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Sample records for critical lysine residues

  1. Critical lysine residues of Klf4 required for protein stabilization and degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Key-Hwan; Kim, So-Ra; Ramakrishna, Suresh; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Klf4 undergoes the 26S proteasomal degradation by ubiquitination on its multiple lysine residues. • Essential Klf4 ubiquitination sites are accumulated between 190–263 amino acids. • A mutation of lysine at 232 on Klf4 elongates protein turnover. • Klf4 mutants dramatically suppress p53 expression both under normal and UV irradiated conditions. - Abstract: The transcription factor, Krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) plays a crucial role in generating induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). As the ubiquitination and degradation of the Klf4 protein have been suggested to play an important role in its function, the identification of specific lysine sites that are responsible for protein degradation is of prime interest to improve protein stability and function. However, the molecular mechanism regulating proteasomal degradation of the Klf4 is poorly understood. In this study, both the analysis of Klf4 ubiquitination sites using several Klf4 deletion fragments and bioinformatics predictions showed that the lysine sites which are signaling for Klf4 protein degradation lie in its N-terminal domain (aa 1–296). The results also showed that Lys32, 52, 232, and 252 of Klf4 are responsible for the proteolysis of the Klf4 protein. These results suggest that Klf4 undergoes proteasomal degradation and that these lysine residues are critical for Klf4 ubiquitination.

  2. Folding simulations of alanine-based peptides with lysine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, S S

    1995-01-01

    The folding of short alanine-based peptides with different numbers of lysine residues is simulated at constant temperature (274 K) using the rigid-element Monte Carlo method. The solvent-referenced potential has prevented the multiple-minima problem in helix folding. From various initial structures, the peptides with three lysine residues fold into helix-dominated conformations with the calculated average helicity in the range of 60-80%. The peptide with six lysine residues shows only 8-14% helicity. These results agree well with experimental observations. The intramolecular electrostatic interaction of the charged lysine side chains and their electrostatic hydration destabilize the helical conformations of the peptide with six lysine residues, whereas these effects on the peptides with three lysine residues are small. The simulations provide insight into the helix-folding mechanism, including the beta-bend intermediate in helix initiation, the (i, i + 3) hydrogen bonds, the asymmetrical helix propagation, and the asymmetrical helicities in the N- and C-terminal regions. These findings are consistent with previous studies. PMID:7756550

  3. Accessibility and mobility of lysine residues in. beta. -lactoglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, E.M.; Pfeffer, P.E.; Kumosinski, T.F.; Greenberg, R.

    1988-07-26

    N/sup epsilon/-(/sup 2/H/sub 6/)Isopropyllysyl-..beta..-lactoglobulin was prepared by reductive alkylation of ..beta..-lactoglobulin with (/sup 2/H/sub 6/)acetone and NaBH/sub 4/ to provide a /sup 2/H (NMR) probe for the study of lysine involvement in lipid-protein interactions. Amino acid analysis showed 80% of the protein's 15 lysine residues to be labeled. Unmodified lysine residues were located through peptide maps produced from CNBr, tryptic, and chymotryptic digests of the labeled protein. Average correlation times calculated from /sup 2/H NMR spectra were 20 and 320 ps for 8.7 and 3.3 residues, respectively, in 6 M guanidine hydrochloride; in nondenaturing solution, values of 70 and 320 ps were obtained for 6.5 and 3.2 residues, respectively, with the remaining 2.3 modified residues not observed, suggesting that side chains of lysine residues in unordered or flexible regions were more mobile than those in stable periodic structures. /sup 2/H NMR spectra of the protein complexed with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine confirmed the extrinsic membrane protein type behavior of ..beta..-lactoglobulin previously reported from /sup 31/P NMR studies of the phospholipids complexed with ..beta..-lactoglobulin. Although no physiological function has yet been identified, comparison of these results with the X-ray structure supports the hypothesis that residues not accessible for modification may help to stabilize the cone-shaped ..beta..-barrel thought to contain binding sites for small lipid-soluble molecules.

  4. On methylene-bridged cysteine and lysine residues in proteins.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Cysteine residues ubiquitously stabilize tertiary and quaternary protein structure by formation of disulfide bridges. Here we investigate another linking interaction that involves sulfhydryl groups of cysteines, namely intra- and intermolecular methylene-bridges between cysteine and lysine residues. A number of crystal structures possessing such a linkage were identified in the Protein Data Bank. Inspection of the electron density maps and re-refinement of the nominated structures unequivocally confirmed the presence of Lys-CH2 -Cys bonds in several cases. PMID:27261771

  5. Selective Deletion of the Internal Lysine Residue from the Peptide Sequence by Collisional Activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Shibdas; Mazumdar, Shyamalava

    2012-11-01

    The gas-phase peptide ion fragmentation chemistry is always the center of attraction in proteomics to analyze the amino acid sequence of peptides and proteins. In this work, we describe the formation of an anomalous fragment ion, which corresponds to the selective deletion of the internal lysine residue from a series of lysine containing peptides upon collisional activation in the ion trap. We detected several water-loss fragment ions and the maximum number of water molecules lost from a particular fragment ion was equal to the number of lysine residues in that fragment. As a consequence of this water-loss phenomenon, internal lysine residues were found to be deleted from the peptide ion. The N,N-dimethylation of all the amine functional groups of the peptide stopped the internal lysine deletion reaction, but selective N-terminal α-amino acetylation had no effect on this process indicating involvement of the side chains of the lysine residues. The detailed mechanism of the lysine deletion was investigated by multistage CID of the modified and unmodified peptides, by isotope labeling and by energy resolved CID studies. The results suggest that the lysine deletion might occur through a unimolecular multistep mechanism involving a seven-membered cyclic imine intermediate formed by the loss of water from a lysine residue in the protonated peptide. This intermediate subsequently undergoes degradation reaction to deplete the interior imine ring from the peptide backbone leading to the deletion of an internal lysine residue.

  6. Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Nadeem A.; Moinuddin; Ali, Rashid

    2011-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related diseases. Antigenic characteristics of glycated lysine residues in proteins together with the presence of serum autoantibodies to the glycated lysine products and lysine-rich proteins in diabetes and arthritis patients indicates that these modified lysine residues may be a novel biomarker for protein glycation in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:21725160

  7. Charge Stabilization and Entropy Reduction of Central Lysine Residues in

    SciTech Connect

    St-Jean, M.; Blonski, C; Sygusch, J

    2009-01-01

    Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate muscle aldolase is an essential glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes reversible carbon-carbon bond formation by cleaving fructose 1,6-bisphosphate to yield dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and d-glyceraldehyde phosphate. To elucidate the mechanistic role of conserved amino acid Asp-33, Asn-33 and Ser-33 mutants were examined by kinetic and structural analyses. The mutations significantly compromised enzymatic activity and carbanion oxidation in presence of DHAP. Detailed structural analysis demonstrated that, like native crystals, Asp-33 mutant crystals, soaked in DHAP solutions, trapped Schiff base-derived intermediates covalently attached to Lys-229. The mutant structures, however, exhibited an abridged conformational change with the helical region (34-65) flanking the active site as well as pK{sub a} reductions and increased side chain disorder by central lysine residues, Lys-107 and Lys-146. These changes directly affect their interaction with the C-terminal Tyr-363, consistent with the absence of active site binding by the C-terminal region in the presence of phosphate. Lys-146 pKa reduction and side chain disorder would further compromise charge stabilization during C-C bond cleavage and proton transfer during enamine formation. These mechanistic impediments explain diminished catalytic activity and a reduced level of carbanion oxidation and are consistent with rate-determining proton transfer observed in the Asn-33 mutant. Asp-33 reduces the entropic cost and augments the enthalpic gain during catalysis by rigidifying Lys-107 and Lys-146, stabilizing their protonated forms, and promoting a conformational change triggered by substrate or obligate product binding, which lower kinetic barriers in C-C bond cleavage and Schiff base-enamine interconversion.

  8. ERAD of proteins containing aberrant transmembrane domains requires ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues

    PubMed Central

    Briant, Kit; Koay, Yee-Hui; Otsuka, Yuka; Swanton, Eileithyia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clearance of misfolded proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in a process known as ER-associated degradation (ERAD). The mechanisms through which proteins containing aberrant transmembrane domains are degraded by ERAD are poorly understood. To address this question, we generated model ERAD substrates based on CD8 with either a non-native transmembrane domain but a folded ER luminal domain (CD8TMD*), or the native transmembrane domain but a misfolded luminal domain (CD8LUM*). Although both chimeras were degraded by ERAD, we found that the location of the folding defect determined the initial site of ubiquitylation. Ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues was required for the extraction of CD8TMD* from the ER membrane during ERAD, whereas CD8LUM* continued to be degraded in the absence of cytoplasmic lysine residues. Cytoplasmic lysine residues were also required for degradation of an additional ERAD substrate containing an unassembled transmembrane domain and when a non-native transmembrane domain was introduced into CD8LUM*. Our results suggest that proteins with defective transmembrane domains are removed from the ER through a specific ERAD mechanism that depends upon ubiquitylation of cytoplasmic lysine residues. PMID:26446255

  9. Regulation of translesion DNA synthesis: posttranslational modification of lysine residues in key proteins

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Justyna; Woodgate, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins often controls various aspects of their cellular function. Indeed, over the past decade or so, it has been discovered that posttranslational modification of lysine residues plays a major role in regulating translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) and perhaps the most appreciated lysine modification is that of ubiquitination. Much of the recent interest in ubiquitination stems from the fact that proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was previously shown to be specifically ubiquitinated at K164 and that such ubiquitination plays a key role in regulating TLS. In addition, TLS polymerases themselves are now known to be ubiquitinated. In the case of human polymerase η, ubiquitination at four lysine residues in its C-terminus appears to regulate its ability to interact with PCNA and modulate TLS. Within the past few years, advances in global proteomic research has revealed that many proteins involved in TLS are, in fact, subject to a previously underappreciated number of lysine modifications. In this review, we will summarize the known lysine modifications of several key proteins involved in TLS; PCNA and Y-family polymerases η, ι, κ and Rev1 and we will discuss the potential regulatory effects of such modification in controlling TLS in vivo. PMID:25743599

  10. Proline and lysine residues provide modulatory switches in amyloid formation: Insights from prion protein.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Amyloidogenic proteins have an increased propensity to reorganize into the highly structured, β sheet rich structures that characterize amyloid. The probability of attaining these highly structured assemblies is influenced by multiple factors, including amino acid composition and environmental conditions. Evolutionary selection for amino acid sequences that prevent amyloid formation could further modulate amyloid-forming propensity. Indeed, we have recently identified specific proline and lysine residues, contained within a highly conserved central region of prion protein (PrP), that impede PrP amyloid formation in vitro. These prolines are mutated in certain forms of the human familial genetic disease, Gerstmann-Straüssler-Schneiker (GSS) syndrome. Here, I discuss the influence of these proline and lysine residues on PrP amyloid formation and how such anti-amyloidogenic primary amino acid sequences might be modulated to influence protein amyloidogenicity. PMID:26864641

  11. Cardiolipin binds selectively but transiently to conserved lysine residues in the rotor of metazoan ATP synthases

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Anna L.

    2016-01-01

    The anionic lipid cardiolipin is an essential component of active ATP synthases. In metazoans, their rotors contain a ring of eight c-subunits consisting of inner and outer circles of N- and C-terminal α-helices, respectively. The beginning of the C-terminal α-helix contains a strictly conserved and fully trimethylated lysine residue in the lipid head-group region of the membrane. Larger rings of known structure, from c9-c15 in eubacteria and chloroplasts, conserve either a lysine or an arginine residue in the equivalent position. In computer simulations of hydrated membranes containing trimethylated or unmethylated bovine c8-rings and bacterial c10- or c11-rings, the head-groups of cardiolipin molecules became associated selectively with these modified and unmodified lysine residues and with adjacent polar amino acids and with a second conserved lysine on the opposite side of the membrane, whereas phosphatidyl lipids were attracted little to these sites. However, the residence times of cardiolipin molecules with the ring were brief and sufficient for the rotor to turn only a fraction of a degree in the active enzyme. With the demethylated c8-ring and with c10- and c11-rings, the density of bound cardiolipin molecules at this site increased, but residence times were not changed greatly. These highly specific but brief interactions with the rotating c-ring are consistent with functional roles for cardiolipin in stabilizing and lubricating the rotor, and, by interacting with the enzyme at the inlet and exit of the transmembrane proton channel, in participation in proton translocation through the membrane domain of the enzyme. PMID:27382158

  12. Cardiolipin binds selectively but transiently to conserved lysine residues in the rotor of metazoan ATP synthases.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Anna L; Robinson, Alan J; Walker, John E

    2016-08-01

    The anionic lipid cardiolipin is an essential component of active ATP synthases. In metazoans, their rotors contain a ring of eight c-subunits consisting of inner and outer circles of N- and C-terminal α-helices, respectively. The beginning of the C-terminal α-helix contains a strictly conserved and fully trimethylated lysine residue in the lipid head-group region of the membrane. Larger rings of known structure, from c9-c15 in eubacteria and chloroplasts, conserve either a lysine or an arginine residue in the equivalent position. In computer simulations of hydrated membranes containing trimethylated or unmethylated bovine c8-rings and bacterial c10- or c11-rings, the head-groups of cardiolipin molecules became associated selectively with these modified and unmodified lysine residues and with adjacent polar amino acids and with a second conserved lysine on the opposite side of the membrane, whereas phosphatidyl lipids were attracted little to these sites. However, the residence times of cardiolipin molecules with the ring were brief and sufficient for the rotor to turn only a fraction of a degree in the active enzyme. With the demethylated c8-ring and with c10- and c11-rings, the density of bound cardiolipin molecules at this site increased, but residence times were not changed greatly. These highly specific but brief interactions with the rotating c-ring are consistent with functional roles for cardiolipin in stabilizing and lubricating the rotor, and, by interacting with the enzyme at the inlet and exit of the transmembrane proton channel, in participation in proton translocation through the membrane domain of the enzyme. PMID:27382158

  13. Lysyl Hydroxylase 3 Modifies Lysine Residues to Facilitate Oligomerization of Mannan-Binding Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Risteli, Maija; Ruotsalainen, Heli; Bergmann, Ulrich; Venkatraman Girija, Umakhanth; Wallis, Russell; Myllylä, Raili

    2014-01-01

    Lysyl hydroxylase 3 (LH3) is a multifunctional protein with lysyl hydroxylase, galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities. The LH3 has been shown to modify the lysine residues both in collagens and also in some collagenous proteins. In this study we show for the first time that LH3 is essential for catalyzing formation of the glucosylgalactosylhydroxylysines of mannan-binding lectin (MBL), the first component of the lectin pathway of complement activation. Furthermore, loss of the terminal glucose units on the derivatized lysine residues in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the LH3 protein leads to defective disulphide bonding and oligomerization of rat MBL-A, with a decrease in the proportion of the larger functional MBL oligomers. The oligomerization could be completely restored with the full length LH3 or the amino-terminal fragment of LH3 that possesses the glycosyltransferase activities. Our results confirm that LH3 is the only enzyme capable of glucosylating the galactosylhydroxylysine residues in proteins with a collagenous domain. In mice lacking the lysyl hydroxylase activity of LH3, but with untouched galactosyltransferase and glucosyltransferase activities, reduced circulating MBL-A levels were observed. Oligomerization was normal, however and residual lysyl hydroxylation was compensated in part by other lysyl hydroxylase isoenzymes. Our data suggest that LH3 is commonly involved in biosynthesis of collagenous proteins and the glucosylation of galactosylhydroxylysines residues by LH3 is crucial for the formation of the functional high-molecular weight MBL oligomers. PMID:25419660

  14. The emerging characterization of lysine residue deacetylation on the modulation of mitochondrial function and cardiovascular biology

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongping; Scott, Iain; Webster, Bradley R.; Sack, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    There is emerging recognition of a novel fuel and redox sensing regulatory program that controls cellular adaptation via non-histone protein lysine-residue acetyl post-translation modifications. This program functions in tissues with high energy demand and oxidative capacity and is highly enriched in the heart. Deacetylation is regulated by NAD+-dependent activation of the sirtuin family of proteins while acetyltransferase modifications are controlled by less clearly delineated acetyltransferases. Subcellular localization specific protein targets of lysine-acetyl modification have been identified in the nucleus, cytoplasm and mitochondria. Despite distinct subcellular localizations, these modifications appear, in large part, to modify mitochondrial properties including respiration, energy production, apoptosis and anti-oxidant defenses. These mitochondrial regulatory programs are important in cardiovascular biology, although how protein acetyl modifications effects cardiovascular pathophysiology has not been extensively explored. This review will introduce the role of non-histone protein lysine-residue acetyl modifications, discuss their regulation and biochemistry and present the direct and indirect data implicating their involvement in the heart and vasculature. PMID:19850949

  15. Identification of lysine 346 as a functionally important residue for pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding and catalysis in lysine 2, 3-aminomutase from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, D; Frey, P A

    2001-01-16

    Lysine 2,3-aminomutase (LAM) catalyzes the interconversion of L-lysine and L-beta-lysine. The enzyme contains pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) and a [4Fe-4S] center and requires S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) for activity. The hydrogen transfer is mediated by the 5'-deoxyadenosyl radical generated in a reaction of the iron-sulfur cluster with SAM. PLP facilitates the radical rearrangement by forming a lysine-PLP aldimine, in which the imine group participates in the isomerization mechanism. We here report the identification of lysine 346 as important for PLP binding and catalysis. Reduction of LAM with NaBH(4) rapidly inactivated the enzyme with concomitant UV/visible spectrum changes characteristic of reduction of an aldimine formed between PLP and lysine. Following reduction with NaBH(4) and proteolysis with trypsin, a single phosphopyridoxyl peptide of 36 amino acid residues was identified by reverse-phase liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). The purified phosphopyridoxyl peptide exhibited an absorption band at 325 nm, and its identity was further confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) sequencing. The bound PLP is linked to lysine 346 in a PGGGGK (PLP) structure. The sequence of this binding motif is conserved in LAMs from Bacillus and Clostridium and other homologous proteins but is distinct from the PLP-binding motifs found in other PLP enzymes. The function of lysine 346 was further studied by site-directed mutagenesis. The purified K346Q mutant was inactive, and its content of PLP was only approximately 15% of that of the wild-type enzyme. The data indicate that the formation of the aldimine linkage between lysine 346 and PLP is important for LAM catalysis. Sequences similar to the PLP-binding motifs in other enzymes were also present in LAM. However, lysine residues within these motifs neither are the PLP-binding sites in LAM nor are directly involved in LAM catalysis. This study represents the first comprehensive investigation of PLP binding in

  16. Identification of family determining residues in Jumonji-C lysine demethylases: A sequence-based, family wide classification.

    PubMed

    Slama, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    Histone post-translational modifications play a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Methylation of lysines at N-terminal tails of histones has been shown to be involved in such regulation. While this modification was long considered to be irreversible, two different classes of enzymes capable of carrying out the demethylation of histone lysines were recently identified: the oxidases, such as LSD1, and the oxygenases (JmjC-containing). Here, a family-wide analysis of the second of these classes is proposed, with over 300 proteins studied at the sequence level. We show that a correlated evolution analysis yields some position/residue pairs which are critical at comparing JmjC sequences and enables the classification of JmjC domains into five families. A few positions appear more frequently among conditions, such as positions 23 (directly C-terminal to the second iron ligand), 24, 252 and 253 (directly N-terminal to a conserved Asn). Implications of family conditions are studied in detail on PHF2, revealing the meaningfulness of the sequence-derived conditions at the structural level. These results should help obtain insights on the diversity of JmjC-containing proteins solely by considering some of the amino acids present in their JmjC domain. PMID:26757344

  17. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; Romao, Celia V.; Pinto, Liliana C.; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Todorovic, Smilja

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue ismore » substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.« less

  18. Methylation of RNA polymerase II non-consensus Lysine residues marks early transcription in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Dias, João D; Rito, Tiago; Torlai Triglia, Elena; Kukalev, Alexander; Ferrai, Carmelo; Chotalia, Mita; Brookes, Emily; Kimura, Hiroshi; Pombo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic post-translational modification of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) coordinates the co-transcriptional recruitment of enzymatic complexes that regulate chromatin states and processing of nascent RNA. Extensive phosphorylation of serine residues at the largest RNAPII subunit occurs at its structurally-disordered C-terminal domain (CTD), which is composed of multiple heptapeptide repeats with consensus sequence Y1-S2-P3-T4-S5-P6-S7. Serine-5 and Serine-7 phosphorylation mark transcription initiation, whereas Serine-2 phosphorylation coincides with productive elongation. In vertebrates, the CTD has eight non-canonical substitutions of Serine-7 into Lysine-7, which can be acetylated (K7ac). Here, we describe mono- and di-methylation of CTD Lysine-7 residues (K7me1 and K7me2). K7me1 and K7me2 are observed during the earliest transcription stages and precede or accompany Serine-5 and Serine-7 phosphorylation. In contrast, K7ac is associated with RNAPII elongation, Serine-2 phosphorylation and mRNA expression. We identify an unexpected balance between RNAPII K7 methylation and acetylation at gene promoters, which fine-tunes gene expression levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11215.001 PMID:26687004

  19. Mapping of anion binding sites on cytochrome c by differential chemical modification of lysine residues.

    PubMed Central

    Osheroff, N; Brautigan, D L; Margoliash, E

    1980-01-01

    The carbonate binding site on horse cytochrome c was mapped by comparing the yields of carboxydinitrophenyl-cytochromes c, each with a single carboxydinitrophenyl-substituted lysine residue per molecule, when the modification reaction was carried out in the presence and absence of carbonate. The site is located on the "left surface" of the protein and consists of lysine residues 72 and/or 73 as well as 86 and/or 87 (Carbonate Site). Although one of the binding sites for phosphate on cytochrome c (Phosphat Site I) is located near the carbonate site, the sites are distinctly different since carbonate does not displace bound phosphate, as monitored by 31P NMR. Furthermore, citrate interacts with Phosphate Site I with high affinity, whereas chloride, acetate, borate, and cacodylate have a much lower affinity for this site, if they bind to it at all. The affinity of phosphate for Phosphate Site I (KD = 2 X 10(-4) M) is at least 1 order of magnitude higher than it is for other sites of interaction. Images PMID:6254024

  20. Superoxide reduction by a superoxide reductase lacking the highly conserved lysine residue

    SciTech Connect

    Teixeira, Miguel; Cabelli, Diane; Pinto, Ana F.; Romao, Celia V.; Pinto, Liliana C.; Huber, Harald; Saraiva, Ligia M.; Todorovic, Smilja

    2014-12-05

    Superoxide reductases (SORs) are the most recently identified superoxide detoxification systems, being found in microorganisms from the three domains of life. These enzymes are characterized by a catalytic mononuclear iron site, with one cysteine and four histidine ligands of the ferrous active form. A lysine residue in the –EKHVP– motif, located close to the active site, has been considered to be essential for the enzyme function, by contributing to the positive surface patch that attracts the superoxide anion and by controlling the chemistry of the catalytic mechanism through a hydrogen bond network. However, we show here that this residue is substituted by non-equivalent amino acids in several putative SORs from Archaea and unicellular Eukarya. In this work, we focus on mechanistic and spectroscopic studies of one of these less common enzymes, the SOR from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Ignicoccus hospitalis. We employ pulse radiolysis fast kinetics and spectroscopic approaches to study the wild-type enzyme (₋E₂₃T₂₄HVP₋), and two mutants, T24K and E23A, the later mimicking enzymes lacking both the lysine and glutamate (a ferric ion ligand) of the motif. The efficiency of the wild type protein and mutants in reducing superoxide is comparable to other SORs, revealing the robustness of these enzymes to single mutations.

  1. Large shifts in pKa values of lysine residues buried inside a protein.

    PubMed

    Isom, Daniel G; Castañeda, Carlos A; Cannon, Brian R; García-Moreno, Bertrand

    2011-03-29

    Internal ionizable groups in proteins are relatively rare but they are essential for catalysis and energy transduction. To examine molecular determinants of their unusual and functionally important properties, we engineered 25 variants of staphylococcal nuclease with lysine residues at internal positions. Nineteen of the Lys residues have depressed pK(a) values, some as low as 5.3, and 20 titrate without triggering any detectable conformational reorganization. Apparently, simply by being buried in the protein interior, these Lys residues acquired pK(a) values comparable to those of naturally occurring internal ionizable groups involved in catalysis and biological H(+) transport. The pK(a) values of some of the internal Lys residues were affected by interactions with surface carboxylic groups. The apparent polarizability reported by the pK(a) values varied significantly from location to location inside the protein. These data will enable an unprecedented examination of the positional dependence of the dielectric response of a protein. This study also shows that the ability of proteins to withstand the presence of charges in their hydrophobic interior is a fundamental property inherent to all stable proteins, not a specialized adaptation unique to proteins that evolved to depend on internal charges for function. PMID:21389271

  2. Large shifts in pKa values of lysine residues buried inside a protein

    PubMed Central

    Isom, Daniel G.; Castañeda, Carlos A.; Cannon, Brian R.; García-Moreno E., Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    Internal ionizable groups in proteins are relatively rare but they are essential for catalysis and energy transduction. To examine molecular determinants of their unusual and functionally important properties, we engineered 25 variants of staphylococcal nuclease with lysine residues at internal positions. Nineteen of the Lys residues have depressed pKa values, some as low as 5.3, and 20 titrate without triggering any detectable conformational reorganization. Apparently, simply by being buried in the protein interior, these Lys residues acquired pKa values comparable to those of naturally occurring internal ionizable groups involved in catalysis and biological H+ transport. The pKa values of some of the internal Lys residues were affected by interactions with surface carboxylic groups. The apparent polarizability reported by the pKa values varied significantly from location to location inside the protein. These data will enable an unprecedented examination of the positional dependence of the dielectric response of a protein. This study also shows that the ability of proteins to withstand the presence of charges in their hydrophobic interior is a fundamental property inherent to all stable proteins, not a specialized adaptation unique to proteins that evolved to depend on internal charges for function. PMID:21389271

  3. N(ε)-Carboxymethyl Modification of Lysine Residues in Pathogenic Prion Isoforms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yeong-Gon; Shin, Hae-Young; Kim, Jae-Il; Choi, Eun-Kyoung; Carp, Richard I; Kim, Yong-Sun

    2016-07-01

    The most prominent hallmark of prion diseases is prion protein conversion and the subsequent deposition of the altered prions, PrP(Sc), at the pathological sites of affected individuals, particularly in the brain. A previous study has demonstrated that the N-terminus of the pathogenic prion isoform (PrP(Sc)) is modified with advanced glycation end products (AGEs), most likely at one or more of the three Lys residues (positions 23, 24, and 27) in the N-terminus (23KKRPKP28). The current study investigated whether N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a major AGE form specific to Lys residues produced by nonenzymatic glycation, is an AGE adduct of the N-terminus of PrP(Sc). We show that CML is linked to at least one Lys residue at the N-terminus of PrP(Sc) in 263K prion-infected hamster brains and at least one of the eight Lys residues (positions 101, 104, 106, 110, 185, 194, 204, and 220) in the proteinase K (PK)-resistant core region of PrP(Sc). The nonenzymatic glycation of the Lys residue(s) of PrP(Sc) with CML likely occurs in the widespread prion-deposit areas within infected brains, particularly in some of the numerous tyrosine hydroxylase-positive thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. CML glycation does not occur in PrP(C) but is seen in the pathologic PrP(Sc) isoform. Furthermore, the modification of PrP(Sc) with CML may be closely involved in prion propagation and deposition in pathological brain areas. PMID:25983034

  4. Identification of the active-site lysine residues of two biosynthetic 3-dehydroquinases.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, S; Duncan, K; Graham, L D; Coggins, J R

    1991-01-01

    The lysine residues involved in Schiff-base formation at the active sites of both the 3-dehydroquinase component of the pentafunctional arom enzyme of Neurospora crassa and of the monofunctional 3-dehydroquinase of Escherichia coli were labelled by treatment with 3-dehydroquinate in the presence of NaB3H4. Radioactive peptides were isolated by h.p.l.c. following digestion with CNBr (and in one case after further digestion with trypsin). The sequence established for the N. crassa peptide was ALQHGDVVKLVVGAR, and that for the E. coli peptide was QSFDADIPKIA. An amended nucleotide sequence for the E. coli gene (aroD) that encode 3-dehydroquinase is also presented, along with a revised alignment of the deduced amino acid sequences for the biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:1826831

  5. Role of a helix B lysine residue in the photoactive site in channelrhodopsins.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai; Govorunova, Elena G; Sineshchekov, Oleg A; Spudich, John L

    2014-04-15

    In most studied microbial rhodopsins two conserved carboxylic acid residues (the homologs of Asp-85 and Asp-212 in bacteriorhodopsin) and an arginine residue (the homolog of Arg-82) form a complex counterion to the protonated retinylidene Schiff base, and neutralization of the negatively charged carboxylates causes red shifts of the absorption maximum. In contrast, the corresponding neutralizing mutations in some relatively low-efficiency channelrhodopsins (ChRs) result in blue shifts. These ChRs do not contain a lysine residue in the second helix, conserved in higher efficiency ChRs (Lys-132 in the crystallized ChR chimera). By action spectroscopy of photoinduced channel currents in HEK293 cells and absorption spectroscopy of detergent-purified pigments, we found that in tested ChRs the Lys-132 homolog controls the direction of spectral shifts in the mutants of the photoactive site carboxylic acid residues. Analysis of double mutants shows that red spectral shifts occur when this Lys is present, whether naturally or by mutagenesis, and blue shifts occur when it is replaced with a neutral residue. A neutralizing mutation of the Lys-132 homolog alone caused a red spectral shift in high-efficiency ChRs, whereas its introduction into low-efficiency ChR1 from Chlamydomonas augustae (CaChR1) caused a blue shift. Taking into account that the effective charge of the carboxylic acid residues is a key factor in microbial rhodopsin spectral tuning, these findings suggest that the Lys-132 homolog modulates their pKa values. On the other hand, mutation of the Arg-82 homolog that fulfills this role in bacteriorhodopsin caused minimal spectral changes in the tested ChRs. Titration revealed that the pKa of the Asp-85 homolog in CaChR1 lies in the alkaline region unlike in most studied microbial rhodopsins, but is substantially decreased by introduction of a Lys-132 homolog or neutralizing mutation of the Asp-212 homolog. In the three ChRs tested the Lys-132 homolog also alters

  6. Determination of lysine residues affinity labeled in the active site of yeast RNA polymerase II(B) by mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Treich, I; Carles, C; Sentenac, A; Riva, M

    1992-01-01

    In a previous study, yeast RNA polymerase II(B) was affinity labeled with two nucleotide derivatives (III and VIII) (1). In both cases, the labeled site was localized to the C-terminal part of the B150 subunit. The potential target lysyl residues of derivative III were mapped to the conserved domain H, between Asn946 and Met999. In the present work, we have mutagenized to arginine the five lysines present in domain H. Three lysines can be replaced, individually or simultaneously, without affecting cell growth, and each mutated enzyme can still be affinity labeled. Hence one or both of the other two lysyl residues, Lys979 and Lys987, is the target of the affinity reagent. These two lysines were each found to be essential for cell viability. Derivative VIII labeled another domain in addition to domain H. Supported by analogous results obtained for E. coli RNA polymerase using derivative VIII (2), we hypothesized that the second domain labeled by this derivative in the B150 subunit was domain I. Mutagenesis of the unique lysine present in domain I demonstrated that Lys 1102 was the target of derivative VIII. These results indicate that in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic RNA polymerases, domains H and I are in close proximity and participate to the active site. Images PMID:1408783

  7. Human METTL20 methylates lysine residues adjacent to the recognition loop of the electron transfer flavoprotein in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Rhein, Virginie F; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Walker, John E

    2014-08-29

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. PMID:25023281

  8. Human METTL20 Methylates Lysine Residues Adjacent to the Recognition Loop of the Electron Transfer Flavoprotein in Mitochondria*

    PubMed Central

    Rhein, Virginie F.; Carroll, Joe; He, Jiuya; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Walker, John E.

    2014-01-01

    In mammalian mitochondria, protein methylation is a relatively uncommon post-transcriptional modification, and the extent of the mitochondrial protein methylome, the modifying methyltransferases, and their substrates have been little studied. As shown here, the β-subunit of the electron transfer flavoprotein (ETF) is one such methylated protein. The ETF is a heterodimer of α- and β-subunits. Lysine residues 199 and 202 of mature ETFβ are almost completely trimethylated in bovine heart mitochondria, whereas ETFα is not methylated. The enzyme responsible for the modifications was identified as methyltransferase-like protein 20 (METTL20). In human 143B cells, the methylation of ETFβ is less extensive and is diminished further by suppression of METTL20. Tagged METTL20 expressed in HEK293T cells specifically associates with the ETF and promotes the trimethylation of ETFβ lysine residues 199 and 202. ETF serves as a mobile electron carrier linking dehydrogenases involved in fatty acid oxidation and one-carbon metabolism to the membrane-associated ubiquinone pool. The methylated residues in ETFβ are immediately adjacent to a protein loop that recognizes and binds to the dehydrogenases. Suppression of trimethylation of ETFβ in mouse C2C12 cells oxidizing palmitate as an energy source reduced the consumption of oxygen by the cells. These experiments suggest that the oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria and the passage of electrons via the ETF may be controlled by modulating the protein-protein interactions between the reduced dehydrogenases and the β-subunit of the ETF by trimethylation of lysine residues. METTL20 is the first lysine methyltransferase to be found to be associated with mitochondria. PMID:25023281

  9. Role of surface lysine residues of adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein in fatty acid transfer to phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed

    Liou, H L; Storch, J

    2001-05-29

    The tertiary structure of murine adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (AFABP) is a flattened 10-stranded beta-barrel capped by a helix-turn-helix segment. This helical domain is hypothesized to behave as a "lid" or portal for ligand entry into and exit from the binding cavity. Previously, we demonstrated that anthroyloxy-labeled fatty acid (AOFA) transfer from AFABP to phospholipid membranes occurs by a collisional process, in which ionic interactions between positively charged lysine residues on the protein surface and negatively charged phospholipid headgroups are involved. In the present study, the role of specific lysine residues located in the portal and other regions of AFABP was directly examined using site-directed mutagenesis. The results showed that isoleucine replacement for lysine in the portal region, including the alphaI- and alphaII-helices and the beta C-D turn, resulted in much slower 2-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitate (2AP) transfer rates to acidic membranes than those of native AFABP. An additive effect was found for mutant K22,59I, displaying the slowest rates of FA transfer. Rates of 2AP transfer from "nonportal" mutants on the beta-G and I strands were affected only moderately; however, a lysine --> isoleucine mutation in the nonportal beta-A strand decreased the 2AP transfer rate. These studies suggest that lysines in the helical cap domain are important for governing ionic interactions between AFABP and membranes. Furthermore, it appears that more than one distinct region, including the alphaI-helix, alphaII-helix, beta C-D turn, and the beta-A strand, is involved in these charge-charge interactions. PMID:11371211

  10. Nitrogen dioxide reaction with proteins: Evidence for peptide bond cleavage at lysine residues

    SciTech Connect

    Hood, D.B.

    1991-01-01

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}), an air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels and a component of cigarette smoke, is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of pulmonary diseases, such as emphysema. To gain information on the mechanism by which NO{sub 2} damages the lung, in vitro exposures of {alpha}{sub 1}-proteinase inhibitor ({alpha}{sub 1}-PI), elastin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), human serum albumin (HSA) and synthetic poly-L-lysine were performed. A genetic deficiency of {alpha}{sup 1}-PI predisposes humans to emphysema and NO{sub 2} has been hypothesized to damage {alpha}{sub 1}-PI, which would leave proteases such as human neutrophil elastase, (HNE) free to attack lung structural proteins. The ability of {alpha}{sub 1}-PI to inhibit HNE declined with exposure to 50% of the control value at molar ratios of NO{sub 2}:{alpha}{sub 1}-PI of 400:1 and greater. Exposure of {alpha}{sub 1}-PI to NO{sub 2} resulted in a 50% lose of immunoreactivity with either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at molar ratios of NO{sub 2}:{alpha}{sub 1}-PI of essentially 100:1 and greater. The mechanisms of these effects were investigated via ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and amino acid analysis. The remaining target molecules were labeled by reductive methylation of amino groups with {sup 3}H-HCHO prior to treatment with NO{sub 2} in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. Time course exposure of 5 mg {sup 3}H-insoluble bovine ligamentum nuchae elastin suspensions with up to 120 {mu}moles of NO{sub 2} resulted in 90% solubilization of the label. Amino acid analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions from these exposures confirmed that 80% of the {sup 3}H-dimethyllysine residues were in the soluble fraction.

  11. Adaptation of the behaviour of an aspartic proteinase inhibitor by relocation of a lysine residue by one helical turn.

    PubMed

    Winterburn, Tim J; Wyatt, David M; Phylip, Lowri H; Berry, Colin; Bur, Daniel; Kay, John

    2006-08-01

    In addition to self-inhibition of aspartic proteinase zymogens by their intrinsic proparts, the activity of certain members of this enzyme family can be modulated through active-site occupation by extrinsic polypeptides such as the small IA3 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The unprecedented mechanism by which IA3 helicates to inhibit its sole target aspartic proteinase locates an i, i+4 pair of charged residues (Lys18+Asp22) on an otherwise-hydrophobic face of the amphipathic helix. The nature of these residues is not crucial for effective inhibition, but re-location of the lysine residue by one turn (+4 residues) in the helical IA3 positions its side chain in the mutant IA3-proteinase complex in an orientation essentially identical to that of the key lysine residue in zymogen proparts. The binding of the extrinsic mutant IA3 shows pH dependence reminiscent of that required for the release of intrinsic zymogen proparts so that activation can occur. PMID:16895485

  12. CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zexian; Wang, Yongbo; Gao, Tianshun; Pan, Zhicheng; Cheng, Han; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Zhongyi; Guo, Anyuan; Ren, Jian; Xue, Yu

    2014-01-01

    We reported an integrated database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Modifications (CPLM; http://cplm.biocuckoo.org) for protein lysine modifications (PLMs), which occur at active ε-amino groups of specific lysine residues in proteins and are critical for orchestrating various biological processes. The CPLM database was updated from our previously developed database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Acetylation (CPLA), which contained 7151 lysine acetylation sites in 3311 proteins. Here, we manually collected experimentally identified substrates and sites for 12 types of PLMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, glycation, malonylation, phosphoglycerylation, propionylation, succinylation and pupylation. In total, the CPLM database contained 203 972 modification events on 189 919 modified lysines in 45 748 proteins for 122 species. With the dataset, we totally identified 76 types of co-occurrences of various PLMs on the same lysine residues, and the most abundant PLM crosstalk is between acetylation and ubiquitination. Up to 53.5% of acetylation and 33.1% of ubiquitination events co-occur at 10 746 lysine sites. Thus, the various PLM crosstalks suggested that a considerable proportion of lysines were competitively and dynamically regulated in a complicated manner. Taken together, the CPLM database can serve as a useful resource for further research of PLMs. PMID:24214993

  13. Inhibitors of enzymes catalyzing modifications to histone lysine residues: structure, function and activity.

    PubMed

    Lillico, Ryan; Stesco, Nicholas; Khorshid Amhad, Tina; Cortes, Claudia; Namaka, Mike P; Lakowski, Ted M

    2016-05-01

    Gene expression is partly controlled by epigenetic mechanisms including histone-modifying enzymes. Some diseases are caused by changes in gene expression that can be mitigated by inhibiting histone-modifying enzymes. This review covers the enzyme inhibitors targeting histone lysine modifications. We summarize the enzymatic mechanisms of histone lysine acetylation, deacetylation, methylation and demethylation and discuss the biochemical roles of these modifications in gene expression and in disease. We discuss inhibitors of lysine acetylation, deacetylation, methylation and demethylation defining their structure-activity relationships and their potential mechanisms. We show that there are potentially indiscriminant off-target effects on gene expression even with the use of selective epigenetic enzyme inhibitors. PMID:27173004

  14. The juxtamembrane lysine and arginine residues of surfactant protein C precursor influence palmitoylation via effects on trafficking.

    PubMed

    ten Brinke, A; Batenburg, J J; Gadella, B M; Haagsman, H P; Vaandrager, A B; van Golde, L M

    2001-08-01

    Surfactant protein (SP)-C propeptide (proSP-C) becomes palmitoylated on cysteines 5 and 6 before mature SP-C is formed by several proteolytic steps. To study the structural requirements for the palmitoylation of proSP-C, his-tagged human proSP-C (his-proSP-C) and his-proSP-C mutants were expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells and analyzed by metabolic labeling with [(3)H]palmitate and immunocytochemistry. Substitution of cysteines 5 and 6 by serines showed that these were the only two cysteine residues palmitoylated in his-proSP-C. Substitution of the juxtamembrane basic residues lysine and arginine by uncharged glutamines led to a large decrease in palmitoylation level of proSP-C. The addition of brefeldin A nearly abolished this decrease for the lysine and double mutant; the palmitoylation of the arginine mutant increased also, but not to wild-type (WT) levels. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry showed that WT proSP-C was localized in punctate vesicles throughout the cell, whereas the mutant lacking the juxtamembrane positive charges was found more perinuclear, probably in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This indicates that the two basic juxtamembrane residues influence palmitoylation of proSP-C by preventing the transport of proSP-C out of the ER, implying that proSP-C becomes palmitoylated normally in a compartment distal to the ER. PMID:11509324

  15. Elicitin-Induced Distal Systemic Resistance in Plants is Mediated Through the Protein-Protein Interactions Influenced by Selected Lysine Residues.

    PubMed

    Uhlíková, Hana; Obořil, Michal; Klempová, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Skládal, Petr; Lochman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Elicitins are a family of small proteins with sterol-binding activity that are secreted by Phytophthora and Pythium sp. classified as oomycete PAMPs. Although α- and β-elicitins bind with the same affinity to one high affinity binding site on the plasma membrane, β-elicitins (possessing 6-7 lysine residues) are generally 50- to 100-fold more active at inducing distal HR and systemic resistance than the α-isoforms (with only 1-3 lysine residues). To examine the role of lysine residues in elicitin biological activity, we employed site-directed mutagenesis to prepare a series of β-elicitin cryptogein variants with mutations on specific lysine residues. In contrast to direct infiltration of protein into leaves, application to the stem revealed a rough correlation between protein's charge and biological activity, resulting in protection against Phytophthora parasitica. A detailed analysis of proteins' movement in plants showed no substantial differences in distribution through phloem indicating differences in consequent apoplastic or symplastic transport. In this process, an important role of homodimer formation together with the ability to form a heterodimer with potential partner represented by endogenous plants LTPs is suggested. Our work demonstrates a key role of selected lysine residues in these interactions and stresses the importance of processes preceding elicitin recognition responsible for induction of distal systemic resistance. PMID:26904041

  16. Elicitin-Induced Distal Systemic Resistance in Plants is Mediated Through the Protein–Protein Interactions Influenced by Selected Lysine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Uhlíková, Hana; Obořil, Michal; Klempová, Jitka; Šedo, Ondrej; Zdráhal, Zbyněk; Kašparovský, Tomáš; Skládal, Petr; Lochman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Elicitins are a family of small proteins with sterol-binding activity that are secreted by Phytophthora and Pythium sp. classified as oomycete PAMPs. Although α- and β-elicitins bind with the same affinity to one high affinity binding site on the plasma membrane, β-elicitins (possessing 6–7 lysine residues) are generally 50- to 100-fold more active at inducing distal HR and systemic resistance than the α-isoforms (with only 1–3 lysine residues). To examine the role of lysine residues in elicitin biological activity, we employed site-directed mutagenesis to prepare a series of β-elicitin cryptogein variants with mutations on specific lysine residues. In contrast to direct infiltration of protein into leaves, application to the stem revealed a rough correlation between protein’s charge and biological activity, resulting in protection against Phytophthora parasitica. A detailed analysis of proteins’ movement in plants showed no substantial differences in distribution through phloem indicating differences in consequent apoplastic or symplastic transport. In this process, an important role of homodimer formation together with the ability to form a heterodimer with potential partner represented by endogenous plants LTPs is suggested. Our work demonstrates a key role of selected lysine residues in these interactions and stresses the importance of processes preceding elicitin recognition responsible for induction of distal systemic resistance. PMID:26904041

  17. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of Neisseria meningitidis binds human plasminogen via its C-terminal lysine residue.

    PubMed

    Shams, Fariza; Oldfield, Neil J; Lai, Si Kei; Tunio, Sarfraz A; Wooldridge, Karl G; Turner, David P J

    2016-04-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of fatal sepsis and meningitis worldwide. As for commensal species of human neisseriae, N. meningitidis inhabits the human nasopharynx and asymptomatic colonization is ubiquitous. Only rarely does the organism invade and survive in the bloodstream leading to disease. Moonlighting proteins perform two or more autonomous, often dissimilar, functions using a single polypeptide chain. They have been increasingly reported on the surface of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms and shown to interact with a variety of host ligands. In some organisms moonlighting proteins perform virulence-related functions, and they may play a role in the pathogenesis of N. meningitidis. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) was previously shown to be surface-exposed in meningococci and involved in adhesion to host cells. In this study, FBA was shown to be present on the surface of both pathogenic and commensal neisseriae, and surface localization and anchoring was demonstrated to be independent of aldolase activity. Importantly, meningococcal FBA was found to bind to human glu-plasminogen in a dose-dependent manner. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrated that the C-terminal lysine residue of FBA was required for this interaction, whereas subterminal lysine residues were not involved. PMID:26732512

  18. Surface lysine residues modulate the collisional transfer of fatty acid from adipocyte fatty acid binding protein to membranes.

    PubMed

    Herr, F M; Matarese, V; Bernlohr, D A; Storch, J

    1995-09-19

    The transfer of unesterified fatty acids (FA) from adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) to phospholipid membranes is proposed to occur via a collisional mechanism involving transient ionic and hydrophobic interactions [Wootan & Storch (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10517-10523]. In particular, it was suggested that membrane acidic phospholipids might specifically interact with basic residues on the surface of A-FABP. Here we addressed whether lysine residues on the surface of the protein are involved in this collisional transfer mechanism. Recombinant A-FABP was acetylated to neutralize all positively charged surface lysine residues. Protein fluorescence, CD spectra, and chemical denaturant data indicate that acetylation did not substantially alter the conformational integrity of the protein, and nearly identical affinities were obtained for binding of the fluorescently labeled FA [12-(9-anthroyloxy)oleate] to native and acetylated protein. Transfer of 2-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitate (2AP) from acetylated A-FABP to small unilamellar vesicles (SUV) was 35-fold slower than from native protein. In addition, whereas the 2AP transfer rate from native A-FABP was directly dependent on SUV concentration, 2AP transfer from acetylated protein was independent on the concentration of acceptor membranes. Factors which alter aqueous-phase solubility of FA, such as ionic strength and acyl chain length and saturation, affected the AOFA transfer rate from acetylated but not native A-FABP. Finally, an increase in the negative charge density of the acceptor SUV resulted in a marked increase in the rate of transfer from native A-FABP but did not increase the rate from acetylated A-FABP.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7547918

  19. V-type nerve agents phosphonylate ubiquitin at biologically relevant lysine residues and induce intramolecular cyclization by an isopeptide bond.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Breyer, Felicitas; Blum, Marc-Michael; Thiermann, Horst; Worek, Franz; John, Harald

    2014-08-01

    Toxic organophosphorus compounds (e.g., pesticides and nerve agents) are known to react with nucleophilic side chains of different amino acids (phosphylation), thus forming adducts with endogenous proteins. Most often binding to serine, tyrosine, or threonine residues is described as being of relevance for toxicological effects (e.g., acetylcholinesterase and neuropathy target esterase) or as biomarkers for post-exposure analysis (verification, e.g., albumin and butyrylcholinesterase). Accordingly, identification of novel protein targets might be beneficial for a better understanding of the toxicology of these compounds, revealing new bioanalytical verification tools, and improving knowledge on chemical reactivity. In the present study, we investigated the reaction of ubiquitin (Ub) with the V-type nerve agents Chinese VX, Russian VX, and VX in vitro. Ub is a ubiquitous protein with a mass of 8564.8 Da present in the extra- and intracellular space that plays an important physiological role in several essential processes (e.g., proteasomal degradation, DNA repair, protein turnover, and endocytosis). Reaction products were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight- mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and μ-high-performance liquid chromatography online coupled to UV-detection and electrospray ionization MS (μHPLC-UV/ESI MS). Our results originally document that a complex mixture of at least mono-, di, and triphosphonylated Ub adducts was produced. Surprisingly, peptide mass fingerprint analysis in combination with MALDI and ESI MS/MS revealed that phosphonylation occurred with high selectivity in at least 6 of 7 surface-exposed lysine residues that are essential for the biological function of Ub. These reaction products were found not to age. In addition, we herein report for the first time that phosphonylation induced intramolecular cyclization by formation of an isopeptide bond between the ε-amino group of a formerly phosphonylated

  20. Essential lysine residues within transmembrane helix 1 of diphtheria toxin facilitate COPI binding and catalytic domain entry

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Carolina; Taylor-Parker, Julian; Harrison, Robert; Murphy, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The translocation of the diphtheria toxin catalytic domain from the lumen of early endosomes into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells is an essential step in the intoxication process. We have previously shown that the in vitro translocation of the catalytic domain from the lumen of toxin pre-loaded endosomal vesicles to the external medium requires the addition of cytosolic proteins including coatomer protein complex I (COPI) to the reaction mixture. Further, we have shown that transmembrane helix 1 plays an essential, but as yet undefined role in the entry process. We have used both site-directed mutagenesis and a COPI complex precipitation assay to demonstrate that interaction(s) between at least three lysine residues in transmembrane helix 1 are essential for both COPI complex binding and the delivery of the catalytic domain into the target cell cytosol. Finally, a COPI binding domain swap was used to demonstrate that substitution of the lysine-rich transmembrane helix 1with the COPI binding portion of the p23 adaptor cytoplasmic tail results in a mutant that displays full wild type activity. Thus, irrespective of sequence, the ability of transmembrane helix 1 to bind to COPI complex appears to be the essential feature for catalytic domain delivery to the cytosol. PMID:20398220

  1. The first seven amino acids encoded by the v-src oncogene act as a myristylation signal: Lysine 7 is a critical determinant

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, J.M.; Mardon, G.; Bishop, J.M.; Varmus, H.E.

    1988-06-01

    The transforming protein of Rous sarcoma virus, pp60/sup v-src/, is covalently coupled to myristic acid by an amide linkage to glycine 2. Myristylation promotes the association of pp60/sup v-src/ with cellular membranes, and this subcellular location is essential for transforming activity. The findings presented here, in conjunction with the previous reports of others, imply that the seventh amino acid encoded by v-src might be important in the myristlyation reaction. Replacement of lysine 7 by asparagine greatly reduced the myristylation, membrane association, and transforming activity of pp60/sup v-src/. In contrast, substitution of arginine at residue 7 had no effect on any of these properties of pp60/sup v-src/. Addition of amino acids 1 to 7 encoded by v-src was sufficient to cause myristylation of a src-pyruvate kinase function protein. The authors conclude that the recognition sequence for myristylation of pp60/sup v-src/ comprises amino acids 1 to 7 and that lysine 7 is a critical component of this sequence.

  2. Role of portal region lysine residues in electrostatic interactions between heart fatty acid binding protein and phospholipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Herr, F M; Aronson, J; Storch, J

    1996-01-30

    The structure of heart fatty acid binding protein (HFABP) is a flattened beta-barrel comprising 10 antiparallel beta-sheets capped by two alpha-helical segments. The helical cap region is hypothesized to behave as a portal "lid" for the entry and release of ligand from the binding pocket. The transfer of fatty acid from HFABP is thought to occur via effective collisional interactions with membranes, and these interactions are enhanced when transfer is to membranes of net negative charge, thus implying that specific basic residues on the surface of HFABP may govern the transfer process [Wootan, M. G., & Storch, J. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 10517-10523]. To directly examine the role of charged lysine residues on the HFABP surface in specific interactions with membranes, chemical modification and selective mutagenesis of HFABP were used. All surface lysine residues were neutralized by acetylation of recombinant HFABP with acetic anhydride. In addition, seven mutant HFABPs were generated that resulted in charge alterations in five distinct sites of HFABP. Modification of the protein did not significantly alter the structural or ligand binding properties of HFABP, as assessed by circular dichroism, fluorescence quantum yield, and ligand binding analyses. By using a resonance energy transfer assay, transfer of 2-(9-anthroyloxy)palmitate (2AP) from acetylated HFABP to membranes was significantly slower than transfer from native HFABP. In addition, in distinct contrast to transfer from native protein, the 2AP transfer rate from acetylated HFABP was not increased to acceptor membranes of increased negative charge. Transfer of 2AP from HFABP mutants involving K22, located on alpha-helix I (alpha-I) of the helical cap region, was 3-fold slower than transfer from wild-type protein, whereas rates from a mutant involving the K59 residue, located on the beta 2-turn of the barrel near the helical cap, were 2-fold faster than those of wild type. A double mutant involving K22 and K

  3. Identification of gunshot residue: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Saverio Romolo, F; Margot, P

    2001-06-15

    A review of the scientific papers published on inorganic gunshot residue (GSR) analysis permits to study how the particle analysis has shown its capability in detection and identification of gunshot residue. The scanning electron microscope can be the most powerful tool for forensic scientists to determine the proximity to a discharging firearm and/or the contact with a surface exposed to GSR. Particle analysis can identify individual gunshot residue particles through both morphological and elemental characteristics. When particles are detected on the collected sample, the analytical results can be interpreted following rules of a formal general interpretative system, to determine whether they come from the explosion of a primer or from other possible sources. The particles on the sample are compared with an abstract idea of "unique" GSR particle produced by the sole source of the explosion of a primer. "Uniqueness" is not the only problem related to GSR detection and identification for a forensic scientist. With "not-unique" particles interpretation of results is extremely important. The evidential strength of "not-unique" particles can increase with a more fruitful interpretative framework based on Bayes rule. For the assessment of the value of a GSR in linking a suspect and a crime, it is important to compare two hypothesis: the first can be that of the evidence if the suspect has been shooting in a specific situation, the second that of the evidence if the suspect was not involved in this shooting. This case specific or case-by-case approach is closer to what the court is interested in. The authors consider that a "case-by-case" approach should be followed whenever possible. Research of models and data such as those developed in other trace evidence material (fibres, glass, etc.) using a Bayesian approach is suggested in the interpretation of GSR. PMID:11376984

  4. A Key Role for Lysine Residues in Amyloid β-Protein Folding, Assembly, and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A combination of hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions is important in initiating the aberrant self-assembly process that leads to formation of toxic oligomers and aggregates by multiple disease-related proteins, including amyloid β-protein (Aβ), whose self-assembly is believed to initiate brain pathogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease. Lys residues play key roles in this process and participate in both types of interaction. They also are the target of our recently reported molecular tweezer inhibitors. To obtain further insight into the role of the two Lys residues in Aβ assembly and toxicity, here we substituted each by Ala in both Aβ40 and Aβ42 and studied the impact of the substitution on Aβ oligomerization, aggregation, and toxicity. Our data show that each substitution has a major impact on Aβ assembly and toxicity, with significant differences depending on peptide length (40 versus 42 amino acids) and the position of the substitution. In particular, Lys16→Ala substitution dramatically reduces Aβ toxicity. The data support the use of compounds targeting Lys residues specifically as inhibitors of Aβ toxicity and suggest that exploring the role of Lys residues in other disease-related amyloidogenic proteins may help understanding the mechanisms of aggregation and toxicity of these proteins. PMID:22860216

  5. High Affinity Binding of the Receptor-associated Protein D1D2 Domains with the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-related Protein (LRP1) Involves Bivalent Complex Formation: CRITICAL ROLES OF LYSINES 60 AND 191.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Joni M; Young, Patricia A; Strickland, Dudley K

    2016-08-26

    The LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) is a large endocytic receptor that binds and mediates the endocytosis of numerous structurally diverse ligands. Currently, the basis for ligand recognition by LRP1 is not well understood. LRP1 requires a molecular chaperone, termed the receptor-associated protein (RAP), to escort the newly synthesized receptor from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi. RAP is a three-domain protein that contains the following two high affinity binding sites for LRP1: one is located within domains 1 and 2, and one is located in its third domain. Studies on the interaction of the RAP third domain with LRP1 reveal critical contributions by lysine 256 and lysine 270 for this interaction. From these studies, a model for ligand recognition by this class of receptors has been proposed. Here, we employed surface plasmon resonance to investigate the binding of RAP D1D2 to LRP1. Our results reveal that the high affinity of D1D2 for LRP1 results from avidity effects mediated by the simultaneous interactions of lysine 60 in D1 and lysine 191 in D2 with sites on LRP1 to form a bivalent D1D2-LRP1 complex. When lysine 60 and 191 are both mutated to alanine, the binding of D1D2 to LRP1 is ablated. Our data also reveal that D1D2 is able to bind to a second distinct site on LRP1 to form a monovalent complex. The studies confirm the canonical model for ligand recognition by this class of receptors, which is initiated by pairs of lysine residues that dock into acidic pockets on the receptor. PMID:27402839

  6. Dichotomy in the Epigenetic Mark Lysine Acetylation is Critical for the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Ravi; Philizaire, Marc; Mujtaba, Shiraz

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of lysine acetylation serve as a major epigenetic mark, which regulates cellular response to inflammation, DNA damage and hormonal changes. Microarray assays reveal changes in gene expression, but cannot predict regulation of a protein function by epigenetic modifications. The present study employs computational tools to inclusively analyze microarray data to understand the potential role of acetylation during development of androgen-independent PCa. The data revealed that the androgen receptor interacts with 333 proteins, out of which at least 92 proteins were acetylated. Notably, the number of cellular proteins undergoing acetylation in the androgen-dependent PCa was more as compared to the androgen-independent PCa. Specifically, the 32 lysine-acetylated proteins in the cellular models of androgen-dependent PCa were mainly involved in regulating stability as well as pre- and post-processing of mRNA. Collectively, the data demonstrate that protein lysine acetylation plays a crucial role during the transition of androgen-dependent to -independent PCa, which importantly, could also serve as a functional axis to unravel new therapeutic targets. PMID:26295410

  7. Role of an invariant lysine residue in folate binding on Escherichia coli thymidylate synthase: calorimetric and crystallographic analysis of the K48Q mutant

    PubMed Central

    Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A.; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Arreola, Rodrigo; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D.; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F.; Montfort, William R.; Maley, Frank; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.

    2008-01-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) catalyzes the reductive methylation of deoxyuridine monophosphate (dUMP) using methylene tetrahydrofolate (CH2THF) as cofactor, the glutamate tail of which forms a water-mediated hydrogen-bond with an invariant lysine residue of this enzyme. To understand the role of this interaction, we studied the K48Q mutant of Escherichia coli TS using structural and biophysical methods. The kcat of the K48Q mutant was 430 fold lower than wild-type TS in activity, while the the Km for the (R)-stereoisomer of CH2THF was 300 µM, about 30 fold larger than Km from the wild-type TS. Affinity constants were determined using isothermal titration calorimetry, which showed that binding was reduced by one order of magnitude for folate-like TS inhibitors, such as propargyl-dideaza folate (PDDF) or compounds that distort the TS active site like BW1843U89 (U89). The crystal structure of the K48Q-dUMP complex revealed that dUMP binding is not impaired in the mutamt, and that U89 in a ternary complex of K48Q-nucleotide-U89 was bound in the active site with subtle differences relative to comparable wild type complexes. PDDF failed to form ternary complexes with K48Q and dUMP. Thermodynamic data correlated with the structural determinations, since PDDF binding was dominated by enthalpic effects while U89 had an important entropic component. In conclusion, K48 is critical for catalysis since it leads to a productive CH2THF binding, while mutation at this residue does not affect much the binding of inhibitors that do not make contact with this group. PMID:18403248

  8. Maleimide-functionalized closo-dodecaborate albumin conjugates (MID-AC): Unique ligation at cysteine and lysine residues enables efficient boron delivery to tumor for neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Shunsuke; Kanoh, Daisuke; Sato, Shinichi; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Minoru; Nakamura, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-10

    Maleimide-conjugating closo-dodecaborate sodium form 5c (MID) synthesized by the nucleophilic ring-opening reaction of closo-dodecaborate-1,4-dioxane complex 2 with tetrabutylammonium (TBA) azide was found to conjugate to free SH of cysteine and lysine residues in BSA under physiological conditions, forming highly boronated BSA that showed high and selective accumulation in tumor and significant tumor growth inhibition in colon 26 tumor-bearing mice subjected to thermal neutron irradiation. PMID:27422608

  9. Residual Stresses and Critical Initial Flaw Size Analyses of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brust, Frederick W.; Raju, Ivatury, S.; Dawocke, David S.; Cheston, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). A series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on the fatigue life. The purpose of the weld analyses was to model the weld process using a variety of sequences to determine the 'best' sequence in terms of weld residual stresses and distortions. The many factors examined in this study include weld design (single-V, double-V groove), weld sequence, boundary conditions, and material properties, among others. The results of this weld analysis are included with service loads to perform a fatigue and critical initial flaw size evaluation.

  10. Molecular Basis for Lysine Specificity in the Yeast Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme Cdc34 ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sadowski, Martin; Suryadinata, Randy; Lai, Xianning; Heierhorst, Jörg; Sarcevic, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzymes (E2s) and ubiquitin ligases (E3s) catalyze the attachment of Ub to lysine residues in substrates and Ub during monoubiquitination and polyubiquitination. Lysine selection is important for the generation of diverse substrate-Ub structures, which provides versatility to this pathway in the targeting of proteins to different fates. The mechanisms of lysine selection remain poorly understood, with previous studies suggesting that the ubiquitination site(s) is selected by the E2/E3-mediated positioning of a lysine(s) toward the E2/E3 active site. By studying the polyubiquitination of Sic1 by the E2 protein Cdc34 and the RING E3 Skp1/Cul1/F-box (SCF) protein, we now demonstrate that in addition to E2/E3-mediated positioning, proximal amino acids surrounding the lysine residues in Sic1 and Ub are critical for ubiquitination. This mechanism is linked to key residues composing the catalytic core of Cdc34 and independent of SCF. Changes to these core residues altered the lysine preference of Cdc34 and specified whether this enzyme monoubiquitinated or polyubiquitinated Sic1. These new findings indicate that compatibility between amino acids surrounding acceptor lysine residues and key amino acids in the catalytic core of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes is an important mechanism for lysine selection during ubiquitination. PMID:20194622

  11. Lysine post-translational modifications of collagen

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Sricholpech, Marnisa

    2012-01-01

    Type I collagen is the most abundant structural protein in vertebrates. It is a heterotrimeric molecule composed of two α1 chains and one α2 chain, forming a long uninterrupted triple helical structure with short non-triple helical telopeptides at both the N- and C-termini. During biosynthesis, collagen acquires a number of post-translational modifications, including lysine modifications, that are critical to the structure and biological functions of this protein. Lysine modifications of collagen are highly complicated sequential processes catalysed by several groups of enzymes leading to the final step of biosynthesis, covalent intermolecular cross-linking. In the cell, specific lysine residues are hydroxylated to form hydroxylysine. Then specific hydroxylysine residues located in the helical domain of the molecule are glycosylated by the addition of galactose or glucose-galactose. Outside the cell, lysine and hydroxylysine residues in the N- and C-telopeptides can be oxidatively deaminated to produce reactive aldehydes that undergo a series of non-enzymatic condensation reactions to form covalent intra- and inter-molecular cross-links. Owing to the recent advances in molecular and cellular biology, and analytical technologies, the biological significance and molecular mechanisms of these modifications have been gradually elucidated. This chapter provides an overview on these enzymatic lysine modifications and subsequent cross-linking. PMID:22708567

  12. Lysine carboxylation: unveiling a spontaneous post-translational modification

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Adamian, Larisa; Shi, Dashuang; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    A computational method for the prediction of lysine carboxylation (KCX) in protein structures is described. The method accurately identifies misreported KCXs and predicts previously unknown KCX sites. The carboxylation of lysine residues is a post-translational modification (PTM) that plays a critical role in the catalytic mechanisms of several important enzymes. It occurs spontaneously under certain physicochemical conditions, but is difficult to detect experimentally. Its full impact is unknown. In this work, the signature microenvironment of lysine-carboxylation sites has been characterized. In addition, a computational method called Predictor of Lysine Carboxylation (PreLysCar) for the detection of lysine carboxylation in proteins with available three-dimensional structures has been developed. The likely prevalence of lysine carboxylation in the proteome was assessed through large-scale computations. The results suggest that about 1.3% of large proteins may contain a carboxylated lysine residue. This unexpected prevalence of lysine carboxylation implies an enrichment of reactions in which it may play functional roles. The results also suggest that by switching enzymes on and off under appropriate physicochemical conditions spontaneous PTMs may serve as an important and widely used efficient biological machinery for regulation.

  13. Lysine residues direct the chlorination of tyrosines in YXXK motifs of apolipoprotein A-I when hypochlorous acid oxidizes high density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bergt, Constanze; Fu, Xiaoyun; Huq, Nabiha P; Kao, Jeff; Heinecke, Jay W

    2004-02-27

    Oxidized lipoproteins may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Elevated levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific end product of the reaction between hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and tyrosine residues of proteins, have been detected in atherosclerotic tissue. Thus, HOCl generated by the phagocyte enzyme myeloperoxidase represents one pathway for protein oxidation in humans. One important target of the myeloperoxidase pathway may be high density lipoprotein (HDL), which mobilizes cholesterol from artery wall cells. To determine whether activated phagocytes preferentially chlorinate specific sites in HDL, we used tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to analyze apolipoprotein A-I that had been oxidized by HOCl. The major site of chlorination was a single tyrosine residue located in one of the protein's YXXK motifs (where X represents a nonreactive amino acid). To investigate the mechanism of chlorination, we exposed synthetic peptides to HOCl. The peptides encompassed the amino acid sequences YKXXY, YXXKY, or YXXXY. MS/MS analysis demonstrated that chlorination of tyrosine in the peptides that contained lysine was regioselective and occurred in high yield if the substrate was KXXY or YXXK. NMR and MS analyses revealed that the N(epsilon) amino group of lysine was initially chlorinated, which suggests that chloramine formation is the first step in tyrosine chlorination. Molecular modeling of the YXXK motif in apolipoprotein A-I demonstrated that these tyrosine and lysine residues are adjacent on the same face of an amphipathic alpha-helix. Our observations suggest that HOCl selectively targets tyrosine residues that are suitably juxtaposed to primary amino groups in proteins. This mechanism might enable phagocytes to efficiently damage proteins when they destroy microbial proteins during infection or damage host tissue during inflammation. PMID:14660678

  14. Site-Specific Labeling of Protein Lysine Residues and N-Terminal Amino Groups with Indoles and Indole-Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Larda, Sacha Thierry; Pichugin, Dmitry; Prosser, Robert Scott

    2015-12-16

    Indoles and indole-derivatives can be used to site-specifically label proteins on lysine and N-terminal amino groups under mild, nondenaturing reaction conditions. Hen egg white lysozyme (HEWL) and α-lactalbumin were labeled with indole, fluoroindole, or fluoroindole-2-carboxylate via electrophilic aromatic substitutions to lysine side chain Nε- and N-terminal amino imines, formed in situ in the presence of formaldehyde. The reaction is highly site-selective, easily controlled by temperature, and does not eliminate the native charge of the protein, unlike many other common lysine-specific labeling strategies. (19)F NMR was used to monitor reaction progression, and in the case of HEWL, unique resonances for each labeled side chain could be resolved. We demonstrate that the indole tags are highly selective for primary amino groups. (19)F NMR demonstrates that each lysine exhibits a different rate of conjugation to indoles making it possible to employ these tags as a means of probing surface topology by NMR or mass spectrometry. Given the site-specificity of this tagging method, the mildness of the reaction conditions (aqueous, buffered, or unbuffered) and the low stoichiometry required for the reaction, indole-derivatives should serve as a valuable addition to the bioconjugation toolkit. We propose that labeling lysine side chains and N-terminal amino groups with indoles is a versatile and general strategy for bioconjugations with substituted indoles having broad implications for protein functionalization. PMID:26587689

  15. The Ribosomal L1 Protuberance in Yeast Is Methylated on a Lysine Residue Catalyzed by a Seven-β-strand Methyltransferase*

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Kristofor J.; Al-Hadid, Qais; Zurita-Lopez, Cecilia I.; Young, Brian D.; Lipson, Rebecca S.; Clarke, Steven G.

    2011-01-01

    Modification of proteins of the translational apparatus is common in many organisms. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we provide evidence for the methylation of Rpl1ab, a well conserved protein forming the ribosomal L1 protuberance of the large subunit that functions in the release of tRNA from the exit site. We show that the intact mass of Rpl1ab is 14 Da larger than its calculated mass with the previously described loss of the initiator methionine residue and N-terminal acetylation. We determined that the increase in mass of yeast Rpl1ab is consistent with the addition of a methyl group to lysine 46 using top-down mass spectrometry. Lysine modification was confirmed by detecting 3H-N-ϵ-monomethyllysine in hydrolysates of Rpl1ab purified from yeast cells radiolabeled in vivo with S-adenosyl-l-[methyl-3H]methionine. Mass spectrometric analysis of intact Rpl1ab purified from 37 deletion strains of known and putative yeast methyltransferases revealed that only the deletion of the YLR137W gene, encoding a seven-β-strand methyltransferase, results in the loss of the +14-Da modification. We expressed the YLR137W gene as a His-tagged protein in Escherichia coli and showed that it catalyzes N-ϵ-monomethyllysine formation within Rpl1ab on ribosomes from the ΔYLR137W mutant strain lacking the methyltransferase activity but not from wild-type ribosomes. We also showed that the His-tagged protein could catalyze monomethyllysine formation on a 16-residue peptide corresponding to residues 38–53 of Rpl1ab. We propose that the YLR137W gene be given the standard name RKM5 (ribosomal lysine (K) methyltransferase 5). Orthologs of RKM5 are found only in fungal species, suggesting a role unique to their survival. PMID:21460220

  16. Preferential binding of 4-hydroxynonenal to lysine residues in specific parasite proteins in plakortin-treated Plasmodium falciparum-parasitized red blood cells

    PubMed Central

    Schwarzer, Evelin; Gallo, Valentina; Valente, Elena; Ulliers, Daniela; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Arese, Paolo; Skorokhod, Oleksii A.

    2015-01-01

    The data show the frequencies by which the amino acid residues lysine, histidine and cysteine of six proteins of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are post-translationally modified by the lipoperoxydation endproduct 4-hydroxynonenal after challenging the parasitized red blood cell with plakortin. Plakortin is an antimalarial endoperoxide whose molecular anti-parasitic effect is described in Skorokhod et al. (2015) [1]. Plakortin did not elicit hemoglobin leakage from host red blood cells and did not oxidize reduced glutathione. PMID:26702418

  17. Lysine carboxylation: unveiling a spontaneous post-translational modification

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Morales, David; Adamian, Larisa; Shi, Dashuang; Liang, Jie

    2014-01-01

    The carboxylation of lysine residues is a post-translational modification (PTM) that plays a critical role in the catalytic mechanisms of several important enzymes. It occurs spontaneously under certain physicochemical conditions, but is difficult to detect experimentally. Its full impact is unknown. In this work, the signature microenvironment of lysine-carboxylation sites has been characterized. In addition, a computational method called Predictor of Lysine Carboxyl­ation (PreLysCar) for the detection of lysine carboxylation in proteins with available three-dimensional structures has been developed. The likely prevalence of lysine carboxylation in the proteome was assessed through large-scale computations. The results suggest that about 1.3% of large proteins may contain a carboxylated lysine residue. This unexpected prevalence of lysine carboxylation implies an enrichment of reactions in which it may play functional roles. The results also suggest that by switching enzymes on and off under appropriate physicochemical conditions spontaneous PTMs may serve as an important and widely used efficient biological machinery for regulation. PMID:24419378

  18. Roles of Arginine and Lysine Residues in the Translocation of a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from 13C, 31P and 19F Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yongchao; Doherty, Tim; Waring, Alan J.; Ruchala, Piotr; Hong, Mei

    2009-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are small cationic peptides that cross the cell membrane while carrying macromolecular cargoes. We use solid-state NMR to investigate the structure and lipid interaction of two cationic residues, Arg10 and Lys13, in the CPP penetratin. 13C chemical shifts indicate that Arg10 adopts a rigid β-strand conformation in the liquid-crystalline state of anionic lipid membranes. This behavior contrasts with all other residues observed so far in this peptide, which adopt a dynamic β-turn conformation with coil-like chemical shifts at physiological temperature. Low-temperature 13C-31P distances between the peptide and the lipid phosphates indicate that both the Arg10 guanidinium Cζ and the Lys13 Cε lie in close proximity to the lipid 31P (4.0 - 4.2 Å), proving the existence of charge-charge interaction for both Arg10 and Lys13 in the gel-phase membrane. However, since lysine substitution in CPPs are known to reduce their translocation ability, we propose that low temperature stabilizes both lysine and arginine interactions with the phosphates, whereas at high temperature the lysine-phosphate interaction is much weaker than the arginine-phosphate interaction. This is supported by the unusually high rigidity of the Arg10 sidechain and its β-strand conformation at high temperature. The latter is proposed to be important for ion pair formation by allowing close approach of the lipid headgroups to guanidinium sidechains. 19F and 13C spin diffusion experiments indicate that penetratin is oligomerized into β-sheets in gel-phase membranes. These solid-state NMR data indicate that guanidinium-phosphate interactions exist in penetratin, and guanidinium groups play a stronger structural role than ammonium groups in the lipid-assisted translocation of CPPs across liquid-crystalline cell membranes. PMID:19364134

  19. The ɛ-Amino Group of Protein Lysine Residues Is Highly Susceptible to Nonenzymatic Acylation by Several Physiological Acyl-CoA Thioesters.

    PubMed

    Simic, Zeljko; Weiwad, Matthias; Schierhorn, Angelika; Steegborn, Clemens; Schutkowski, Mike

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial enzymes implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, cancer, and metabolic syndrome are highly regulated by acetylation. However, mitochondrial acetyltransferases have not been identified. Here, we show that acetylation and also other acylations are spontaneous processes that depend on pH value, acyl-CoA concentration and the chemical nature of the acyl residue. In the case of a peptide derived from carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1, the rates of succinylation and glutarylation were up to 150 times than for acetylation. These results were confirmed by using the protein substrate cyclophilin A (CypA). Deacylation experiments revealed that SIRT3 exhibits deacetylase activity but is not able to remove any of the succinyl groups from CypA, whereas SIRT5 is an effective protein desuccinylase. Thus, the acylation landscape on lysine residues might largely depend on the enzymatic activity of specific sirtuins, and the availability and reactivity of acyl-CoA compounds. PMID:26382620

  20. A Jump-from-Cavity Pyrophosphate Ion Release Assisted by a Key Lysine Residue in T7 RNA Polymerase Transcription Elongation.

    PubMed

    Da, Lin-Tai; E, Chao; Duan, Baogen; Zhang, Chuanbiao; Zhou, Xin; Yu, Jin

    2015-11-01

    Pyrophosphate ion (PPi) release during transcription elongation is a signature step in each nucleotide addition cycle. The kinetics and energetics of the process as well as how it proceeds with substantial conformational changes of the polymerase complex determine the mechano-chemical coupling mechanism of the transcription elongation. Here we investigated detailed dynamics of the PPi release process in a single-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) from bacteriophage T7, implementing all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We obtained a jump-from-cavity kinetic model of the PPi release utilizing extensive nanosecond MD simulations. We found that the PPi release in T7 RNAP is initiated by the PPi dissociation from two catalytic aspartic acids, followed by a comparatively slow jump-from-cavity activation process. Combining with a number of microsecond long MD simulations, we also found that the activation process is hindered by charged residue associations as well as by local steric and hydrogen bond interactions. On the other hand, the activation is greatly assisted by a highly flexible lysine residue Lys472 that swings its side chain to pull PPi out. The mechanism can apply in general to single subunit RNA and DNA polymerases with similar molecular structures and conserved key residues. Remarkably, the flexible lysine or arginine residue appears to be a universal module that assists the PPi release even in multi-subunit RNAPs with charge facilitated hopping mechanisms. We also noticed that the PPi release is not tightly coupled to opening motions of an O-helix on the fingers domain of T7 RNAP according to the microsecond MD simulations. Our study thus supports the Brownian ratchet scenario of the mechano-chemical coupling in the transcription elongation of the single-subunit polymerase. PMID:26599007

  1. A Jump-from-Cavity Pyrophosphate Ion Release Assisted by a Key Lysine Residue in T7 RNA Polymerase Transcription Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Da, Lin-Tai; E, Chao; Duan, Baogen; Zhang, Chuanbiao; Zhou, Xin; Yu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Pyrophosphate ion (PPi) release during transcription elongation is a signature step in each nucleotide addition cycle. The kinetics and energetics of the process as well as how it proceeds with substantial conformational changes of the polymerase complex determine the mechano-chemical coupling mechanism of the transcription elongation. Here we investigated detailed dynamics of the PPi release process in a single-subunit RNA polymerase (RNAP) from bacteriophage T7, implementing all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We obtained a jump-from-cavity kinetic model of the PPi release utilizing extensive nanosecond MD simulations. We found that the PPi release in T7 RNAP is initiated by the PPi dissociation from two catalytic aspartic acids, followed by a comparatively slow jump-from-cavity activation process. Combining with a number of microsecond long MD simulations, we also found that the activation process is hindered by charged residue associations as well as by local steric and hydrogen bond interactions. On the other hand, the activation is greatly assisted by a highly flexible lysine residue Lys472 that swings its side chain to pull PPi out. The mechanism can apply in general to single subunit RNA and DNA polymerases with similar molecular structures and conserved key residues. Remarkably, the flexible lysine or arginine residue appears to be a universal module that assists the PPi release even in multi-subunit RNAPs with charge facilitated hopping mechanisms. We also noticed that the PPi release is not tightly coupled to opening motions of an O-helix on the fingers domain of T7 RNAP according to the microsecond MD simulations. Our study thus supports the Brownian ratchet scenario of the mechano-chemical coupling in the transcription elongation of the single-subunit polymerase. PMID:26599007

  2. Coactosin-like protein, a human F-actin-binding protein: critical role of lysine-75.

    PubMed Central

    Provost, P; Doucet, J; Stock, A; Gerisch, G; Samuelsson, B; Rådmark, O

    2001-01-01

    Coactosin-like protein (CLP) was recently identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen using 5-lipoxygenase as bait. In the present study, we report the functional characterization of CLP as a human filamentous actin (F-actin)-binding protein. CLP mRNA shows a wide tissue distribution and is predominantly expressed in placenta, lung, kidney and peripheral-blood leucocytes. Endogenous CLP is localized in the cytosol of myeloid cells. Using a two-hybrid approach, actin was identified as a CLP-interacting protein. Binding experiments indicated that CLP associates with F-actin, but does not form a stable complex with globular actin. In transfected mammalian cells, CLP co-localized with actin stress fibres. CLP bound to actin filaments with a stoichiometry of 1:2 (CLP: actin subunits), but could be cross-linked to only one subunit of actin. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the involvement of Lys(75) of CLP in actin binding, a residue highly conserved in related proteins and supposed to be exposed on the surface of the CLP protein. Our results identify CLP as a new human protein that binds F-actin in vitro and in vivo, and indicate that Lys(75) is essential for this interaction. PMID:11583571

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of Niemann-Pick C1: evidence for the role of heat shock proteins and identification of lysine residues that accept ubiquitin.

    PubMed

    Nakasone, Naoe; Nakamura, Yuko S; Higaki, Katsumi; Oumi, Nao; Ohno, Kousaku; Ninomiya, Haruaki

    2014-07-11

    Most cases with Niemann-Pick disease type C carry mutations in NPC1. Some of the mutations, including the most frequent I1061T, give rise to unstable proteins selected for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation. The purpose of the current study was to shed mechanistic insights into the degradation process. A proteasome inhibitor MG132 prolonged the life span of the wild-type NPC1 expressed in COS cells. The expressed protein associated with multiple chaperones including heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), Hsp70, heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), and calnexin. Accordingly, expression of an E3 ligase CHIP (carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein) enhanced MG132-induced accumulation of ubiquitylated NPC1. Co-expression and RNAi knockdown experiments in HEK cells indicated that Hsp70/Hsp90 stabilized NPC1, whereas Hsc70 destabilized it. In human fibroblasts carrying the I1061T mutation, adenovirus-mediated expression of Hsp70 or treatment with an HSP-inducer geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) increased the level of the mutant protein. In GGA-treated cells, the rescued protein was localized in the late endosome and ameliorated cholesterol accumulation. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry revealed three lysine residues at amino acids 318, 792, and 1180 as potential ubiquitin-conjugation sites. Substitutions of the three residues with alanine yielded a mutant protein with a steady-state level more than three times higher than that of the wild-type. Introduction of the same substitutions to the I1061T mutant resulted in an increase in its protein level and functional restoration. These findings indicated the role of HSPs in quality control of NPC1 and revealed the role of three lysine residues as ubiquitin-conjugation sites. PMID:24891511

  4. Lysine221 is the general base residue of the isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) in a reaction that is diffusion limited.

    PubMed

    Meneely, Kathleen M; Luo, Qianyi; Dhar, Prajnaparamita; Lamb, Audrey L

    2013-10-01

    The isochorismate synthase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PchA) catalyzes the conversion of chorismate to isochorismate, which is subsequently converted by a second enzyme (PchB) to salicylate for incorporation into the salicylate-capped siderophore pyochelin. PchA is a member of the MST family of enzymes, which includes the structurally homologous isochorismate synthases from Escherichia coli (EntC and MenF) and salicylate synthases from Yersinia enterocolitica (Irp9) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MbtI). The latter enzymes generate isochorismate as an intermediate before generating salicylate and pyruvate. General acid-general base catalysis has been proposed for isochorismate synthesis in all five enzymes, but the residues required for the isomerization are a matter of debate, with both lysine221 and glutamate313 proposed as the general base (PchA numbering). This work includes a classical characterization of PchA with steady state kinetic analysis, solvent kinetic isotope effect analysis and by measuring the effect of viscosogens on catalysis. The results suggest that isochorismate production from chorismate by the MST enzymes is the result of general acid-general base catalysis with a lysine as the base and a glutamic acid as the acid, in reverse protonation states. Chemistry is determined to not be rate limiting, favoring the hypothesis of a conformational or binding step as the slow step. PMID:23942051

  5. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Svensson, Jan; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Adamson, Ulf; Blombaeck, Margareta; Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may

  6. Conserved residue lysine165 is essential for the ability of O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase to react with O6-benzylguanine.

    PubMed Central

    Xu-Welliver, M; Kanugula, S; Loktionova, N A; Crone, T M; Pegg, A E

    2000-01-01

    The role of lysine(165) in the activity of the DNA repair protein, O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT), and the ability of AGT to react with the pseudosubstrate inhibitor, O(6)-benzylguanine (BG), was investigated by changing this lysine to all other 19 possibilities. All of these mutants (except for K165T, which could not be tested as it was too poorly active for assay in crude cell extracts) gave BG-resistant AGTs with increases in the amount of inhibitor needed to produce a 50% loss of activity in a 30 min incubation (ED(50)) from 100-fold (K165A) to 2400-fold (K165F). Lys(165) is a completely conserved residue in AGTs from many species, and all of the mutations at this site also reduced the ability to repair methylated DNA. The least deleterious change was that to arginine, which reduced the rate constant for DNA repair by approx. 2.5-fold. Mutant K165R resembled all of the other mutants in being highly resistant to BG, with an ED(50) value for inactivation by BG>200-fold greater than wild-type. Detailed studies of purified K165A AGT showed that the rate constant for repair and the binding to methylated DNA substrates were reduced by 10-20-fold. Despite this, the K165A mutant AGT was able to protect cells from alkylating agents and this protection was not abolished by BG. These results show that, firstly, lysine at position 165 is needed for optimal activity of AGT towards methylated DNA substrates and is essential for efficient reaction with BG; and second, even if the AGT activity towards methylated DNA substrates is impaired by mutations at codon 165, such mutants can protect tumour cells from therapeutic alkylating agents. These results raise the possibility that the conservation of Lys(165) is due to the need for AGT activity towards substrates containing more bulky adducts than O(6)-methylguanine. They also suggest that alterations at Lys(165) may occur during chemotherapy with BG and alkylating agents and could limit the effectiveness of this

  7. Characterization of oxidation products from 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine in aqueous solutions and their reactions with cysteine, histidine and lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Milic, Ivana; Fedorova, Maria; Teuber, Kristin; Schiller, Jürgen; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2012-02-01

    This report focuses on studies of lipid peroxidation products reactivity towards the side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues in structurally unordered peptides. Thus we have analyzed linoleic acid peroxidation products (LaPP) obtained by incubating 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-sn-glycerophosphatidylcholine (PLPC) overnight with or without H(2)O(2) in the presence or absence of CuCl. In total, 55 different LaPP were identified with 26 containing reactive carbonyl groups. The strongest oxidation conditions (H(2)O(2) and Cu(I), i.e. a Fenton-like reagent) yielded 51 LaPP, whereas air oxidation produced only 12 LaPP. Independent of the oxidation conditions, around half of all LaPP were short-chain (oxidative cleavage) and the others long-chain (oxygen addition) PLPC oxidation products. The stronger oxidation conditions increased the number of LaPP, but also oxidized the added peptide Ac-PAAPAAPAPAEXTPV-OH (X=Cys, His or Lys) very quickly, especially under Fenton conditions. Thus, PLPC was oxidized by milder conditions (air or Cu(I)), incubated with the peptide and the peptide modifications were then analyzed by nano-RPC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS. Ten LaPP-derived peptide modifications were identified at lysine, whereas nine products were identified for cysteine and only three for histidine. Three high molecular weight LaPP still esterified to the GPC backbone were detected on Lys-containing peptide. Furthermore, three LaPP-derived mass shifts were obtained at cysteine, which have not previously been reported. PMID:22222463

  8. SIRT1 Regulates Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Release by Enhancing PIP5Kγ Activity through Deacetylation of Specific Lysine Residues in Mammals

    PubMed Central

    Akieda-Asai, Sayaka; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Ikegami, Koji; Kahyo, Tomoaki; Yao, Ikuko; Hatanaka, Takahiro; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Sugiyama, Rika; Yokozeki, Takeaki; Eishi, Yoshinobu; Koike, Morio; Ikeda, Kyoji; Chiba, Takuya; Yamaza, Haruyoshi; Shimokawa, Isao; Song, Si-Young; Matsuno, Akira; Mizutani, Akiko; Sawabe, Motoji; Chao, Moses V.; Tanaka, Masashi; Kanaho, Yasunori; Natsume, Tohru; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Date, Yukari; McBurney, Michael W.; Guarente, Leonard; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2010-01-01

    Background SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we report that SIRT1 is abundantly expressed in pituitary thyrotropes and regulates thyroid hormone secretion. Manipulation of SIRT1 level revealed that SIRT1 positively regulated the exocytosis of TSH-containing granules. Using LC/MS-based interactomics, phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase (PIP5K)γ was identified as a SIRT1 binding partner and deacetylation substrate. SIRT1 deacetylated two specific lysine residues (K265/K268) in PIP5Kγ and enhanced PIP5Kγ enzyme activity. SIRT1-mediated TSH secretion was abolished by PIP5Kγ knockdown. SIRT1 knockdown decreased the levels of deacetylated PIP5Kγ, PI(4,5)P2, and reduced the secretion of TSH from pituitary cells. These results were also observed in SIRT1-knockout mice. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicated that the control of TSH release by the SIRT1-PIP5Kγ pathway is important for regulating the metabolism of the whole body. PMID:20668706

  9. Nondestructive Testing Residual Stress Using Ultrasonic Critical Refracted Longitudinal Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chunguang; Song, Wentao; Pan, Qinxue; Li, Huanxin; Liu, Shuai

    Residual stress has significant impacts on the performance of the mechanical components, especially on its strength, fatigue life and corrosion resistance and dimensional stability. Based on theory of acoustoelasticity, the testing principle of ultrasonic LCR wave method is analyzed. The testing system of residual stress is build. The method of calibration of stress coefficient is proposed in order to improve the detection precision. At last, through experiments and applications on residual stress testing of oil pipeline weld joint, vehicle's torsion shaft, glass and ceramics, gear tooth root, and so on, the result show that it deserved to be studied deeply on application and popularization of ultrasonic LCR wave method.

  10. Fragmentation behavior of Amadori-peptides obtained by non-enzymatic glycosylation of lysine residues with ADP-ribose in tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fedorova, Maria; Frolov, Andrej; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    Mono- and poly-adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosylation are common post-translational modifications incorporated by sequence-specific enzymes at, predominantly, arginine, asparagine, glutamic acid or aspartic acid residues, whereas non-enzymatic ADP-ribosylation (glycation) modifies lysine and cysteine residues. These glycated proteins and peptides (Amadori-compounds) are commonly found in organisms, but have so far not been investigated to any great degree. In this study, we have analyzed their fragmentation characteristics using different mass spectrometry (MS) techniques. In matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-MS, the ADP-ribosyl group was cleaved, almost completely, at the pyrophosphate bond by in-source decay. In contrast, this cleavage was very weak in electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS. The same fragmentation site also dominated the MALDI-PSD (post-source decay) and ESI-CID (collision-induced dissociation) mass spectra. The remaining phospho-ribosyl group (formed by the loss of adenosine monophosphate) was stable, providing a direct and reliable identification of the modification site via the b- and y-ion series. Cleavage of the ADP-ribose pyrophosphate bond under CID conditions gives access to both neutral loss (347.10 u) and precursor-ion scans (m/z 348.08), and thereby permits the identification of ADP-ribosylated peptides in complex mixtures with high sensitivity and specificity. With electron transfer dissociation (ETD), the ADP-ribosyl group was stable, providing ADP-ribosylated c- and z-ions, and thus allowing reliable sequence analyses. PMID:20527035

  11. Nucleolar accumulation of APE1 depends on charged lysine residues that undergo acetylation upon genotoxic stress and modulate its BER activity in cells

    PubMed Central

    Lirussi, Lisa; Antoniali, Giulia; Vascotto, Carlo; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Poletto, Mattia; Romanello, Milena; Marasco, Daniela; Leone, Marilisa; Quadrifoglio, Franco; Bhakat, Kishor K.; Scaloni, Andrea; Tell, Gianluca

    2012-01-01

    Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) is the main abasic endonuclease in the base excision repair (BER) pathway of DNA lesions caused by oxidation/alkylation in mammalian cells; within nucleoli it interacts with nucleophosmin and rRNA through N-terminal Lys residues, some of which (K27/K31/K32/K35) may undergo acetylation in vivo. Here we study the functional role of these modifications during genotoxic damage and their in vivo relevance. We demonstrate that cells expressing a specific K-to-A multiple mutant are APE1 nucleolar deficient and are more resistant to genotoxic treatment than those expressing the wild type, although they show impaired proliferation. Of interest, we find that genotoxic treatment induces acetylation at these K residues. We also find that the charged status of K27/K31/K32/K35 modulates acetylation at K6/K7 residues that are known to be involved in the coordination of BER activity through a mechanism regulated by the sirtuin 1 deacetylase. Of note, structural studies show that acetylation at K27/K31/K32/K35 may account for local conformational changes on APE1 protein structure. These results highlight the emerging role of acetylation of critical Lys residues in regulating APE1 functions. They also suggest the existence of cross-talk between different Lys residues of APE1 occurring upon genotoxic damage, which may modulate APE1 subnuclear distribution and enzymatic activity in vivo. PMID:22918947

  12. IDENTIFYING CRITICAL CYSTEINE RESIDUES IN ARSENIC (+3 OXIDATION STATE) METHYLTRANSFERASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic (+3 oxidation state) methyltransferase (AS3MT) catalyzes methylation of inorganic arsenic to mono, di, and trimethylated arsenicals. Orthologous AS3MT genes in genomes ranging from simple echinoderm to human predict a protein with five conserved cysteine (C) residues. In ...

  13. The valine and lysine residues in the conserved FxVTxK motif are important for the function of phylogenetically distant plant cellulose synthases.

    PubMed

    Slabaugh, Erin; Scavuzzo-Duggan, Tess; Chaves, Arielle; Wilson, Liza; Wilson, Carmen; Davis, Jonathan K; Cosgrove, Daniel J; Anderson, Charles T; Roberts, Alison W; Haigler, Candace H

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose synthases (CESAs) synthesize the β-1,4-glucan chains that coalesce to form cellulose microfibrils in plant cell walls. In addition to a large cytosolic (catalytic) domain, CESAs have eight predicted transmembrane helices (TMHs). However, analogous to the structure of BcsA, a bacterial CESA, predicted TMH5 in CESA may instead be an interfacial helix. This would place the conserved FxVTxK motif in the plant cell cytosol where it could function as a substrate-gating loop as occurs in BcsA. To define the functional importance of the CESA region containing FxVTxK, we tested five parallel mutations in Arabidopsis thaliana CESA1 and Physcomitrella patens CESA5 in complementation assays of the relevant cesa mutants. In both organisms, the substitution of the valine or lysine residues in FxVTxK severely affected CESA function. In Arabidopsis roots, both changes were correlated with lower cellulose anisotropy, as revealed by Pontamine Fast Scarlet. Analysis of hypocotyl inner cell wall layers by atomic force microscopy showed that two altered versions of Atcesa1 could rescue cell wall phenotypes observed in the mutant background line. Overall, the data show that the FxVTxK motif is functionally important in two phylogenetically distant plant CESAs. The results show that Physcomitrella provides an efficient model for assessing the effects of engineered CESA mutations affecting primary cell wall synthesis and that diverse testing systems can lead to nuanced insights into CESA structure-function relationships. Although CESA membrane topology needs to be experimentally determined, the results support the possibility that the FxVTxK region functions similarly in CESA and BcsA. PMID:26646446

  14. Atomic structure of recombinant thaumatin II reveals flexible conformations in two residues critical for sweetness and three consecutive glycine residues.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tetsuya; Mikami, Bunzo; Tani, Fumito

    2014-11-01

    Thaumatin, an intensely sweet-tasting protein used as a sweetener, elicits a sweet taste at 50 nM. Although two major variants designated thaumatin I and thaumatin II exist in plants, there have been few dedicated thaumatin II structural studies and, to date, data beyond atomic resolution had not been obtained. To identify the detailed structural properties explaining why thaumatin elicits a sweet taste, the structure of recombinant thaumatin II was determined at the resolution of 0.99 Å. Atomic resolution structural analysis with riding hydrogen atoms illustrated the differences in the direction of the side-chains more precisely and the electron density maps of the C-terminal regions were markedly improved. Though it had been suggested that the three consecutive glycine residues (G142-G143-G144) have highly flexible conformations, G143, the central glycine residue was successfully modelled in two conformations for the first time. Furthermore, the side chain r.m.s.d. values for two residues (R67 and R82) critical for sweetness exhibited substantially higher values, suggesting that these residues are highly disordered. These results demonstrated that the flexible conformations in two critical residues favoring their interaction with sweet taste receptors are prominent features of the intensely sweet taste of thaumatin. PMID:25066915

  15. A statistical approach to determining criticality of residual host cell DNA.

    PubMed

    Yang, Harry; Wei, Ziping; Schenerman, Mark

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method for determining the criticality of residual host cell DNA, which is characterized through two attributes, namely the size and amount of residual DNA in biopharmaceutical product. By applying a mechanistic modeling approach to the problem, we establish the linkage between residual DNA and product safety measured in terms of immunogenicity, oncogenicity, and infectivity. Such a link makes it possible to establish acceptable ranges of residual DNA size and amount. Application of the method is illustrated through two real-life examples related to a vaccine manufactured in Madin Darby Canine Kidney cell line and a monoclonal antibody using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line as host cells. PMID:25358029

  16. Tackling Critical Catalytic Residues in Helicobacter pylori l-Asparaginase

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Maristella; Chiarelli, Laurent R; Valentini, Giovanna; Scotti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial asparaginases (amidohydrolases, EC 3.5.1.1) are important enzymes in cancer therapy, especially for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia. They are tetrameric enzymes able to catalyze the deamination of l-ASN and, to a variable extent, of l-GLN, on which leukemia cells are dependent for survival. In contrast to other known l-asparaginases, Helicobacter pylori CCUG 17874 type II enzyme (HpASNase) is cooperative and has a low affinity towards l-GLN. In this study, some critical amino acids forming the active site of HpASNase (T16, T95 and E289) have been tackled by rational engineering in the attempt to better define their role in catalysis and to achieve a deeper understanding of the peculiar cooperative behavior of this enzyme. Mutations T16E, T95D and T95H led to a complete loss of enzymatic activity. Mutation E289A dramatically reduced the catalytic activity of the enzyme, but increased its thermostability. Interestingly, E289 belongs to a loop that is very variable in l-asparaginases from the structure, sequence and length point of view, and which could be a main determinant of their different catalytic features. PMID:25826146

  17. The histone H3 lysine-27 demethylase Jmjd3 plays a critical role in specific regulation of Th17 cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Cao, Wei; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xi; Zhan, Yu; Yang, Qian; Liu, Sanhong; Chen, Pengfei; Jiang, Yuhang; Sun, Xiaohua; Tao, Yu; Hu, Yiming; Li, Cuifeng; Wang, Qi; Wang, Ying; Chen, Charlie Degui; Shi, Yufang; Zhang, Xiaoren

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL) 17-producing T helper (Th17) cells play critical roles in the clearance of extracellular bacteria and fungi as well as the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, and ulcerative colitis. Although a global transcriptional regulatory network of Th17 cell differentiation has been mapped recently, the participation of epigenetic modifications in the differentiation process has yet to be elucidated. We demonstrated here that histone H3 lysine-27 (H3K27) demethylation, predominantly mediated by the H3K27 demethylase Jmjd3, crucially regulated Th17 cell differentiation. Activation of naïve CD4(+) T cells immediately induced high expression of Jmjd3. Genetic depletion of Jmjd3 in CD4(+) T cells specifically impaired Th17 cell differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Ectopic expression of Jmjd3 largely rescued the impaired differentiation of Th17 cells in vitro in Jmjd3-deficient CD4(+) T cells. Importantly, Jmjd3-deficient mice were resistant to the induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Furthermore, inhibition of the H3K27 demethylase activity with the specific inhibitor GSK-J4 dramatically suppressed Th17 cell differentiation in vitro. At the molecular level, Jmjd3 directly bound to and reduced the level of H3K27 trimethylation (me3) at the genomic sites of Rorc, which encodes the master Th17 transcription factor Rorγt, and Th17 cytokine genes such as Il17, Il17f, and Il22. Therefore, our studies established a critical role of Jmjd3-mediated H3K27 demethylation in Th17 cell differentiation and suggest that Jmjd3 can be a novel therapeutic target for suppressing autoimmune responses. PMID:25840993

  18. Global profiling of lysine acetylation in human histoplasmosis pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum.

    PubMed

    Xie, Longxiang; Fang, Wenjie; Deng, Wanyan; Yu, Zhaoxiao; Li, Juan; Chen, Min; Liao, Wanqing; Xie, Jianping; Pan, Weihua

    2016-04-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum is the causative agent of human histoplasmosis, which can cause respiratory and systemic mycosis in immune-compromised individuals. Lysine acetylation, a protein posttranslational protein modification, is widespread in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Although increasing evidence suggests that lysine acetylation may play critical roles in fungus physiology, very little is known about its extent and function in H. capsulatum. To comprehensively profile protein lysine acetylation in H. capsulatum, we performed a global acetylome analysis through peptide prefractionation, antibody enrichment, and LC-MS/MS analysis, identifying 775 acetylation sites on 456 acetylated proteins; and functionally analysis showing their involvement in different biological processes. We defined six types of acetylation site motifs, and the results imply that lysine residue of polypeptide with tyrosine at the -1 and +1 positions, histidine at the +1 position, and phenylalanine (F) at the +1 and +2 position is a preferred substrate of lysine acetyltransferase. Moreover, some virulence factors candidates including calmodulin and DnaK are acetylated. In conclusion, our data set may serve as an important resource for the elucidation of associations between functional protein lysine acetylation and virulence in H. capsulatum. PMID:26806293

  19. Critical considerations in the mitigation of insect residue contamination on aircraft surfaces - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kok, Mariana; Smith, Joseph G.; Wohl, Christopher J.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Young, Trevor M.

    2015-05-01

    Mitigation of insect residue contamination on next generation aircraft is vital for the commercial exploitation of laminar flow technologies. A review of the critical entomological, meteorological and aeronautical factors affecting insect residue accumulation on aircraft leading edge surfaces is herein presented. An evaluation of a passive mitigation strategy, namely the use of anti-contamination coatings, has been conducted and the key issues in the use of these coatings highlighted. A summary of the variations in major experiments, including laboratory, wind tunnel and flight testing, is outlined. The effects of surface and material characteristics on insect residue adhesion were also investigated, with topographical features of the surface and surface chemistry shown as influential factors. The use of a substitute as an alternative to live insect testing has shown promise.

  20. Critical POU domain residues confer Oct4 uniqueness in somatic cell reprogramming.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wensong; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Fei; Tan, Weiqi; Lin, Wei; Chen, Dahua; Sun, Qinmiao; Xia, Zongping

    2016-01-01

    The POU domain transcription factor Oct4 plays critical roles in self-renewal and pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Together with Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, Oct4 can reprogram any other cell types to pluripotency, in which Oct4 is the only factor that cannot be functionally replaced by other POU family members. To investigate the determinant elements of Oct4 uniqueness, we performed Ala scan on all Ser, Thr, Tyr, Lys and Arg of murine Oct4 by testing their capability in somatic cell reprogramming. We uncovered a series of residues that are important for Oct4 functionality, in which almost all of these key residues are within the POU domains making direct interaction with DNA. The Oct4 N- and C-terminal transactivation domains (TADs) are not unique and could be replaced by the Yes-associated protein (YAP) TAD domain to support reprogramming. More importantly, we uncovered two important residues that confer Oct4 uniqueness in somatic cell reprogramming. Our systematic structure-function analyses bring novel mechanistic insight into the molecular basis of how critical residues function together to confer Oct4 uniqueness among POU family for somatic cell reprogramming. PMID:26877091

  1. Interplay between lysine methylation and Cdk phosphorylation in growth control by the retinoblastoma protein

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Simon M; Munro, Shonagh; Kessler, Benedikt; Oppermann, Udo; La Thangue, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    As a critical target for cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein (pRb) controls early cell cycle progression. We report here a new type of regulation that influences Cdk recognition and phosphorylation of substrate proteins, mediated through the targeted methylation of a critical lysine residue in the Cdk substrate recognition site. In pRb, lysine (K) 810 represents the essential and conserved basic residue (SPXK) required for cyclin/Cdk recognition and phosphorylation. Methylation of K810 by the methyltransferase Set7/9 impedes binding of Cdk and thereby prevents subsequent phosphorylation of the associated serine (S) residue, retaining pRb in the hypophosphorylated growth-suppressing state. Methylation of K810 is under DNA damage control, and methylated K810 impacts on phosphorylation at sites throughout the pRb protein. Set7/9 is required for efficient cell cycle arrest, and significantly, a mutant derivative of pRb that cannot be methylated at K810 exhibits compromised cell cycle arrest. Thus, the regulation of phosphorylation by Cdks reflects the combined interplay with methylation events, and more generally the targeted methylation of a lysine residue within a Cdk-consensus site in pRb represents an important point of control in cell cycle progression. PMID:21119616

  2. Parkinsonism-associated Protein DJ-1/Park7 Is a Major Protein Deglycase That Repairs Methylglyoxal- and Glyoxal-glycated Cysteine, Arginine, and Lysine Residues

    PubMed Central

    Richarme, Gilbert; Mihoub, Mouadh; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh Chi; Leger, Thibaut; Lamouri, Aazdine

    2015-01-01

    Glycation is an inevitable nonenzymatic covalent reaction between proteins and endogenous reducing sugars or dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) that results in protein inactivation. DJ-1 was reported to be a multifunctional oxidative stress response protein with poorly defined function. Here, we show that human DJ-1 is a protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins by acting on early glycation intermediates and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. DJ-1 deglycates cysteines, arginines, and lysines (the three major glycated amino acids) of serum albumin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and aspartate aminotransferase and thus reactivates these proteins. DJ-1 prevented protein glycation in an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in the DJ-1 homolog YajL and restored cell viability in glucose-containing media. These results suggest that DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism results from excessive protein glycation and establishes DJ-1 as a major anti-glycation and anti-aging protein. PMID:25416785

  3. Parkinsonism-associated protein DJ-1/Park7 is a major protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated cysteine, arginine, and lysine residues.

    PubMed

    Richarme, Gilbert; Mihoub, Mouadh; Dairou, Julien; Bui, Linh Chi; Leger, Thibaut; Lamouri, Aazdine

    2015-01-16

    Glycation is an inevitable nonenzymatic covalent reaction between proteins and endogenous reducing sugars or dicarbonyls (methylglyoxal, glyoxal) that results in protein inactivation. DJ-1 was reported to be a multifunctional oxidative stress response protein with poorly defined function. Here, we show that human DJ-1 is a protein deglycase that repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated amino acids and proteins by acting on early glycation intermediates and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. DJ-1 deglycates cysteines, arginines, and lysines (the three major glycated amino acids) of serum albumin, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase, and aspartate aminotransferase and thus reactivates these proteins. DJ-1 prevented protein glycation in an Escherichia coli mutant deficient in the DJ-1 homolog YajL and restored cell viability in glucose-containing media. These results suggest that DJ-1-associated Parkinsonism results from excessive protein glycation and establishes DJ-1 as a major anti-glycation and anti-aging protein. PMID:25416785

  4. The chemical properties and functional role of a lysine residue within the active site of native sodium and potassium ion-activated adenosinetriphosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, K.Y.

    1988-01-01

    The peptide, HLLVMKGAPER, which contains Lysine 501 of the {alpha} polypeptide can be released from intact sodium and potassium ion activated adenosinetriphosphatase by tryptic digestion. An immunoadsorbent directed against the carboxy-terminal, -GAPER, has been constructed. Sealed, right-side-out vesicles, prepared from canine renal kidneys, were labeled with pyridoxal phosphate and sodium ({sup 3}H)borohydride in the absence or presence of saponin, respectively. Large increases in the incorporation of radioactivity into the peptides bound by the immunoadsorbent were observed in the digest obtained from the vesicles exposed to saponin. From the results of several control experiments examining the labeling reaction it could be concluded that the increase in the extent of modification was due to the cytoplasmic disposition of this segment in the native enzyme.

  5. Druggability of methyl-lysine binding sites.

    PubMed

    Santiago, C; Nguyen, K; Schapira, M

    2011-12-01

    Structural modules that specifically recognize--or read--methylated or acetylated lysine residues on histone peptides are important components of chromatin-mediated signaling and epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Deregulation of epigenetic mechanisms is associated with disease conditions, and antagonists of acetyl-lysine binding bromodomains are efficacious in animal models of cancer and inflammation, but little is known regarding the druggability of methyl-lysine binding modules. We conducted a systematic structural analysis of readers of methyl marks and derived a predictive druggability landscape of methyl-lysine binding modules. We show that these target classes are generally less druggable than bromodomains, but that some proteins stand as notable exceptions. PMID:22146969

  6. Contamination of Critical Surfaces from NVR Glove Residues Via Dry Handling and Solvent Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2004-01-01

    Gloves are often used to prevent the contamination of critical surfaces during handling. The type of glove chosen for use should be the glove that produces the least amount of non-volatile residue (NVR). This paper covers the analysis of polyethylene, nitrile, latex, vinyl, and polyurethane gloves using the contact transfer and gravimetric determination methods covered in the NASA GSFC work instruction Gravimetric Determination and Contact Transfer of Non-volatile Residue (NVR) in Cleanroom Glove Samples, 541-WI-5330.1.21 and in the ASTM Standard E-1731M-95, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Non-Volatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves. The tests performed focus on contamination of critical surfaces at the molecular level. The study found that for the most part, all of the gloves performed equally well in the contact transfer testing. However, the polyethylene gloves performed the best in the gravimetric determination testing, and therefore should be used whenever solvent contact is a possibility. The nitrile gloves may be used as a substitute for latex gloves when latex sensitivity is an issue. The use of vinyl gloves should be avoided, especially if solvent contact is a possibility. A glove database will be established by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Code 541 to compile the results from future testing of new gloves and different glove lots.

  7. Critical body residues in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita: Sediment exposures with nonionic organic contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Fay, A.A.; Brownawell, B.J.; Elskus, A.A.; McElroy, A.E.

    2000-04-01

    Body residues associated with acute toxicity were determined in the marine amphipod Ampelisca abdita exposed to spiked sediments. Nonylphenol and 2,2{prime},4,4{prime}-tetrachlorobiphenyl critical body residues (CBRs, body residue of contaminant at 50% mortality) were 1.1 {micro}mol/g wet tissue and 0.57 {micro}mol/g wet tissue, respectively, values near the low end of the CBR range expected for compounds acting via narcosis. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons tested, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and benz[a]anthracene (BaA), were not acutely toxic at exposure concentrations of up to 43 and 1,280 {micro}g/g dry sediment for BaA and BaP respectively, and body burdens up to 1.2 {micro}mol/g wet tissue (for BaP). Neither polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) was significantly metabolized by A. abdita. The microextraction technique employed here allowed residue analysis of samples containing as few as three amphipods (0.33 mg dry wt). The CBR approach avoids confounding factors such as variations in bioavailability and uptake kinetics and could be employed to assess the relative contribution of specific contaminants or contaminant classes in mixtures to effects observed in toxicity tests with Ampelisca and other organisms.

  8. Charged/Polar-Residue Scanning of the Hydrophobic Face of Transmembrane Domain 9 of the Yeast Glutathione Transporter, Hgt1p, Reveals a Conformationally Critical Region for Substrate Transport

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Anil; Bachhawat, Anand K.

    2015-01-01

    Unraveling the mechanistic workings of membrane transporters has remained a challenging task. We describe a novel strategy that involves subjecting the residues of the hydrophobic face of a transmembrane helix to a charged/polar scanning mutagenesis. TMD9 of the yeast glutathione transporter, Hgt1p, has been identified as being important in substrate binding, and two residues, F523 and Q526, are expected to line the substrate translocation channel while the other face is hydrophobic. The hydrophobic face of TMD9 helix consists of residues A509, V513, L517, L520, I524, and I528, and these were mutated to lysine, glutamine, and glutamic acid. Among the 16 charged mutants created, six were nonfunctional, revealing a surprising tolerance of charged residues in the hydrophobic part of TM helices. Furthermore, the only position that did not tolerate any charged residue was I524, proximal to the substrate binding residues. However, P525, also proximal to the substrate binding residues, did tolerate charged/polar residues, suggesting that mere proximity to the substrate binding residues was not the only factor. The I524K/E/Q mutants expressed well and localized correctly despite lacking any glutathione uptake capability. Isolation of suppressors for all nonfunctional mutants yielded second-site suppressors only for I524K and I524Q, and suppressors for these mutations appeared at G202K/I and G202K/Q, respectively. G202 is in the hydrophilic loop between TMD3 and TMD4. The results suggest that I524 in the hydrophobic face interacts with this region and is also in a conformationally critical region for substrate translocation. PMID:25784163

  9. Residual stress and damage-induced critical fracture on CO2 laser treated fused silica

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M; Stolken, J; Vignes, R; Norton, M

    2009-11-02

    Localized damage repair and polishing of silica-based optics using mid- and far-IR CO{sub 2} lasers has been shown to be an effective method for increasing optical damage threshold in the UV. However, it is known that CO{sub 2} laser heating of silicate surfaces can lead to a level of residual stress capable of causing critical fracture either during or after laser treatment. Sufficient control of the surface temperature as a function of time and position is therefore required to limit this residual stress to an acceptable level to avoid critical fracture. In this work they present the results of 351 nm, 3 ns Gaussian damage growth experiments within regions of varying residual stress caused by prior CO{sub 2} laser exposures. Thermally stressed regions were non-destructively characterized using polarimetry and confocal Raman microscopy to measure the stress induced birefringence and fictive temperature respectively. For 1 {approx} 40s square pulse CO{sub 2} laser exposures created over 0.5-1.25 kW/cm{sup 2} with a 1-3 mm 1/e{sup 2} diameter beam (T{sub max} {approx} 1500-3000 K), the critical damage site size leading to fracture increases weakly with peak temperature, but shows a stronger dependence on cooling rate, as predicted by finite element hydrodynamics simulations. Confocal micro-Raman was used to probe structural changes to the glass over different thermal histories and indicated a maximum fictive temperature of 1900K for T{sub max} {ge} 2000 K. The effect of cooling rate on fictive temperature caused by CO{sub 2} laser heating are consistent with finite element calculations based on a Tool-Narayanaswamy relaxation model.

  10. Mutation analysis of the Pip interaction domain reveals critical residues for protein–protein interactions

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Maria Antonia; Light, James; Maki, Richard A.; Assa-Munt, Nuria

    1999-01-01

    The PU.1 interaction partner (Pip) is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family that regulates gene expression through heterodimerization with the ETS transcription factor PU.1. Binding of Pip alone to DNA is weak, and usually it is recruited by phosphorylated PU.1 to form a strong ternary complex with specific DNA sequences. An approach combining sequence homology analysis, secondary structure predictions, and a precise mutational strategy has been used to determine critical residues within the Pip heterodimerization domain that contribute to ternary complex formation. We have delimited the Pip interaction domain to residues 245–422 by using deletion analysis. Site-directed mutagenesis of conserved polar amino acids within two predicted α-helices contained in this region, and which are highly conserved in the IRF family, confirmed the importance of these residues for Pip–PU.1 interaction with DNA as well as for trans-activation activity. Our results suggest the existence of a functional epitope essential for heterodimerization between Pip and PU.1 and possibly, in general, between interferon regulatory factor family members and their partners. PMID:10077581

  11. Metabolism leaves its mark on the powerhouse: recent progress in post-translational modifications of lysine in mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Papanicolaou, Kyriakos N.; O'Rourke, Brian; Foster, D. Brian

    2014-01-01

    Lysine modifications have been studied extensively in the nucleus, where they play pivotal roles in gene regulation and constitute one of the pillars of epigenetics. In the cytoplasm, they are critical to proteostasis. However, in the last decade we have also witnessed the emergence of mitochondria as a prime locus for post-translational modification (PTM) of lysine thanks, in large measure, to evolving proteomic techniques. Here, we review recent work on evolving set of PTM that arise from the direct reaction of lysine residues with energized metabolic thioester-coenzyme A intermediates, including acetylation, succinylation, malonylation, and glutarylation. We highlight the evolutionary conservation, kinetics, stoichiometry, and cross-talk between members of this emerging family of PTMs. We examine the impact on target protein function and regulation by mitochondrial sirtuins. Finally, we spotlight work in the heart and cardiac mitochondria, and consider the roles acetylation and other newly-found modifications may play in heart disease. PMID:25228883

  12. Solid residues from Italian municipal solid waste incinerators: A source for "critical" raw materials.

    PubMed

    Funari, Valerio; Braga, Roberto; Bokhari, Syed Nadeem Hussain; Dinelli, Enrico; Meisel, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    The incineration of municipal solid wastes is an important part of the waste management system along with recycling and waste disposal, and the solid residues produced after the thermal process have received attention for environmental concerns and the recovery of valuable metals. This study focuses on the Critical Raw Materials (CRM) content in solid residues from two Italian municipal waste incinerator (MSWI) plants. We sampled untreated bottom ash and fly ash residues, i.e. the two main outputs of common grate-furnace incinerators, and determined their total elemental composition with sensitive analytical techniques such as XRF and ICP-MS. After the removal of a few coarse metallic objects from bottom ashes, the corresponding ICP solutions were obtained using strong digestion methods, to ensure the dissolution of the most refractory components that could host significant amounts of precious metals and CRM. The integration of accurate chemical data with a substance flow analysis, which takes into account the mass balance and uncertainties assessment, indicates that bottom and fly ashes can be considered as a low concentration stream of precious and high-tech metals. The magnesium, copper, antimony and zinc contents are close to the corresponding values of a low-grade ore. The distribution of the elements flow between bottom and fly ash, and within different grain size fractions of bottom ash, is appraised. Most elements are enriched in the bottom ash flow, especially in the fine grained fractions. However, the calculated transfer coefficients indicate that Sb and Zn strongly partition into the fly ashes. The comparison with available studies indicates that the CRM concentrations in the untreated solid residues are comparable with those residues that undergo post-treatment beneficiations, e.g. separation between ferrous and non-ferrous fractions. The suggested separate collection of "fresh" bottom ash, which could be processed for further mineral upgrading, can

  13. Critical body residues for lethal and sublethal effects of membrane narcotics in the midge, Chironomus riparius

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The concept of the critical body residue (CBR) offers a compelling new way to evaluate hazard posed by persistent contaminants such as PCBs. The authors tested the utility of using CBRs for PCBs in an invertebrate species, Chironomus riparius. Acute toxicity (< 10 d) tests were performed with 2nd instar larvae by adding trace amounts of {sup 14}C-labeled PCBs to unlabeled PCBs in amounts sufficient to generate a dose-responsive mortality curve. Because of the limited water solubility of the PCBs tested, it was not possible to produce a toxic tissue concentration via aqueous exposure. This difficulty was overcome by allowing the midges to feed upon contaminated algae (Chlorella vulgaris) which could be loaded with much higher levels of PCBs than would dissolve in water. CBRs for acute toxicity were measured for 3 PCBs; an average CBR of about 1 mmol/kg was determined. If the midge CBRs are lipid normalized, they fall into the range of values that have previously been determined for vertebrates. The authors also evaluated CBRs in midges for a variety of sublethal impairments including development time within a stadium, larval weight and fecundity. A CBR of 1.09 {micro}mol/kg resulted in a significant increase in larval development time and decrease in larval weight for second instar larvae. Tissue residues declined in the third and fourth instars, despite continuing exposure suggesting that the animals developed attenuating mechanisms or that contaminant loss at ecdysis is significant. Despite declining tissue residues throughout the larval instars, fecundity was reduced from 284 eggs/female in controls to 244 eggs/female in animals exposed to the highest sublethal concentration.

  14. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3'-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3'-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation.

  15. Bridge helix bending promotes RNA polymerase II backtracking through a critical and conserved threonine residue

    PubMed Central

    Da, Lin-Tai; Pardo-Avila, Fátima; Xu, Liang; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Lu; Gao, Xin; Wang, Dong; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of the RNA polymerase II (Pol II) backtracking process is poorly understood. We built a Markov State Model from extensive molecular dynamics simulations to identify metastable intermediate states and the dynamics of backtracking at atomistic detail. Our results reveal that Pol II backtracking occurs in a stepwise mode where two intermediate states are involved. We find that the continuous bending motion of the Bridge helix (BH) serves as a critical checkpoint, using the highly conserved BH residue T831 as a sensing probe for the 3′-terminal base paring of RNA:DNA hybrid. If the base pair is mismatched, BH bending can promote the RNA 3′-end nucleotide into a frayed state that further leads to the backtracked state. These computational observations are validated by site-directed mutagenesis and transcript cleavage assays, and provide insights into the key factors that regulate the preferences of the backward translocation. PMID:27091704

  16. Charge Neutralization of the Central Lysine Cluster in Prion Protein (PrP) Promotes PrPSc-like Folding of Recombinant PrP Amyloids*

    PubMed Central

    Groveman, Bradley R.; Kraus, Allison; Raymond, Lynne D.; Dolan, Michael A.; Anson, Kelsie J.; Dorward, David W.; Caughey, Byron

    2015-01-01

    The structure of the infectious form of prion protein, PrPSc, remains unclear. Most pure recombinant prion protein (PrP) amyloids generated in vitro are not infectious and lack the extent of the protease-resistant core and solvent exclusion of infectious PrPSc, especially within residues ∼90–160. Polyanionic cofactors can enhance infectivity and PrPSc-like characteristics of such fibrils, but the mechanism of this enhancement is unknown. In considering structural models of PrPSc multimers, we identified an obstacle to tight packing that might be overcome with polyanionic cofactors, namely, electrostatic repulsion between four closely spaced cationic lysines within a central lysine cluster of residues 101–110. For example, in our parallel in-register intermolecular β-sheet model of PrPSc, not only would these lysines be clustered within the 101–110 region of the primary sequence, but they would have intermolecular spacings of only ∼4.8 Å between stacked β-strands. We have now performed molecular dynamics simulations predicting that neutralization of the charges on these lysine residues would allow more stable parallel in-register packing in this region. We also show empirically that substitution of these clustered lysine residues with alanines or asparagines results in recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils with extended proteinase-K resistant β-sheet cores and infrared spectra that are more reminiscent of bona fide PrPSc. These findings indicate that charge neutralization at the central lysine cluster is critical for the folding and tight packing of N-proximal residues within PrP amyloid fibrils. This charge neutralization may be a key aspect of the mechanism by which anionic cofactors promote PrPSc formation. PMID:25416779

  17. Positive charges on lysine residues of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein are important to its electrostatic interaction with spinach photosystem II membranes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jin-Peng; Yong, Zhen-Hua; Zhang, Feng; Ruan, Kang-Cheng; Xu, Chun-He; Chen, Gen-Yun

    2005-11-01

    To determine the contribution of charged amino acids to binding with the photosystem II complex (PSII), the amino or carboxyl groups of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein were modified with N-succinimidyl propionate (NSP) or glycine methyl ester (GME) in the presence of a water-soluble carbodiimide, respectively. Based on isoelectric point shift, 4-10 and 10-14 amino groups were modified in the presence of 2 and 4 mM NSP, respectively. Similarly, 3-4 carboxyl groups were modified by reaction with 100 mM GME. Neutralization of negatively charged carboxyl groups with GME did not alter the binding activity of the extrinsic 18 kDa protein. However, the NSP-modified 18 kDa protein, in which the positively charged amino groups had been modified to uncharged methyl esters, failed to bind with the PSII membrane in the presence of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein. This defect can not be attributed to structural or conformational alterations imposed by chemical modification, as the fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra among native, GME- and NSP-modified extrinsic 18 kDa proteins were similar. Thus, we have concluded that the positive charges of lysyl residues in the extrinsic 18 kDa protein are important for its interaction with PSII membranes in the presence of the extrinsic 23 kDa protein. Furthermore, it was found that the negative charges of carboxyl groups of this protein did not participate in binding with the extrinsic 23 kDa protein associated with PSII membranes. PMID:16270152

  18. A Method to Determine Lysine Acetylation Stoichiometries

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong-Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; et al

    2014-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a common protein posttranslational modification that regulates a variety of biological processes. A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the difficulty in measuring the proportion of lysine residues that are acetylated. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of protein lysine acetylation. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy for ~750 acetylated peptides from mammalian cell lysates. Furthermore, the acetylation on N-terminal tail of histone H4 was cross-validated by treating cells with sodiummore » butyrate, a potent deacetylase inhibitor, and comparing changes in stoichiometry levels measured by our method with immunoblotting measurements. Of note we observe that acetylation stoichiometry is high in nuclear proteins, but very low in mitochondrial and cytosolic proteins. In summary, our method opens new opportunities to study in detail the relationship of lysine acetylation levels of proteins with their biological functions.« less

  19. Saccharomyces cerevisiae a-Factor Mutants Reveal Residues Critical for Processing, Activity, and Export

    PubMed Central

    Huyer, Gregory; Kistler, Amy; Nouvet, Franklin J.; George, Carolyn M.; Boyle, Meredith L.; Michaelis, Susan

    2006-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating pheromone a-factor provides a paradigm for understanding the biogenesis of prenylated fungal pheromones. The biogenesis of a-factor involves multiple steps: (i) C-terminal CAAX modification (where C is cysteine, A is aliphatic, and X is any residue) which includes prenylation, proteolysis, and carboxymethylation (by Ram1p/Ram2p, Ste24p or Rce1p, and Ste14p, respectively); (ii) N-terminal processing, involving two sequential proteolytic cleavages (by Ste24p and Axl1p); and (iii) nonclassical export (by Ste6p). Once exported, mature a-factor interacts with the Ste3p receptor on MATα cells to stimulate mating. The a-factor biogenesis machinery is well defined, as is the CAAX motif that directs C-terminal modification; however, very little is known about the sequence determinants within a-factor required for N-terminal processing, activity, and export. Here we generated a large collection of a-factor mutants and identified residues critical for the N-terminal processing steps mediated by Ste24p and Axl1p. We also identified mutants that fail to support mating but do not affect biogenesis or export, suggesting a defective interaction with the Ste3p receptor. Mutants significantly impaired in export were also found, providing evidence that the Ste6p transporter recognizes sequence determinants as well as CAAX modifications. We also performed a phenotypic analysis of the entire set of isogenic a-factor biogenesis machinery mutants, which revealed information about the dependency of biogenesis steps upon one another, and demonstrated that export by Ste6p requires the completion of all processing events. Overall, this comprehensive analysis will provide a useful framework for the study of other fungal pheromones, as well as prenylated metazoan proteins involved in development and aging. PMID:16963638

  20. A chemical proteomics approach for global analysis of lysine monomethylome profiling.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhixiang; Cheng, Zhongyi; Sun, Mingwei; Wan, Xuelian; Liu, Ping; He, Tieming; Tan, Minjia; Zhao, Yingming

    2015-02-01

    Methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is known to play an important role in chromatin structure and function. However, non-histone protein substrates of this modification remain largely unknown. An effective approach for system-wide analysis of protein lysine methylation, particularly lysine monomethylation, is lacking. Here we describe a chemical proteomics approach for global screening for monomethyllysine substrates, involving chemical propionylation of monomethylated lysine, affinity enrichment of the modified monomethylated peptides, and HPLC/MS/MS analysis. Using this approach, we identified with high confidence 446 lysine monomethylation sites in 398 proteins, including three previously unknown histone monomethylation marks, representing the largest data set of protein lysine monomethylation described to date. Our data not only confirms previously discovered lysine methylation substrates in the nucleus and spliceosome, but also reveals new substrates associated with diverse biological processes. This method hence offers a powerful approach for dynamic study of protein lysine monomethylation under diverse cellular conditions and in human diseases. PMID:25505155

  1. Critical role of lysine 134 methylation on histone H2AX for γ-H2AX production and DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Sone, Kenbun; Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Ueda, Koji; Jenuwein, Thomas; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2014-01-01

    The presence of phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) is associated with the local activation of DNA-damage repair pathways. Although γ-H2AX deregulation in cancer has previously been reported, the molecular mechanism involved and its relationship with other histone modifications remain largely unknown. Here we find that the histone methyltransferase SUV39H2 methylates histone H2AX on lysine 134. When H2AX was mutated to abolish K134 methylation, the level of γ-H2AX became significantly reduced. We also found lower γ-H2AX activity following the introduction of double-strand breaks in Suv39h2 knockout cells or on SUV39H2 knockdown. Tissue microarray analyses of clinical lung and bladder tissues also revealed a positive correlation between H2AX K134 methylation and γ-H2AX levels. Furthermore, introduction of K134-substituted histone H2AX enhanced radio- and chemosensitivity of cancer cells. Overall, our results suggest that H2AX methylation plays a role in the regulation of γ-H2AX abundance in cancer. PMID:25487737

  2. Selective cleavage enhanced by acetylating the side chain of lysine.

    PubMed

    Fu, Leixiaomeng; Chen, Tingting; Xue, Gaiqing; Zu, Lily; Fang, Weihai

    2013-01-01

    Selective cleavage is of great interest in mass spectrometry studies as it can help sequence identification by promoting simple fragmentation pattern of peptides and proteins. In this work, the collision-induced dissociation of peptides containing internal lysine and acetylated lysine residues were studied. The experimental and computational results revealed that multiple fragmentation pathways coexisted when the lysine residue was two amino acid residues away from N-terminal of the peptide. After acetylation of the lysine side-chain, b(n)+ ions were the most abundant primary fragment products and the Lys(Ac)-Gly amide bond became the dominant cleavage site via an oxazolone pathway. Acetylating the side-chain of lysine promoted the selective cleavage of Lys-Xxx amide bond and generated much more information of the peptide backbone sequence. The results re-evaluate the selective cleavage due to the lysine basic side-chain and provide information for studying the post-translational modification of proteins and other bio-molecules containing Lys residues. PMID:23303756

  3. Mutagenesis identifies the critical amino acid residues of human endonuclease G involved in catalysis, magnesium coordination, and substrate specificity

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shih-Lu; Li, Chia-Cheng; Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Chen, Yi-Jin; Lin, Ching-Ting; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Background Endonuclease G (EndoG), a member of DNA/RNA nonspecific ββα-Me-finger nucleases, is involved in apoptosis and normal cellular proliferation. In this study, we analyzed the critical amino acid residues of EndoG and proposed the catalytic mechanism of EndoG. Methods To identify the critical amino acid residues of human EndoG, we replaced the conserved histidine, asparagine, and arginine residues with alanine. The catalytic efficacies of Escherichia coli-expressed EndoG variants were further analyzed by kinetic studies. Results Diethyl pyrocarbonate modification assay revealed that histidine residues were involved in EndoG activity. His-141, Asn-163, and Asn-172 in the H-N-H motif of EndoG were critical for catalysis and substrate specificity. H141A mutant required a higher magnesium concentration to achieve its activity, suggesting the unique role of His-141 in both catalysis and magnesium coordination. Furthermore, an additional catalytic residue (Asn-251) and an additional metal ion binding site (Glu-271) of human EndoG were identified. Conclusion Based on the mutational analysis and homology modeling, we proposed that human EndoG shared a similar catalytic mechanism with nuclease A from Anabaena. PMID:19272175

  4. Residues in the hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain are critical for endocytic recycling.

    PubMed

    Popa, Andreea; Carter, James R; Smith, Stacy E; Hellman, Lance; Fried, Michael G; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2012-03-01

    Hendra virus is a highly pathogenic paramyxovirus classified as a biosafety level four agent. The fusion (F) protein of Hendra virus is critical for promoting viral entry and cell-to-cell fusion. To be fusogenically active, Hendra virus F must undergo endocytic recycling and cleavage by the endosomal/lysosomal protease cathepsin L, but the route of Hendra virus F following internalization and the recycling signals involved are poorly understood. We examined the intracellular distribution of Hendra virus F following endocytosis and showed that it is primarily present in Rab5- and Rab4-positive endosomal compartments, suggesting that cathepsin L cleavage occurs in early endosomes. Hendra virus F transmembrane domain (TMD) residues S490 and Y498 were found to be important for correct Hendra virus F recycling, with the hydroxyl group of S490 and the aromatic ring of Y498 important for this process. In addition, changes in association of isolated Hendra virus F TMDs correlated with alterations to Hendra virus F recycling, suggesting that appropriate TMD interactions play an important role in endocytic trafficking. PMID:22238299

  5. Probing the critical residues for intramolecular fructosyl transfer reaction of a levan fructotransferase.

    PubMed

    Moon, Keum-Ok; Choi, Kyoung-Hwa; Kang, Ho-Young; Oh, Jeong-Il; Jang, Se Bok; Park, Cheon-Seok; Lee, Jong-Hoon; Cha, Jaeho

    2008-06-01

    Levan fructotransferase (LFTase) preferentially catalyzes the transfructosylation reaction in addition to levan hydrolysis, whereas other levan-degrading enzymes hydrolyze levan into a levan-oligosaccharide and fructose. Based on sequence comparisons and enzymatic properties, the fructosyl transfer activity of LFTase is proposed to have evolved from levanase. In order to probe the residues that are critical to the intramolecular fructosyl transfer reaction of the Microbacterium sp. AL-210 LFTase, an error-prone PCR mutagenesis process was carried out, and the mutants that led to a shift in activity from transfructosylation towards hydrolysis of levan were screened by the DNS method. After two rounds of mutagenesis, TLC and HPLC analyses of the reaction products by the selected mutants revealed two major products; one is a di-D-fructose- 2,6':6,2'-dianhydride (DFAIV) and the other is a levanbiose. The newly detected levanbiose corresponds to the reaction product from LFTase lacking transferring activity. Two mutants (2-F8 and 2-G9) showed a high yield of levanbiose (38-40%) compared with the wild-type enzyme, and thus behaved as levanases. Sequence analysis of the individual mutants responsible for the enhanced hydrolytic activity indicated that Asn-85 was highly involved in the transfructosylation activity of LFTase. PMID:18600048

  6. Canine Distemper Virus Fusion Activation: Critical Role of Residue E123 of CD150/SLAM

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Mojtaba; Bringolf, Fanny; Röthlisberger, Silvan; Bieringer, Maria; Schneider-Schaulies, Jürgen; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Origgi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Measles virus (MeV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) possess tetrameric attachment proteins (H) and trimeric fusion proteins, which cooperate with either SLAM or nectin 4 receptors to trigger membrane fusion for cell entry. While the MeV H-SLAM cocrystal structure revealed the binding interface, two distinct oligomeric H assemblies were also determined. In one of the conformations, two SLAM units were sandwiched between two discrete H head domains, thus spotlighting two binding interfaces (“front” and “back”). Here, we investigated the functional relevance of both interfaces in activating the CDV membrane fusion machinery. While alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified five critical regulatory residues in the front H-binding site of SLAM, the replacement of a conserved glutamate residue (E at position 123, replaced with A [E123A]) led to the most pronounced impact on fusion promotion. Intriguingly, while determination of the interaction of H with the receptor using soluble constructs revealed reduced binding for the identified SLAM mutants, no effect was recorded when physical interaction was investigated with the full-length counterparts of both molecules. Conversely, although mutagenesis of three strategically selected residues within the back H-binding site of SLAM did not substantially affect fusion triggering, nevertheless, the mutants weakened the H-SLAM interaction recorded with the membrane-anchored protein constructs. Collectively, our findings support a mode of binding between the attachment protein and the V domain of SLAM that is common to all morbilliviruses and suggest a major role of the SLAM residue E123, located at the front H-binding site, in triggering the fusion machinery. However, our data additionally support the hypothesis that other microdomain(s) of both glycoproteins (including the back H-binding site) might be required to achieve fully productive H-SLAM interactions. IMPORTANCE A complete understanding of the measles virus

  7. CRITICAL BODY RESIDUES FOR FRESHWATER AND SALTWATER AMPHIPODS EXPOSED TO SEDIMENT CONTAINING A MIXTURE OF HIGH KOW PAHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediments were spiked with a mixture of 13 high log Kow (5.4-6.8) PAH compounds to determine critical body residues (CBR) in Hyalella azteca and Leptocheirus plumulosus. Hyalella were exposed for 28 d in a intermittent flow test and for 10 d in a static test to compare PAH uptake...

  8. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.

  9. Cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Lysine Acylation in Mycobacteria Regulates Fatty Acid and Propionate Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Nambi, Subhalaxmi; Gupta, Kallol; Bhattacharyya, Moitrayee; Ramakrishnan, Parvathy; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Siddiqui, Nida; Thomas, Ann Terene; Visweswariah, Sandhya S.

    2013-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues is a posttranslational modification that is used by both eukaryotes and prokaryotes to regulate a variety of biological processes. Here we identify multiple substrates for the cAMP-dependent protein lysine acetyltransferase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (KATmt). We demonstrate that a catalytically important lysine residue in a number of FadD (fatty acyl CoA synthetase) enzymes is acetylated by KATmt in a cAMP-dependent manner and that acetylation inhibits the activity of FadD enzymes. A sirtuin-like enzyme can deacetylate multiple FadDs, thus completing the regulatory cycle. Using a strain deleted for the KATmt ortholog in Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), we show for the first time that acetylation is dependent on intracellular cAMP levels. KATmt can utilize propionyl CoA as a substrate and, therefore, plays a critical role in alleviating propionyl CoA toxicity in mycobacteria by inactivating acyl CoA synthetase (ACS). The precision by which mycobacteria can regulate the metabolism of fatty acids in a cAMP-dependent manner appears to be unparalleled in other biological organisms and is ideally suited to adapt to the complex environment that pathogenic mycobacteria experience in the host. PMID:23553634

  10. SIRT5 regulates the mitochondrial lysine succinylome and metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Rardin, Matthew J; He, Wenjuan; Nishida, Yuya; Newman, John C; Carrico, Chris; Danielson, Steven R; Guo, Ailan; Gut, Philipp; Sahu, Alexandria K; Li, Biao; Uppala, Radha; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Timothy; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Mulhern, Daniel; Stevens, Robert D; Ilkayeva, Olga R; Newgard, Christopher B; Jacobson, Matthew P; Hellerstein, Marc; Goetzman, Eric S; Gibson, Bradford W; Verdin, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Reversible posttranslational modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial proteins and metabolism. Here, we use a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the lysine succinylome in liver mitochondria and its regulation by the desuccinylase SIRT5. A total of 1,190 unique sites were identified as succinylated, and 386 sites across 140 proteins representing several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and ketogenesis were significantly hypersuccinylated in Sirt5(-/-) animals. Loss of SIRT5 leads to accumulation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate production in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, mutation of hypersuccinylated residues K83 and K310 on HMGCS2 to glutamic acid strongly inhibits enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings establish SIRT5 as a global regulator of lysine succinylation in mitochondria and present a mechanism for inhibition of ketogenesis through HMGCS2. PMID:24315375

  11. SIRT5 regulates the mitochondrial lysine succinylome and metabolic networks

    PubMed Central

    Rardin, Matthew J.; He, Wenjuan; Nishida, Yuya; Newman, John C.; Carrico, Chris; Danielson, Steven R.; Guo, Ailan; Gut, Philipp; Sahu, Alexandria K.; Li, Biao; Uppala, Radha; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Timothy; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Jing; Mulhern, Daniel; Stevens, Robert D.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; Newgard, Christopher B.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Hellerstein, Marc; Goetzman, Eric S.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Verdin, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Summary Reversible posttranslational modifications are emerging as critical regulators of mitochondrial proteins and metabolism. Here, we use a label-free quantitative proteomic approach to characterize the lysine succinylome in liver mitochondria and its regulation by the desuccinylase SIRT5. A total of 1190 unique sites were identified as succinylated, and 386 sites across 140 proteins representing several metabolic pathways including β-oxidation and ketogenesis were significantly hypersuccinylated in Sirt5−/− animals. Loss of SIRT5 leads to accumulation of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines and decreased β-hydroxybutyrate production in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that SIRT5 regulates succinylation of the rate-limiting ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (HMGCS2) both in vivo and in vitro. Finally, mutation of hypersuccinylated residues K83 and K310 on HMGCS2 to glutamic acid strongly inhibits enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings establish SIRT5 as a global regulator of lysine succinylation in mitochondria and present a mechanism for inhibition of ketogenesis through HMGCS2. PMID:24315375

  12. Quantitative Profiling of the Activity of Protein Lysine Methyltransferase SMYD2 Using SILAC-Based Proteomics.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Jonathan B; Cao, Xing-Jun; Han, Bomie; Chen, Lisa Hong; Horvath, Alexander; Richardson, Timothy I; Campbell, Robert M; Garcia, Benjamin A; Nguyen, Hannah

    2016-03-01

    The significance of non-histone lysine methylation in cell biology and human disease is an emerging area of research exploration. The development of small molecule inhibitors that selectively and potently target enzymes that catalyze the addition of methyl-groups to lysine residues, such as the protein lysine mono-methyltransferase SMYD2, is an active area of drug discovery. Critical to the accurate assessment of biological function is the ability to identify target enzyme substrates and to define enzyme substrate specificity within the context of the cell. Here, using stable isotopic labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) coupled with immunoaffinity enrichment of mono-methyl-lysine (Kme1) peptides and mass spectrometry, we report a comprehensive, large-scale proteomic study of lysine mono-methylation, comprising a total of 1032 Kme1 sites in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cells and 1861 Kme1 sites in ESCC cells overexpressing SMYD2. Among these Kme1 sites is a subset of 35 found to be potently down-regulated by both shRNA-mediated knockdown of SMYD2 and LLY-507, a selective small molecule inhibitor of SMYD2. In addition, we report specific protein sequence motifs enriched in Kme1 sites that are directly regulated by endogenous SMYD2 activity, revealing that SMYD2 substrate specificity is more diverse than expected. We further show direct activity of SMYD2 toward BTF3-K2, PDAP1-K126 as well as numerous sites within the repetitive units of two unique and exceptionally large proteins, AHNAK and AHNAK2. Collectively, our findings provide quantitative insights into the cellular activity and substrate recognition of SMYD2 as well as the global landscape and regulation of protein mono-methylation. PMID:26750096

  13. Sub-critical water extraction of residual green tea to produce a roasted green tea-like extract.

    PubMed

    Etoh, Hideo; Ohtaki, Naoko; Kato, Hideaki; Kulkarni, Aditya; Morita, Akio

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of various temperatures between 140 to 260 degrees C during sub-critical water extraction of residual green tea in making a roasted green tea-like extract, a popular beverage in Japan. Each residual green tea extract was analyzed for sensory properties and antioxidative activities, and this revealed 140 degrees C to be the best extraction temperature. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde, (+)-catechin, and (-)-epicatechin were found to be the major antioxidative compounds in the 140 degrees C extract, along with theanine and some important amino acids. PMID:20378975

  14. Histone Lysine Methylation Dynamics: Establishment, Regulation, and Biological Impact

    PubMed Central

    Black, Joshua C.; Van Rechem, Capucine; Whetstine, Johnathan R.

    2013-01-01

    Histone lysine methylation has emerged as a critical player in the regulation of gene expression, cell cycle, genome stability, and nuclear architecture. Over the past decade, a tremendous amount of progress has led to the characterization of methyl modifications and the lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) and lysine demethylases (KDMs) that regulate them. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of the KMTs and KDMs and the methyl modifications they regulate. We discuss the localization of the KMTs and KDMs as well as the distribution of lysine methylation throughout the genome. We highlight how these data have shaped our view of lysine methylation as a key determinant of complex chromatin states. Finally, we discuss the regulation of KMTs and KDMs by proteasomal degradation, posttranscriptional mechanisms, and metabolic status. We propose key questions for the field and highlight areas that we predict will yield exciting discoveries in the years to come. PMID:23200123

  15. A lysine-to-arginine mutation on NEDD8 markedly reduces the activity of cullin RING E3 ligase through the impairment of neddylation cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Sui, Yiyan; Liu, Yaobin; Xu, Guoqiang

    2015-06-12

    Neural-precursor-cell-expressed developmentally down-regulated 8 (NEDD8) is a ubiquitin-like modifier, which forms covalent conjugates on lysines of its substrates. This post-translational modification, neddylation, plays important roles in tumor cell proliferation and viability. Ubiquitin can form diverse polyubiquitin chains, on its seven lysines, which play important functions in various biological processes. However, the roles of lysines in NEDD8 have not been explored. Here, we generated nine NEDD8 point mutants, each with one lysine replaced by an arginine, to study the putative function of lysines in NEDD8. Our experiments discover that Lys27 in NEDD8 is a critical residue for protein neddylation. Replacement of this residue with arginine almost completely eliminates the conjugation of NEDD8 to its substrates. Furthermore, we find that the K27R mutant impairs NEDD8 conjugation to the E2 enzyme, which normally forms thioester bonds for further transferring NEDD8 to its ligases and substrates. Therefore, this mutation completely inhibits global protein neddylation, including neddylation of cullin family proteins, resulting in decreased activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases. This work sheds new light on the roles of NEDD8 lysines on neddylation cascades and provides a dominant negative mutant for the study of neddylation and its biological functions. - Highlights: • Lys27 in NEDD8 is critical for protein neddylation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant impairs the NEDD8 conjugation. • NEDD8 K27R mutant significantly reduces the activity of cullin-RING E3 ligases.

  16. L-lysine fermentation.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas

    2007-01-01

    Amino acids are the basic bioelements of proteins, which are the most important macromolecules for the functions of humans and animals. Out of the 20 L-amino acids, ecumenically found in most of living organisms, L-lysine is one of the 9 amino acids which are essential for human and animal nutrition. L-lysine is useful as medicament, chemical agent, food material (food industry) and feed additive (animal food). Its demand has been steadily increasing in recent years and several hundred thousands tones of L-lysine (about 800,000 tones/year) are annually produced worldwide almost by microbial fermentation. The stereospecificity of amino acids (the L isomer) makes the fermentation advantageous compared with synthetic processes. Mutant auxotrophic or resistant to certain chemicals strains of so-called gram positive coryneform bacteria are generally used, including the genera Brevibacterium and Corynebacterium, united to the genus. The significance of Research and Development increased rapidly since the discovery of fermentative amino acid production in the fifties (S. Kinoshita et al., Proceedings of the International Symposium on Enzyme Chemistry 2:464-468 (1957)), leading to innovative fermentation processes which replaced the classical manufacturing methods of L-lysine like acid hydrolysis. L-Lysine is separated and purified by suitable downstream processes involving classical separation or extraction methods (ultrafiltration or centrifugation, separation or ion exchange extraction, crystallization, drying) and is sold as a powder. Alternatively, spray dried pellets or liquid fermentation broth can be used as animal feed supplement. On behalf of today's strong competition in amino acid industry, Biotechnology companies are continuously aiming in innovative research developments and use complex management concepts and business strategies, towards gaining market leadership in the field of amino acid production. PMID:19075830

  17. Critical review on the withdrawal period calculation for injection site residues.

    PubMed

    Sanquer, A; Wackowiez, G; Havrileck, B

    2006-10-01

    This review concerns a statistical method for calculating withdrawal period for injection site residues. A recently adopted Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use/European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Product (CVMP/EMEA) guideline recommends to apply the same method for the calculation of withdrawal period for injection site residues as for other edible tissues. For reasons in this study developed below, this approach is deemed to be inappropriate for the injection site residues. The injection site residues often violate regression assumptions with regard to homoscedasticity (same variance in residue concentrations for different slaughter times) and linearity (of the mean depletion curve in log(e)-scale). The currently recommended method cannot adequately handle these aspects. An alternative pragmatic method taking into account the last slaughter time with all data below the reference threshold, combined with a safety span, is proposed for injection site residues. A nonparametric approach for calculating the withdrawal period is also presumed to be a sound alternative. The references commonly used are the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) and the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). Unfortunately these references are not relevant to the acute risk exposure associated with injection site consumption. The use of alternative references, such as the Acceptable Single Dose Intake (ASDI) or the Acute Reference Dose (ARD) are thought to be more appropriate. PMID:16958779

  18. Differential acute toxicity of tetrachlorobenzene isomers to oligochaetes in soil and water: application of the critical body residue concept.

    PubMed

    Hurdzan, Christopher M; Lanno, Roman P; Sovic, David M

    2011-09-01

    The acute, lethal potency of the 1,2,3,4-, 1,2,4,5- and 1,2,3,5-tetrachlorobenzene isomers was compared in the terrestrial and aquatic oligochaetes Eisenia andrei and Tubifex tubifex. 1,2,4,5-TeCB was neither lethal, nor produced any perceptible adverse effects, at lipid normalized concentrations predicted to be lethal according to the well-established critical body residue concept. If a narcotic is defined as a substance capable of inducing narcosis, rather than a substance displaying certain physical or chemical properties (e.g., log K(ow)), then we do not believe these findings challenge the critical body residue because by the former definition, 1,2,4,5-tetrachlorobenzene is not a narcotic. PMID:21688121

  19. Residue Val237 is critical for the enantioselectivity of Penicillium expansum lipase.

    PubMed

    Tang, Lianghua; Su, Min; Chi, Liying; Zhang, Junling; Zhang, Huihui; Zhu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    The shape of the hydrophobic tunnel leading to the active site of Penicillium expansum lipase (PEL) was redesigned by single-point mutations, in order to better understand enzyme enantioselectivity towards naproxen. A variant with a valine-to-glycine substitution at residue 237 exhibited almost no enantioselectivity (E = 1.1) compared with that (E = 104) of wild-type PEL. The function of the residue, Val237, in the hydrophobic tunnel was further analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. For each of these variants a significant decrease of enantioselectivity (E < 7) was observed compared with that of wild-type enzyme. Further docking result showed that Val237 plays the most important role in stabilizing the correct orientation of (R)-naproxen. Overall, these results indicate that the residue Val237 is the key amino acid residue maintaining the enantioselectivity of the lipase. PMID:24338160

  20. Functional role of putative critical residues in Mycobacterium tuberculosis RNase P protein.

    PubMed

    Singh, Alla; Ubaid-Ullah, Shah; Batra, Janendra K

    2016-09-01

    RNase P is involved in processing the 5' end of pre-tRNA molecules. Bacterial RNase P contains a catalytic RNA subunit and a protein subunit. In this study, we have analyzed the residues in RNase P protein of M. tuberculosis that differ from the residues generally conserved in other bacterial RNase Ps. The residues investigated in the current study include the unique residues, Val27, Ala70, Arg72, Ala77, and Asp124, and also Phe23 and Arg93 which have been found to be important in the function of RNase P protein components of other bacteria. The selected residues were individually mutated either to those present in other bacterial RNase P protein components at respective positions or in some cases to alanine. The wild type and mutant M. tuberculosis RNase P proteins were expressed in E. coli, purified, used to reconstitute holoenzymes with wild type RNA component in vitro, and functionally characterized. The Phe23Ala and Arg93Ala mutants showed very poor catalytic activity when reconstituted with the RNA component. The catalytic activity of holoenzyme with Val27Phe, Ala70Lys, Arg72Leu and Arg72Ala was also significantly reduced, whereas with Ala77Phe and Asp124Ser the activity of holoenzyme was similar to that with the wild type protein. Although the mutants did not suffer from any binding defects, Val27Phe, Ala70Lys, Arg72Ala and Asp124Ser were less tolerant towards higher temperatures as compared to the wild type protein. The Km of Val27Phe, Ala70Lys, Arg72Ala and Ala77Phe were >2-fold higher than that of the wild type, indicating the substituted residues to be involved in substrate interaction. The study demonstrates that residues Phe23, Val27 and Ala70 are involved in substrate interaction, while Arg72 and Arg93 interact with other residues within the protein to provide it a functional conformation. PMID:27417238

  1. Tyrosine Residues from the S4-S5 Linker of Kv11.1 Channels Are Critical for Slow Deactivation.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chai-Ann; Gravel, Andrée E; Perry, Matthew D; Arnold, Alexandre A; Marcotte, Isabelle; Vandenberg, Jamie I

    2016-08-12

    Slow deactivation of Kv11.1 channels is critical for its function in the heart. The S4-S5 linker, which joins the voltage sensor and pore domains, plays a critical role in this slow deactivation gating. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to identify the membrane-bound surface of the S4S5 linker, and we show that two highly conserved tyrosine residues within the KCNH subfamily of channels are membrane-associated. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiological analysis indicates that Tyr-542 interacts with both the pore domain and voltage sensor residues to stabilize activated conformations of the channel, whereas Tyr-545 contributes to the slow kinetics of deactivation by primarily stabilizing the transition state between the activated and closed states. Thus, the two tyrosine residues in the Kv11.1 S4S5 linker play critical but distinct roles in the slow deactivation phenotype, which is a hallmark of Kv11.1 channels. PMID:27317659

  2. Critical tissue residue approach linking accumulated metals in aquatic insects to population and community-level effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Travis S.; Clements, William H.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Church, Stanley E.; Wanty, Richard B.; San Juan, Carma A.; Adams, Monique; Lamothe, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Whole body Zn concentrations in individuals (n = 825) from three aquatic insect taxa (mayflies Rhithrogena spp. and Drunella spp. and the caddisfly Arctopsyche grandis) were used to predict effects on populations and communities (n = 149 samples). Both mayflies accumulated significantly more Zn than the caddisfly. The presence/absence of Drunella spp. most reliably distinguished sites with low and high Zn concentrations; however, population densities of mayflies were more sensitive to increases in accumulated Zn. Critical tissue residues (634 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Drunella spp. and 267 (mu or u)g/g Zn for Rhithrogena spp.) caused a 20% reduction in maximum (90th quantile) mayfly densities. These critical tissue residues were associated with exposure to 7.0 and 3.9 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn for Drunella spp. and Rhithrogena spp., respectively. A threshold in a measure of taxonomic completeness (observed/expected) was observed at 5.4 (mu or u)g/L dissolved Zn. Dissolved Zn concentrations associated with critical tissue residues in mayflies were also associated with adverse effects in the aquatic community as a whole. These effects on populations and communities occurred at Zn concentrations below the U.S. EPA hardness-adjusted continuous chronic criterion.

  3. Identification of Critical Paraoxonase 1 Residues Involved in High Density Lipoprotein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaodong; Huang, Ying; Levison, Bruce S; Gerstenecker, Gary; DiDonato, Anthony J; Hazen, Leah B; Lee, Joonsue; Gogonea, Valentin; DiDonato, Joseph A; Hazen, Stanley L

    2016-01-22

    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated protein with atherosclerosis-protective and systemic anti-oxidant functions. We recently showed that PON1, myeloperoxidase, and HDL bind to one another in vivo forming a functional ternary complex (Huang, Y., Wu, Z., Riwanto, M., Gao, S., Levison, B. S., Gu, X., Fu, X., Wagner, M. A., Besler, C., Gerstenecker, G., Zhang, R., Li, X. M., Didonato, A. J., Gogonea, V., Tang, W. H., et al. (2013) J. Clin. Invest. 123, 3815-3828). However, specific residues on PON1 involved in the HDL-PON1 interaction remain unclear. Unambiguous identification of protein residues involved in docking interactions to lipid surfaces poses considerable methodological challenges. Here we describe a new strategy that uses a novel synthetic photoactivatable and click chemistry-taggable phospholipid probe, which, when incorporated into HDL, was used to identify amino acid residues on PON1 that directly interact with the lipoprotein phospholipid surface. Several specific PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293) were identified through covalent cross-links with the lipid probes using affinity isolation coupled to liquid chromatography with on-line tandem mass spectrometry. Based upon the crystal structure for PON1, the identified residues are all localized in relatively close proximity on the surface of PON1, defining a domain that binds to the HDL lipid surface. Site-specific mutagenesis of the identified PON1 residues (Leu-9, Tyr-185, and Tyr-293), coupled with functional studies, reveals their importance in PON1 binding to HDL and both PON1 catalytic activity and stability. Specifically, the residues identified on PON1 provide important structural insights into the PON1-HDL interaction. More generally, the new photoactivatable and affinity-tagged lipid probe developed herein should prove to be a valuable tool for identifying contact sites supporting protein interactions with lipid interfaces such as found on cell membranes

  4. Identification of residues on human receptor DPP4 critical for MERS-CoV binding and entry

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Wenfei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Nianshuang; Wang, Dongli; Guo, Jianying; Fu, Lili; Shi, Xuanling

    2014-12-15

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) infects host cells through binding the receptor binding domain (RBD) on its spike glycoprotein to human receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (hDPP4). Here, we report identification of critical residues on hDPP4 for RBD binding and virus entry through analysis of a panel of hDPP4 mutants. Based on the RBD–hDPP4 crystal structure we reported, the mutated residues were located at the interface between RBD and hDPP4, which potentially changed the polarity, hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties of hDPP4, thereby interfering or disrupting their interaction with RBD. Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis and pseudovirus infection assay, we showed that several residues in hDPP4–RBD binding interface were important on hDPP4–RBD binding and viral entry. These results provide atomic insights into the features of interactions between hDPP4 and MERS-CoV RBD, and also provide potential explanation for cellular and species tropism of MERS-CoV infection. - Highlights: • It has been demonstrated that MERS-CoV infects host cells through binding its envelope spike (S) glycoprotein to the host cellular receptor dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4). • To identify the critical residues on hDPP4 for RBD binding and virus entry, we constructed a panel of hDPP4 mutants based on structure-guided mutagenesis. • Using surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding analysis and pseudovirus infection assay, we showed that several residues on hDPP4 had significant impacts on virus/receptor interactions and viral entry. • Our study has provided new insights into the features of interactions between hDPP4 and MERS-CoV RBD, and provides potential explanation for cellular and species tropism of MERS-CoV infection.

  5. Synthesis of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Chunngai; Ye, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and non-histone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery. PMID:26258118

  6. Substrate specificity and mapping of residues critical for transport in the high-affinity glutathione transporter Hgt1p.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, Mohammad; Yadav, Shambhu; Thakur, Anil; Singla, Shiffalli; Sharma, Monika; Bachhawat, Anand Kumar

    2016-08-01

    The high-affinity glutathione transporter Hgt1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae belongs to a relatively new and structurally uncharacterized oligopeptide transporter (OPT) family. To understand the structural features required for interaction with Hgt1p, a quantitative investigation of substrate specificity of Hgt1p was carried out. Hgt1p showed a higher affinity for reduced glutathione (GSH), whereas it transported oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and other glutathione conjugates with lower affinity. To identify the residues of Hgt1p critical for substrate binding and translocation, all amino acid residues of the 13 predicted transmembrane domains (TMDs) have been subjected to mutagenesis. Functional evaluation of these 269 mutants by growth and biochemical assay followed by kinetic analysis of the severely defective mutants including previous mutagenic studies on this transporter have led to the identification of N124 (TMD1), V185 (TMD3), Q222, G225 and Y226 (TMD4), P292 (TMD5), Y374 (TMD6), L429 (TMD7) and F523 and Q526 (TMD9) as critical for substrate binding with at least 3-fold increase in Km upon mutagenesis to alanine. In addition residues Y226 and Y374 appeared to be important for differential substrate specificity. An ab initio model of Hgt1p was built and refined using these mutagenic data that yielded a helical arrangement that includes TMD3, TMD4, TMD5, TMD6, TMD7, TMD9 and TMD13 as pore-lining helices with the functionally important residues in a channel-facing orientation. Taken together the results of this study provides the first mechanistic insights into glutathione transport by a eukaryotic high-affinity glutathione transporter. PMID:27252386

  7. Multiple lysine methylation of PCAF by Set9 methyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Masatsugu, Toshihiro; Yamamoto, Ken

    2009-03-27

    The molecular functions of several non-histone proteins are regulated through lysine modification by histone methyltransferases. The p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) is an acetyltransferase that has been implicated in many cellular processes. Here, we report that PCAF is a novel substrate of Set9 methyltransferase. In vitro mapping experiments revealed six lysine residues could be methylated by Set9. A comparison of amino acid sequences of target sites revealed the novel consensus motif which differs from previously identified Set9-consensus sequence. Further methyltransferase assays focusing on the six lysine residues showed that K78 and K89 are preferentially methylated in full-length PCAF in vitro. Using specific antibodies recognizing mono-methylated K89, in vivo PCAF methylation and its nuclear localization were demonstrated. Our data may lead to a new insight into PCAF functions and provide additional information to identify unknown targets of Set9.

  8. A conserved amino acid residue critical for product and substrate specificity in plant triterpene synthases.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Melissa; Thimmappa, Ramesha B; Minto, Robert E; Melton, Rachel E; Hughes, Richard K; O'Maille, Paul E; Hemmings, Andrew M; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-07-26

    Triterpenes are structurally complex plant natural products with numerous medicinal applications. They are synthesized through an origami-like process that involves cyclization of the linear 30 carbon precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene into different triterpene scaffolds. Here, through a forward genetic screen in planta, we identify a conserved amino acid residue that determines product specificity in triterpene synthases from diverse plant species. Mutation of this residue results in a major change in triterpene cyclization, with production of tetracyclic rather than pentacyclic products. The mutated enzymes also use the more highly oxygenated substrate dioxidosqualene in preference to 2,3-oxidosqualene when expressed in yeast. Our discoveries provide new insights into triterpene cyclization, revealing hidden functional diversity within triterpene synthases. They further open up opportunities to engineer novel oxygenated triterpene scaffolds by manipulating the precursor supply. PMID:27412861

  9. A conserved amino acid residue critical for product and substrate specificity in plant triterpene synthases

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Melissa; Thimmappa, Ramesha B.; Minto, Robert E.; Melton, Rachel E.; O’Maille, Paul E.; Hemmings, Andrew M.; Osbourn, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Triterpenes are structurally complex plant natural products with numerous medicinal applications. They are synthesized through an origami-like process that involves cyclization of the linear 30 carbon precursor 2,3-oxidosqualene into different triterpene scaffolds. Here, through a forward genetic screen in planta, we identify a conserved amino acid residue that determines product specificity in triterpene synthases from diverse plant species. Mutation of this residue results in a major change in triterpene cyclization, with production of tetracyclic rather than pentacyclic products. The mutated enzymes also use the more highly oxygenated substrate dioxidosqualene in preference to 2,3-oxidosqualene when expressed in yeast. Our discoveries provide new insights into triterpene cyclization, revealing hidden functional diversity within triterpene synthases. They further open up opportunities to engineer novel oxygenated triterpene scaffolds by manipulating the precursor supply. PMID:27412861

  10. N-terminal basic amino acid residues of Beet black scorch virus capsid protein play a critical role in virion assembly and systemic movement

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Beet black scorch virus (BBSV) is a small single-stranded, positive-sense RNA plant virus belonging to the genus Necrovirus, family Tombusviridae. Its capsid protein (CP) contains a 13 amino acid long basic region at the N-terminus, rich in arginine and lysine residues, which is thought to interact with viral RNA to initiate virion assembly. Results In the current study, a series of BBSV mutants containing amino acid substitutions as well as deletions within the N-terminal region were generated and examined for their effects on viral RNA replication, virion assembly, and long distance spread in protoplasts and whole host plants of BBSV. The RNA-binding activities of the mutated CPs were also evaluated in vitro. These experiments allowed us to identify two key basic amino acid residues in this region that are responsible for initiating virus assembly through RNA-binding. Proper assembly of BBSV particles is in turn needed for efficient viral systemic movement. Conclusions We have identified two basic amino acid residues near the N-terminus of the BBSV CP that bind viral RNA with high affinity to initiate virion assembly. We further provide evidence showing that systemic spread of BBSV in infected plants requires intact virions. This study represents the first in-depth investigation of the role of basic amino acid residues within the N-terminus of a necroviral CP. PMID:23786675

  11. Homology modeling, substrate docking, and molecular simulation studies of mycobacteriophage Che12 lysin A.

    PubMed

    Saadhali, Shainaba A; Hassan, Sameer; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Ranganathan, Uma Devi; Kumar, Vanaja

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacteriophages produce lysins that break down the host cell wall at the end of lytic cycle to release their progenies. The ability to lyse mycobacterial cells makes the lysins significant. Mycobacteriophage Che12 is the first reported temperate phage capable of infecting and lysogenising Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Gp11 of Che12 was found to have Chitinase domain that serves as endolysin (lysin A) for Che12. Structure of gp11 was modeled and evaluated using Ramachandran plot in which 98 % of the residues are in the favored and allowed regions. Che12 lysin A was predicted to act on NAG-NAM-NAG molecules in the peptidoglycan of cell wall. The tautomers of NAG-NAM-NAG molecule were generated and docked with lysin A. The stability and binding affinity of lysin A - NAG-NAM-NAG tautomers were studied using molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:27411553

  12. Characterization and crystal structure of lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase (cDHDPS) protein

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, E.A.; Bannon, G.A.; Glenn, K.C.; Jeong, S.S.; Sturman, E.J.; Rydel, T.J.

    2008-11-21

    The lysine insensitive Corynebacterium glutamicum dihydrodipicolinate synthase enzyme (cDHDPS) was recently successfully introduced into maize plants to enhance the level of lysine in the grain. To better understand lysine insensitivity of the cDHDPS, we expressed, purified, kinetically characterized the protein, and solved its X-ray crystal structure. The cDHDPS enzyme has a fold and overall structure that is highly similar to other DHDPS proteins. A noteworthy feature of the active site is the evidence that the catalytic lysine residue forms a Schiff base adduct with pyruvate. Analyses of the cDHDPS structure in the vicinity of the putative binding site for S-lysine revealed that the allosteric binding site in the Escherichia coli DHDPS protein does not exist in cDHDPS due to three non-conservative amino acids substitutions, and this is likely why cDHDPS is not feedback inhibited by lysine.

  13. Critical body residue of compounds having different mode of action on energy metabolism in benthic invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Penttinen, O.P.; Kukkonen, J.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of organic chemicals with different mode of toxic action was evaluated by determining their effect on the metabolic rate of two common benthic invertebrates, midge larva (Chironomus riparius) and oligochate worm (Lumbriculus variegatus). The rate of metabolism was monitored by direct microcalorimetry and the change of heat output was related to the body residue of chemicals. The expected response of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP), known as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, was an increase of metabolic rate. The animals were exposed 24 h to water spiked with TCP (10 to 1,200 {micro}g/L) and they received the body residues of TCP in the range of 8.8 to 336 {micro}g/g wet wt (0.04 to 1.75 {micro}mol/g). The threshold concentration was 0.7 {micro}mol/g wet wt. (C. riparius) or 1.0 {micro}mol/g wet wt. (L. variegatus) above which the rate of heat dissipation increased in direct proportion to the concentration of TCP in tissue. At maximum, the metabolic rate increased by a factor of three. At the highest water concentration animals were dying and the metabolic rate was low. The energetic responses obtained with TCP are compared to those of a non-polar narcotic compound 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and an other uncoupling agent, 2,4-dinitrophenol.

  14. Tropomyosin lysine reactivities and relationship to coiled-coil structure.

    PubMed

    Hitchcock-DeGregori, S E; Lewis, S F; Chou, T M

    1985-06-18

    We have carried out a detailed analysis of tropomyosin structure using lysines as specific probes for the protein surface in regions of the molecule that have not been investigated by other methods. We have measured the relative reactivities of lysines in rabbit skeletal muscle alpha, alpha-tropomyosin with acetic anhydride using a competitive labeling procedure. We have identified 37 of 39 lysines and find that they range 20-fold in reactivity. The observed reactivities are related to the coiled-coil model of the tropomyosin molecule [Crick, F.H.C. (1953) Acta Crystallogr. 6, 689-697; McLachlan, A.D., Stewart, M., & Smillie, L.B. (1975) J. Mol. Biol. 98, 281-291] and other available chemical and physical information about the structure. In most cases, the observed lysine reactivities can be explained by allowable interactions with neighboring amino acid side chains on the same or facing alpha-helix. However, we found no correlation between reactivity and helical position of a given lysine. For example, lysines in the outer helical positions included lysines of low as well as high reactivity, indicating that they vary widely in their accessibility to solvent and that the coiled coil is heterogeneous along its length. Furthermore, the middle of the molecule (residues 126-182) that is susceptible to proteolysis and known to be the least stable region of the protein also contains some of the least and most reactive lysines. We have discussed the implications of our results on our understanding the structures of tropomyosin and other coiled-coil proteins as well as globular proteins containing helical regions. PMID:3927977

  15. Pilin and Sortase Residues Critical for Endocarditis- and Biofilm-Associated Pilus Biogenesis in Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Hailyn V.; Flores-Mireles, Ana L.; Kau, Andrew L.; Kline, Kimberly A.; Pinkner, Jerome S.; Neiers, Fabrice; Normark, Staffan; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Enterococci commonly cause hospital-acquired infections, such as infective endocarditis and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. In animal models of these infections, a long hairlike extracellular protein fiber known as the endocarditis- and biofilm-associated (Ebp) pilus is an important virulence factor for Enterococcus faecalis. For Ebp and other sortase-assembled pili, the pilus-associated sortases are essential for fiber formation as they create covalent isopeptide bonds between the sortase recognition motif and the pilin-like motif of the pilus subunits. However, the molecular requirements governing the incorporation of the three pilus subunits (EbpA, EbpB, and EbpC) have not been investigated in E. faecalis. Here, we show that a Lys residue within the pilin-like motif of the EbpC subunit was necessary for EbpC polymerization. However, incorporation of EbpA into the pilus fiber only required its sortase recognition motif (LPXTG), while incorporation of EbpB only required its pilin-like motif. Only the sortase recognition motif would be required for incorporation of the pilus tip subunit, while incorporation of the base subunit would only require the pilin recognition motif. Thus, these data support a model with EbpA at the tip and EbpB at the base of an EbpC polymer. In addition, the housekeeping sortase, SrtA, was found to process EbpB and its predicted catalytic Cys residue was required for efficient cell wall anchoring of mature Ebp pili. Thus, we have defined molecular interactions involved in fiber polymerization, minor subunit organization, and pilus subcellular compartmentalization in the E. faecalis Ebp pilus system. These studies advance our understanding of unique molecular mechanisms of sortase-assembled pilus biogenesis. PMID:23913319

  16. Mutational analysis of GlnB residues critical for NifA activation in Azospirillum brasilense.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Juliana; Thornton, Jeremy; Huergo, Luciano Fernandes; Monteiro, Rose Adele; Klassen, Giseli; Pedrosa, Fábio de Oliveira; Merrick, Mike; de Souza, Emanuel Maltempi

    2015-02-01

    PII proteins are signal transduction that sense cellular nitrogen status and relay this signals to other targets. Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium, which associates with grasses and cereals promoting beneficial effects on plant growth and crop yields. A. brasilense contains two PII encoding genes, named glnB and glnZ. In this paper, glnB was mutagenised in order to identify amino acid residues involved in GlnB signaling. Two variants were obtained by random mutagenesis, GlnBL13P and GlnBV100A and a site directed mutant, GlnBY51F, was obtained. Their ability to complement nitrogenase activity of glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense were determined. The variant proteins were also overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized biochemically. None of the GlnB variant forms was able to restore nitrogenase activity in glnB mutant strains of A. brasilense LFH3 and 7628. The purified GlnBY51F and GlnBL13P proteins could not be uridylylated by GlnD, whereas GlnBV100A was uridylylated but at only 20% of the rate for wild type GlnB. Biochemical and computational analyses suggest that residue Leu13, located in the α helix 1 of GlnB, is important to maintain GlnB trimeric structure and function. The substitution V100A led to a lower affinity for ATP binding. Together the results suggest that NifA activation requires uridylylated GlnB bound to ATP. PMID:25644954

  17. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  18. Comprehensive profiling of lysine acetylproteome analysis reveals diverse functions of lysine acetylation in common wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Song, Limin; Liang, Wenxing; Mu, Ping; Wang, Shu; Lin, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation of proteins, a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification, plays a critical regulatory role in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Several researches have been carried out on acetylproteome in plants. However, until now, there have been no data on common wheat, the major cereal crop in the world. In this study, we performed a global acetylproteome analysis of common wheat variety (Triticum aestivum L.), Chinese Spring. In total, 416 lysine modification sites were identified on 277 proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with previous studies, a large proportion of the acetylated proteins are involved in metabolic process. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 26 acetylated proteins are involved in photosynthesis and Calvin cycle, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in these processes. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis reveals that diverse interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of acetylome in common wheat and serve as an important resource for exploring the physiological role of lysine acetylation in this organism and likely in all plants. PMID:26875666

  19. Critical Assessment of the Important Residues Involved in the Dimerization and Catalysis of MERS Coronavirus Main Protease

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Bo-Lin; Cheng, Shu-Chun; Shi, Lin; Wang, Ting-Yun; Ho, Kuan-I; Chou, Chi-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Background A highly pathogenic human coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has emerged in Jeddah and other places in Saudi Arabia, and has quickly spread to European and Asian countries since September 2012. Up to the 1st October 2015 it has infected at least 1593 people with a global fatality rate of about 35%. Studies to understand the virus are necessary and urgent. In the present study, MERS-CoV main protease (Mpro) is expressed; the dimerization of the protein and its relationship to catalysis are investigated. Methods and Results The crystal structure of MERS-CoV Mpro indicates that it shares a similar scaffold to that of other coronaviral Mpro and consists of chymotrypsin-like domains I and II and a helical domain III of five helices. Analytical ultracentrifugation analysis demonstrated that MERS-CoV Mpro undergoes a monomer to dimer conversion in the presence of a peptide substrate. Glu169 is a key residue and plays a dual role in both dimerization and catalysis. The mutagenesis of other residues found on the dimerization interface indicate that dimerization of MERS-CoV Mpro is required for its catalytic activity. One mutation, M298R, resulted in a stable dimer with a higher level of proteolytic activity than the wild-type enzyme. Conclusions MERS-CoV Mpro shows substrate-induced dimerization and potent proteolytic activity. A critical assessment of the residues important to these processes provides insights into the correlation between dimerization and catalysis within the coronaviral Mpro family. PMID:26658006

  20. Identification by mutational analysis of four critical residues in the molybdenum cofactor domain of eukaryotic nitrate reductase.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Gonneau, M; Caboche, M; Rouzé, P

    1995-08-21

    The nucleotide sequence of the nitrate reductase (NR) molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) domain was determined in four Nicotiana plumbaginifolia mutants affected in the NR apoenzyme gene. In each case, missense mutations were found in the MoCo domain which affected amino acids that were conserved not only among eukaryotic NRs but also in animal sulfite oxidase sequences. Moreover an abnormal NR molecular mass was observed in three mutants, suggesting that the integrity of the MoCo domain is essential for a proper assembly of holo-NR. These data allowed to pinpoint critical residues in the NR MoCo domain necessary for the enzyme activity but also important for its quaternary structure. PMID:7656976

  1. Mapping and genotypic analysis of NK-lysin gene in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are important elements of the first line of defence against pathogens in animals. NK-lysin is a cationic AMP that plays a critical role in innate immunity. The chicken NK-lysin gene has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been descri...

  2. Mapping and genotypic analysis of NK-lysin gene in chicken

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is a cationic anti-microbial peptide that plays a critical role in innate immunity against infectious pathogens. Chicken NK-lysin has been cloned and its antimicrobial and anticancer activity has been described but its location in the chicken genome prior this study was unknown. A 6000 rad ...

  3. Characterization of the fibrinogen binding domain of bacteriophage lysin from Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Seo, Ho Seong; Sullam, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    The binding of bacteria to human platelets is a likely central mechanism in the pathogenesis of infective endocarditis. Platelet binding by Streptococcus mitis SF100 is mediated in part by a lysin encoded by the lysogenic bacteriophage SM1. In addition to its role in the phage life cycle, lysin mediates the binding of S. mitis to human platelets via its interaction with fibrinogen on the platelet surface. To better define the region of lysin mediating fibrinogen binding, we tested a series of purified lysin truncation variants for their abilities to bind this protein. These studies revealed that the fibrinogen binding domain of lysin is contained within the region spanned by amino acid residues 102 to 198 (lysin(102-198)). This region has no sequence homology to other known fibrinogen binding proteins. Lysin(102-198) bound fibrinogen comparably to full-length lysin and with the same selectivity for the fibrinogen Aα and Bβ chains. Lysin(102-198) also inhibited the binding in vitro of S. mitis to human fibrinogen and platelets. When assessed by platelet aggregometry, the disruption of the lysin gene in SF100 resulted in a significantly longer time to the onset of aggregation of human platelets than that of the parent strain. The preincubation of platelets with purified lysin(102-198) also delayed the onset of aggregation by SF100. These results indicate that the binding of lysin to fibrinogen is mediated by a specific domain of the phage protein and that this interaction is important for both platelet binding and aggregation by S. mitis. PMID:21690235

  4. Mechanism of Lysine 48 Selectivity during Polyubiquitin Chain Formation by the Ube2R1/2 Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hill, Spencer; Harrison, Joseph S; Lewis, Steven M; Kuhlman, Brian; Kleiger, Gary

    2016-06-01

    Lysine selectivity is of critical importance during polyubiquitin chain formation because the identity of the lysine controls the biological outcome. Ubiquitins are covalently linked in polyubiquitin chains through one of seven lysine residues on its surface and the C terminus of adjacent protomers. Lys 48-linked polyubiquitin chains signal for protein degradation; however, the structural basis for Lys 48 selectivity remains largely unknown. The ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme Ube2R1/2 has exquisite specificity for Lys 48, and computational docking of Ube2R1/2 and ubiquitin predicts that Lys 48 is guided to the active site through a key electrostatic interaction between Arg 54 on ubiquitin and Asp 143 on Ube2R1/2. The validity of this interaction was confirmed through biochemical experiments. Since structural examples involving Arg 54 in protein-ubiquitin complexes are exceedingly rare, these results provide additional insight into how ubiquitin-protein complexes can be stabilized. We discuss how these findings relate to how other ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes direct the lysine specificity of polyubiquitin chains. PMID:27044868

  5. The HIV-1 Tat Protein Is Monomethylated at Lysine 71 by the Lysine Methyltransferase KMT7.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ibraheem; Ramage, Holly; Boehm, Daniela; Dirk, Lynnette M A; Sakane, Naoki; Hanada, Kazuki; Pagans, Sara; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Aull, Katherine; Weinberger, Leor; Trievel, Raymond; Schnoelzer, Martina; Kamada, Masafumi; Houtz, Robert; Ott, Melanie

    2016-07-29

    The HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat is a critical regulator of HIV transcription primarily enabling efficient elongation of viral transcripts. Its interactions with RNA and various host factors are regulated by ordered, transient post-translational modifications. Here, we report a novel Tat modification, monomethylation at lysine 71 (K71). We found that Lys-71 monomethylation (K71me) is catalyzed by KMT7, a methyltransferase that also targets lysine 51 (K51) in Tat. Using mass spectrometry, in vitro enzymology, and modification-specific antibodies, we found that KMT7 monomethylates both Lys-71 and Lys-51 in Tat. K71me is important for full Tat transactivation, as KMT7 knockdown impaired the transcriptional activity of wild type (WT) Tat but not a Tat K71R mutant. These findings underscore the role of KMT7 as an important monomethyltransferase regulating HIV transcription through Tat. PMID:27235396

  6. PlyC: A multimeric bacteriophage lysin

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Daniel; Schuch, Raymond; Chahales, Peter; Zhu, Shiwei; Fischetti, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    Lysins are murein hydrolases produced by bacteriophage that act on the bacterial host cell wall to release progeny phage. When added extrinsically in their purified form, these enzymes produce total lysis of susceptible Gram-positive bacteria within seconds, suggesting a unique antimicrobial strategy. All known Gram-positive lysins are produced as a single polypeptide containing a catalytic activity domain, which cleaves one of the four major peptidoglycan bonds, and a cell-wall-binding domain, which may bind a species-specific carbohydrate epitope in the cell wall. Here, we have cloned and expressed a unique lysin from the streptococcal bacteriophage C1, termed PlyC. Molecular characterization of the plyC operon reveals that PlyC is, surprisingly, composed of two separate gene products, PlyCA and PlyCB. Based on biochemical and biophysical studies, the catalytically active PlyC holoenzyme is composed of eight PlyCB subunits for each PlyCA. Inhibitor studies predicted the presence of an active-site cysteine, and bioinformatic analysis revealed a cysteine, histidine-dependent amidohydrolase/peptidase domain within PlyCA. Point mutagenesis confirmed that PlyCA is responsible for the observed catalytic activity, and Cys-333 and His-420 are the active-site residues. PlyCB was found to self-assemble into an octamer, and this complex alone was able to direct streptococcal cell-wall-specific binding. Similar to no other proteins in sequence databases, PlyC defines a previously uncharacterized structural family of cell-wall hydrolases. PMID:16818874

  7. Histone H4 Lysine 20 (H4K20) Methylation, Expanding the Signaling Potential of the Proteome One Methyl Moiety at a Time.

    PubMed

    van Nuland, Rick; Gozani, Or

    2016-03-01

    Covalent post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins can regulate the structural and functional state of a protein in the absence of primary changes in the underlying sequence. Common PTMs include phosphorylation, acetylation, and methylation. Histone proteins are critical regulators of the genome and are subject to a highly abundant and diverse array of PTMs. To highlight the functional complexity added to the proteome by lysine methylation signaling, here we will focus on lysine methylation of histone proteins, an important modification in the regulation of chromatin and epigenetic processes. We review the signaling pathways and functions associated with a single residue, H4K20, as a model chromatin and clinically important mark that regulates biological processes ranging from the DNA damage response and DNA replication to gene expression and silencing. PMID:26598646

  8. Critical body residues for pentachlorophenol in the zebra mussel under varying conditions of pH and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, S.W.; Hwang, H.; Atanasoff, M.; Landrum, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), an ionizable phenol, is strongly dependent on environmental pH and temperature. Using the invertebrate species, the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha), the authors tested whether CBRs could be used to resolve the differences in toxicity under varying conditions. The authors simultaneously measured acute toxicity and tissue concentrations of PCP under 9 different combinations of pH and temperature. CBRs were determined from tissue residues as LD{sub 50}, values and were also calculated from LC{sub 50}s in conjunction with toxicokinetic parameters determined under each set of conditions. The data show that when toxicity is based on aqueous concentrations of PCP needed to cause mortality (LC{sub 50}s), that the resulting LC{sub 50}s varied by a factor of 372 X across the range of conditions tested. However, when LD{sub 50}s were calculated from tissue residues in the mussel, the latter varied only by a factor of 12.7 across the range of conditions examined. When CBRs were determined toxicokinetically, instead of from direct measurement of tissue concentrations, these CBRs were both higher than the measured LD{sub 50}s and more variable. The authors believe this is a result of the animals having a higher filtering rate and a greater tolerance for PCP in the short-term exposures from which the toxicokinetic values were obtained. Their data generally support the utility of CBRs in minimizing variation attributable to environmental variables but also demonstrate that the method of determining a CBR will be critical.

  9. Evaluation of critical current density and residual resistance ratio limits in powder in tube Nb3Sn conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segal, Christopher; Tarantini, Chiara; Hawn Sung, Zu; Lee, Peter J.; Sailer, Bernd; Thoener, Manfred; Schlenga, Klaus; Ballarino, Amalia; Bottura, Luca; Bordini, Bernardo; Scheuerlein, Christian; Larbalestier, David C.

    2016-08-01

    High critical current density (J c) Nb3Sn A15 multifilamentary wires require a large volume fraction of small grain (SG), superconducting A15 phase, as well as Cu stabilizer with high Residual Resistance Ratio (RRR) to provide electromagnetic stabilization and protection. In powder-in-tube (PIT) wires the unreacted Nb7.5 wt%Ta outer layer of the tubular filaments acts as a diffusion barrier and protects the interfilamentary Cu stabilizer from Sn contamination. A high RRR requirement generally imposes a restricted A15 reaction heat treatment to prevent localized full reaction of the filament that could allow Sn to reach the Cu. In this study we investigate recent high quality PIT wires that achieve a J c (12 T, 4.2 K) up to ∼2500 A mm‑2 and find that the minimum diffusion barrier thickness decreases as the filament aspect ratio increases from ∼1 in the inner rings of filaments to 1.3 in the outer filament rings. We found that just 2–3 diffusion barrier breaches can degrade RRR from 300 to 150 or less. Using progressive etching of the Cu we also found that the RRR degradation is localized near the external filaments where deformation is highest. Consequently minimizing filament distortion during strand fabrication is important for reducing RRR degradation. The additional challenge of developing the highest possible J c must be addressed by forming the maximum fraction of high J c SG A15 and minimizing low J c large-grain (LG) A15 morphologies. In one wire we found that 15% of the filaments had a significantly enhanced SG/LG A15 ratio and no residual A15 in the core, a feature that opens a path to substantial J c improvement.

  10. Probing the chemical mechanism and critical regulatory amino acid residues of Drosophila melanogaster arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, Daniel R; Carpenter, Anne-Marie; Ospina, Santiago Rodriguez; Merkler, David J

    2015-11-01

    Arylalkylamine N-acyltransferase like 2 (AANATL2) catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides from the corresponding acyl-CoA and arylalkylamine. The N-acylation of biogenic amines in Drosophila melanogaster is a critical step for the inactivation of neurotransmitters, cuticle sclerotization, and melatonin biosynthesis. In addition, D. melanogaster has been used as a model system to evaluate the biosynthesis of fatty acid amides: a family of potent cell signaling lipids. We have previously showed that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylakylamides, including long-chain N-acylserotonins and N-acyldopamines. Herein, we define the kinetic mechanism for AANATL2 as an ordered sequential mechanism with acetyl-CoA binding first followed by tyramine to generate the ternary complex prior to catalysis. Bell shaped kcat,app - acetyl-CoA and (kcat/Km)app - acetyl-CoA pH-rate profiles identified two apparent pKa,app values of ∼7.4 and ∼8.9 that are critical to catalysis, suggesting the AANATL2-catalyzed formation of N-acetyltyramine occurs through an acid/base chemical mechanism. Site-directed mutagenesis of a conserved glutamate that corresponds to the catalytic base for other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes did not produce a substantial depression in the kcat,app value nor did it abolish the pKa,app value attributed to the general base in catalysis (pKa ∼7.4). These data suggest that AANATL2 catalyzes the formation of N-acylarylalkylamides using either different catalytic residues or a different chemical mechanism relative to other D. melanogaster AANATL enzymes. In addition, we constructed other site-directed mutants of AANATL2 to help define the role of targeted amino acids in substrate binding and/or enzyme catalysis. PMID:26476413

  11. Structural Basis for l-Lysine Feedback Inhibition of Homocitrate Synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Bulfer, Stacie L.; Scott, Erin M.; Pillus, Lorraine; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-09-02

    The {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway of lysine biosynthesis is modulated at the transcriptional and biochemical levels by feedback inhibition. The first enzyme in the {alpha}-aminoadipate pathway, homocitrate synthase (HCS), is the target of the feedback regulation and is strongly inhibited by L-lysine. Here we report the structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe HCS (SpHCS) in complex with L-lysine. The structure illustrates that the amino acid directly competes with the substrate 2-oxoglutarate for binding within the active site of HCS. Differential recognition of the substrate and inhibitor is achieved via a switch position within the ({alpha}/{beta}){sub 8} TIM barrel of the enzyme that can distinguish between the C5-carboxylate group of 2-oxoglutarate and the {epsilon}-ammonium group of L-lysine. In vitro and in vivo assays demonstrate that mutations of the switch residues, which interact with the L-lysine {epsilon}-ammonium group, abrogate feedback inhibition, as do substitutions of residues within the C-terminal domain that were identified in a previous study of L-lysine-insensitive HCS mutants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Together, these results yield new insights into the mechanism of feedback regulation of an enzyme central to lysine biosynthesis.

  12. Re-analysis of narcotic critical body residue data using the equilibrium distribution concept and refined partition coefficients.

    PubMed

    Endo, Satoshi

    2016-08-10

    Narcosis occurs as a result of the accumulation of chemicals in the phospholipid membrane. The toxic threshold concentration in the membrane is thought to be relatively constant across different chemicals and species. Hence, estimating chemical concentrations in the membrane is expected to reduce the variability of narcotic critical body residue (CBR) data. In this study, a high quality CBR dataset for three aquatic species reported recently in the literature was evaluated with the internal equilibrium distribution concept. The raw wet-weight-based CBR values were converted to membrane-weight-based CBR values by assuming that the chemical is distributed in storage lipids, membranes, proteins, and water according to the respective equilibrium partition coefficients. Several sets of partition coefficients were compared for this analysis. The results were consistent with the notion that the use of a structural protein instead of serum albumin as a surrogate for the body protein fraction could reduce the variability of CBRs. Partition coefficients predicted by polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs) reduced the variability of CBRs as much as or even more than experimental partition coefficients did. It is suggested that CBR data for chemicals with larger structural diversity and biological species with more distinct compositions are needed to evaluate further the equilibrium distribution concept and the constant membrane threshold hypothesis. PMID:27136717

  13. Regulation of Transcription Factor Yin Yang 1 by SET7/9-mediated Lysine Methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-juan; Wu, Xiao-nan; Shi, Tao-tao; Xu, Huan-teng; Yi, Jia; Shen, Hai-feng; Huang, Ming-feng; Shu, Xing-yi; Wang, Fei-fei; Peng, Bing-ling; Xiao, Rong-quan; Gao, Wei-wei; Ding, Jian-cheng; Liu, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a multifunctional transcription factor shown to be critical in a variety of biological processes. Although it is regulated by multiple types of post-translational modifications (PTMs), whether YY1 is methylated, which enzyme methylates YY1, and hence the functional significance of YY1 methylation remains completely unknown. Here we reported the first methyltransferase, SET7/9 (KMT7), capable of methylating YY1 at two highly conserved lysine (K) residues, K173 and K411, located in two distinct domains, one in the central glycine-rich region and the other in the very carboxyl-terminus. Functional studies revealed that SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation regulated YY1 DNA-binding activity both in vitro and at specific genomic loci in cultured cells. Consistently, SET7/9-mediated YY1 methylation was shown to involve in YY1-regulated gene transcription and cell proliferation. Our findings revealed a novel regulatory strategy, methylation by lysine methyltransferase, imposed on YY1 protein, and linked YY1 methylation with its biological functions. PMID:26902152

  14. Mutational analysis of nucleoside diphosphate kinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: characterization of critical amino acid residues involved in exopolysaccharide alginate synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sundin, G W; Shankar, S; Chakrabarty, A M

    1996-01-01

    We report the utilization of site-directed and random mutagenesis procedures in the gene encoding nucleoside diphosphate kinase (ndk) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa in order to examine the role of Ndk in the production of alginate by this organism. Cellular levels of the 16-kDa form of the Ndk enzyme are greatly reduced in P. aeruginosa 8830 with a knockout mutation in the algR2 gene (8830R2::Cm); this strain is also defective in the production of the exopolysaccharide alginate. In this study, we isolated four mutations in ndk (Ala-14-->Pro [Ala14Pro], Gly21Val, His117Gln, and Ala125Arg) which resulted in the loss of Ndk biochemical activity; hyperexpression of any of these four mutant genes did not restore alginate production to 8830R2::Cm. We identified six additional amino acid residues (Ser-43, Ala-56, Ser-69, Glu-80, Gly-91, and Asp-135) whose alteration resulted in the inability of Ndk to complement alginate production. After hyperproduction in 8830R2::Cm, it was determined that each of these six mutant Ndks was biochemically active. However, in four cases, the in vivo levels of Ndk were reduced, which consequently affected the growth of 8830R2::Cm in the presence of Tween 20. Two mutant Ndk proteins which could not complement the alginate synthesis defect in 8830R2::Cm were not affected in any characteristic examined in the present study. All of the mutant Ndks characterized which were still biochemically active formed membrane complexes with Pk, resulting in GTP synthesis. Two of the four Ndk activity mutants (His117Gln and Ala125Arg) identified were capable of being truncated to 12 kDa and formed a membrane complex with Pk; however, the complexes formed were inactive for GTP synthesis. The other two Ndk activity mutants could be truncated to 12 kDa but were not detected in membrane fractions. These results further our understanding of the role of Ndk in alginate synthesis and identify amino acid residues in Ndk which have not previously been studied as

  15. Cyclophilin-B Modulates Collagen Cross-linking by Differentially Affecting Lysine Hydroxylation in the Helical and Telopeptidyl Domains of Tendon Type I Collagen.

    PubMed

    Terajima, Masahiko; Taga, Yuki; Chen, Yulong; Cabral, Wayne A; Hou-Fu, Guo; Srisawasdi, Sirivimol; Nagasawa, Masako; Sumida, Noriko; Hattori, Shunji; Kurie, Jonathan M; Marini, Joan C; Yamauchi, Mitsuo

    2016-04-29

    Covalent intermolecular cross-linking provides collagen fibrils with stability. The cross-linking chemistry is tissue-specific and determined primarily by the state of lysine hydroxylation at specific sites. A recent study on cyclophilin B (CypB) null mice, a model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, demonstrated that lysine hydroxylation at the helical cross-linking site of bone type I collagen was diminished in these animals (Cabral, W. A., Perdivara, I., Weis, M., Terajima, M., Blissett, A. R., Chang, W., Perosky, J. E., Makareeva, E. N., Mertz, E. L., Leikin, S., Tomer, K. B., Kozloff, K. M., Eyre, D. R., Yamauchi, M., and Marini, J. C. (2014) PLoS Genet 10, e1004465). However, the extent of decrease appears to be tissue- and molecular site-specific, the mechanism of which is unknown. Here we report that although CypB deficiency resulted in lower lysine hydroxylation in the helical cross-linking sites, it was increased in the telopeptide cross-linking sites in tendon type I collagen. This resulted in a decrease in the lysine aldehyde-derived cross-links but generation of hydroxylysine aldehyde-derived cross-links. The latter were absent from the wild type and heterozygous mice. Glycosylation of hydroxylysine residues was moderately increased in the CypB null tendon. We found that CypB interacted with all lysyl hydroxylase isoforms (isoforms 1-3) and a putative lysyl hydroxylase-2 chaperone, 65-kDa FK506-binding protein. Tendon collagen in CypB null mice showed severe size and organizational abnormalities. The data indicate that CypB modulates collagen cross-linking by differentially affecting lysine hydroxylation in a site-specific manner, possibly via its interaction with lysyl hydroxylases and associated molecules. This study underscores the critical importance of collagen post-translational modifications in connective tissue formation. PMID:26934917

  16. Genetic analysis of L123 of the tRNA-mimicking eukaryote release factor eRF1, an amino acid residue critical for discrimination of stop codons

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuki; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, the tRNA-mimicking polypeptide-chain release factor, eRF1, decodes stop codons on the ribosome in a complex with eRF3; this complex exhibits striking structural similarity to the tRNA–eEF1A–GTP complex. Although amino acid residues or motifs of eRF1 that are critical for stop codon discrimination have been identified, the details of the molecular mechanisms involved in the function of the ribosomal decoding site remain obscure. Here, we report analyses of the position-123 amino acid of eRF1 (L123 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae eRF1), a residue that is phylogenetically conserved among species with canonical and variant genetic codes. In vivo readthrough efficiency analysis and genetic growth complementation analysis of the residue-123 systematic mutants suggested that this amino acid functions in stop codon discrimination in a manner coupled with eRF3 binding, and distinctive from previously reported adjacent residues. Furthermore, aminoglycoside antibiotic sensitivity analysis and ribosomal docking modeling of eRF1 in a quasi-A/T state suggested a functional interaction between the side chain of L123 and ribosomal residues critical for codon recognition in the decoding site, as a molecular explanation for coupling with eRF3. Our results provide insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying stop codon discrimination by a tRNA-mimicking protein on the ribosome. PMID:25897120

  17. Identification, expression and antibacterial activities of an antimicrobial peptide NK-lysin from a marine fish Larimichthys crocea.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi-Jia; Wang, Jun; Liu, Min; Qiao, Ying; Hong, Wan-Shu; Su, Yong-Quan; Han, Kun-Huang; Ke, Qiao-Zhen; Zheng, Wei-Qiang

    2016-08-01

    As fundamental immunologic mechanism, the innate immunity system is more important than the specific immunity system in teleost fishes during pathogens infection. Antimicrobial peptides are integral parts of the innate immune system, and play significant roles against pathogens infection. NK-lysin, the compounds of the natural killer cells and cytotoxic T cells, are potent and effective antimicrobial peptides widely distributed in animals. In this study, we reported the sequence characteristics, expression profiles and antibacterial activities of a NK-lysin gene (Lc-NK-lysin) from a commercially important marine fish, the large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). The open reading frame of Lc-NK-lysin cDNA sequence was 447 bp in length, coding 148 amino acids. The genomic DNA of Lc-NK-lysin has the common features of NK-lysin family, consisting of five exons and four introns, and in its deduced mature peptide, there are six well-conserved cysteine residues and a Saposin B domain. Lc-NK-lysin was expressed in all tested tissues (skin, muscle, gill, brain, head kidney, heart, liver, spleen, stomach and intestine) with different expression patterns. In pathogens infection the expression profiles of Lc-NK-lysin varied significantly in gill, head kidney, spleen and liver, indicating its role in immune response. Two peptides (Lc-NK-lysin-1 and Lc-NK-lysin-2) divided from the core region of the Lc-NK-lysin mature polypeptide were chemically synthesized and their antibacterial activities were examined; the potential function on the inhibition of bacteria propagation was revealed. Our results suggested that Lc-NK-lysin is a typical member of the NK-lysin family and as an immune-related gene it involves in the immune response when pathogens invasion. PMID:27238427

  18. Critical body-residues for lethal and sublethal effects of sediment-associated PAH on benthic copepods

    SciTech Connect

    Lotufo, G.R.

    1995-12-31

    Adult females of the meiobenthic copepod Schizopera knabeni were exposed to sediment-associated fluoranthene for 3, 6, 12, 24, 96, and 240 h. Sediment concentrations ranged from 25 to 1,661 nmol (5--336 {micro}g)/gdw and the TOC was 1.5%. Body burden increased to an apparent steady state after only 6 h. Elimination half-lives were 4.6 and 3.2 h in uncontaminated water and sediment, respectively. Toxic effects were only detected after 240 h as increased mortality and decreased offspring production. Significant mortality was observed only at the highest concentration; the LC50 was 1,011 nmol (204 {micro}g)/dgw. In contrast, offspring production was decreased at much lower concentrations, yielding an IC25 value of 148 nmol (30 {micro}g)/dgw. Lethal critical body residue (CBR) was determined as a 10-d LD50 of 15.5 {micro}mol/g dry tissue. By measuring PAH concentrations in the body and eggs of females, CBRs for reproductive output were determined as IC25 values of 2 and 3.1 {micro}mol/gdw, respectively. PAH sublethal effects on feeding rate were also investigated Adult copepods were exposed to {sup 14}C sediment-associated fluoranthene for 24 h were fed {sup 3}H-labeled algae for 3 h. Ingestion rate was significantly decreased at tissue concentrations as low as 1 {micro}mol/gdw and yielded an IC25 value of 0.6 {micro}mol/gdw. Similar findings were obtained using another species of estuarine copepod, Coullana sp. Non-polar narcotic compounds such as PAH cause a nonspecific disturbance of the functioning of cell membrane which results in decreased overall activity. Measurement of CBR associated with decreased feeding is proposed as a direct method to quantify sublethal narcotizing effects of organic compounds.

  19. Protein lysine methylation by seven-β-strand methyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Falnes, Pål Ø; Jakobsson, Magnus E; Davydova, Erna; Ho, Angela; Małecki, Jędrzej

    2016-07-15

    Methylation of biomolecules is a frequent biochemical reaction within the cell, and a plethora of highly specific methyltransferases (MTases) catalyse the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to various substrates. The posttranslational methylation of lysine residues, catalysed by numerous lysine (K)-specific protein MTases (KMTs), is a very common and important protein modification, which recently has been subject to intense studies, particularly in the case of histone proteins. The majority of KMTs belong to a class of MTases that share a defining 'SET domain', and these enzymes mostly target lysines in the flexible tails of histones. However, the so-called seven-β-strand (7BS) MTases, characterized by a twisted beta-sheet structure and certain conserved sequence motifs, represent the largest MTase class, and these enzymes methylate a wide range of substrates, including small metabolites, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins. Until recently, the histone-specific Dot1/DOT1L was the only identified eukaryotic 7BS KMT. However, a number of novel 7BS KMTs have now been discovered, and, in particular, several recently characterized human and yeast members of MTase family 16 (MTF16) have been found to methylate lysines in non-histone proteins. Here, we review the status and recent progress on the 7BS KMTs, and discuss these enzymes at the levels of sequence/structure, catalytic mechanism, substrate recognition and biological significance. PMID:27407169

  20. Identification of three critical acidic residues of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase involved in catalysis: determining the PARG catalytic domain

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Chandra N.; Koh, David W.; Jacobson, Myron K.; Oliveira, Marcos A.

    2005-01-01

    PARG [poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase] catalyses the hydrolysis of α(1″→2′) or α(1‴→2″) O-glycosidic linkages of ADP-ribose polymers to produce free ADP-ribose. We investigated possible mechanistic similarities between PARG and glycosidases, which also cleave O-glycosidic linkages. Glycosidases typically utilize two acidic residues for catalysis, thus we targeted acidic residues within a conserved region of bovine PARG that has been shown to contain an inhibitor-binding site. The targeted glutamate and aspartate residues were changed to asparagine in order to minimize structural alterations. Mutants were purified and assayed for catalytic activity, as well as binding, to an immobilized PARG inhibitor to determine ability to recognize substrate. Our investigation revealed residues essential for PARG catalytic activity. Two adjacent glutamic acid residues are found in the conserved sequence Gln755-Glu-Glu757, and a third residue found in the conserved sequence Val737-Asp-Phe-Ala-Asn741. Our functional characterization of PARG residues, along with recent identification of an inhibitor-binding residue Tyr796 and a glycine-rich region Gly745-Gly-Gly747 important for PARG function, allowed us to define a PARG ‘signature sequence’ [vDFA-X3-GGg-X6–8-vQEEIRF-X3-PE-X14-E-X12-YTGYa], which we used to identify putative PARG sequences across a range of organisms. Sequence alignments, along with our mapping of PARG functional residues, suggest the presence of a conserved catalytic domain of approx. 185 residues which spans residues 610–795 in bovine PARG. PMID:15658938

  1. Prion Protein Prolines 102 and 105 and the Surrounding Lysine Cluster Impede Amyloid Formation.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Allison; Anson, Kelsie J; Raymond, Lynne D; Martens, Craig; Groveman, Bradley R; Dorward, David W; Caughey, Byron

    2015-08-28

    Human prion diseases can have acquired, sporadic, or genetic origins, each of which results in the conversion of prion protein (PrP) to transmissible, pathological forms. The genetic prion disease Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome can arise from point mutations of prolines 102 or 105. However, the structural effects of these two prolines, and mutations thereof, on PrP misfolding are not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that individual mutations of Pro-102 or Pro-105 to noncyclic aliphatic residues such as the Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker-linked leucines can promote the in vitro formation of PrP amyloid with extended protease-resistant cores reminiscent of infectious prions. This effect was enhanced by additional charge-neutralizing mutations of four nearby lysine residues comprising the so-called central lysine cluster. Substitution of these proline and lysine residues accelerated PrP conversion such that spontaneous amyloid formation was no longer slower than scrapie-seeded amyloid formation. Thus, Pro-102 and Pro-105, as well as the lysines in the central lysine cluster, impede amyloid formation by PrP, implicating these residues as key structural modulators in the conversion of PrP to disease-associated types of amyloid. PMID:26175152

  2. Differences in Lysine pKa Values May Be Used to Improve NMR Signal Dispersion in Reductively Methylated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sherwin J.; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi; Solaro, R. John; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Summary Reductive methylation of lysine residues in proteins offers a way to introduce 13C methyl groups into otherwise unlabeled molecules. The 13C methyl groups on lysines possess favorable relaxation properties that allow highly sensitive NMR signal detection. One of the major limitations in the use of reductive methylation in NMR is the signal overlap of 13C methyl groups in NMR spectra. Here we show that the uniform influence of the solvent on chemical shifts of exposed lysine methyl groups could be overcome by adjusting the pH of the buffering solution closer to the pKa of lysine side chains. Under these conditions, due to variable pKa values of individual lysine side chains in the protein of interest different levels of lysine protonation are observed. These differences are reflected in the chemical shift differences of methyl groups in reductively methylated lysines. We show that this approach is successful in four different proteins including Ca2+-bound Calmodulin, Lysozyme, Ca2+-bound Troponin C, and Glutathione S-Transferase. In all cases significant improvement in NMR spectral resolution of methyl signals in reductively methylated proteins was obtained. The increased spectral resolution helps with more precise characterization of protein structural rearrangements caused by ligand binding as shown by studying binding of Calmodulin antagonist trifluoperazine to Calmodulin. Thus, this approach may be used to increase resolution in NMR spectra of 13C methyl groups on lysine residues in reductively methylated proteins that enhances the accuracy of protein structural assessment. PMID:19280122

  3. Use of acetimidation in the NMR identification of neurophysin lysine protons

    SciTech Connect

    Sardana, V.; Breslow, E.

    1986-05-01

    Acetimidation of the two lysine residues of neurophysin (NP) results in localized changes in the proton magnetic resonance spectrum, allowing identification of lysine side-chain resonances. Neither peptide-binding nor protein self-association appeared to be significantly altered by acetimidation. Additionally, no significant effect of either peptide-binding or self-association on lysine epsilon-CH/sub 2/ protons was seen. However, dimerization-induced NMR changes in the 1.6-1.8 ppm region, associated with lysine ..beta..,..gamma..,sigma protons, were altered in the acetimidated protein. In particular, while the spectrum of the acetimidated NP monomer was almost identical to that of the native protein, a shoulder at 1.72 ppm in the native protein dimer was shifted upfield in the modified dimer. Additionally the direction of NMR shifts in the 1.6-1.8 ppm region normally associated with peptide binding to the NP dimer appeared to be reversed in the acetimidated protein. Binding-induced and dimerization-induced changes in all other regions of the spectrum were identical in the native and modified proteins. These results suggest that one or both NP lysine residues may be near the dimer subunit interface and indicate an effect of peptide-binding on lysine side-chain environment.

  4. Structure of the DNA Ligase-Adenylate Intermediate: Lysine (ε-amino)-Linked Adenosine Monophosphoramidate*

    PubMed Central

    Gumport, Richard I.; Lehman, I. R.

    1971-01-01

    Proteolytic degradation of the Escherichia coli DNA ligase-adenylate intermediate releases adenosine 5′-monophosphate linked to the ε-amino group of lysine by a phosphoamide bond. Measurements of the rate of hydroxylaminolysis of the ligase-adenylate provide further support for a phosphoamide linkage in the native enzyme. Lysine (ε-amino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate has also been isolated from the T4 phage-induced ligase-adenylate intermediate. These results indicate that an initial step of the DNA ligase reaction consists of the nucleophilic attack of the ε-amino group of a lysine residue of the enzyme on the adenylyl phosphorus of DPN or ATP that leads to the formation of enzyme-bound lysine (εamino)-linked adenosine monophosphoramidate. PMID:4944632

  5. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maier, Greg P.; Rapp, Michael V.; Waite, J. Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (Ead ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a “one-two punch,” whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides.

  6. BIOLOGICAL ADHESIVES. Adaptive synergy between catechol and lysine promotes wet adhesion by surface salt displacement.

    PubMed

    Maier, Greg P; Rapp, Michael V; Waite, J Herbert; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Butler, Alison

    2015-08-01

    In physiological fluids and seawater, adhesion of synthetic polymers to solid surfaces is severely limited by high salt, pH, and hydration, yet these conditions have not deterred the evolution of effective adhesion by mussels. Mussel foot proteins provide insights about adhesive adaptations: Notably, the abundance and proximity of catecholic Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) and lysine residues hint at a synergistic interplay in adhesion. Certain siderophores—bacterial iron chelators—consist of paired catechol and lysine functionalities, thereby providing a convenient experimental platform to explore molecular synergies in bioadhesion. These siderophores and synthetic analogs exhibit robust adhesion energies (E(ad) ≥-15 millijoules per square meter) to mica in saline pH 3.5 to 7.5 and resist oxidation. The adjacent catechol-lysine placement provides a "one-two punch," whereby lysine evicts hydrated cations from the mineral surface, allowing catechol binding to underlying oxides. PMID:26250681

  7. Acetylation of Surface Lysine Groups of a Protein Alters the Organization and Composition of Its Crystal Contacts.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyungtae; Choi, Jeong-Mo; Fox, Jerome M; Snyder, Phillip W; Moustakas, Demetri T; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-14

    This paper uses crystals of bovine carbonic anhydrase (CA) and its acetylated variant to examine (i) how a large negative formal charge can be accommodated in protein-protein interfaces, (ii) why lysine residues are often excluded from them, and (iii) how changes in the surface charge of a protein can alter the structure and organization of protein-protein interfaces. It demonstrates that acetylation of lysine residues on the surface of CA increases the participation of polar residues (particularly acetylated lysine) in protein-protein interfaces, and decreases the participation of nonpolar residues in those interfaces. Negatively charged residues are accommodated in protein-protein interfaces via (i) hydrogen bonds or van der Waals interactions with polar residues or (ii) salt bridges with other charged residues. The participation of acetylated lysine in protein-protein interfaces suggests that unacetylated lysine tends to be excluded from interfaces because of its positive charge, and not because of a loss in conformational entropy. Results also indicate that crystal contacts in acetylated CA become less constrained geometrically and, as a result, more closely packed (i.e., more tightly clustered spatially) than those of native CA. This study demonstrates a physical-organic approach-and a well-defined model system-for studying the role of charges in protein-protein interactions. PMID:27292012

  8. Nonhemolytic Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Site Specific Introduction of Glutamine and Lysine Residues into the α-Helical Peptide Causes Deletion of Its Direct Membrane Disrupting Ability but Retention of Its Cell Penetrating Ability.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoyeon; Hyun, Soonsil; Lee, Yuri; Lee, Yan; Yu, Jaehoon

    2016-09-12

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) often have cationic and amphipathic characteristics that are commonly associated with α-helical peptides. These features give CPPs both membrane demolishing and penetrating abilities. To make CPPs safe for biomedical applications, their toxicities resulting from their membrane demolishing abilities must be removed while their cell penetrating abilities must be retained. In this study, we systematically constructed mutants of the amphipathic α-helical model peptide (LKKLLKLLKKLLKLAG, LK peptide). The hydrophobic amino acid leucine in the LK peptide was replaced with hydrophilic amino acids to reduce hemolytic or cell toxicity. Most of the mutants were found to have weakened membrane disrupting abilities, but their cell penetrating abilities were also weakened. However, the L8Q and L8K mutants were found to have low micromolar range cell penetrating ability and almost no membrane disrupting ability. These selected mutants utilize energy-dependent endocytosis mechanisms instead of an energy-independent direct cell penetrating mechanism to enter cells. In addition, the mutants can be used to deliver the anticancer drug methotrexate (MTX) to cells, thereby overcoming resistance to this drug. To determine if the effect of these mutations on the membrane disrupting and cell penetrating abilities is general, Q and K mutations of the natural amphipathic α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP), LL37, were introduced. Specific positional Q and K mutants of LL37 were found to have lower hemolytic toxicities and preserved the ability to penetrate eukaryotic cells such as MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, observations made in this work suggest that interrupting the global hydrophobicity of amphipathic α-helical CPPs and AMPs, by replacing hydrophobic residues with mildly hydrophilic amino acids such as Q and K, might be an ideal strategy for constructing peptides that have strong cell penetrating abilities and weak cell membrane disrupting

  9. Adding a Lysine Mimic in the Design of Potent Inhibitors of Histone Lysine Methyltransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Yanqi; Ganesh, Thota; Horton, John R.; Spannhoff, Astrid; Liu, Jin; Sun, Aiming; Zhang, Xing; Bedford, Mark T.; Shinkai, Yoichi; Snyder, James P.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2010-07-19

    Dynamic histone lysine methylation involves the activities of modifying enzymes (writers), enzymes removing modifications (erasers), and readers of the histone code. One common feature of these activities is the recognition of lysines in methylated and unmethylated states, whether they are substrates, reaction products, or binding partners. We applied the concept of adding a lysine mimic to an established inhibitor (BIX-01294) of histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferases G9a and G9a-like protein by including a 5-aminopentyloxy moiety, which is inserted into the target lysine-binding channel and becomes methylated by G9a-like protein, albeit slowly. The compound enhances its potency in vitro and reduces cell toxicity in vivo. We suggest that adding a lysine or methyl-lysine mimic should be considered in the design of small-molecule inhibitors for other methyl-lysine writers, erasers, and readers.

  10. Identification of residues in the hepatitis C virus core protein that are critical for capsid assembly in a cell-free system.

    PubMed

    Klein, Kevin C; Dellos, Sheri R; Lingappa, Jaisri R

    2005-06-01

    Significant advances have been made in understanding hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication through development of replicon systems. However, neither replicon systems nor standard cell culture systems support significant assembly of HCV capsids, leaving a large gap in our knowledge of HCV virion formation. Recently, we established a cell-free system in which over 60% of full-length HCV core protein synthesized de novo in cell extracts assembles into HCV capsids by biochemical and morphological criteria. Here we used mutational analysis to identify residues in HCV core that are important for capsid assembly in this highly reproducible cell-free system. We found that basic residues present in two clusters within the N-terminal 68 amino acids of HCV core played a critical role, while the uncharged linker domain between them was not. Furthermore, the aspartate at position 111, the region spanning amino acids 82 to 102, and three serines that are thought to be sites of phosphorylation do not appear to be critical for HCV capsid formation in this system. Mutation of prolines important for targeting of core to lipid droplets also failed to alter HCV capsid assembly in the cell-free system. In addition, wild-type HCV core did not rescue assembly-defective mutants. These data constitute the first systematic and quantitative analysis of the roles of specific residues and domains of HCV core in capsid formation. PMID:15890921

  11. Quantitative Assessment of Protein Interaction with Methyl-Lysine Analogues by Hybrid Computational and Experimental Approaches

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    In cases where binding ligands of proteins are not easily available, structural analogues are often used. For example, in the analysis of proteins recognizing different methyl-lysine residues in histones, methyl-lysine analogues based on methyl-amino-alkylated cysteine residues have been introduced. Whether these are close enough to justify quantitative interpretation of binding experiments is however questionable. To systematically address this issue, we developed, applied, and assessed a hybrid computational/experimental approach that extracts the binding free energy difference between the native ligand (methyl-lysine) and the analogue (methyl-amino-alkylated cysteine) from a thermodynamic cycle. Our results indicate that measured and calculated binding differences are in very good agreement and therefore allow the correction of measured affinities of the analogues. We suggest that quantitative binding parameters for defined ligands in general can be derived by this method with remarkable accuracy. PMID:21991995

  12. N-formylation of lysine in histone proteins as a secondary modification arising from oxidative DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinfeng; Taghizadeh, Koli; Dong, Min; Dedon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of histone and other chromatin proteins has a well recognized but poorly defined role in the physiology of gene expression. With implications for interfering with these epigenetic mechanisms, we now report the existence of a relatively abundant secondary modification of chromatin proteins, the N6-formylation of lysine that appears to be uniquely associated with histone and other nuclear proteins. Using both radiolabeling and sensitive bioanalytical methods, we demonstrate that the formyl moiety of 3′-formylphosphate residues arising from 5′-oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA, caused by the enediyne neocarzinostatin, for example, acylate the N6-amino groups of lysine side chains. A liquid chromatography (LC)–tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed to quantify the resulting N6-formyl-lysine residues, which were observed to be present in unperturbed cells and all sources of histone proteins to the extent of 0.04–0.1% of all lysines in acid-soluble chromatin proteins including histones. Cells treated with neocarzinostatin showed a clear dose–response relationship for the formation of N6-formyl-lysine, with this nucleosome linker-selective DNA-cleaving agent causing selective N6-formylation of the linker histone H1. The N6-formyl-lysine residue appears to represent an endogenous histone secondary modification, one that bears chemical similarity to lysine N6-acetylation recognized as an important determinant of gene expression in mammalian cells. The N6-formyl modification of lysine may interfere with the signaling functions of lysine acetylation and methylation and thus contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:17190813

  13. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  14. Nε−Lysine Acetylation of a Bacterial Transcription Factor Inhibits Its DNA-Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thao, Sandy; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Zhu, Heng; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggesting that eukaryotes and archaea use reversible Nε-lysine (Nε-Lys) acetylation to modulate gene expression has been reported, but evidence for bacterial use of Nε-Lys acetylation for this purpose is lacking. Here, we report data in support of the notion that bacteria can control gene expression by modulating the acetylation state of transcription factors (TFs). We screened the E. coli proteome for substrates of the bacterial Gcn5-like protein acetyltransferase (Pat). Pat acetylated four TFs, including the RcsB global regulatory protein, which controls cell division, and capsule and flagellum biosynthesis in many bacteria. Pat acetylated residue Lys180 of RcsB, and the NAD+-dependent Sir2 (sirtuin)-like protein deacetylase (CobB) deacetylated acetylated RcsB (RcsBAc), demonstrating that Nε-Lys acetylation of RcsB is reversible. Analysis of RcsBAc and variant RcsB proteins carrying substitutions at Lys180 provided biochemical and physiological evidence implicating Lys180 as a critical residue for RcsB DNA-binding activity. These findings further the likelihood that reversible Nε-Lys acetylation of transcription factors is a mode of regulation of gene expression used by all cells. PMID:21217812

  15. Favored and disfavored pathways of protein crosslinking by glucose: glucose lysine dimer (GLUCOLD) and crossline versus glucosepane

    PubMed Central

    Nemet, Ina; Strauch, Christopher M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel glucose-lysine dimer crosslink 1,3-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-(1′,2′,3′,4′-tetrahydroxybutyl)-3H-imidazolium salt, named GLUCOLD. GLUCOLD was easily formed from the Amadori product (fructose–lysine). However, when BSA was incubated with 100 mM glucose for 25 days, the levels of the lysine-lysine glucose crosslinks GLUCOLD and CROSSLINE were only 21 and <1 pmol/mg, respectively, compared to 611 pmol/mg protein for the lysine-arginine GLUCOSEPANE crosslink, in spite of more than 20 potential lysine-lysine crosslinking sites in the protein. Mechanistic investigation revealed that metal-free phosphate ions catalyzed formation of fructose–lysine and all three crosslinks from amino acids, while cationic MOPS buffer had an opposite effect. This together with the rapid formation of N6-1,4-dideoxy-5,6-dioxoglucosone derivatives by dicarbonyl trapping agents, such as 1,2-diaminobenzene or γ-guanidinobutyric acid, strongly suggests that enolization of the Amadori product and trapping of the 5,6-dioxo derivative by arginine residues constitutes the major pathway for glucose-mediated crosslinking in proteins. PMID:20607325

  16. Favored and disfavored pathways of protein crosslinking by glucose: glucose lysine dimer (GLUCOLD) and crossline versus glucosepane.

    PubMed

    Nemet, Ina; Strauch, Christopher M; Monnier, Vincent M

    2011-01-01

    We describe the isolation and molecular characterization of a novel glucose-lysine dimer crosslink 1,3-bis-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-4-(1',2',3',4'-tetrahydroxybutyl)-3H-imidazolium salt, named GLUCOLD. GLUCOLD was easily formed from the Amadori product (fructose-lysine). However, when BSA was incubated with 100 mM glucose for 25 days, the levels of the lysine-lysine glucose crosslinks GLUCOLD and CROSSLINE were only 21 and <1 pmol/mg, respectively, compared to 611 pmol/mg protein for the lysine-arginine GLUCOSEPANE crosslink, in spite of more than 20 potential lysine-lysine crosslinking sites in the protein. Mechanistic investigation revealed that metal-free phosphate ions catalyzed formation of fructose-lysine and all three crosslinks from amino acids, while cationic MOPS buffer had an opposite effect. This together with the rapid formation of N (6)-1,4-dideoxy-5,6-dioxoglucosone derivatives by dicarbonyl trapping agents, such as 1,2-diaminobenzene or γ-guanidinobutyric acid, strongly suggests that enolization of the Amadori product and trapping of the 5,6-dioxo derivative by arginine residues constitutes the major pathway for glucose-mediated crosslinking in proteins. PMID:20607325

  17. Identification of basic residues in RAG2 critical for DNA binding by the RAG1-RAG2 complex.

    PubMed

    Fugmann, S D; Schatz, D G

    2001-10-01

    In V(D)J recombination, the RAG1 and RAG2 proteins are the essential components of the complex that catalyzes DNA cleavage. RAG1 has been shown to play a central role in DNA binding and catalysis. In contrast, the molecular roles of RAG2 in V(D)J recombination are unknown. To address this, we individually mutated 36 evolutionarily conserved basic and hydroxy group containing residues within RAG2. Biochemical analysis of the recombinant RAG2 proteins led to the identification of a number of basic residue mutants defective in catalysis in vitro and V(D)J recombination in vivo. Five of these were deficient in binding of the RAG1-RAG2 complex to its cognate DNA target sequence while interacting normally with RAG1. Our findings provide support for the direct involvement of RAG2 in DNA binding during all steps of the cleavage reaction. PMID:11684024

  18. Effect of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on L-lysine production with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Bastian; Schreiner, Mark E; Moch, Matthias; Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2007-09-01

    Intracellular precursor supply is a critical factor for amino acid productivity of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To test for the effect of improved pyruvate availability on L-lysine production, we deleted the aceE gene encoding the E1p enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in the L-lysine-producer C. glutamicum DM1729 and characterised the resulting strain DM1729-BB1 for growth and L-lysine production. Compared to the host strain, C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 showed no PDHC activity, was acetate auxotrophic and, after complete consumption of the available carbon sources glucose and acetate, showed a more than 50% lower substrate-specific biomass yield (0.14 vs 0.33 mol C/mol C), an about fourfold higher biomass-specific L-lysine yield (5.27 vs 1.23 mmol/g cell dry weight) and a more than 40% higher substrate-specific L-lysine yield (0.13 vs 0.09 mol C/mol C). Overexpression of the pyruvate carboxylase or diaminopimelate dehydrogenase genes in C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 resulted in a further increase in the biomass-specific L-lysine yield by 6 and 56%, respectively. In addition to L-lysine, significant amounts of pyruvate, L-alanine and L-valine were produced by C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 and its derivatives, suggesting a surplus of precursor availability and a further potential to improve L-lysine production by engineering the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway. PMID:17333167

  19. Lysine-scanning Mutagenesis Reveals an Amendable Face of the Cyclotide Kalata B1 for the Optimization of Nematocidal Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yen-Hua; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Clark, Richard J.; Kotze, Andrew C.; Craik, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Cyclotides are a family of macrocyclic peptides that combine the unique features of a head-to-tail cyclic backbone and a cystine knot motif, the combination of which imparts them with extraordinary stability. The prototypic cyclotide kalata B1 is toxic against two economically important gastrointestinal nematode parasites of sheep, Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. A lysine scan was conducted to examine the effect of the incorporation of positive charges into the kalata B1 cyclotide framework. Each of the non-cysteine residues in this 29-amino acid peptide was successively substituted with lysine, and the nematocidal and hemolytic activities of the suite of mutants were determined. Substitution of 11 residues within kalata B1 decreased the nematocidal activity dramatically. On the other hand, six other residues that are clustered on the surface of kalata B1 were tolerant to Lys substitution, and indeed the introduction of positively charged residues into this region increased nematocidal activity. This activity was increased further in double and triple lysine mutants, with a maximal increase (relative to the native kalata B1) of 13-fold obtained with a triple lysine mutant (mutated at positions Thr-20, Asn-29, and Gly-1). Hemolytic activity correlated with the nematocidal activity of all lysine mutants. Our data clearly highlight the residues crucial for nematocidal and hemolytic activity in cyclotides, and demonstrate that the nematocidal activity of cyclotides can be increased by incorporation of basic amino acids. PMID:20103593

  20. Identification of Lysine Acetylation in Mycobacterium abscessus Using LC-MS/MS after Immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jintao; Wang, Changwei; Han, Yi; Liu, Zhiyong; Wu, Tian; Liu, Yan; Liu, Yang; Tan, Yaoju; Cai, Xinshan; Cao, Yuanyuan; Wang, Bangxing; Zhang, Buchang; Liu, Chunping; Tan, Shouyong; Zhang, Tianyu

    2016-08-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (MAB), which manifests in the pulmonary system, is one of the neglected causes of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection. Treatment against MAB is difficult, characterized by its intrinsic antibiotic drug resistance. Lysine acetylation can alter the physiochemical property of proteins in living organisms. This study aimed to determine if this protein post-translational modification (PTM) exists in a clinical isolate M. abscessus GZ002. We used the antiacetyl-lysine immunoprecipitation to enrich the low-abundant PTM proteins, followed by the LC-MS/MS analysis. The lysine acetylome of M. abscessus GZ002 was determined. There were 459 lysine acetylation sites found in 289 acetylated proteins. Lysine acetylation occurred in 5.87% of the M. abscessus GZ002 proteome, and at least 25% of them were growth essential. Aerobic respiration and carbohydrate metabolic pathways of M. abscessus GZ002 were enriched with lysine acetylation. Through bioinformatics analysis, we identified four major acetyl motif logos (K(ac)Y, K(ac)F, K(ac)H, and DK(ac)). Further comparison of the reported M. tuberculosis (MTB) acetylomes and that of MAB GZ002 revealed several common features between these two species. The lysine residues of several antibiotic-resistance, virulence, and persistence-related proteins were acetylated in both MAB GZ002 and MTB. There were 51 identical acetylation sites in 37 proteins found in common between MAB GZ002 and MTB. Overall, we demonstrate a profile of lysine acetylation in MAB GZ002 proteome that shares similarities with MTB. Interventions that target at these conserved sections may be valuable as anti-NTM or anti-TB therapies. PMID:27323652

  1. Molecular Pathways: Deregulation of Histone 3 Lysine 27 Methylation in Cancer—Different Paths, Same Destination

    PubMed Central

    Ezponda, Teresa; Licht, Jonathan D.

    2014-01-01

    Methylation of lysine 27 on histone 3 (H3K27me), a modification associated with gene repression, plays a critical role in regulating the expression of genes that determine the balance between cell differentiation and proliferation. Alteration of the level of this histone modification has emerged as a recurrent theme in many types of cancer, demonstrating that either excess or lack of H3K27 methylation can have oncogenic effects. Cancer genome sequencing has revealed the genetic basis of H3K27me deregulation, including mutations of the components of the H3K27 methyltransferase complex PRC2 and accessory proteins, and deletions and inactivating mutations of the H3K27 demethylase UTX in a wide variety of neoplasms. More recently, mutations of lysine 27 on histone 3 itself were shown to prevent H3K27me in pediatric glioblastomas. Aberrant expression or mutations in proteins that recognize H3K27me3 also occur in cancer and may result in misinterpretation of this mark. Additionally, due to the crosstalk between different epigenetic modifications, alterations of chromatin modifiers controlling H3K36me, or even mutations of this residue, can ultimately regulate H3K27me levels and distribution across the genome. The significance of mutations altering H3K27me is underscored by the fact that many tumors harboring such lesions often have a poor clinical outcome. New therapeutic approaches targeting aberrant H3K27 methylation include small molecules that block the action of mutant EZH2 in germinal center-derived lymphoma. Understanding the biological consequences and gene expression pathways affected by aberrant H3K27 methylation may also lead to other new therapeutic strategies. PMID:24987060

  2. Critical regions and residues for self-interaction of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 protein p24.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Guo, Ran; Li, Mingjun; Feng, Ming; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Qi; Cheng, Yuqin

    2016-07-15

    The 24-kDa protein (p24) encoded by grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 (GLRaV-2) is an RNA-silencing suppressor. In this work, a yeast two-hybrid system (YTHS) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation analyses showed that GLRaV-2 p24 can interact with itself, and that this interaction occurs in the cytoplasm of Nicotiana benthamiana cells. To identify the functional region(s) and crucial amino acid residues required for p24 self-interaction, various truncated and substitution mutants were generated. YTHS assay showed that in both homologous pairing and pairing with the wild-type p24, the functional regions mapped to aa 10-180 or 1-170 which contain, respectively, all seven α-helices or the first six α-helices and the N-terminal end (aa 1-9) of the protein. When only the full-length p24 was an interaction partner, the functional region of aa 1-170 could be further mapped to aa 1-140 which contains four α-helices plus most of the fifth α-helix. Further analysis with substitution mutants demonstrated that hydrophobic residues I35/F38/V85/V89/W149 and V162/L169/L170, which may, respectively, mediate the inter-domain interaction of the same p24 monomer and the tail-to-tail association between two p24 counterparts, are crucial for homotypic p24-p24 interaction. In addition, substitution of two basic residues-R2 or R86-of p24, which may play important functional roles in RNA binding, did not seem to affect self-interaction of the mutants in yeast but had obvious effects in plant cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate the functional regions and crucial amino acids for p24 self-interaction. PMID:27084306

  3. Amino acid residues in the Ler protein critical for derepression of the LEE5 promoter in enteropathogenic E. coli.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su-Mi; Jeong, Jae-Ho; Choy, Hyon E; Shin, Minsang

    2016-08-01

    Enteropathogenic E. coli causes attaching and effacing (A/E) intestinal lesions. The genes involved in the formation of A/E lesions are encoded within a chromosomal island comprising of five major operons, LEE1-5. The global regulator H-NS represses the expression of these operons. Ler, a H-NS homologue, counteracts the H-NS-mediated repression. Using a novel genetic approach, we identified the amino acid residues in Ler that are involved in the interaction with H-NS: I20 and L23 in the C-terminal portion of α-helix 3, and I42 in the following unstructured linker region. PMID:27480636

  4. Engineering a Lysine-ON Riboswitch for Metabolic Control of Lysine Production in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Bang; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-12-18

    Riboswitches are natural RNA elements that regulate gene expression by binding a ligand. Here, we demonstrate the possibility of altering a natural lysine-OFF riboswitch from Eschericia coli (ECRS) to a synthetic lysine-ON riboswitch and using it for metabolic control. To this end, a lysine-ON riboswitch library was constructed using tetA-based dual genetic selection. After screening the library, the functionality of the selected lysine-ON riboswitches was examined using a report gene, lacZ. Selected lysine-ON riboswitches were introduced into the lysE gene (encoding a lysine transport protein) of Corynebacterium glutamicum and used to achieve dynamic control of lysine transport in a recombinant lysine-producing strain, C. glutamicum LPECRS, which bears a deregulated aspartokinase and a lysine-OFF riboswitch for dynamic control of the enzyme citrate synthase. Batch fermentation results of the strains showed that the C. glutamicum LPECRS strain with an additional lysine-ON riboswitch for the control of lysE achieved a 21% increase in the yield of lysine compared to that of the C. glutamicum LPECRS strain and even a 89% increase in yield compared to that of the strain with deregulated aspartokinase. This work provides a useful approach to generate lysine-ON riboswitches for C. glutamicum metabolic engineering and demonstrates for the first time a synergetic effect of lysine-ON and -OFF riboswitches for improving lysine production in this industrially important microorganism. The approach can be used to dynamically control other genes and can be applied to other microorganisms. PMID:26300047

  5. Distance Restraints from Crosslinking Mass Spectrometry: Mining a Molecular Dynamics Simulation Database to Evaluate Lysine-Lysine Distances

    SciTech Connect

    Merkley, Eric D.; Rysavy, Steven; Kahraman, Abdullah; Hafen, Ryan P.; Daggett, Valerie; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2014-03-18

    Integrative structural biology models the structures of protein complexes that are intractable by classical structural methods (because of extreme size, dynamics, or heterogeneity) by combining computational structural modeling with data from experimental methods. One such method is chemical cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS), in which cross-linked peptides, derived from a covalently cross-linked protein complex and identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, pinpoint protein residues close in three-dimensional space. The commonly used lysine-reactive N-hydroxysuccinimide ester reagents disuccinimidylsuberate (DSS) and bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate (BS3) have a linker arm that is 11.4 Å long when fully extended. However, XL-MS studies on proteins of known structure frequently report cross-links that exceed this distance. Typically, a tolerance of ~3 Å is added to the theoretical maximum to account for this observation, with little justification for the value chosen. We used the Dynameomics database, a repository of high-quality molecular dynamics simulations of 807 proteins representative of all protein folds, to investigate the change in lysine-lysine distances resulting from native-state dynamics on the time-scale of tens of nanoseconds. We conclude that observed cross-links are consistent with a protein structure if the distance between cross-linked lysine Nζ atoms is less than the cross-linker length plus 11.3 Å. For DSS or BS3, this corresponds to a Cα to Cα distance of 30.4 Å. This analysis provides a theoretical basis for the widespread practice of adding a tolerance to the crosslinker length when comparing XL-MS results to structures, and indicates the appropriate values of an XLMS derived distance constraint to use in structural modeling.

  6. Extracellular surface residues of the α1B-adrenoceptor critical for G protein-coupled receptor function.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, Lotten; Andersson, Åsa; Thomas, Walter G; Lewis, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Ligand binding and conformational changes that accompany signaling from G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) have mostly focused on the role of transmembrane helices and intracellular loop regions. However, recent studies, including several GPCRs cocrystallized with bound ligands, suggest that the extracellular surface (ECS) of GPCRs plays an important role in ligand recognition, selectivity, and binding, as well as potentially contributing to receptor activation and signaling. This study applied alanine-scanning mutagenesis to investigate the role of the complete ECS of the α1B-adrenoreceptor on norepinephrine (NE) potency, affinity, and efficacy. Half (24 of 48) of the ECS mutations significantly decreased NE potency in an inositol 1-phosphate assay. Most mutations reduced NE affinity (17) determined from [(3)H]prazosin displacement studies, whereas four mutations at the entrance to the NE binding pocket enhanced NE affinity. Removing the influence of NE affinity and receptor expression levels on NE potency gave a measure of NE efficacy, which was significantly decreased for 11 of 48 ECS mutants. These different effects tended to cluster to different regions of the ECS, which is consistent with different regions of the ECS playing discrete functional roles. Exposed ECS residues at the entrance to the NE binding pocket mostly affected NE affinity, whereas buried or structurally significant residues mostly affected NE efficacy. The broad potential for ECS mutations to affect GPCR function has relevance for the increasing number of nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms now being identified in GPCRs. PMID:25352041

  7. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Are the essential lysines essential?

    PubMed

    Tian, G C; Yan, H G; Jiang, R T; Kishi, F; Nakazawa, A; Tsai, M D

    1990-05-01

    Using site-specific mutagenesis, we have probed the structural and functional roles of lysine-21 and lysine-27 of adenylate kinase (AK) from chicken muscle expressed in Escherichia coli. The two residues were chosen since according to the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) model [Mildvan, A. S., & Fry, D. C. (1987) Adv. Enzymol. 58, 241-313], they are located near the alpha- and the gamma-phosphates, respectively, of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) in the AK-MgATP complex. In addition, a lysine residue (Lys-21 in the case of AK) along with a glycine-rich loop is considered "essential" in the catalysis of kinases and other nucleotide binding proteins. The Lys-27 to methionine (K27M) mutant showed only slight increases in kcat and Km, but a substantial increase (1.8 kcal/mol) in the free energy of unfolding, relative to the WT AK. For proper interpretation of the steady-state kinetic data, viscosity-dependent kinetics was used to show that the chemical step is partially rate-limiting in the catalysis of AK. Computer modeling suggested that the folded form of K27M could gain stability (relative to the wild type) via hydrophobic interactions of Met-27 with Val-179 and Phe-183 and/or formation of a charge-transfer complex between Met-27 and Phe-183. The latter was supported by an upfield shift of the methyl protons of Met-27 in 1H NMR. Other than this, the 1H NMR spectrum of K27M is very similar to that of WT, suggesting little perturbation in the global or even local conformations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2161682

  8. Targeting histone lysine demethylases — Progress, challenges, and the future☆

    PubMed Central

    Thinnes, Cyrille C.; England, Katherine S.; Kawamura, Akane; Chowdhury, Rasheduzzaman; Schofield, Christopher J.; Hopkinson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    N-Methylation of lysine and arginine residues has emerged as a major mechanism of transcriptional regulation in eukaryotes. In humans, Nε-methyllysine residue demethylation is catalysed by two distinct subfamilies of demethylases (KDMs), the flavin-dependent KDM1 subfamily and the 2-oxoglutarate- (2OG) dependent JmjC subfamily, which both employ oxidative mechanisms. Modulation of histone methylation status is proposed to be important in epigenetic regulation and has substantial medicinal potential for the treatment of diseases including cancer and genetic disorders. This article provides an introduction to the enzymology of the KDMs and the therapeutic possibilities and challenges associated with targeting them, followed by a review of reported KDM inhibitors and their mechanisms of action from kinetic and structural perspectives. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Methylation: A Multifaceted Modification — looking at transcription and beyond. PMID:24859458

  9. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in biosynthesis of antibiotics in Bacillus amyloliquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Guangyuan; Song, Limin; Lv, Binna; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, a Gram-positive bacterium, is very effective for the control of plant pathogens. However, very little is known about the function of lysine acetylation in this organism. Here, we conducted the first lysine acetylome in B. amyloliquefaciens through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC−MS/MS. Overall, we identified 3268 lysine acetylation sites in 1254 proteins, which account for 32.9% of the total proteins in this bacterium. Till date, this is the highest ratio of acetylated proteins that have been identified in bacteria. Acetylated proteins are associated with a variety of biological processes and a large fraction of these proteins are involved in metabolism. Interestingly, for the first time, we found that about 71.1% (27/38) and 78.6% (22/28) of all the proteins tightly related to the synthesis of three types of pepketides and five families of lipopeptides were acetylated, respectively. These findings suggest that lysine acetylation plays a critical role in the regulation of antibiotics biosynthesis. These data serves as an important resource for further elucidation of the physiological role of lysine acetylation in B. amyloliquefaciens. PMID:26822828

  10. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1975-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids was studied. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins.

  11. Linkages in thermal copolymers of lysine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, S. W.; Suzuki, F.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal copolymerization of lysine with other alpha-amino acids has been studied further. The identity of the second amino acid influences various properties of the polymer obtained, including the proportion of alpha and epsilon linkages of lysine. A review of linkages in proteinoids indicates alpha and beta linkages for aspartic acid, alpha and gamma linkages for glutamic acid, alpha and epsilon linkages for lysine, and alpha linkages for other amino acids. Thermal proteinoids are thus more complex in types of linkage than are proteins

  12. Nitrate isotopes unveil distinct seasonal N-sources and the critical role of crop residues in groundwater contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savard, Martine M.; Somers, George; Smirnoff, Anna; Paradis, Daniel; van Bochove, Eric; Liao, Shawna

    2010-02-01

    SummaryGlobally, fertilizers are identified as principle sources of nitrate in waters of intensely cultivated areas. Here this general concept is appraised on a seasonal basis over a two year period, under temperate climatic conditions. Water ( δ2H and δ18O) and nitrate ( δ15N and δ18O) isotopes in surface water and groundwater suggest that freshwater is acting as a transport vector conducting nitrate from agricultural soils to groundwater and ultimately to surface water. Measured nitrate isotopes of organic and inorganic fertilizers and of nitrate in groundwater are used to constrain a conceptual apportionment model quantifying the relative seasonal N contributions in an area of intense potato production. Source inputs differ strongly between the growing (summer and fall) and non-growing (winter and spring) periods. Chemical fertilizers and soil organic matter equally dominate and contribute to the growing period load, whereas soil organic matter dominates the non-growing period load, and accounts for over half of the overall annual nitrogen charge. These findings reveal the magnitude of nitrogen cycling by soil organic matter, and point to the benefits of controlling the timing of its nitrate release from this organic material. We conclude that strategies to attenuate contamination by nitrate in waters of temperate climate row-cropping regions must consider nitrogen cycling by soil organic matter, including the crucial role of crop residues throughout both the growing and non-growing seasons.

  13. Plastidic phosphoglycerate kinase from Phaeodactylum tricornutum: on the critical role of cysteine residues for the enzyme function.

    PubMed

    Bosco, María Belén; Aleanzi, Mabel Cristina; Iglesias, Alberto Álvaro

    2012-03-01

    Chloroplastidic phosphoglycerate kinase (PGKase) plays a key role in photosynthetic organisms, catalyzing a key step in the Calvin cycle. We performed the molecular cloning of the gene encoding chloroplastidic PGKase-1 in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The recombinant enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized. Afterward, it showed similar kinetic properties than the enzyme studied from other organisms, although the diatom enzyme displayed distinctive responses to sulfhydryl reagents. The activity of the enzyme was found to be dependent on the redox status in the environment, determined by different compounds, including some of physiological function. Treatment with oxidant agents, such as diamide, hydrogen peroxide, glutathione and sodium nitroprusside resulted in enzyme inhibition. Recovery of activity was possible by subsequent incubation with reducing reagents such as dithiothreitol and thioredoxins (from E. coli and P. tricornutum). We determined two midpoint potentials of different regulatory redox centers, both values indicating that PGKase-1 might be sensitive to changes in the intracellular redox environment. The role of all the six Cys residues found in the diatom enzyme was analyzed by molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. Results suggest key regulatory properties for P. tricornutum PGKase-1, which could be relevant for the functioning of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in diatoms. PMID:21816671

  14. Meropenem Population Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock and Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: Influence of Residual Diuresis on Dose Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Llaurado-Serra, Mireia; Vaquer, Sergi; Castro, Pedro; Rodríguez, Alejandro H.; Pontes, Caridad; Calvo, Gonzalo; Torres, Antoni; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Meropenem dosing in critically ill patients with septic shock and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is complex, with the recommended maintenance doses being 500 mg to 1,000 mg every 8 h (q8h) to every 12 h. This multicenter study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of meropenem in this population to identify the sources of PK variability and to evaluate different dosing regimens to develop recommendations based on clinical parameters. Thirty patients with septic shock and CRRT receiving meropenem were enrolled (153 plasma samples were tested). A population PK model was developed with data from 24 patients and subsequently validated with data from 6 patients using NONMEM software (v.7.3). The final model was characterized by CL = 3.68 + 0.22 · (residual diuresis/100) and V = 33.00 · (weight/73)2.07, where CL is total body clearance (in liters per hour), residual diuresis is the volume of residual diuresis (in milliliters per 24 h), and V is the apparent volume of distribution (in liters). CRRT intensity was not identified to be a CL modifier. Monte Carlo simulations showed that to maintain concentrations of the unbound fraction (fu) of drug above the MIC of the bacteria for 40% of dosing interval T (referred to as 40% of the ƒuT>MIC), a meropenem dose of 500 mg q8h as a bolus over 30 min would be sufficient regardless of the residual diuresis. If 100% of the ƒuT>MIC was chosen as the target, oligoanuric patients would require 500 mg q8h as a bolus over 30 min for the treatment of susceptible bacteria (MIC < 2 mg/liter), while patients with preserved diuresis would require the same dose given as an infusion over 3 h. If bacteria with MICs close to the resistance breakpoint (2 to 4 mg/liter) were to be treated with meropenem, a dose of 500 mg every 6 h would be necessary: a bolus over 30 min for oligoanuric patients and an infusion over 3 h for patients with preserved diuresis. Our results suggest that residual diuresis may be an easy and

  15. Miscanthus Establishment and Overwintering in the Midwest USA: A Regional Modeling Study of Crop Residue Management on Critical Minimum Soil Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Kucharik, Christopher J.; VanLoocke, Andy; Lenters, John D.; Motew, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Miscanthus is an intriguing cellulosic bioenergy feedstock because its aboveground productivity is high for low amounts of agrochemical inputs, but soil temperatures below −3.5°C could threaten successful cultivation in temperate regions. We used a combination of observed soil temperatures and the Agro-IBIS model to investigate how strategic residue management could reduce the risk of rhizome threatening soil temperatures. This objective was addressed using a historical (1978–2007) reconstruction of extreme minimum 10 cm soil temperatures experienced across the Midwest US and model sensitivity studies that quantified the impact of crop residue on soil temperatures. At observation sites and for simulations that had bare soil, two critical soil temperature thresholds (50% rhizome winterkill at −3.5°C and −6.0°C for different Miscanthus genotypes) were reached at rhizome planting depth (10 cm) over large geographic areas. The coldest average annual extreme 10 cm soil temperatures were between −8°C to −11°C across North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. Large portions of the region experienced 10 cm soil temperatures below −3.5°C in 75% or greater for all years, and portions of North and South Dakota, Minnesota, and Wisconsin experienced soil temperatures below −6.0°C in 50–60% of all years. For simulated management options that established varied thicknesses (1–5 cm) of miscanthus straw following harvest, extreme minimum soil temperatures increased by 2.5°C to 6°C compared to bare soil, with the greatest warming associated with thicker residue layers. While the likelihood of 10 cm soil temperatures reaching −3.5°C was greatly reduced with 2–5 cm of surface residue, portions of the Dakotas, Nebraska, Minnesota, and Wisconsin still experienced temperatures colder than −3.5°C in 50–80% of all years. Nonetheless, strategic residue management could help increase the likelihood of overwintering of miscanthus rhizomes in the first

  16. Negative Regulation of Interferon-induced Transmembrane Protein 3 by SET7-mediated Lysine Monomethylation*

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Zhao; Han, Qinglin; Nie, Jia; Cao, Xuezhi; Chen, Zuojia; Yin, Shuying; Gao, Yayi; Lin, Fang; Zhou, Xiaohui; Xu, Ke; Fan, Huimin; Qian, Zhikang; Sun, Bing; Zhong, Jin; Li, Bin; Tsun, Andy

    2013-01-01

    Although lysine methylation is classically known to regulate histone function, its role in modulating antiviral restriction factor activity remains uncharacterized. Interferon-induced transmembrane protein 3 (IFITM3) was found monomethylated on its lysine 88 residue (IFITM3-K88me1) to reduce its antiviral activity, mediated by the lysine methyltransferase SET7. Vesicular stomatitis virus and influenza A virus infection increased IFITM3-K88me1 levels by promoting the interaction between IFITM3 and SET7, suggesting that this pathway could be hijacked to support infection; conversely, IFN-α reduced IFITM3-K88me1 levels. These findings may have important implications in the design of therapeutics targeting protein methylation against infectious diseases. PMID:24129573

  17. Exploring the allosteric mechanism of dihydrodipicolinate synthase by reverse engineering of the allosteric inhibitor binding sites and its application for lysine production.

    PubMed

    Geng, Feng; Chen, Zhen; Zheng, Ping; Sun, Jibin; Zeng, An-Ping

    2013-03-01

    Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS, EC 4.2.1.52) catalyzes the first committed reaction of L-lysine biosynthesis in bacteria and plants and is allosterically regulated by L-lysine. In previous studies, DHDPSs from different species were proved to have different sensitivity to L-lysine inhibition. In this study, we investigated the key determinants of feedback regulation between two industrially important DHDPSs, the L-lysine-sensitive DHDPS from Escherichia coli and L-lysine-insensitive DHDPS from Corynebacterium glutamicum, by sequence and structure comparisons and site-directed mutation. Feedback inhibition of E. coli DHDPS was successfully alleviated after substitution of the residues around the inhibitor's binding sites with those of C. glutamicum DHDPS. Interestingly, mutagenesis of the lysine binding sites of C. glutamicum DHDPS according to E. coli DHDPS did not recover the expected feedback inhibition but an activation of DHDPS by L-lysine, probably due to differences in the allosteic signal transduction in the DHDPS of these two organisms. Overexpression of L-lysine-insensitive E. coli DHDPS mutants in E. coli MG1655 resulted in an improvement of L-lysine production yield by 46 %. PMID:22644522

  18. SPOTing Acetyl-Lysine Dependent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Picaud, Sarah; Filippakopoulos, Panagis

    2015-01-01

    Post translational modifications have been recognized as chemical signals that create docking sites for evolutionary conserved effector modules, allowing for signal integration within large networks of interactions. Lysine acetylation in particular has attracted attention as a regulatory modification, affecting chromatin structure and linking to transcriptional activation. Advances in peptide array technologies have facilitated the study of acetyl-lysine-containing linear motifs interacting with the evolutionary conserved bromodomain module, which specifically recognizes and binds to acetylated sequences in histones and other proteins. Here we summarize recent work employing SPOT peptide technology to identify acetyl-lysine dependent interactions and document the protocols adapted in our lab, as well as our efforts to characterize such bromodomain-histone interactions. Our results highlight the versatility of SPOT methods and establish an affordable tool for rapid access to potential protein/modified-peptide interactions involving lysine acetylation.

  19. Lysine-specific histone demethylases in normal and malignant hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Andricovich, Jaclyn; Kai, Yan; Tzatsos, Alexandros

    2016-09-01

    The epigenetic control of gene expression is central to the development of the hematopoietic system and the execution of lineage-specific transcriptional programs. During the last 10 years, mounting evidence has implicated the family of lysine-specific histone demethylases as critical regulators of normal hematopoiesis, whereas their deregulation is found in a broad spectrum of hematopoietic malignancies. Here, we review recent findings on the role of these enzymes in normal and malignant hematopoiesis and highlight how aberrant epigenetic regulation facilitates hematopoietic cell transformation through subversion of cell fate and lineage commitment programs. PMID:27208808

  20. A Method to determine lysine acetylation stoichiometries

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Wu, Si; Sydor, Michael A.; Shukla, Anil K.; Weitz, Karl K.; Moore, Ronald J.; Hixson, Kim K.; Kim, Jong Seo; Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana; Qian, Weijun; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.; Ansong, Charles

    2014-07-21

    A major bottleneck to fully understanding the functional aspects of lysine acetylation is the lack of stoichiometry information. Here we describe a mass spectrometry method using a combination of isotope labeling and detection of a diagnostic fragment ion to determine the stoichiometry of lysine acetylation on proteins globally. Using this technique, we determined the modification occupancy on hundreds of acetylated peptides from cell lysates and cross-validated the measurements via immunoblotting.

  1. The Conserved Lys-95 Charged Residue Cluster Is Critical for the Homodimerization and Enzyme Activity of Human Ribonucleotide Reductase Small Subunit M2*

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinhuan; Xu, Zhijian; Zhang, Lingna; Liu, Hongchuan; Liu, Xia; Lou, Meng; Zhu, Lijun; Huang, Bingding; Yang, Cai-Guang; Zhu, Weiliang; Shao, Jimin

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleotide reductase (RR) catalyzes the reduction of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleotides for DNA synthesis. Human RR small subunit M2 exists in a homodimer form. However, the importance of the dimer form to the enzyme and the related mechanism remain unclear. In this study, we tried to identify the interfacial residues that may mediate the assembly of M2 homodimer by computational alanine scanning based on the x-ray crystal structure. Co-immunoprecipitation, size exclusion chromatography, and RR activity assays showed that the K95E mutation in M2 resulted in dimer disassembly and enzyme activity inhibition. In comparison, the charge-exchanging double mutation of K95E and E98K recovered the dimerization and activity. Structural comparisons suggested that a conserved cluster of charged residues, including Lys-95, Glu-98, Glu-105, and Glu-174, at the interface may function as an ionic lock for M2 homodimer. Although the measurements of the radical and iron contents showed that the monomer (the K95E mutant) was capable of generating the diiron and tyrosyl radical cofactor, co-immunoprecipitation and competitive enzyme inhibition assays indicated that the disassembly of M2 dimer reduced its interaction with the large subunit M1. In addition, the immunofluorescent and fusion protein-fluorescent imaging analyses showed that the dissociation of M2 dimer altered its subcellular localization. Finally, the transfection of the wild-type M2 but not the K95E mutant rescued the G1/S phase cell cycle arrest and cell growth inhibition caused by the siRNA knockdown of M2. Thus, the conserved Lys-95 charged residue cluster is critical for human RR M2 homodimerization, which is indispensable to constitute an active holoenzyme and function in cells. PMID:24253041

  2. Mutation of critical serine residues in HIV-1 matrix result in an envelope incorporation defect which can be rescued by truncation of the gp41 cytoplasmic tail

    SciTech Connect

    Bhatia, Ajay K.; Kaushik, Rajnish; Campbell, Nancy A.; Pontow, Suzanne E.; Ratner, Lee

    2009-02-05

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) matrix (MA) domain is involved in both early and late events of the viral life cycle. Simultaneous mutation of critical serine residues in MA has been shown previously to dramatically reduce phosphorylation of MA. However, the role of phosphorylation in viral replication remains unclear. Viruses harboring serine to alanine substitutions at positions 9, 67, 72, and 77 are severely impaired in their ability to infect target cells. In addition, the serine mutant viruses are defective in their ability to fuse with target cell membranes. Interestingly, both the fusion defect and the infectivity defect can be rescued by truncation of the long cytoplasmic tail of gp41 envelope protein (gp41CT). Sucrose density gradient analysis also reveals that these mutant viruses have reduced levels of gp120 envelope protein incorporated into the virions as compared to wild type virus. Truncation of the gp41CT rescues the envelope incorporation defect. Here we propose a model in which mutation of specific serine residues prevents MA interaction with lipid rafts during HIV-1 assembly and thereby impairs recruitment of envelope to the sites of viral budding.

  3. Lysine Activation and Functional Analysis of E2-Mediated Conjugation in the SUMO Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yunus,A.; Lima, C.

    2006-01-01

    E2 conjugating proteins that transfer ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers to substrate lysine residues must first activate the lysine nucleophile for conjugation. Genetic complementation revealed three side chains of the E2 Ubc9 that were crucial for normal growth. Kinetic analysis revealed modest binding defects but substantially lowered catalytic rates for these mutant alleles with respect to wild-type Ubc9. X-ray structures for wild-type and mutant human Ubc9-RanGAP1 complexes showed partial loss of contacts to the substrate lysine in mutant complexes. Computational analysis predicted pK perturbations for the substrate lysine, and Ubc9 mutations weakened pK suppression through improper side chain coordination. Biochemical studies with p53, RanGAP1 and the Nup358/RanBP2 E3 were used to determine rate constants and pK values, confirming both structural and computational predictions. It seems that Ubc9 uses an indirect mechanism to activate lysine for conjugation that may be conserved among E2 family members.

  4. Antibacterial Activity of a Novel Peptide-Modified Lysin Against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hang; Wang, Mengyue; Yu, Junping; Wei, Hongping

    2015-01-01

    The global emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is a growing threat to public health worldwide. Natural bacteriophage lysins are promising alternatives in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, but not Gram-negative ones, like Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the barriers posed by their outer membranes. Recently, modifying a natural lysin with an antimicrobial peptide was found able to break the barriers, and to kill Gram-negative pathogens. Herein, a new peptide-modified lysin (PlyA) was constructed by fusing the cecropin A peptide residues 1–8 (KWKLFKKI) with the OBPgp279 lysin and its antibacterial activity was studied. PlyA showed good and broad antibacterial activities against logarithmic phase A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, but much reduced activities against the cells in stationary phase. Addition of outer membrane permeabilizers (EDTA and citric acid) could enhance the antibacterial activity of PlyA against stationary phase cells. Finally, no antibacterial activity of PlyA could be observed in some bio-matrices, such as culture media, milk, and sera. In conclusion, we reported here a novel peptide-modified lysin with significant antibacterial activity against both logarithmic (without OMPs) and stationary phase (with OMPs) A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa cells in buffer, but further optimization is needed to achieve broad activity in diverse bio-matrices. PMID:26733995

  5. Identification of Lethal Mutations in Yeast Threonyl-tRNA Synthetase Revealing Critical Residues in Its Human Homolog*

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Lei, Hui-Yan; Eriani, Gilbert; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-01-01

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are a group of ancient enzymes catalyzing aminoacylation and editing reactions for protein biosynthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these critical enzymes are often associated with mammalian disorders. Therefore, complete determination of the enzymes functions is essential for informed diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that a yeast knock-out strain for the threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) gene is an excellent platform for such an investigation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ThrRS has a unique modular structure containing four structural domains and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. Using randomly mutated libraries of the ThrRS gene (thrS) and a genetic screen, a set of loss-of-function mutants were identified. The mutations affected the synthetic and editing activities and influenced the dimer interface. The results also highlighted the role of the N-terminal extension for enzymatic activity and protein stability. To gain insights into the pathological mechanisms induced by mutated aaRSs, we systematically introduced the loss-of-function mutations into the human cytoplasmic ThrRS gene. All mutations induced similar detrimental effects, showing that the yeast model could be used to study pathology-associated point mutations in mammalian aaRSs. PMID:25416776

  6. Identification of lethal mutations in yeast threonyl-tRNA synthetase revealing critical residues in its human homolog.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Zhi-Rong; Fang, Zhi-Peng; Ye, Qing; Lei, Hui-Yan; Eriani, Gilbert; Zhou, Xiao-Long; Wang, En-Duo

    2015-01-16

    Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are a group of ancient enzymes catalyzing aminoacylation and editing reactions for protein biosynthesis. Increasing evidence suggests that these critical enzymes are often associated with mammalian disorders. Therefore, complete determination of the enzymes functions is essential for informed diagnosis and treatment. Here, we show that a yeast knock-out strain for the threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS) gene is an excellent platform for such an investigation. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ThrRS has a unique modular structure containing four structural domains and a eukaryote-specific N-terminal extension. Using randomly mutated libraries of the ThrRS gene (thrS) and a genetic screen, a set of loss-of-function mutants were identified. The mutations affected the synthetic and editing activities and influenced the dimer interface. The results also highlighted the role of the N-terminal extension for enzymatic activity and protein stability. To gain insights into the pathological mechanisms induced by mutated aaRSs, we systematically introduced the loss-of-function mutations into the human cytoplasmic ThrRS gene. All mutations induced similar detrimental effects, showing that the yeast model could be used to study pathology-associated point mutations in mammalian aaRSs. PMID:25416776

  7. Proton Affinity of Isomeric Dipeptides Containing Lysine and Non-Proteinogenic Lysine Homologues.

    PubMed

    Batoon, Patrick; Ren, Jianhua

    2016-08-18

    Conformational effects on the proton affinity of oligopeptides have been studied using six alanine (A)-based acetylated dipeptides containing a basic probe that is placed closest to either the C- or the N-terminus. The basic probe includes Lysine (Lys) and two nonproteinogenic Lys-homologues, ornithine (Orn) and 2,3-diaminopropionic acid (Dap). The proton affinities of the peptides have been determined using the extended Cooks kinetic method in a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Computational studies have been carried out to search for the lowest energy conformers and to calculate theoretical proton affinities as well as various molecular properties using the density functional theory. The dipeptides containing a C-terminal probe, ALys, AOrn, and ADap, were determined to have a higher proton affinity by 1-4 kcal/mol than the corresponding dipeptides containing an N-terminal probe, LysA, OrnA, and DapA. For either the C-probe peptides or the N-probe peptides, the proton affinity reduces systematically as the side-chain of the probe residue is shortened. The difference in the proton affinities between isomeric peptides is largely associated with the variation of the conformations. The peptides with higher values of the proton affinity adopt a relatively compact conformation such that the protonated peptides can be stabilized through more efficient internal solvation. PMID:27459294

  8. Structure of the lysine specific protease Kgp from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a target for improved oral health.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Michael A; Seers, Christine A; Michell, Belinda J; Feil, Susanne C; Huq, N Laila; Cross, Keith J; Reynolds, Eric C; Parker, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis. Gingipains, the principle virulence factors of P. gingivalis are multidomain, cell-surface proteins containing a cysteine protease domain. The lysine specific gingipain, Kgp, is a critical virulence factor of P. gingivalis. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the lysine-specific protease domain of Kgp to 1.6 Å resolution. The structure provides insights into the mechanism of substrate specificity and catalysis. PMID:25327141

  9. Structure of the lysine specific protease Kgp from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a target for improved oral health

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Michael A; Seers, Christine A; Michell, Belinda J; Feil, Susanne C; Huq, N Laila; Cross, Keith J; Reynolds, Eric C; Parker, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    The oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis is a keystone pathogen in the development of chronic periodontitis. Gingipains, the principle virulence factors of P. gingivalis are multidomain, cell-surface proteins containing a cysteine protease domain. The lysine specific gingipain, Kgp, is a critical virulence factor of P. gingivalis. We have determined the X-ray crystal structure of the lysine-specific protease domain of Kgp to 1.6 Å resolution. The structure provides insights into the mechanism of substrate specificity and catalysis. PMID:25327141

  10. Mapping Key Residues of ISD11 Critical for NFS1-ISD11 Subcomplex Stability: IMPLICATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF MITOCHONDRIAL DISORDER, COXPD19.

    PubMed

    Saha, Prasenjit Prasad; Srivastava, Shubhi; Kumar S K, Praveen; Sinha, Devanjan; D'Silva, Patrick

    2015-10-23

    Biogenesis of the iron-sulfur (Fe-S) cluster is an indispensable process in living cells. In mammalian mitochondria, the initial step of the Fe-S cluster assembly process is assisted by the NFS1-ISD11 complex, which delivers sulfur to scaffold protein ISCU during Fe-S cluster synthesis. Although ISD11 is an essential protein, its cellular role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis is still not defined. Our study maps the important ISD11 amino acid residues belonging to putative helix 1 (Phe-40), helix 3 (Leu-63, Arg-68, Gln-69, Ile-72, Tyr-76), and C-terminal segment (Leu-81, Glu-84) are critical for in vivo Fe-S cluster biogenesis. Importantly, mutation of these conserved ISD11 residues into alanine leads to its compromised interaction with NFS1, resulting in reduced stability and enhanced aggregation of NFS1 in the mitochondria. Due to altered interaction with ISD11 mutants, the levels of NFS1 and Isu1 were significantly depleted, which affects Fe-S cluster biosynthesis, leading to reduced electron transport chain complex (ETC) activity and mitochondrial respiration. In humans, a clinically relevant ISD11 mutation (R68L) has been associated in the development of a mitochondrial genetic disorder, COXPD19. Our findings highlight that the ISD11 R68A/R68L mutation display reduced affinity to form a stable subcomplex with NFS1, and thereby fails to prevent NFS1 aggregation resulting in impairment of the Fe-S cluster biogenesis. The prime affected machinery is the ETC complex, which showed compromised redox properties, causing diminished mitochondrial respiration. Furthermore, the R68L ISD11 mutant displayed accumulation of mitochondrial iron and reactive oxygen species, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, which correlates with the phenotype observed in COXPD19 patients. PMID:26342079

  11. A Combined Genetic-Proteomic Approach Identifies Residues within Dengue Virus NS4B Critical for Interaction with NS3 and Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    Chatel-Chaix, Laurent; Fischl, Wolfgang; Scaturro, Pietro; Cortese, Mirko; Kallis, Stephanie; Bartenschlager, Marie; Fischer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral disease worldwide. Approved vaccines are not available, and targets suitable for the development of antiviral drugs are lacking. One possible drug target is nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B), because it is absolutely required for virus replication; however, its exact role in the DENV replication cycle is largely unknown. With the aim of mapping NS4B determinants critical for DENV replication, we performed a reverse genetic screening of 33 NS4B mutants in the context of an infectious DENV genome. While the majority of these mutations were lethal, for several of them, we were able to select for second-site pseudoreversions, most often residing in NS4B and restoring replication competence. To identify all viral NS4B interaction partners, we engineered a fully viable DENV genome encoding an affinity-tagged NS4B. Mass spectrometry-based analysis of the NS4B complex isolated from infected cells identified the NS3 protease/helicase as a major interaction partner of NS4B. By combining the genetic complementation map of NS4B with a replication-independent expression system, we identified the NS4B cytosolic loop—more precisely, amino acid residue Q134—as a critical determinant for NS4B-NS3 interaction. An alanine substitution at this site completely abrogated the interaction and DENV RNA replication, and both were restored by pseudoreversions A69S and A137V. This strict correlation between the degree of NS4B-NS3 interaction and DENV replication provides strong evidence that this viral protein complex plays a pivotal role during the DENV replication cycle, hence representing a promising target for novel antiviral strategies. IMPORTANCE With no approved therapy or vaccine against dengue virus infection, the viral nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) represents a possible drug target, because it is indispensable for virus replication. However, little is known about its precise structure and

  12. The effect of glutamic acid side chain on acidity constant of lysine in beta-sheet: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargolzaei, M.; Afshar, M.; Sadeghi, M. S.; Kavee, M.

    2014-07-01

    In this work, the possibility of proton transfer between side chain of lysine and glutamic acid in peptide of Glu--Ala-Lys+ was demonstrated using density functional theory (DFT). We have shown that the proton transfer takes place between side chain of glutamic and lysine residues through the hydrogen bond formation. The structures of transition state for proton transfer reaction were detected in gas and solution phases. Our kinetic studies show that the proton transfer reaction rate in gas phase is higher than solution phase. The ionization constant (p K a) value of lysine residue in peptide was estimated 1.039 which is lower than intrinsic p K a of lysine amino acid.

  13. NMR determination of lysine pKa values in the Pol lambda lyase domain: mechanistic implications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanghua; DeRose, Eugene F; Kirby, Thomas W; London, Robert E

    2006-02-14

    The base excision repair (BER) process requires removal of an abasic deoxyribose-5-phosphate group, a catalytic activity that has been demonstrated for the N-terminal 8 kDa domain of DNA polymerase beta (Pol beta), and for the homologous domain of DNA polymerase lambda (Pol lambda). Previous studies have demonstrated that this activity results from formation of a Schiff base adduct of the abasic deoxyribose C-1' with a lysine residue (K312 in the case of Pol lambda), followed by a beta-elimination reaction. To better understand the underlying chemistry, we have determined pKa values for the lysine residues in the Pol lambda lyase domain labeled with [epsilon-13C]lysine. At neutral pH, the H(epsilon) protons on 3 of the 10 lysine residues in this domain, K287, K291, and K312, exhibit chemical shift inequivalence that results from immobilization of the lysyl side chains. For K287 and K291, this results from the K287-E261 and K291-E298 salt bridge interactions, while for K312, immobilization apparently results from steric and hydrogen-bonding interactions that constrain the position of the lysine side chain. The pKa value of K312 is depressed to 9.58, a value indicating that at physiological pH K312 will exist predominantly in the protonated form. Titration of the domain with hairpin DNA containing a 5'-tetrahydrofuran terminus to model the abasic site produced shifts of the labeled lysine resonances that were in fast exchange but appeared to be complete at a stoichiometry of approximately 1:1.3, consistent with a dissociation constant of approximately 1 microM. The epsilon-proton shifts of K273 were the most sensitive to the addition of the DNA, apparently due to changes in the relative orientation between K273 and W274 in the DNA complex. The average pKa values increased by 0.55, consistent with the formation of some DNA-lysine salt bridges and with the general pH increase expected to result from a reduction in the net positive charge of the complex. A general

  14. Formation equilibria of nickel complexes with glycyl-histidyl-lysine and two synthetic analogues.

    PubMed

    Conato, Chiara; Kozłowski, Henryk; Swiatek-Kozłowska, Jolanta; Młynarz, Piotr; Remelli, Maurizio; Silvestri, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    Complex-formation equilibria between the Ni(II) ion and the natural tripeptide glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine have been investigated. Two synthetic analogues, where the histidine residue has been substituted with L-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine-6-carboxylic acid (L-Spinacine) and L-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-3-carboxylic acid (Tic), respectively, have been considered, as well. Different experimental techniques have been employed: potentiometry, calorimetry, visible spectrophotometry and CD spectroscopy. Structural hypotheses on the main complex species are suggested. Evidences on the formation of tetrameric species with the first ligand are shown. No involvement of the side-chain amino group of lysine residue in metal ion coordination was found. PMID:14659644

  15. Molecular Evolution of the Substrate Specificity of Chloroplastic Aldolases/Rubisco Lysine Methyltransferases in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sheng; Martin-Laffon, Jacqueline; Mininno, Morgane; Gigarel, Océane; Brugière, Sabine; Bastien, Olivier; Tardif, Marianne; Ravanel, Stéphane; Alban, Claude

    2016-04-01

    Rubisco and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolases (FBAs) are involved in CO2 fixation in chloroplasts. Both enzymes are trimethylated at a specific lysine residue by the chloroplastic protein methyltransferase LSMT. Genes coding LSMT are present in all plant genomes but the methylation status of the substrates varies in a species-specific manner. For example, chloroplastic FBAs are naturally trimethylated in both Pisum sativum and Arabidopsis thaliana, whereas the Rubisco large subunit is trimethylated only in the former species. The in vivo methylation status of aldolases and Rubisco matches the catalytic properties of AtLSMT and PsLSMT, which are able to trimethylate FBAs or FBAs and Rubisco, respectively. Here, we created chimera and site-directed mutants of monofunctional AtLSMT and bifunctional PsLSMT to identify the molecular determinants responsible for substrate specificity. Our results indicate that the His-Ala/Pro-Trp triad located in the central part of LSMT enzymes is the key motif to confer the capacity to trimethylate Rubisco. Two of the critical residues are located on a surface loop outside the methyltransferase catalytic site. We observed a strict correlation between the presence of the triad motif and the in vivo methylation status of Rubisco. The distribution of the motif into a phylogenetic tree further suggests that the ancestral function of LSMT was FBA trimethylation. In a recent event during higher plant evolution, this function evolved in ancestors of Fabaceae, Cucurbitaceae, and Rosaceae to include Rubisco as an additional substrate to the archetypal enzyme. Our study provides insight into mechanisms by which SET-domain protein methyltransferases evolve new substrate specificity. PMID:26785049

  16. Insights into the Specificity of Lysine Acetyltransferases*

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Alex C.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Rank, Katherine C.; Rayment, Ivan; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C.

    2014-01-01

    Reversible lysine acetylation by protein acetyltransferases is a conserved regulatory mechanism that controls diverse cellular pathways. Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferases (GNATs), named after their founding member, are found in all domains of life. GNATs are known for their role as histone acetyltransferases, but non-histone bacterial protein acetytransferases have been identified. Only structures of GNAT complexes with short histone peptide substrates are available in databases. Given the biological importance of this modification and the abundance of lysine in polypeptides, how specificity is attained for larger protein substrates is central to understanding acetyl-lysine-regulated networks. Here we report the structure of a GNAT in complex with a globular protein substrate solved to 1.9 Å. GNAT binds the protein substrate with extensive surface interactions distinct from those reported for GNAT-peptide complexes. Our data reveal determinants needed for the recognition of a protein substrate and provide insight into the specificity of GNATs. PMID:25381442

  17. SET7/9 Catalytic Mutants Reveal the Role of Active Site Water Molecules in Lysine Multiple Methylation

    SciTech Connect

    Del Rizzo, Paul A.; Couture, Jean-François; Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Strunk, Bethany S.; Roiko, Marijo S.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Houtz, Robert L.; Trievel, Raymond C.

    2010-11-15

    SET domain lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) methylate specific lysine residues in histone and non-histone substrates. These enzymes also display product specificity by catalyzing distinct degrees of methylation of the lysine {epsilon}-amino group. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this specificity, we have characterized the Y245A and Y305F mutants of the human KMT SET7/9 (also known as KMT7) that alter its product specificity from a monomethyltransferase to a di- and a trimethyltransferase, respectively. Crystal structures of these mutants in complex with peptides bearing unmodified, mono-, di-, and trimethylated lysines illustrate the roles of active site water molecules in aligning the lysine {epsilon}-amino group for methyl transfer with S-adenosylmethionine. Displacement or dissociation of these solvent molecules enlarges the diameter of the active site, accommodating the increasing size of the methylated {epsilon}-amino group during successive methyl transfer reactions. Together, these results furnish new insights into the roles of active site water molecules in modulating lysine multiple methylation by SET domain KMTs and provide the first molecular snapshots of the mono-, di-, and trimethyl transfer reactions catalyzed by these enzymes.

  18. Defining the Orphan Functions of Lysine Acetyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Long known for their role in histone acetylation, recent studies have demonstrated that lysine acetyltransferases also carry out distinct “orphan” functions. These activities impact a wide range of biological phenomena including metabolism, RNA modification, nuclear morphology, and mitochondrial function. Here, we review the discovery and characterization of orphan lysine acetyltransferase functions. In addition to highlighting the evidence and biological role for these functions in human disease, we discuss the part emerging chemical tools may play in investigating this versatile enzyme superfamily. PMID:25591746

  19. Interfacing protein lysine acetylation and protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Hue T.; Uhrig, R. Glen; Nimick, Mhairi; Moorhead, Greg B.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition that different protein covalent modifications can operate in concert to regulate a single protein has forced us to re-think the relationship between amino acid side chain modifications and protein function. Results presented by Tran et al. 2012 demonstrate the association of a protein phosphatase (PP2A) with a histone/lysine deacetylase (HDA14) on plant microtubules along with a histone/lysine acetyltransferase (ELP3). This finding reveals a regulatory interface between two prevalent covalent protein modifications, protein phosphorylation and acetylation, emphasizing the integrated complexity of post-translational protein regulation found in nature. PMID:22827947

  20. A Study on the Effect of Surface Lysine to Arginine Mutagenesis on Protein Stability and Structure Using Green Fluorescent Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sokalingam, Sriram; Raghunathan, Govindan; Soundrarajan, Nagasundarapandian; Lee, Sun-Gu

    2012-01-01

    Two positively charged basic amino acids, arginine and lysine, are mostly exposed to protein surface, and play important roles in protein stability by forming electrostatic interactions. In particular, the guanidinium group of arginine allows interactions in three possible directions, which enables arginine to form a larger number of electrostatic interactions compared to lysine. The higher pKa of the basic residue in arginine may also generate more stable ionic interactions than lysine. This paper reports an investigation whether the advantageous properties of arginine over lysine can be utilized to enhance protein stability. A variant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) was created by mutating the maximum possible number of lysine residues on the surface to arginines while retaining the activity. When the stability of the variant was examined under a range of denaturing conditions, the variant was relatively more stable compared to control GFP in the presence of chemical denaturants such as urea, alkaline pH and ionic detergents, but the thermal stability of the protein was not changed. The modeled structure of the variant indicated putative new salt bridges and hydrogen bond interactions that help improve the rigidity of the protein against different chemical denaturants. Structural analyses of the electrostatic interactions also confirmed that the geometric properties of the guanidinium group in arginine had such effects. On the other hand, the altered electrostatic interactions induced by the mutagenesis of surface lysines to arginines adversely affected protein folding, which decreased the productivity of the functional form of the variant. These results suggest that the surface lysine mutagenesis to arginines can be considered one of the parameters in protein stability engineering. PMID:22792305

  1. Antimicrobial activity of chicken NK-lysin against Eimeria sporozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    NK-lysin is an antimicrobial and antitumor polypeptide that is considered to play an important role during innate immunity. Chicken NK-lysin is a member of the saposin-like protein family and exhibits potent antitumor cell activity. To evaluate the antimicrobial properties of chicken NK-lysin, we ex...

  2. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  3. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5411 - Lysine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lysine. 582.5411 Section 582.5411 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  5. Weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine as response criteria in evaluating supplements of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan to deficient diets for rats.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Z; Heger, J

    1986-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted on growing male SPF-rats to compare weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and plasma free lysine concentration as response criteria in evaluating adequacy of lysine plus threonine and lysine plus tryptophan supplements to the deficient diets. Two basal semisynthetic diets were prepared limiting in lysine and threonine (Expt. 1) and lysine and tryptophan (Expt. 2). The addition of graded supplements to the basal diets of L-lysine X HCl alone (0.2; 0.4; 0.6; 0.8 and 1.0% of diet) induced imbalance of amino acids resulting in low level of daily weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. Plasma free lysine concentration started to grow linearly from the first supplement of L-lysine X HCl. If rats were fed the diets containing identical supplements of L-lysine X HCl in combination with two supplements of L-threonine (0.2 and 0.4% of diet, Expt. 1) or L-tryptophan (0.05 and 0.1% of diet, Expt. 2), plasma free lysine started to increase before supplements of amino acids were adequate to support maximum weight gain and feed conversion efficiency. this difference in response seems to be caused by different feeding regiment during the growth period of the experiments (ad libitum) and training period prior to blood sampling (feeding twice daily). PMID:3098208

  6. Toxicity and critical body residues of Cd, Cu and Cr in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex (Müller) based on lethal and sublethal effects.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Fernández, Leire; Martínez-Madrid, Maite; Rodriguez, Pilar

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate critical body residues (CBRs) of three metals [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr)] in the aquatic oligochaete Tubifex tubifex based on lethal (LBR) and sublethal effects (CBR), and to discuss the relevance of the exposure to sediment for deriving CBR. Toxicity parameters (LC50, EC50, LBR50 and CBR50) were estimated for each metal by means of data on survival and on several sublethal variables measured in short-term (4 days), water-only exposures and in long-term, chronic (14 and 28 days) exposures using metal-spiked sediment. Sublethal endpoints included autotomy in short-term exposure, as well as reproduction and growth in chronic bioassays. LBR50 and CBR50 were 3-6 times higher in sediment than in water-only exposure to Cd and about 2-11 times higher for Cu, depending on the measured endpoint; however, for Cr these parameters varied only by a factor of 1.2. Cu and Cr LBR50 and CBR50 values in 96 h water-only exposure were very similar (survival 2.39 μmol Cu g(-1) dw, 2.73 μmol Cr g(-1) dw; autotomy 0.53 μmol Cu g(-1) dw, 0.78 μmol Cr g(-1) dw). However, in metal-spiked sediments, 28 d CBR50 values for autotomy, reproduction and growth ranged 6.76-29.54 μmol g(-1) dw for Cd, 3.88-6.23 μmol g(-1) dw for Cu, 0.65 μmol g(-1) dw for Cr (calculated only on total number of young). Exposure conditions (time and presence/absence of sediment) seem to be influential in deriving metal CBR values of Cd and Cu, while appear to be irrelevant for Cr. Thus, CBR approach for metals is complex and tissue residue-toxicity relationship is not directly applicable so far. PMID:24085604

  7. Insights into Lysine Deacetylation of Natively Folded Substrate Proteins by Sirtuins.

    PubMed

    Knyphausen, Philipp; de Boor, Susanne; Kuhlmann, Nora; Scislowski, Lukas; Extra, Antje; Baldus, Linda; Schacherl, Magdalena; Baumann, Ulrich; Neundorf, Ines; Lammers, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent lysine deacylases, regulating a variety of cellular processes. The nuclear Sirt1, the cytosolic Sirt2, and the mitochondrial Sirt3 are robust deacetylases, whereas the other sirtuins have preferences for longer acyl chains. Most previous studies investigated sirtuin-catalyzed deacylation on peptide substrates only. We used the genetic code expansion concept to produce natively folded, site-specific, and lysine-acetylated Sirt1-3 substrate proteins, namely Ras-related nuclear, p53, PEPCK1, superoxide dismutase, cyclophilin D, and Hsp10, and analyzed the deacetylation reaction. Some acetylated proteins such as Ras-related nuclear, p53, and Hsp10 were robustly deacetylated by Sirt1-3. However, other reported sirtuin substrate proteins such as cyclophilin D, superoxide dismutase, and PEPCK1 were not deacetylated. Using a structural and functional approach, we describe the ability of Sirt1-3 to deacetylate two adjacent acetylated lysine residues. The dynamics of this process have implications for the lifetime of acetyl modifications on di-lysine acetylation sites and thus constitute a new mechanism for the regulation of proteins by acetylation. Our studies support that, besides the primary sequence context, the protein structure is a major determinant of sirtuin substrate specificity. PMID:27226597

  8. Engineering of Corynebacterium glutamicum with an NADPH-generating glycolytic pathway for L-lysine production.

    PubMed

    Takeno, Seiki; Murata, Ryosuke; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Mitsuhashi, Satoshi; Ikeda, Masato

    2010-11-01

    A sufficient supply of NADPH is a critical factor in l-lysine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum. Endogenous NAD-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) of C. glutamicum was replaced with nonphosphorylating NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GapN) of Streptococcus mutans, which catalyzes the reaction of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 3-phosphoglycerate with the reduction of NADP(+) to NADPH, resulting in the reconstruction of the functional glycolytic pathway. Although the growth of the engineered strain on glucose was significantly retarded, a suppressor mutant with an increased ability to utilize sugars was spontaneously isolated from the engineered strain. The suppressor mutant was characterized by the properties of GapN as well as the nucleotide sequence of the gene, confirming that no change occurred in either the activity or the basic properties of GapN. The suppressor mutant was engineered into an l-lysine-producing strain by plasmid-mediated expression of the desensitized lysC gene, and the performance of the mutant as an l-lysine producer was evaluated. The amounts of l-lysine produced by the suppressor mutant were larger than those produced by the reference strain (which was created by replacement of the preexisting gapN gene in the suppressor mutant with the original gapA gene) by ∼70% on glucose, ∼120% on fructose, and ∼100% on sucrose, indicating that the increased l-lysine production was attributed to GapN. These results demonstrate effective l-lysine production by C. glutamicum with an additional source of NADPH during glycolysis. PMID:20851994

  9. Isoxazole-Derived Amino Acids are Bromodomain-Binding Acetyl-Lysine Mimics: Incorporation into Histone H4 Peptides and Histone H3.

    PubMed

    Sekirnik Née Measures, Angelina R; Hewings, David S; Theodoulou, Natalie H; Jursins, Lukass; Lewendon, Katie R; Jennings, Laura E; Rooney, Timothy P C; Heightman, Tom D; Conway, Stuart J

    2016-07-11

    A range of isoxazole-containing amino acids was synthesized that displaced acetyl-lysine-containing peptides from the BAZ2A, BRD4(1), and BRD9 bromodomains. Three of these amino acids were incorporated into a histone H4-mimicking peptide and their affinity for BRD4(1) was assessed. Affinities of the isoxazole-containing peptides are comparable to those of a hyperacetylated histone H4-mimicking cognate peptide, and demonstrated a dependence on the position at which the unnatural residue was incorporated. An isoxazole-based alkylating agent was developed to selectively alkylate cysteine residues in situ. Selective monoalkylation of a histone H4-mimicking peptide, containing a lysine to cysteine residue substitution (K12C), resulted in acetyl-lysine mimic incorporation, with high affinity for the BRD4 bromodomain. The same technology was used to alkylate a K18C mutant of histone H3. PMID:27264992

  10. Characterization of Murine Cytomegalovirus m157 from Infected Cells and Identification of Critical Residues Mediating Recognition by the NK Cell Receptor, Ly49H

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Aja H.; Guseva, Natalya V.; Ball, Brianne L.; Heusel, Jonathan W.

    2008-01-01

    Activated natural killer (NK) cells mediate potent cytolytic and secretory effector functions, and are vital components of the early antiviral immune response. NK cell activities are regulated by the assortment of inhibitory receptors that recognize major histocompatibility class I ligands expressed on healthy cells and activating receptors that recognize inducible host ligands or ligands that are not well characterized. The activating Ly49H receptor of mouse NK cells is unique in that it specifically recognizes a virally encoded ligand, the m157 glycoprotein of murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). The Ly49H-m157 interaction underlies a potent resistance mechanism (Cmv1) in C57BL/6 mice, and serves as an excellent model in which to understand how NK cells are specifically activated in vivo, as similar receptor systems are operative for human NK cells. For transduced cells expressing m157 in isolation and for MCMV-infected cells, we show that m157 is expressed in multiple isoforms with marked differences in abundance between infected fibroblasts (high) and macrophages (low). At the cell surface m157 is exclusively a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-associated protein in MCMV-infected cells. Through random and site-directed mutagenesis of m157 we identify unique residues that provide for efficient cell surface expression of m157, but fail to activate Ly49H-expressing reporter cells. These m157 mutations are predicted to alter the conformation of a putative m157 interface with Ly49H, one that relies on the position of a critical α0-helix of m157. These findings support an emerging model for a novel interaction between this important NK cell receptor and its viral ligand. PMID:18566392

  11. QuEChERS sample preparation for the determination of pesticides and other organic residues in environmental matrices: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Checchini, Leonardo; De Carlo, Rosa Maria; Orlandini, Serena; Rivoira, Luca; Del Bubba, Massimo

    2014-07-01

    Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) is an extraction and clean-up technique originally developed for recovering pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables. Since its introduction, and until December 2013, about 700 papers have been published using the QuEChERS technique, according to a literature overview carried out using SciFinder, Elsevier SciVerse, and Google search engines. Most of these papers were dedicated to pesticide multiresidue analysis in food matrices, and this topic has been thoroughly reviewed over recent years. The QuEChERS approach is now rapidly developing beyond its original field of application to analytes other than pesticides, and matrices other than food, such as biological fluids and non-edible plants, including Chinese medicinal plants. Recently, the QuEChERS concept has spread to environmental applications by analyzing not only pesticides but also other compounds of environmental concern in soil, sediments, and water. To the best of our knowledge, QuEChERS environmental applications have not been reviewed so far; therefore, in this contribution, after a general discussion on the evolution and changes of the original QuEChERS method, a critical survey of the literature regarding environmental applications of conventional and modified QuEChERS methodology is provided. The overall recoveries obtained with QuEChERS and other extraction approaches (e.g., accelerated solvent extraction, ultrasonic solvent extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and soxhlet extraction) were compared, providing evidence for QuEChERS higher recoveries for various classes of compounds, such as biopesticides, chloroalkanes, phenols, and perfluoroalkyl substances. The role of physicochemical properties of soil (i.e., clay and organic carbon content, as well as cation exchange capacity) and target analytes (i.e., log KOW, water solubility, and vapor pressure) were also evaluated in order to interpret recovery and matrix effect data. PMID

  12. Critical Roles of Two Hydrophobic Residues within Human Glucose Transporter 9 (hSLC2A9) in Substrate Selectivity and Urate Transport*

    PubMed Central

    Long, Wentong; Panwar, Pankaj; Witkowska, Kate; Wong, Kenneth; O'Neill, Debbie; Chen, Xing-Zhen; Lemieux, M. Joanne; Cheeseman, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    High blood urate levels (hyperuricemia) have been found to be a significant risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory arthritis, such as hypertension and gout. Human glucose transporter 9 (hSLC2A9) is an essential protein that mainly regulates urate/hexose homeostasis in human kidney and liver. hSLC2A9 is a high affinity-low capacity hexose transporter and a high capacity urate transporter. Our previous studies identified a single hydrophobic residue in trans-membrane domain 7 of class II glucose transporters as a determinant of fructose transport. A mutation of isoleucine 335 to valine (I355V) in hSLC2A9 can reduce fructose transport while not affecting glucose fluxes. This current study demonstrates that the I335V mutant transports urate similarly to the wild type hSLC2A9; however, Ile-335 is necessary for urate/fructose trans-acceleration exchange to occur. Furthermore, Trp-110 is a critical site for urate transport. Two structural models of the class II glucose transporters, hSLC2A9 and hSLC2A5, based on the crystal structure of hSLC2A1 (GLUT1), reveal that Ile-335 (or the homologous Ile-296 in hSLC2A5) is a key component for protein conformational changes when the protein translocates substrates. The hSLC2A9 model also predicted that Trp-110 is a crucial site that could directly interact with urate during transport. Together, these studies confirm that hSLC2A9 transports both urate and fructose, but it interacts with them in different ways. Therefore, this study advances our understanding of how hSLC2A9 mediates urate and fructose transport, providing further information for developing pharmacological agents to treat hyperuricemia and related diseases, such as gout, hypertension, and diabetes. PMID:25922070

  13. The role of lysine 186 in HIV-1 integrase multimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Berthoux, Lionel; Sebastian, Sarah; Muesing, Mark A.; Luban, Jeremy . E-mail: luban@irb.unisi.ch

    2007-07-20

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) catalyzes biochemical reactions required for viral cDNA insertion into host cell chromosomal DNA, an essential step in the HIV-1 replication cycle. In one of these reactions, the two ends of the linear viral cDNA are believed to be simultaneously ligated to chromosomal DNA by a tetrameric form of IN. The structure of the full-length IN tetramer is not known but a model consisting of the N-terminal domain and the catalytic core revealed basic residues 186 to 188 at the interface between the two IN dimers. We found that alteration of these residues, in particular changing IN lysine residue 186 to glutamate (K186Q), impairs IN oligomerization in the yeast two-hybrid system and decreases oligomeric forms of IN within virions. When expressed independently of other viral proteins in human cells, IN-K186Q did not concentrate in the nucleus as did wild-type IN. Co-expression of wild-type IN restored the multimerization defects of IN-K186Q, in both the two-hybrid system and in virions, and also rescued the nuclear targeting defects. Virions bearing IN-K186Q were not infectious in a single cycle of replication but when mixed virions containing two different IN mutants were produced, IN-K186Q was capable of complementing the catalytically inactive mutant IN-D116A. Our biochemical and functional data support the crystallographic model in which IN residue K186 lies at the interface between IN dimers and suggest that tetramerization is important, not only for concerted integration, but also for IN nuclear targeting.

  14. Bacterial Lysine Decarboxylase Influences Human Dental Biofilm Lysine Content, Biofilm Accumulation and Sub-Clinical Gingival Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lohinai, Z.; Keremi, B.; Szoko, E.; Tabi, T.; Szabo, C.; Tulassay, Z.; Levine, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dental biofilms contain a protein that inhibits mammalian cell growth, possibly lysine decarboxylase from Eikenella corrodens. This enzyme decarboxylates lysine, an essential amino acid for dentally attached cell turnover in gingival sulci. Lysine depletion may stop this turnover, impairing the barrier to bacterial compounds. The aims of this study were to determine biofilm lysine and cadaverine contents before oral hygiene restriction (OHR), and their association with plaque index (PI) and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) after OHR for a week. Methods Laser-induced fluorescence after capillary electrophoresis was used to determine lysine and cadaverine contents in dental biofilm, tongue biofilm and saliva before OHR and in dental biofilm after OHR. Results Before OHR, lysine and cadaverine contents of dental biofilm were similar and 10-fold greater than in saliva or tongue biofilm. After a week of OHR, the biofilm content of cadaverine increased and that of lysine decreased, consistent with greater biofilm lysine decarboxylase activity. Regression indicated that PI and GCF exudation were positively related to biofilm lysine post-OHR, unless biofilm lysine exceeded the minimal blood plasma content in which case PI was further increased but GCF exudation was reduced. Conclusions After OHR, lysine decarboxylase activity seems to determine biofilm lysine content and biofilm accumulation. When biofilm lysine exceeds minimal blood plasma content after OHR, less GCF appeared despite more biofilm. Lysine appears important for biofilm accumulation and the epithelial barrier to bacterial proinflammatory agents. Clinical Relevance Inhibiting lysine decarboxylase may retard the increased GCF exudation required for microbial development and gingivitis. PMID:22141361

  15. A molecular threading mechanism underlies Jumonji lysine demethylase KDM2A regulation of methylated H3K36

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhongjun; Cheung, Peggie; Kuo, Alex J.; Yukl, Erik T.; Wilmot, Carrie M.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic reversible methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is central to chromatin biology. Key components are demethylase enzymes, which remove methyl moieties from lysine residues. KDM2A, a member of the Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylase family, specifically targets lower methylation states of H3K36. Here, structural studies reveal that H3K36 specificity for KDM2A is mediated by the U-shaped threading of the H3K36 peptide through a catalytic groove within KDM2A. The side chain of methylated K36 inserts into the catalytic pocket occupied by Ni2+ and cofactor, where it is positioned and oriented for demethylation. Key residues contributing to K36me specificity on histone H3 are G33 and G34 (positioned within a narrow channel), P38 (a turn residue), and Y41 (inserts into its own pocket). Given that KDM2A was found to also bind the H3K36me3 peptide, we postulate that steric constraints could prevent α-ketoglutarate from undergoing an “off-line”-to-“in-line” transition necessary for the demethylation reaction. Furthermore, structure-guided substitutions of residues in the KDM2A catalytic pocket abrogate KDM2A-mediated functions important for suppression of cancer cell phenotypes. Together, our results deduce insights into the molecular basis underlying KDM2A regulation of the biologically important methylated H3K36 mark. PMID:25128496

  16. Acetyl-lysine erasers and readers in the control of pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Stratton, Matthew S.; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2016-01-01

    Acetylation of lysine residues within nucleosomal histone tails provides a crucial mechanism for epigenetic control of gene expression. Acetyl groups are coupled to lysine residues by histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs), which are also commonly referred to as “writers” and “erasers”, respectively. In addition to altering the electrostatic properties of histones, lysine acetylation often creates docking sites for bromodomain-containing “reader” proteins. This review focuses on epigenetic control of pulmonary hypertension (PH) and associated right ventricular (RV) cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Effects of small molecule HDAC inhibitors in pre-clinical models of PH are highlighted. Furthermore, we describe the recently discovered role of bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) reader proteins in the control of cardiac hypertrophy, and provide evidence suggesting that one member of this family, BRD4, contributes to the pathogenesis of RV failure. Together, the data suggest intriguing potential for pharmacological epigenetic therapies for the treatment of PH and right-sided heart failure. PMID:25707943

  17. Plasmodium falciparum Sir2A preferentially hydrolyzes medium and long chain fatty acyl lysine

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Anita Y.; Zhou, Yeyun; Khan, Saba; Deitsch, Kirk W.; Hao, Quan; Lin, Hening

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum Sir2A (PfSir2A), a member of the sirtuin family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, has been shown to regulate the expression of surface antigens to evade the detection by host immune surveillance. It is thought that PfSir2A achieves this by deacetylating histones. However, the deacetylase activity of PfSir2A is weak. Here we present enzymology and structural evidences supporting that PfSir2A catalyzes the hydrolysis of medium and long chain fatty acyl groups from lysine residues more efficiently. Furthermore, P. falciparum proteins are found to contain such fatty acyl lysine modifications that can be removed by purified PfSir2A in vitro. Together, the data suggest that the physiological function of PfSir2A in antigen variation may be achieved by removing medium and long chain fatty acyl groups from protein lysine residues. The robust activity of PfSir2A would also facilitate the development of PfSir2A inhibitors, which may have therapeutic value in malaria treatment. PMID:21992006

  18. Improved L-lysine production with Corynebacterium glutamicum and systemic insight into citrate synthase flux and activity.

    PubMed

    van Ooyen, Jan; Noack, Stephan; Bott, Michael; Reth, Alexander; Eggeling, Lothar

    2012-08-01

    We here developed a series of Corynebacterium glutamicum strains with gradual decreased specific citrate synthase (CS) activity and quantified in a multifaceted approach the consequences of residual activity on the transcriptome, metabolome, and fluxome level as well as on L-lysine formation and growth. We achieved an intended gradual L-lysine yield increase and recognized and overcame further new limitations in the L-lysine biosynthesis pathway to result in a strain with the highest yield reported so far when assayed under comparable conditions. As a non-intended outcome, a detailed flux analysis revealed an almost constant flux through CS at 10% remaining CS activity, whereas the metabolome data revealed an increase in the oxaloacetate and acetyl-CoA concentrations. Hence reduced CS activity is apparently efficiently buffered by increased concentrations of CS substrates, implying a certain robustness of the central metabolism in response of the imposed gene expressions. PMID:22392073

  19. Template-nucleated alanine-lysine helices are stabilized by position-dependent interactions between the lysine side chain and the helix barrel.

    PubMed

    Groebke, K; Renold, P; Tsang, K Y; Allen, T J; McClure, K F; Kemp, D S

    1996-04-30

    The helicity in water has been determined for several series of alanine-rich peptides that contain single lysine residues and that are N-terminally linked to a helix-inducing and reporting template termed Ac-Hel1. The helix-propagating constant for alanine (sAla value) that best fits the properties of these peptides lies in the range of 1.01-1.02, close to the value reported by Scheraga and coworkers [Wojcik, J., Altmann, K.-H. & Scheraga, H.A. (1990) Biopolymers 30, 121-134], but significantly lower than the value assigned by Baldwin and coworkers [Chakrabartty, A., Kortemme, T. & Baldwin, R.L. (1994) Protein Sci. 3,843-852]. From a study of conjugates Ac-Hel1-Ala(n)-Lys-Ala(m)-NH2 and analogs in which the methylene portion of the lysine side chain is truncated, we find that the unusual helical stability of Ala(n)Lys peptides is controlled primarily by interactions of the lysine side chain with the helix barrel, and only passively by the alanine matrix. Using 1H NMR spectroscopy, we observe nuclear Overhauser effect crosspeaks consistent with proton-proton contacts expected for these interactions. PMID:8633010

  20. N epsilon,N epsilon-dimethyl-lysine cytochrome c as an NMR probe for lysine involvement in protein-protein complex formation.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G R; Cox, M C; Crowe, D; Osborne, M J; Rosell, F I; Bujons, J; Barker, P D; Mauk, M R; Mauk, A G

    1998-01-01

    The reductively dimethylated derivatives of horse and yeast iso-1-ferricytochromes c have been prepared and characterized for use as NMR probes of the complexes formed by cytochrome c with bovine liver cytochrome b5 and yeast cytochrome c peroxidase. The electrostatic properties and structures of the derivatized cytochromes are not significantly perturbed by the modifications; neither are the electrostatics of protein-protein complex formation or rates of interprotein electron transfer. Two-dimensional 1H-13C NMR spectroscopy of the complexes formed by the derivatized cytochromes with cytochrome b5 and cytochrome c peroxidase has been used to investigate the number and identity of lysine residues of cytochrome c that are involved in interprotein interactions of cytochrome c. The NMR data are incompatible with simple static models proposed previously for the complexes formed by these proteins, but are consistent with the presence of multiple, interconverting complexes of comparable stability, consistent with studies employing Brownian dynamics to model the complexes. The NMR characteristics of the Nepsilon,Nepsilon-dimethyl-lysine groups, their chemical shift dispersion, oxidation state and temperature dependences and the possibility of chemical exchange phenomena are discussed with relevance to the utility of Nepsilon, Nepsilon-dimethyl-lysine's being a generally useful derivative for characterizing protein-protein complexes. PMID:9601073

  1. Bromodomains: Translating the words of lysine acetylation into myelin injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Ntranos, Achilles; Casaccia, Patrizia

    2016-06-20

    Bromodomains are evolutionarily highly conserved α-helical structural motifs that recognize and bind acetylated lysine residues. Lysine acetylation is being increasingly recognized as a major posttranslational modification involved in diverse cellular processes and protein interactions and its deregulation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of various human diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and cancer. Bromodomain-containing proteins can have a wide variety of functions, ranging from histone acetyltransferase activity and chromatin remodeling to transcriptional mediation and co-activation. The role of bromodomains in translating a deregulated cell acetylome into disease phenotypes was recently unveiled by the development of small molecule bromodomain inhibitors. This breakthrough discovery highlighted bromodomain-containing proteins as key players of inflammatory pathways responsible for myelin injury and also demonstrated their role in several aspects of myelin repair including oligodendrocyte differentiation and axonal regeneration. PMID:26472704

  2. The L3MBTL3 Methyl-Lysine Reader Domain Functions As a Dimer.

    PubMed

    Baughman, Brandi M; Pattenden, Samantha G; Norris, Jacqueline L; James, Lindsey I; Frye, Stephen V

    2016-03-18

    L3MBTL3 recognizes mono- and dimethylated lysine residues on histone tails. The recently reported X-ray cocrystal structures of the chemical probe UNC1215 and inhibitor UNC2533 bound to the methyl-lysine reading MBT domains of L3MBTL3 demonstrate a unique and flexible 2:2 dimer mode of recognition. In this study, we describe our in vitro analysis of L3MBTL3 dimerization via its MBT domains and additionally show that this dimerization occurs within a cellular context in the absence of small molecule ligands. Furthermore, mutations to the first and second MBT domains abrogated L3MBTL3 dimerization both in vitro and in cells. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that L3MBTL3 engages methylated histone tails as a dimer while carrying out its normal function and provides an explanation for the presence of repeated MBT domains within L3MBTL3. PMID:26317848

  3. KDM1 histone lysine demethylases as targets for treatments of oncological and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Maes, Tamara; Mascaró, Cristina; Ortega, Alberto; Lunardi, Serena; Ciceri, Filippo; Somervaille, Tim C P; Buesa, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Histone methylation and demethylation are important processes associated with the regulation of gene transcription, and alterations in histone methylation status have been linked to a large number of human diseases. Initially thought to be an irreversible process, histone methylation is now known to be reversed by two families of proteins containing over 30 members that act to remove methyl groups from specific lysine residues present in the tails of histone H3 and histone H4. A rapidly growing number of reports have implicated the FAD-dependent lysine specific demethylase (KDM1) family in cancer, and several small-molecule inhibitors are in development for the treatment of cancer. An additional role has emerged for KDM1 in brain function, offering additional opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic strategies in neurodegenerative disease. A decade after the identification of KDM1A as a histone demethylase, the first selective inhibitors have now reached the clinic. PMID:26111032

  4. Purification, Biochemical Analysis, and Structure Determination of JmjC Lysine Demethylases.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, S; Trievel, R C

    2016-01-01

    Jumonji C (JmjC) lysine demethylases (KDMs) catalyze the site- and state-specific demethylation of lysine residues in histone and nonhistone protein substrates. These enzymes have been implicated in diverse genomic processes, including epigenetic gene regulation, DNA damage response, DNA replication, and regulation of heterochromatin structure. In addition, a number of JmjC KDMs contribute to the incidence of numerous cancers, rendering them targets for the development of novel chemotherapeutic drugs. Using the JMJD2 KDM subfamily as representative examples, this chapter outlines strategies for purifying highly active, recombinant JmjC KDMs lacking inhibitory transition metal ions, characterizing kinetic parameters of these enzymes using a coupled fluorescent assay, and determining crystal structures of the enzymes in complex with methylated histone peptides. Together, these approaches provide a foundation for structural and biochemical characterization of the JmjC KDMs and facilitate efforts to identify small molecule inhibitors through high-throughput screening and structure-guided design. PMID:27372758

  5. Dynamic Motion and Communication in the Streptococcal C1 Phage Lysin, PlyC

    PubMed Central

    Reboul, Cyril F.; Cowieson, Nathan P.; Costa, Mauricio G. S.; Kass, Itamar; Jackson, Colin; Perahia, David; Buckle, Ashley M.; McGowan, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The growing problem of antibiotic resistance underlies the critical need to develop new treatments to prevent and control resistant bacterial infection. Exogenous application of bacteriophage lysins results in rapid and specific destruction of Gram-positive bacteria and therefore lysins represent novel antibacterial agents. The PlyC phage lysin is the most potent lysin characterized to date and can rapidly lyse Group A, C and E streptococci. Previously, we have determined the X-ray crystal structure of PlyC, revealing a complicated and unique arrangement of nine proteins. The scaffold features a multimeric cell-wall docking assembly bound to two catalytic domains that communicate and work synergistically. However, the crystal structure appeared to be auto-inhibited and raised important questions as to the mechanism underlying its extreme potency. Here we use small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and reveal that the conformational ensemble of PlyC in solution is different to that in the crystal structure. We also investigated the flexibility of the enzyme using both normal mode (NM) analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Consistent with our SAXS data, MD simulations show rotational dynamics of both catalytic domains, and implicate inter-domain communication in achieving a substrate-ready conformation required for enzyme function. Our studies therefore provide insights into how the domains in the PlyC holoenzyme may act together to achieve its extraordinary potency. PMID:26470022

  6. Toxicity of lead and zinc to developing mussel and sea urchin embryos: critical tissue residues and effects of dissolved organic matter and salinity.

    PubMed

    Nadella, Sunita R; Tellis, Margaret; Diamond, Rachael; Smith, Scott; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2013-08-01

    Lead (Pb) EC50 values in the very sensitive early development phases (48-72h post-fertilization) of the mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mytilus trossolus and sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus in 100% sea water were: M. trossolus - 45 (95% C.I.=22-72) μgL(-1); M. galloprovincialis - 63 (36-94) μgL(-1); S. purpuratus - 74 (50-101) μgL(-1). Salinity thresholds for normal development varied: M. trossolus>21ppt; M. galloprovincialis>28ppt; S. purpuratus≥30ppt. Addition of two spectroscopically distinct dissolved organic matters (DOM) from fresh water (Nordic Reservoir) and sea water (Inshore) moderately decreased the toxicity of Pb to both mussels, but not in a concentration-dependent fashion, with only an approximate doubling of EC50 over the range of 1.4-11.2mgCL(-1). Independent Pb binding capacity determinations for DOC explained the lack of a relationship between DOM concentration and toxicity. Salinity had no effect on Pb toxicity down to 21ppt in M. trossolus, and low salinity (21ppt) did not enhance the protective effect of DOC. Both DOMs increased the toxicity of Pb in developing sea urchin embryos, in contrast to mussels. Relative to Pb, the organisms were 6-9 fold less sensitive to Zn on a molar basis in 100% seawater with the following Zn EC50s: M. trossolus - 135 (103-170) μgL(-1); M. galloprovincialis - 172 (126-227) μgL(-1), S. purpuratus - 151 (129-177) μgL(-1). Nordic Reservoir and Inshore DOM (2-12mgCL(-1)) had no significant effect on Zn toxicity to mussels, in accord with voltammetry data showing an absence of any strong ligand binding for Zn by DOMs. As with Pb, DOMs increased Zn toxicity to urchin larvae. Critical Tissue Residues (CTR) based on whole body concentrations of Pb and Zn were determined for M. galloprovincialis at 48h and S. purpuratus at 72h. The median lethal CTR values (LA50s), useful parameters for development of saltwater Biotic Ligand Models (BLMs), were approximately 4-fold higher on a molar basis for Zn than

  7. Critical body residues, Michaelis-Menten analysis of bioaccumulation, lethality and behaviour as endpoints of waterborne Ni toxicity in two teleosts.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Erin M; Marentette, Julie R; Balshine, Sigal; Wood, Chris M

    2014-03-01

    Traditionally, water quality guidelines/criteria are based on lethality tests where results are expressed as a function of waterborne concentrations (e.g. LC50). However, there is growing interest in the use of uptake and binding relationships, such as biotic ligand models (BLM), and in bioaccumulation parameters, such as critical body residue values (e.g. CBR50), to predict metal toxicity in aquatic organisms. Nevertheless, all these approaches only protect species against physiological death (e.g. mortality, failed recruitment), and do not consider ecological death which can occur at much lower concentrations when the animal cannot perform normal behaviours essential for survival. Therefore, we investigated acute (96 h) Ni toxicity in two freshwater fish species, the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and compared LC, BLM, and CBR parameters for various organs, as well as behavioural responses (spontaneous activity). In general, round goby were more sensitive. Ni bioaccumulation displayed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in most tissues, and round goby gills had lower Kd (higher binding affinity) but similar Bmax (binding site density) values relative to rainbow trout gills. Round goby also accumulated more Ni than did trout in most tissues at a given exposure concentration. Organ-specific 96 h acute CBR values tended to be higher in round goby but 96 h acute CBR50 and CBR10 values in the gills were very similar in the two species. In contrast, LC50 and LC10 values were significantly higher in rainbow trout. With respect to BLM parameters, gill log KNiBL values for bioaccumulation were higher by 0.4-0.8 log units than the log KNiBL values for toxicity in both species, and both values were higher in goby (more sensitive). Round goby were also more sensitive with respect to the behavioural response, exhibiting a significant decline of 63-75 % in movements per minute at Ni concentrations at and above only 8 % of the LC50 value

  8. Determining high-quality critical body residues for multiple species and chemicals by applying improved experimental design and data interpretation concepts.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Stephan A; Hermens, Joop L M; Sinnige, Theo L; Mayer, Philipp; Gilbert, Dorothea; Jonker, Michiel T O

    2015-02-01

    Ecotoxicological effect data are generally expressed as effective concentrations in the external exposure medium and do thus not account for differences in chemical uptake, bioavailability, and metabolism, which can introduce substantial data variation. The Critical Body Residue (CBR) concept provides clear advantages, because it links effects directly to the internal exposure. Using CBRs instead of external concentrations should therefore reduce variability. For compounds that act via narcosis even a constant CBR has been proposed. Despite the expected uniformity, CBR values for these compounds still show large variability, possibly due to biased and inconsistent experimental testing. In the present study we tested whether variation in CBR data can be substantially reduced when using an improved experimental design and avoiding confounding factors. The aim was to develop and apply a well-defined test protocol for accurately and precisely measuring CBR data, involving improved (passive) dosing, sampling, and processing of organisms. The chemicals 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene, 1,2,3,4-tetrachlorobenzene, 2,3,4-trichloroaniline, 2,3,5,6-tetrachloroaniline, 4-chloro-3-methylphenol, pentylbenzene, pyrene, and bromophos-methyl were tested on Lumbriculus variegatus (California blackworm), Hyalella azteca (scud), and Poecilia reticulata (guppy), which yielded a high-quality database of 348 individual CBR values. Medians of CBR values ranged from 2.1 to 16.1 mmol/kg wet weight (ww) within all combinations of chemicals and species, except for the insecticide bromophos-methyl, for which the median was 1.3 mmol/kg ww. The new database thus covers about one log unit, which is considerably less than in existing databases. Medians differed maximally by a factor of 8.4 between the 7 chemicals but within one species, and by a factor of 2.6 between the three species but for individual chemicals. Accounting for the chemicals' internal distribution to different partitioning domains and

  9. Hydroxyphenylation of Histone Lysines: Post-translational Modification by Quinone Imines.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Trudel, Laura J; Wishnok, John S; Wogan, Gerald N; Tannenbaum, Steven R; Skipper, Paul L

    2016-05-20

    Monocyclic aromatic amines are widespread environmental contaminants with multiple sources such as combustion products, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. Their phenolic metabolites are converted intracellularly to electrophilic quinone imines upon autoxidation and can embed in the cellular matrix through a transimination reaction that leaves a redox-active residue as a substituent of lysine side-chain amino groups. To demonstrate the occurrence of this process within the cellular nucleus, Chinese hamster ovary AA8 cells were treated with the para-phenol of 3,5-dimethylamine, after which the histone proteins were isolated, derivatized, and subjected to tryptic digestion. The resulting peptides were analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to determine which lysines were modified. Nine residues in histones H2A, H2B, and H4 were identified; these were located in histone tails, close to where DNA makes contact with the nuclear core particle, elsewhere on the protein surface, and deep within the core. Kinetics of disappearance of the modified lysines in cultured cells was determined using isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. AA8 cells were also transfected with the genetically encoded hydrogen peroxide biosensor HyPer in constructs that lead to expression of HyPer in different cellular compartments. Challenging the resulting cells with the dimethylaminophenol resulted in sustained fluorescence emission in each of the compartments, demonstrating ongoing production of H2O2. The kinetics of modified lysine loss determined by mass spectrometry was consistent with persistence of HyPer fluorescence emission. We conclude that the para-phenol of 3,5-dimethylamine can become stably integrated into the histone proteins, which are minimally repaired, if at all, and function as a persistent source of intracellular H2O2. PMID:26866676

  10. Exploring lysine riboswitch for metabolic flux control and improvement of L-lysine synthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Bang; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-06-19

    Riboswitch, a regulatory part of an mRNA molecule that can specifically bind a metabolite and regulate gene expression, is attractive for engineering biological systems, especially for the control of metabolic fluxes in industrial microorganisms. Here, we demonstrate the use of lysine riboswitch and intracellular l-lysine as a signal to control the competing but essential metabolic by-pathways of lysine biosynthesis. To this end, we first examined the natural lysine riboswitches of Eschericia coli (ECRS) and Bacillus subtilis (BSRS) to control the expression of citrate synthase (gltA) and thus the metabolic flux in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in E. coli. ECRS and BSRS were then successfully used to control the gltA gene and TCA cycle activity in a lysine producing strain Corynebacterium glutamicum LP917, respectively. Compared with the strain LP917, the growth of both lysine riboswitch-gltA mutants was slower, suggesting a reduced TCA cycle activity. The lysine production was 63% higher in the mutant ECRS-gltA and 38% higher in the mutant BSRS-gltA, indicating a higher metabolic flux into the lysine synthesis pathway. This is the first report on using an amino acid riboswitch for improvement of lysine biosynthesis. The lysine riboswitches can be easily adapted to dynamically control other essential but competing metabolic pathways or even be engineered as an "on-switch" to enhance the metabolic fluxes of desired metabolic pathways. PMID:25575181