers obviously cannot be used as a sceening test because they have low sensitivies. Taken together, we suggest that neopterin and sCD14 may be helpful because they both have high specificity (92%-100%) as indirect non-specific markers for predicting the immune activation status of individuals, whether or not they have true positive HIV-1. PMID:27031691

  6. Achievement of practical level critical current densities in Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes by conventional cold mechanical deformation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhaoshun; Togano, Kazumasa; Matsumoto, Akiyoshi; Kumakura, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    The recently discovered iron-based superconductors are potential candidates for high-field magnet applications. However, the critical current densities (Jc) of iron-based superconducting wires remain far below the level needed for practical applications. Here, we show that the transport Jc of Ba1−xKxFe2As2/Ag tapes is significantly enhanced by the combination process of cold flat rolling and uniaxial pressing. At 4.2 K, Jc exceeds the practical level of 105 A/cm2 in magnetic fields up to 6 T. The Jc-H curve shows extremely small magnetic field dependence and maintains a high value of 8.6 × 104 A/cm2 in 10 T. These are the highest values reported so far for iron-based superconducting wires. Hardness measurements and microstructure investigations reveal that the superior Jc in our samples is due to the high core density, more textured grains, and a change in the microcrack structure. These results indicate that iron-based superconductors are very promising for high magnetic field applications. PMID:24513646

  7. A Positive Reply to Constructive Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpinen, Erkki

    2005-01-01

    In this essay, Kilpinen responds to Terry Gates, Scott Goble, and Pentti Maattanen, who have provided reviews of his dissertation book "The Enormous Fly-Wheel of Society." As the reviewers noted, the book attempts to make two points simultaneously, and it may be that this made its argument hard to follow. The first point, that thorough knowledge…

  8. Hydrogen Sulfide Levels and Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (NRF2) Activity Are Attenuated in the Setting of Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI)

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Kazi N; Polhemus, David J; Donnarumma, Erminia; Brewster, Luke P; Lefer, David J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase are endogenous enzymatic sources of hydrogen sulfide (H2S). Functions of H2S are mediated by several targets including ion channels and signaling proteins. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 is responsible for the expression of antioxidant response element–regulated genes and is known to be upregulated by H2S. We examined the levels of H2S, H2S-producing enzymes, and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation status in skeletal muscle obtained from critical limb ischemia (CLI) patients. Methods and Results Gastrocnemius tissues were attained postamputation from human CLI and healthy control patients. We found mRNA and protein levels of cystathionine γ-lyase, cystathionine β-synthase, and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to control. H2S and sulfane sulfur levels were significantly decreased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. We also observed significant reductions in nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation as well as antioxidant proteins, such as Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in skeletal muscle of CLI patients. Biomarkers of oxidative stress, such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly increased in skeletal muscle of CLI patients as compared to healthy controls. Conclusions The data demonstrate that H2S bioavailability and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 activation are both attenuated in CLI tissues concomitant with significantly increased oxidative stress. Reductions in the activity of H2S-producing enzymes may contribute to the pathogenesis of CLI. PMID:25977470

  9. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Harris, G.

    1994-09-01

    This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases.

  10. Lysophosphatidic Acid Acyltransferase from Coconut Endosperm Mediates the Insertion of Laurate at the sn-2 Position of Triacylglycerols in Lauric Rapeseed Oil and Can Increase Total Laurate Levels

    PubMed Central

    Knutzon, Deborah S.; Hayes, Thomas R.; Wyrick, Annette; Xiong, Hui; Maelor Davies, H.; Voelker, Toni A.

    1999-01-01

    Expression of a California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) 12:0-acyl-carrier protein thioesterase, bay thioesterase (BTE), in developing seeds of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) led to the production of oils containing up to 50% laurate. In these BTE oils, laurate is found almost exclusively at the sn-1 and sn-3 positions of the triacylglycerols (T.A. Voelker, T.R. Hayes, A.C. Cranmer, H.M. Davies [1996] Plant J 9: 229–241). Coexpression of a coconut (Cocos nucifera) 12:0-coenzyme A-preferring lysophosphatitic acid acyltransferase (D.S. Knutzon, K.D. Lardizabal, J.S. Nelsen, J.L. Bleibaum, H.M. Davies, J.G. Metz [1995] Plant Physiol 109: 999–1006) in BTE oilseed rape seeds facilitates efficient laurate deposition at the sn-2 position, resulting in the acccumulation of trilaurin. The introduction of the coconut protein into BTE oilseed rape lines with laurate above 50 mol % further increases total laurate levels. PMID:10398708

  11. Impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Results Placing the smooth part of the implant below the alveolar crest may lead to bone loss. Despite a more pronounced bone remodeling, the subcrestal positioning of the microgap may help to retain the bony coverage of the rough surface. Crestal bone remodeling has been observed for either internal and external, or conical and butt–joint connections. There was a trend favoring the platform switching concept to prevent or minimize peri-implant marginal bone loss. Conclusions Future research should consider an uniform and comparable study design, either excluding or exactly documenting possible confounding factors. PMID:24147913

  12. Pollution of mycological surfaces in hospital emergency departments correlates positively with blood NKT CD3(+) 16(+) 56(+) and negatively with CD4(+) cell levels of their staff.

    PubMed

    Suska, Milena; Lewicki, Sławomir; Kiepura, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Leszczyński, Paweł; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Kubiak, Leszek; Depczyńska, Daria; Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the putative influence of yeast and filamentous fungi in healthcare and control (office) workplaces (10 of each kind) on immune system competence measured by NK (natural killer), CD4(+), and NKT (natural killer T lymphocyte) cell levels in the blood of the personnel employed at these workplaces. Imprints from floors and walls were collected in winter. The blood was taken in spring the following year, from 40 men, 26 to 53 years old, healthcare workers of hospital emergency departments (HED), who had been working for at least five years in their current positions, and from 36 corresponding controls, working in control offices. Evaluation of blood leukocyte subpopulations was done by flow cytometry. The qualitative analysis of the surface samples revealed a prevalence of strains belonging to Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. genus. There was no statistically significant difference between the level of NKT; however, the percentage of NK cells was lower in the blood of HED workers than in the blood of offices personnel. Spearman analysis revealed the existence of positive correlation (r = 0.4677, p = 0.002) between the total CFU/25 cm(2) obtained by imprinting method from walls and floors of HED and the percentage of NKT (CD3(+)16(+)56(+)) lymphocytes collected from the blood of their personnel, and negative correlation (r = -0. 3688, p = 0.019) between this parameter of fungal pollution and the percentage of CD4(+) lymphocytes in the blood of HED staff. No other correlations were found. PMID:27095925

  13. Pollution of mycological surfaces in hospital emergency departments correlates positively with blood NKT CD3+ 16+ 56+ and negatively with CD4+ cell levels of their staff

    PubMed Central

    Suska, Milena; Kiepura, Anna; Winnicka, Izabela; Leszczyński, Paweł; Bielawska-Drózd, Agata; Cieślik, Piotr; Kubiak, Leszek; Depczyńska, Daria; Brewczyńska, Aleksandra; Skopińska-Różewska, Ewa; Kocik, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was the assessment of the putative influence of yeast and filamentous fungi in healthcare and control (office) workplaces (10 of each kind) on immune system competence measured by NK (natural killer), CD4+, and NKT (natural killer T lymphocyte) cell levels in the blood of the personnel employed at these workplaces. Imprints from floors and walls were collected in winter. The blood was taken in spring the following year, from 40 men, 26 to 53 years old, healthcare workers of hospital emergency departments (HED), who had been working for at least five years in their current positions, and from 36 corresponding controls, working in control offices. Evaluation of blood leukocyte subpopulations was done by flow cytometry. The qualitative analysis of the surface samples revealed a prevalence of strains belonging to Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. genus. There was no statistically significant difference between the level of NKT; however, the percentage of NK cells was lower in the blood of HED workers than in the blood of offices personnel. Spearman analysis revealed the existence of positive correlation (r = 0.4677, p = 0.002) between the total CFU/25 cm2 obtained by imprinting method from walls and floors of HED and the percentage of NKT (CD3+16+56+) lymphocytes collected from the blood of their personnel, and negative correlation (r = –0. 3688, p = 0.019) between this parameter of fungal pollution and the percentage of CD4+ lymphocytes in the blood of HED staff. No other correlations were found. PMID:27095925

  14. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D; Granados-Silvestre, Ma de Angeles; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M; Knowler, William C; Bortolini, M Cátira; Hayden, Michael R; Baier, Leslie J; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-07-15

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 x 10(-11)) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  15. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  16. A critical role of two positively charged amino acids in the Jas motif of Arabidopsis JAZ proteins in mediating coronatine- and jasmonoyl isoleucine-dependent interaction with the COI1 F-box protein

    PubMed Central

    Melotto, Maeli; Mecey, Christy; Niu, Yajie; Chung, Hoo Sun; Katsir, Leron; Yao, Jian; Zeng, Weiqing; Thines, Bryan; Staswick, Paul; Browse, John; Howe, Gregg; He, Sheng Yang

    2009-01-01

    Summary Coronatine is an important virulence factor produced by several pathovars of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The structure of coronatine is similar to a class of plant hormones called jasmonates (JAs). An important step in JA signaling is the SCFCOI1 E3 ubiquitin ligase-dependent degradation of JAZ repressor proteins. We recently showed that jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) could promote physical interaction between Arabidopsis JAZ1 and COI1 (the F-box component of SCFCOI1) proteins, and that the JA-Ile-dependent COI1-JAZ1 interaction could be reconstituted in yeast cells (i.e., in the absence of other plant proteins). Here, we show that coronatine, but not its two biosynthetic precursors, could also promote interaction between Arabidopsis COI1 and multiple JAZ proteins. The carboxyl terminal Jas motif, but not the N-terminal (NT) domain or central ZIM domain of JAZ proteins, is critical for JA-Ile/coronatine-dependent interaction with COI1. Two positively charged amino acid residues in the Jas domain were identified as being essential for coronatine-dependent COI1-JAZ interactions. These two mutations did not affect the ability of JAZ1 and JAZ9 to interact with the transcription factor AtMYC2. Importantly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing JAZ1 carrying these two mutations exhibited JA-insensitive phenotypes, including male sterility and enhanced resistance to P. syringae infection. These results not only suggest that coronatine and JA-Ile target the physical interaction between COI1 and the Jas domain of JAZ repressors, but also illustrate a critical role of positively charged amino acids in the Jas domain in mediating JA-Ile/coronatine-dependent JAZ interaction with COI1. PMID:18547396

  17. Hepatitis B Surface Antigen Quantity Positively Correlates with Plasma Levels of microRNAs Differentially Expressed in Immunological Phases of Chronic Hepatitis B in Children

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Heiberg, Ida Louise; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner; Pociot, Flemming; Hogh, Birthe

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aim Children with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) are at high risk of progressive liver disease. It is suggested that a newly-identified panel of 16 microRNAs is important in the pathogenesis of CHB in children. Subviral hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) particles are produced in large excess over infectious virions. Interestingly, circulating HBsAg particles have been shown to carry microRNAs. A thorough characterisation of the identified microRNAs and HBsAg over time in plasma from children with CHB may provide useful information about the natural course of childhood CHB. Patients and Methods A cohort of 42 children with CHB was followed over time. Three to five blood samples were obtained from each child at minimum intervals of half a year; in total 180 blood samples. Plasma levels of the 16 microRNAs previously identified were analysed by quantitative real-time polymerase-chain-reaction. Plasma HBsAg was quantified using ARCHITECT® HBsAg assay. Results The presence of 14/16 plasma microRNAs in children with CHB was confirmed. All 14 microRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in different immunological phases of the disease. MicroRNA plasma levels were highest in immune-tolerant children, lower in immune-active children, and reached the lowest values in immune-inactive children, p<0.001. Plasma levels of four microRNAs decreased significantly over time in immune-tolerant and immune-active children whereas the microRNA plasma levels were stable in immune-inactive children, p<0.004. HBsAg quantity was positively correlated with plasma levels of 11/14 microRNAs, p<0.004. Conclusion This is the first study to characterise plasma microRNAs and HBsAg over time in children with CHB. Our data suggest that plasma levels of selected microRNAs and HBsAg are inversely correlated with immunological control of CHB in children. Further studies are, however, needed to advance the understanding of microRNAs and HBsAg in the pathogenesis of CHB in children

  18. The onset of the progression of acute phase response mechanisms induced by extreme impacts can be followed by the decrease in blood levels of positive acute phase proteins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    Studies performed at space flights and earth-based simulation models detected the plasma indices of acute phase reaction (APR), i.e. the increase of APR cytokine mediators and alterations in the production of blood acute phase proteins (APP) at the initial stages of adaptation to altered gravity conditions. Acute phase response is the principal constituent of the functional activity of innate immunity system. Changes in plasma APPs contents are considered to serve the restoration of homeostasis state. According to trends of their concentration shifts at the evolving of acute phase reaction APPs are denoted as positive, neutral, or negative. Plasma concentrations of positive acute phase proteins α1-acid glycoprotein (α1-AGP), α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT), and neutral α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were measured in human study at 12-hour antiorthostatic position (AOP) with 15° head down tilt and hypoxia experiments at 14% oxygen in pressure chamber. Both of these impacts were shown to produce alterations in the APP levels indicative for acute phase response. Nevertheless, in AOP experiment noticeable decrease in α1-AGP concentration occurred by hour 12, and even more pronounced decline of α1-AGP and α1-AT were found on hypoxia hours 12 and 36. Acute phase proteins α1-AGP and α2-M possess the features of proteinase inhibitors. This function is implemented by the formation of complexes with the molecules of proteolytic enzymes which subsequently are removed from the blood flow. Transient decrease in plasma concentrations of protease inhibitors on early phases of APR development was reported to result from the growth of plasma protease activity due to cathepsin release from activated leukocytes, which had not yet been compensated by enhanced APP synthesis. Being a carrier protein for positively charged and neutral substances, α1-AGP shows pronounced elevation in its blood content during APR development. As assumed, it is required for the transportation of the increased

  19. How does serum brain natriuretic peptide level change under nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Msaad, Sameh; Marrakchi, Rim; Grati, Malek; Gargouri, Rahma; Kammoun, Samy; Jammoussi, Kamel; Yangui, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    Background Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which can be improved by using continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. However, the pathophysiological links between the two kinds of disease and the mechanism of the CPAP effect remain incompletely understood. We aimed to inquire into the myocardial involvement in this relationship. We suggested that serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is sensitive enough to detect myocardial stress caused by OSAHS. Design and methods Sixty-four subjects without cardiovascular disease (21 controls, 24 normotensive OSAHS patients, and 19 hypertensive OSAHS patients) were analyzed for serum BNP at baseline and serially over 6 months. CPAP was applied to 23 patients with severe OSAHS. Results At baseline, the serum BNP levels were significantly higher (p=0.0001) in the OSAHS group (22.3±14.79 pg/ml) than in the control group (9.2±6.75 pg/ml). Increased serum BNP levels were significantly associated with mean transcutaneous oxygen saturation (SpO2) (p<0.0001), minimal SpO2 (p=0.002), oxygen desaturation index (p=0.001), and total sleep time spent with SpO2 lower than 90% (p=0.002). All patients with elevated BNP levels (≥37 pg/ml) had moderate or severe OSAHS (11/43 OSAHS patients). The more severe the OSAHS, the higher the BNP levels were. However, only the difference between severe and mild OSAHS was statistically significant (p=0.029). Hypertensive OSAHS patients had the highest baseline BNP levels (27.7±16.74 pg/ml). They were significantly higher (p=0.001) than in normotensive OSAHS patients (18±11.72 pg/ml) (p=0.039) and the controls (9.2±6.75 pg/ml). As compared with baseline, treatment with CPAP significantly decreased BNP levels in both hypertensive and normotensive OSAHS patients (respectively, from 36±16.10 to 29.7±14.29 pg/ml, p<0.001, and from 20±10.09 to 16±8.98 pg/ml, p<0.001). In contrast, the BNP levels slightly increased in

  20. An electro-thermally activated rotary micro-positioner for slider-level dual-stage positioning in hard disk drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keong Lau, Gih; Yang, Jiaping; Tan, Cheng Peng; Boon Chong, Nyok

    2016-03-01

    Slider-level micro-positioners are useful to assist a voice coil motor to perform fine head positioning over a Tb/in2 magnetic disk. Recently, a new kind of slider-level micro-positioner was developed using the thermal unimorph of the Si/SU8 composite. It has the advantages of a very small footprint and high mechanical resonant frequency, but its stroke generation is inadequate, with a 50 nm dynamic stroke at 1 kHz. There is a need for a larger thermally induced stroke. This paper presents a rotary design of an electrothermal micro-positioner to address the stroke requirements without consuming more power or decreasing the mechanical resonant frequency. Experimental studies show the present rotary design can produce a six-fold larger displacement, as compared to the previous lateral design, while possessing a 35 kHz resonant frequency. In addition, simple analytical models were developed to estimate: (i) the rotational stiffness and system’s natural frequency, (ii) thermal unimorph bending and stage rotation, and (iii) the system’s thermal time constant for this rotary electro-thermal micro-positioner. This study found that this rotary electro-thermal micro-positioner can meet the basic stroke requirement and high mechanical resonant frequency for a moving slider, but its thermal cut-off frequency needs to be increased further.

  1. Co-Positivity for Anti-dsDNA, -Nucleosome and -Histone Antibodies in Lupus Nephritis Is Indicative of High Serum Levels and Severe Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Manshu; Han, Jihua; Sun, Lijie; Jia, Xiuzhi; Zhang, Haiyu; Han, Changsong; Jin, Xiaoming; Gao, Fei; Liu, Yanhong; Li, Yang; Cao, Jianbin; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Fengmin; Ren, Huan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize the significance of correlated autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its complication lupus nephritis (LN) in a large cohort of patients. Methods Clinical data were statistically analyzed in 1699 SLE patients with or without nephritis who were diagnosed and treated during 2002–2013 in the northeast region of China. Reactivity to a list of 16 autoantibodies was detected by the serum test Euroline ANA profile (IgG). Serum titers of the anti-nucleosome autoantibodies were measured by ELISA assays. Kidney biopsies were examined by pathologists. Immune complex deposition was identified by immunohistochemistry stain. Results Simultaneous positivity of anti-dsDNA, -nucleosome and -histone antibodies (3-pos) was prevalent in SLE patients with LN compared to Non-renal SLE patients (41% vs 11%, p< 0.001). Significant correlations were found between any two of the above three anti-nucleosome antibodies in LN patients. In comparison to non-3-pos cohorts, 3-pos patients with LN had significantly higher serum levels of the three antibodies and more active disease; was associated with type IV disease; suffered from more severe renal damages; received more intensive treatment and had worse disease outcome. The serum levels of these three autoantibodies in 3-pos LN patients were significantly decreased when they underwent clinical recovery. Conclusions Simultaneous reactivity to anti-dsDNA, -nucleosome and -histone antibodies by Euroline ANA profile (IgG) may indicate severe nephropathy in patients with SLE. PMID:26465327

  2. A Comparison of the Effect of Nasal bi-level Positive Airway Pressure and Sigh-positive Airway Pressure on the Treatment of the Preterm Newborns Weighing Less than 1500 g Affiliated with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghnia, Alireza; Danaei, Navid; Barkatein, Behzad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, administering noninvasive positive airway pressure (PAP) is considered as the building block for the management of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Since nasal continuous PAP (n-CPAP) established its roots as an interventional approach to treat RDS, there have always been concerns related to the increased work of breathing in newborns treated with this intervention. Therefore, respiratory support systems such as nasal bi-level PAP (N-BiPAP) and sigh-PAP (SiPAP) have been developed during the last decade. In this study, two respiratory support systems which, unlike n-CPAP, are categorized as cycled noninvasive ventilation, are studied. Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial done on 74 newborns weighing 1500 g or less affiliated with RDS hospitalized in NICU at Al-Zahra Hospital from October 2012 to March 2014. Patients were randomly assigned to two respiratory support groups of N-BiPAP and SiPAP. Each group contained 37 newborns who were compared, according to their demographic characteristics, duration of noninvasive ventilation, the need to administer surfactant, apnea incidence, the need for mechanical ventilation, pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), the duration of oxygen supplement administration, and chronic lung disease (CLD). Results: The average duration of noninvasive respiratory support, and the average duration of the need for oxygen supplement had no significant difference between the groups. Moreover, apnea incidence, the need for mechanical ventilation, pneumothorax, IVH, PDA, CLD, the need for the second dose of surfactant, and the death rate showed no significant difference in two groups. Conclusions: In this study, SiPAP showed no significant clinical preference over N-BiPAP in the treatment of the newborns with RDS weighing <1500 g. PMID:26941922

  3. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  4. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  5. A Critical Assessment of Sea-Level Rise Projections for the Northeast United States in the 21st Century: Discrepancies and Their Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have projected the magnitudes of sea-level rise (SLR) in the Northeast United States for the 21th Century as a result of anthropogenic climate change. Among them are those by NOAA, the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), and the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE). The projected magnitudes of SLR from some of these sources are being used by policymakers to make difficult choices of investments on infrastructure that can be resilient against anticipated SLR. While there is no question that SLR will happen and resilience measures against SLR is very necessary, this presentation questions the rigor of science behind some of these projections that can have significant costs to the society. A critical assessment of available SLR projections for the northeast US and their discrepancies is presented. It is concluded from the current understanding of science that the mean values and upper bounds of SLR from NOAA, NPCC and COE are likely exaggerated for the region. It is also argued that scientists should treat the SLR projection as a separate problem from policies so that the best cost-benefit analysis can be performed in the decision process.

  6. Sex and migratory strategy influence corticosterone levels in winter-grown feathers, with positive breeding effects in a migratory pelagic seabird.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Cristóbal; Granadeiro, José Pedro; Dias, Maria P; Catry, Paulo

    2016-08-01

    To overcome unpredictable stressful transitory events, animals trigger an allostatic response involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortex. This hormonal response, which involves the release of glucocorticoids which in turn mediate between the main physiological mechanisms that regulate the energetic demands and resource allocation trade-off with behavioural responses to environmental perturbations and may ultimately lead to variation in fitness. We have used the Cory's shearwater Calonectris borealis, a sexually dimorphic pelagic seabird with a partial migratory strategy, as a model bird species to analyse a number of traits related to the stress response. We investigated whether the activation of a stressful response, mediated by corticosterone, during the wintering period (1) correlated with the previous breeding success, (2) was affected by the migratory behaviour of male birds and (3) had consequences in the fitness of the birds. Corticosterone levels in feathers grown overwinter were analysed in 61 adult birds during three consecutive migratory periods (2009-2012) and in 14 immature birds in the wintering period 2010-2011. Moreover, the levels of corticosterone were analysed in experimental birds which were freed from their reproductive duties and compared with control birds which raised fledglings to the end of the breeding period. The results show that the levels of corticosterone were sex dependent, differed between years and were affected by the migratory strategy performed by the birds. The activation of the stressful response over the wintering period generated residual carry-over effects that positively affected the reproductive output in the subsequent breeding stage, a phenomenon previously undescribed in a long-lived pelagic seabird. Our study provides evidence that the analysis of corticosterone from feathers is a useful tool to evaluate carry-over effects in birds far away from breeding sites, opening new possibilities for future studies in

  7. [Effect of using several levels of positive end-expiratory pressure over barotrauma's induced lung injury in a model of isolated and perfused rabbit lungs].

    PubMed

    Trejo, Humberto; Urich, Daniela; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Novoa, Eva; Marcano, Héctor; Crespo, Astrid; Sánchez de León, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    The use of Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) as a strategy of mechanical ventilation offers its advantages, such as improved oxygenation, without causing alveolar overstretching and barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of several levels of PEEP on barotrauma and, whether an optimal level of PEEP exists. Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits (2.5-3.5 kg) were divided into four groups with PEEP settings of 0, 4, 8 and 12 cmH2O, at increasing levels of inspiratory volume (IV). This was done in blood perfused rabbit lungs and in lungs perfused with a Buffer-Albumin Solution. We observed that lungs ventilated with PEEP 0 cmH2O suffered pulmonary rupture at high IV (300cc), with significant increases of Pap (Pulmonary artery pressure) and FFR (Fluid filtration rate). Lungs ventilated with PEEP 8 and 12 suffered pulmonary rupture at lower IV (200cc and 150cc vs. 300cc respectively) On the other hand, lungs ventilated with PEEP 4 cmH2O reached the highest IV (400cc), in addition, they showed the lowest elevations of Pap and FFR. The acellular lungs ventilated with PEEP 4, 8 and 12 showed pulmonary rupture at lower IV when compared with cellular ones (300cc vs. 400cc: 100cc vs. 200cc and 100cc vs. 150cc respectively). We concluded that an optimal PEEP exists, which protects against barotrauma, however, excess of PEEP could enhance its development. The blood could contain some mediators which attenuate the damage induced by barotrauma. PMID:16562644

  8. Acute effects of different levels of continuous positive airway pressure on cardiac autonomic modulation in chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Michel S.; Sampaio, Luciana M.M.; Lacerda, Diego; De Oliveira, Luis V.F.; Pereira, Guilherme B.; Pantoni, Camila B.F.; Thommazo, Luciana Di; Catai, Aparecida M.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Non-invasive ventilation may improve autonomic modulation and ventilatory parameters in severely disabled patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the physiological influence of acute treatment with different levels of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the autonomic balance of heart and respiratory responses in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic heart failure (CHF). Materials and methods A COPD group (n = 10), CHF group (n = 8) and healthy subjects (n = 10) were evaluated. The participants were randomized to receive three different levels of CPAP on the same day: sham ventilation (Sham), 5 cmH20 (CPAP5) and 10 cmH20 (CPAP10) for 10 min. Respiratory rate, end tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), blood pressure and heart rate variability in the time and frequency domains were measured during spontaneous breathing and under the sham, CPAP5 and CPAP10 conditions. Results All groups experienced a reduction in ETCO2 values during treatment with CPAP (p < 0.05). CPAP increased SpO2 and HR in the COPD group (p < 0.05). The COPD group also had lower RMSSD values during treatment with different levels of CPAP when compared to the control group (p < 0.05). In the CHF group, CPAP5 and CPAP10 increased the SDNN value (p < 0.05). CPAP10 reduced the SDNN value in the COPD group (p < 0.05). Conclusion The findings suggest that CPAP may cause improvements in the neural control of heart rate in patients with stable COPD and CHF. For each patient, the “best CPAP level” should be defined as the best respiratory response and autonomic balance. PMID:22419931

  9. Criticism and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Paul; Foulke, Robert D.

    1964-01-01

    A revised English curriculum, based upon different kinds of literary criticism, is counseled in this two-part paper. Part 1 identifies four kinds of criticism--formalist, synoptic, extrinsic, and stylistic. A conventional English Curriculum is briefly outlined. Curricular theories are discussed and positive and negative attempts to define…

  10. Lung cancer risk of low-level exposures to alpha emitters: critical reappraisal and experiments based on a new cytodynamic model

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, Kenneth T.

    1999-02-20

    Ecologic U.S. county data suggest negative associations between residential radon exposure and lung cancer mortality (LCM)-inconsistent with clearly positive associations revealed by occupational data on individual miners, but perhaps explained by competing effects of cell killing vs. mutations in alpha-exposed bronchial epithelium. To assess the latter possibility, a biologically based "cytodynamic 2-stage" (CD2) cancer-risk model was fit to combined 1950-54 age- specific person-year data on lung cancer mortality (LCM) in white females of age 40+ y in 2,821 U.S. counties (-90% never-smokers), and in 5 cohorts of underground miners who never smoked. New estimates of household annual average radon exposure in U.S. counties were used, which were found to have a significant negative ecologic association with 1950-54 LCM in U.S. white females, adjusted for age and all subsets of two among 21 socioeconomic, climatic and other factors considered. A good CD2 fit was obtained to the combined residential/miner data, using biologically plausible parameter values. Without further optimization, the fit also predicted independent inverse dose-rate effects shown (for the first time) to occur in nonsmoking miners. Using the same U.S. county-level LCM data, a separate study revealed a positive ecologic association between LCM and bituminous coal use in the U.S., in agreement with epidemiological data on LCM in women in China. The modeling results obtained are consistent with the CD2-based hypothesis that residential radon exposure has a nonlinear U-shaped relation to LCM risk, and that current linear no-threshold extrapolation models substantially overestimate such risk. A U-shaped dose-response corresponds to a CD2-model prediction that alpha radiation kills more premalignant cells than it generates at low exposure levels, but not at higher levels. To test this hypothesis, groups of Japanese medaka (ricefish minnows) were exposed for 10 to 14 weeks to different concentrations of

  11. Critical Chain Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, John Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Critical Chains project management focuses on holding buffers at the project level vs. task level, and managing buffers as a project resource. A number of studies have shown that Critical Chain project management can significantly improve organizational schedule fidelity (i.e., improve the proportion of projects delivered on time) and reduce…

  12. Critical Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Distinguishes between critical and creative thinking and discusses critical-thinking in relation to modern instructional programs and information literacy. Outlines goals in critical-thinking curriculum, critical thinking skills (student disposition, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, presenting argument, and reflection), and…

  13. STAP-2 Protein Expression in B16F10 Melanoma Cells Positively Regulates Protein Levels of Tyrosinase, Which Determines Organs to Infiltrate in the Body*

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yuichi; Togi, Sumihito; Muromoto, Ryuta; Kon, Shigeyuki; Kitai, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, with a highly metastatic phenotype. In this report, we show that signal transducing adaptor protein 2 (STAP-2) is involved in cell migration, proliferation, and melanogenesis as well as chemokine receptor expression and tumorigenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. This was evident in mice injected with STAP-2 shRNA (shSTAP-2)-expressing B16F10 cells, which infiltrated organs in a completely different pattern from the original cells, showing massive colonization in the liver, kidney, and neck but not in the lung. The most important finding was that STAP-2 expression determined tyrosinase protein content. STAP-2 colocalized with tyrosinase in lysosomes and protected tyrosinase from protein degradation. It is noteworthy that B16F10 cells with knocked down tyrosinase showed similar cell characteristics as shSTAP-2 cells. These results indicated that tyrosinase contributed to some cellular events beyond melanogenesis. Taken together, one possibility is that STAP-2 positively regulates the protein levels of tyrosinase, which determines tumor invasion via controlling chemokine receptor expression. PMID:26023234

  14. The process of adaptation of a community-level, evidence-based intervention for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men in two cities.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Beatrice E; Galbraith, Jennifer S; Lund, Sharon M; Hamilton, Autumn R; Shankle, Michael D

    2012-06-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two community-based organizations (CBOs) working in partnership with two research organizations. We describe five steps of the MAP, assessment, selection, preparation, pilot, and implementation, and the use of qualitative interviews, field observations, and a cross-sectional survey. We recommend: (1) development of a centralized interactive website, listserv, or other resources where agencies adapting EBIs can share tools, materials, experiences, lessons learned, and best practices; (2) strengthening Funding Opportunity Announcements by funding incrementally in phases linked to the MAP; and (3) research should examine (a) whether EBIs adapted by CBOs remain efficacious and (b) the best "fit" between the cultural and climate characteristics of effective collaborations between community- and research-based organizations. PMID:22676461

  15. Toward critical bioethics.

    PubMed

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2015-04-01

    This article deals with the question as to what makes bioethics a critical discipline. It considers different senses of criticism and evaluates their strengths and weaknesses. A primary method in bioethics as a philosophical discipline is critical thinking, which implies critical evaluation of concepts, positions, and arguments. It is argued that the type of analytical criticism that restricts its critical role to critical thinking of this type often suffers from other intellectual flaws. Three examples are taken to demonstrate this: premature criticism, uncritical self-understanding of theoretical assumptions, and narrow framing of bioethical issues. Such flaws can lead both to unfair treatment of authors and to uncritical discussion of topics. In this context, the article makes use of Häyry's analysis of different rationalities in bioethical approaches and argues for the need to recognize the importance of communicative rationality for critical bioethics. A radically different critical approach in bioethics, rooted in social theory, focuses on analyses of power relations neglected in mainstream critical thinking. It is argued that, although this kind of criticism provides an important alternative in bioethics, it suffers from other shortcomings that are rooted in a lack of normative dimensions. In order to complement these approaches and counter their shortcomings, there is a need for a bioethics enlightened by critical hermeneutics. Such hermeneutic bioethics is aware of its own assumptions, places the issues in a wide context, and reflects critically on the power relations that stand in the way of understanding them. Moreover, such an approach is dialogical, which provides both a critical exercise of speech and a normative dimension implied in the free exchange of reasons and arguments. This discussion is framed by Hedgecoe's argument that critical bioethics needs four elements: to be empirically rooted, theory challenging, reflexive, and politely skeptical

  16. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  17. Assessment of potential positive effects of nZVI surface modification and concentration levels on TCE dechlorination in the presence of competing strong oxidants, using an experimental design.

    PubMed

    Kaifas, Delphine; Malleret, Laure; Kumar, Naresh; Fétimi, Wafa; Claeys-Bruno, Magalie; Sergent, Michelle; Doumenq, Pierre

    2014-05-15

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles are efficient for the remediation of aquifers polluted by trichloroethylene (TCE). But for on-site applications, their reactivity can be affected by the presence of common inorganic co-pollutants, which are equally reduced by nZVI particles. The aim of this study was to assess the potential positive effects of nZVI surface modification and concentration level on TCE removal in the concomitant presence of two strong oxidants, i.e., Cr(VI) and NO3(-). A design of experiments, testing four factors (i.e. nZVI concentration, nZVI surface modification, Cr(VI) concentration and NO3(-) concentration), was used to select the best trials for the identification of the main effects of the factors and of the factors interactions. The effects of these factors were studied by measuring the following responses: TCE removal rates at different times, degradation kinetic rates, and the transformation products formed. As expected, TCE degradation was delayed or inhibited in most of the experiments, due to the presence of inorganics. The negative effects of co-pollutants can be palliated by combining surface modification with a slight increase in nZVI concentration. Encouragingly, complete TCE removal was achieved for some given experimental conditions. Noteworthily, nZVI surface modification was found to promote the efficient degradation of TCE. When degradation occurred, TCE was mainly transformed into innocuous non-chlorinated transformation products, while hazardous chlorinated transformation products accounted for a small percentage of the mass-balance. PMID:24607397

  18. Disease Burden at the Progenitor Level is a feature of Primary Myelofibrosis: A multivariable analysis of 164 JAK2 V617F-positive Myeloproliferative Neoplasm patients

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Brady L.; Williams, Donna M.; Rogers, Ophelia; Isaacs, Mary Ann; Spivak, Jerry L.; Moliterno, Alison R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Suppression of normal hematopoiesis by the neoplastic clone (clonal dominance) is a feature of the myeloproliferative neoplasms, but the determinants that predict clonal dominance are unknown. The objective of this study was to identify clinical and laboratory variables that associate with the JAK2 V617F CD34+ progenitor allele burden and clonal dominance, which was defined by congruence of the JAK2 V617F CD34+ progenitor and neutrophil allele burdens. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was performed on 164 consecutive JAK2 V617F-positive patients: 30 with essential thrombocytosis (ET), 100 with polycythemia vera (PV), and 34 with myelofibrosis (MF), including 8 post-ETMF and 3 post-PVMF. The JAK2 V617F CD34+ progenitor and neutrophil allele burdens were measured using an allele-specific, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Results After adjusting for genotype, sex, age at diagnosis and disease duration, disease type was the strongest predictor of clonal dominance, with the odds ratio being nearly 61.9 times higher for MF patients when compared to ET patients (p<0.001), and 9.7 times higher when compared to PV patients (p=0.002). Additionally, clonal dominance was associated with a clinical phenotype of an increased spleen size (p=0.006), increased white blood cell count (p=0.009), and lower hemoglobin (p <0.001), even after adjusting for disease type and duration. Conclusion These data indicate that loss of wild type clones at the progenitor level is a feature of MF (PMF, post-ETMF, and post-PVMF), presumably due to expansion of the JAK2 V617F clone and that this characteristic is surprisingly independent of JAK2 V617F homozygosity, suggesting that additional genomic lesions may contribute to this unique molecular process that distinguishes MF from ET and PV. PMID:20888389

  19. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  20. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  1. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  2. Critically Thinking about Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissberg, Robert

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author states that "critical thinking" has mesmerized academics across the political spectrum and that even high school students are now being called upon to "think critically." He furthers adds that it is no exaggeration to say that "critical thinking" has quickly evolved into a scholarly…

  3. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  4. An Examination of Postsecondary Faculty and the Extent of Critical Reading Taught in 100-Level Introductory Biology and American History Courses in Publicly Funded Two-Year and Four-Year Pennsylvania Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, Dianna

    This research examined the responses of postsecondary faculty on a critical reading inventory. The research is quantitative, non-experimental, and incorporates a multiple regression model in the analyses. Three research questions guided this study: (1) By institution type: To what degree does institution type predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? (2) By faculty status: To what degree does faculty status predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? (3) By disciplinary area: To what degree does disciplinary area predict the extent to which postsecondary faculty teach critical reading as measured by the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996)? Faculty from 28 Pennsylvania postsecondary institutions participated in this study. Faculty respondents taught 100-level introductory biology or American history courses either part-time or full-time at Pennsylvania community colleges or Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) universities. Fifty-four faculty respondents completed the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996). The researcher conducted multiple regression analyses using a hierarchical method. Predictor variables included Institution Type, Faculty Status, and Disciplinary Area; criterion or outcome variables included seven sub-scales of the critical reading inventory. In this study, Institution Type and Faculty Status were not significant predictors. Disciplinary Area was a consistent significant predictor of the amount of critical reading taught as measured in the Interpretation, Analysis, Evaluation, and Reflection sub-scales of the Reading Goals Inventory (Jones, 1996).

  5. Investigation into the Prediction Level of Professional Values of Prospective Teachers within the Context of Critical Thinking, Metacognition and Epistemological Beliefs in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Doganay, Ahmet; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The general aim of the present study is to identify to what extent the professional values of prospective teachers are predicted by the variables of critical thinking, metacognition, epistemological beliefs. The study also aims to determine which variables provide a better prediction of the professional values of prospective teachers than the…

  6. Criticality Model

    SciTech Connect

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  7. Critical Care

    MedlinePlus

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, accidents, infections, and severe breathing problems. It involves ...

  8. Matching field effects at tesla-level magnetic fields in critical current density in high-Tc superconductors containing self-assembled columnar defects

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, J.; Zuev, Yuri L; Cantoni, Claudia; Wee, Sung Hun; Varanasi, C. V.; Thompson, James R; Christen, David K

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the superconductive transport properties of YBa2Cu3O7 films containing self-assembled columnar arrays of second phase SrZrO3 or BaSnO3 precipitates. A matching condition between columnar pinning sites (aligned at or near the c axis) and external magnetic flux, tilted with respect to them, is identified in the critical current JC.H/ data. The results for the material containing SrZrO3-based pins are analyzed within a simple intuitive model. At matching, the critical current is enhanced above the model prediction. In complementary contact-free investigations of BaSnO3-doped material, matching effects are observed over a wide range of temperatures in the field dependence of JC.H/. The deduced matching fields agree reasonably well with the densities of columnar pins directly observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  9. "Why All of a Sudden Do We Need to Teach Fundamental British Values?" A Critical Investigation of Religious Education Student Teacher Positioning within a Policy Discourse of Discipline and Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Francis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a critical investigation of a group of 11 religious education (RE) student teachers' views of the promotion of fundamental British values (FBV) undertaken in 2015. Using qualitative methods, data were collected in two semi-structured group interviews. Drawing from the perspectives of Foucauldian methodology and critical theory,…

  10. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  11. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  12. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies. PMID:22149077

  13. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P < 0.0001) and much higher in the TAT ≥ 16 infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  14. Superintendents' Perceptions about Social Distance, Succession, and "Sunset" Provisions for Asian, Latino, and Native American Candidates Seeking Building-Level Administrator Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Phillip; De La Torre, Guadalupe Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Research addressing the attraction and selection of individuals for administrator positions is encapsulated in a structural model that depicts different phases of the employee procurement process. Within the present study, attention is devoted to the prescreening stage of the selection process, and screening decisions of superintendents are…

  15. Immune Infertility Should Be Positively Diagnosed Using an Accurate Method by Monitoring the Level of Anti-ACTL7a Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Yao, Rongyan; Luo, Yanyun; Yang, Dantong; Cao, Yang; Qiu, Yi; Song, Wei; Miao, Shiying; Gu, Yiqun; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is currently a major public health problem. Anti-sperm antibodies (ASAs) markedly reduce sperm quality, which can subsequently lead to male and/or female infertility. The accurate detection of ASAs derived from specific spermatozoa is, therefore, clinically useful. We have focused on the spermatozoa-specific expression protein ACTL7a for many years and have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies in fertile sera (n = 267) and infertile sera (n = 193). Infertile sera were collected from the positive sera of tray agglutination tests (TAT), which is a routine ASA screening methodology. We found that the concentration of anti-ACTL7a antibodies was significantly higher in the infertile sera (than in the fertile sera, P < 0.0001) and much higher in the TAT ≥ 16 infertile sera. The ELISA was much better for male sera detection (AUC = 0.9899). If we set the standard at a strongly positive value (calculated by ROC curve), the positive predictive value of the antibody detection reached 100 percent, with a false positive rate of zero. The developed ELISA method for anti-ACTL7a antibody detection is therefore sensitive, accurate, and easy to perform, making it an excellent potential tool for future clinical use. PMID:26957350

  16. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  17. Physiographic position modulates the influence of temperature and precipitation as controls over leaf and ecosystem level CO2 flux in shrubland ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of semiarid grasslands to shrublands may alter the sensitivity of CO2 exchange of both the dominant plants and the entire ecosystem to variation in air temperature and precipitation. We used a combination of leaf-level gas exchange experimentation and ecosystem-level eddy covariance monit...

  18. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  19. The impact of fasting on the interpretation of triglyceride levels for predicting myocardial infarction risk in HIV-positive individuals: the D:A:D study.

    PubMed

    2011-08-15

    We assessed whether fasting modifies the prognostic value of these measurements for the risk of myocardial infarction (MI). Analyses used mixed effect models and Poisson regression. After confounders were controlled for, fasting triglyceride levels were, on average, 0.122 mmol/L lower than nonfasting levels. Each 2-fold increase in the latest triglyceride level was associated with a 38% increase in MI risk (relative rate, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.26-1.51); fasting status did not modify this association. Our results suggest that it may not be necessary to restrict analyses to fasting measurements when considering MI risk. PMID:21791653

  20. The Prevention of Positioning Injuries during Gynecologic Operations. Guideline of DGGG (S1-Level, AWMF Registry No. 015/077, February 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Fleisch, M. C.; Bremerich, D.; Schulte-Mattler, W.; Tannen, A.; Teichmann, A. T.; Bader, W.; Balzer, K.; Renner, S. P.; Römer, T.; Roth, S.; Schütz, F.; Thill, M.; Tinneberg, H.; Zarras, K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Official guideline published and coordinated by the German Society of Gynecology and Obstetrics (DGGG). Positioning injuries after lengthy gynecological procedures are rare, but the associated complications can be potentially serious for patients. Moreover, such injuries often lead to claims of malpractice and negligence requiring detailed medical investigation. To date, there are no binding evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of such injuries. Methods: This S1-guideline is the work of an interdisciplinary group of experts from a range of different professions who were commissioned by DGGG to carry out a systematic literature search of positioning injuries. Members of the participating scientific societies develop a consensus in an informal procedure. Afterwards the directorate of the scientific society approves the consensus. The recommendations cover: PMID:26365999

  1. Critics and Criticism of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    1977-01-01

    Radical educational critics, such as Edgar Friedenberg, Paul Goodman, A. S. Neill, John Holt, Jonathan Kozol, Herbert Kohl, James Herndon, and Ivan Illich, have few constructive goals, no strategy for broad change, and a disdain for modernization and compromise. Additionally, these critics, says the author, fail to consider social factors related…

  2. Mapped interpolation scheme for single-point energy corrections in reaction rate calculations and a critical evaluation of dual-level reaction path dynamics methods

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, Y.Y.; Truhlar, D.G.; Corchado, J.C.

    1999-02-25

    Three procedures for incorporating higher level electronic structure data into reaction path dynamics calculations are tested. In one procedure, variational transition state theory with interpolated single-point energies, which is denoted VTST-ISPE, a few extra energies calculated with a higher level theory along the lower level reaction path are used to correct the classical energetic profile of the reaction. In the second procedure, denoted variational transition state theory with interpolated optimized corrections (VTST-IOC), which the authors introduced earlier, higher level corrections to energies, frequencies, and moments of inertia are based on stationary-point geometries reoptimized at a higher level than the reaction path was calculated. The third procedure, called interpolated optimized energies (IOE), is like IOC except it omits the frequency correction. Three hydrogen-transfer reactions, CH{sub 3} + H{prime}H {r_arrow} CH{sub 3}H{prime} + H (R1), OH + H{prime}H {r_arrow} HOH{prime} + H (R2), and OH + H{prime}CH{sub 3} {r_arrow} HOH{prime} + CH{sub 3} (R3), are used to test and validate the procedures by comparing their predictions to the reaction rate evaluated with a full variational transition state theory calculation including multidimensional tunneling (VTST/MT) at the higher level. The authors present a very efficient scheme for carrying out VTST-ISPE calculations, which are popular due to their lower computational cost. They also show, on the basis of calculations of the reactions R1--R3 with eight pairs of higher and lower levels, that VTST-IOC with higher level data only at stationary points is a more reliable dual-level procedure than VTST-ISPE with higher level energies all along the reaction path. Although the frequencies along the reaction path are not corrected in the IOE scheme, the results are still better than those from VTST-ISPE; this indicates the importance of optimizing the geometry at the highest possible level.

  3. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  4. Increasing Induction-Level Teachers' Positive-to-Negative Communication Ratio and Use of Behavior-Specific Praise through E-Mailed Performance Feedback and Its Effect on Students' Task Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathel, Jeanna M.; Drasgow, Erik; Brown, William H.; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of e-mailed specific performance feedback that included progress monitoring graphs on induction-level teachers' ratios of positive-to-negative communication behaviors and their use of behavior-specific praise in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, mild…

  5. Impacts of Climate Change on Estuarine Habitats in the UK: Critical Evaluation of the Saltmarshes and Sea-Level Rise Model (SLAMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pylarinou, A.; French, J.; Burningham, H.

    2013-12-01

    Estuarine wetland environments are at risk of significant transformation and loss due to sea-level rise and there is an increasing need to model such impacts. In a UK context, the relatively small size and morphological complexity of many estuaries necessitates a high spatial resolution but models must also be capable of efficient application over time scales of decades to centuries that correspond to widely used IPCC climate change scenarios. Little previous work of this kind has been carried out to date in the UK. An exception is the EU-funded BRANCH project, which simulated the drowning of intertidal topography, due to sea-level rise, and potential mudflat and saltmarsh responses to a change in inundation regime. However, this approach neglects the interplay of sea-level rise and sedimentation. Accordingly, this study investigates the potential of a more dynamic spatial landscape model to represent meso-scale impacts of sea-level rise on UK estuary environments. It takes as a starting point the Sea Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM), which has been widely used in the USA. This is built around the US National Wetlands Inventory classification and adapting it to suit the tidal sedimentary environments and habitats typical of the UK requires changes to the source code. This paper presents results obtained from the application of an appropriately modified SLAMM code to contrasting estuarine environments in eastern England. The aim is to evaluate the ability of SLAMM to produce plausible projections of intertidal habitat change. The estuaries studied are covered by high-resolution altimetry data, and an extensive literature on their physical process regime allows the parameterisation of the various sub-models in SLAMM. A Matlab-based shell is used to perform an initial sensitivity analysis to better understand the nature of the modelled sea-level rise effects. This shell also provides a framework for Monte Carlo simulations forced by a set of UKCP09 sea-level rise

  6. Use of the lactococcal nisA promoter to regulate gene expression in gram-positive bacteria: comparison of induction level and promoter strength.

    PubMed

    Eichenbaum, Z; Federle, M J; Marra, D; de Vos, W M; Kuipers, O P; Kleerebezem, M; Scott, J R

    1998-08-01

    We characterized the regulated activity of the lactococcal nisA promoter in strains of the gram-positive species Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Bacillus subtilis. nisA promoter activity was dependent on the proteins NisR and NisK, which constitute a two-component signal transduction system that responds to the extracellular inducer nisin. The nisin sensitivity and inducer concentration required for maximal induction varied among the strains. Significant induction of the nisA promoter (10- to 60-fold induction) was obtained in all of the species studied at a nisin concentration just below the concentration at which growth is inhibited. The efficiency of the nisA promoter was compared to the efficiencies of the Spac, xylA, and lacA promoters in B. subtilis and in S. pyogenes. Because nisA promoter-driven expression is regulated in many gram-positive bacteria, we expect it to be useful for genetic studies, especially studies with pathogenic streptococci in which no other regulated promoters have been described. PMID:9687428

  7. Using Coaching to Support Classroom-Level Adoption and Use of Interventions within School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stormont, M.; Reinke, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Many schools today have a prevention-based focus for working with academic and social behavior problems through the use of tiered approaches (Bohanon, McIntosh, & Goodman, 2011; Horner & Sugai, 2005). Through the use of levels of support, including a continuum of increasingly intensive support based on responsiveness to evidence-based core…

  8. Positive Adaptive State: Microarray Evaluation of Gene Expression in Salmonella Enterica Typhimurium Upon Exposure to Sub-Therapeutic Levels of Nalidixic Acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to evaluate changes in gene expression that occur upon exposure to sub-therapeutic levels of a quinolones antibioitic, Salmonella enterica Typhimurium ATCC# 14028 was exposed to 1.6 ug/L of nalidixic acid (NA). Microarray analysis of the expression profile during exposure to NA was compared...

  9. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  10. Serum level of hepatocyte growth factor is a novel marker of predicting the outcome and resistance to the treatment with trastuzumab in HER2-positive patients with metastatic gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Naoki; Furuta, Koh; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yusuke; Shoji, Hirokazu; Honma, Yoshitaka; Iwasa, Satoru; Okita, Natsuko; Takashima, Atsuo; Kato, Ken; Hamaguchi, Tetsuya; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Yasuhide

    2016-01-01

    HER2-overexpression in tumor tissue is observed in 6 to 23% of advanced gastric cancer (GC) cases, and trastuzumab is an active molecular drug for these patients. There are no data available on whether serum levels of ligands are associated with the response and resistance to trastuzumab in HER2-positive patients with metastatic GC. HER2 screening of 502 patients with advanced gastric cancer was performed in our institution. Among these patients, 84 patients (16.8%) were diagnosed as HER2-positive, and those who were treated with trastuzumab and met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the present study. Serum levels of ligands that affect the HER2 signal pathway were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-six HER2-positive patients were enrolled in this study, and 26 patients (56.5%) achieved a partial response to treatment with trastuzumab. Among several ligands, the serum level of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was significantly lower in responders compared with that in non-responders (p = 0.014). Multivariate analyses showed that a high level of serum HGF was a poor prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) compared with low levels of HGF (adjusted HR: 3.857, 95% CI: 1.309–11.361, p = 0.014). Among 25 patients without initial disease progression on the treatment with trastuzumab, the mean value of serum HGF at disease progression was significantly higher than that at pre-treatment (p = 0.041). As novel findings, our study indicated that serum level of HGF was associated with tumor shrinkage and time to progression of trastuzumab in HER2-positive patients with metastatic GC. PMID:26716644

  11. Adjunct Questions: Help or Hinder? A Critical Review of Theoretical and Empirical Research with Specific Regard for Age and Ability of the Learner, and Level of the Question.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Amy S.

    Adjunct questions are test-like items interspersed at regular intervals, preceding or following prose passages, with the intention of increasing subsequent learning. In this state-of-the-art review, studies which include three major variables--age, ability, and question complexity level--are examined to determine whether a particular combination…

  12. The Performance Levels and Associated Cut Scores on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment Mathematics and Reading Tests: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwerling, Harris L.

    In the context of controversy over the use of high stakes testing, the Pennsylvania State Education Association (PSEA) asked for an evaluation of the performance levels and cut score of the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics and reading tests. While awaiting technical documentation from the Pennsylvania Department of…

  13. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity.

    PubMed

    Ibba, Salome' V; Ghonim, Mohamed A; Pyakurel, Kusma; Lammi, Matthew R; Mishra, Anil; Boulares, A Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma. PMID:27524861

  14. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master’s-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students’ self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors’ conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students’ ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  15. Critical Analysis of Primary Literature in a Master's-Level Class: Effects on Self-Efficacy and Science-Process Skills.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Christopher; Parris, Julian; Lie, Richard; Guzdar, Amy; Tour, Ella

    2015-01-01

    The ability to think analytically and creatively is crucial for success in the modern workforce, particularly for graduate students, who often aim to become physicians or researchers. Analysis of the primary literature provides an excellent opportunity to practice these skills. We describe a course that includes a structured analysis of four research papers from diverse fields of biology and group exercises in proposing experiments that would follow up on these papers. To facilitate a critical approach to primary literature, we included a paper with questionable data interpretation and two papers investigating the same biological question yet reaching opposite conclusions. We report a significant increase in students' self-efficacy in analyzing data from research papers, evaluating authors' conclusions, and designing experiments. Using our science-process skills test, we observe a statistically significant increase in students' ability to propose an experiment that matches the goal of investigation. We also detect gains in interpretation of controls and quantitative analysis of data. No statistically significant changes were observed in questions that tested the skills of interpretation, inference, and evaluation. PMID:26250564

  16. Potential of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase as a Therapeutic Target for Allergen-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness: A Critical Connection to Nitric Oxide Levels and PARP Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ghonim, Mohamed A.; Pyakurel, Kusma; Mishra, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Although expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the lungs of asthmatics and associated nitrosative damage are established, iNOS failed as a therapeutic target for blocking airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation in asthmatics. This dichotomy calls for better strategies with which the enzyme is adequately targeted. Here, we confirm iNOS expression in the asthmatic lung with concomitant protein nitration and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation. We show, for the first time, that iNOS is highly expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of asthmatics with uncontrolled disease, which did not correspond to protein nitration. Selective iNOS inhibition with L-NIL protected against AHR upon acute, but not chronic, exposure to ovalbumin or house dust mite (HDM) in mice. Supplementation of NO by nitrite administration significantly blocked AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice that were treated with L-NIL. Protection against chronic HDM exposure-induced AHR by olaparib-mediated PARP inhibition may be associated with the partial but not the complete blockade of iNOS expression. Indeed, L-NIL administration prevented olaparib-mediated protection against AHR in chronically HDM-exposed mice. Our study suggests that the amount of iNOS and NO are critical determinants in the modulation of AHR by selective iNOS inhibitors and renews the potential of iNOS as a therapeutic target for asthma. PMID:27524861

  17. A comparison of adherence to correctly documented triage level of critically ill patients between emergency department and the ambulance service nurses.

    PubMed

    Jönsson, Kenneth; Fridlund, Bengt

    2013-07-01

    Priority or triage has always occurred in emergency care. Today it is performed by both nurses in emergency departments (EDs) and ambulance services (ASs) to ensure patient safety. Recent studies have shown that nurses are unlikely to change their first impressions and patients suffering from blunt trauma are undertriaged. Our study aimed to compare and evaluate the adherence to correct triage level documentation, between nurses in the ED and the AS, according to current regulations. Of 592 analysed triage records from a university, a central and a district hospital, the adherence was 64% by ED nurses and 43% by AS nurses (p<0.001), but individual percentages ranged from 27% to 88%. Patient safety is jeopardised when nurses do not adhere to the triage system and do not correctly document the triage level. Internal feedback and control are two approaches to improve the patient outcome, indicating that organisational actions must be taken. PMID:23830372

  18. Toxicity Assessment on the Levels of Select Metals in the Critically Endangered Indian White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, in India.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Jayakumar; Subramanian, Muralidharan

    2015-06-01

    To assess the potential contribution of metals to the catastrophic population decline of the White-backed Vulture, Gyps bengalensis, their concentrations in various organs was quantified. Liver, kidney, pectoral muscle, gut contents and femur bone were collected from dead birds between 1999 and 2008. These samples were analysed for lead, cadmium, copper and zinc, which were detected in all organs with no significant variation among tissues or between sexes. Moreover, high lead levels in liver (8.56 µg/g wet weight) and kidney (9.31 µg/g wet weight) in some individuals indicate toxic effects. Nonetheless, the levels of most metals measured in the present study may be considered as normal. PMID:25904090

  19. Chlorophyll Synthase under Epigenetic Surveillance Is Critical for Vitamin E Synthesis, and Altered Expression Affects Tocopherol Levels in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Wei; Ren, Guodong; Li, Delin; Cahoon, Rebecca E.; Chen, Ming; Zhou, Yongming; Yu, Bin; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll synthase catalyzes the final step in chlorophyll biosynthesis: the esterification of chlorophyllide with either geranylgeranyl diphosphate or phytyl diphosphate (PDP). Recent studies have pointed to the involvement of chlorophyll-linked reduction of geranylgeranyl by geranylgeranyl reductase as a major pathway for the synthesis of the PDP precursor of tocopherols. This indirect pathway of PDP synthesis suggests a key role of chlorophyll synthase in tocopherol production to generate the geranylgeranyl-chlorophyll substrate for geranylgeranyl reductase. In this study, contributions of chlorophyll synthase to tocopherol formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were explored by disrupting and altering expression of the corresponding gene CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLSYN; At3g51820). Leaves from the homozygous chlysyn1-1 null mutant were nearly devoid of tocopherols, whereas seeds contained only approximately 25% of wild-type tocopherol levels. Leaves of RNA interference lines with partial suppression of CHLSYN displayed marked reductions in chlorophyll but up to a 2-fold increase in tocopherol concentrations. Cauliflower mosaic virus35S-mediated overexpression of CHLSYN unexpectedly caused a cosuppression phenotype at high frequencies accompanied by strongly reduced chlorophyll content and increased tocopherol levels. This phenotype and the associated detection of CHLSYN-derived small interfering RNAs were reversed with CHLSYN overexpression in rna-directed rna polymerase6 (rdr6), which is defective in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6, a key enzyme in sense transgene-induced small interfering RNA production. CHLSYN overexpression in rdr6 had little effect on chlorophyll content but resulted in up to a 30% reduction in tocopherol levels in leaves. These findings show that altered CHLSYN expression impacts tocopherol levels and also, show a strong epigenetic surveillance of CHLSYN to control chlorophyll and tocopherol synthesis. PMID:26048882

  20. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  1. Excess VO2 during ramp exercise is positively correlated to intercostal muscles deoxyhemoglobin levels above the gas exchange threshold in young trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Ferid; Girard, Olivier; Tabka, Zouhair; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-07-01

    We assessed respiratory muscles oxygenation responses during a ramp exercise to exhaustion and further explored their relationship with the non-linear increase of VO2 (VO2 excess) observed above the gas-exchange threshold. Ten male cyclists completed a ramp exercise to exhaustion on an electromagnetically braked cycle-ergometer with a rate of increment of 30Wmin(-1) with continuous monitoring of expired gases (breath-by-breath) and oxygenation status of intercostal muscles. Maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressure measurements were taken at rest and at exhaustion. The VO2 excess represents the difference between VO2max observed and VO2max expected using linear equation between the VO2 and the intensity before gas-exchange threshold. The deoxyhemoglobin remained unchanged until 60% of maximal aerobic power (MAP) and thereafter increased significantly by 37±18% and 40±22% at 80% and 100% of MAP, respectively. Additionally, the amplitude of deoxyhemoglobin increase between 60 and 100% of MAP positively correlated with the VO2 excess (r=0.69, p<0.05). Compared to exercise start, the oxygen tissue saturation index decreased from 80% of MAP (-4.8±3.2%, p<0.05) onwards. At exhaustion, maximal inspiratory and expiratory pressures declined by 7.8±16% and 12.6±10% (both p<0.05), respectively. In summary, our results suggest a significant contribution of respiratory muscles to the VO2 excess phenomenon. PMID:26996071

  2. Association of Internalized and Social Network Level HIV Stigma With High-Risk Condomless Sex Among HIV-Positive African American Men.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Glenn J; Bogart, Laura M; Klein, David J; Green, Harold D; Mutchler, Matt G; McDavitt, Bryce; Hilliard, Charles

    2016-08-01

    We examined whether internalized HIV stigma and perceived HIV stigma from social network members (alters), including the most popular and most similar alter, predicted condomless intercourse with negative or unknown HIV status partners among 125 African American HIV-positive men. In a prospective, observational study, participants were administered surveys at baseline and months 6 and 12, with measures including sexual behavior, internalized HIV stigma, and an egocentric social network assessment that included several measures of perceived HIV stigma among alters. In longitudinal multivariable models comparing the relative predictive value of internalized stigma versus various measures of alter stigma, significant predictors of having had condomless intercourse included greater internalized HIV stigma (in all models), the perception that a popular (well-connected) alter or alter most like the participant agrees with an HIV stigma belief, and the interaction of network density with having any alter that agrees with a stigma belief. The interaction indicated that the protective effect of greater density (connectedness between alters) in terms of reduced risk behavior dissipated in the presence of perceived alter stigma. These findings call for interventions that help people living with HIV to cope with their diagnosis and reduce stigma, and inform the targets of social network-based and peer-driven HIV prevention interventions. PMID:26718361

  3. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  4. 100 positive double-blind studies: enough or too little?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuner, Jan; Hode, Lars

    2000-06-01

    A major argument among the opponents of laser therapy has been the absence of scientific documentation. This was a valid position in the 80s and partly in the 90s. But today, is this still a sound argument. There are more than 2,000 published studies in the field, including meeting abstracts and anecdotal reports. The vast majority of these papers reports positive effects of LLLT in vitro and in vivo. It is fair to argue that negative results are less prone to be published, but certainly more than 80 percent of the published studies are positive. In the field of dentistry, for instance, the positive percentage is well above 90 percent. The present literature study will look at the heart of the positive documentation: the positive double blind studies. It may come as a surprise to many critics that there are more than 100 positive double blind studies in the field laser therapy. This is a god base for a further understanding of the effects of low level laser in the clinical setting. We must, however, be as critical as the sceptics themselves in order to obtain a constructive dialogue between 'attorneys' and sceptics. In this paper, a critical review of 100 positive double blind studies will be presented.

  5. Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    True excellence in technology implementation emerges when IT, administrative, and academic leaders link IT to mission-critical institutional objectives, investing in hardware and software to serve an explicit purpose and a distinct population of users. This article illustrates that at public institutions of higher education in New Hampshire as…

  6. Positive Effect of Impairment-Oriented Training on N-Acetylaspartate Levels of Ipsilesional Motor Cortex in Subcortical Stroke: A Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ali Bani; Cirstea, Carmen M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated the effects of an intensive impairment-oriented training on neuronal state (assessed by proton MR spectroscopy, 1H-MRS) of the spared motor and premotor cortices in the injured (ipsilesional) hemisphere and clinical impairment in a patient with chronic subcortical stroke. Methods One survivor of a single ischemic stroke located outside of the motor and premotor cortices (assessed on T1-weighted MRI) was studied at six months after stroke. We used functional MRI-guided 1H-MRS to quantify the levels of N-acetylaspartate (NAA - a putative neuronal marker) in the hand representation within ipsilesional primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (dPM) and supplementary motor area (SMA), and Fugl-Meyer (normal=66 points) test to assess the arm motor impairment immediately before and after a motor training paradigm. Training comprised intensive variable practice (1080 repetitions over 12 day-period) of a reach-to-grasp task with the impaired hand while focusing the learner's attention on an altered movement component, i.e., decreased elbow extension. Results At baseline, the patient was severely impaired (Fugl-Meyer score=25 points) and exhibited lower level of NAA in all areas (M1, 9.2 mM vs. 11.6 ± 2.0 mM in healthy controls; dPM, 8.9 mM vs. 12.2 ± 1.9 mM; SMA, 7.4 mM vs. 11.0 ± 2.3 mM). After training, the patient improved clinically (by 6 points) and displayed higher levels of NAA across all areas (by 0.6-3.3 mM). Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the radiologically normal-appearing ipsilesional motor and premotor areas have the resources to boost behavioral output in response to an intervention. We hope that these data will act as a starting point for further research to test the potential of 1H-MRS measures to provide a biomarker of neuroplasticity in response to restorative therapies in chronic stroke. PMID:27066519

  7. Carbonate deposition, Pyramid Lake subbasin, Nevada: 2. Lake levels and polar jet stream positions reconstructed from radiocarbon ages and elevations of carbonates (tufas) deposited in the Lahontan basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benson, L.; Kashgarian, Michaele; Rubin, M.

    1995-01-01

    Most of the tufas in the Pyramid Lake subbasin were deposited within the last 35 000 yr, including most of the mound tufas that border the existing lake. Many of the older tufas (>21 000 yr BP) contained in the mounds were formed in association with groundwater discharge. Lake Lahontan experienced large and abrupt rises in level that are believed to indicate the passage of the polar jet stream over the Lahontan basin. During expansion of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, the jet stream moved south across the basin, and during the contraction of the Ice Sheet, the jet stream moved north across the basin. The bulk of the carbonate contained in the mound tufas was deposited during the last major lake cycle (~23 500-12 000 yr BP), indicating that ground- and surface-water discharges increased at ~23 500 and decreased at ~ 12 000 yr BP. -from Authors

  8. State-selective enhanced production of positive ions and excited neutral fragments of gaseous CH2Cl2 following Cl 2p core-level photoexcitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, K. T.; Chen, J. M.; Lee, J. M.; Haw, S. C.; Chen, S. A.; Liang, Y. C.; Chen, S. W.

    2010-09-01

    Following photoexcitation of Cl2p electrons to various resonances, the dissociation dynamics of ionic and excited neutral fragments of gaseous CH2Cl2 was investigated by combined measurements of photon-induced ionic dissociation, x-ray absorption, and uv-visible dispersed fluorescence. The Cl2p core-to-Rydberg excitations near the ionization threshold produce a notable enhancement of excited neutral fragments (C* and CH*), which is attributed to the contribution from a shake-modified resonant Auger decay and postcollision interaction. The excitation Cl2p→10a1* induces an enhanced yield of CH2+, possibly originating from fast dissociation via a strongly repulsive surface. The experimental results provide insight into the dissociation dynamics of ionic and excited neutral fragment production following core-level excitation.

  9. Abrupt Transition from Ferromagnetic to Antiferromagnetic of Interfacial Exchange in Perpendicularly Magnetized L10-MnGa/FeCo Tuned by Fermi Level Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Q. L.; Mizukami, S.; Kubota, T.; Zhang, X. M.; Ando, Y.; Miyazaki, T.

    2014-04-01

    An abrupt transition of the interfacial exchange coupling from ferromagnetic to antiferromagnetic was observed in the interface of perpendicularly magnetized L10-MnGa /Fe1-xCox epitaxial bilayers when x was around 25%. By considering the special band structure of the MnGa alloy, we present a model explaining this transition by the spin-polarization reversal of Fe1-xCox alloys due to the rise of the Fermi level as the Co content increases. The effect of interfacial exchange coupling on the coercive force (Hc) and the spin-dependent tunneling effect in perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (pMTJs) based on the coupled composite were also studied. Changes from the normal spin valve to inverted magnetoresistance loops corresponding to the coupling transition were observed in pMTJs with MnGa /Fe1-xCox as an electrode.

  10. Elevated IL-17 and TGF-β Serum Levels: A Positive Correlation between T-helper 17 Cell-Related Pro-Inflammatory Responses with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Davami, Mohammad Hasan; Baharlou, Rasoul; Ahmadi Vasmehjani, Abbas; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Keshtkar, Mitra; Dezhkam, Iman; Atashzar, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is a mental disorder that highly associated with immune system. Therefore, this study compares the serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) between patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 41 patients with major depressive disorder and 40 healthy age-matched controls with no history of malignancies or autoimmune disorders. The subjects were interviewed face to face according to DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. Depression score was measured using completed Beck Depression Inventory in both groups. The serum concentrations of IL-21, IL-17, and TGF-β were assessed using ELISA. Results: The mean score of Beck Depression score in the patient and control groups was 35.4±5.5 and 11.1±2.3. IL-17 serum concentrations in the patients and the control group were 10.03±0.6 and 7.6±0.6 pg/mL, respectively (P=0.0002). TGF-β level in the patients group was significantly higher than compare to the control group; 336.7±20.19 vs. 174.8±27.20 pg/mL, (P<0.0001). However, the level of IL-21 was not statistically different between the two groups 84.30±4.57 vs. 84.12±4.15 pg/mL (P>0.05). Conclusion: Considering pro-inflammatory cytokines, current results support the association of inflammatory response and depressive disorder. So, it seems that pro-inflammatory factors profile can be used as indicator in following of depression progress and its treatment impacts. PMID:27303608

  11. Critical Review: Building on the HIV Cascade: A Complementary "HIV States and Transitions" Framework for Describing HIV Diagnosis, Care, and Treatment at the Population Level.

    PubMed

    Powers, Kimberly A; Miller, William C

    2015-07-01

    The HIV cascade--often referred to as "the HIV continuum"--provides a valuable framework for population-level representations of engagement with the HIV healthcare system. The importance and appeal of this framework are evidenced by a large body of scientific literature, as well as by the adoption of cascade-related indicators by medical and public health organizations worldwide. Despite its centrality in the fields of HIV treatment and prevention, however, the traditional cascade provides limited description of the processes affecting the numbers it represents. Representations that describe these processes and capture the dynamic nature of HIV-infected persons' pathways through the healthcare system are essential for monitoring and predicting intervention effects and epidemic trends. We propose here a complementary schema--termed the "HIV States and Transitions" framework--designed to maintain key strengths of the traditional cascade while addressing key limitations and more fully describing the dynamic aspects of HIV testing, care, and treatment at the population level. PMID:25835604

  12. The levels of H11/HspB8 DNA methylation in human melanoma tissues and xenografts are a critical molecular marker for 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine therapy

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Cynthia C.; Li, Baiquan; Liu, Juan; Lee, Kie-Sok; Aurelian, Laure

    2011-01-01

    H11/HspB8 is a functionally distinct small heat shock protein. It causes growth arrest in melanocytes, associated with inhibition of cyclin E/cdk2 and β~-catenin phosphorylation at the transcriptional activity site Ser552 and is silenced through DNA methylation in 27/35 (77%) melanoma tissues/early cultures. 5'-Aza-2-deoxycytidine (Aza-C) induces melanoma cell death correlated with the levels of H11/HspB8 DNA methylation (p<0.001). In lines with low/moderate H11/HspB8 methylation, PI3-K inhibition increases Aza-C-induced cell death. Aza-C Inhibits growth of melanoma xenografts related to the levels of H11/HspB8 methylation, and a non-methylated/non-TAK1 binding H11/HspB8 mutant confers Aza-C resistance. H11/HspB8 is a potential molecular marker for demethylation therapies. PMID:21649464

  13. Dysregulation of hepatic cAMP levels via altered Pde4b expression plays a critical role in alcohol-induced steatosis.

    PubMed

    Avila, Diana V; Barker, David F; Zhang, JingWen; McClain, Craig J; Barve, Shirish; Gobejishvili, Leila

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis is a significant risk factor for progressive liver disease. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling has been shown to significantly regulate lipid metabolism; however, the role of altered cAMP homeostasis in alcohol-mediated hepatic steatosis has never been studied. Our previous work demonstrated that increased expression of hepatic phosphodiesterase 4 (Pde4), which specifically hydrolyses and decreases cAMP levels, plays a pathogenic role in the development of liver inflammation/injury. The aim of this study was to examine the role of PDE4 in alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. C57BL/6 wild-type and Pde4b knockout (Pde4b(-/-) ) mice were pair-fed control or ethanol liquid diets. One group of wild-type mice received rolipram, a PDE4-specific inhibitor, during alcohol feeding. We demonstrate for the first time that an early increase in PDE4 enzyme expression and a resultant decrease in hepatic cAMP levels are associated with the significant reduction in carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (Cpt1a) expression. Notably, alcohol-fed (AF) Pde4b(-/-) mice and AF wild-type mice treated with rolipram had significantly lower hepatic free fatty acid content compared with AF wild-type mice. Importantly, PDE4 inhibition in alcohol-fed mice prevented the decrease in hepatic Cpt1a expression via the Pparα/Sirt1/Pgc1α pathway. These results demonstrate that the alcohol- induced increase in hepatic Pde4, specifically Pde4b expression, and compromised cAMP signalling predispose the liver to impaired fatty acid oxidation and the development of steatosis. Moreover, these data also suggest that hepatic PDE4 may be a clinically relevant therapeutic target for the treatment of alcohol-induced hepatic steatosis. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27287961

  14. Heteroplasmy levels of mtDNA1555A>G mutation is positively associated with diverse phenotypes and mutation transmission in a Chinese family.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shan-Shan; Liu, Chang; Xu, Zhi-Yong; Hu, Yu-Hua; Gao, Guo-Feng; Wang, Sha-Yan

    2012-04-20

    The mtDNA 1555A>G mutation was considered to be one of the most common causes of aminoglycoside-induced and non-syndromic hearing loss. However, this mutation was always found in homoplasmy with high phenotypic heterogeneity. Recently this mutation in heteroplasmy has been reported in several studies. In the present study, we have collected a large Chinese family harboring heteroplasmic mtDNA 1555A>G mutation with diverse clinical phenotypes. To investigate the relationship between the mutation load and the severity of hearing loss under Eastern Asian background, we performed clinical, molecular, genetic and phylogenic analysis. This pedigree was characterized by coexistence of eight subjects with homoplasmic mutation and ten subjects with various degrees of heteroplasmy, and the results suggested that there was a strong correlation between the mutation load and the severity/age-onset of hearing loss (r=0.758, p<0.001). We noticed that the mutation level of offspring was associated with their mothers' in this pedigree, which indicated that maybe exist a regular pattern during the process of the heteroplasmic transmission. In addition, analysis of the complete mtDNA genome of this family revealed that it belonged to Eastern Asian haplogroup B4C1. In addition, a rare homoplasmic mtDNA 9128T>C variant was identified, it located at a strictly conserved site of mtDNA ATP6 gene. PMID:22475488

  15. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  16. [Positive psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-01

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health. PMID:26857411

  17. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  18. An increased level of the Concanavalin A-positive IgG in the serum of patients with gastric cancer as evaluated by a lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LELISA).

    PubMed

    Klaamas, K; Kodar, K; Kurtenkov, O

    2008-01-01

    All human immunoglobulins are glycosylated. The changes in IgG glycosylation are associated with autoimmune disorders and pregnancy. Little is known about IgG glycosylation in patients with cancer. A lectin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LELISA) based method was developed for measuring the Concanavalin A - positive IgG in the serum. Its rationale is as follows: PtA was used as a capture agent for binding IgG via the Fc fragment. Then IgG and the ConA-positive glycans on the IgG were detected using an anti-human IgG-F(ab)2 alkaline phosphatase conjugate or biotinylated ConA, respectively. The index ConA binding/total IgG was calculated. Serum samples from patients with gastric carcinoma (n=53) and healthy blood transfusion donors (n=24) were analysed. The protein A-agarose and ConA-sepharose affinity chromatography was applied to the purification of IgG, ConA-positive IgG, and Fab fragments. The LELISA, SDS-PAGE and Western blot methods were used to analyse the purified IgG and Fab fragments. A significantly higher ConA binding to IgG was found in patients with cancer compared to that of blood donors (ConA index = 1.07+/-0.08 (95% CI) and 0.81+/-0.08, respectively; P=0.0002). In donors, a significant correlation between the level of IgG bound to PtA and the ConA binding (r=0.85; p<0.001) was observed. Patients with gastric cancer showed a less pronounced, though significant correlation (r=0.33; P=0.02). Only the Fd fragment of the Fabs derived from both total serum IgG and ConA-positive fraction of IgG contained the ConA-positive glycans. The comparison of the purified IgG and Fab fragments derived from healthy blood donors and patient with gastric cancer showed no difference in either SDS-PAGE, immunoblotting or LELISA pattern. The LELISA is simple, reproducible and suitable for the evaluation of IgG glycosylation changes. The level of ConA positive serum IgG was found to be increased in patients with cancer. No convincing evidence of the presence of

  19. Landau levels and spin splitting in the two-dimensional electron gas of a HgTe quantum well near the critical width for the topological phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakmehr, M.; Bruene, C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.; Stier, A. V.; McCombe, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report a detailed low-temperature study of the two-dimensional (2D) electron gas in a 6.1-nm-wide HgTe quantum well with H g0.3C d0.7Te barriers by terahertz magnetophotoconductivity and magnetotransmission combined with magnetotransport measurements (Rx x and Rx y) in magnetic fields up to 10 T. This well width, close to that at the topological phase transition, corresponds to conventional band ordering, and we probe the "bulk" quasi-2D Landau-level (LL) spectrum of the conduction band at high energies (≈135 -160 meV ) above the Dirac point. The calculated separations between adjacent LLs of the same spin based on published parameters for this structure are in fair agreement with the measured cyclotron resonance energies. However, the very large spin splittings observed (Espin>Ecyclotron) require a significantly larger g -parameter ge for electrons. Tilted field coincidence experiments are consistent with the large spin splitting showing coincidences at 3/2 and twice the cyclotron energy. This large value of ge also leads to interesting crossings of the calculated LLs, and we find direct evidence of these crossings in the Rx x measurements at lower electron densities (Fermi energies) produced by negative gate bias.

  20. Analysis of glutathione levels in the brain tissue samples from HIV-1-positive individuals and subject with Alzheimer's disease and its implication in the pathophysiology of the disease process.

    PubMed

    Saing, Tommy; Lagman, Minette; Castrillon, Jeffery; Gutierrez, Eutiquio; Guilford, Frederick T; Venketaraman, Vishwanath

    2016-12-01

    HIV-1 positive individuals are at high risk for susceptibility to both pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB, including TB meningitis (TBM) which is an extreme form of TB. The goals of this study are to determine the mechanisms responsible for compromised levels of glutathione (GSH) in the brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1-infected individuals and individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), investigate the possible underlying mechanisms responsible for GSH deficiency in these pathological conditions, and establish a link between GSH levels and pathophysiology of the disease processes. We demonstrated in the autopsied human brain tissues that the levels of total and reduced forms of GSH were significantly compromised in HIV-1 infected individuals compared to in healthy subjects and individuals with AD. Brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1-positive individuals had substantially higher levels of free radicals than that derived from healthy and AD individuals. Enzymes that are responsible for the de novo synthesis of GSH such as γ-glutamate cysteine-ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC-rate limiting step enzyme) and glutathione synthetase (GSS-enzyme involved in the second step reaction) were significantly decreased in the brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1-positive individuals with low CD4 + T-cells (< 200 cells/mm(3)) compared to healthy and AD individuals. Levels of glutathione reductase (GSR) were also decreased in the brain tissue samples derived from HIV-1 infected individuals. Overall, our findings demonstrate causes for GSH deficiency in the brain tissue from HIV-1 infected individuals explaining the possible reasons for increased susceptibility to the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB, TBM. PMID:27335804

  1. Morphogenesis at criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2014-03-01

    Spatial patterns in the early fruit fly embryo emerge from a network of interactions among transcription factors, the gap genes, driven by maternal inputs. Such networks can exhibit many qualitatively different behaviors, separated by critical surfaces. At criticality, we should observe strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes around their mean expression levels, a slowing of the dynamics along some but not all directions in the space of possible expression levels, correlations of expression fluctuations over long distances in the embryo, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. Analysis of recent experiments on the gap genes shows that all these signatures are observed, and that the different signatures are related in ways predicted by theory. While there might be other explanations for these individual phenomena, the confluence of evidence suggests that this genetic network is tuned to criticality.

  2. Morphogenesis at criticality

    PubMed Central

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien O.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2014-01-01

    Spatial patterns in the early fruit fly embryo emerge from a network of interactions among transcription factors, the gap genes, driven by maternal inputs. Such networks can exhibit many qualitatively different behaviors, separated by critical surfaces. At criticality, we should observe strong correlations in the fluctuations of different genes around their mean expression levels, a slowing of the dynamics along some but not all directions in the space of possible expression levels, correlations of expression fluctuations over long distances in the embryo, and departures from a Gaussian distribution of these fluctuations. Analysis of recent experiments on the gap gene network shows that all these signatures are observed, and that the different signatures are related in ways predicted by theory. Although there might be other explanations for these individual phenomena, the confluence of evidence suggests that this genetic network is tuned to criticality. PMID:24516161

  3. Critical Thinking Concept Reconstructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, Mary Kennedy

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the proposition that teaching of critical thinking (CT) should include: (1) identifying and addressing the many environmental variables acting as barriers to our human thinking, i.e., an open system approach, and (2) utilizing the interrelatedness of the CT building blocks, i.e., creative thinking techniques, levels of…

  4. Conductive Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paetkau, Mark

    2007-01-01

    One of my goals as an instructor is to teach students critical thinking skills. This paper presents an example of a student-led discussion of heat conduction at the first-year level. Heat loss from a human head is calculated using conduction and radiation models. The results of these plausible (but wrong) models of heat transfer contradict what…

  5. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  6. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  7. Living positively as HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Garraty, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    A nursing student records a brief biography of a Zambian nurse and certified midwife living with HIV/AIDS while shadowing the nurse during an undergraduate cross-cultural course in Macha, Zambia in January 2009. The nurse strives to live positively, educating, encouraging, and empowering others. PMID:21294466

  8. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  9. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  10. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  11. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  12. The Illiteracy Concept: Defining the Critical Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Faite Royjier-Poncefonte

    The first section of this paper reports the results of numerous literacy studies in which adults were tested on a variety of tasks, including filling out forms, answering questions about newspaper classified advertisements, and dealing with certain facets of consumer economics. The percentage of adults in the United States reported to be literate…

  13. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  14. Critical Issues Facing School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Styron, Ronald A., Jr.; Styron, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to further extend research initially conducted in 2003 pertaining to the critical issues K-12 principals address on a daily basis. The study involved surveying school principals within the state of Mississippi to discover the critical issues they identified, the significance level of these issues, and the rationale…

  15. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Guest, Elise M.; Horner, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are complex communities that play a major role in the social fabric of culture. Effective schools provide access to both good instruction and a social culture that supports engagement, community, and success. Over the past 10 years, more than 11,000 elementary, middle level, and high schools have adopted schoolwide positive behavior…

  16. Levels and values of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, galectin-3, RhoA/ROCK, and endothelial progenitor cells in critical limb ischemia: pharmaco-therapeutic role of cilostazol and clopidogrel combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective We tested the hypothesis that clopidogrel and cilostazol combination therapy could effectively attenuate systemic inflammatory reaction, facilitate proliferation of circulating endothelial progenitor cell (EPC), and improve the clinical outcomes of critical limb ischemia (CLI) in patients unsuitable for surgical revascularization or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Methods A total 55 patients (mean age, 72 years; 56% female) were consecutively enrolled. Clopidogrel and cilostazol combination therapy was administered throughout the study period. Results As compared with the baseline, circulating endothelial progenitor cell level (as shown by flow cytometry) was significantly increased (p < 0.003), whereas the CLI-related ulcers and painfulness were significantly improved (all p < 0.01) by day 90 after treatment. On the other hand, after clopidogrel and cilostazol combination therapy, galectin-3 level, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 gene expression, and RhoA/ROCK-related protein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly suppressed (all p < 0.01). Eventually, by day 90, 5 patients (9.1%) died of other etiologies, 3 (5.5%) withdrew from the study, 6 (10.9%) required amputation, and the remaining 41 had satisfactory clinical improvement with complete wound healing in 9 (16.4%) patients. Conclusion The results of the present study highlight that clopidogrel and cilostazol combination therapy may be considered to be an alternative method for treating patients with CLI unsuitable for surgical revascularization or PTA. PMID:24742198

  17. Utility of δ13C and C/N values of bulk sedimentary organic matter in the reconstruction of former sea levels and paleoenvironment, Luquillo Critical Zone, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N. S.; Vane, C.; Horton, B. P.; Scatena, F. N.

    2012-12-01

    Reliable, quantitative proxies of former sea-level and paleoenvironmental change are critical in integrating geologic and historical records into predictive models in order to better understand the response of coastal systems to marine inundation. The defining characteristic of a sea-level proxy (or sea-level indicator) is that is must possess a systematic and quantifiable relationship to elevation with respect to the tidal frame. Microfossils (e.g. foraminifera, diatoms) are used to reconstruct Holocene sea level because of their potential for providing high-resolution archives; however, these biological proxies are somewhat limited due to spatial restrictions and poor preservation in the sedimentary record of temperate and more notably tropical environments. In this study, we aim to overcome the confines of existent indicators by adapting the use of stable carbon isotopes and carbon to nitrogen ratios of bulk sedimentary organic material to a tropical coastal setting. We sampled dominant vegetation and surface sediment along 8 transects taken through tidal flat, low mangrove, high mangrove, and freshwater zones from 4 sites located in Puerto Rico. We find unique ranges in δ13C and C/N corresponding to these environmental zones that exhibit a relationship to elevation within the tidal frame. Additionally, a 2.5 m core obtained from one of the sites demonstrates changes in δ13C and C/N representative of a shift in depositional environment from marine to terrestrial conditions that is in agreement with the change in lithology from grey organic-rich mud to brown mangrove peat and the foraminiferal assemblages observed down core. We also provide an assessment of post-depositional change in δ13C and C/N due to subaerial root penetration and microbial degradation from field experiments and find that these processes are related to water table depth. We compare our findings to studies employing this reconstruction technique in temperate settings, where salt marsh

  18. Efficacy of in-service nutrition training for mid-level providers to improve feeding practices among HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania: study protocol for a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Feeding practices and child undernutrition can be improved when trained health workers provide proper nutrition counseling to caregivers. However, this important management component is difficult to achieve in countries where trained health workers are limited; Tanzania is no exception. In rural and semi-urban areas, mid-level providers (MLPs) are left to manage diseases such as HIV/AIDS. Training health workers in nutrition has been shown to be an effective intervention among HIV-negative children elsewhere, but no studies have been conducted among HIV-positive children. Furthermore, in Tanzania and other countries with MLPs, no evidence currently exists demonstrating an improvement in nutrition among children who receive health services given by MLPs. This study thus aims to examine the efficacy of nutrition training of MLPs on feeding practices and the nutrition status of HIV-positive children in Tanga, Tanzania. Methods/Design We will conduct a cluster randomized controlled trial in care and treatment centers (CTCs) in Tanga, Tanzania. The CTCs will be the unit of randomization. We will select 16 CTCs out of 32 for this study, of which we will randomly assign 8 to the intervention arm and 8 to the control arm by coin flipping. From the selected CTCs we will attempt to recruit a total of 800 HIV-positive children aged 6 months to 14 years, half of whom will be receiving care and/or treatment in the CTCs of the intervention arm, and the other half of whom will be receiving care and/or treatment in the CTCs of the control arm (400 children in each condition). We will provide nutrition training to MLPs of the CTCs selected for the intervention arm. In this intervention, we will use the World Health Organization guidelines on nutrition training of health workers for HIV-positive children aged 6 months to 14 years. The trained MLPs will then provide tailored nutrition counseling to caregivers of children being treated at the 8 CTCs of the intervention arm

  19. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  20. Critical Pedagogy for Critical Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tutak, Fatma Aslan; Bondy, Elizabeth; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief introduction to critical pedagogy and further discussion on critical mathematics education. Critical mathematics education enables students to read the world with mathematics. Three emerging domains of mathematics education related to critical mathematics education are discussed in this manuscript: ethnomathematics,…

  1. Direct analytical method of contact position effects on the energy-level alignments at organic semiconductor/electrode interfaces using photoemission spectroscopy combined with Ar gas cluster ion beam sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dong-Jin; Chung, JaeGwan; Kim, Seong Heon; Kim, Yongsu; Park, SungHoon; Seol, Minsu; Heo, Sung

    2015-11-01

    Poly(3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymerized with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) is one of the most widely used conducting organic electrodes owing to its outstanding optical/electrical properties and high work function. Because its work function depends significantly on the molecular arrangements between PEDOT and PSS molecules on the surface, the contact position of PEDOT:PSS films on organic semiconductors (OSCs) must also be an essential consideration. However, existing analysis methods based on in situ deposition/analysis are limited in their ability to accurately investigate the electronic structures of the buried interface regions under the solution-processed electrode or OSC layer in organic devices. Therefore, to overcome such limitations, we propose a top-down method based on photoemission spectroscopy analysis combined with Ar gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) sputtering. Through this method, both energy-level alignments and molecular distributions at various OSC/electrode interfaces can be successfully characterized without reference to any deposition process.

  2. Positional Asphyxia: Death Due to Unusual Head-Down Position in a Narrow Space.

    PubMed

    Chaudhari, Vinod Ashok; Ghodake, Dattatray G; Kharat, Rajesh D

    2016-06-01

    Death due to a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck is a rare event. A person accidentally falling into a narrow space and remaining in an upside-down position with no timely recovery may experience positional or postural asphyxia. It is a critical condition arising out of particular body positions, leading to mechanical obstruction of respiration. The precipitating factors are intoxication due to alcohol, drugs, obesity, psychiatric illnesses, and injuries. A 30-year-old unmarried woman, weighing 82 kg and with a body mass index of 31.24, was found in a narrow space between the bed and the wall in a naked state and in a head-down position with hyperflexion of the neck. The distribution of lividity was consistent with the position of the body at the scene. Blood was oozing from the mouth and nostrils, and signs of asphyxia were present. The toxicological analyses of viscera, blood, and urine were negative for alcohol, drugs, and poisons. Glucose levels in the blood (86 mg/dL) as well as urine and vitreous humor levels (68 mg/dL) were within normal limits. On microscopic examination, there were no findings of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas the brain and lung were edematous. After meticulous examination, we ruled out sexual assault, autoerotic asphyxia, epilepsy, psychiatric illness, diabetes, toxicity, and coronary artery disease. Death was attributed to the accidental fall of the obese individual being stuck in a narrow space, resulting in positional asphyxia. It is imperative to recognize the precipitating or risk factors before labeling positional asphyxia as a cause of death. PMID:26840099

  3. Ion extraction from positively biased laser-ablation plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isono, Fumika; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Hasegawa, Jun; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2016-07-01

    Ions were extracted through a grounded grid from a positively biased laser-ablation plasma and the behaviors were investigated. Since the plasma was positively biased against the grounded wall, we could extract the ions without insulated gap. We confirmed formation of a virtual anode when we increased the distance between the grid and the ion collector. Results also indicated that when the ion flux from the ablation plasma exceeded a critical value, the current was strongly suppressed to the space charge limited level due to the formation of virtual anode.

  4. Relief of diabetes by duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve implantation in the high-fat diet and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model is associated with an increase in GLP-1 levels and the number of GLP-1-positive cells

    PubMed Central

    SHUANG, JINQUAN; ZHANG, YING; MA, LIMEI; TAN, XUEMING; HUANG, JING; WANG, XIANG; XIONG, GUANYIN; JIANG, ZHONGHUA; ZHANG, XIUHUA; DU, SHIQING; GU, YONGSONG; SHI, XIANGYANG; FAN, ZHINING

    2015-01-01

    A recently invented duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) implanted in the duodenum and proximal jejunum has exhibited good glycemic control in diabetes mellitus. However, the specific mechanism by which DJBS placement induces the remission of diabetes is not well known. Previous studies have indicated that changes in the pattern of gut hormone secretion may play a role. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of intestinal L cells and the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by these cells in DJBS implantation-induced glycemic control in diabetic rats. A DJBS was placed in the proximal small intestine of rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ), and the effects of the DJBS on the remission of diabetes and the GLP-1 levels of plasma and intestinal tissues were investigated 12 weeks after DJBS placement. The number of intestinal GLP-1 positive cells was also counted. When the DJBS had been in place for 12 weeks, the plasma glucose level of the DJBS-implanted rats decreased significantly from 23.33±1.56 mmol/l prior to surgery to 7.70±0.84 mmol/l and the diabetes mellitus was relieved completely; however, diabetic control rats and diabetic rats subjected to sham surgery did not show any improvement. Parallel with the remission of diabetes, the plasma and distal ileum GLP-1 levels of rats in the DJBS implantation group were also higher than those of rats in the diabetic control and sham surgery groups. The number of GLP-1-positive cells in the distal ileum was also higher in the DJBS implantation group than in the diabetic control and sham surgery groups (31.0±2.6 vs. 23.5±4.4 vs. 23.0±3.2 respectively; P<0.01). DJBS implantation effectively led to the remission of diabetes in rats with diabetes induced by a high-fat diet and low-dose STZ when implanted for 12 weeks. The remission of diabetes may be associated with the increase in the number of L cells and elevation of GLP-1 levels induced by DJBS

  5. Bilateral sequential cochlear implantation in the congenitally deaf child: evidence to support the concept of a 'critical age' after which the second ear is less likely to provide an adequate level of speech perception on its own.

    PubMed

    Graham, John; Vickers, Debi; Eyles, Julie; Brinton, Julie; Al Malky, Ghada; Aleksy, Wanda; Martin, Jane; Henderson, Lise; Mawman, Deborah; Robinson, Philip; Midgley, Elizabeth; Hanvey, Kate; Twomey, Tracey; Johnson, Susan; Vanat, Zebunnisa; Broxholme, Cath; McAnallen, Cecilia; Allen, Agnes; Bray, Monica

    2009-09-01

    This study attempts to answer the question of whether there is a 'critical age' after which a second contralateral cochlear implant is less likely to provide enough speech perception to be of practical use. The study was not designed to predict factors that determine successful binaural implant use, but to see if there was evidence to help determine the latest age at which the second ear can usefully be implanted, should the first side fail and become unusable.Outcome data, in the form of speech perception test results, were collected from 11 cochlear implant programmes in the UK and one centre in Australia. Forty-seven congenitally bilaterally deaf subjects who received bilateral sequential implants were recruited to the study. The study also included four subjects with congenital unilateral profound deafness who had lost all hearing in their only hearing ear and received a cochlear implant in their unilaterally congenitally deaf ear. Of those 34 subjects for whom complete sets of data were available, the majority (72%) of those receiving their second (or unilateral) implant up to the age of 13 years scored 60 per cent or above in the Bamford Kowal Bench (BKB) sentence test, or equivalent. In contrast, of those nine receiving their second or unilateral implant at the age of 15 or above, none achieved adequate levels of speech perception on formal testing: two scored 29 per cent and 30 per cent, respectively, and the rest seven per cent or less.A discriminant function analysis performed on the data suggests that it is unlikely that a second contralateral implant received after the age of 16 to 18 years will, on its own, provide adequate levels of speech perception. As more children receive sequential bilateral cochlear implants and the pool of data enlarges the situation is likely to become clearer.The results provide support for the concept of a 'critical age' for implanting the second ear in successful congenitally deaf unilateral cochlear implant users. This

  6. Morphogenesis at criticality?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krotov, Dmitry; Dubuis, Julien; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-03-01

    Embryonic development of many multicellular organisms begins with the generation of spatially varying patterns of morphogens that encode the body plan of the future organism. We study the spatial pattern formed by the gap gene proteins in the early fruit fly embryo, which is anchored by ``crossing points'' between expression levels of different genes; these are thought to result from mutual repression. We explore a broad class of models for such interacting genes and show that the parameters implied implied by recent quantitative measurements are non-generic, but rather tuned to certain values, so that the entire gap gene network operates close to the critical surface in its phase diagram. We develop a mean field description of this system as well as derive signatures of critical behavior in the structure of expression noise. One such signature is that fluctuations are dominated by a single ``massless'' mode, so that fluctuations of expression levels of different genes are highly correlated/anticorrelated. We find a surprisingly high degree of anticorrelation in the real experimental data. These results suggest an interesting possibility that the network of genes responsible for development is operating near criticality.

  7. Changes in serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in HER2-positive breast cancer patients undergoing neoadjuvant therapy: a translational research project within the Geparquinto trial.

    PubMed

    Müller, Volkmar; Gade, Stephan; Steinbach, Bettina; Loibl, Sibylle; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Untch, Michael; Schwedler, Kathrin; Lübbe, Kristina; Schem, Christian; Fasching, Peter A; Mau, Christine; Pantel, Klaus; Schwarzenbach, Heidi

    2014-08-01

    Trastuzumab and lapatinib are established treatments for patients with HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2)-positive breast cancer with different mechanisms of action. The focus of this study is to investigate, whether altered expression levels of potentially relevant microRNAs (miRs) in serum are associated with response to trastuzumab or lapatinib. Circulating miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 were quantified with TaqMan MicroRNA assays in serum of 127 HER2-postive breast cancer patients before and after neoadjuvant therapy and in 19 healthy controls. Patients received chemotherapy combined with either trastuzumab or lapatinib within the prospectively randomized Geparquinto trial. The association between miR levels and pathological response (pCR) to therapy and type of therapy was examined. Serum levels of miR-21 (p = 5.04e-08, p = 1.43e-10), miR-210 (p = 0.00151, p = 1.6e-05), and miR-373 (p = 7.87e-06, p = 1.75e-07) were significantly higher in patients before and after chemotherapy than in healthy women. Concentrations of miR-21 (p = 5.73e-08), miR-210 (p = 0.000724), and miR-373 (p = 0.00209) increased further after chemotherapy. A significant association of higher serum levels of miR-373 with advanced clinical tumor stage could be detected (p < 0.002). An association of miR-21 levels before (p = 0.0091) and after (p = 0.037) chemotherapy with overall survival of the patients could be detected, independent of type of anti-HER2 therapy. No association of circulating miRs with pCR was found. Our findings demonstrate a specific influence of neoadjuvant therapy on the serum levels of miR-21, miR-210, and miR-373 in breast cancer patients together with a prognostic value of miR-21. PMID:25086636

  8. The effect of positive thinking training on the level of spiritual well-being among the patients with coronary artery diseases referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran: A randomized controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Ghodsbin, Fariba; Safaei, Marzieh; Jahanbin, Iran; Ostovan, Mohammad Ali; Keshvarzi, Sareh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Positive thinking which is derived from an optimistic view toward the universe and plays an important role in the incidence of better and a more targeted behavior among human beings. It can improve spiritual health in the individuals through increased communication with God and thanksgiving and accelerate the healing process. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the effect of positive thinking on the level of spiritual health in the patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) referred to Imam Reza specialty and subspecialty clinic in Shiraz, Iran. METHODS In this study randomized controlled clinical trial, we enrolled 90 patients with confirmed CAD referred to Imam Reza clinic, Shiraz, during April to July 2013. A blocking randomization method was used to randomize the final 90 participants into intervention (n = 45) and control groups (n = 45). After obtaining written informed consent, the participants were asked to complete two questionnaires. Data were collected using Ellison and Paloutzian’s spiritual well-being scale (SWBS) and a demographic questionnaire. The patients in the intervention group participated in 7 training sessions on positive thinking in which several topics were discussed. The SWBS questionnaire was completed two more times by the participants; once immediately after, and once 1 month after the intervention. 16 patients were excluded from the study due to different reasons, and finally the analysis was performed on 74 patients. RESULTS The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of spiritual well-being (SWB) increased from 88.71 ± 12.5 to 96.63 ± 12.58 in the intervention group; while, it decreased from 93.19 ± 17.55 to 94.45 ± 16.01 in the control group in the interval of before and 1 month after the intervention. We observed a statistically significant difference between the two groups regarding both variables of time and group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION SWB is an important factor which should be considered in the treatment process, and

  9. Fad24, a Positive Regulator of Adipogenesis, Is Required for S Phase Re-entry of C2C12 Myoblasts Arrested in G0 Phase and Involved in p27(Kip1) Expression at the Protein Level.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Natsuki; Nishizuka, Makoto; Osada, Shigehiro; Imagawa, Masayoshi

    2016-05-01

    Factor for adipocyte differentiation 24 (fad24) is a positive regulator of adipogenesis. We previously found that human fad24 is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscle. However, the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle remains largely unknown. Because skeletal muscle is a highly regenerative tissue, we focused on the function of fad24 in skeletal muscle regeneration. In this paper, we investigated the role of fad24 in the cell cycle re-entry of quiescent C2C12 myoblasts-mimicked satellite cells. The expression levels of fad24 and histone acetyltransferase binding to ORC1 (hbo1), a FAD24-interacting factor, were elevated at the early phase of the regeneration process in response to cardiotoxin-induced muscle injury. The knockdown of fad24 inhibited the proliferation of quiescent myoblasts, whereas fad24 knockdown did not affect differentiation. S phase entry following serum activation is abrogated by fad24 knockdown in quiescent cells. Furthermore, fad24 knockdown cells show a marked accumulation of p27(Kip1) protein. These results suggest that fad24 may have an important role in the S phase re-entry of quiescent C2C12 cells through the regulation of p27(Kip1) at the protein level. PMID:26902224

  10. 5 CFR 731.106 - Designation of public trust positions and investigative requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... receive a sensitivity designation of Special-Sensitive, Critical-Sensitive, or Noncritical-Sensitive, when... sensitivity levels and investigative requirements. Procedures for determining investigative requirements for all positions based upon risk and sensitivity will be published in OPM issuances, as described...

  11. The role of dose rate in radiation cancer risk: evaluating the effect of dose rate at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels using key events in critical pathways following exposure to low LET radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Antone L.; Hoel, David G.; Preston, R. Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: This review evaluates the role of dose rate on cell and molecular responses. It focuses on the influence of dose rate on key events in critical pathways in the development of cancer. This approach is similar to that used by the U.S. EPA and others to evaluate risk from chemicals. It provides a mechanistic method to account for the influence of the dose rate from low-LET radiation, especially in the low-dose region on cancer risk assessment. Molecular, cellular, and tissues changes are observed in many key events and change as a function of dose rate. The magnitude and direction of change can be used to help establish an appropriate dose rate effectiveness factor (DREF). Conclusions: Extensive data on key events suggest that exposure to low dose-rates are less effective in producing changes than high dose rates. Most of these data at the molecular and cellular level support a large (2–30) DREF. In addition, some evidence suggests that doses delivered at a low dose rate decrease damage to levels below that observed in the controls. However, there are some data human and mechanistic data that support a dose-rate effectiveness factor of 1. In summary, a review of the available molecular, cellular and tissue data indicates that not only is dose rate an important variable in understanding radiation risk but it also supports the selection of a DREF greater than one as currently recommended by ICRP (2007) and BEIR VII (NRC/NAS 2006). PMID:27266588

  12. Critical Reading: An Aristotelian Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, James C.

    In view of Aristotle's remarks about requiring different kinds of proof in different subjects, the critical reader must make judgments about the quality of proof offered for a position. The four realms of knowledge, in decreasing order of certitude, include mathematics, empirical science, rhetoric (values, ethics, politics), and myth, or…

  13. Criticisms and Contradictions of Ethnomathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the epistemology and philosophy of ethnomathematics, and to debate its educational implications. It begins by identifying in recent literature two categories of criticism of ethnomathematics: epistemological, related with the way ethnomathematics positions itself in terms of…

  14. Critical neuroscience meets medical humanities.

    PubMed

    Slaby, Jan

    2015-06-01

    This programmatic theory paper sketches a conceptual framework that might inspire work in critical Medical Humanities. For this purpose, Kaushik Sunder Rajan's account of biocapital is revisited and discussed in relation to the perspective of a critical neuroscience. Critical neuroscience is an encompassing positioning towards the recent public prominence of the brain and brain-related practices, tools and discourses. The proposed analytical scheme has five focal nodes: capital, life, technoscience, (neoliberal) politics and subjectivity. A special emphasis will be placed on contemporary framings of subjectivity, as it is here where deep-reaching entanglements of personhood with scientific practice and discourse, medical and informational technologies, and economic formations are most evident. Notably, the emerging subject position of the 'prospective health consumer' will be discussed as it figures prominently in the terrain between neuroscience and other medico-scientific disciplines. PMID:26052114

  15. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    SciTech Connect

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-13

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  16. Critical consciousness development and political participation among marginalized youth.

    PubMed

    Diemer, Matthew A; Li, Cheng-Hsien

    2011-01-01

    Given associations between critical consciousness and positive developmental outcomes, and given racial, socioeconomic, and generational disparities in political participation, this article examined contextual antecedents of critical consciousness (composed of sociopolitical control and social action) and its consequences for 665 marginalized youth's (ages 15-25) voting behavior. A multiple indicator and multiple causes (MIMIC) model examined racial, ethnic, and age differences in the measurement and means of latent constructs. The structural model suggested that parental and peer sociopolitical support predicts sociopolitical control and social action, which in turn predicts voting behavior, while controlling for civic and political knowledge, race/ethnicity, and age. This illuminates how micro-level actors foster critical consciousness and how the perceived capacity to effect social change and social action participation may redress voting disparities. PMID:21954896

  17. Encouraging Critical Thinking in Online Threaded Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arend, Bridget

    2009-01-01

    Critical thinking is a highly desirable goal of online higher education courses. This article presents qualitative data from a mixed-method study that explores how asynchronous discussions within online courses influence critical thinking among students. In this study, online discussions were related to higher levels of critical thinking, but…

  18. New Perspectives on Action Learning: Developing Criticality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lisa; Thorpe, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the role of criticality in action learning and in Master's level management education; examines approaches to developing criticality through social constructionist approaches to learning and illustrates how a heightened consciousness of language use by managers can be used to develop critical reflection. Examines critical…

  19. Virtual Egalitarianism, Critical Pedagogy, and Geographic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukinbeal, Chris; Allen, Casey D.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the implementation of critical pedagogic practices into a graduate level landscape seminar Web site. Critical pedagogy seeks to reconfigure student-teacher relationships and disrupt embedded power regimes within academia and society. Critical pedagogic practices create a dialogue amongst learners, where everyone has a stake…

  20. Critical current versus strain research at the University of Twente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Eck, H. J. N.; van der Laan, D. C.; Dhallé, M.; ten Haken, B.; ten Kate, H. H. J.

    2003-09-01

    At the University of Twente a U-shaped spring has been used to investigate the mechanical properties of a large variety of superconducting tapes and wires. Several mechanisms are responsible for the degradation of critical current as a function of applied strain. A change in its intrinsic parameters causes a reversible critical current dependence in Nb3Sn. The critical current reaches a maximum at a wire-dependent tensile strain level, and decreases when this tensile strain is either released or further increased. In Bi-based tapes the critical current is virtually insensitive to tensile strain up to a sample-dependent irreversible strain limit. When this limit is exceeded, the critical current decreases steeply and irreversibly. This behaviour is attributed to microstructural damage to the filaments. This cracking of the filaments is verified by a magneto-optical strain experiment. Recent experiments suggest that in MgB2 the degradation of critical current is caused by a change in intrinsic properties and damage to the microstructure. Magneto-optical imaging can be used to investigate the influence of applied strain on the microstructure of MgB2, as is done successfully with Bi-based tapes. In all these conductors the thermal precompression of the filaments plays an important role. In Nb3Sn it determines the position of the maximum and in Bi-based and MgB2 conductors it is closely related to the irreversible strain limit.