Sample records for critical sulfhydryl switches

  1. Sulfhydryl systems are a critical factor in the zebrafish developmental toxicity of the dithiocarbamate sodium metam (NaM)

    PubMed Central

    Tilton, Fred; La Du, Jane K.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are sulfhydryls (thiol)-containing compounds, often associated with metals, and have both antioxidant and pro-oxidant abilities depending on the compound, experimental system and condition. In this study we investigated whether cell death plays a role in the manifestation of DTC-induced notochord distortions in the developing zebrafish and if thiol-containing compounds or antioxidants could modify this developmental toxicity. Sodium metam (NaM) induced notochord distortions could not be protected with the antioxidants ascorbic acid, trolox (synthetic vitamin E) or lipoic acid. However, NaM-induced distortions could be protected with co-exposure to glutathione or N-Acetyl Cysteine. Staggering the NaM and glutathione exposures in consecutive 10 h developmental windows also resulted in protection. There were no discernable changes in TUNEL positive cells, a marker of apoptotic cells, at 24 h post-fertilization (hpf) in NaM, dimethyl-dithiocarbamate, carbon disulfide, or neocuproine exposed embryos. Live NaM-exposed embryos incubated with acridine orange, a general stain for cell death, for 1 h beginning at 11, 18 and 24 hpf showed clusters of stained nuclei near the somitogenic front but not in the cells making up the notochord. Overall, induction of apoptotic pathways and widespread cell death are not involved in the manifestation of the adverse developmental outcomes following NaM exposure. However, cellular thiol status or critical sulfhydryl moieties are important considerations in the mechanisms of DTC developmental toxicity. PMID:18823668

  2. Sulfhydryl systems are a critical factor in the zebrafish developmental toxicity of the dithiocarbamate sodium metam (NaM).

    PubMed

    Tilton, Fred; La Du, Jane K; Tanguay, Robert L

    2008-11-11

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are sulfhydryls (thiol)-containing compounds, often associated with metals, and have both antioxidant and pro-oxidant abilities depending on the compound, experimental system and condition. In this study we investigated whether cell death plays a role in the manifestation of DTC-induced notochord distortions in the developing zebrafish and if thiol-containing compounds or antioxidants could modify this developmental toxicity. Sodium metam (NaM) induced notochord distortions could not be protected with the antioxidants ascorbic acid, trolox (synthetic vitamin E) or lipoic acid. However, NaM-induced distortions could be protected with co-exposure to glutathione or N-Acetyl Cysteine. Staggering the NaM and glutathione exposures in consecutive 10h developmental windows also resulted in protection. There were no discernable changes in TUNEL positive cells, a marker of apoptotic cells, at 24h post-fertilization (hpf) in NaM, dimethyl-dithiocarbamate, carbon disulfide, or neocuproine exposed embryos. Live NaM-exposed embryos incubated with acridine orange, a general stain for cell death, for 1h beginning at 11, 18 and 24hpf showed clusters of stained nuclei near the somitogenic front but not in the cells making up the notochord. Overall, induction of apoptotic pathways and widespread cell death are not involved in the manifestation of the adverse developmental outcomes following NaM exposure. However, cellular thiol status or critical sulfhydryl moieties are important considerations in the mechanisms of DTC developmental toxicity. PMID:18823668

  3. Fast switching current detection at low critical currents

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Fast switching current detection at low critical currents J. Walter, S. Corlevi and D. B. Haviland-and-hold technique is used to measure the switching of small critical current Josephson junctions. This technique with critical currents of the order of 10nA with bias pulses of the order of 100ns. A correlation analysis

  4. Deciding when to switch tasks in time-critical multitasking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yelena Kushleyeva; Dario D. Salvucci; Frank J. Lee

    2005-01-01

    While cognitive modeling has begun to make good progress in accounting for human multitasking behavior, current models typically focus on externally-driven task switching in laboratory-task settings. In contrast, many real-world complex tasks, particularly time-critical ones, involve internally-driven multitasking in which people themselves decide when to switch between tasks. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the ACT-R cognitive architecture

  5. Role of membrane sulfhydryl groups in stimulation of renin secretion by sulfhydryl reagents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S Doh; Cheol Joo Lee; Peter M Hwang; Kyung Woo Cho; Thomas W Honeyman; Chun Sik Park

    1991-01-01

    Role of membrane sulfhydryl groups in stimulation of renin secretion by sulfhydryl reagents. The present study was designed to address the reactivity and accessibility of the particular class of sulfhydryl groups involved in the regulatory process of renin secretion. Both mercurial (such as P-chloromercuriphenyl sulfonate [PCMPS]) and non-mercurial sulfhydryl reagents (for example, 6,6-dithiodinicotinic acid [DTDN]), which very slowly penetrate the

  6. The thrombin receptor is a critical extracellular switch controlling myelination.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyesook; Radulovic, Maja; Drucker, Kristen L; Wu, Jianmin; Scarisbrick, Isobel A

    2015-05-01

    Hemorrhagic white matter injuries in the perinatal period are a growing cause of cerebral palsy yet no neuroprotective strategies exist to prevent the devastating motor and cognitive deficits that ensue. We demonstrate that the thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor 1, PAR1) exhibits peak expression levels in the spinal cord at term and is a critical regulator of the myelination continuum from initiation to the final levels achieved. Specifically, PAR1 gene deletion resulted in earlier onset of spinal cord myelination, including substantially more Olig2-positive oligodendrocytes, more myelinated axons, and higher proteolipid protein (PLP) levels at birth. In vitro, the highest levels of PAR1 were observed in oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), being reduced with differentiation. In parallel, the expression of PLP and myelin basic protein (MBP), in addition to Olig2, were all significantly higher in cultures of PAR1-/- oligodendroglia. Moreover, application of a small molecule inhibitor of PAR1 (SCH79797) to OPCs in vitro increased PLP and MBP expression. Enhancements in myelination associated with PAR1 genetic deletion were also observed in adulthood as evidenced by higher amounts of MBP and thickened myelin sheaths across large, medium, and small diameter axons. Enriched spinal cord myelination in PAR1-/- mice was coupled to increases in extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and AKT signaling developmentally. Nocturnal ambulation and rearing activity were also elevated in PAR1-/- mice. These studies identify the thrombin receptor as a powerful extracellular regulatory switch that could be readily targeted to improve myelin production in the face of white matter injury and disease. PMID:25628003

  7. 3-Terminal pMTJ reduces critical current and switching time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Lanting; Khizroev, Sakhrat; Liang, Ping

    2014-05-01

    To realize the potential of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) for high-density non-volatile memory and non-volatile logic, the critical current to switch the magnetization must be lowered. This paper presents a simulation study of a new structure of perpendicular MTJs (pMTJs) which divides the fixed layer into two coupling parts. We investigate the TMR and the critical current density of this new pMTJ by micromagnetic simulation using OOMMF for various cases. The simulation results show that this new structure pMTJ has lower critical current and shorter switching time compared to the conventional three-layer MTJs.

  8. Dipolar field effects on the critical current for spin transfer switch of iron and permalloy nanoelements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L. L.; Dantas, J. T. S.; Souza, R. M.; Carriço, A. S.; Dantas, Ana L.

    2014-05-01

    We report a theoretical study of dipolar effects on the switching current density of soft ferromagnetic elliptical nanoelements. Relevant changes on the critical current value are found according to the orientation of the magnetization and the spin polarization with the major axis. We show that the critical current density may be reduced by as much as 92% for thin nanoelements magnetized along the minor axis direction, using in-plane spin polarization parallel to the magnetization.

  9. Critical switching condition of a non-punch-through IGBT investigated by electrothermal circuit simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Turkes; W. Kiffe; R. Kuhnert

    1994-01-01

    Due to the dissipated power and the thermal impedance of the package, power devices like the IGBT are subject to significant temperature stress. This paper describes the behaviour of an IGBT within an electrical circuit, at a critical switching condition-the dynamic short. The dissipated electrical power and the resulting temperature rise are analyzed in order to get an insight into

  10. Confirmation of a blocked amino terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Janolino, V.G.; Morrison-Rowe, S.J.; Swaisgood, H.E. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The isolation of sulfhydryl oxidase from bovine milk in a suitably pure form for sequencing was carried out by transient covalent affinity chromatography of diafiltered whey using cysteinylsuccinamidopropyl-glass as matrix. The glutathione-eluted proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. By radiolabeling the affinity chromatography-purified enzyme with ({sup 14}C)iodoacetate before subjecting to SDS-PAGE, the sulfhydryl oxidase band was identified, because sulfhydryl oxidase is known to be inactivated by alkylation of one sulfhydryl group per mole. The results confirmed that sulfhydryl oxidase corresponds to the 85 ({plus minus} 5)-kDa band observed on SDS-PAGE. The protein band corresponding to radiolabeled sulfhydryl oxidase was recovered from SDS-PAGE gels by electrophoretic elution and by electroblotting on polyvinylidene difluoride membrane and subjected to gas phase sequencing. Precautions were taken during electrophoretic elution to prevent reactions that result in N-terminal blocking. Both methods of protein recovery yielded negative results when subjected to sequence analysis indicating that the N-terminus of sulfhydryl oxidase is blocked.

  11. Modification of membrane sulfhydryl groups in bacteriostatic action of nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Buchman, G.W. III; Hansen, J.N.

    1987-01-01

    The mechanism by which nitrite inhibits outgrowing spores of bacillus cereus T was examined by using techniques developed earlier for nitrite analogs. The morphological stage of inhibition, cooperativity effects, effect of pH on inhibition, kinetics of protection against tritiated iodoacetate incorporation into membrane sulfhydryl groups, and protection against the bacteriocidal effect of carboxymethylation of iodoacetate indicate that nitrite acts as a membrane-directed sulfhydryl agent. The mechanism by which nitrite modifies the chemical reactivity of the sulfhyrdyl group could be either direct covalent modification or inactivation through communication with another modified membrane component. Profiles of pH effects suggest that the active agent is the protonated form of nitrite. The nitrite concentrations which modify membrane sulfhydryl activity coincide with those which have a bacteriostatic effect. These results are consistent with membrane sulfhydryl modification as a component of the mechanism of nitrite-induced bacteriostasis in this aerobic sporeformer.

  12. Critical analysis and remedy of switching failures in straintronic logic using Bennett clocking in the presence of thermal fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, Kuntal, E-mail: royk@purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-01-06

    Straintronic logic is a promising platform for beyond Moore's law computing. Using Bennett clocking mechanism, information can propagate through an array of strain-mediated multiferroic nanomagnets, exploiting the dipolar coupling between the magnets without having to physically interconnect them. Here, we perform a critical analysis of switching failures, i.e., error in information propagation due to thermal fluctuations through a chain of such straintronic devices. We solved stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation considering room-temperature thermal perturbations and show that magnetization switching may fail due to inherent magnetization dynamics accompanied by thermally broadened switching delay distribution. Avenues available to circumvent such issue are proposed.

  13. Caveolin-1 Is a Critical Determinant of Autophagy, Metabolic Switching, and Oxidative Stress in Vascular Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Sugiyama, Toru; Sartoretto, Juliano L.; Kalwa, Hermann; Yan, Zhonghua; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Michel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Caveolin-1 is a scaffolding/regulatory protein that interacts with diverse signaling molecules. Caveolin-1null mice have marked metabolic abnormalities, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. We found the redox stress plasma biomarker plasma 8-isoprostane was elevated in caveolin-1null mice, and discovered that siRNA-mediated caveolin-1 knockdown in endothelial cells promoted significant increases in intracellular H2O2. Mitochondrial ROS production was increased in endothelial cells after caveolin-1 knockdown; 2-deoxy-D-glucose attenuated this increase, implicating caveolin-1 in control of glycolytic pathways. We performed unbiased metabolomic characterizations of endothelial cell lysates following caveolin-1 knockdown, and discovered strikingly increased levels (up to 30-fold) of cellular dipeptides, consistent with autophagy activation. Metabolomic analyses revealed that caveolin-1 knockdown led to a decrease in glycolytic intermediates, accompanied by an increase in fatty acids, suggesting a metabolic switch. Taken together, these results establish that caveolin-1 plays a central role in regulation of oxidative stress, metabolic switching, and autophagy in the endothelium, and may represent a critical target in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24498385

  14. Pin1 plays a critical role as a molecular switch in canonical BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Won-Joon; Islam, Rabia; Cho, Young-Dan; Ryu, Kyung-Min; Shin, Hye-Rim; Woo, Kyung-Mi; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo

    2015-03-01

    Pin1 is a peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase that specifically binds to the phosphoserine-proline or phosphothreonine-proline motifs of numerous proteins. Previously, we reported that Pin1 deficiency resulted in defects in osteoblast differentiation during early bone development. In this study, we found that adult Pin1-deficient mice developed osteoporotic phenotypes compared to age-matched controls. Since BMP2 stored in the bone matrix plays a critical role in adult bone maintenance, we suspected that BMP R-Smads (Smad1 and Smad5) could be critical targets for Pin1 action. Pin1 specifically binds to the phosphorylated linker region of Smad1, which leads to structural modification and stabilization of the Smad1 protein. In this process, Pin1-mediated conformational modification of Smad1 directly suppresses the Smurf1 interaction with Smad1, thereby promoting sustained activation of the Smad1 molecule. Our data demonstrate that post-phosphorylational prolyl isomerization of Smad1 is a converging signal to stabilize the Smad1 molecule against the ubiquitination process mediated by Smurf1. Therefore, Pin1 is a critical molecular switch in the determination of Smad1 fate, opposing the death signal transmitted to the Smad1 linker region by phosphorylation cascades after its nuclear localization and transcriptional activation. Thus, Pin1 could be developed as a major therapeutic target in many skeletal diseases. PMID:25187260

  15. Thermal-Electromagnetic Analysis of a Fault-Tolerant Dual Star Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Motor for Critical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of a fault-tolerant dual star Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet (FSPM) motor. The analytical results in terms permanent magnet motors have attracted increasing attentions in safety critical applications such as Hybrid, the phases of the motors are magnetically and physically separated. Thus, the phase failures (short

  16. Paradoxical effect of reagents for sulfhydryl and disulfide groups on human sperm capacitation and superoxide production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eve de Lamirande; Claude Gagnon

    1998-01-01

    Spermatozoa must undergo capacitation prior to fertilization. In humans, this process appears regulated by oxidoreduction reactions. We investigated the possibility that these reactions involved the sulfhydryl-disulfide pair, which offers a reversible regulation of cellular processes. The effects of reagents targeted for sulfhydryl and disulfide groups on human sperm capacitation, superoxide (O2•?) generation and protein tyrosine phosphorylation were evaluated. The sulfhydryl

  17. Localization of Erythrocyte Membrane Sulfhydryl Groups Essential for Glucose Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vansteveninck; R. I. WEED; A. ROTHSTEIN

    1965-01-01

    The reactions of three organic mercurial compounds, chlor- merodrin, parachloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), and parachloromercuriben- zenesulfonate (PCMBS) with intact red blood cells, hemolyzed red cells, hemo- globin solutions, and hemoglobin-free ghosts have been characterized. Both PCMB and PCMBS react with only 2 to 3 sulfhydryl groups per mole of hemo- globin in solution, whereas chlormerodrin reacts with 6 to 7. In hemoglobin-free

  18. Neuroprotective Effect of Sulfhydryl Reduction in a Rat Optic Nerve Crush Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kyle I. Swanson; Christopher R. Schlieve; Christopher J. Lieven; Leonard A. Levin

    2005-01-01

    retinal culture.8 Because of these findings, we hypothesized that the oxidative modification of sulfhydryl-containing pro- teins by ROS is a mechanism for signaling apoptosis. However, it is also possible that sulfhydryl reduction neuroprotection arises from the mechanical effects of enzymatic dissociation in the preparation of mixed retinal cultures, not from axotomy. To distinguish these possibilities, we tested whether the po-

  19. Rat seminal vesicle FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase. Biochemical characterization and molecular cloning of a member of the new sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6 gene family.

    PubMed

    Benayoun, B; Esnard-Fève, A; Castella, S; Courty, Y; Esnard, F

    2001-04-27

    Rat FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase was purified; partial sequencing indicated that it was homologous to human quiescin Q6. A cDNA (GenBank accession no. AF285078) was cloned from rat seminal vesicles, and active recombinant sulfhydryl oxidase was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells. This 2472-nucleotide cDNA has an open reading frame of 1710 base pairs, encoding a protein of 570 amino acids including a 32-amino acid leader sequence and two potential sites for N-glycosylation. One of them is used and the 64,000 M(r) purified protein was transformed to 61,000 by the action of endoglycosidase F. Northern blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses showed that there were small amounts of sulfhydryl oxidase in the rat testis, prostate, lung, heart, kidney, spleen, and liver, and that the gene was highly expressed in seminal vesicles and epididymis. Rat sulfhydryl oxidase cDNA corresponds to the human cell growth inhibiting factor cDNA, which could be a differently spliced form of quiescin Q6. Comparing sulfhydryl oxidase sequences with those of human quiescin Q6 and mammalian and Caenorhabditis elegans quiescin Q6-related genes established the existence of a new family of FAD-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase/quiescin Q6-related genes containing protein-disulfide isomerase-type thioredoxin and yeast ERV1 domains. PMID:11278790

  20. The Dynamic Disulfide Relay of Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Alon, Assaf; Grossman, Iris; Gat, Yair; Kodali, Vamsi K.; DiMaio, Frank; Mehlman, Tevie; Haran, Gilad; Baker, David; Thorpe, Colin; Fass, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    Protein stability, assembly, localization, and regulation often depend on formation of disulfide cross-links between cysteine side chains. Enzymes known as sulfhydryl oxidases catalyze de novo disulfide formation and initiate intra- and intermolecular dithiol/disulfide relays to deliver the disulfides to substrate proteins1,2. Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (QSOX) is a unique, multi-domain disulfide catalyst that is localized primarily to the Golgi apparatus and secreted fluids3 and has attracted attention due to its over-production in tumors4,5. In addition to its physiological importance, QSOX is a mechanistically intriguing enzyme, encompassing functions typically carried out by a series of proteins in other disulfide formation pathways. How disulfides are relayed through the multiple redox-active sites of QSOX and whether there is a functional benefit to concatenating these sites on a single polypeptide are open questions. We determined the first crystal structure of an intact QSOX enzyme, derived from a trypanosome parasite. Notably, sequential sites in the disulfide relay were found more than 40 Å apart in this structure, too far for direct disulfide transfer. To resolve this puzzle, we trapped and crystallized an intermediate in the disulfide hand-off, which showed a 165° domain rotation relative to the original structure, bringing the two active sites within disulfide bonding distance. The comparable structure of a mammalian QSOX enzyme, also presented herein, reveals additional biochemical features that facilitate disulfide transfer in metazoan orthologs. Finally, we quantified the contribution of concatenation to QSOX activity, providing general lessons for the understanding of multi-domain enzymes and the design of novel catalytic relays. PMID:22801504

  1. Deciding when to switch tasks in time-critical multitasking Action editor: Christian Schunn

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    tasks. In this paper, we propose an adaptation of the ACT-R cognitive architecture that incor- porates-critical dual search task, showing how an ACT-R model can account for various aspects of human subjects architectures; ACT-R 1. Introduction In the push to generalize to increasingly com- plex real-world tasks

  2. The role of microorganisms in the production of volatile sulfhydryl compounds in cheddar cheese slurries 

    E-print Network

    Ponce-Trevino, Raul

    1988-01-01

    reactions to proceed and their reactions products to be stable. Law et al. (29) concluded that lactic cultures contribute to the development of typical flavor in Cheddar cheese by producing the correct chemical conditions such as pH and oxidation... Acidifica- tion Statistical Analysis Gas Chromatography Cheesemaking Volatile Sulfhydryl compound Production in the Absence of Active Lactic Cultures Production of Volatile sulfhydryl compounds in Slurries Prepared from Direct Acid Curd 14 17 20 20...

  3. ETHACRYNIC ACID: DIURETIC PROPERTY COUPLED TO REACTION WITH SULFHYDRYL GROUPS OF RENAL CELLS.

    PubMed

    KOMORN, R M; CAFRUNY, E J

    1964-01-10

    Ethacrynic acid, injected intravenously after surgical removal of one kidney of anesthetized dogs, lowered the concentration of protein-bound sulfhydryl groups in cells of the remaining kidney. Chloride excretion and urinary output of the kidney exposed to the drug increased. These findings indicate that the diuresis produced by ethacrynic acid may be related to its capacity for binding sulfhydryl groups of renal cellular proteins. PMID:14075721

  4. Sorghum endosperm components responsible for promoting protein polymerization through sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer Lynn Cholewinski

    2010-01-01

    Cooked sorghum flour has been shown to have poor digestibility compared to other cereals. It is thought that a three-dimensional web-like protein structure, developed through sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange, contains gelatinized starch granules, which limits digestive enzyme action. The overall goal of this project was to determine the factors responsible for promoting protein web-like structures and polymerization through sulfhydryl-disulfide interchange reactions in

  5. Unusual properties of crocodilian ovomacroglobulin shown in its methylamine treatment and sulfhydryl titration

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, H.; Osada, T.; Ikai, A.

    1986-02-01

    The inhibitory activity of chicken and crocodilian ovomacroglobulins against trypsin was measured before and after their incubation with methylamine. The result for crocodilian ovomacroglobulin showed that methylamine treatment destroyed half of its activity, in unique contrast to human alpha 2-macroglobulin and chicken ovomacroglobulin for which methylamine either destroys the inhibitory activity of the former completely or does not affect that of the latter at all. Free sulfhydryl groups of chicken and crocodilian ovomacroglobulins were titrated with 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) before and after incubation with trypsin. Prior to the incubation with trypsin the chicken and crocodilian proteins respectively had 0 and 1 titratable sulfhydryl per molecule of Mr 720,000. After treatment with trypsin the crocodilian protein had 3.5-4 titratable sulfhydryls, whereas there were no titratable sulfhydryls in the chicken protein. After denaturation of the crocodilian protein in sodium dodecyl sulfate at 100 degrees C the number of titratable sulfhydryls was 4. Chicken ovomacroglobulin again did not have an appreciable number of titratable sulfhydryls under similar denaturing conditions. Incubation of crocodilian protein with (14C)methylamine showed an incorporation of at least 2 mol of methylamine per molecule. The result indicated the presence of three intramolecular thiol ester bonds in crocodilian ovomacroglobulin with differential stability against external perturbations.

  6. Direct Sulfhydrylation for Methionine Biosynthesis in Leptospira meyeri

    PubMed Central

    Belfaiza, J.; Martel, A.; Margarita, D.; Saint Girons, I.

    1998-01-01

    A gene library of the Leptospira meyeri serovar semaranga strain Veldrat S.173 DNA has been constructed in a mobilizable cosmid with inserts of up to 40 kb. It was demonstrated that a Leptospira DNA fragment carrying metY complemented Escherichia coli strains carrying mutations in metB. The latter gene encodes cystathionine ?-synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the second step of the methionine biosynthetic pathway. The metY gene is 1,304 bp long and encodes a 443-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 45 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Leptospira metY product has a high degree of similarity to those of O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylases from Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A lower degree of sequence similarity was also found with bacterial cystathionine ?-synthase. The L. meyeri metY gene was overexpressed under the control of the T7 promoter. MetY exhibits an O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase activity. Genetic, enzymatic, and physiological studies reveal that the transsulfuration pathway via cystathionine does not exist in L. meyeri, in contrast to the situation found for fungi and some bacteria. Our results indicate, therefore, that the L. meyeri MetY enzyme is able to perform direct sulfhydrylation for methionine biosynthesis by using O-acetylhomoserine as a substrate. PMID:9440513

  7. Direct sulfhydrylation for methionine biosynthesis in Leptospira meyeri.

    PubMed

    Belfaiza, J; Martel, A; Margarita, D; Saint Girons, I

    1998-01-01

    A gene library of the Leptospira meyeri serovar semaranga strain Veldrat S.173 DNA has been constructed in a mobilizable cosmid with inserts of up to 40 kb. It was demonstrated that a Leptospira DNA fragment carrying metY complemented Escherichia coli strains carrying mutations in metB. The latter gene encodes cystathionine gamma-synthase, an enzyme which catalyzes the second step of the methionine biosynthetic pathway. The metY gene is 1,304 bp long and encodes a 443-amino-acid protein with a molecular mass of 45 kDa as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Leptospira metY product has a high degree of similarity to those of O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylases from Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A lower degree of sequence similarity was also found with bacterial cystathionine gamma-synthase. The L. meyeri metY gene was overexpressed under the control of the T7 promoter. MetY exhibits an O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase activity. Genetic, enzymatic, and physiological studies reveal that the transsulfuration pathway via cystathionine does not exist in L. meyeri, in contrast to the situation found for fungi and some bacteria. Our results indicate, therefore, that the L. meyeri MetY enzyme is able to perform direct sulfhydrylation for methionine biosynthesis by using O-acetylhomoserine as a substrate. PMID:9440513

  8. A critical role for the right fronto-insular cortex in switching between central-executive and default-mode networks

    PubMed Central

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Levitin, Daniel J.; Menon, Vinod

    2008-01-01

    Cognitively demanding tasks that evoke activation in the brain's central-executive network (CEN) have been consistently shown to evoke decreased activation (deactivation) in the default-mode network (DMN). The neural mechanisms underlying this switch between activation and deactivation of large-scale brain networks remain completely unknown. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the mechanisms underlying switching of brain networks in three different experiments. We first examined this switching process in an auditory event segmentation task. We observed significant activation of the CEN and deactivation of the DMN, along with activation of a third network comprising the right fronto-insular cortex (rFIC) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), when participants perceived salient auditory event boundaries. Using chronometric techniques and Granger causality analysis, we show that the rFIC-ACC network, and the rFIC, in particular, plays a critical and causal role in switching between the CEN and the DMN. We replicated this causal connectivity pattern in two additional experiments: (i) a visual attention “oddball” task and (ii) a task-free resting state. These results indicate that the rFIC is likely to play a major role in switching between distinct brain networks across task paradigms and stimulus modalities. Our findings have important implications for a unified view of network mechanisms underlying both exogenous and endogenous cognitive control. PMID:18723676

  9. Language Mixing and Code-Switching in Writing: Approaches to Mixed-Language Written Discourse. Routledge Critical Studies in Multilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebba, Mark, Ed.; Mahootian, Shahrzad, Ed.; Jonsson, Carla, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Code-switching," or the alternation of languages by bilinguals, has attracted an enormous amount of attention from researchers. However, most research has focused on spoken language, and the resultant theoretical frameworks have been based on spoken code-switching. This volume presents a collection of new work on the alternation of languages in…

  10. Secreted fungal sulfhydryl oxidases: sequence analysis and characterisation of a representative flavin-dependent enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Greta Faccio; Kristiina Kruus; Johanna Buchert; Markku Saloheimo

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sulfhydryl oxidases are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the formation of de novo disulfide bonds from free thiol groups, with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Sulfhydryl oxidases have been investigated in the food industry to remove the burnt flavour of ultraheat-treated milk and are currently studied as potential crosslinking enzymes, aiming at strengthening wheat dough and improving

  11. Cysteinoyl- and cysteine-containing dipeptidoylbenzotriazoles with free sulfhydryl groups: easy access to N-terminal and internal cysteine peptides.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Tarek S; Tala, Srinivasa R; El-Feky, Said A; Abdel-Samii, Zakaria K; Katritzky, Alan R

    2012-08-01

    N-Protected cysteines 4a-c each with a free sulfhydryl group were prepared in 70-75% yields by treatment of L-cysteine with 1-(benzyloxycarbonyl) benzotriazole (Cbz-Bt) 1a, N-(tert-butyloxy-carbonyl)benzotriazole (Boc-Bt) 1b, and 1-(9-fluorenylmethoxy-carbonyl)benzotriazole (Fmoc-Bt) 1c, respectively. N-Protected, free sulfhydryl cysteines 4a-c were then converted into the corresponding N-protected, free sulfhydryl cysteinoylbenzotriazoles 7a-c (70-85%), which on treatment with diverse amino acids and dipeptides afforded the corresponding N-protected, free sulfhydryl N-terminal cysteine dipeptides 8a-e and tripeptides 8f-h in 73-80% yields. N-Protected, free sulfhydryl cysteine-containing dipeptides 9a,b were converted into the corresponding N-protected, free sulfhydryl dipeptidoylbenzotriazoles 10a,b (69-81%), which on treatment with amino acids, dipeptides, and a tripeptide afforded internal cysteine tripeptides 11a-c, tetrapeptides 11d,e and pentapeptide 11f, each containing a N-protected, free sulfhydryl groups in 70-90% yields under mild conditions. Treatment of N-protected, free sulfhydryl cysteinoylbenzotriazole 7a with diamines 12a,b afforded directly the cysteine-containing disulfide-bridged cyclic peptides 14a,b in 50% yields. PMID:22177655

  12. A Comparison between the Sulfhydryl Reductants Tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine and Dithiothreitol for Use in Protein Biochemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elise Burmeister Getz; Ming Xiao; Tania Chakrabarty; Roger Cooke; Paul R. Selvin

    1999-01-01

    The newly introduced sulfhydryl reductant tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) is a potentially attractive alternative to commonly used dithiothreitol (DTT). We compare properties of DTT and TCEP important in protein biochemistry, using the motor enzyme myosin as an example protein. The reductants equally preserve myosin's enzymatic activity, which is sensitive to sulfhydryl oxidation. When labeling with extrinsic probes, DTT inhibits maleimide attachment to

  13. Use of sulfhydryl reagents to investigate branched chain ?-keto acid transport in mitochondria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Penny M. Drown; Nimbe Torres; Armando R. Tovar; Jamshid Davoodi; Susan M. Hutson

    2000-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to determine the contribution of the mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (BCATm) to branched chain ?-keto acid transport within rat heart mitochondria. Isolated heart mitochondria were treated with sulfhydryl reagents of varying permeability, and the data suggest that essential cysteine residues in BCATm are accessible from the cytosolic face of the inner membrane. Treatment with

  14. Rapid and Selective Screening for Sulfhydryl Analytes in Plasma and Urine Using

    E-print Network

    Gelb, Michael

    are used to identify antigens that have been sequestered by surface-bound capture antibodies.8 An increase enrichment of sulfhydryl analytes and reduced matrix interferences, thereby resulting in increased analytical routinely employ affinity-based capture methods to inves- tigate the relationship between antibodies

  15. N-iodoacetyltyramine: Preparation and use in sup 125 I labeling by alkylation of sulfhydryl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, C.M.; Mihal, K.A.; Krueger, R.J. (Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln (USA))

    1989-06-01

    Preparation and use of N-iodoacetyltyramine in generation of {sup 125}I-labeled compounds is described. The kinetics of alkylation of N-acetylcysteine by N-iodoacetyltyramine (k2 = 3.0 M-1 s-1) and N-chloroacetyltyramine (k2 = 0.12 M-1 s-1) indicate that N-iodoacetyltyramine is more useful for labeling sulfhydryl-containing compounds to high specific activity with {sup 125}I. Conditions for preparation of carrier-free {sup 125}I-labeled N-iodoacetyl-3-monoiodotyramine in 50% yield based on starting iodide are described. The high degree of group specificity of N-iodoacetyl-3-monoiodotyramine reaction with sulfhydryl groups is demonstrated by the high reactivity toward sulfhydryl-containing bovine serum albumin and low reactivity toward N-ethylmaleimide-blocked bovine serum albumin and IgG. {sup 125}I-labeled N-iodoacetyl-3-monoiodotyramine was also used to prepare an {sup 125}I-labeled ACTH derivative that retains full biological activity, further demonstrating the selectivity toward reactions with sulfhydryl groups.

  16. Differential effects of sulfhydryl reagents on saxitoxin and tetrodotoxin block of voltage-dependent Na channels.

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, G E; Alam, M; Hartmann, H A

    1994-01-01

    We have probed a cysteine residue that confers resistance to tetrodotoxin (TTX) block in heart Na channels, with membrane-impermeant, cysteine-specific, methanethiosulfonate (MTS) analogs. Covalent addition of a positively charged group to the cysteinyl sulfhydryl reduced pore conductance by 87%. The effect was selectively prevented by treatment with TTX, but not saxitoxin (STX). Addition of a negatively charged group selectively inhibited STX block without affecting TTX block. These results agree with models that place an exposed cysteinyl sulfhydryl in the TTX site adjacent to the mouth of the pore, but do not support the contention that STX and TTX are interchangeable. The surprising differences between the two toxins are consistent with the hypothesis that the toxin-receptor complex can assume different conformations when STX or TTX bound. Images FIGURE 6 PMID:7696471

  17. Modification of ultraviolet radiation effects on the membrane of myelinated nerve fibers by sulfhydryl compounds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Hof; J. M. Fox

    1984-01-01

    Summary The modification of the ultraviolet blocking of sodium channels and of the ultraviolet-induced potential shift of the gating parameters by means of the sulfhydryl compoundsl-cysteine and 2-mercaptoethanol was investigated in the node of Ranvier under voltage-clamp conditions. The UV wavelength was 280 nm. The radiation-induced potential shift of the voltage-dependent gating parameters was prevented or even reversed by the

  18. Volatile sulfhydryl compounds produced in Cheddar cheese slurries upon the addition of whey protein and casein 

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, Amelia Rose

    1992-01-01

    . . . . . 16 19 19 20 21 23 23 25 26 26 31 32 40 Page Concentration of Reactive Sulfhydryl Groups in Slurries. . . . . 43 Effects of Added Milk Proteins on VSH Production. . . CONCLUSIONS. APPENDIX. VITA. 47 66 69 78 132 LIST OF TABLES... Table 1 Cheddar cheese manufacturing procedures . . . . . 2 Retention times for sulfur compounds on the GC. . . . . 3 Slopes of regression lines with coefficients of determination. . Page 18 26 31 4 Composition of cheese curd. 5 7-glutamyl...

  19. Erv1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a FAD-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeung-Eun Lee; Götz Hofhaus; Thomas Lisowsky

    2000-01-01

    The yeast ERV1 gene encodes a small polypeptide of 189 amino acids that is essential for mitochondrial function and for the viability of the cell. In this study we report the enzymatic activity of this protein as a flavin-linked sulfhydryl oxidase catalyzing the formation of disulfide bridges. Deletion of the amino-terminal part of Erv1p shows that the enzyme activity is

  20. A non-critically phase matched KTA optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by an actively Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser with dual signal wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Kai; Guo, Shibei; Wang, Maorong; Mei, Jialin; Xu, Degang; Yao, Jianquan

    2015-06-01

    A non-critically phase matched eye-safe KTA optical parametric oscillator intracavity pumped by a dual-wavelength acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:GYSGG laser is demonstrated. Simultaneous dual signal wavelength at 1525.1 nm/1531.2 nm can be realized using only one laser crystal and one nonlinear crystal. When the absorbed diode pump power at 808 nm is 7.48 W, the maximum output power, single pulse energy and peak power are 296 mW, 2.96 ?J and 6.4 kW, respectively. As the signal wavelengths exactly locates at the absorption band of C2H2, such an Nd:GYSGG/KTA eye-safe laser has good application prospects in differential absorption lidar (DIAL) for C2H2 detection and difference frequency generation for terahertz waves at 0.77 THz.

  1. The Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus tn79 gene encodes a functional sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme that is able to support the replication of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus lacking the sulfhydryl oxidase ac92 gene

    PubMed Central

    Clem, Stian A.; Wu, Wenbi; Lorena Passarelli, A.

    2014-01-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac92 is a conserved baculovirus gene with homology to flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Its product, Ac92, is a functional sulfhydryl oxidase. Deletion of ac92 results in almost negligible levels of budded virus (BV) production, defects in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) co-envelopment and their inefficient incorporation into occlusion bodies. To determine the role of sulfhydryl oxidation in the production of BV, envelopment of nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsid incorporation into occlusion bodies, the Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus ortholog, Tn79, was substituted for ac92. Tn79 was found to be an active sulfhydryl oxidase that substituted for Ac92, resulting in the production of infectious BV, albeit about 10-fold less than an ac92-containing virus. Tn79 rescued defects in ODV morphogenesis caused by a lack of ac92. Active Tn79 sulfhydryl oxidase activity is required for efficient BV production, ODV envelopment, and their subsequent incorporation into occlusion bodies in the absence of ac92. PMID:25010286

  2. The Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus tn79 gene encodes a functional sulfhydryl oxidase enzyme that is able to support the replication of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus lacking the sulfhydryl oxidase ac92 gene.

    PubMed

    Clem, Stian A; Wu, Wenbi; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2014-07-01

    The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ac92 is a conserved baculovirus gene with homology to flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Its product, Ac92, is a functional sulfhydryl oxidase. Deletion of ac92 results in almost negligible levels of budded virus (BV) production, defects in occlusion-derived virus (ODV) co-envelopment and their inefficient incorporation into occlusion bodies. To determine the role of sulfhydryl oxidation in the production of BV, envelopment of nucleocapsids, and nucleocapsid incorporation into occlusion bodies, the Trichoplusia ni single nucleopolyhedrovirus ortholog, tn79, was substituted for ac92. Tn79 was found to be an active sulfhydryl oxidase that substituted for Ac92, resulting in the production of infectious BV, albeit about 10-fold less than an ac92-containing virus. Tn79 rescued defects in ODV morphogenesis caused by a lack of ac92. Active Tn79 sulfhydryl oxidase activity is required for efficient BV production, ODV envelopment, and their subsequent incorporation into occlusion bodies in the absence of ac92. PMID:25010286

  3. Deciding When to Switch Tasks in Time-Critical Multitasking Yelena Kushleyeva (yk45@drexel.edu)

    E-print Network

    Salvucci, Dario D.

    of the ACT-R cognitive architecture that incorporates a notion of elapsed time for the current goal and uses of this mechanism in an application to a dynamic, time-critical dual search task, showing how an ACT-R model can-driven multitasking proves to be an interesting challenge for current cognitive architectures such as ACT-R (Anderson

  4. In vivo gene transfer using sulfhydryl cross-linked PEG-peptide/glycopeptide DNA co-condensates.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Kai Y; Park, Youmie; Yang, Yongsheng; McKenzie, Donald L; Liu, Yahong; Rice, Kevin G

    2003-06-01

    Recent interest in sulfhydryl cross-linked nonviral gene delivery systems, designed to trigger the intracellular release of DNA, has inspired studies to establish their utility in vitro. To determine if this concept can be extrapolated to in vivo gene delivery, sulfhydryl cross-linking peptides (dp 20), derivatized with either an N-glycan or polyethylene glycol (PEG), were used to generate sulfhydryl cross-linked gene formulations. The biodistribution, metabolism, cell-type targeting, and gene expression of sulfhydryl cross-linked PEG-peptide/glycopeptide DNA co-condensates were examined following i.v. dosing in mice. Optimal targeting to hepatocytes was achieved by condensing (125)I-DNA with an add-mixture of 10 mol % triantennary glycopeptide, 5 mol % PEG-peptide, and 85 mol % backbone peptide. Four backbone peptides were substituted into the formulation to examine the influence of peptide metabolism and disulfide bond strength on the rate of DNA metabolism and the level of gene expression in vivo. The half-life of DNA in liver was extended from 1 to 3 h using a backbone peptide composed of d-amino acids, whereas substituting penicillamine for cysteine failed to further increase the metabolic stability of DNA. Optimized gene delivery formulations transiently expressed secreted alkaline phosphatase in mouse serum for 12 days. The results suggest that disulfide bond reduction in liver hepatocytes proceeds rapidly, followed by peptide metabolism, ultimately limiting the metabolic half-life of sulfhydryl cross-linked DNA condensates in vivo. PMID:12761807

  5. Fluorescent modification and orientation of myosin sulfhydryl 2 in skeletal muscle fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Ajtai, K.; Burghardt, T.P. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1989-03-07

    The authors describe a protocol for the selective covalent labeling of the sulfhydryl 2 (SH2) on the myosin cross-bridge in glycerinated muscle fibers using the sulfhydryl-selective label 4-(N-((iodoacetoxy)ethyl)-N-methylamino)-7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (IANBD). The protocol promotes the specificity of IANBD by using the ability to protect sulfhydryl 1 (SH1) from modification by binding the cross-bridge to the actin filament and using cross-bridge-bound MgADP to promote the accessibility of SH2. They determined the specificity of the probe using fluorescence gel scanning of fiber-extracted proteins to isolate the probe on myosin subfragment 1 (S1), limited proteolysis of the purified S1 to isolate the probe on the 20-kilodalton fragment of S1, and titration of the free SH1's on purified S1 using the radiolabeled SH1-specific reagent ({sup 14}C)iodoacetamide or enzymatic activity measurements. They characterized the angular distribution of the IANBD on cross-bridges in fibers when the fibers are in rigor, in relaxation, in the presence of MgADP, and in isometric contraction using wavelength-dependent fluorescence polarization. They find that the SH2 probe distinguishes the different states of the fiber such that rigor and MgADP are ordered and maintain a similar orientation throughout the excitation wavelength domain. The relaxed cross-bridge is ordered and has an orientation that is distinct from the orientation of the cross-bridge in rigor and MgADP over the entire wavelength domain. The active isometric cross-bridge is also oriented differently from the other states, suggesting the presence of a predominant actin-bound cross-bridge state that precedes the power stroke during muscle contraction.

  6. Egg white sulfhydryl oxidase: kinetic mechanism of the catalysis of disulfide bond formation.

    PubMed

    Hoober, K L; Thorpe, C

    1999-03-01

    The flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase from chicken egg white catalyzes the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups to disulfides with reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. The oxidase contains FAD and a redox-active cystine bridge and accepts a total of 4 electrons per active site. Dithiothreitol (DTT; the best low molecular weight substrate known) reduces the enzyme disulfide bridge with a limiting rate of 502/s at 4 degrees C, pH 7.5, yielding a thiolate-to-flavin charge-transfer complex. Further reduction to EH4 is limited by the slow internal transfer of reducing equivalents from enzyme dithiol to oxidized flavin (3.3/s). In the oxidative half of catalysis, oxygen rapidly converts EH4 to EH2, but Eox appearance is limited by the slow internal redox equilibration. During overall turnover with DTT, the thiolate-to-flavin charge-transfer complex accumulates with an apparent extinction coefficient of 4.9 mM-1 cm-1 at 560 nm. In contrast, glutathione (GSH) is a much slower reductant of the oxidase to the EH2 level and shows a kcat/Km 100-fold smaller than DTT. Full reduction of EH2 by GSH shows a limiting rate of 3.6/s at 4 degrees C comparable to that seen with DTT. Reduced RNase is an excellent substrate of the enzyme, with kcat/Km per thiol some 1000- and 10-fold better than GSH and DTT, respectively. Enzyme-monitored steady-state turnover shows that RNase is a facile reductant of the oxidase to the EH2 state. This work demonstrates the basic similarity in the mechanism of turnover between all of these three substrates. A physiological role for sulfhydryl oxidase in the formation of disulfide bonds in secreted proteins is discussed. PMID:10074377

  7. Volatile sulfhydryl compounds produced in Cheddar cheese slurries upon the addition of whey protein and casein

    E-print Network

    Sheffield, Amelia Rose

    1992-01-01

    with 400 ml distilled water. A 100 p. l sample of diluted slurry was added 24 to cuvets containing 2 ml of assay solution. The sample was vortexed and percent transmittance was read after 0, 30, and 60 min at room temperature. Enzyme activity.... . . . . 16 19 19 20 21 23 23 25 26 26 31 32 40 Page Concentration of Reactive Sulfhydryl Groups in Slurries. . . . . 43 Effects of Added Milk Proteins on VSH Production. . . CONCLUSIONS. APPENDIX. VITA. 47 66 69 78 132 LIST OF TABLES...

  8. Secreted fungal sulfhydryl oxidases: sequence analysis and characterisation of a representative flavin-dependent enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sulfhydryl oxidases are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the formation of de novo disulfide bonds from free thiol groups, with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. Sulfhydryl oxidases have been investigated in the food industry to remove the burnt flavour of ultraheat-treated milk and are currently studied as potential crosslinking enzymes, aiming at strengthening wheat dough and improving the overall bread quality. Results In the present study, potential sulfhydryl oxidases were identified in the publicly available fungal genome sequences and their sequence characteristics were studied. A representative sulfhydryl oxidase from Aspergillus oryzae, AoSOX1, was expressed in the fungus Trichoderma reesei. AoSOX1 was produced in relatively good yields and was purified and biochemically characterised. The enzyme catalysed the oxidation of thiol-containing compounds like glutathione, D/L-cysteine, beta-mercaptoethanol and DTT. The enzyme had a melting temperature of 57°C, a pH optimum of 7.5 and its enzymatic activity was completely inhibited in the presence of 1 mM ZnSO4. Conclusions Eighteen potentially secreted sulfhydryl oxidases were detected in the publicly available fungal genomes analysed and a novel proline-tryptophan dipeptide in the characteristic motif CXXC, where X is any amino acid, was found. A representative protein, AoSOX1 from A. oryzae, was produced in T. reesei in an active form and had the characteristics of sulfhydryl oxidases. Further testing of the activity on thiol groups within larger peptides and on protein level will be needed to assess the application potential of this enzyme. PMID:20727152

  9. Sulfhydryl-group modifications of Torpedo Californica acetylcholine receptor: subunit localization and effects on function

    SciTech Connect

    McNamee, M.G.; Yee, A.S.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of thiol-group modification on acetylcholine receptor (ACHR) function were measured using purified Torpedo ACHR reconstituted into soybean lipid vesicles. N-Phenyl-maleimide (NPM) was used to modify sulfhydryl groups in ACHR in the absence of any prior reduction by dithiotheitol. Modification by NPM led to the inhibition of ion channel activity without a detectable effect on ligand binding. The ion flux inhibition by NPM primarily affected channel activation, since the initial rates of activation decreased over a wide range of carbamylcholine concentrations. The /sup 3/H-NPM subunit labelling pattern of ACHR (a multisubunit membrane protein with ..cap alpha../sub 2/..beta gamma..delta stoichiometry) revealed preferential labelling of the ..gamma.. subunit. At high NPM concentration, the number of sulfhydryl groups on the ..gamma.. subunit that could be modified with NPM was two. Detergent was required during labelling for functionally relevant thiol group modifications, and most of the label was protected from protease digestion in the reconstituted membranes. These results are consistent with the presence of the NPM modification in a bilayer and/or cytoplasmic domain. Analysis of cyanogen bromide and trypsin fragments indicates that the labeled cysteines may be located in the postulated amphipathic helix region of the ..gamma.. subunit.

  10. Nanoscale memristive radiofrequency switches.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuang; Ghadiri-Sadrabadi, Mohammad; Bardin, Joseph C; Xia, Qiangfei

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency switches are critical components in wireless communication systems and consumer electronics. Emerging devices include switches based on microelectromechanical systems and phase-change materials. However, these devices suffer from disadvantages such as large physical dimensions and high actuation voltages. Here we propose and demonstrate a nanoscale radiofrequency switch based on a memristive device. The device can be programmed with a voltage as low as 0.4?V and has an ON/OFF conductance ratio up to 10(12) with long state retention. We measure the radiofrequency performance of the switch up to 110?GHz and demonstrate low insertion loss (0.3?dB at 40?GHz), high isolation (30?dB at 40?GHz), an average cutoff frequency of 35?THz and competitive linearity and power-handling capability. Our results suggest that, in addition to their application in memory and computing, memristive devices are also a leading contender for radiofrequency switch applications. PMID:26108890

  11. Effects of depletion of ascorbic acid or nonprotein sulfhydryls on the acute inhalation toxicity of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and phosgene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Slade; J. W. Highfill; G. E. Hatch

    1989-01-01

    The effect of depleting lung ascorbic acid (AHâ) and nonprotein sulfhydryls (NPSH) on the acute inhalation toxicity of nitrogen dioxide (NOâ), ozone (Oâ), and phosgene (COClâ) was investigated in guinea pigs. The increase in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid protein (an indicator of alveolar-capillary damage leading to increased permeability) was measured 16 to 18 hr following a 4 hr exposure to

  12. Corynebacterium glutamicum utilizes both transsulfuration and direct sulfhydrylation pathways for methionine biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byung-Joon; Yeom, Hye-Jin; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2002-03-01

    A direct sulfhydrylation pathway for methionine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum was found. The pathway was catalyzed by metY encoding O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The gene metY, located immediately upstream of metA, was found to encode a protein of 437 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 46,751 Da. In accordance with DNA and protein sequence data, the introduction of metY into C. glutamicum resulted in the accumulation of a 47-kDa protein in the cells and a 30-fold increase in O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase activity, showing the efficient expression of the cloned gene. Although disruption of the metB gene, which encodes cystathionine gamma-synthase catalyzing the transsulfuration pathway of methionine biosynthesis, or the metY gene was not enough to lead to methionine auxotrophy, an additional mutation in the metY or the metB gene resulted in methionine auxotrophy. The growth pattern of the metY mutant strain was identical to that of the metB mutant strain, suggesting that both methionine biosynthetic pathways function equally well. In addition, an Escherichia coli metB mutant could be complemented by transformation of the strain with a DNA fragment carrying corynebacterial metY and metA genes. These data clearly show that C. glutamicum utilizes both transsulfuration and direct sulfhydrylation pathways for methionine biosynthesis. Although metY and metA are in close proximity to one another, separated by 143 bp on the chromosome, deletion analysis suggests that they are expressed independently. As with metA, methionine could also repress the expression of metY. The repression was also observed with metB, but the degree of repression was more severe with metY, which shows almost complete repression at 0.5 mM methionine in minimal medium. The data suggest a physiologically distinctive role of the direct sulfhydrylation pathway in C. glutamicum. PMID:11844756

  13. Corynebacterium glutamicum Utilizes both Transsulfuration and Direct Sulfhydrylation Pathways for Methionine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Byung-Joon; Yeom, Hye-Jin; Kim, Younhee; Lee, Heung-Shick

    2002-01-01

    A direct sulfhydrylation pathway for methionine biosynthesis in Corynebacterium glutamicum was found. The pathway was catalyzed by metY encoding O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase. The gene metY, located immediately upstream of metA, was found to encode a protein of 437 amino acids with a deduced molecular mass of 46,751 Da. In accordance with DNA and protein sequence data, the introduction of metY into C. glutamicum resulted in the accumulation of a 47-kDa protein in the cells and a 30-fold increase in O-acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase activity, showing the efficient expression of the cloned gene. Although disruption of the metB gene, which encodes cystathionine ?-synthase catalyzing the transsulfuration pathway of methionine biosynthesis, or the metY gene was not enough to lead to methionine auxotrophy, an additional mutation in the metY or the metB gene resulted in methionine auxotrophy. The growth pattern of the metY mutant strain was identical to that of the metB mutant strain, suggesting that both methionine biosynthetic pathways function equally well. In addition, an Escherichia coli metB mutant could be complemented by transformation of the strain with a DNA fragment carrying corynebacterial metY and metA genes. These data clearly show that C. glutamicum utilizes both transsulfuration and direct sulfhydrylation pathways for methionine biosynthesis. Although metY and metA are in close proximity to one another, separated by 143 bp on the chromosome, deletion analysis suggests that they are expressed independently. As with metA, methionine could also repress the expression of metY. The repression was also observed with metB, but the degree of repression was more severe with metY, which shows almost complete repression at 0.5 mM methionine in minimal medium. The data suggest a physiologically distinctive role of the direct sulfhydrylation pathway in C. glutamicum. PMID:11844756

  14. A simple figure of merit for high temperature superconducting switches

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The discovery of the new high temperature superconductors has revived interest in many special applications, including superconducting switches. For comparison of switch types, a simple figure of merit based in switch performance is proposed, derived for superconducting switches, and then calculated for thyristors and vacuum switches. The figure of merit is then used to show what critical current density would be needed for superconducting switches to compete with more conventional switches. 46 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Micromagnetic simulation of critical current density of spin transfer torque switching in a full-Heusler Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 alloy spin valve nanopillar

    E-print Network

    Chen, Long-Qing

    -Heusler Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 alloy spin valve nanopillar H.B. Huang a,c , X.Q. Ma a,n , Z.H. Liu a , F.Y. Meng simulation Critical current density Spin transfer torque switching Heusler alloy Spin valve nanopillar a b-Heusler Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 alloy spin-valve nanopillar through micromagnetic simulations. The simulations

  16. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase sulfhydryl modifications: implication for oxidized red cell.

    PubMed

    Pengpanichpakdee, Namphaung; Thadtapong, Tanapon; Auparakkitanon, Saranya; Wilairat, Prapon

    2012-09-01

    A common perturbation found in cells under oxidative stress is alteration in cellular Ca2+ homeostasis. In order to understand the effects of such oxidative damage, human red cell plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) was studied by measuring PMCA activity, both in the presence and absence of calmodulin (CaM), following treatment with sulfhydryl agents, N-ethylmaleimide, iodoacetate and diamide. PMCA activity of washed red cell membrane was measured by coupling with pyruvate kinase, using phosphoenolpyruvate as substrate, and lactate dehydrogenase to convert pyruvate to lactate employing beta-NADH as co-factor. All treatments inhibited basal and CaM-stimulated activity in a dose-dependent manner (0.01-1 mM), but at low concentrations, basal Ca(2+)-ATPase activity was inhibited whereas CaM-stimulated activity was unaffected. Inhibition by diamide, a disulfide-forming agent, was reversed with dithiotreitol (DTT). Treatment with calpain, a calcium-dependent protease, elevated basal PMCA activity to CaM-stimulated level, but abolished response to CaM. Further treatment with diamide inhibited PMCA activity, which could be restored by DTT, but only to basal and not CaM-stimulated level. These studies indicated that it is necessary to protect against both sulfhydryl and proteolytic damages to red cell PMCA if perturbation to Ca2+ homeostasis is to be minimized. This has implications for membranes under oxidative stress, such as in the hereditary anemia, thalassemia, where membrane-bound unmatched hemoglobin chains cause oxidative damage to red blood cells. PMID:23431834

  17. Flow injection determination of carboxylate, phosphate, and sulfhydryl compounds using metal exchange complexation.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Fotouh R; Shafi, Mohammad A; Danielson, Neil D

    2012-06-15

    The determination of carboxylate, phosphorous, and sulfhydryl compounds has been studied using flow injection by measuring the decrease in absorbance of the Fe(III)-salicylate complex due to preferential ligand interaction with ferric ion. Targeted compounds include polycarboxylates such as sodium citrate, sodium oxalate, and EDTA, anionic phosphorous compounds such as sodium monofluoroorthophosphate, sodium trimetaphosphate, and sodium hexametaphosphate, and sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine, glutathione, and captopril. Initial flow injection optimization has focused on citrate based on its ability to replace salicylate ion in the Fe(III)-salicylate complex causing a decrease in absorbance at 525 nm proportional to the citrate concentration. Two flow injection analysis methods are developed. In the first method, offline reaction flow injection, sodium citrate dissolved in 100 ?mol L(-1) Fe-salicylate is injected in a carrier solution of 100 ?mol L(-1) Fe-salicylate. The decrease in peak area is linear over a range of 1.36-109 ?mol L(-1) using a flow rate of 1 mL min(-1) and an injection volume of 100 ?L. The effect of pH on the Fe-salicylate complex absorbance is studied from 1 to 3.5; pH 3 shows both a high and stable complex absorbance in the visible range which provided important potential selectivity over UV detection. The limit of detection is found to be less than 57 nmol L(-1) depending on the Fe(III)-salicylate concentration used. The second method is reverse flow injection using the sample as a flowing stream in which 3 mmol L(-1) Fe(III)-salicylate is injected and the decrease in the response with increased sample concentration was monitored. The commercially available pharmaceutical product (Citroma)(®) is used to assess the accuracy and precision of the two proposed methods as compared to a reference method. PMID:22748549

  18. Spatial proximity and sequence localization of the reactive sulfhydryls of porphobilinogen synthase.

    PubMed

    Markham, G D; Myers, C B; Harris, K A; Volin, M; Jaffe, E K

    1993-01-01

    The zinc metalloenzyme porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS) contains several functionally important, but previously unidentified, reactive sulfhydryl groups. The enzyme has been modified with the reversible sulfhydryl-specific nitroxide spin label derivative of methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS), (1-oxyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-delta 3-pyrroline-3-methyl)methanethiosulfonate (SL-MMTS) (Berliner, L. J., Grunwald, J., Hankovszky, H. O., & Hideg, K., 1982, Anal. Biochem. 119, 450-455). EPR spectra show that SL-MMTS labels three groups per PBGS subunit (24 per octamer), as does MMTS. EPR signals reflecting nitroxides of different mobilities are observed. Two of the three modified cysteines have been identified as Cys-119 and Cys-223 by sequencing peptides produced by an Asp-N protease digest of the modified protein. Because MMTS-reactive thiols have been implicated as ligands to the required Zn(II), EPR spectroscopy has been used to determine the spatial proximity of the modified cysteine residues. A forbidden (delta m = 2) EPR transition is observed indicating a through-space dipolar interaction between at least two of the nitroxides. The relative intensity of the forbidden and allowed transitions show that at least two of the unpaired electrons are within at most 7.6 A of each other. SL-MMTS-modified PBGS loses all Zn(II) and cannot catalyze product formation. The modified enzyme retains the ability to bind one of the two substrates at each active site. Binding of this substrate has no influence on the EPR spectral properties of the spin-labeled enzyme, or on the rate of release of the nitroxides when 2-mercaptoethanol is added.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8382991

  19. IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching

    E-print Network

    Jain, Raj

    Raj Jain 1 IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching Raj Jain Professor Switching vs routing q IP Switching (Ipsilon) q Tag Switching (CISCO) q Multi-protocol label switching (Cont)Routing vs Switching (Cont) On ATM networks: q IP routers use IP addresses Reassemble IP

  20. Electric Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-05-22

    In this activity, learners incorporate a simple switch into a battery/bulb circuit. Learners will use their knowledge of circuits to design and make their own switches using common materials. Learners will also identify switches found in common appliances.
    Note: This activity is designed to be done under the supervision of an educator familiar with electrical and electronic concepts.

  1. Optical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched,

    E-print Network

    Shihada, Basem

    /control ·optical 3R (Reliability, Robustness, and Resiliency) performance monitoring are hard Optical CircuitOptical Networks Circuit switched, Burst switched, Packet switched Electronic vs. Optical, and then from Electronic to Optical for transmission. · Optical (photonic) switching: uses optical switching

  2. Sulfhydryl-disulfide changes in storage proteins of developing wheat grain: influence on the SDS-unextractable glutenin polymer formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Rhazi; R. Cazalis; T. Aussenac

    2003-01-01

    To understand more precisely the function of free glutenin SH and SS groups in glutenins of developing wheat for UPP formation, a specific sulfhydryl probe, monobromobimane (mBBr), was used for an in vitro protein labeling. By applying this procedure to two varieties of wheat differing in high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition (2*, 7+8, 5+10 and 0, 6+8, 2+12, respectively,

  3. Hydrogen peroxide-induced reduction of delayed rectifier potassium current in hippocampal neurons involves oxidation of sulfhydryl groups.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Sonia M K; Redzic, Zoran B; Alshuaib, Waleed B

    2013-07-01

    This study examined the effect of H2O2 on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IKDR) in isolated hippocampal neurons. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments were performed on freshly dissociated hippocampal CA1 neurons of SD rats before and after treatment with H2O2. To reveal the mechanism behind H2O2-induced changes in IKDR, cells were treated with different oxidizing and reducing agents. External application of membrane permeable H2O2 reduced the amplitude and voltage-dependence of IKDR in a concentration dependent manner. Desferoxamine (DFO), an iron-chelator that prevents hydroxyl radical (OH) generation, prevented H2O2-induced reduction in IKDR. Application of the sulfhydryl-oxidizing agent 5,5 dithio-bis-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) mimicked the effect of H2O2. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents dithiothreitol (DTT) and glutathione (GSH) alone did not affect IKDR; however, DTT and GSH reversed and prevented the H2O2-induced inhibition of IKDR, respectively. Membrane impermeable agents GSH and DTNB showed effects only when added intracellularly identifying intracellular sulfhydryl groups as potential targets for hydroxyl-mediated oxidation. However, the inhibitory effects of DTNB and H2O2 at the positive test potentials were completely and partially abolished by DTT, respectively, suggesting an additional mechanism of action for H2O2, that is not shared by DTNB. In summary, this study provides evidence for the redox modulation of IKDR, identifies hydroxyl radical as an intermediate oxidant responsible for the H2O2-induced decrease in current amplitude and identifies intracellular sulfhydryl groups as an oxidative target. PMID:23688542

  4. Sulfhydryl proteins of penguin egg white: Ovalbumin and penalbumin. Comparisons with penguin serum albumin, chicken ovalbumin, and bovine serum albumin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David T. Osuga; Mahmoud Aminlari; Charles Y.-K. Ho; Richard G. Allison; Robert E. Feeney

    1983-01-01

    Penalbumin (PEN), a newly discovered sulfhydryl-containing glycoprotein from egg whites of penguins(Sphenisciformes), is a major constituent of all penguin egg whites studied, but it is low or very low in most other egg whites studied. Adelie penguin(Pygoscelis adeliae) egg white contains ~30% ovalbumin (POVAL) and 25% PEN, while chicken egg white contains ~55% ovalbumin (COVAL) and <0.01% PEN. PEN has

  5. Preparation and application of radioiodinated sulfhydryl reagents for the covalent labeling of SH-proteins present in minute quantities.

    PubMed

    Hazum, E; Shisheva, A; Shechter, Y

    1992-03-01

    In this study we have searched for sulfhydryl reagents which can be radiolabeled and detect minute quantities of SH-proteins. Iodoacetamidotyramine reacts with sulfhydryls at a low rate, having a pseudo-first order rate constant, kappa obs = 3 +/- 0.2 M-1 s-1, at neutral pH. In contrast, N-ethylmaleimide-containing reagents, such as tyrosine-MIB and tyramine-MIB were three orders of magnitude more reactive in alkylating sulfhydryls. Pseudo-first order rate constants, kappa obs, were in the range of 5200-5700 M-1 s-1. Therefore, a simple and convenient procedure was designed for the synthesis and the radioactive labeling of tyramine-MIB. Simplification was attained by virtue of the specific-'affinity' adsorption of [125I]tyramine-MIB (and not the other intermediates) to small Sephadex G-10 column and its elution with ethanol. [125I]Tyramine-MIB was stable for weeks in dried form and for hours in acidic to neutral aqueous solutions. The reagent, when radiolabeled to high specific activity (0.5 Ci/mumol), detected sulfhydryl proteins at concentrations as low as 1-10 pM. The applicability of the reagent in studying biological systems was demonstrated by adding it to intact adipocytes and the consequent labeling of a single protein with an apparent Mr = 32,000, which is most likely an externally oriented surface plasma membrane SH-protein. [125I]Tyramine-MIB reactivity and sensitivity exceeds that of protein-tyrosyl radioiodination by the chloramine-T procedure and is expected to assist in studying minute quantities of SH-proteins. PMID:1560185

  6. Effects of chemical modification of amino and sulfhydryl groups on the voltage-clamped frog node of Ranvier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Rack; Shi-ling Hu; Norbert RublyZ; Christel Waschow

    1984-01-01

    Several reagents that react with sulfhydryl and amino groups were applied to voltage-clamped single nerve fibres of the frog. The fibres were exposed to comparable amounts of the chemical reagents for relatively short times. 3-(p-Hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (HPPS), a substance which preferentially modifies amino groups, irreversibly reduced the size of the sodium and potassium current. The effect of HPPS

  7. Conformational malleability of opiate receptors: Sulfhydryl modification alters ion-induced µ\\/? -ligand selectivity shifts in rat striatal sections

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wayne D. Bowen; Candace B. Pert

    1982-01-01

    1.The aim of this study was to determine the effects of sulfhydryl and disulfide modifiers on the ability of ions to change theµ\\/d-ligand selectivity of opiate receptors of rat striatal sections.2.At 25°C, Na+ and Na+ + Mn2+ promote formation of thed-state at the expense ofµ-states since Na+ enhances [D-Ala2, D-Leu5]enkephalin (D-ENK) binding while inhibiting dihydromorphine (DHM); Mn2+ + Na+ synergistically

  8. Sulfhydryl-reactive heavy metals increase cell membrane K + and Ca 2+ transport in renal proximal tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce C. Kone; Robert M. Brenner; Steven R. Gullans

    1990-01-01

    Summary The cellular mechanisms by which nephrotoxic heavy metals injure the proximal tubule are incompletely defined. We used extracellular electrodes to measure the early effects of heavy metals and other sulfhydryl reagents on net K+ and Ca2+ transport and respiration (QO2) of proximal tubule suspensions. Hg2+, Cu2+, and Au3+ (10-4m) each caused a rapid net K+ efflux and a delayed

  9. The conserved baculovirus protein p33 (Ac92) is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Long, C.M. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Rohrmann, G.F. [Department of Microbiology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Merrill, G.F., E-mail: merrillg@onid.orst.ed [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2009-06-05

    Open reading frame 92 of the Autographa californica baculovirus (Ac92) is one of about 30 core genes present in all sequenced baculovirus genomes. Computer analyses predicted that the Ac92 encoded protein (called p33) and several of its baculovirus orthologs were related to a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-linked sulfhydryl oxidases. Alignment of these proteins indicated that, although they were highly diverse, a number of amino acids in common with the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases are present. Some of these conserved amino acids are predicted to stack against the isoalloxazine and adenine components of FAD, whereas others are involved in electron transfer. To investigate this relationship, Ac92 was expressed in bacteria as a His-tagged fusion protein, purified, and characterized both spectrophotometrically and for its enzymatic activity. The purified protein was found to have the color (yellow) and absorption spectrum consistent with it being a FAD-containing protein. Furthermore, it was demonstrated to have sulfhydryl oxidase activity using dithiothreitol and thioredoxin as substrates.

  10. Histone3 lysine4 trimethylation regulated by the facilitates chromatin transcription complex is critical for DNA cleavage in class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Stanlie, Andre; Aida, Masatoshi; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Honjo, Tasuku; Begum, Nasim A

    2010-12-21

    Ig class switch recombination (CSR) requires expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) and transcription through target switch (S) regions. Here we show that knockdown of the histone chaperone facilitates chromatin transcription (FACT) completely inhibited S region cleavage and CSR in IgA-switch-inducible CH12F3-2A B cells. FACT knockdown did not reduce AID or S region transcripts but did decrease histone3 lysine4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) at both the S? and S? regions. Because knockdown of FACT or H3K4 methyltransferase cofactors inhibited DNA cleavage in H3K4me3-depleted S regions, H3K4me3 may serve as a mark for recruiting CSR recombinase. These findings revealed an unexpected evolutionary conservation between CSR and meiotic recombination. PMID:21139053

  11. Induction, purification and molecular characterization of sulfhydryl oxidase from an Egyptian isolates of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Moubasher, H; Fahmi, A A; Abdur-Rahman, M

    2012-01-01

    The conditions for the sulfhydryl oxidase (SOX) production and activity from an Egyptian isolate of Aspergillus niger were optimized. Purification and determination of the kinetic properties (K(m) and V(max)) of the purified enzyme have been done. The possibility for the SOX induction using L-Cys (as a natural substrate) was studied to determine whether SOX could be produced as an inducible enzyme in addition to being a constitutive one (i.e. whether induction leads to increase SOX production and activity or not). The optimum temperature and pH for its activity were found to be 60 degrees C and 5.5, respectively. The activity of the induced intracellular SOX, was measured according to Ellman's method using the standard GSH oxidation where it reached 94% while that of non-induced one reached only 27.6%. This wide difference in activity between the induced and non-induced SOX indicates the successful L-Cys-induction of the SOX production (i.e. SOX from A. niger AUMC 4947 is an inducible enzyme). Molecular characterization of the pure SOX revealed that it is constituted of two 50-55 KDa subunits. K(m) and V(max) were found to be 6.0 mM and 100 microM/min/mg respectively. PMID:22834304

  12. Sulfhydryl oxidation overrides Mg(2+) inhibition of calcium-induced calcium release in skeletal muscle triads.

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, P; Aracena, P; Hidalgo, C

    2000-01-01

    We studied the effect of oxidation of sulfhydryl (SH) residues on the inhibition by Mg(2+) of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in triad-enriched sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. Vesicles were either passively or actively loaded with calcium before eliciting CICR by dilution at pCa 4.6-4.4 in the presence of 1.2 mM free [ATP] and variable free [Mg(2+)]. Native triads exhibited a significant inhibition of CICR by Mg(2+), with a K(0.5) approximately 50 microM. Partial oxidation of vesicles with thimerosal produced a significant increase of release rate constants and initial release rates at all [Mg(2+)] tested (up to 1 mM), and shifted the K(0.5) value for Mg(2+) inhibition to 101 or 137 microM in triads actively or passively loaded with calcium, respectively. Further oxidation of vesicles with thimerosal completely suppressed the inhibitory effect of [Mg(2+)] on CICR, yielding initial rates of CICR of 2 micromol/(mg x s) in the presence of 1 mM free [Mg(2+)]. These effects of oxidation on CICR were fully reversed by SH reducing agents. We propose that oxidation of calcium release channels, by decreasing markedly the affinity of the channel inhibitory site for Mg(2+), makes CICR possible in skeletal muscle. PMID:10866954

  13. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOEpatents

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  14. Ethernet Switching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Castro, Tony

    Created by Tony Castro of the Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT), this simulation demonstrates ethernet switching. The animation depicts three separate local area networks connecting to an ethernet hub. The animation also includes descriptive text. This resource would be a helpful addition to any course on information and communications technologies as it allows students to see exactly how ethernet switching works.

  15. Use of sulfhydryl reagents to investigate branched chain alpha-keto acid transport in mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Drown, P M; Torres, N; Tovar, A R; Davoodi, J; Hutson, S M

    2000-09-29

    The goal of this paper was to determine the contribution of the mitochondrial branched chain aminotransferase (BCATm) to branched chain alpha-keto acid transport within rat heart mitochondria. Isolated heart mitochondria were treated with sulfhydryl reagents of varying permeability, and the data suggest that essential cysteine residues in BCATm are accessible from the cytosolic face of the inner membrane. Treatment with 15 nmol/mg N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) inhibited initial rates of alpha-ketoisocaproate (KIC) uptake in reconstituted mitochondrial detergent extracts by 70% and in the intact organelle by 50%. KIC protected against inhibition suggesting that NEM labeled a cysteine residue that is inaccessible when substrate is bound to the enzyme. Additionally, the apparent mitochondrial equilibrium KIC concentration was decreased 50-60% after NEM labeling, and this difference could not be attributed to effects of NEM on matrix pH or KIC oxidation. In fact, NEM was a better inhibitor of KIC oxidation than rotenone. Measuring matrix aspartate and glutamate levels revealed that the effects of NEM on the steady-state KIC concentration resulted from inhibition of BCATm catalyzed transamination of KIC with matrix glutamate to form leucine. Furthermore, circular dichroism spectra of recombinant human BCATm with liposomes showed that the commercial lipids used in the reconstituted transport assay contain BCAT amino acid substrates. Thus BCATm is distinct from the branched chain alpha-keto acid carrier but may interact with the inner mitochondrial membrane, and it is necessary to inhibit or remove transaminase activity in both intact and reconstituted systems prior to quantifying transport of alpha-keto acids which are transaminase substrates. PMID:11018671

  16. Metformin exhibits radiation countermeasures efficacy when used alone or in combination with sulfhydryl containing drugs.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard C; Murley, Jeffrey S; Grdina, David J

    2014-05-01

    Metformin, a biguanide drug used in the treatment of type II diabetes, was evaluated alone and in combination with amifostine, captopril, MESNA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) for its ability to protect when administered 24 h after irradiation. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) and SA-NH mouse sarcoma cells were exposed to 4 Gy in vitro. C3H mice were exposed to 7 Gy and evaluated utilizing an endogenous spleen colony assay system. Amifostine and WR1065, administered 30 min prior to irradiation, were used as positive controls. Treatment of MEF, HMEC and SA-NH cells with metformin elevated survival levels by 1.4-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold compared to 1.9-, 1.8- and 1.6-fold for these same cells treated with WR1065, respectively. Metformin (250 mg/kg) was effective in protecting splenic cells from a 7 Gy dose in vivo (protection factor = 1.8). Amifostine (400 mg/kg), administered 30 min prior to irradiation resulted in a 2.6-fold survival elevation, while metformin administered 24 h after irradiation in combination with NAC (400 mg/kg), MESNA (300 mg/kg) or captopril (200 mg/kg) enhanced survival by 2.6-, 2.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Each of these agents has been approved by the FDA for human use and each has a well characterized human safety profile. Metformin alone or in combination with selected sulfhydryl agents possesses radioprotective properties when administered 24 h after radiation exposure comparable to that observed for amifostine administered 30 min prior to irradiation making it a potentially useful agent for radiation countermeasures use. PMID:24754562

  17. Metformin Exhibits Radiation Countermeasures Efficacy When Used Alone or in Combination with Sulfhydryl Containing Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Richard C.; Murley, Jeffrey S.; Grdina, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Metformin, a biguanide drug used in the treatment of type II diabetes, was evaluated alone and in combination with amifostine, captopril, MESNA or N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) for its ability to protect when administered 24 h after irradiation. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEF), human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC) and SA-NH mouse sarcoma cells were exposed to 4 Gy in vitro. C3H mice were exposed to 7 Gy and evaluated utilizing an endogenous spleen colony assay system. Amifostine and WR1065, administered 30 min prior to irradiation, were used as positive controls. Treatment of MEF, HMEC and SA-NH cells with metformin elevated survival levels by 1.4-, 1.5- and 1.3-fold compared to 1.9-, 1.8- and 1.6-fold for these same cells treated with WR1065, respectively. Metformin (250 mg/kg) was effective in protecting splenic cells from a 7 Gy dose in vivo (protection factor = 1.8). Amifostine (400 mg/kg), administered 30 min prior to irradiation resulted in a 2.6-fold survival elevation, while metformin administered 24 h after irradiation in combination with NAC (400 mg/kg), MESNA (300 mg/kg) or captopril (200 mg/kg) enhanced survival by 2.6-, 2.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively. Each of these agents has been approved by the FDA for human use and each has a well characterized human safety profile. Metformin alone or in combination with selected sulfhydryl agents possesses radioprotective properties when administered 24 h after radiation exposure comparable to that observed for amifostine administered 30 min prior to irradiation making it a potentially useful agent for radiation countermeasures use. PMID:24754562

  18. Redox Factor-1 Activates Endothelial SIRTUIN1 through Reduction of Conserved Cysteine Sulfhydryls in Its Deacetylase Domain

    PubMed Central

    Naqvi, Asma; Yamamori, Tohru; Kumar, Santosh; Kumar, Ajay; Irani, Kaikobad

    2013-01-01

    Apurinic/Apyrmidinic Endonuclease 1/Redox Factor-1 (APE1/Ref-1) is a reductant which is important for vascular homeostasis. SIRTUIN1 (SIRT1) is a lysine deacetylase that also promotes endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. We asked if APE1/Ref-1 governs the redox state and activity of SIRT1, and whether SIRT1 mediates the effect of APE1/Ref-1 on endothelium-dependent vascular function. APE1/Ref-1 maintains sulfhydryl (thiol) groups of cysteine residues in SIRT1 in the reduced form and promotes endothelial SIRT1 activity. APE1/Ref-1 stimulates SIRT1 activity by targeting highly conserved vicinal thiols 371 and 374 which form a zinc tetra-thiolate motif in the deacetylase domain of SIRT1. Cysteine residues in the N-terminal redox domain of APE1/Ref-1 are essential for reducing SIRT1 and stimulating its activity. APE1/Ref-1 protects endothelial SIRT1 from hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidation of sulfhydryls and from inactivation. APE1/Ref-1 also promotes lysine deacetylation of the SIRT1 target endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). SIRT1 mutated at cysteines 371 and 374, which renders it non-reducible by APE1/Ref-1, prevents lysine deacetylation of eNOS by APE1/Ref-1. SIRT1 free thiol (reduced sulfhydryl) content and deacetylase activity are diminished in all examined tissues of APE1/Ref-1+/? mice, including the vasculature. Overexpression of SIRT1 in aortas of APE1/Ref-1+/? mice restores endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) to levels similar to those observed in wild-type mice. Thus, APE1/Ref-1, by maintaining functionally important cysteine sulfhydryls in SIRT1 in the reduced form, promotes endothelial SIRT1 activity. This reductive activation of endothelial SIRT1 by APE1/Ref-1 mediates the effect of APE1/Ref-1 on eNOS acetylation, promoting endothelium-derived NO and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. PMID:23755229

  19. Gene Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-07-30

    In this activity, learners explore how genetic switches function and the role of genetic switches in the process of evolution. To make these concepts less abstract and more understandable, learners first view a series of video clips and animations from the HHMI DVD (or online) "Evolution: Constant Change and Common Threads." Then, learners construct a model of a gene switch using craft materials or FridgiGears (magnetic gears). This activity can be done as a demonstration, a student inquiry activity, or a combination of the two.

  20. Acceleration switch

    DOEpatents

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Devaney, Howard F. (Cedar Crest, NM); Hake, Lewis W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  1. Human Augmenter of Liver Regeneration; probing the catalytic mechanism of a flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidase†

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer-Ramadan, Stephanie; Gannon, Shawn A.; Thorpe, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Augmenter of liver regeneration is a member of the ERV family of small flavin-dependent sulfhydryl oxidases that contain a redox-active CxxC disulfide bond in redox communication with the isoalloxazine ring of bound FAD. These enzymes catalyze the oxidation of thiol substrates with the reduction of molecular oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. This work studies the catalytic mechanism of the short, cytokine, form of augmenter of liver regeneration (sfALR) using model thiol substrates of the enzyme. The redox potential of the proximal disulfide in sfALR was found to be approximately 57 mV more reducing than the flavin chromophore, in agreement with titration experiments. Rapid reaction studies show that dithiothreitol (DTT) generates a transient mixed disulfide intermediate with sfALR signaled by a weak charge-transfer interaction between the thiolate of C145 and the oxidized flavin. The subsequent transfer of reducing equivalents to the flavin ring is relatively slow, with a limiting apparent rate constant of 12.4 s?1. However, reoxidation of the reduced flavin by molecular oxygen is even slower (2.3 s?1 at air saturation), and thus largely limits turnover at 5 mM DTT. The nature of the charge-transfer complexes observed with DTT was explored using a range of simple monothiols to mimic the initial nucleophilic attack on the proximal disulfide. While ?–mercaptoethanol is a very poor substrate of sfALR (~ 0.3 min?1 at 100 mM thiol), it rapidly generates a mixed disulfide intermediate allowing the thiolate of C145 to form a strong charge-transfer complex with the flavin. Unlike the other monothiols tested, glutathione is unable to form charge-transfer complexes and is an undetectable substrate of the oxidase. These data are rationalized on the basis of the stringent steric requirements for thiol-disulfide exchange reactions. The inability of the relatively bulky glutathione to attain the in-line geometry required for efficient disulfide exchange in sfALR may be physiologically important in preventing the oxidase from catalyzing the potentially harmful oxidation of intracellular glutathione. PMID:24147449

  2. Noise adaptive soft-switching median filter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    How-Lung Eng; Kai-Kuang Ma

    2001-01-01

    Abstract—Existing state-of-the-art switching-based median filters are commonly,found to be nonadaptive to noise density variations and,prone to misclassifying pixel characteristics at high noise density interference. This reveals the critical need of having a sophisticated switching scheme and an adaptive weighted median filter. In this paper, we propose a novel switching-based median filter with incorporation of fuzzy-set concept, called the noise adaptive

  3. Acute Toxicity of Acrylonitrile: Effect of Diet on Tissue Nonprotein Sulfhydryl Content and Distribution of 1–14C-Acrylonitrile or Its Metabolites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Jaeger; I. L. Cote; A. E. Rogers; E. H. Silver; S. Szabo

    1984-01-01

    The influence of diet on the acute toxicity (lethality) and distribution of glutathione as measured by tissue nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) concentration following acrylonitrile (ACN) treatment was studied. The tissue distribution of radiolabeled (14C) acrylonitrile or its radioactive metabolites was also determined. The diets tested were a standard laboratory rat chow; a casein-based, complete diet; and 2 diets high in saturated

  4. Switched matrix accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Whittum, David H.; Tantawi, Sami G.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a new concept for a microwave circuit functioning as a charged-particle accelerator at mm wavelengths, permitting an accelerating gradient higher than conventional passive circuits can withstand consistent with cyclic fatigue. The device provides acceleration for multiple bunches in parallel channels, and permits a short exposure time for the conducting surface of the accelerating cavities. Our analysis includes scalings based on a smooth transmission line model and a complementary treatment with a coupled-cavity simulation. We also provide an electromagnetic design for the accelerating structure, arriving at rough dimensions for a seven-cell accelerator matched to standard waveguide and suitable for bench tests at low power in air at 91.392 GHz. A critical element in the concept is a fast mm-wave switch suitable for operation at high power, and we present the considerations for implementation in an H-plane tee. We discuss the use of diamond as the photoconductor switch medium.

  5. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  6. Nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber for selective binding and rapid separation of histidine-tagged proteins.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Gang-Tian; Lu, Wei; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Wang, Hong; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2015-07-31

    In the current study, a novel nickel(II)-immobilized sulfhydryl cotton fiber (SCF-Ni(2+)) was prepared in a simple way based on the coordination effect between Ni(2+) and thiol group on the surface of SCF. The composition and element mapping of SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were demonstrated by energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Based on the high affinity of Ni(2+) to 6×His on histidine-tagged (His-tagged) proteins, SCF-Ni(2+) fibers were then further used as an immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) adsorbent for selective binding and rapid separation of His-tagged proteins using an in- pipette-tip SPE format. Our results showed that SCF-Ni(2+) adsorbent can selectively capture His-tagged proteins from protein mixture and Escherichia coli cell lysates. Taken together, the developed method provides a rapid, convenient and efficient approach for the purification of His-tagged proteins. PMID:26087962

  7. African swine fever virus pB119L protein is a flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked sulfhydryl oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Irene; Redrejo-Rodríguez, Modesto; Rodríguez, Javier M; Alejo, Alí; Salas, José; Salas, María L

    2006-04-01

    Protein pB119L of African swine fever virus belongs to the Erv1p/Alrp family of sulfhydryl oxidases and has been described as a late nonstructural protein required for correct virus assembly. To further our knowledge of the function of protein pB119L during the virus life cycle, we have investigated whether this protein possesses sulfhydryl oxidase activity, using a purified recombinant protein. We show that the purified protein contains bound flavin adenine dinucleotide and is capable of catalyzing the formation of disulfide bonds both in a protein substrate and in the small molecule dithiothreitol, the catalytic activity being comparable to that of the Erv1p protein. Furthermore, protein pB119L contains the cysteines of its active-site motif CXXC, predominantly in an oxidized state, and forms noncovalently bound dimers in infected cells. We also show in coimmunoprecipitation experiments that protein pB119L interacts with the viral protein pA151R, which contains a CXXC motif similar to that present in thioredoxins. Protein pA151R, in turn, was found to interact with the viral structural protein pE248R, which contains disulfide bridges and belongs to a class of myristoylated proteins related to vaccinia virus L1R, one of the substrates of the redox pathway encoded by this virus. These results suggest the existence in African swine fever virus of a system for the formation of disulfide bonds constituted at least by proteins pB119L and pA151R and identify protein pE248R as a possible final substrate of this pathway. PMID:16537584

  8. Ferroelectric switching of elastin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-01-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm2, whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  9. Ferroelectric switching of elastin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanming; Cai, Hong-Ling; Zelisko, Matthew; Wang, Yunjie; Sun, Jinglan; Yan, Fei; Ma, Feiyue; Wang, Peiqi; Chen, Qian Nataly; Zheng, Hairong; Meng, Xiangjian; Sharma, Pradeep; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu

    2014-07-01

    Ferroelectricity has long been speculated to have important biological functions, although its very existence in biology has never been firmly established. Here, we present compelling evidence that elastin, the key ECM protein found in connective tissues, is ferroelectric, and we elucidate the molecular mechanism of its switching. Nanoscale piezoresponse force microscopy and macroscopic pyroelectric measurements both show that elastin retains ferroelectricity at 473 K, with polarization on the order of 1 ?C/cm(2), whereas coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations predict similar polarization with a Curie temperature of 580 K, which is higher than most synthetic molecular ferroelectrics. The polarization of elastin is found to be intrinsic in tropoelastin at the monomer level, analogous to the unit cell level polarization in classical perovskite ferroelectrics, and it switches via thermally activated cooperative rotation of dipoles. Our study sheds light onto a long-standing question on ferroelectric switching in biology and establishes ferroelectricity as an important biophysical property of proteins. This is a critical first step toward resolving its physiological significance and pathological implications. PMID:24958890

  10. Protein and non-protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in gastric mucosa and liver after gastrotoxic chemicals and sucralfate: Possible new targets of pharmacologic agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lajos Nagy; Miki Nagata; Sandor Szabo

    AIM: To investigate the role of major non-protein and protein sulfhydryls and disulfides in chemically induced gastric hemorrhagic mucosal lesions (HML) and the mechanism of gastroprotective effect of sucralfate. METHODS: Rats were given 1 mL of 75% ethanol, 25% NaCl, 0.6 mol\\/L HCl, 0.2 mol\\/L NaOH or 1% ammonia solutions intragastrically (i.g.) and sacrificed 1, 3, 6 or 12 min

  11. Involvement of glutathione, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, vasoactive intestinal peptide, and heat-shock protein-70 in the gastroprotective mechanism of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) essential oil.

    PubMed

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; de Mello Moraes, Thiago; Kushima, Hélio; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective mechanism of action of the essential oil of Croton cajucara Benth. (Euphorbiaceae) stem bark in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and its in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. The involvement of heat-shock protein-70, vasoactive intestinal peptide, glutathione, nitric oxide, and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds in the gastroprotective effect was determined in male Wistar rats. The minimum inhibitory concentration against H. pylori was determined in vitro. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance followed by the Dunnett test, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered to represent a statistically significant difference. C. cajucara decreased ethanol-induced ulcer area in 100% of ulcers and decreased the histologic lesions. In the C. cajucara group, the area marked by heat-shock protein-70 was significantly higher than the area in the control group; this finding was not seen for vasoactive intestinal peptide. C. cajucara could not maintain glutathione levels close to those in the sham group. The gastric ulcer area of rats treated with the sulfhydryl compound blocker was decreased, but the ulcer area of rats treated with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor showed no alteration. The minimum inhibitory concentration obtained for C. cajucara was 125 ?g/mL. These findings suggest that sulfhydryl compounds and heat-shock protein-70, but not nitric oxide, glutathione, or vasoactive intestinal peptide, are involved in the C. cajucara gastroprotective effect against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers. PMID:21488752

  12. Omeprazole, a specific inhibitor of gastric (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase, is a H/sup +/-activated oxidizing agent of sulfhydryl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Im, W.B.; Sih, J.C.; Blakeman, D.P.; McGrath, J.P.

    1985-04-25

    Omeprazole (5-methoxy-2-(((4-methoxy-3,5- dimethylpyridinyl)methyl)sulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole) appeared to inhibit gastric (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase by oxidizing its essential sulfhydryl groups, since the gastric ATPase inactivated by the drug in vivo or in vitro recovered its K+-dependent ATP hydrolyzing activity upon incubation with mercaptoethanol. Biological reducing agents like cysteine or glutathione, however, were unable to reverse the inhibitory effect of omeprazole. Moreover, acidic environments enhanced the potency of omeprazole. The chemical reactivity of omeprazole with mercaptans is also consistent with the biological action of omeprazole. The N-sulfenylated compound reacted at neutral pH with another stoichiometric amount of ethyl mercaptan to produce omeprazole sulfide quantitatively. The gastric polypeptides of 100 kilodaltons representing (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase in the rat gastric mucosa or isolated hog gastric membranes were covalently labeled with (/sup 14/C)omeprazole. The radioactive label bound to the ATPase, however, could not be displaced by mercaptoethanol under the identical conditions where the ATPase activity was fully restored. These observations suggest that the essential sulfhydryl groups which reacted with omeprazole did not form a stable covalent bond with the drug, but rather that they further reacted with adjacent sulfhydryl groups to form disulfides which could be reduced by mercaptoethanol.

  13. FAD-linked sulfhydryl oxidase QSOX: topographic, cellular, and subcellular immunolocalization in adult rat central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Mairet-Coello, Georges; Tury, Anna; Esnard-Feve, Annick; Fellmann, Dominique; Risold, Pierre-Yves; Griffond, Bernadette

    2004-05-31

    The distribution of the sulfhydryl oxidase QSOX in the rat brain was mapped using immunohistochemistry. QSOX is specifically expressed by neurons throughout the rostrocaudal extent of the brain as well as in the spinal cord. Although a majority of neurons express QSOX, different intensities of labeling were observed depending on the area: the strongest labeling was observed in the olfactory bulbs, isocortex, hippocampus, basal telencephalon, several thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, cerebellum, and numerous brainstem nuclei. This study also describes the ultrastructural localization of QSOX in neuronal cells and demonstrates that the enzyme is associated with the Golgi apparatus. Finally, selected double immunohistochemistry showed that in the hypothalamus the highest levels of QSOX labeling were colocalized in neuron populations that express disulfide-bounded neuropeptides. These observations are consistent with a role of the enzyme in secreted peptide/protein folding. Data presented herein will serve as a basis for further investigations of the physiological function of QSOX in the central nervous system. PMID:15116395

  14. Switch Transcripts in Immunoglobulin Class Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Matthias; Jung, Steffen; Radbruch, Andreas

    1995-03-01

    B cells can exchange gene segments for the constant region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain, altering the class and effector function of the antibodies that they produce. Class switching is directed to distinct classes by cytokines, which induce transcription of the targeted DNA sequences. These transcripts are processed, resulting in spliced "switch" transcripts. Switch recombination can be directed to immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) by the heterologous human metallothionein II_A promoter in mutant mice. Induction of the structurally conserved, spliced switch transcripts is sufficient to target switch recombination to IgG1, whereas transcription alone is not.

  15. Changes in Neuromuscular Junction Endplate Current Time Constants Produced by Sulfhydryl Reagents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinacker, A.; Zuazaga, D. C.

    1981-12-01

    The acetylcholine receptor is a protein that contains certain critical disulfide bonds. Experiments were designed to determine the role such bonds might play in the physiological activity of the receptor. Modification of the receptor with sodium bisulfite and diamide produced an increase in the time constants of the miniature endplate current without changes in the single-channel properties of the receptor. Controls were done to determine that this change in the miniature endplate current was not due to an effect on acetylcholinesterase at the endplate. These data are interpreted to mean that the reagents increase the time acetylcholine is bound to the receptor before the channel opens and is most probably due to a change in receptor affinity brought about by chemical modification of the receptor protein.

  16. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  17. CURRENT-SWITCHING CIRCUITRY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. G. Salvador; D. O. Pederson

    1961-01-01

    A group of high-speed switching circuits that use the basic current-; switching mode of operation are discussed. A dynamic analysis of the basic ; current-switching mode is presented in which it is shown that this mode is really ; an overdriven amplifier in a common-emitter configuration. Therefore the ; dominant nntural frequency, which determines the switching time, is actually f\\/;

  18. Contact physics modeling and optimization design of RF-MEMS cantilever switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Wang; L. Chow; J. L. Volakis; K. Saitou; K. Kurabayashi

    2005-01-01

    RF MEMS direct-contact switches exhibit many advantages over the conventional semiconductor switches; however, existing drawbacks such as low power handling, high pull-in voltage and long switch opening time are most critical. This paper presents an optimization design for an RF-MEMS cantilever direct-contact switch to achieve maximum power handling capability, minimum pull-in voltage and switch opening time simultaneously. A 2-step optimization

  19. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  20. The structure of Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase reveals a novel redox switch that regulates its activities

    SciTech Connect

    Chitnumsub, Penchit, E-mail: penchit@biotec.or.th; Ittarat, Wanwipa; Jaruwat, Aritsara; Noytanom, Krittikar [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Amornwatcharapong, Watcharee [Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Pornthanakasem, Wichai [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Chaiyen, Pimchai [Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Leartsakulpanich, Ubolsree, E-mail: penchit@biotec.or.th [National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, 113 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Road, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of P. falciparum SHMT revealed snapshots of an intriguing disulfide/sulfhydryl switch controlling the functional activity. Plasmodium falciparum serine hydroxymethyltransferase (PfSHMT), an enzyme in the dTMP synthesis cycle, is an antimalarial target because inhibition of its expression or function has been shown to be lethal to the parasite. As the wild-type enzyme could not be crystallized, protein engineering of residues on the surface was carried out. The surface-engineered mutant PfSHMT-F292E was successfully crystallized and its structure was determined at 3 Å resolution. The PfSHMT-F292E structure is a good representation of PfSHMT as this variant revealed biochemical properties similar to those of the wild type. Although the overall structure of PfSHMT is similar to those of other SHMTs, unique features including the presence of two loops and a distinctive cysteine pair formed by Cys125 and Cys364 in the tetrahydrofolate (THF) substrate binding pocket were identified. These structural characteristics have never been reported in other SHMTs. Biochemical characterization and mutation analysis of these two residues confirm that they act as a disulfide/sulfhydryl switch to regulate the THF-dependent catalytic function of the enzyme. This redox switch is not present in the human enzyme, in which the cysteine pair is absent. The data reported here can be further exploited as a new strategy to specifically disrupt the activity of the parasite enzyme without interfering with the function of the human enzyme.

  1. Xestoquinone, isolated from sea sponge, causes Ca(2+) release through sulfhydryl modification from skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Ito, M; Hirata, Y; Nakamura, H; Ohizumi, Y

    1999-12-01

    Xestoquinone (XQN) (3 x 10(-7) to 3 x 10(-3) M), isolated from the sea sponge Xestospongia sapra, induced a concentration-dependent Ca(2+) release from the heavy fraction of fragmented sarcoplasmic reticulum (HSR) of rabbit skeletal muscle with an EC(50) value of approximately 30 microM. On the basis of the EC(50), XQN is 10 times more potent than caffeine. Dithiothreitol completely blocked XQN-induced Ca(2+) release from HSR without affecting that induced by caffeine. Caffeine-induced Ca(2+) release was reduced markedly by Mg(2+), procaine, and ruthenium red, agents that are known to block release of Ca(2+) from sarcoplasmic reticulum, whereas that induced by XQN was not inhibited. The bell-shaped profile of Ca(2+) dependence for XQN was significantly shifted upward in a wider range of pCa (between 7 and 3), whereas that for caffeine was shifted to the left in a narrower range of pCa (between 8 and 7). The maximum response to caffeine in (45)Ca(2+) release was not affected by 9-methyl-7-bromoeudistomin D, whereas the response was further increased by XQN. XQN caused a concentration-dependent decrease in [(3)H]ryanodine binding to HSR. This effect of XQN also was abolished in the presence of dithiothreitol. Scatchard analysis revealed that the mode of inhibition by XQN was noncompetitive in [(3)H]ryanodine binding to HSR. These results indicate that sulfhydryl groups are involved in both the XQN effect on ryanodine binding and on Ca(2+) release. PMID:10565813

  2. Performance of sulfhydryl boron hydride in patients with grade III and IV astrocytoma: a basis for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed

    Ceberg, C P; Persson, A; Brun, A; Huiskamp, R; Fyhr, A S; Persson, B R; Salford, L G

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated the rationale of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for the treatment of Grade III and IV astrocytoma. The European Community joint research program on BNCT plans to use sulfhydryl boron hydride (BSH) in clinical trials. The work presented here, examines the performance of BSH in eight patients with Grade III and IV astrocytoma using a measurement technique which precisely correlates the boron uptake with the histology of the tumor and the peritumoral brain. Astrocytomas are exceptionally heterogeneous and spread migrating tumor cells into the surrounding brain. The patients were infused with 50 mg BSH per kilogram of body weight at 12, 18, 24 or 48 hours before surgery. At the time of operation, specimens were obtained of the tumor, skin, muscle, dura, blood, urine, and, when surgically possible, the brain adjacent to tumor. In three patients the intracellular boron distribution was investigated by subcellular fractionation. The blood clearance was biphasic with half-lives of 0.6 and 8.2 hours. After 3 days, approximately 70% of the dose injected was excreted in the urine. The maximum boron concentration in the tumor was 20 ppm, 12 hours after the infusion. The tumor-to-blood ratios ranged between 0.2 and 1.4, with the highest values after 18 to 24 hours. In the brain specimens the boron concentration never exceeded 1 ppm. This work confirms a selective uptake of boron in the tumor compared to the surrounding brain and that boron, to some extent, is incorporated in the tumor cells. PMID:7782854

  3. Antiulcer activity of Muntingia calabura leaves involves the modulation of endogenous nitric oxide and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Balan, Tavamani; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Suppaiah, Velan; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Suhaili, Zarizal; Ahmad, Zuraini; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2013-11-01

    Abstract Context: Muntingia calabura L. (Muntingiaceae) is a native plant species of the American continent and is widely cultivated in warm areas in Asia, including Malaysia. The plant is traditionally used to relieve pain from gastric ulcers. Objective: This study was designed to determine the antiulcer activity of a methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and the possible mechanisms of action involved. Materials and methods: An acute toxicity study was conducted using a single oral dose of 2000?mg/kg MEMC. The antiulcer activity of MEMC was evaluated in absolute ethanol- and indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer rat models. MEMC was administered orally (dose range 25-500?mg/kg) to rats fasted for 24?h. The animals were pretreated with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME) or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prior to MEMC treatment to assess the possible involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMC. Results: As the administered dose did not cause toxicity in the rats, the oral median lethal dose (LD50) of MEMC was >2000?mg/kg in rats. MEMC exerted significant (p?

  4. Studies on the plasma membrane H sup + -ATPase of oat roots: Preparation and assay, cytological localization, and sulfhydryl chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, D.B.

    1989-01-01

    Biochemical and cytological studies were performed on the plasma membrane proton pump (H{sup +}-ATPase) of oat roots (Avena sativa cv. Stout). H{sup +}-ATPase activity in oat root plasma membranes is inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), a covalent modifier of protein sulfhydryl groups. The rate of inhibition is reduced in the presence of ADP or MgADP. An M{sub r} = 100,000 plasma membrane polypeptide showed reduced labelling by ({sup 3}H)NEM in the presence of ADP. When tryptic peptides from ({sup 3}H)NEM-labeled M{sub r} = 100,000 polypeptide were separated by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), only one radioactive peak consistently showed labeling in the presence of ADP. In order to determine the location and identity of the NEM-reactive residue, the radioactive peptide in this peak was further purified by HPLC. The amino acid sequence(s) in the resulting sample were then determined by Edman degradation on an automated gas-phase sequenator. The PTH-amino acids released at each cycle of the degradation were separated by HPLC. Analysis of the chromatograms suggested that the radio-labeled residue was located in a peptide of sequence V-E-N-Q-D-A-I-D-A-C{sup *}-M-V-G-M-L-A-D-P-K. The NEM-reactive residue was cysteine, based on the retention time of the radioactivity released. The ATP-hydrolyzing activity observed in electron micrographs by lead-precipitation of enzymically released inorganic phosphate was compared with that observed in in vitro assays of the soluble and plasma membrane fractions of oat root homogenates. Although an ATP-hydrolyzing activity was observed on the plasma membrane in the electron micrographs, its substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity was identical to that observed for phosphatase activity.

  5. The Respiratory Burst and Electrolyte Leakage Induced by Sulfhydryl Blockers in Egeria densa Leaves Are Associated with H2O2 Production and Are Dependent on Ca2+ Influx1

    PubMed Central

    Marrè, Maria Teresa; Amicucci, Enrica; Zingarelli, Luisa; Albergoni, Francesco; Marrè, Erasmo

    1998-01-01

    In leaves of Egeria densa Planchon, N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) and other sulfhydryl-binding reagents induce a temporary increase in nonmitochondrial respiration (?QO2) that is inhibited by diphenylene iodonium and quinacrine, two known inhibitors of the plasma membrane NADPH oxidase, and are associated with a relevant increase in electrolyte leakage (M. Bellando, S. Sacco, F. Albergoni, P. Rocco, M.T. Marré [1997] Bot Acta 110: 388–394). In this paper we report data indicating further analogies between the oxidative burst induced by sulfhydryl blockers in E. densa and that induced by pathogen-derived elicitors in animal and plant cells: (a) NEM- and Ag+-induced ?QO2 was associated with H2O2 production and both effects depended on the presence of external Ca2+; (b) Ca2+ influx was markedly increased by treatment with NEM; (c) the Ca2+ channel blocker LaCl3 inhibited ?QO2, electrolyte release, and membrane depolarization induced by the sulfhydryl reagents; and (d) LaCl3 also inhibited electrolyte leakage induced by the direct infiltration of the leaves with H2O2. These results suggest a model in which the interaction of sulfhydryl blockers with sulfhydryl groups of cell components would primarily induce an increase in the Ca2+ cytosolic concentration, followed by membrane depolarization and activation of a plasma membrane NADPH oxidase. This latter effect, producing active oxygen species, might further influence plasma membrane permeability, leading to the massive release of electrolytes from the tissue. PMID:9847112

  6. RF MEMS switches and switch circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Rebeiz; J. B. Muldavin

    2001-01-01

    MEMS switches are devices that use mechanical movement to achieve a short circuit or an open circuit in the RF transmission line. RF MEMS switches are the specific micromechanical switches that are designed to operate at RF-to-millimeter-wave frequencies (0.1 to 100 GHz). The forces required for the mechanical movement can be obtained using electrostatic, magnetostatic, piezoelectric, or thermal designs. To

  7. Self-organized atomic switch networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stieg, Adam Z.; Avizienis, Audrius V.; Sillin, Henry O.; Martin-Olmos, Cristina; Lam, Miu-Ling; Aono, Masakazu; Gimzewski, James K.

    2014-01-01

    The spontaneous emergence of complex behavior in dynamical systems occurs through the collective interaction of nonlinear elements toward a highly correlated, non-equilibrium critical state. Criticality has been proposed as a model for understanding complexity in systems whose behavior can be approximated as a state lying somewhere between order and chaos. Here we present unique, purpose-built devices, known as atomic switch networks (ASN), specifically designed to generate the class of emergent properties which underlie critical dynamics in complex systems. The network is an open, dissipative system comprised of highly interconnected (˜109/cm2) atomic switch interfaces wired through the spontaneous electroless deposition of metallic silver fractal architectures. The functional topology of ASN architectures self-organizes to produce persistent critical dynamics without fine-tuning, indicating a capacity for memory and learning via persistent critical states toward potential utility in real-time, neuromorphic computation.

  8. Gastroprotective effects of goniothalamin against ethanol and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions in rats: Role of prostaglandins, nitric oxide and sulfhydryl compounds.

    PubMed

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Monteiro, Karin Maia; Iwamoto, Leilane Hespporte; Jorge, Michelle Pedroza; Tinti, Sirlene Valério; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; de Carvalho, João Ernesto

    2014-11-10

    Goniothalamin (GTN), a styryl-lactone, is a secondary metabolite naturally found in its enantiomeric form (R) in plants of the genus Goniothalamus (Annonaceae). The antiproliferative activity against human tumor cell lines reported in several studies suggest that the ?,?-unsaturated ?-lactone moiety emerges as a key Michael acceptor for cysteine residues or other nucleophilic biological molecules. Our group reported on the in vivo activity of (R)- and (S)-GTN as well as its racemic form (rac-GTN) in both Ehrlich solid tumor and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice, without side effects in the effective doses. Despite the rich body of data on the in vitro GTN biological activity, much less is known about its in vivo pharmacological action. Herein we describe the gastroprotective activity of rac-GTN on chemical-induced gastric ulcers models in rats. GTN has a potent gastroprotective effect on ethanol-induced ulcers (effective dose50=18mg/kg) and this activity is dependent on sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins generation, but independent of nitric oxide (NO), gastric secretion and mucus production. We hypothesize that goniothalamin may act as a mild irritant, inducing the production of sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins, in a process known as adaptive cytoprotection. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that Michael acceptors are the most potent inducers of antioxidant response (as activation of Nrf2 pathway) through generation of mild oxidative stress and that gastroprotective activity of goniothalamin is inhibited after pre-treatment with NEM (N-ethylmaleimide) and NSAID (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), highlighting the importance of sulfhydryl compounds and prostaglandins on GTN activity. PMID:25451594

  9. Synergism of organic zinc salts and sulfhydryl compounds (thiols) in the protection of mice against acute ethanol toxicity, and protective effects of various metal salts.

    PubMed

    Floersheim, G L

    1987-06-01

    Organic zinc salts such as zinc aspartate, zinc orotate, zinc histidine and zinc acetate protected mice against the lethality of an acute intraperitoneal challenge with ethanol. A similar activity was also provided by salts of cobalt, zirconium, lithium and magnesium. Organic zinc salts acted synergistically with sulfhydryl compounds in protecting the mice and potentiation between the two categories of agents was seen. The results are in analogy to radioprotective effects by zinc and thiols and imply that organic zinc salts may, alone or in conjunction with thiols, reduce in a wider context tissue injury caused by free radical-mediated mechanisms. PMID:3630856

  10. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  11. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOEpatents

    Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  12. Comparative studies on sulfhydryl determination of soy protein using two aromatic disulfide reagents and two fluorescent reagents.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Qijun; Chen, Yeming; Kong, Xiangzhen; Hua, Yufei

    2013-03-20

    In this study, the sulfhydryl (SH) contents of unheated and heated (90 °C, 5 min) soy protein were detected under different conditions (pH, reagent addition order, SDS/GuHCl concentration, EDTA) using two aromatic disulfide reagents: 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB) and 4,4'-dithiodipyridine (DPS). Two fluorescent alkylating reagents, monobromobimane (mBBr) and N-(1-pyrenyl)maleimide (NPM), were chosen due to their high sensitivity and were also used. Amino acid analysis was used to detect the SH (cysteine) contents of unheated (7.51 ± 0.45 ?mol SH/g protein) and heated (1.47 ± 0.10 ?mol SH/g protein) soy protein, and similar results were obtained using enzymatic hydrolysis-assisted DPS. The SH content detected by DTNB was affected by pH, denaturant species, and denaturant concentration, and the best results were obtained at pH 7.0 when 6 M GuHCl was added after DTNB. These results were lower than that of the amino acid analysis, however. The SH detected by DPS was not as affected as that of DTNB by pH, denaturant species, and denaturant concentration. Additionally, the results of the amino acid analysis were similar to that of DPS at pH 7.0 in 2% SDS and 4-6 M GuHCl when SDS and GuHCl were added after DPS. EDTA did not have a significant effect on SH detection when DTNB and DPS were added before SDS and GuHCl. Finally, although mBBr and NPM can detect SH in low protein concentrations ((1)/10 of that required for DTNB and DPS), mBBr and NPM overestimated the SH content of soy protein. Therefore, using DPS at pH 7.0 when it is added before SDS and GuHCl is the most reliable method for detecting the SH content of soy protein. PMID:23432329

  13. Reaction of diphtheria toxin channels with sulfhydryl-specific reagents: observation of chemical reactions at the single molecule level.

    PubMed Central

    Mindell, J A; Zhan, H; Huynh, P D; Collier, R J; Finkelstein, A

    1994-01-01

    The diphtheria toxin channel is believed to be a homooligomer of its T domain in which each subunit consists of two alpha-helices, lying within the membrane, connected by a short interhelical loop of four amino acids (residues 349-352). To investigate the validity and implications of this model, we singly mutated each of these amino acids to cysteines, formed channels with the mutant T-domain proteins in planar lipid bilayers, and added to the trans compartment sulfhydryl-specific reagents [methanethiosulfonate derivatives (MTS-ER)] that introduce a positive or negative charge to reacted cysteines. The introduction of a positive charge at residue 351 or 352 (through the MTS-ER reactions) resulted in a step decrease in single-channel conductance, whereas the introduction of a negative charge resulted in a step increase. The opposite sign of these effects indicates the predominantly electrostatic nature of the phenomenon and implies that residues 351 and 352 lie close to the channel entrance. The same reactions at residue 350 resulted in very little change in channel conductance but instead changed the character of the natural rapid flickering of the channel between open and closed states to one in which the channel spent more time in the closed state; this may have resulted from the group introduced at position 350 acting as a tethered channel blocker. The MTS derivatives had no effect on channels containing a cysteine at position 349, suggesting that this residue faces away from the channel entrance. We propose that the step changes in conductance or flickering pattern result from the chemical reaction of one MTS-ER molecule with one cysteine, and thus a bimolecular chemical reaction is being witnessed at the single molecule level. From the distribution of waiting times between the appearance (i.e., the opening) of a channel and the step change in its conductance or flickering pattern, we can calculate a pseudo-first-order rate constant, which can then be converted to a second-order rate constant, for the chemical reaction. Images PMID:7515494

  14. Adaptive off-time control for variable-frequency, soft-switched flyback converter at light loads

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuri Panov; Milan M. Jovanovic

    2002-01-01

    The soft switching of a flyback converter can be achieved by operating the circuit in the critical conduction mode. However, the critical-mode operation at light loads cannot be maintained due to a very high switching frequency and the loss of the output voltage regulation. A control which regulates the output down to the zero load and maintains soft switching at

  15. Remote switch actuator

    DOEpatents

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  16. Heat Switches for ADRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiPirro, M. J.; Shirron, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Heat switches are key elements in the cyclic operation of Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators (ADRs). Several of the types of heat switches that have been used for ADRs are described in this paper. Key elements in selection and design of these switches include not only ON/OFF switching ratio, but also method of actuation, size, weight, and structural soundness. Some of the trade-off are detailed in this paper.

  17. The simulation of switching in polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Hwang; John E. Huber; Robert M. McMeeking; Norman A. Fleck

    1998-01-01

    A polarization switching model for polycrystalline ferroelectric ceramics has been developed. It is assumed that a single ferroelectric crystallite in a ceramic, which is subjected to an electric field and\\/or a stress, undergoes a complete polarization change and a corresponding strain change if the resulting reduction in potential energy exceeds a critical value per unit volume of switching material. The

  18. An Optical Crosspoint Buffered Switching Architecture Lin Cai,1, 2

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    of the critical components of optical packet switching. Current optical buffers are mainly based on fiber delay buffers for output contention resolution have been proposed [1-3]. These switches focus on using optical if the optical fiber transmission rate is high. To have proper buffer scheduling, the central scheduler has

  19. The Sonic Hedgehog Signaling System as a Bistable Genetic Switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Lai; Matthew J. Robertson; David V. Schaffer

    2004-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) controls critical cellular decisions between distinct fates in many systems, particularly in stem cells. The Shh network functions as a genetic switch, and we have theoretically and computationally analyzed how its structure can endow it with the ability to switch fate choices at a threshold Shh concentration. The network is composed of a positive transcriptional feedback loop

  20. Optical packet switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyal Shekel; Shlomo Ruschin; Daniel Majer; Jeff Levy; Guy Matmon; Lisa Koenigsberg; Jacob Vecht; Amir Geron; Rotem Harlavan; Harel Shfaram; Arnon Arbel; Tom McDermott; Tony Brewer

    2005-01-01

    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router\\

  1. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  2. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  3. Scalable electronic packet switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabio M. Chiussi; Andrea Francini

    2003-01-01

    Due to the changed economic environment, the rush to implementing packet switches with switching capacities above 1 Tb\\/s, which had proceeded at a frantic pace for some years, has slowed down considerably. Most service providers do not foresee the deployment of switches and routers with gigantic capacities in the near future. The immediate interest does now rarely go beyond the

  4. The 3-(bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride: A novel sulfhydryl reagent and its future potential in the configurational study of S1-myosin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Prasanta; Cheung, Herbert C.

    1989-01-01

    Configurational study of S1-Myosin is an important step towards understanding force generation in muscle contraction. Previously reported NMR studies were corroborated. A new compound was synthesized, 3-(Bromoacetamido)-propylamine hydrochloride. Its potential as a sulfhydryl reagent provides an indirect but elegant approach towards future structural elucidation of S1-Myosin. The preliminary investigation has shown that this compound, BAAP, reacted with S1 in the absence of MgADP. The modified enzyme had a 2-fold increase in CaATPase activity and no detectable K-EDTA ATPase activity. Reaction of BAAP with S1 in the presence of MgADP resulted in a modified enzyme which retained a Ca-ATPase activity that was about 60 percent of the unmodified S1 and had essentially zero K-EDTA ATPase activity. Sulfhydryl titration indicated that about 1.5 and 3.5 SH groups per S1 molecule were blocked by BAAP in the absence and presence of MgADP, respectively. When coupled to a carboxyl group of EDTA, the resulting reagent could become a useful SH reagent in which chelated paramagnetic or luminescent lanthanide ions can be exploited to probe S1 conformation.

  5. Photoconductive power switches

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.; Hammond, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This paper outlines the advantages and the potential of photoconductive switches applied to high-power systems. The photoconductive effect can be used to switch large amounts of energy by changing the conductivity of a solid-state circuit element many orders of magnitude with a high-power laser. The simplicity of these devices offers many advantages in high-power applications when combined with high-power pulsed lasers. The surge capability, the switched energy gain, and the maximum average power for photoconductive power switches are discussed. In addition, the results of a 100-kV, 100-MW photoconductive switch experiment transferring 20 J in 200 ns are presented.

  6. Critical pulse power components

    SciTech Connect

    Sarjeant, W.J.; Rohwein, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    Critical components for pulsed power conditioning systems will be reviewed. Particular emphasis will be placed on those components requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems, especially when operation at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time are necessary. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. In particular, opening switches are essentially nonexistent for most applications. Insulaton in all systems and components requires development and improvement. Efforts under way in technology base development of pulse power components will be discussed.

  7. Effects in magnetic components for switched mode applications in the MHz range

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Wallmeier; Peter Ide; Jürgen Kunze; Basile Margaritis

    2004-01-01

    Increasing switching frequencies and faster switching transitions in switched mode applications extend the harmonic content of voltage and current, a magnetic component is stressed with far beyond its first resonance frequency. Several problems occur like oscillations due to parasitic reactive currents and radiation by leakage fields and they become a critical issue to a design. This contribution focuses on those

  8. Self-consistent theory of current-induced switching of magnetization D. M. Edwards,1

    E-print Network

    Umerski, Andrey

    of resistance versus current, and hence to determine the critical current for switching, the microscopicallySelf-consistent theory of current-induced switching of magnetization D. M. Edwards,1 F. Federici,1-induced switching of magnetization using nonequilibrium Keldysh formalism is developed for a junction of two

  9. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  10. The "regulatory" sulfhydryl group of Penicillium chrysogenum ATP sulfurylase. Cooperative ligand binding after SH modification; chemical and thermodynamic properties.

    PubMed

    Martin, R L; Daley, L A; Lovric, Z; Wailes, L M; Renosto, F; Segel, I H

    1989-07-15

    ATP sulfurylase from Penicillium chrysogenum is a homohexamer that contains three free sulfhydryl groups/subunit, only one of which (designated SH-1) can be modified by disulfide, maleimide, and halide reagents under nondenaturing conditions. Modification of SH-1 has only a small effect on kcat but causes the [S]0.5 values for MgATP and SO4(2-) (or MoO4(2-) to increase by an order of magnitude. Additionally, the velocity curves become sigmoidal with a Hill coefficient (nH) of about 2 (Renosto, F., Martin, R. L., and Segel, I. H. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 16279-16288). Direct equilibrium binding measurements confirmed that [32P]MgATP binds to the SH-modified enzyme in a positively cooperative fashion (nH = 2.0) if a sulfate subsite ligand (e.g. FSO3-) is also present. [35S]Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) binding to the SH-modified enzyme displayed positive cooperativity (nH = 1.9) in the absence of a PPi subsite ligand. The results indicate that positive cooperativity requires occupancy of the adenylyl and sulfate (but not the pyrophosphate) subsites. [35S]APS binding to the native enzyme displayed negative cooperativity (or binding to at least two classes of sites). Isotope trapping profiles for the single turnover of [35S]APS: (a) confirmed the equilibrium binding curves, (b) indicated that all six sites/hexamer are catalytically active, and (c) showed that APS does not dissociate at a significant rate from E.APS.PPi. The MgPPi concentration dependence of [35S]APS trapping was indicative of MgPPi binding to two classes of sites on both the native and SH-modified enzyme. Inactivation of the native or SH-modified enzyme by phenylglyoxal in the presence of saturating APS was biphasic. The semilog plots suggested that only half of the sites were highly protected. The cumulative data suggest a model in which pairs of sites or subunits can exist in three different states designated HH (both sites have a high APS affinity, as in the native free enzyme), LL (both sites have a low APS affinity as in the SH-modified enzyme), and LH (as in the APS-occupied native or SH-modified enzyme). Thus, the HH----LH transition displays negative cooperativity for APS binding while the LL----LH transition displays positive cooperativity. The relative reactivities of like-paired SH-reactive reagents were in the order: N-phenylmaleimide greater than N-ethylmaleimide; dithionitropyridine greater than dithionitrobenzoate; thiolyte-MQ greater than thiolyte-MB. The log kmod versus pH curve indicates that the pKa of SH-1 is greater than 9.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2545683

  11. A simple soft-switched switched-reluctance motor drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Murai; Ji Cheng

    1998-01-01

    A simple soft-switched switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive circuit was proposed, involving only three transistors. The circuit aims to drive the SRM with low EMI and with higher efficiency. The circuit performs soft switching by a simple switching method just like the usual hard switching drives. The current cut-off action of the motor windings can be done in a resonant

  12. Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Lai; R. W. Young; J. W. McKeever

    1994-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates efficiencies of DC link soft-switching inverters suitable for motor drive applications. Three types of DC link soft-switching inverters, including actively clamped resonant DC link inverter, clamped-mode resonant pole-inverter, and auxiliary switch commutated resonant pole inverter, were studied. Loss separation methods for evaluating soft-switching inverters were developed using a simplified device model. The developed methods were applied

  13. Forward-Reverse Switch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fresno Community Science Workshop

    2012-01-01

    In this activity, learners build a switch to turn electrical circuits on and off. Learners can connect their switches to other projects they want to power and swing the popsicle stick around to control the direction of movement of the connected devices. Use this activity to introduce learners to concepts related to electrical circuits, switches, and polarity. Note: this activity requires the use of a drill, which is not included in the cost of materials.

  14. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOEpatents

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  15. Solid state switch

    DOEpatents

    Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  16. 30 GHz tuned MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy B. Muldavin; Gabriel M. Rebeiz

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the use of resonant tuning in high-isolation reflective MEMS electrostatic switches. Tuned switches can achieve higher isolation and a lower pulldown voltage than a comparable single element switch. An equivalent circuit model was developed for individual shunt capacitive membrane switches and then implemented in tuned circuits. The novel cross switch was developed on a high resistivity silicon.

  17. The Electrical Switch

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Michael Horton

    2009-05-30

    This activity is inquiry-based in that students will perform the activity before they formally learn about how a switch works. They will use a multimeter to discover the different settings on a triple-throw switch. The teacher should show the students how

  18. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  19. Pneumatic RF MEMS switch using a liquid metal droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Seungbum; Park, Usung; Choi, In Ho; Kim, Joonwon

    2013-05-01

    We introduce a new design for radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch that uses a liquid metal (LM) droplet as a switching component. The switch uses a polymer membrane atop the droplet as a pressure transducer. Initially, a signal passes through a coplanar waveguide (CPW) line (i.e. the switch is on). Pneumatic pressure on the membrane pushes the droplet, thus reducing the gap between the bottom surface of the LM droplet and CPW line; when the gap becomes less than a critical distance, the signal is blocked (i.e. the switch is off). This switch is more stable and has better isolation than do existing RF MEMS switches that use LM droplets. We used a commercial simulation tool (CST Microwave Studio®) to confirm the feasibility of the concept, then fabricated a prototype device that has the same insertion loss as the reference configuration (i.e. a CPW line only). Applying ˜35 kPa pressure to the flexible membrane resulted in switching performances with ˜50 dB isolation at 3 GHz and when the pressure is removed, the switch insertion loss was measured ˜1.5 dB.

  20. Source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) for soft-switching converters with constant switching frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-F. Liu; P. C. Sen

    1992-01-01

    The mechanism of zero current switching and zero voltage switching is analyzed. The concept of a source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) is proposed. The switch can be implemented in an SRLS voltage rectifier and an SRLS current rectifier. Using the SRLS technique, several DC-to-DC resonant converters with constant switching frequency control are proposed, in which zero current switching and\\/or zero

  1. Source reactance lossless switch (SRLS) for soft-switching converters with constant switching frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan-Fei Liu; Paresh C. Sen

    1996-01-01

    The mechanism of zero current switching and zero voltage switching is analyzed. The concept of a Source Reactance Lossless Switch (SRLS) is proposed. The switch can be implemented in a SRLS voltage rectifier and a SRLS current rectifier. Using the SRLS technique, several dc-to-dc resonant converters with constant switching frequency control are proposed, in which zero current switching and\\/or zero

  2. Optical Circuit Switched Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monacos, Steve P. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method embodied in an optical circuit switched protocol for the transmission of data through a network. The optical circuit switched protocol is an all-optical circuit switched network and includes novel optical switching nodes for transmitting optical data packets within a network. Each optical switching node comprises a detector for receiving the header, header detection logic for translating the header into routing information and eliminating the header, and a controller for receiving the routing information and configuring an all optical path within the node. The all optical path located within the node is solely an optical path without having electronic storage of the data and without having optical delay of the data. Since electronic storage of the header is not necessary and the initial header is eliminated by the first detector of the first switching node. multiple identical headers are sent throughout the network so that subsequent switching nodes can receive and read the header for setting up an optical data path.

  3. Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching

    E-print Network

    nonblocking switch. I. INTRODUCTION THE transmission capacity of optical fibers has been increasing the electronic line cards needed to terminate the channels from just a sin- gle fiber. Optical burst switchingDesign of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching Jeyashankher Ramamirtham

  4. Design of Wavelength Converting Switches for Optical Burst Switching

    E-print Network

    results. We study the performance of optical burst switches using wavelength converting switches based Switches, Wavelength Routers I. INTRODUCTION The transmission capacity of optical fibers has been increas the electronic line cards needed to terminate the channels from just a single fiber. Optical burst switching

  5. Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on

    E-print Network

    Zhong, Lin

    Resistive switching Resistive Switching in Nanogap Systems on SiO2 Substrates Jun Yao, Lin Zhong-controlled resistive switching in various gap systems on SiO2 substrates is reported. The nanoscale-sized gaps are made when studying resistive switching in nanosystems on oxide substrates, since oxide breakdown extrinsic

  6. Photoconductive switch package

    DOEpatents

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  7. Telecommunications: Switches and Hubs

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    We all know how important computers are in our every day communication, but do you know how the computer in your office transfers information between the others? This online slideshow provided by Wisc-Online and the National Science Foundation explains the difference between a switch and a hub and the reasons to use them. For example, with helpful animations and a personalized speed, one can learn that hubs often cause broadcast collisions and are less efficient than switches when trying to send information quickly among networked computers. This is great for students and teachers introducing switches and hubs to their telecommunications repertoire.

  8. Sleep State Switching

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Fuller, Patrick M.; Pedersen, Nigel P.; Lu, Jun; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    We take for granted the ability to fall asleep or to snap out of sleep into wakefulness, but these changes in behavioral state require specific switching mechanisms in the brain that allow well-defined state transitions. In this review, we examine the basic circuitry underlying the regulation of sleep and wakefulness, and discuss a theoretical framework wherein the interactions between reciprocal neuronal circuits enable relatively rapid and complete state transitions. We also review how homeostatic, circadian, and allostatic drives help regulate sleep state switching, and discuss how breakdown of the switching mechanism may contribute to sleep disorders such as narcolepsy. PMID:21172606

  9. Modeling of rf MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Robertson; Fat D. Ho; Tracy D. Hudson

    2001-01-01

    The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as

  10. Performance evaluation of a switched mode detector using nonlinear method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Agarwal; B. V. Reddy; K. K. Aggarwal

    2005-01-01

    Compensating for near\\/far effects is critical for satisfactory performance of DS\\/CDMA systems. One solution for reducing near\\/far effect is multiuser detection. Various optimal and sub optimal methods have been investigated. Most of these methods, get too complex even for relatively simple system. We propose a switched mode detector which switches its detection mode between matched filter detector and successive interference

  11. Optical switching: Excitonic interconnects

    SciTech Connect

    Stojanovic, V.; Baldo, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Interconnects and switches relying on excitons — quasiparticles consisting of bound electron–hole pairs — may offer a promising energy-efficient alternative to electrons in wires for future electronic circuitry.

  12. An optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  13. Basics of Safety Switches

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This course is one of the quickStep series offered by Siemens in Safety Switches. These are FREE on-line industrial knowledge building tutorials. quickSTEPs are a great start for industry novices moving into technical jobs or staff in operational support rolls. They can also be very effectively used as out of class assignments for review or to build fundamental skills. Each course includes: an online tutorial organized as a number of units, lessons with self check quiz questions, a glossary of terms, a self-check final exam with scoring, an extensive downloadable PDF study guide. This course offers: current protection, fuses, enclosures, switch design, switch terminology, safety switches, a final exam, a glossary and a 72 page study guide.

  14. Switch Attention to Listen

    PubMed Central

    Dhamani, Imran; Leung, Johahn; Carlile, Simon; Sharma, Mridula

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the ability to switch attention and selectively attend to relevant information in children (10–15 years) with persistent listening difficulties in noisy environments. A wide battery of clinical tests indicated that children with complaints of listening difficulties had otherwise normal hearing sensitivity and auditory processing skills. Here we show that these children are markedly slower to switch their attention compared to their age-matched peers. The results suggest poor attention switching, lack of response inhibition and/or poor listening effort consistent with a predominantly top-down (central) information processing deficit. A deficit in the ability to switch attention across talkers would provide the basis for this otherwise hidden listening disability, especially in noisy environments involving multiple talkers such as classrooms. PMID:23416613

  15. Escape from a potential well with a randomly switching boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Lawley, Sean D.

    2015-06-01

    We consider diffusion in a potential well with a boundary that randomly switches between absorbing and reflecting and show how the switching boundary affects the classical escape theory. Using the theory of stochastic hybrid systems, we derive boundary value problems for the mean first passage time and splitting probability and find explicit solutions in terms of the spectral decomposition of the associated differential operator. Further, using a more probabilistic approach, we prove asymptotic formulae for these statistics in the small diffusion limit. In particular, we show that the statistical behavior depends critically on the gradient of the potential near the switching boundary and we derive corrections to Kramers’ reaction rate theory.

  16. Optical shutter switching matrix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grove, Charles H.

    1991-01-01

    The interface switching systems are discussed which are related to those used in the Space Shuttle ground control system, transmission systems, communications systems, and airborne radar electronic countermeasure systems. The main goal is to identify a need that exists throughout the comprehensive information processing and communications disciplines supporting the Space Shuttle and Space Station programs, and introduce one viable approach to satisfy that need. The proposed device, described in NASA patent entitled 'Optical Shutter Switch Matrix', is discussed.

  17. Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect

    C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

    2007-07-21

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

  18. Optical Packet Switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George N. Rouskas; Lisong Xu

    \\u000a The concept of optical packet switching (OPS) is emerging as an alternative to coarser-grained switching in the optical domain.\\u000a Despite the significant technological challenges it faces, OPS holds the promise of a highly reconfigurable, bandwidth-efficient,\\u000a and flexible optical layer. In this chapter we study some of the architectural and design issues for OPS networks, we examine\\u000a a number of enabling

  19. Photoconductive semiconductor switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guillermo M. Loubriel; Fred J. Zutavern; Albert G. Baca; H. P. Hjalmarson; Tom A. Plut; Wesley D. Helgeson; M. H. Ruebush; D. J. Brown

    1997-01-01

    Optically activated GaAs switches operated in their high-gain mode are being used or tested for pulsed power applications as diverse as low-impedance, high-current firing sets in munitions; high impedance, low-current Pockels cell or Q-switch drivers for lasers; high-voltage drivers for laser diode arrays; high-voltage, high-current, compact accelerators; and pulsers for ground penetrating radar. This paper will describe the properties of

  20. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  1. Stochastic switching of microcantilever motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venstra, Warner; Westra, Hidde; van der Zant, Herre

    2012-02-01

    Fluctuation-induced transitions between two stable states of a strongly driven microcantilever are studied. Intrinsic geometric and inertial nonlinearities of the cantilever give rise to an amplitude-dependent resonance frequency, and at a critical point bifurcation occurs. Two states are stable, represented by vibration at a low and a high amplitude. Adding noise facilitates transitions between the states. The transition rate rises upon increasing noise intensity, as expected for noise-activated escape from a dynamic double well. Further increasing the noise intensity causes a parametric change in the dynamic double well, and results in a decay of the switching rate. Close to the onset of spontaneous transitions, the bistable cantilever is very sensitive. We demonstrate the noise-enhanced detection of weak modulations of the bistable cantilever, resulting in an optimum signal-to-noise ratio at non-minimum noise intensity.

  2. Precise in situ tuning of the critical current of a superconducting nanowire using high bias voltage pulses

    E-print Network

    Ha, Taekjip

    but no significant change in the normal resistance. As larger and larger pulses are applied, the switching current switching current. Critical temperature also returns and normal resistance is observed to drop. Using.iop.org/Nano/22/395302 Abstract We present a method for in situ tuning of the critical current (or switching

  3. Innovative switching technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, A.; Stabile, P. J.; Gombar, A. M.; Janton, W. M.; Gilbert, D. B.; Herczfeld, P. R.; Bahasadri, A.

    1991-03-01

    We have developed an all-semiconductor high-power optical switch. Potential uses include both military applications, such as ultra-wide-band impulse radar and high-frequency antenna couplers, and commercial use, such as high-power switching for utility companies. Under this three-year program, we have demonstrated various switching applications from dc to GHz frequencies. The generic switches comprise a 2-D semiconductor laser diode array and Si or GaAs devices. In the Si area (linear switches - no gain) and dc-biased network, a single two-sided PIN device, activated by two 1 kW laser arrays, has yielded a holding voltage of 1.3 kV and conducted 192 A. Similar devices have later yielded a holding voltage of 3.3 kV, demonstrating the capability of switching more than 500 kW with a single two-sided PIN device. The same generic technology was also demonstrated in high-power high-frequency antenna coupler applications as well as in mm-wave (60 GHz) attenuators and phase shifters. PIN devices tested in a RF circuit between 2-30 MHz yielded an isolation value of between 28 and 49 dB in the off-state, and insertion losses as low as 0.1 dB when illuminated with 280 W (peak) optical power at 808 nm. In the area of GaAs, PIN, and bulk devices under this project, we were able to deliver devices for experiments in both opening and closing switches. We have demonstrated a compact, all-semiconductor switch system that has switched up to 8.5 MW into a 38 (omega) load. The system uses a 2-D laser diode array with a peak power of 850 W to rigger a 1.5 cm long GaAs photoconductor into a high-gain combination mode known as 'lock on'. The highest power switch was pulse-charged to 55 kV and delivered 470 A to a 38 (omega) load in 160 ns long pulse. In the area of 2-D laser arrays, a peak power density of 7 kW/cm(exp 2) was achieved.

  4. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

  5. [Antidotal effects of sulfhydryl compounds on acute poisonings by sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate, nereistoxin and cartap].

    PubMed

    Cao, B J; Chen, Z K; Chi, Z Q

    1990-03-01

    Sodium dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS) and sodium dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) were discovered to be effective antidotes for acute poisoning of insecticides SCD [sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate], nereistoxin (4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane) and cartap (dihydronereistoxin dicarbamate). In mice, DMPS (250 mg/kg) or DMS (1000 mg/kg) ip 20 min before SCD increased LD50 of ig SCD from 97 to 374 or 251 mg/kg, respectively. The prophylactic effect of DMPS was better than that of DMS. Administration of DMPS prior to cartap increased LD50 of ig cartap from 130 to 375 mg/kg. The therapeutic effect of DMPS was also demonstrated in SCD-poisoned conscious rabbits. DMPS 62.5 mg/kg or DMS 500 mg/kg iv completely antagonized the neuromuscular blockade and respiratory depression caused by SCD, nereistoxin and cartap in anesthetized rabbits. The antagonism of SCD-induced neuromuscular blockade by cysteine (400 mg/kg, iv) was less effective and of shorter duration than that by DMPS and DMS. Dimercaprol 50 mg/kg im showed little effect on SCD-induced paralysis. The antagonistic actions of sulfhydryl compounds on neuromuscular blockade induced by these insecticides probably belong to chemical antagonism. PMID:2177310

  6. The baculovirus sulfhydryl oxidase Ac92 (P33) interacts with the Spodoptera frugiperda P53 protein and oxidizes it in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenbi; Clem, Rollie J; Rohrmann, George F; Passarelli, A Lorena

    2013-12-01

    The Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) sulfhydryl oxidase Ac92 is essential for production of infectious virions. Ac92 also interacts with human p53 and enhances human p53-induced apoptosis in insect cells, but it is not known whether any relationship exists between Ac92 and native p53 homologs from insect hosts of AcMNPV. We found that Ac92 interacted with SfP53 from Spodoptera frugiperda in infected cells and oxidized SfP53 in vitro. However, Ac92 did not interact with or oxidize a mutant of SfP53 predicted to lack DNA binding. Silencing Sfp53 expression did not rescue the ability of an ac92-knockout virus to produce infectious virus. Similarly, ac92 expression did not affect SfP53-stimulated caspase activity or the localization of SfP53. Thus, although Ac92 binds to SfP53 during AcMNPV replication and oxidizes SfP53 in vitro, we could not detect any effects of this interaction on AcMNPV replication in cultured cells. PMID:24210115

  7. Anti-ulcerogenic mechanisms of the sesquiterpene lactone onopordopicrin-enriched fraction from Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae): role of somatostatin, gastrin, and endogenous sulfhydryls and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Cola, Maíra; Di Pietro Magri, Luciana; Batista, Leonia Maria; de Paiva, Joseilson Alves; Trigo, José Roberto; Souza-Brito, Alba R M

    2012-04-01

    Arctium lappa L. has been used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative, and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The mechanisms involved in the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the sesquiterpene onopordopicrin (ONP)-enriched fraction (termed the ONP fraction), obtained from A. lappa leaves, were studied. The gastroprotective mechanism of the ONP fraction was evaluated in experimental in vivo models in rodents, mimicking this disease in humans. ONP fraction (50?mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the mucosal injury induced by ethanol/HCl solution (75%), indomethacin/bethanecol (68.9%), and stress (58.3%). When the ONP fraction was investigated in pylorus ligature, it did not induce alteration in the gastric volume but did modify the pH and total acid concentration of gastric juice. ONP fraction significantly increased serum somatostatin levels (82.1±4.1 vs. control group 12.7±4?pmol/L) and decreased serum gastrin levels (62.6±6.04 vs. control group 361.5±8.2??U/mL). Mucus production was not significantly altered by the ONP fraction. Gastroprotection by the ONP fraction was completely inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide treatment and did not modify the effect in the animals pretreated with l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester. These results suggest an antisecretory mechanism involved with the antiulcerogenic effect of the ONP fraction. However, only endogenous sulfhydryls play an important role in gastroprotection of the ONP fraction. PMID:22191571

  8. Switching field distributions with spin transfer torques in perpendicularly magnetized spin-valve nanopillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopman, D. B.; Bedau, D.; Mangin, S.; Fullerton, E. E.; Katine, J. A.; Kent, A. D.

    2014-04-01

    We present switching field distributions of spin-transfer-assisted magnetization reversal in perpendicularly magnetized Co/Ni multilayer spin-valve nanopillars at room temperature. Switching field measurements of the Co/Ni free layer of spin-valve nanopillars with a 50 nm×300 nm ellipse cross section were conducted as a function of current. The validity of a model that assumes a spin-current-dependent effective barrier for thermally activated reversal is tested by measuring switching field distributions under applied direct currents. We show that the switching field distributions deviate significantly from the double exponential shape predicted by the effective barrier model, beginning at applied currents as low as half of the zero field critical current. Barrier heights extracted from switching field distributions for currents below this threshold are a monotonic function of the current. However, the thermally induced switching model breaks down for currents exceeding the critical threshold.

  9. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  10. Thermionic gas switch

    DOEpatents

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  11. Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main electrical switch banks, plant switch house, looking to the North - Bureau of Mines Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Original Building, Date Street north of U.S. Highway 93, Boulder City, Clark County, NV

  12. 41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. INTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. INTERIOR VIEW, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS FROM OPERATOR'S POSITION - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  14. 43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. OBLIQUE VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING SWITCH LEVER ASSEMBLAGE AND DISPLAY BOARD - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  15. 35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. END VIEW, INTERIOR, SHOWING SWITCHING LEVERS, BERK SWITCH TOWER, SOUTH NORWALK - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  16. Calibrating pressure switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, N. J. (inventor)

    1968-01-01

    A pressure switch assembly comprising a body portion and a switch mechanism having a contact element operable between opposite limit positions is described. A diaphragm chamber is provided in the body portion which mounts therein a system diaphragm and a calibration diaphragm which are of generally the same configuration and having outer faces conforming to the inner and outer walls of the diaphragm chamber. The space between the inner faces of the diaphragms defines a first chamber section and the space between the outer face of one of the diaphragms and the outer wall of the diaphragm chamber defines a second chamber section. The body portion includes a system pressure port communicating with one of the chamber sections and a calibration pressure port communicating with the other chamber section. An actuator connected to one of the diaphragms and the contact element of the switch operates upon pressure change in the diaphragm sections to move said contact element between limit positions.

  17. SWITCH user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The planning program, SWITCH, and its surrounding changed-goal-replanning program, Runaround, are described. The evolution of SWITCH and Runaround from an earlier planner, DEVISER, is recounted. SWITCH's plan representation, and its process of building a plan by backward chaining with strict chronological backtracking, are described. A guide for writing knowledge base files is provided, as are narrative guides for installing the program, running it, and interacting with it while it is running. Some utility functions are documented. For the sake of completeness, a narrative guide to the experimental discrepancy-replanning feature is provided. Appendices contain knowledge base files for a blocksworld domain, and a DRIBBLE file illustrating the output from, and user interaction with, the program in that domain.

  18. Efficiency considerations of load side soft-switching inverters for electric vehicle applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wei Dong; Jae-Young Choi; Yong Li; Huijie Yu; Jason Lai; Dusan Boroyevich; Fred C. Lee

    2000-01-01

    This paper critically evaluates the efficiency of load side soft-switching inverters for electric vehicle (EV) drive applications. Five types of load side soft-switching inverters are studied, including the auxiliary resonant commutated pole inverter (ARCP), the zero-current-transition (ZCT) inverter, the zero-voltage-transition (ZVT) inverter with coupled inductors (ZVTCI), the ZVT inverter with a single switch (ZVTSS), and the ZVT inverter with a

  19. Fault-tolerant onboard digital information switching and routing for communications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Quintana, Jorge A.; Soni, Nitin J.; Kim, Heechul

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is developing an information-switching processor for future meshed very-small-aperture terminal (VSAT) communications satellites. The information-switching processor will switch and route baseband user data onboard the VSAT satellite to connect thousands of Earth terminals. Fault tolerance is a critical issue in developing information-switching processor circuitry that will provide and maintain reliable communications services. In parallel with the conceptual development of the meshed VSAT satellite network architecture, NASA designed and built a simple test bed for developing and demonstrating baseband switch architectures and fault-tolerance techniques. The meshed VSAT architecture and the switching demonstration test bed are described, and the initial switching architecture and the fault-tolerance techniques that were developed and tested are discussed.

  20. Bearingless switched reluctance motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  1. Magnetic switches and circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1982-05-01

    This report outlines the use of saturable inductors as switches in lumped-element, magnetic-pulse compression circuits is discussed and the characteristic use of each is defined. In addition, the geometric constraints and magnetic pulse compression circuits used in short-pulse, low-inductance systems are considered. The scaling of presaturation leakage currents, magnetic energy losses, and switching times with geometrical and material parameters are developed to aid in evaluating magnetic pulse compression systems in a particular application. Finally, a scheme for increasing the couping coefficient in saturable stripline transformers is proposed to enable their use in the short-pulse, high-voltage regime.

  2. How Switches Increase Speed

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This brief interactive activity, by the Electromechanical Digital Library and Wisconsin Technical College System faculty, explains clearly the reasons to use switches in place of hubs when using an LAN. The animations and corresponding explanations are helpful as the user clicks through each slide at his or her own pace. Animations can be viewed again and navigation is simple. At the end, review questions test the userâ??s knowledge. This is a good resource for students and teachers alike to familiarize themselves with switches in this fast-paced technological world.

  3. Bistable Switching Node for Optical Packet Switched Networks

    E-print Network

    Bergman, Keren

    network data throughput by reducing the guard times within the packet structure. The switching timeBistable Switching Node for Optical Packet Switched Networks Odile Liboiron-Ladouceur, Student is achieved using Schmitt trigger comparators in the routing decision logic. I. INTRODUCTION Optical packet

  4. Automatic thermal switch. [spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, J. W.; Wing, L. D. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An automatic thermal switch to control heat flow includes two thermally conductive plates and a thermally conductive switch saddle pivotally mounted to the first plate. A flexible heat carrier is connected between the switch saddle and the second plate. A phase-change power unit, including a piston coupled to the switch saddle, is in thermal contact with the first thermally conductive plate. A biasing element biases the switch saddle in a predetermined position with respect to the first plate. When the phase-change power unit is actuated by an increase in heat transmitted through the first place, the piston extends and causes the switch saddle to pivot, thereby varying the thermal conduction between the two plates through the switch saddle and flexible heat carrier. The biasing element, switch saddle, and piston can be arranged to provide either a normally closed or normally opened thermally conductive path between the two plates.

  5. Heat-transfer thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.; Anderson, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Thermal switch maintains temperature of planetary lander, within definite range, by transferring heat. Switch produces relatively large stroke and force, uses minimum electrical power, is lightweight, is vapor pressure actuated, and withstands sterilization temperatures without damage.

  6. Redundant control of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm oocyte switch by PUF-8 and FBF-1,

    E-print Network

    Kimble, Judith

    Redundant control of the Caenorhabditis elegans sperm oocyte switch by PUF-8 and FBF-1, two protein with striking similarity to human Pumilio, prevents return of primary spermatocytes to the mitotic is also critical for the hermaphrodite sperm oocyte switch. Most puf-8 mutant hermaphrodites make both

  7. Scaling silicon photonic switch fabrics for data center interconnection networks.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Dessislava; Rumley, Sébastien; Calhoun, David; Li, Qi; Hendry, Robert; Samadi, Payman; Bergman, Keren

    2015-01-26

    With the rapidly increasing aggregate bandwidth requirements of data centers there is a growing interest in the insertion of optically interconnected networks with high-radix transparent optical switch fabrics. Silicon photonics is a particularly promising and applicable technology due to its small footprint, CMOS compatibility, high bandwidth density, and the potential for nanosecond scale dynamic connectivity. In this paper we analyze the feasibility of building silicon photonic microring based switch fabrics for data center scale optical interconnection networks. We evaluate the scalability of a microring based switch fabric for WDM signals. Critical parameters including crosstalk, insertion loss and switching speed are analyzed, and their sensitivity with respect to device parameters is examined. We show that optimization of physical layer parameters can reduce crosstalk and increase switch fabric scalability. Our analysis indicates that with current state-of-the-art devices, a high radix 128 × 128 silicon photonic single chip switch fabric with tolerable power penalty is feasible. The applicability of silicon photonic microrings for data center switching is further supported via review of microring operations and control demonstrations. The challenges and opportunities for this technology platform are discussed. PMID:25835876

  8. Ferroelastic switching for nanoscale non-volatile magnetoelectric devices.

    PubMed

    Baek, S H; Jang, H W; Folkman, C M; Li, Y L; Winchester, B; Zhang, J X; He, Q; Chu, Y H; Nelson, C T; Rzchowski, M S; Pan, X Q; Ramesh, R; Chen, L Q; Eom, C B

    2010-04-01

    Multiferroics, where (anti-) ferromagnetic, ferroelectric and ferroelastic order parameters coexist, enable manipulation of magnetic ordering by an electric field through switching of the electric polarization. It has been shown that realization of magnetoelectric coupling in a single-phase multiferroic such as BiFeO(3) requires ferroelastic (71 degrees, 109 degrees) rather than ferroelectric (180 degrees) domain switching. However, the control of such ferroelastic switching in a single-phase system has been a significant challenge as elastic interactions tend to destabilize small switched volumes, resulting in subsequent ferroelastic back-switching at zero electric field, and thus the disappearance of non-volatile information storage. Guided by our phase-field simulations, here we report an approach to stabilize ferroelastic switching by eliminating the stress-induced instability responsible for back-switching using isolated monodomain BiFeO(3) islands. This work demonstrates a critical step to control and use non-volatile magnetoelectric coupling at the nanoscale. Beyond magnetoelectric coupling, it provides a framework for exploring a route to control multiple order parameters coupled to ferroelastic order in other low-symmetry materials. PMID:20190772

  9. Illuminated push-button switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iwagiri, T.

    1983-01-01

    An illuminated push-button switch is described. It is characterized by the fact that is consists of a switch group, an operator button opening and closing the switch group, and a light-emitting element which illuminates the face of the operator button.

  10. Optical flow switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. S. Chan; Claude E. Shannon; J. Jacobs; I. Jacobs

    2010-01-01

    We will explore a new network transport ”optical flow switching-OFS”, that will enable significant data rate growth and cost-effective scalability of next-generation networks. The talk will concentrate on the tough network management\\/control issues of OFS.

  11. Optical flow switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent W. S. Chan; Irwin Jacobs; Claude E. Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Present-day networks are being challenged by dramatic increases in bandwidth demand of emerging applications. We will explore a new transport, ¿optical flow switching¿, that will enable significant growth, power-efficiency and cost-effective scalability of next-generation networks.

  12. Imitation Switch Complexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Mellor

    The imitation switch (ISWI) family of chromatin remodelling ATPases is found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. ISWI ATPases assemble chromatin and slide and space nucleosomes, making the chromatin template fluid and allowing appropriate regulation of events such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. The site of action of the ATPases is determined, in part by the tissue

  13. Vacuum arcs and switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Farrall

    1973-01-01

    This paper is a review of vacuum-arc phenomena which are related to switching devices. Despite the device overtones, the approach adopted for this paper is fundamental. Topics discussed include the drawn arc, the triggered arc, the power input to the cathode spot, cathode-spot division, arc stability, substructure of the cathode spot, dielectric recovery processes, and breakdown between electrodes subjected to

  14. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L.

    2012-01-01

    The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene) monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V) revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR) associated with the device. The analysis of the device I–V characteristics suggests the source of the observed switching effects to be the result of the redox-induced ligand rotation around the copper metal center and this attribution of switching is consistent with the observed temperature dependence of the switching behavior as well as the proposed energy diagram of the device. The observed resistance switching shows the potential for future non-volatile memories and logic devices applications. This review will discuss the progress and provide a perspective of molecular motion for nanoelectronics and other applications.

  15. Protein conformational switches: from nature to design.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeung-Hoi; Loh, Stewart N

    2012-06-25

    Protein conformational switches alter their shape upon receiving an input signal, such as ligand binding, chemical modification, or change in environment. The apparent simplicity of this transformation--which can be carried out by a molecule as small as a thousand atoms or so--belies its critical importance to the life of the cell as well as its capacity for engineering by humans. In the realm of molecular switches, proteins are unique because they are capable of performing a variety of biological functions. Switchable proteins are therefore of high interest to the fields of biology, biotechnology, and medicine. These molecules are beginning to be exploited as the core machinery behind a new generation of biosensors, functionally regulated enzymes, and "smart" biomaterials that react to their surroundings. As inspirations for these designs, researchers continue to analyze existing examples of allosteric proteins. Recent years have also witnessed the development of new methodologies for introducing conformational change into proteins that previously had none. Herein we review examples of both natural and engineered protein switches in the context of four basic modes of conformational change: rigid-body domain movement, limited structural rearrangement, global fold switching, and folding-unfolding. Our purpose is to highlight examples that can potentially serve as platforms for the design of custom switches. Accordingly, we focus on inducible conformational changes that are substantial enough to produce a functional response (e.g., in a second protein to which it is fused), yet are relatively simple, structurally well-characterized, and amenable to protein engineering efforts. PMID:22688954

  16. Protein Conformational Switches: From Nature to Design

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Jeung-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Protein conformational switches alter their shape upon receiving an input signal, such as ligand binding, chemical modification, or change in environment. The apparent simplicity of this transformation—which can be carried out by a molecule as small as a thousand atoms or so—belies its critical importance to the life of the cell as well as its capacity for engineering by humans. In the realm of molecular switches, proteins are unique because they are capable of performing a variety of biological functions. Switchable proteins are therefore of high interest to the fields of biology, bio-technology, and medicine. These molecules are beginning to be exploited as the core machinery behind a new generation of biosensors, functionally regulated enzymes, and “smart” biomaterials that react to their surroundings. As inspirations for these designs, researchers continue to analyze existing examples of allosteric proteins. Recent years have also witnessed the development of new methodologies for introducing conformational change into proteins that previously had none. Herein we review examples of both natural and engineered protein switches in the context of four basic modes of conformational change: rigid-body domain movement, limited structural rearrangement, global fold switching, and folding–unfolding. Our purpose is to highlight examples that can potentially serve as platforms for the design of custom switches. Accordingly, we focus on inducible conformational changes that are substantial enough to produce a functional response (e.g., in a second protein to which it is fused), yet are relatively simple, structurally well-characterized, and amenable to protein engineering efforts. PMID:22688954

  17. In vitro determination of uptake, retention, distribution, biological efficacy, and toxicity of boronated compounds for neutron capture therapy: a comparison of porphyrins with sulfhydryl boron hydrides.

    PubMed

    Fairchild, R G; Kahl, S B; Laster, B H; Kalef-Ezra, J; Popenoe, E A

    1990-08-15

    A major problem remaining in the evaluation of boronated compounds for neutron capture therapy (NCT) is the need to know the intra- or extracellular microdistribution of boron. This is a consequence of the short range of the 10B(n,alpha)7Li reaction products (approximately 10 microns), such that biological efficacy is dependent upon intracellular distribution. In particular, if boron location is predominantly extracellular, a significant reduction in efficacy would be expected. The in vitro procedure described here was developed mainly to provide information regarding the intra- and extracellular location and concentration of boron. However, use of the technique also allows the measurement of compound uptake and retention (binding) and the determination of biological efficacy by the evaluation of survival curves obtained following irradiation with thermal neutrons. Comparison is made to results obtained with boric acid (H3(10)BO3) and to results calculated for various boron distributions. Concomitantly, an indication of compound toxicity can be obtained from the plating efficiency of unirradiated control cells. Currently, most investigators utilize in vivo systems for testing and evaluating boron uptake from various carrier molecules. Given the large number of boron compounds being synthesized and needing evaluation as to their usefulness for NCT, the in vitro technique described here is simple and advantageous for initial compound screening. In addition to sparing animal lives, it is both time and cost effective and utilizes much smaller quantities of test compound than are required for an in vivo assay. A boronated porphyrin (BOPP) evaluated by the above procedure shows an uptake and retention approximately 20 times that of sulfhydryl boron hydride monomer (BSH); the latter compound is currently being used clinically for NCT in Japan and is anticipated for use in clinical trials in the United States. If the advantages demonstrated by BOPP in these in vitro studies are validated in animal experiments, BOPP should be considered for clinical application. PMID:2379150

  18. Time course of inhibition of cholinesterase and aliesterase activities, and nonprotein sulfhydryl levels following exposure to organophosphorus insecticides in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis).

    PubMed

    Boone, J S; Chambers, J E

    1996-02-01

    Cholinesterase (ChE) in brain and muscle was quickly inhibited during a 48-hr in vivo exposure to chlorpyrifos (0.1 ppm), parathion (0.15 ppm), and methyl parathion (8 ppm) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis). ChE remained inhibited during a 96-hr nonexposure period. Brain ChE reached peak inhibition by 12 hr after exposure to parathion and chlorpyrifos and by 4 hr after exposure to methyl parathion. All insecticides caused greater than 70% ChE inhibition by 4 hr in muscle. There was no recovery of ChE after 4 days of nonexposure in either brain or muscle. Hepatic aliesterases (AliE) were quickly and greatly inhibited (> 70% by 4 hr) after exposure to parathion and chlorpyrifos but not after exposure to methyl parathion. Exposure to methyl parathion required 24-36 hr to inhibit hepatic AliE to the same level as that following parathion and chlorpyrifos exposures at 4 hr. Exposure to all insecticides eventually resulted in greater than 80% inhibition of AliE. None of the test groups treated with insecticides showed any signs of significant recovery of AliE during the 4 days of nonexposure. Nonprotein sulfhydryl (NPSH) concentrations were lower than controls after 24 hr of exposure and 96 hr after recovery for all compounds. Exposure to methyl parathion lowered NPSH concentrations greater than the other compounds. Hepatic AliE appear capable of affording some protection of ChE from inhibition following parathion or chlorpyrifos exposures, but considerably less protection against methyl parathion. PMID:8742317

  19. Site-directed sulfhydryl labeling of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase Na+ pump of Klebsiella pneumoniae: helix VIII comprises a portion of the sodium ion channel.

    PubMed

    Wild, Markus R; Pos, Klaas M; Dimroth, Peter

    2003-10-14

    Helix VIII of the beta-subunit of the oxaloacetate decarboxylase of Klebsiella pneumoniae contains the functionally important residues betaN373, betaG377, betaS382, and betaR389. Using a functional oxaloacetate decarboxylase mutant devoid of Cys residues in the beta-subunit, each amino acid residue in helix VIII was replaced individually with Cys. Structural and dynamic features of this region were studied by using site-directed sulfhydryl modification of 20 single-Cys replacement mutants with methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents in the absence or presence of Na(+) ions. The pattern of accessibility of the MTS reagents from the periplasmic side of helix VIII shows a periodicity which suggests that this region is alpha-helical. In particular, a water-accessible face comprising betaN373, betaG377, betaS382, betaM386, and betaV390 may be part of a Na(+) channel. Cys residues introduced in the cytoplasmically oriented part of helix VIII were accessible to three different water-soluble MTS compounds and therefore believed to be exposed to water on this side of the membrane. Most residues located in the upper part of helix VIII (residues betaN373-betaV381C) were protected by Na(+) ions for inactivation by the MTS reagents. The distinct results on accessibility toward the different MTS reagents obtained in the presence or absence of Na(+) ions may suggest a conformational change upon binding of Na(+) in this region. The betaR389C mutant had a reduced activity and a pH optimum at pH 9, which could be restored to a wild-type pH optimum of 6.5 and to a 400% gain in activity upon chemical modification with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate. PMID:14529271

  20. Switching power pulse system

    DOEpatents

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  1. High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches: Switch longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A. [and others

    1998-07-01

    Optically activated, high gain GaAs switches are being tested for many different pulsed power applications that require long lifetime (longevity). The switches have p and n contact metallization (with intentional or unintentional dopants) configured in such a way as to produce p-i-n or n-i-n switches. The longevity of the switches is determined by circuit parameters and by the ability of the contacts to resist erosion. This paper will describe how the switches performed in test-beds designed to measure switch longevity. The best longevity was achieved with switches made with diffused contacts, achieving over 50 million pulses at 10 A and over 2 million pulses at 80 A.

  2. Analysis of reliable sub-ns spin-torque switching under transverse bias magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Aquino, M.; Perna, S.; Serpico, C.; Bertotti, G.; Mayergoyz, I. D.

    2015-05-01

    The switching process of a magnetic spin-valve nanosystem subject to spin-polarized current pulses is considered. The dependence of the switching probability on the current pulse duration is investigated. The further application of a transverse field along the intermediate anisotropy axis of the particle is used to control the quasi-random relaxation of magnetization to the reversed magnetization state. The critical current amplitudes to realize the switching are determined by studying the phase portrait of the Landau-Lifshtz-Slonczewski dynamics. Macrospin numerical simulations are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction and demonstrate reliable switching even for very short (below 100 ps) current pulses.

  3. Plasma opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mendel, Jr., Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  4. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-04-09

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  5. MCT/MOSFET Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1990-01-01

    Metal-oxide/semiconductor-controlled thyristor (MCT) and metal-oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) connected in switching circuit to obtain better performance. Offers high utilization of silicon, low forward voltage drop during "on" period of operating cycle, fast turnon and turnoff, and large turnoff safe operating area. Includes ability to operate at high temperatures, high static blocking voltage, and ease of drive.

  6. Composite Material Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javadi, Hamid (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A device to protect electronic circuitry from high voltage transients is constructed from a relatively thin piece of conductive composite sandwiched between two conductors so that conduction is through the thickness of the composite piece. The device is based on the discovery that conduction through conductive composite materials in this configuration switches to a high resistance mode when exposed to voltages above a threshold voltage.

  7. CREE: Making the Switch

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-03-06

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  8. "Platform switching": serendipity.

    PubMed

    Kalavathy, N; Sridevi, J; Gehlot, Roshni; Kumar, Santosh

    2014-01-01

    Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles. PMID:24992863

  9. Photoconductive semiconductor switches: Laser Q-switch trigger and switch-trigger laser integration

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; Hamil, R.A.; Zutavern, F.J.; Helgeson, W.D.

    1997-12-01

    This report provides a summary of the Pulser In a Chip 9000-Discretionary LDRD. The program began in January of 1997 and concluded in September of 1997. The over-arching goal of this LDRD is to study whether laser diode triggered photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) can be used to activate electro-optic devices such as Q-switches and Pockels cells and to study possible laser diode/switch integration. The PCSS switches we used were high gain GaAs switches because they can be triggered with small amounts of laser light. The specific goals of the LDRD were to demonstrate: (1) that small laser diode arrays that are potential candidates for laser-switch integration will indeed trigger the PCSS switch, and (2) that high gain GaAs switches can be used to trigger optical Q-switches in lasers such as the lasers to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and the laser used for direct optical initiation (DOI) of explosives. The technology developed with this LDRD is now the prime candidate for triggering the Q switch in the multiple lasers in the laser trigger system of the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source and may be utilized in other accelerators. As part of the LDRD we developed a commercial supplier. To study laser/switch integration we tested triggering the high gain GaAs switches with: edge emitting laser diodes, vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs), and transverse junction stripe (TJS) lasers. The first two types of lasers (edge emitting and VCSELs) did activate the PCSS but are harder to integrate with the PCSS for a compact package. The US lasers, while easier to integrate with the switch, did not trigger the PCSS at the US laser power levels we used. The PCSS was used to activate the Q-switch of the compact laser to be used in the X-1 Advanced Radiation Source.

  10. Critical Care

    MedlinePLUS

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  11. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin

    2014-03-01

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 ?J arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 ?m reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (˜4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ˜4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  12. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Long, E-mail: hulong-1226@126.com [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2014-03-07

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2?kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1??J arrival, the structure with thickness of 650??m reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (?4?kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ?4?kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  13. Critic Markup

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hess, Erik

    2013-06-27

    Everyone's a critic, but some of those critics use Markdown, Sublime Text, or other text editors instead of word. The CriticMarkup tool allows authors and editors to track changes to documents in plain text, which is most useful. Visitors can use the program to highlight insertions, deletions, substitutions, and comments. To see a full list of tools that Critic Markup is integrated with, visit the website.

  14. Switching efficiency improvement in spin torque majority gates

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonov, Dmitri E., E-mail: dmitri.e.nikonov@intel.com; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A. [Exploratory Integrated Circuits, Components Research, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Spin torque majority gate (STMG) is one of the promising options for beyond complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor logic. Improvement of its performance—switching speed vs. required current—is critical for its competitiveness. In this paper, (a) we identify an optimized layout of the gate comprised of thin magnetic wires with in-plane magnetization; (b) we optimize geometries of perpendicular magnetization spin torque majority gates. Micromagnetic simulations demonstrate an improvement in switching current for in-plane magnetization (with less than 1?ns switching time) from 6?mA in the original scheme to 1.5?mA in the present one. Additionally, failures of switching caused by vortex formation are eliminated and desired output magnetization is achieved. Various geometries of STMG with perpendicular magnetization are explored. The scheme with a straight cross proves to be the most advantageous. It is predicted to operate with the switching current of 50 ?A and less than 4?ns switching time.

  15. Investigations into the use of dielectric coatings in magnetic switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harjes, H. C.; Sharp, D. J.; Mann, G. A.; Morgan, F. A.; Yelton, W. G.

    High reliability, high efficiency, long lifetime magnetic switches (saturable reactors) will be required in the high power pulse compression systems which are now being considered for use in several applications. One of the most critical components in a magnetic switch is its interlamina insulation. In high speed (high magnetization rate) magnetic switches, the insulation requirements are severe and the thermal management of core losses is a serious design issue. In such a switch, the interlamina voltage can approach 1000 V and, at present, dielectric films (such as Mylar, Polycarbonate, Kapton, etc.) are the only insulation options. These insulations, however, make the thermal management problem more difficult because they have low thermal conductivities and because substantial margins are required on the sides of the core. In addition, it is difficult to realize the normal holdoff strengths of thin films when they are wound with Metglas (the magnetic material of choice in most high speed switches) because the films can be degraded during the winding process by the rough Metglas surface. The results are reported of investigations into the possibility of using conformal dielectric coatings as a viable insulation option in high speed magnetic switches.

  16. Accumulation of 10B in the central degenerative areas of human glioma and colon carcinoma spheroids after sulfhydryl boron hydride administration.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, O A; Carlsson, J; Grusell, E

    1992-03-15

    Sulfhydryl boron hydride (BSH) (10B enriched) is presently used for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant gliomas. BSH must be close to the target cells to be effective in the inactivation of cell proliferation because of the short range of the reaction products (5-9 microns). Clinical experience indicates that BSH is taken up in gliomas but it is not known to which structures it binds at the cellular level. In vitro tests on monolayer cultured cells have indicated that BSH does not bind, or only shows very weak binding, to single isolated cells. It is possible that BSH accumulates in tumor regions due to the special conditions in poorly vascularized tumor tissue, such as low pO2, low extracellular pH, metabolic gradients, and degenerative changes. To test this we incubated three types of multicellular tumor spheroids with BSH for different times and analyzed both penetration and binding. The spatial distribution of 10B in sections of the spheroids was analyzed by neutron capture autoradiography. We found extensive accumulation of 10B in the central regions of both glioma and colon carcinoma spheroids. The accumulation closely followed the pattern of the degenerative changes which were characterized by massive necrosis in the central regions of the colon carcinoma spheroids and by a continuously increasing frequency of pyknotic nuclei as a function of depth in the glioma spheroids. The accumulation of 10B in the prostatic carcinoma spheroids was much lower. The penetration assay, based on freeze-drying and vapor fixation, showed that BSH penetrated easily since 10B equilibrated within 5-15 min in the studied spheroids. Thus, the low accumulation in the prostatic carcinoma spheroids was not due to penetration difficulties. The results of the present study on cellular spheroids and the results from previous studies on transplanted tumors support the observation that BSH penetrates easily into the degenerative tumor areas and that 10B, for some tumor types, might accumulate in these regions as a result of the BSH administration. PMID:1540968

  17. CURRENT-SWITCHING CIRCUITRY (thesis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1960-01-01

    High-speed switching circutits using the basic currentswitching mode of ; operation are discussed. A dynamic analysis of the basic current-switching mode ; is presented and it is shown that this mode is an overdriven amplifier in a ; common-emitter confi;uration. Therefore the dominant natural frequency, which ; determines the switching time, is f beta , the short-circuit cutoff frequency in

  18. An Optical Switch Architecture for Manhattan Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imrich Chlamtac; Andrea Fumagalli

    1993-01-01

    An electronically controlled optical packet deflection switch that is based on space and time switching at intermediate nodes is described. The switch uses optical delay lines to store and switch packets in the optical domain so that optical bandwidth can be achieved across the network. The optical switch is controlled by an associated electronic mechanism that provides the necessary versatility

  19. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  20. Critical Thinking vs. Critical Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty, Howard A.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores four kinds of critical thinking. The first is found in Socratic dialogues, which employ critical thinking mainly to reveal logical fallacies in common opinions, thus cleansing superior minds of error and leaving philosophers free to contemplate universal verities. The second is critical interpretation (hermeneutics) which…

  1. Critical Thoughts on Critical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cody, Dean E.

    2006-01-01

    Scholars in many academic areas, including librarians, devote a significant amount of thought to critical thinking. Surveying views of its use and possibility, the author considers some key librarians' thoughts on critical thinking. In conclusion, the inability to define critical thinking means that librarians need to emphasize control of…

  2. Design and performance of the beamlet optical switch

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, M.A.; Woods, B.W.; DeYoreo, J.J. [and others

    1996-06-01

    High-energy lasers for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments are typically designed with large apertures (>30 cm) to keep the fluence below the damage threshold of the various optical components. Until recently, no optical switch technology could be scaled to the aperture size, aperture shape (square), and switching speed required for the next generation of ICF drivers. This step is critical: The Beamlet multipass amplifier cavity uses a full-aperture optical switch to trap the laser pulse within the cavity and to divert the pulse out of the cavity when it reaches the required energy. By rotating the polarization of the beam, a Pockels cell in the switch controls whether the beam is transmitted through, or reflected from, the polarizer. In this article the authors describe an optical switch technology that does scale to the required aperture size and shape for Beamlet and the porposed National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser, and can employ a thin crystal. This switch consists of a thin-film polarizer and a plasma-electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), the latter originally invented at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in the 1980s and under further development since 1991. After discussing the PEPC concept, they present the design and optical performance of a 32 x 32 cm{sup 2} prototype PEPC, including discussions of the crystals, the PEPC assembly, the vacuum and gas system, and the high-voltage pulsers. Then they describe the performance of the 37 x 37 cm{sup 2} PEPC construced specifically for the Beamlet laser. Finally, they discuss important technology issues that arose during PEPC development: cathode sputtering, cathode heating, nonuniformities in the switching profile, switch-pulse leakage current, and an estimate of the plasma density and temperature produced during PEPC operation.

  3. Optical switch based on thermocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

    2001-11-01

    Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

  4. The Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase (hQSOX1b) Tunes the Expression of Resistin-Like Molecule Alpha (RELM-? or mFIZZ1) in a Wheat Germ Cell-Free Extract

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Wael; Nair, Meera G.; Van Belle, Karolien; Wahni, Khadija; De Greve, Henri; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; Vandenbussche, Guy; Endo, Yaeta; Artis, David; Messens, Joris

    2013-01-01

    Background Although disulfide bond formation in proteins is one of the most common types of post-translational modifications, the production of recombinant disulfide-rich proteins remains a challenge. The most popular host for recombinant protein production is Escherichia coli, but disulfide-rich proteins are here often misfolded, degraded, or found in inclusion bodies. Methodology/Principal findings We optimize an in vitro wheat germ translation system for the expression of an immunological important eukaryotic protein that has to form five disulfide bonds, resistin-like alpha (mFIZZ1). Expression in combination with human quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase (hQSOX1b), the disulfide bond–forming enzyme of the endoplasmic reticulum, results in soluble, intramolecular disulfide bonded, monomeric, and biological active protein. The mFIZZ1 protein clearly suppresses the production of the cytokines IL-5 and IL-13 in mouse splenocytes cultured under Th2 permissive conditions. Conclusion/Significance The quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase hQSOX1b seems to function as a chaperone and oxidase during the oxidative folding. This example for mFIZZ1 should encourage the design of an appropriate thiol/disulfide oxidoreductase-tuned cell free expression system for other challenging disulfide rich proteins. PMID:23383248

  5. An H-soft-switched cell for single-switch nonisolated DC-to-DC converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ming Chang; Jia-You Lee; Wen-Inne Tsai; York-Yih Sun

    1993-01-01

    An H-soft-switched cell is proposed in this paper for obtaining soft switching in single-switch nonisolated DC-to-DC power converters. The proposed H-soft-switched cell provides constant-frequency lossless switching. The H-soft-switching cell may be regarded as a switch whose control circuit is the same as the ones used in conventional PWM power converters. The voltage stresses of the switching elements are the same

  6. A terahertz molecular switch.

    PubMed

    Orellana, P; Claro, F

    2003-05-01

    We present time-dependent results describing the current through a molecular device, modeled as a complex with two active centers connected to leads under bias. We show that, at a properly adjusted external voltage, a passing terahertz electromagnetic pulse may cause a transition between states of finite and negligible current, suggesting that the system might be useful as a nanoscopic switch in the terahertz range. A phase diagram defining the bias region in which the transition takes place within a short time is given. As described, the physical processes involved are of an entirely different nature than those in ordinary photodetectors. PMID:12786110

  7. Railway switch transport model.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Martin; Prosen, Tomaž; Benenti, Giuliano; Casati, Giulio

    2012-11-01

    We propose a simple model of coupled heat and particle transport based on zero-dimensional classical deterministic dynamics, which is reminiscent of a railway switch whose action is a function only of the particle's energy. It is shown that already in the minimal three-terminal model, where the second terminal is considered as a probe with zero net particle and heat currents, one can find extremely asymmetric Onsager matrices as a consequence of time-reversal symmetry breaking of the model. This minimalistic transport model provides a better understanding of thermoelectric heat engines in the presence of time-reversal symmetry breaking. PMID:23214829

  8. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  9. Composite Thermal Switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Robert; Brawn, Shelly; Harrison, Katherine; O'Toole, Shannon; Moeller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lithium primary and lithium ion secondary batteries provide high specific energy and energy density. The use of these batteries also helps to reduce launch weight. Both primary and secondary cells can be packaged as high-rate cells, which can present a threat to crew and equipment in the event of external or internal short circuits. Overheating of the cell interior from high current flows induced by short circuits can result in exothermic reactions in lithium primary cells and fully charged lithium ion secondary cells. Venting of the cell case, ejection of cell components, and fire have been reported in both types of cells, resulting from abuse, cell imperfections, or faulty electronic control design. A switch has been developed that consists of a thin layer of composite material made from nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon that conducts electrons at room temperature and switches to an insulator at an elevated temperature, thus interrupting current flow to prevent thermal runaway caused by internal short circuits. The material is placed within the cell, as a thin layer incorporated within the anode and/or the cathode, to control excess currents from metal-to-metal or metal-to-carbon shorts that might result from cell crush or a manufacturing defect. The safety of high-rate cells is thus improved, preventing serious injury to personnel and sensitive equipment located near the battery. The use of recently available nanoscale particles of nickel and Teflon permits an improved, homogeneous material with the potential to be fine-tuned to a unique switch temperature, sufficiently below the onset of a catastrophic chemical reaction. The smaller particles also permit the formation of a thinner control film layer (<50 m), which can be incorporated into commercial high-rate lithium primary and secondary cells. The innovation permits incorporation in current lithium and lithium-ion cell designs with a minimal impact on cell weight and volume. The composite thermal switch (CTS(TradeMark)) coating can be incorporated in either the anode or cathode or both. The coating can be applied in a variety of different processes that permits incorporation in the cell and electrode manufacturing processes. The CTS responds quickly and halts current flow in the hottest parts of the cell first. The coating can be applied to metal foil and supplied as a cell component onto which the active electrode materials are coated.

  10. Switched Broadband Services For The Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, Don M.

    1990-01-01

    In considering the deployment of fiber optics to the residence, two critical questions arise: what are the leading services that could be offered to justify the required investment; and what is the nature of the business that would offer these services to the consumer ? This talk will address these two questions together with the related issue of how the "financial engine" of today's television distribution infrastructure - TV advertising - would be affected by an open access system based on fiber optics coupled with broadband switching. On the business side, the talk concludes that the potential for open ended capacity expansion, fair competition between service providers, and new interactive services inherent in an open access, switched broadband system are the critical items in differentiating it from existing video and TV distribution systems. On the question of broadband services, the talk will highlight several new opportunities together with some findings from recent market research conducted by BNR. The talk will show that there are variations on existing services plus many new services that could be offered and which have real consumer appeal. The postulated open access system discussed here is visualized as having ultimately 1,000 to 2,000 video channels available to the consumer. Although this may appear to hopelessly fragment the TV audience and destroy the current TV advertising infrastructure, the technology of open access, switched broadband will present many new advertising techniques, which have the potential to be far more effective than those available today. Some of these techniques will be described in this talk.

  11. Proposal of scattering matrix for TIR switch and Spanke switch fabric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rangaswany Nakkeeran; D. Thiyagaraja Guptha; Thirthar G. Palanivelu

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces the scattering matrix for Total Internal Reflection (TIR) electro-optic switch and Spanke switch fabric. The transfer functions of the switch and switch fabric are derived through Mason's gain formula. The scattering matrix of the switch fabric is formed using star product of switch element's scattering matrices. These transfer functions can be made to analyze the responses of

  12. A Novel Soft-Switching Converter for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KUEI-HSIANG CHAO

    A high efficiency converter for switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive is developed in this paper. In the proposed converter, the power semiconductor device with shorter switching time is employed to implement its high-speed PWM switches. And the soft-switching control is employed for further reducing their switching losses. To achieve this, an auxiliary resonant circuit is added to the PWM switch,

  13. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...or control circuits will be opened or shunted or both, and if...switch cannot be locked. On such hand-operated switch, switch...

  14. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Systems General § 236.6 Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped...or control circuits will be opened or shunted or both, and if...switch cannot be locked. On such hand-operated switch, switch...

  15. Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router

    E-print Network

    Ratnasamy, Sylvia

    1 Fast Switched Backplane for a Gigabit Switched Router Nick McKeown Department of Electrical....................................................................................................................2 3 The Architecture of Internet Routers..............................................................................................................29 #12;2 2 Abstract There is a new trend in the architecture of high performance Internet routers

  16. Helical switch: A multipath ATM switch which preserves cell sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Indra; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1994-08-01

    This new paper presents a new cell switching architecture for ATM-based networks. The proposed helical switch is a multistage interconnection network which implements the self-routing technique with efficient buffer sharing. Although the switch may route cells along multiple paths, the connection-oriented mode required by the ATM-based network is supported. Cell sequence integrity is guaranteed by introducing a virtual helix which forces cells routed along different paths to proceed in order and fill the internal buffers uniformly. The performance of the helical switch is investigated under uniform and nonuniform traffic patterns. Unlike single-path multistage networks such as buffered banyan networks which can degrade significantly under nonuniform traffic, the helical switch is shown to be quite robust with respect to nonuniform traffic conditions.

  17. Heat pipe thermal switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf, D. A. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A thermal switch for controlling the dissipation of heat between a body is described. The thermal switch is comprised of a flexible bellows defining an expansible vapor chamber for a working fluid located between an evaporation and condensation chamber. Inside the bellows is located a coiled retaining spring and four axial metal mesh wicks, two of which have their central portions located inside of the spring while the other two have their central portions located between the spring and the side wall of the bellows. The wicks are terminated and are attached to the inner surfaces of the outer end walls of evaporation and condensation chambers respectively located adjacent to the heat source and heat sink. The inner surfaces of the end walls furthermore include grooves to provide flow channels of the working fluid to and from the wick ends. The evaporation and condensation chambers are connected by turnbuckles and tension springs to provide a set point adjustment for setting the gap between an interface plate on the condensation chamber and the heat sink.

  18. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  19. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  20. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822 Transportation...APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.822 Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their...

  1. IP switching and gigabit routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Newman; G. Minshall; T. Lyon; L. Huston

    1997-01-01

    To cope with the growth in the Internet and corporate IP networks, we require IP routers capable of much higher performance than is possible with existing architectures. This article examines two approaches to the design of a high-performance router, the gigabit router and the IP switch, and then provides some detail on the implementation of an IP switch and the

  2. Multiposition optical-fibre switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Tomlinson; R. E. Wagner; A. R. Strnad; F. A. Dunn

    1979-01-01

    A compact simple multiposition switch for multimode optical fibers is described. The switch uses a single graded-refractive-index (g.r.i.n.-rod) lens and a rotating reflector to scan an image of the input fiber over a circular array of output fibers.

  3. Performance evaluation of transoceanic switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Du Yingzi; Hao Weimin

    1998-01-01

    The method of synchronous digital hierarchy self-healing ring (SDH SHR) in submarine operation is being developed to improve the reliability of international submarine optical communications. Transoceanic switching is applied in SDH SHR because of the unique features of an international optical submarine cable network: longer distance, submarine environment and fewer terminal stations. We study the system performance of transoceanic switching.

  4. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOEpatents

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  5. Channelized coplanar waveguide pin-diode switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Simons, R. N.

    1989-01-01

    Three different types of p-i-n diode, reflective CPW switches are presented. The first two switches are the series and the shunt mounted diode switches. Each has achieved greater than 15 dB of isolation over a broad bandwidth. The third switch is a narrow band, high isolation switched filter which has achieved 19 dB of isolation. Equivalent circuits and measured performance for each switch is presented.

  6. Foil fuses as opening switches for slow discharge circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.; Parsons, W.M.

    1985-01-01

    Metal foil fuses embedded in various materials are widely used as opening switches in fast discharge circuits (approx.1 ..mu..s). Several technologies of current interest require opening switches in circuits which operate on a much longer time scale (approx.100 ..mu..s). We have investigated the behavior of aluminum and copper foil fuses for conduction times of 100 to 200 ..mu..s. Reliable current interruption is obtained at the end of melting rather than at the end of vaporization. The ratio of initial to final resistance is >100. In general, the performance of slow fuses can be predicted by simple scaling from fast fuse behavior. For applications where the switching function depends critically on the resistivity versus input energy characteristic, the results presented can be used in the selection of proper fuse size and geometry.

  7. Critical Muralism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  8. Electrical switching in sol-gel-derived SiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jian; Ward, Scott; Wang, Qi

    2003-07-01

    We have investigated electrical switching behavior of sol-gel derived SiO2 films in c-Si(p)/SiO2/metal structures. The SiO2 film is fabricated from silicafilm (a soluble Si polymer in dissolved in denatured alcohol) using spin-coating technique. The thickness of the film is in the range of 300~2000 Å which depends on both spinning speed and the degree of dilution. We find that, with Ag as the top contact, when the applied voltage reaches a critical value of 1.5 ~ 2.5 V, current increases rapidly many orders of magnitude higher, and an irreversible switching occurs. The switching is also found to be polarity-dependent. The switching occurs only when the top contact (Ag) is biased positively, indicating the switching involves diffusion or electromigration of Ag. Both switching voltage and current are found to scale with the top contact area of the device. The switching dynamics is studied using voltage-pulse over a duration of 300 ns to 500 ms and amplitude of 2 to 20 V. We find that the switching electrical field is strongly dependent of the delay time prior to switching, and not related to the film thickness.

  9. Investigation of a hybrid optical-electronic switch supporting different service classes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samoud, Wiem; Ware, Cédric; Lourdiane, Mounia

    2014-09-01

    Optical fiber is considered the most competitive wired transmission support thanks to its low attenuation, wide optical bandwidth, long reach, and low cost. However, optics do not yet perform higher functionalities such as switching. In fact, all-optical switches face a contention issue, due to the lack of practical optical buffers. Thus, the switching function is still performed electronically, which requires energetically costly optical-to-electronic conversions. The energy consumption is a critical issue within the growing data traffic. Thus, a proposition of hybrid switch architecture supplementing optical switch with an electronic buffer. In this paper, we propose to investigate the performance of hybrid switch that supports different priority classes where the priority is defined in terms of Packet Loss Ratio (PLR). We show that the hybrid switch is a good trade off since it allows significant performance improvements towards a buffer-less all optical switch in terms of PLR and sustainable load, for relatively few electronic ports of the buffer, which would reduce energy consumption compared to an electronic switch.

  10. Switching methods in magnetic random access memory for low power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchang, Han; Jiancheng, Huang; Cheow Hin, Sim; Tran, Michael; Sze Ter, Lim

    2015-06-01

    Effect of saturation magnetization (Ms) of the free layer (FL) on the switching current is analyzed for spin transfer torque (STT) magnetic random access memory (MRAM). For in-plane FL, critical switching current (Ic0) decreases as Ms decreases. However, reduction in Ms also results in a low thermal stability factor (?), which must be compensated through increasing shape anisotropy, thus limiting scalability. For perpendicular FL, Ic0 reduction by using low-Ms materials is actually at the expense of data retention. To save energy consumed by STT current, two electric field (EF) controlled switching methods are proposed. Our simulation results show that elliptical FL can be switched by an EF pulse with a suitable width. However, it is difficult to implement this type of switching in real MRAM devices due to the distribution of the required switching pulse widths. A reliable switching method is to use an Oersted field guided switching. Our simulation and experimental results show that the bi-directional magnetization switching could be realized by an EF with an external field as low as??±5?Oe if the offset field could be removed.

  11. Effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and magnetization saturation on the mechanically induced switching in nanomagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Min; Xu, Bai-Xiang; Shen, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    The effects of magnetocrystalline anisotropy (Ku) and magnetization saturation (Ms) on the mechanically induced switching in nanomagnets are studied using a constraint-free phase field model, which allows explicit magneto-mechanical coupling and strictly constant magnetization magnitude. The effects of Ku and Ms on the transition boundary between the coherent and incoherent switching modes are presented in terms of the nanomagnet geometry. It is found that Ms rather than Ku can affect the transition boundary between the two switching modes. In the coherent mode, there exists a critical strain ( ?c ) to induce a deterministic 90° switching. By using the dynamic nature and overrun behavior of the magnetization, a deterministic 180° switching can occur if the mechanical strain is removed once the magnetization rotates to the largest achievable angle ( ?1m ). For 90° switching, increasing Ku can enhance both ?c and ?1m , whereas Ms incurs no noticeable changes. For 180° switching, the switching time (ts) increases with Ms linearly, but initially decreases with increasing Ku and then saturates. The results for ts suggest that moderate Ku and Ms are advisable to simultaneously obtain relatively low ?c , quick switching, high storage density, and high magnetization-state stability in nanomagnets. This work provides insight on tuning mechanically assisted nanomagnet-based logic and memory devices through Ms and Ku.

  12. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  13. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2007-12-04

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  14. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  15. Imitation switch complexes.

    PubMed

    Mellor, J

    2006-01-01

    The imitation switch (ISWI) family of chromatin remodelling ATPases is found in organisms ranging from yeast to mammals. ISWI ATPases assemble chromatin and slide and space nucleosomes, making the chromatin template fluid and allowing appropriate regulation of events such as transcription, DNA replication, recombination and repair. The site of action of the ATPases is determined, in part by the tissue type in which the enzyme is expressed and in part by the nature of the proteins associated with the enzyme. The ISWI complexes are generally conserved in composition and function across species. Roles in gene expression and DNA replication in heterochromatin, gene activation and repression in euchromatin, and functions related to maintaining chromosome architecture are associated with different complexes. Defects in ISWI-associated proteins may be associated with neurodegenerative disease, anencephaly, William's syndrome and melanotic tumours. Finally, the mechanism by which yeast Isw Ib influences gene transcription is discussed. PMID:16568949

  16. MIRO Calibration Switch Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suchman, Jason; Salinas, Yuki; Kubo, Holly

    2001-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has designed, analyzed, built, and tested a calibration switch mechanism for the MIRO instrument on the ROSETTA spacecraft. MIRO is the Microwave Instrument for the Rosetta Orbiter; this instrument hopes to investigate the origin of the solar system by studying the origin of comets. Specifically, the instrument will be the first to use submillimeter and millimeter wave heterodyne receivers to remotely examine the P-54 Wirtanen comet. In order to calibrate the instrument, it needs to view a hot and cold target. The purpose of the mechanism is to divert the instrument's field of view from the hot target, to the cold target, and then back into space. This cycle is to be repeated every 30 minutes for the duration of the 1.5 year mission. The paper describes the development of the mechanism, as well as analysis and testing techniques.

  17. A new soft-switched resonant buck-type rectifier with constant switching frequency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jagjitpati Shukla; B. G. Fernandes

    2003-01-01

    A new three-phase soft-switched AC-to-DC buck converter operating at constant switching frequency and drawing current at unity power-factor from the source is proposed. Unlike other three-phase resonant switch buck-type rectifiers reported in the literature, the switching frequency of this converter is held constant. The proposed converter uses two switches, which are soft-switched. This results in reduced switching losses and electromagnetic

  18. Directed Ig class switch recombination in activated murine B cells.

    PubMed Central

    Winter, E; Krawinkel, U; Radbruch, A

    1987-01-01

    Immunoglobulin class switch recombination occurs at frequencies of up to 10%/cell/generation in activated murine B-lymphocytes. We analysed cH gene rearrangements and switch recombinations from active and inactive IgH loci of B-cells activated in various ways and immortalized by cell fusion. Although about half of the IgM+ cells show rearrangement of c mu genes, the deletion of c mu is a rare event. Half of the IgG3+ and IgG1+ cells show rearrangement of c mu genes on the inactive IgH locus and the other half of the IgG+ cells have deleted c mu from both IgH loci by switch recombination. This recombination is directed to the same switch regions on both IgH loci in 60-80% of all cases. Interleukin 4 may play a critical role in programming murine B-lymphocytes for specific switch recombination. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 6. PMID:3038529

  19. Switching Properties of sub-100 nm Perpendicular Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tryputen, Larysa; Piotrowski, Stephan; Bapna, Mukund; Chien, Chia-Ling; Wang, Weigang; Majetich, Sara; Ross, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions (p-MTJs) have great potential for realizing high-density non-volatile memory and logic devices. It is critical to solve scalability problem to implement such devices, to achieve low resistance area and to reduce switching current density while maintaining thermal stability. We present our recent results on fabrication of high resolution Ta/CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta p-MTJ devices and characterization of their switching properties as well as topography and current mapping by using nanoscale Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy. Our patterning method is based on using hydrogen silsesquioxane resist mask combined with ion beam etching. It allows to fabricate p-MTJ devices down to 40 nm in diameter while maintaining the magnetic quality of the multilayers. Repeatable, consistent switching behaviour has been observed in the obtained p-MTJ devices of 500 nm down to 40 nm with 10 - 800 mV voltage applied. Switching field increased as device diameter decreased, from 580 Oe at 500 nm (MR = 10%) to 410 Oe at 80 nm (MR = 9%). We discuss the effect of device sizes on the switching properties. This work was supported in part by C-SPIN, one of the six centers of STARnet, a Semiconductor Research Corporation Program sponsored by MARCO and DARPA and in part through the National Science Foundation through NCN-Needs Program, Contract 12207020-EEC.

  20. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  1. Terahertz Optical Asymmetric Demultiplexer Switch with a Symmetrical Switching Window

    E-print Network

    Haddadi, Hamed

    asymmetrical demultiplexer (TOAD) switch. This is achieved by saturating the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), located within the TOAD loop, from both directions. So that, both clockwise (CW) and counter], terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) [2], ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI) [3

  2. A simple inductive contactless switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dover, R. B.; Jin, S.

    1985-04-01

    When a small coil wound around a fine core of low coercivity square-loop Fe-6 wt pct Ni alloy wire is excited with a 100-kHz ac current it develops a peak voltage much greater than that obtained from a coreless coil. This effect can be used to sense motion of the core in and out of the coil or alternatively to sense motion of an external biasing magnet. Either way one has a position sensor which is extremely simple and which could be useful in a variety of applications, such as high-reliability keypad switches, proximity switches, and switches for use in hazardous or corrosive atmospheres.

  3. Fast deterministic switching in orthogonal spin torque devices via the control of the relative spin polarizations

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Junbo; Buhrman, R. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Ralph, D. C. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States) [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Kavli Institute at Cornell, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-12-16

    We model 100 ps pulse switching dynamics of orthogonal spin transfer (OST) devices that employ an out-of-plane polarizer and an in-plane polarizer. Simulation results indicate that increasing the spin polarization ratio, C{sub P}?=?P{sub IPP}/P{sub OPP}, results in deterministic switching of the free layer without over-rotation (360° rotation). By using spin torque asymmetry to realize an enhanced effective P{sub IPP}, we experimentally demonstrate this behavior in OST devices in parallel to anti-parallel switching. Modeling predicts that decreasing the effective demagnetization field can substantially reduce the minimum C{sub P} required to attain deterministic switching, while retaining low critical switching current, I{sub p}???500??A.

  4. Switching performance of a cryogenic silicon photoconductive power switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Petr; W. C. Nunnally; C. V. Smith

    1988-01-01

    The silicon photoconductive power switch has the potential to replace gaseous discharge switches like thyratrons, krytrons, ignitrons, and spark gaps, that are commonly found in high-voltage and high-current pulse circuits. This offers the possibility of developing advanced laser and radar drive circuits that are all-solid state, and which enjoy the advantages of improved efficiency, compactness, and life expectancy. Silicon operating

  5. Critical Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Roger A.

    2001-01-01

    Reports the critical shortage of qualified equipment technicians, especially in biomedical equipment. Cites the importance of encouraging careers in this field and describes a source of occupational information. (SK)

  6. Bridges, Switches, Routers 1.1 Introduction

    E-print Network

    Varaiya, Pravin

    Chapter 1 Bridges, Switches, Routers 1.1 Introduction ¯ Packet vs circuit (and virtual circuit ¯ Packet processors--Bridges, Routers, ATM switches 1 #12;2 CHAPTER 1. BRIDGES, SWITCHES, ROUTERS Routing in an extended LAN. See Problem 2. #12;4 CHAPTER 1. BRIDGES, SWITCHES, ROUTERS Figure 1.3: LAN vs VLAN topology

  7. WDM burst switching for petabit capacity routers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuhua Chen; Jonathan S. Turner

    1999-01-01

    WDM burst switching is an approach to building very high capacity routing switches based on optical data paths and electronic control. Burst switches assign user data bursts to channels in WDM links on-the-fly in order to provide efficient statistical multiplexing of high rate data channels. The overall system architecture is designed to facilitate the introduction of optical switching components as

  8. A Comparison of High-Voltage Switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. W. Chu; G. L. Scott

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes our work on high-voltage switches during the past few years. With joint funding from the Department of Energy (DOE) and the Department of Defense (DOD), we tested a wide variety of switches to a common standard. This approach permitted meaningful comparisons between disparate switches. Most switches were purchased from commercial sources, though some were experimental devices. For

  9. Low voltage high isolation MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Blondy; D. Cros; P. Guillon; P. Rey; P. Charvet; B. Diem; C. Zanchi; J. B. Quoirin

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes MEMS thermally actuated RF switches. The switches are constructed using a stress controlled dielectric membrane, with patterned metallic contacts. The structure allows one to build resistive switches at RF frequencies. The process is CMOS compatible and the resulting switches can be easily operated below 5 V. A wafer scale packaging technique has been developed to protect the

  10. An auxiliary resonant soft switching matrix converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Bland; J. C. Clare; P. W. Wheeler; L. Empringham; M. Apap

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design, construction and testing of a 3-phase to 3-phase soft switching matrix converter. Two auxiliary soft switching circuits are added to each output phase in order to achieve soft switching without significantly increasing the conduction losses. The converter operation is discussed with reference to theoretical waveforms. The distribution of the switching losses with respect

  11. Design methodologies for soft switched inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Divan; G. Venkataramanan; R. W. De Doncker

    1988-01-01

    A detailed design methodology is presented for soft switched inverters. The actively clamped resonant DC link inverter and the resonant pole inverter are taken as illustrative design examples with a detailed enumeration of component design rules, switching loss calculations, and system optimization. The soft-switched circuits are then compared with the conventional hard-switched voltage-sourced inverter under identical load conditions

  12. Design methodologies for soft switched inverters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deepakaraj M. Divan; Giri Venkataramanan; Rik W. A. A. DeDoncker

    1993-01-01

    A detailed design methodology for soft-switched inverters is presented. The actively clamped resonant DC link and the resonant pole inverters are taken as illustrative design examples with detailed enumeration of component design rules, switching loss calculations, and system optimization. The soft-switched circuits are then compared with a conventional hard-switched voltage source inverter under identical operating conditions

  13. Cost-optimized switched reluctance motor drive with bipolar currents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zeljko Grbo; Slobodan Vukosavic

    2007-01-01

    The manufacturing cost of switched reluctance motors (SRM) are low due to concentrated stator windings and extremely simple\\u000a and robust rotor construction, having neither permanent magnets nor the rotor windings. Therefore, the SRM drives have been\\u000a considered as a promising solution for cost-critical applications where the electronic speed control is needed, such as the\\u000a appliance drives, HVAC blowers and compressors,

  14. Spin-transfer switching current distribution and reduction in magnetic tunneling junction-based structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Huai; Mahendra Pakala; Zhitao Diao; Yunfei Ding

    2005-01-01

    Spin transfer switching current distribution within a cell and switching current reduction were studied at room temperature for magnetic tunnel junction-based structures with resistance area product (RA) ranged from 10 to 30 ?-?m2 and TMR of 15%-30%. These were patterned into current perpendicular to plane configured nanopillars having elliptical cross sections of area ?0.02 ?m2. The width of the critical

  15. Switch element reliability required to maintain large-scale photonic cross-connect switch reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Noguchi; M. Koga

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses how switch element reliability affects the reliability of large-scale switches. We evaluated the relation between switch element FIT and large-scale OXC reliability. In so doing, we found that the DC-SW is the most reliable type of optical switch because it can be composed of fewer switch elements.

  16. Electron collisions in gas switches

    SciTech Connect

    Christophorou, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Research Article Inhibition Versus Switching

    E-print Network

    Banich, Marie T.

    in executive function. These deficits manifest themselves pri- marily as perseverative behavior and thinking whether such perseverative tendencies are asso- ciated with an inability to switch attention away from old

  18. Vanadium Dioxide Phase Change Switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, Mark; Hillman, Christopher; Stupar, Philip; Hacker, Jonathan; Griffith, Zachary; Lee, Kang-Jin

    2015-03-01

    We have built RF switches using vanadium dioxide thin films fabricated within a section of inverted transmission line with integrated on chip heaters to provide local thermal control. On heating the films above the metal insulator transition we obtain record low switch insertion loss of -0.13 dB at 50 GHz and -0.5 dB at 110 GHz. We investigate the device physics of these switches including the effect of a deposited insulator on the VO2 switching characteristics, the self-latching of the devices under high RF powers and the effect of resistance change with temperature on the device linearity. Finally we show how these devices can be integrated with silicon germanium RF circuits to produce a field programmable device where the RF signal routing can be selected under external control. Supported under the DARPA RF-FPGA Program, Contract HR0011-12-C-0092.

  19. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  20. Magnetization Switching via Giant Spin-Orbit Torque in a Magnetically Doped Topological Insulator Heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yabin; Upadhyaya, Pramey; Kou, Xufeng; Lang, Murong; Takei, So; Wang, Zhenxing; Tang, Jianshi; He, Liang; Chang, Li-Te; Montazeri, Mohammad; Yu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Wanjun; Nie, Tianxiao; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Wang, Kang

    2014-03-01

    The magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in a Chromium-doped topological insulator bilayer heterostructure has been observed and is attributed to a giant spin-orbit toque. The critical current density of around 104 A/cm2 for magnetization switching is nearly three orders of magnitude lower than in the traditional heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures. The effective magnetic field arising from the spin-orbit torque is also increased by three orders. This giant spin-orbit torque and efficient current-induced magnetization switching may lead to innovative spintronics applications such as ultra-low power dissipation memory and logic devices.

  1. Terabit switching and routing algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smiljanic, Aleksandra

    2005-02-01

    The Internet is growing, and terabit routers are needed. We will discuss two scalable architectures, and their performances: the packet switch with input buffers based on a cross-bar fabric, and the packet switch based on a Clos fabric and load balancing. Both architectures provide non-blocking, and, therefore agile admission control for unicast and multicast traffic. They will be also shown to provide rate and delay guarantees to the sensitive applications.

  2. The interleaved matching switch architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Lin; Isaac Keslassy

    2009-01-01

    Operators need routers to provide service guaran- tees such as guaranteed flow rates and fairness among flows, so as to support traffic engineering and real-time traffic. However, current centralized input-queued router architectures cannot scale to fast line rates while providing these service guarantees. On the other hand, while load-balanced switch architectures that rely on two identical stages of fixed-configuration switches

  3. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, James D. (10328 Pinehurst Ave., Omaha, NE 68124)

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  4. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOEpatents

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  5. Electrically switched ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Lilga, M.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Schwartz, D.T.; Genders, D.

    1997-10-01

    A variety of waste types containing radioactive {sup 137}Cs are found throughout the DOE complex. These waste types include water in reactor cooling basins, radioactive high-level waste (HLW) in underground storage tanks, and groundwater. Safety and regulatory requirements and economics require the removal of radiocesium before these wastes can be permanently disposed of. Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is an approach for radioactive cesium separation that combines IX and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible, and economic separation method that also produces little or no secondary waste. In the ESIX process, an electroactive IX film is deposited electrochemically onto a high-surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. For cesium, the electroactive films under investigation are ferrocyanides, which are well known to have high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. When a cathode potential is applied to the film, Fe{sup +3} is reduced to the Fe{sup +2} state, and a cation must be intercalated into the film to maintain charge neutrality (i.e., Cs{sup +} is loaded). Conversely, if an anodic potential is applied, a cation must be released from the film (i.e., Cs{sup +} is unloaded). Therefore, to load the film with cesium, the film is simply reduced; to unload cesium, the film is oxidized.

  6. The magnetoelectrochemical switch.

    PubMed

    Popa, Petru Lunca; Kemp, Neil T; Majjad, Hicham; Dalmas, Guillaume; Faramarzi, Vina; Andreas, Christian; Hertel, Riccardo; Doudin, Bernard

    2014-07-22

    In the field of spintronics, the archetype solid-state two-terminal device is the spin valve, where the resistance is controlled by the magnetization configuration. We show here how this concept of spin-dependent switch can be extended to magnetic electrodes in solution, by magnetic control of their chemical environment. Appropriate nanoscale design allows a huge enhancement of the magnetic force field experienced by paramagnetic molecular species in solutions, which changes between repulsive and attractive on changing the electrodes' magnetic orientations. Specifically, the field gradient force created within a sub-100-nm-sized nanogap separating two magnetic electrodes can be reversed by changing the orientation of the electrodes' magnetization relative to the current flowing between the electrodes. This can result in a breaking or making of an electric nanocontact, with a change of resistance by a factor of up to 10(3). The results reveal how an external field can impact chemical equilibrium in the vicinity of nanoscale magnetic circuits. PMID:25009179

  7. Testing results for the HCT-1400 switch

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeberling, R.F.; Wheeler, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The High Current Thyristor (HCT)-1400 was characterized for switching performance. This is a Soviet switching device that has recently become available to the U.S. community. Substantial claims have been made regarding the performance of this switch. In particular, the switch was claimed to be able to switch high currents, with very short risetime without any significant jitter. This is an independent evaluation of the high current thyristor.

  8. Non-latching relay switch assembly

    DOEpatents

    Duimstra, Frederick A. (Anaheim Hills, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

  9. Inverting ZCS Switched-Capacitor Bidirectional Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaung-Shung Lee; Yin-Yuan Chiu; Ming-Wang Cheng

    2006-01-01

    The proposed inverting type zero-current switching switched-capacitor (ZCS SC) DC\\/DC converters are a new type of bi-directional power flow control conversion schemes. They possess high efficiency, low EMI emission and current stress features for the proposed quasi-resonant switched-capacitor inverting converters. A family of inverting type zero-current switching switched-capacitor bi-directional converters is presented, which can improve the current stress problem during

  10. Soft Switching Circuit for Interleaved Boost Converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gang Yao; Alian Chen; Xiangning He

    2007-01-01

    A zero-voltage switching-zero-current switching interleaved boost converter is proposed in this paper. An active circuit branch in parallel with the main switches is added and it is composed of an auxiliary switch and a snubber capacitor. By using this interleaved converter topology, zero current turn-on and zero voltage turn-off of the main switches can be achieved and the reverse-recovery loss

  11. Origin of immunoglobulin isotype switching

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Catherine; Lee, Victor; Finn, Alyssa; Senger, Kate; Zarrin, Ali A.; Pasquier, Louis Du; Hsu, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background From humans to frogs, immunoglobulin class switching introduces different effector functions to antibodies through an intrachromsomal DNA recombination process at the heavy chain locus. Although there are two conventional antibody classes (IgM, IgW) in sharks, their heavy chains are encoded by 20 to >100 miniloci. These representatives of the earliest jawed vertebrates possess a primordial immunoglobulin gene organization where each gene cluster is autonomous and contains a few rearranging gene segments (VH-D1-D2-JH) with one constant region, ? or ?. Results V(D)J rearrangement always takes place within the ? cluster, but here we show that the VDJ can be expressed with constant regions from different clusters, although IgH genes are spatially distant, at >120 kb. Moreover, reciprocal exchanges take place between Ig? and Ig? genes. Switching is augmented with deliberate immunization and is concomitant with somatic hypermutation activity. Since switching occurs independently of the partners’ linkage position, some events involve transchromosomal recombination. The switch sites consist of direct joins between two genes in the 3? intron flanking JH. Conclusions Our data are consistent with a mechanism of cutting/joining of distal DNA lesions initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), in the absence of mammalian-type switch regions. We suggest that, in shark, with its many autonomous IgH targeted by programmed DNA breakage, factors predisposing broken DNA ends to translocate configured the earliest version of class switch recombination. PMID:22542103

  12. K-Band Latching Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Piotrowski, W. S.; Raue, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    Design, development, and tests are described for two single-pole-double-throw latching waveguide ferrite switches: a K-band switch in WR-42 waveguide and a Ka-band switch in WR-28 waveguide. Both switches have structurally simple junctions, mechanically interlocked without the use of bonding materials; they are impervious to the effects of thermal, shock, and vibration stresses. Ferrite material for the Ka-band switch with a proper combination of magnetic and dielectric properties was available and resulted in excellent low loss, wideband performance. The high power handling requirement of the K-band switch limited the choice of ferrite to nickel-zinc compositions with adequate magnetic properties, but with too low relative dielectric constant. The relative dielectric constant determines the junction dimensions for given frequency responses. In this case the too low value unavoidably leads to a larger than optimum junction volume, increasing the insertion loss and restricting the operating bandwidth. Efforts to overcome the materials-related difficulties through the design of a composite junction with increased effective dielectric properties efforts to modify the relative dielectric constant of nickel-zinc ferrite are examined.

  13. Swing switching of spin-torque valves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Tom; Kamenev, Alex

    2012-11-01

    We propose a method for inducing magnetization reversal using an AC spin current polarized perpendicular to the equilibrium magnetization of the free magnetic layer. We show that the critical AC spin current is significantly smaller than the corresponding DC one. The effect is understood as a consequence of the underdamped nature of the spin-torque oscillators. It allows to use the kinetic inertia to overcome the residual energy barrier, rather than suppressing the latter by a large spin current. The effect is similar to a swing which may be set into high amplitude motion by a weak near-resonant push. The optimal AC frequency is identified as the upper bifurcation frequency of the corresponding driven nonlinear oscillator. Together with fast switching times it makes the perpendicular AC method to be the most efficient way to realize spin-torque memory valve.

  14. Switching friction with thermal- responsive gels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Cai, Meirong; Pei, Xiaowei; Liang, Yongmin; Zhou, Feng

    2013-11-01

    The thermosensitive graphene oxide (GO)/poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) (pNIPAM) composite hydrogels are prepared, and their tribological properties in response to external stimuli are evaluated. The frictional coefficient of the hydrogels is closely related to the gel composition and ambient temperature. When the gel is in swelling state below the low critical solution temperature (LCST), it shows ultra-low friction and exhibits high friction at a shrunk state above the LCST. The huge difference of frictional coefficient under two states can be reversibly switched many times by altering the temperature. The incorporation of a nonthermal sensitive monomer into pNIPAM could change the LCST and thus the transformation point of frictional coefficient can be altered. These reversible and tunable frictional hydrogels have potential application in the design of intelligent control equipment. PMID:24249089

  15. Control for a synchronization-desynchronization switch.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiwei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Guo-Yong; Zhan, Meng

    2014-07-01

    How to freely enhance or suppress synchronization of networked dynamical systems is of great importance in many disciplines. A unified precise control method for a synchronization-desynchronization switch, called the pull-push control method, is suggested. Namely, synchronization can be achieved when the original systems are desynchronous by pulling (or protecting) one node or a certain subset of nodes, whereas desynchronization can be accomplished when the systems are already synchronous by pushing (or kicking) one node or a certain subset of nodes. With this method, the controlled nodes should be chosen by the generalized eigenvector centrality of the critical synchronization mode of the Laplacian matrix. Compared with existing control methods for synchronization, it displays high efficiency, flexibility, and precision as well. PMID:25122362

  16. Ad Critic

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ad Critic strives to enter every television advertisement into its database of online commercials, which can be downloaded for free and viewed with QuickTime. A complete list of advertisements is indexed by company and by ad title. There are, however, also indexes of newly added ads, most-downloaded ads, movie trailers, and music found in ads, making it easier for users to search for a new or favorite advertisement. Ad Critic includes a section on advertising news and commentary and provides services for advertising agencies including online market research and detailed viewer statistics.

  17. Accuracy of the switching pressure of fluidic amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Hanafusa; K. Miyata

    1975-01-01

    Statistical properties of the switching process of wall-attachment amplifiers are studied to clarify the accuracy of the switching pressure. The switching process is classified into two modes: initial switching and random switching. The probability distribution functions of the switching delay are determined for both switching processes by considering the average deflection and random fluctuation of the attached jet. A mathematical

  18. Fluctuation-induced switching and the switching path distribution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykman, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Fluctuation-induced switching is at the root of diverse phenomena currently studied in Josephson junctions, nano-mechanical systems, nano-magnets, and optically trapped atoms. In a fluctuation leading to switching the system must overcome an effective barrier, making switching events rare, for low fluctuation intensity. We will provide an overview of the methods of finding the switching barrier for systems away from thermal equilibrium. Generic features of the barrier, such as scaling with the system parameters, will be discussed. We will also discuss the motion of the system in switching and the ways of controlling it. Two major classes of systems will be considered: dynamical systems, where fluctuations are induced by noise, and birth-death systems. Even though the motion during switching is random, the paths followed in switching form a narrow tube in phase space of the system centered at the most probable path. The paths distribution is generally Gaussian and has specific features, which have been seen in the experiment [1]. Finding the most probable path itself can be reduced to solving a problem of Hamiltonian dynamics of an auxiliary noise-free system. The solution also gives the switching barrier. The barrier can be found explicitly close to parameter values where the number of stable states of the system changes and the dynamics is controlled by a slow variable. The scaling of the barrier height depends on the type of the corresponding bifurcation. We show that, both for birth-death and for Gaussian noise driven systems, the presence of even weak non-Gaussian noise can strongly modify the switching rate. The effect is described in a simple explicit form [2,3]. Weak deviations of the noise statistics from Gaussian can be sensitively detected using balanced dynamical bridge, where this deviation makes the populations of coexisting stable states different from each other; a realization of such a bridge will be discussed. We will also discuss the sharp anisotropy of fluctuations induced by Poisson noise in overdamped systems and how it is changed with decreasing damping. [4pt] [1] H. B. Chan, M. I. Dykman, and C. Stambaugh , Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 130602 (2008). [0pt] [2] M. I. Dykman, I. B. Schwartz, A. S. Landsman, Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 078101 (2008). [0pt] [3] L. Billings, M. I. Dykman, and I. B. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. E 78 (2008).

  19. Switching the Clientele

    PubMed Central

    Sucic, Sonja; Koban, Florian; El-Kasaby, Ali; Kudlacek, Oliver; Stockner, Thomas; Sitte, Harald H.; Freissmuth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The serotonin transporter (SERT) maintains serotonergic neurotransmission via rapid reuptake of serotonin from the synaptic cleft. SERT relies exclusively on the coat protein complex II component SEC24C for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) export. The closely related transporters for noradrenaline and dopamine depend on SEC24D. Here, we show that discrimination between SEC24C and SEC24D is specified by the residue at position +2 downstream from the ER export motif (607RI608 in SERT). Substituting Lys610 with tyrosine, the corresponding residue found in the noradrenaline and dopamine transporters, switched the SEC24 isoform preference: SERT-K610Y relied solely on SEC24D to reach the cell surface. This analysis was extended to other SLC6 (solute carrier 6) transporter family members: siRNA-dependent depletion of SEC24C, but not of SEC24D, reduced surface levels of the glycine transporter-1a, the betaine/GABA transporter and the GABA transporter-4. Experiments with dominant negative versions of SEC24C and SEC24D recapitulated these findings. We also verified that the presence of two ER export motifs (in concatemers of SERT and GABA transporter-1) supported recruitment of both SEC24C and SEC24D. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to document a change in SEC24 specificity by mutation of a single residue in the client protein. Our observations allowed for deducing a rule for SLC6 family members: a hydrophobic residue (Tyr or Val) in the +2 position specifies interaction with SEC24D, and a hydrophilic residue (Lys, Asn, or Gln) recruits SEC24C. Variations in SEC24C are linked to neuropsychiatric disorders. The present findings provide a mechanistic explanation. Variations in SEC24C may translate into distinct surface levels of neurotransmitter transporters. PMID:23288844

  20. A high performance ZVT-PWM boost rectifier with soft switched auxiliary switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoon-Ho Kim; Yun-Bok Kim; Yong-Hyun Cho

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a soft-switching average current control PWM high power factor boost converter. Conventional boost ZVT-PWM converter has a disadvantage of hard-switching for auxiliary switch at turn-off. A soft switched auxiliary switch is proposed to achieve a high performance ZVT-PWM boost rectifier. The simulation and experimental results show that soft switching operation can be maintained for wide line and

  1. Binary switching in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Kuntal; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha

    2013-01-01

    A binary switch is the basic building block for information processing. The potential energy profile of a bistable binary switch is a ‘symmetric' double well. The traditional method of switching it from one state (one well) to the other is to tilt the profile towards the desired state. Here, we present a case, where no such tilting is necessary to switch successfully, even in the presence of thermal noise. This happens because of the built-in dynamics inside the switch itself. It differs from the general perception on binary switching that in a ‘symmetric' potential landscape, the switching probability is 50% in the presence of thermal noise. Our results, considering the complete three-dimensional potential landscape, demonstrate intriguing phenomena on binary switching mechanism. With experimentally feasible parameters, we theoretically demonstrate such intriguing possibility in electric field induced magnetization switching of a shape-anisotropic single-domain magnetostrictive nanomagnet with two stable states at room-temperature. PMID:24154561

  2. HOLLOTRON switch for megawatt lightweight space inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Goebel, D. M.; Schumacher, R. W.

    1991-01-01

    The feasibility of satisfying the switching requirements for a megawatt ultralight inverter system using HOLLOTRON switch technology was determined. The existing experimental switch hardware was modified to investigate a coaxial HOLLOTRON switch configuration and the results were compared with those obtained for a modified linear HOLLOTRON configuration. It was concluded that scaling the HOLLOTRON switch to the current and voltage specifications required for a megawatt converter system is indeed feasible using a modified linear configuration. The experimental HOLLOTRON switch operated at parameters comparable to the scaled coaxial HOLLOTRON. However, the linear HOLLOTRON data verified the capability for meeting all the design objectives simultaneously including current density (greater than 2 A/sq cm), voltage (5 kV), switching frequency (20 kHz), switching time (300 ns), and forward voltage drop (less than or equal to 20 V). Scaling relations were determined and a preliminary design was completed for an engineering model linear HOLLOTRON switch to meet the megawatt converter system specifications.

  3. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P

    2015-01-14

    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (? 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification. PMID:25514824

  4. Anomalous switching of optical bistability in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuai; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2013-03-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the photon number in an optical cavity filled with a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. We find that the way of adding the field is crucial to the switching close to the critical transition point. If the pump field is changed abruptly, the system may jump from one branch to the other even if the pump field intensity has not reached the critical transition point yet. This behavior is similar to the anomalous switching in the dispersive optical bistability.

  5. Anomalous switching of optical bistability in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuai; Al-Amri, M.; Zubairy, M. Suhail

    2012-10-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of the photon number in an optical cavity filled with a cigar-shaped Bose-Enistein condensate is investigated. We find that the way of adding the field is crucial to the switching close to the critical transition point. If the pump field is changed abruptly, the system may jump from one branch to the other even if the pump field intensity has not reached the critical transition point yet. This behavior is similar to the anomalous switching in the dispersive optical bistability.

  6. Explosive opening switch work at Westinghouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aivaliotis, E.; Peterhans, M.

    1989-01-01

    An explosive switch that commutated 315 kA into a resistor and a second version designed to switch up to 1 MA into an HPG (homopolar generator)-driven railgun system are presented. These switches are located very near the load and consist of a set of main busbars in a low-inductance configuration shorted by a thinner switch busbar. Linear-shaped charges are used to sever this switch busbar at several locations when a preselected current level is attained, commutating the current into the load. The feasibility of multishot explosive switches for electromagnetic-launch systems is also considered.

  7. Switching of nonneutral plasma diodes. I. Analytic theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I.; Schamel, H.; Akimov, P. V.

    2004-06-01

    The transient nature of the electron beam dynamics in plasma diodes caused by a weak instantaneous switching of the collector voltage is studied analytically. The solution for a pure electron vacuum diode, found recently [P. V. Akimov et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93, 1246 (2003)], is extended to treat the electron dynamics under the influence of an immobile ion background. In this case new branches of equilibria are obtained from which new perspectives for switching between different states can arise. Moreover, the space-charge limit (SCL) of the electrical current, well known for pure electron diodes, can be overcome by an appropriate choice of the branch and of the ion density. It is emphasized that the line of critical SCL points, obtained by a sweep of the collector voltage, coincides with the line of marginal stability of linear perturbations with respect to equilibria without reflection. For the switching analysis use is made of the Laplace transform technique, and a remarkably simple expression for the Laplace-transformed potential perturbation is found. Exact analytical solutions for the time-dependent response of the diode originating from switching are found.

  8. Critical Information at Critical Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierman, Ben; Thrower, Raymond H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    On a daily basis, administrators are reminded of the potential, perhaps the likelihood, of violence or natural crises on their campuses. Comprehensive studies have been conducted and point to recommendations and best practices for planning, preparing, responding to, and recovering from critical incidents. The International Association of Campus…

  9. Method and apparatus for multiplexing switch signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Apparatus for multiplexing switch state signals comprises a plurality of switches and parallel weighted resistors connected in series between circuit ground and a node at a utilization device. The resistors are weighted as a function of a power of the same base, such as the power of the base 2, for coding the multiplexed switch state signals. A constant current source connected between the node and circuit ground drives current over a single cable conductor through the resistor. Each switch may be independently closed to change the switch state voltage signals multiplexed to the node. An analog-to-digital converter connected between the node and circuit ground demultiplexes the switch state signals received at the node and provides a switch state signal at each analog-to-digital output corresponding to the state of the switches at the moment. A potentiometer may replace a resistor and bypass switch combination in a position where the potentiometer has a maximum value of the lowest power of the base in order to multiplex a true analog voltage signal while switch state signals are unambiguously coded and multiplexed. The potentiometer in the least significant position permits the analog value to be in the range from 0 to a maximum corresponding to the least significant position of the switch state encoding. The invention may be used in redundancy systems by duplicating the invention with corresponding switches in each duplication ganged to open and close simultaneously upon operation of a pushbutton switch.

  10. A piezoelectric cryogenic heat switch.

    PubMed

    Jahromi, Amir E; Sullivan, Dan F

    2014-06-01

    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios of about 100-200 at lowest and highest measures temperature were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N, respectively. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an ideal PZHS. PMID:24985863

  11. Optical Switch Using Risley Prisms

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-22

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  12. Optical switch using Risley prisms

    SciTech Connect

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-15

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  13. Auxiliary power supply switching set

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.R.

    1984-05-01

    A control circuit and auxiliary power supply and a switching means for connecting the load selectively to the auxiliary power supply and the main power supply. The main power supply may be a public utility power line, and the auxiliary power supply is a windmill, a motor and generator all connected together on a common shaft. A control means senses the output voltage of the generator or output frequency and controls the switch to eithe connect the load to the power line or the auxiliary power supply. A battery is supplied for storing excess windmill power and for driving the motor and generator during periods of low wind.

  14. State Switching Digital Control Technique for Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Lukic; A. Emadi

    2007-01-01

    It has been anticipated that switched reluctance motor (SRM) drives will become the future drives of choice due to the simplicity of the motor construction, high speed capability, and relatively high power density. The motor has windings on the stator and a passive rotor made of ferromagnetic material such as iron. However, the control of the motor is quite complex

  15. Suppression of subtelomeric VSG switching by Trypanosoma brucei TRF requires its TTAGGG repeat-binding activity

    PubMed Central

    Jehi, Sanaa E.; Li, Xiaohua; Sandhu, Ranjodh; Ye, Fei; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bibo

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen, VSG, in the bloodstream of its mammalian host to evade the host immune response. VSGs are expressed exclusively from subtelomeric loci, and we have previously shown that telomere proteins TbTIF2 and TbRAP1 play important roles in VSG switching and VSG silencing regulation, respectively. We now discover that the telomere duplex DNA-binding factor, TbTRF, also plays a critical role in VSG switching regulation, as a transient depletion of TbTRF leads to significantly more VSG switching events. We solved the NMR structure of the DNA-binding Myb domain of TbTRF, which folds into a canonical helix-loop-helix structure that is conserved to the Myb domains of mammalian TRF proteins. The TbTRF Myb domain tolerates well the bulky J base in T. brucei telomere DNA, and the DNA-binding affinity of TbTRF is not affected by the presence of J both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that point mutations in TbTRF Myb that significantly reduced its in vivo telomere DNA-binding affinity also led to significantly increased VSG switching frequencies, indicating that the telomere DNA-binding activity is critical for TbTRF's role in VSG switching regulation. PMID:25313155

  16. Suppression of subtelomeric VSG switching by Trypanosoma brucei TRF requires its TTAGGG repeat-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Jehi, Sanaa E; Li, Xiaohua; Sandhu, Ranjodh; Ye, Fei; Benmerzouga, Imaan; Zhang, Mingjie; Zhao, Yanxiang; Li, Bibo

    2014-11-10

    Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and regularly switches its major surface antigen, VSG, in the bloodstream of its mammalian host to evade the host immune response. VSGs are expressed exclusively from subtelomeric loci, and we have previously shown that telomere proteins TbTIF2 and TbRAP1 play important roles in VSG switching and VSG silencing regulation, respectively. We now discover that the telomere duplex DNA-binding factor, TbTRF, also plays a critical role in VSG switching regulation, as a transient depletion of TbTRF leads to significantly more VSG switching events. We solved the NMR structure of the DNA-binding Myb domain of TbTRF, which folds into a canonical helix-loop-helix structure that is conserved to the Myb domains of mammalian TRF proteins. The TbTRF Myb domain tolerates well the bulky J base in T. brucei telomere DNA, and the DNA-binding affinity of TbTRF is not affected by the presence of J both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we find that point mutations in TbTRF Myb that significantly reduced its in vivo telomere DNA-binding affinity also led to significantly increased VSG switching frequencies, indicating that the telomere DNA-binding activity is critical for TbTRF's role in VSG switching regulation. PMID:25313155

  17. Design procedure for switched-reluctance motors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krishnan; R. Arumugan; J. F. Lindsay

    1988-01-01

    Some of the design aspects of the switched-reluctance motor for nonservo applications are considered. Towards this objective, a step-by-step procedure is developed for the design of switched-reluctance motors

  18. Rugged switch responds to minute pressure differentials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friend, L. C.; Shaub, K. D.

    1967-01-01

    Pressure responsive switching device exhibits high sensitivity but is extremely rugged and resistant to large amplitude shock and velocity loading. This snap-action, single pole-double throw switch operates over a wide temperature range.

  19. 49 CFR 236.821 - Switch, sectionalizing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.821 Switch, sectionalizing. A switch for disconnecting a section of a power line from the source of...

  20. Design concept for pressure switch calibrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slingerland, M. G.

    1966-01-01

    Calibrator and switch design enables pressure switches to operate under 150 g shock loads. The design employs a saturated liquid-to-vapor phase transition at constant pressure to produce a known force independent of displacement over a usable range.

  1. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at...

  2. 30 CFR 77.1800 - Cutout switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trolley Wires and Trolley Feeder Wires § 77.1800 Cutout switches. Trolley wires and trolley feeder wires shall be provided with cutout switches at...

  3. Micromachined 1x2 Optical Fiber Switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leslie A. Field; Diane L. Burriesci; Peter R. Robrish; Richard C. Ruby

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a 1x2 thermally actuated optical fiber switch. The switch includes a thick electroplated nickel actuator to move a single-mode optical fiber, and a trench anisotropically etched in silicon for alignment of \\

  4. A comparison of switching energy of resonant and nonresonant electro-optic switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltani, Fatemeh; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2012-10-01

    Optical space switching is an important functionality in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical communication systems, particularly within reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) [1]. Current commercially available ROADMs are based on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) or liquid crystal switches but these do not have sufficient switching speed for future network requirements. Power consumption (i.e. energy per switching operation multiplied by switching rate) is a very important parameter in the selection of a switching technology. Space switches based on current injection in silicon have been reported with nanosecond switching speeds and average power consumption on the order of mW [2], which becomes significant if many switches are required in a fabric. Electro-optic (EO) switches, which utilize the Pockels effect in which the refractive index changes when an external voltage is applied [3], only dissipate power when the switch state is changed. Electro-optic switches can be implemented either as non-resonant designs (for example the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI)) or as resonant designs (for example the Fabry Perot interferometer (FPI)). In this study we compare the switching energies of electro optic MZI and FPI switches by considering the capacitance of the switch, which is determined by the length of the active region of the switch. We show that for a non-resonant switch, switching energy increases linearly with device length, regardless of applied voltage, and so is simply determined by the strength of the electro-optic coefficient. We assume that the resonant switch is implemented as a switchable comb filter [4], with a free-spectral range equal to twice the wavelength spacing. This then fixes the interferometer length. As a result the resonant switch has requires significantly less switching energy for the same material parameters and is thus of interest for future ROADM implementations.

  5. Paraoxonase active site required for protection against LDL oxidation involves its free sulfhydryl group and is different from that required for its arylesterase/paraoxonase activities: selective action of human paraoxonase allozymes Q and R.

    PubMed

    Aviram, M; Billecke, S; Sorenson, R; Bisgaier, C; Newton, R; Rosenblat, M; Erogul, J; Hsu, C; Dunlop, C; La Du, B

    1998-10-01

    Human serum paraoxonase (PON 1) exists in 2 major polymorphic forms (Q and R), which differ in the amino acid at position 191 (glutamine and arginine, respectively). These PON allozymes hydrolyze organophosphates and aromatic esters, and both also protect LDL from copper ion-induced oxidation. We have compared purified serum PONs of both forms and evaluated their effects on LDL oxidation, in respect to their arylesterase/paraoxonase activities. Copper ion-induced LDL oxidation, measured by the production of peroxides and aldehydes after 4 hours of incubation, were reduced up to 61% and 58%, respectively, by PON Q, but only up to 46% and 38%, respectively, by an equivalent concentration of PON R. These phenomena were PON-concentration dependent. Recombinant PON Q and PON R demonstrated similar patterns to that shown for the purified serum allozymes. PON Q and PON R differences in protection of LDL against oxidation were further evaluated in the presence of glutathione peroxidase (GPx). GPx (0.1 U/mL) alone reduced copper ion-induced LDL oxidation by 20% after 4 hours of incubation. The addition of PON R to the above system resulted in an additive inhibitory effect on LDL oxidation, whereas PON Q had no such additive effect. The 2 PON allozymes also differed by their ability to inhibit initiation, as well as propagation, of LDL oxidation. PON Q was more efficient in blocking LDL oxidation if added when oxidation was initiated, whereas PON R was more potent when added 1 hour after the initiation of LDL oxidation. These data suggest that the 2 allozymes act on different substrates. Both PON allozymes were also able to reduce the oxidation of phospholipids and cholesteryl ester. PON Q arylesterase activity was reduced after 4 hours of LDL oxidation by only 28%, whereas the arylesterase activity of PON R was reduced by up to 55%. Inactivation of the calcium-dependent PON arylesterase activity by using the metal chelator EDTA, or by calcium ion removal on a Chelex column, did not alter PON's ability to inhibit LDL oxidation. However, blockage of the PON free sulfhydryl group at position 283 with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate inhibited both its arylesterase activity and its protection of LDL from oxidation. Recombinant PON mutants in which the PON free sulfhydryl group was replaced by either alanine or serine were no longer able to protect against LDL oxidation, even though they retained paraoxonase and arylesterase activities. Overall, these studies demonstrate that PON's arylesterase/paraoxonase activities and the protection against LDL oxidation do not involve the active site on the enzyme in exactly the same way, and PON's ability to protect LDL from oxidation requires the cysteine residue at position 283. PMID:9763535

  6. Thin-Film Encapsulated RF MEMS Switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin D. Leedy; Richard E. Strawser; Rebecca Cortez

    2007-01-01

    A wafer-level thin-film encapsulation process has been demonstrated to package radio-frequency (RF) microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switches in this paper. Individual shunt capacitive switches were packaged in a ~1nL inorganic enclosure with process temperatures not exceeding 300 degC. A shell covering the switch consisted of 10 nm of sputtered alumina and 1.67 mum of sputtered silicon nitride dielectric film. The switch

  7. S-Seed Switching, Noise, and Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lup Meng Loh

    1994-01-01

    The switching and noise characteristics of the Symmetric Self Electrooptic Effect Device (S-SEED) are studied in detail. The resulting analysis provides concise, closed form expressions for the S-SEED switching condition, the switching voltage of the device, and its switching time, all for a noiseless S-SEED model. A noise analysis, using a carrier state diagram, produced Bit Error Rate (BER) curves

  8. Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow

    DOEpatents

    Brucker, John P. (Espanola, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

  9. Energy loss in spark gap switches

    SciTech Connect

    Oreshkin, V. I., E-mail: oreshkin@ovpe.hcei.tsc.ru; Lavrinovich, I. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Akademichesky Ave. 2/3, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation) [Institute of High Current Electronics SB RAS, Akademichesky Ave. 2/3, 634055 Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Avenue 30, 634050 Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    The paper reports on numerical study of the energy loss in spark gap switches. The operation of the switches is analyzed using the Braginsky model which allows calculation of the time dependence of the spark channel resistance. The Braginsky equation is solved simultaneously with generator circuit equations for different load types. Based on the numerical solutions, expressions which determine both the energy released in a spark gap switch and the switching time are derived.

  10. Robust reliable stabilization of stochastic switched nonlinear systems under asynchronous switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhengrong Xiang; Ronghao Wang; Qingwei Chen

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of robust reliable control for a class of uncertain stochastic switched nonlinear systems under asynchronous switching, where the switching instants of the controller experience delays with respect to those of the system. A design scheme for the reliable controller is proposed to guarantee almost surely exponential stability for stochastic switched systems with actuator

  11. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  12. Label Switched Paths (LSP) Hierarchy with Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) Traffic Engineering (TE)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kompella; Y. Rekhter

    2005-01-01

    To improve scalability of Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) it may be useful to aggregate Label Switched Paths (LSPs) by creating a hierarchy of such LSPs. A way to create such a hierarchy is by (a) a Label Switching Router (LSR) creating a Traffic Engineering Label Switched Path (TE LSP), (b) the LSR forming a forwarding adjacency (FA) out of

  13. A zero-current-switching PWM flyback converter with a simple auxiliary switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Shu-Hung Chung; S. Y. R. Hui; Wei-Hua Wang

    1999-01-01

    A simple and effective approach of turning an isolated hard-switched converter design into a soft-switched one is presented. By adding an auxiliary winding, switch and small capacitor to the conventional pulsewidth modulation (PWM) isolated flyback converter, all switches and diodes are softly turned on and off. No extra active or passive voltage clamp circuit is needed to suppress voltage stress

  14. A novel soft-switching full-bridge converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Wei Lee; Ching-Shan Leu

    2009-01-01

    Inserting an auxiliary switch to the conventional hard-switch full-bridge topology, a novel soft-switching full-bridge converter is proposed. Instead of the main switches, the auxiliary switch is pulse-width modulated to regulate the output voltage and soft-switching operation of the main switches can be easily achieved over full line and load ranges. Consequently, the reduced switching losses can be compensated for the

  15. Novel Smoothing Capacitor-less ARCP Scheme Soft Switching Inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Morii, Hisanori; Funabiki, Shigeyuki

    The novel ARCP scheme soft switching inverter without smoothing capacitor in the input DC voltage side is proposed in this paper. The proposed ARCP soft switching inverter can achieve the zero voltage soft switching transition in the main switch, and the zero current soft switching transition in the additional auxiliary switch, in the same way as the conventional ARCP soft switching inverter. The operation characteristics and performances of proposed ARCP soft switching inverter is evaluated and discussed with experimental results.

  16. TOPO3? Influences Antigenic Variation by Monitoring Expression-Site-Associated VSG Switching in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee-Sook; Cross, George A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) mediates one of the major mechanisms of trypanosome antigenic variation by placing a different variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene under the control of the active expression site (ES). It is believed that the majority of VSG switching events occur by duplicative gene conversion, but only a few DNA repair genes that are central to HR have been assigned a role in this process. Gene conversion events that are associated with crossover are rarely seen in VSG switching, similar to mitotic HR. In other organisms, TOPO3? (Top3 in yeasts), a type IA topoisomerase, is part of a complex that is involved in the suppression of crossovers. We therefore asked whether a related mechanism might suppress VSG recombination. Using a set of reliable recombination and switching assays that could score individual switching mechanisms, we discovered that TOPO3? function is conserved in Trypanosoma brucei and that TOPO3? plays a critical role in antigenic switching. Switching frequency increased 10–40-fold in the absence of TOPO3? and this hyper-switching phenotype required RAD51. Moreover, the preference of 70-bp repeats for VSG recombination was mitigated, while homology regions elsewhere in ES were highly favored, in the absence of TOPO3?. Our data suggest that TOPO3? may remove undesirable recombination intermediates constantly arising between active and silent ESs, thereby balancing ES integrity against VSG recombination. PMID:20628569

  17. ELECTROMAGNETIC AND THERMAL SIMULATIONS FOR THE SWITCH REGION OF A COMPACT PROTON ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L; Caporaso, G J; Sullivan, J S

    2007-06-15

    A compact proton accelerator for medical applications is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The accelerator architecture is based on the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) concept. One critical area to consider is the switch region. Electric field simulations and thermal calculations of the switch area were performed to help determine the operating limits of rmed SiC switches. Different geometries were considered for the field simulation including the shape of the thin Indium solder meniscus between the electrodes and SiC. Electric field simulations were also utilized to demonstrate how the field stress could be reduced. Both transient and steady steady-state thermal simulations were analyzed to find the average power capability of the switches.

  18. A Regev-type fully homomorphic encryption scheme using modulus switching.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Chen, Liqun; Song, Xinxia

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenge in a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme is to manage noise. Modulus switching technique is currently the most efficient noise management technique. When using the modulus switching technique to design and implement a FHE scheme, how to choose concrete parameters is an important step, but to our best knowledge, this step has drawn very little attention to the existing FHE researches in the literature. The contributions of this paper are twofold. On one hand, we propose a function of the lower bound of dimension value in the switching techniques depending on the LWE specific security levels. On the other hand, as a case study, we modify the Brakerski FHE scheme (in Crypto 2012) by using the modulus switching technique. We recommend concrete parameter values of our proposed scheme and provide security analysis. Our result shows that the modified FHE scheme is more efficient than the original Brakerski scheme in the same security level. PMID:25093212

  19. A Regev-Type Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme Using Modulus Switching

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Song, Xinxia

    2014-01-01

    A critical challenge in a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme is to manage noise. Modulus switching technique is currently the most efficient noise management technique. When using the modulus switching technique to design and implement a FHE scheme, how to choose concrete parameters is an important step, but to our best knowledge, this step has drawn very little attention to the existing FHE researches in the literature. The contributions of this paper are twofold. On one hand, we propose a function of the lower bound of dimension value in the switching techniques depending on the LWE specific security levels. On the other hand, as a case study, we modify the Brakerski FHE scheme (in Crypto 2012) by using the modulus switching technique. We recommend concrete parameter values of our proposed scheme and provide security analysis. Our result shows that the modified FHE scheme is more efficient than the original Brakerski scheme in the same security level. PMID:25093212

  20. Efficiency consideration of DC link soft-switching inverters for motor drive applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, J.S.; Young, R.W.; McKeever, J.W.

    1994-12-31

    This paper critically evaluates efficiency of soft switching inverters including an actively clamped resonant dc link inverter and a clamped-mode resonant pole inverter. An analytical approach to evaluating efficiency of the clamped-mode soft switching inverter has been developed. The evaluation results are compared with that of the standard pulse-width-modulation (PWM) inverter. A 50-kW induction motor is used as the variable load, and the inverter efficiency is evaluated under different speed and torque conditions. The clamped-mode soft-switching inverter, although eliminating the switching loss, shows poor efficiency over the entire load range. Under low load conditions, the efficiency profile is even worse. The actively clamped resonant dc link inverter shows highest efficiency over the entire speed and torque range. However, its energy saving over the standard PWM inverter is marginal under full load or high speed conditions.

  1. Ultrafast magnetization switching by spin-orbit torques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Miron, Ioan Mihai; Baumgartner, Manuel; Ghosh, Abhijit; Auffret, Stéphane; Boulle, Olivier; Gaudin, Gilles; Gambardella, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Spin-orbit torques induced by spin Hall and interfacial effects in heavy metal/ferromagnetic bilayers allow for a switching geometry based on in-plane current injection. Using this geometry, we demonstrate deterministic magnetization reversal by current pulses ranging from 180 ps to ms in Pt/Co/AlOx dots with lateral dimensions of 90 nm. We characterize the switching probability and critical current Ic as a function of pulse length, amplitude, and external field. Our data evidence two distinct regimes: a short-time intrinsic regime, where Ic scales linearly with the inverse of the pulse length, and a long-time thermally assisted regime, where Ic varies weakly. Both regimes are consistent with magnetization reversal proceeding by nucleation and fast propagation of domains. We find that Ic is a factor 3-4 smaller compared to a single domain model and that the incubation time is negligibly small, which is a hallmark feature of spin-orbit torques.

  2. Electrical switching to probe complex phases in a frustrated manganite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asthana, Saket; Fujiwara, Kohei; Tanaka, Hidekazu

    2014-06-01

    Electrical switching was used to investigate complex phases induced by Cr-substitution in (Pr1/3Sm2/3)2/3Sr1/3MnO3. This system was expected to transform from a Type I (Mn4+/Mn3+?3/7) to Type II (Mn4+/Mn3+?1) manganite at critical Cr content, satisfying a virtual Mn4+/Mn3+ ratio close to unity. The phase diagram of (Pr1/3Sm2/3)2/3Sr1/3Mn0.8Cr0.2O3 including charge/spin ordered/disordered phases was probed by electrical switching. The ferromagnetic insulating phase at <~100 K, located next to the charge-ordered antiferromagnetic phase, exhibited a sudden rise in conductivity upon electric-field biasing. This resulted from the melting of charge ordering, and demonstrated the presence of a crossover regime of two coexisting magnetic orderings.

  3. Fault-tolerant array processors using single-track switches

    SciTech Connect

    Kung, S.Y.; Jean, S.N.; Chang, C.W.

    1989-04-01

    An array processor is a collection of many similar processing elements (PED's), which can be executed in both parallel and pipeline processing. For the implementation of arrays of large number of processors, fault tolerance has always been a very critical design issue. Very often, spare PE's and switching lattices are incorporated in the array to improve the (fabrication-time) yield and the (run-time) reliability. In this paper, an array grid model based on single-track switches is proposed. A reconfigurability theorem is developed to provide the theoretical footing for new reconfiguration algorithms for the fabrication-time and run-time processing. For fabrication-time yield enhancement, the problem of finding a feasible reconfiguration using global control can be reformulated as a maximum independent set problem. An existing algorithm in graph theory is adopted to solve this problem.

  4. Switch Detection in Preschoolers' Cognitive Flexibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Nicolas; Wiebe, Sandra A.; Huber, Kristina L.; Espy, Kimberly Andrews

    2011-01-01

    The current study addressed the role of switch detection in cognitive flexibility by testing the effect of transition cues (i.e., cues that directly signal the need to switch or maintain a given task goal) in a cued set-shifting paradigm at 5 years of age. Children performed better, especially on switch trials, when transition cues were combined…

  5. Voluntary Task Switching: Chasing the Elusive Homunculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrington, Catherine M.; Logan, Gordon D.

    2005-01-01

    In the voluntary task switching procedure, subjects choose the task to perform on a series of bivalent stimuli, requiring top-down control of task switching. Experiments 1-3 contrasted voluntary task switching and explicit task cuing. Choice behavior showed small, inconsistent effects of external stimulus characteristics, supporting the assumption…

  6. Optical Packet Switching -1 Optical Networks

    E-print Network

    Mellia, Marco

    circuit allocation; or slow packet switching with large PDUs · A separation between data plane and control Packet (CHP) is transmitted in the control plane time units before the data burst to reserve resourcesOptical Packet Switching - 1 Optical Networks: from fiber transmission to photonic switching

  7. The Octopus switch This chapter1

    E-print Network

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    The Octopus switch This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital on the data path, where it is needed. A reconfigurable internal communication network switch called Octopus is based on a switch, called Octopus, which interconnects a general-purpose processor, (multimedia) devices

  8. Micromechanical switches fabricated using nickel surface micromachining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul M. Zavracky; Sumit Majumder; Nicol E. McGruer

    1997-01-01

    Micromechanical switches have been fabricated in electroplated nickel using a four-level surface micromachining process. The simplest devices are configured with three terminals, a source, a drain, and a gate and are 30 ?m wide, 1 ?m thick, and 65 ?m long. A voltage applied between the gate and source closes the switch, connecting the source to the drain. Devices switch

  9. Nanometer-scale switches using copper sulfide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Sakamoto; H. Sunamura; H. Kawaura; T. Hasegawa; T. Nakayama; M. Aono

    2003-01-01

    We describe a nanometer-scale switch that uses a copper sulfide film and demonstrate its performance. The switch consists of a copper sulfide film, which is a chalcogenide semiconductor, sandwiched between copper and metal electrodes. Applying a positive or negative voltage to the metal electrode can repeatedly switch its conductance in under 100 mus. Each state can persist without a power

  10. High pressure flow-rate switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gale, G. P.

    1970-01-01

    Flow-rate switch adjusts easily over a wide switching range and operates uniformly over many cycles. It adapts easily to control of various fluids and has the possibility of introducing multi-point switching. Novel design features include the tapered spool, balanced porting, capillary-bypass lubrication, and capillary-restriction damping.

  11. Quality-switched laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Williams, Nkaya

    2014-06-01

    Quality-switched (Q-switched) laser is the most effective method to remove tattoos with minimal adverse outcomes. This article reviews the types of tattoos commonly treated with Q-switched lasers, mechanisms behind the procedure, technologies used, patient considerations and contraindications, addressing patient expectations, treatment procedures, possible adverse reactions, and future techniques and technology. PMID:24853159

  12. BOX INVARIANCE OF HYBRID AND SWITCHED SYSTEMS

    E-print Network

    Abate, Alessandro

    BOX INVARIANCE OF HYBRID AND SWITCHED SYSTEMS Alessandro Abate 1 Ashish Tiwari 2 Abstract: This paper investigates the concept of box invariance for classes of hybrid and switched systems. After. We provide sufficient conditions for a hybrid or switched system to be box invariant. Models of many

  13. A CW Gunn Diode Switching Element.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Marco; Rosenbaum, Fred J.

    As part of a study of the application of communication satellites to educational development, certain technical aspects of such a system were examined. A current controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode is reported on here. With modest circuits switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by…

  14. Subnanosecond Pockels cell switching using avalanche transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. I. Bishop; P. F. Barker

    2006-01-01

    Achieving subnanosecond optical switching using a Pockels cell requires an electrically optimized cell design and a compatible fast driver. We report on the design and operation of a high voltage, high speed switching circuit which is capable of achieving an optical switching time of 238 ps when used in conjunction with a 6 mm aperture Pockels cell. The driver uses

  15. A zero switching loss matrix converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ching-Tsai Pan; Tsung-Cheng Chen; Jenn-Jong Shieh

    1993-01-01

    A low loss bidirectional switch set is proposed for a matrix power converter. The proposed switch is able to turn on at zero current and turn off at zero voltage to achieve almost zero loss and soft switching. Hence, a simple hysteretic current control can now be applied directly to a matrix power converter without adding any additional snubber circuit

  16. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  17. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  18. Switching processes in financial markets

    PubMed Central

    Preis, Tobias; Schneider, Johannes J.; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-01-01

    For an intriguing variety of switching processes in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. Financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating upward trends and downward trends, on time scales ranging from macroscopic trends persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic trends persisting for a few minutes. The question arises whether these ubiquitous switching processes have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the transaction volume after each switching. Our findings can be interpreted as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in time intervals between transactions. We suggest that the well known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—may not be outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the formation of increasing and decreasing trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large down to very small. PMID:21521789

  19. Complexity in Electronic Switching Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Muller

    1956-01-01

    The complexity of an electronic switching circuit is defined in a sufficiently general way so that most definitions which are presently used may be included. If ¿(p, q) is the complexity of a p input q output circuit which has been minimized then we may define E(p, q) as the maximum of ¿(p, q) over all p input, q output

  20. Solar array switching power management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. E.; Smith, L. D.; Valgora, M.

    1982-01-01

    Solar array power switching concepts are explored for a 250 kWe manned LEO platform, a 50-250 kWe load for an orbit transfer vehicle (OTV), and an unmanned platform with a 50 kWe load in GEO. A solar array switching power management (SASPM) system is under study to satisfy the switching demands. Direct connections to arrays would be implemented for voltage regulations, power distribution, and the capability of reconfiguring the arrays to meet requirements. Mission characteristics that would require the power sources were explored. The LEO platform was projected to use a concentrator, have no reconfigurability, use 250 NiH2 batteries, supply 80-0 Vdc to an ion drive, and have a 20-30 yr life. Both GEO and OTV arrays were planar, would feature reconfigurability, and supply 800 Vdc to an ion drive. NiH2 batteries would be on the OTV, while the GEO spacecraft would use AgH2 cells. A block diagram of the basic switching configuration is presented.

  1. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOEpatents

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Koss, Robert J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  2. Components of Switching Intentional Set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew F. S. Rushworth; R. E. Passingham; A. C. Nobre

    2002-01-01

    Despite the intuition that we can shift cognitive set on instruction, some behavioral studies have suggested that set shifting might only be accomplished once we engage in performance of the new task. It is possible that set switching consists of more than one component cognitive process and that the component processes might segregated in time. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs)

  3. Remotely-actuated biomedical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, R. D.

    1969-01-01

    Remotely-actuated biomedical switching circuit using transistors consumes no power in the off position and can be actuated by a single-frequency telemetry pulse to control implanted instrumentation. Silicon controlled rectifiers permit the circuit design which imposes zero drain on supply batteries when not in use.

  4. The Concurrent Matching Switch Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Lin; Isaac Keslassy

    2006-01-01

    Network operators need high capacity router archi- tectures that can offer scalability, provide throughput guarantees, and maintain packet ordering. However, current centralized crossbar-based architectures cannot scale to fast line rates and high port counts. On the other hand, while load-balanced switch architectures that rely on two identical stages of fixed configuration meshes appear to be an effective way to scale

  5. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, James A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  6. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  7. Review of soft-switching techniques for high-frequency switched-mode power converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. W. Ching; K. U. Chan

    2008-01-01

    Given the increasing demand to increase the switching frequency and efficiency of switched-mode power converters, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) soft-switching techniques have been proposed to combine the desirable features of PWM and resonant-mode converters. This paper presents the evolution of several soft-switching techniques, operating principles, performance characteristics, experimental results, merits and limitations are also discussed. Experimental results of three classes of zero-voltage-switched

  8. Novel Auxiliary Switch Very-High-Frequency Zero Current Switching Resonant DC-DC Boost Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Thiruppathi; S. Vinodha; R. Kirubagaran

    \\u000a This paper explores the design of Novel Auxiliary switch dc-dc boost power converter operating in the Very High Frequency\\u000a range. The main switch and auxiliary switch operate at zero-current-switching (ZCS) turn on and turn off. Besides operating at constant\\u000a frequency and reducing commutation losses, this new converter have no additional current stress and conduction loss in the\\u000a main switch in

  9. Family of two-switch soft-switched asymmetrical PWM DC\\/DC converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Phua Chee Heng; R. Oruganti

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, the inter-relationships among two-switch, soft-switched, PWM converters are explored. Starting from a generalized two-switch converter operated under an asymmetrical PWM scheme, the paper first conceptually derives the nonisolated converters-both hard-switched and soft-switched types. Isolated versions with output inductive and capacitive filtering are then introduced. The inclusion of the primary side leakage inductance to aid the ZVS mechanism

  10. Investigation of Timing to Switch Control Mode in Powered Knee Prostheses during Task Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Ming; Huang, He

    2015-01-01

    Current powered prosthetic legs require switching control modes according to the task the user is performing (e.g. level-ground walking, stair climbing, walking on slopes, etc.). To allow prosthesis users safely and seamlessly transition between tasks, it is critical to determine when to switch the prosthesis control mode during task transitions. Our previous study defined critical timings for different types of task transitions in ambulation; however, it is unknown whether it is the unique timing that allows safe and seamless transitions. The goals of this study were to (1) systematically investigate the effects of mode switch timing on the prosthesis user’s performance in task transitions, and (2) identify appropriate timing to switch the prosthesis control mode so that the users can seamlessly transition between different locomotion tasks. Five able-bodied (AB) and two transfemoral (TF) amputee subjects were tested as they wore a powered knee prosthesis. The prosthesis control mode was switched manually at various times while the subjects performed different types of task transitions. The subjects’ task transition performances were evaluated by their walking balance and success in performing seamless task transitions. The results demonstrated that there existed a time window within which switching the prosthesis control mode neither interrupted the subjects’ task transitions nor disturbed their walking balance. Therefore, the results suggested the control mode switching of a lower limb prosthesis can be triggered within an appropriate time window instead of a specific timing or an individual phase. In addition, a generalized criterion to determine the appropriate mode switch timing was proposed. The outcomes of this study could provide important guidance for future designs of neurally controlled powered knee prostheses that are safe and reliable to use. PMID:26197084

  11. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Michael E. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  12. Modeling for optically interconnected packet switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yalou; Crossland, William A.; Scarr, Robin W. A.

    2000-10-01

    This paper studies the performance of a large-scale free-space photonic packet switch based on the generalised knockout principle. Input and output channels are grouped into sectors to make the whole switch a Clos-like three-stage architecture. The input traffic is mainly IP data packets but compatible with ATM cells. Fan-in and fan-out stages are suitable to use free-space optical interconnections with Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) as the switching element. The switch performance was studied based on the switching simulation under different traffic conditions and routing schemes.

  13. Switching dynamics of IGBTs in soft-switching converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Imam Widjaja; A. Kurnia; Krishna Shenai; Deepakraj M. Divan

    1995-01-01

    Next generation of power semiconductor devices will be designed and optimized to meet the specific application requirements. Mixed-mode simulations are used to study the carrier dynamics in punch-through and nonpunch-through Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) structures during soft- and hard-switching conditions. The simulation results are shown to qualitatively predict the measured bump in the tail current with varying output dv\\/dt

  14. Comparative study on Switched Reluctance Machine based fault-tolerant electrical drive systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ruba; C. Oprea; L. Szabo

    2009-01-01

    The switched reluctance machine (SRM) based electrical drive systems are ideal for critical applications (aerospace, automotive, defense, medical, etc.) where the fault tolerance is a basic requirement. The phase independence characteristics of the SRM enable it to operate also under partial phase failure conditions also in its classical construction. Its reliability can be improved by applying special fault-tolerant designs, respectively

  15. A Novel Fast Restoration Mechanism for Optical Burst Switched Networks Gigi Karmous-Edwards

    E-print Network

    data loss due to the large capacity of optical fibers. However, few studies have been done of Internet traffic has shifted recent research focus from optical circuit switching to optical packet is a critical design issue for all types of optical networks since even a single failure such as a fiber cut

  16. Path Analysis on Customer Switching Behavior of Cyber Showcase Shopping: Empirical Research of Cyber Bookstore

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yang Yong

    2010-01-01

    Customer switching has become the critical success factor for company. The analysis and empirical research focus on behavior of showcase shopping of cyber prospects and verify the cyber transaction costs affecting customer behavior, and summarize the effective solution to transferring showcase shopping behavior into real cyber buying behavior of prospects. On term of transaction cost, the study is aiming to

  17. Membrane Touch switches: Thick-Film Materials Systems and Processing Options

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. T. HICKS; TREVOR R. ALLINGTON; V. Johnson

    1980-01-01

    Thick-film materials and processing parameters critical to the production of membrane touch switches are reviewed. The primary emphasis is on polymer-bonded silver conductor systems; electrical conductivity versus silver content, conduction mechanisms, techniques to determine adhesion, materials for screen printing, choice of Mylarr polyester film, and appropriate drying conditions are discussed. Also described is the performance of a new series of

  18. Stresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 PACKAGING OF RF MEMS SWITCHING FUNCTIONS ON ALUMINA SUBSTRATE

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    such as their packaging , which is the most critical problem to be solved. Compared with conventional IC packagingStresa, Italy, 26-28 April 2006 PACKAGING OF RF MEMS SWITCHING FUNCTIONS ON ALUMINA SUBSTRATE technologies, packaging of RF MEMS is for more challenging, because it implies both electrical and mechanical

  19. An Accurate, Low-Voltage, CMOS Switching Power Supply With Adaptive On-Time Pulse-Frequency Modulation (PFM) Control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biranchinath Sahu; Gabriel A. Rincón-Mora

    2007-01-01

    Integrated switching power supplies with multimode control are gaining popularity in state-of-the-art portable applications like cellular phones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), etc., because of their ability to adapt to various loading conditions and therefore achieve high efficiency over a wide load-current range, which is critical for extended battery life. Constant-frequency, pulsewidth modulated (PWM) switching converters, for instance, have poor light-load

  20. Shape memory thermal conduction switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  1. Large aperture optical switching devices

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-12-12

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs.

  2. Resonant snubbers with auxiliary switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William McMurray

    1993-01-01

    A resonant snubber is described for voltage-source inverters, current-source inverters, and self-commutated frequency changers. The main self-turnoff devices have shunt capacitors directly across them. A temporary parallel path through a small ordinary thyristor and inductance takes over high-stress turn-on duty from the main device in a manner that leaves no energy trapped after switching

  3. MEMS-switched reconfigurable antennas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William H. Weedon; William J. Payne; Gabriel M. Rebeiz

    2001-01-01

    The integration and use of RF MEMS switches in microstrip patch antennas and feed structures were investigated for developing reconfigurable multi-band antennas. The current application focuses on the development of a dual L\\/X-band antenna that would support several satellite or UAV-based communications and radar applications such as SAR, terrain mapping, GMTI, AMTI, etc. A reconfigurable patch module (RPM) was designed

  4. Low stress switching for efficiency

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Divan

    1996-01-01

    Power modules that turn on or off “softly,” at near zero voltage or current, promise marked gains in performance by cutting switching losses and allowing faster controls-to the likely benefit of power converters. Medium power inverters have undergone significant changes. One improvement stems from new power transistors such as insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) with their increasing voltage- and current-carrying capabilities

  5. The concurrent matching switch architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bill Lin; Isaac Keslassy

    2010-01-01

    Network operators need high-capacity router architectures that can offer scalability, provide throughput guarantees, and maintain packet ordering. However, current centralized crossbar-based architectures cannot scale to fast line rates and high port counts. On the other hand, while load-balanced switch architectures that rely on two identical stages of fixed configuration meshes appear to be an effective way to scale Internet routers

  6. Switch for Good Community Program

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

  7. Multi-level information encoding through spectral switches and multiple FSO link formation in the phase singularity domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Bharat K.; Kandpal, H. C.

    2011-07-01

    Spectral switching is now a well-known phenomenon. Recently, its potential applications have been explored for information encoding and transmission in free space. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel type of scheme to encode and process information at multiple levels through spectral switching. A new technique is also proposed to establish multiple parallel free-space optical (FSO) links using a single critical direction in the phase singularity domain of diffracted polychromatic light. These are contrived ideas on the basis of theoretical and experimental studies carried out so far on spectral switching. The study might find potential application in the fields of FSO interconnects and FSO communication.

  8. Optically-switched submillimeter-wave oscillator and radiator having a switch-to-switch propagation delay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spencer, Michael G. (inventor); Maserjian, Joseph (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A submillimeter wave-generating integrated circuit includes an array of N photoconductive switches biased across a common voltage source and an optical path difference from a common optical pulse of repetition rate f sub 0 providing a different optical delay to each of the switches. In one embodiment, each incoming pulse is applied to successive ones of the N switches with successive delays. The N switches are spaced apart with a suitable switch-to-switch spacing so as to generate at the output load or antenna radiation of a submillimeter wave frequency f on the order of N f sub 0. Preferably, the optical pulse has a repetition rate of at least 10 GHz and N is of the order of 100, so that the circuit generates radiation of frequency of the order of or greater than 1 Terahertz.

  9. The universal criterion for switching a magnetic vortex core in soft magnetic nanodots

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.-S.; Kim, S.-K.; Yu, Y.-S.; Choi, Y.-S.; Guslienko, K. Y.; Jung, H.; Fischer, P.

    2008-10-01

    The universal criterion for ultrafast vortex core switching between core-up and -down vortex bi-states in soft magnetic nanodots was empirically investigated by micromagnetic simulations and combined with an analytical approach. Vortex-core switching occurs whenever the velocity of vortex core motion reaches a critical value, which is {nu}{sub c} = 330 {+-} 37 m/s for Permalloy, as estimated from numerical simulations. This critical velocity was found to be {nu}{sub c} = {eta}{sub c}{gamma} {radical}A{sub ex} with A{sub ex} the exchange stiffness, {gamma} the gyromagnetic ratio, and an estimated proportional constant {eta}{sub c} = 1.66 {+-} 0.18. This criterion does neither depend on driving force parameters nor on the dimension or geometry of the magnetic specimen. The phase diagrams for the vortex core switching criterion and its switching time with respect to both the strength and angular frequency of circular rotating magnetic fields were derived, which offer practical guidance for implementing vortex core switching into future solid state information storage devices.

  10. Final Results from the High-Current, High-Action Closing Switch Test Program at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, M.E.

    1999-06-23

    We tested a variety of high-current closing switches for lifetime and reliability on a dedicated 2 MJ, 500 kA capacitor bank facility at Sandia National Laboratories. Our interest was a switch capable of one shot every few minutes, switching a critically damped, DC-charged 6.2 mF bank at 24 kV, with a peak current of 500 kA. The desired lifetime is 24 thousand shots. Typical of high-energy systems, particularly multi-module systems, the primary parameters of interest related to the switch are: (1) reliability, meaning absence of both pre-fires and no-fires, (2) total switch lifetime or number of shots between maintenance, and (3) cost. Cost was given lower priority at this evaluation stage because there are great uncertainties in estimating higher-quantity prices of these devices, most of which have been supplied before in only small quantities. The categories of switches tested are vacuum discharge, high-pressure discharge, and solid-state. Each group varies in terms of triggering ease, ease of maintenance, and tolerance to faults such as excess current and current reversal. We tested at least two variations of each technology group. The total number of shots on the switch test facility is about 50 thousand. We will present the results from the switch testing. The observed lifetime of different switches varied greatly: the shortest life was one shot; one device was still operating after six thousand shots. On several switches we measured the voltage drop during conduction and calculated energy dissipated in the switch; we will show these data also.

  11. The effects of attention switching on encoding and retrieval of words in younger and older adults.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Michael J; Kelly, Clare A M; Craik, Fergus I M

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments examined the interaction between aging, attention switching, encoding process, and recognition memory using different versions of a cued attention switching paradigm. In Experiment 1, 30 younger and 35 older adults encoded words based on font color, meaning, or by explicit learning with a color response during performance of a choice-reaction time (RT) task. Attention switches were cued by means of stimulus location, and occurred on average every seven trials. In Experiment 2, attention switching was precued from a central fixation point and the number of critical switch trials was increased, occurring on average every four trials. Memory was assessed in both experiments by means of a forced-choice recognition task. Results indicated that, relative to color encoding, older adults benefited more than younger adults from semantic encoding, but less from explicit learning instructions. Attention switching disrupted encoding task performance of older adults more than that of younger adults, but recognition memory was generally unaffected. Results are discussed in light of theoretical models of aging memory that posit a role for executive control processing. PMID:16531359

  12. MEMS switches having non-metallic crossbeams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scardelletti, Maximillian C (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A RF MEMS switch comprising a crossbeam of SiC, supported by at least one leg above a substrate and above a plurality of transmission lines forming a CPW. Bias is provided by at least one layer of metal disposed on a top surface of the SiC crossbeam, such as a layer of chromium followed by a layer of gold, and extending beyond the switch to a biasing pad on the substrate. The switch utilizes stress and conductivity-controlled non-metallic thin cantilevers or bridges, thereby improving the RF characteristics and operational reliability of the switch. The switch can be fabricated with conventional silicon integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The design of the switch is very versatile and can be implemented in many transmission line mediums.

  13. Molecular switches and motors on surfaces.

    PubMed

    Pathem, Bala Krishna; Claridge, Shelley A; Zheng, Yue Bing; Weiss, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    Molecular switches and motors respond structurally, electronically, optically, and/or mechanically to external stimuli, testing and potentially enabling extreme miniaturization of optoelectronic devices, nanoelectromechanical systems, and medical devices. The assembly of motors and switches on surfaces makes it possible both to measure the properties of individual molecules as they relate to their environment and to couple function between assembled molecules. In this review, we discuss recent progress in assembling molecular switches and motors on surfaces, measuring static and dynamic structures, understanding switching mechanisms, and constructing functional molecular materials and devices. As demonstrative examples, we choose a representative molecule from three commonly studied classes including molecular switches, photochromic molecules, and mechanically interlocked molecules. We conclude by offering perspectives on the future of molecular switches and motors on surfaces. PMID:23331305

  14. Pulse switching for high energy lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J. (inventors)

    1981-01-01

    A saturable inductor switch for compressing the width and sharpening the rise time of high voltage pulses from a relatively slow rise time, high voltage generator to an electric discharge gas laser (EDGL) also provides a capability for efficient energy transfer from a high impedance primary source to an intermediate low impedance laser discharge network. The switch is positioned with respect to a capacitive storage device, such as a coaxial cable, so that when a charge build-up in the storage device reaches a predetermined level, saturation of the switch inductor releases or switches energy stored in the capactive storage device to the EDGL. Cascaded saturable inductor switches for providing output pulses having rise times of less than ten nanoseconds and a technique for magnetically biasing the saturable inductor switch are disclosed.

  15. Fault protection circuit for power switching device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raposa, John R.

    1994-04-01

    A fault protection circuit for a power switching device. The circuit comprises a driver circuit electrically connected to the power switching device, a saturation comparator electrically connected to the collector of the switching device to determine if the switching device is switching an excessive voltage, and two undervoltage comparators to determine if the gate is receiving sufficient voltage. If the gate is oversaturated the saturation comparator enables the gate of a field effect transistor which drains the gate of the switching device, and the saturation comparator also disables the driver circuit. The undervoltage detectors detect insufficient voltage to the driver circuit and disable the driver circuit. Once the driver circuit is disabled the control circuitry can take corrective action.

  16. The Application of High Temperature Superconducting Materials to Power Switches

    E-print Network

    March, S A; Ballarino, A

    2009-01-01

    Superconducting switches may find application in superconducting magnet systems that require energy extraction. Such superconducting switches could be bypass-switches that are operated in conjunction with a parallel resistor or dump-switches where all of the energy is dissipated in the switch itself. Bypass-switches are more suited to higher energy circuits as a portion of the energy can be dissipated in the external dump resistor. Dump- switches require less material and triggering energy as a lower switch resistance is needed to achieve the required total dump resistance. Both superconducting bypass-switches and superconducting dump-switches can be ther- mally activated. Switching times that are comparable to those obtained with mechanical bypass-switch systems can be achieved using a co-wound heater that is powered by a ca- pacitor discharge. Switches that have fast thermal diffusion times through the insulation can be modelled as a lumped system whereas those with slow thermal diffusion times were modelle...

  17. Load-balanced three-stage switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bing Hu; Kwan L. Yeung; Zhaoyang Zhang

    A load-balanced two-stage switch is scalable and can provide close to 100% throughput. Its major problem is that packets can be mis-sequenced when they arrive at outputs. In a recent work, the packet mis-sequencing problem is elegantly solved by a feedback-based switch architecture. In this paper, we extend the feedback-based switch from two-stage to three-stage for further cutting down average

  18. A new switched power linac structure

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, F.

    1989-03-01

    A new pulse power structure has been described that utilizes an easily accessible rectilinear switch. The new structure is more ''forgiving'' (as far as risetime is concerned) than the radial line transformer, and contains fewer switching structures/unit length. The combination of the new structure with the switch proposed seems to offer interesting possibilities for a future linear collider. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Electro-optic Q-switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zou, Yingyin (Inventor); Chen, Qiushui (Inventor); Zhang, Run (Inventor); Jiang, Hua (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An electro-optic Q-switch for generating sequence of laser pulses was disclosed. The Q-switch comprises a quadratic electro-optic material and is connected with an electronic unit generating a radio frequency wave with positive and negative pulses alternatively. The Q-switch is controlled by the radio frequency wave in such a way that laser pulse is generated when the radio frequency wave changes its polarity.

  20. Molecular epigenetic switches in neurodevelopment in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Anke; Zimmermann, Christoph A.; Spengler, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms encode information above and beyond DNA sequence and play a critical role in brain development and the long-lived effects of environmental cues on the pre- and postnatal brain. Switch-like, rather than graded changes, illustrate par excellence how epigenetic events perpetuate altered activity states in the absence of the initial cue. They occur from early neural development to maturation and can give rise to distinct diseases upon deregulation. Many neurodevelopmental genes harbor bivalently marked chromatin domains, states of balanced inhibition, which guide dynamic “ON or OFF” decisions once the balance is tilted in response to developmental or environmental cues. Examples discussed in this review include neuronal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) into progenitors and beyond, activation of Kiss1 at puberty onset, and early experience-dependent programming of Avp, a major stress gene. At the genome-scale, genomic imprinting can be epigenetically switched on or off at select genes in a tightly controlled temporospatial manner and provides a versatile mechanism for dosage regulation of genes with important roles in stem cell quiescence or differentiation. Moreover, retrotransposition in neural progenitors provides an intriguing example of an epigenetic-like switch, which is stimulated by bivalently marked neurodevelopmental genes and possibly results in increased genomic flexibility regarding unprecedented challenge. Overall, we propose that molecular epigenetic switches illuminate the catalyzing function of epigenetic mechanisms in guiding dynamic changes in gene expression underpinning robust transitions in cellular and organismal phenotypes as well as in the mediation between dynamically changing environments and the static genetic blueprint.

  1. Evaluation of soft switching for EV and HEV motor drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehrdad Ehsani; Khwaja M. Rahman; Maria D. Bellar; Alex J. Severinsky

    2001-01-01

    Soft switching has the potential of reducing switch stresses and of lowering the switching losses as compared to hard switching. To understand the effectiveness of the soft-switching technique, when applied to electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) systems, it may be necessary to first evaluate their system requirements and performance. This evaluation process would require knowledge of the

  2. Introduction to Photonic Packet Switching Yatindra Nath Singh

    E-print Network

    Singh Yatindra Nath

    of resources. #12;copyright 2001, YNS Photonic Packet Switching 5 Voice/video/data transfer - Bursty in natureIntroduction to Photonic Packet Switching Yatindra Nath Singh Electrical Engineering Dept. IIT Packet Switching 2 Outline of the talk - Introduction to switching - types of switching - functions

  3. Switching tests for the LCTF protective dump circuit

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, W.M.

    1982-04-01

    Each of the six coils in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) has a separate power supply, dump resistor, and switching circuit. Each switching circuit contains five switches, two of which are redundant. The three remaining switches perform separate duties in an emergency dump situation. These three switches were tested to determine their ability to meet the LCTF conditions.

  4. All optical controlled large scale photonic switch matrix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daqun Li; Michael R. Wang

    2005-01-01

    Many military and defense related applications require the use of large-scale photonic switch matrixes in order to increase the capacity for processing a large amount of information within a minimum period of time. Existing photonic switches relying on electro-optic effect or MEMS technology are limited in terms of switch scale size or switch reconfiguration rate. Moreover, these conventional photonic switches

  5. Thermally Actuated Latching RF MEMS Switch and Its Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mojgan Daneshmand; Siamak Fouladi; Raafat R. Mansour; Mario Lisi; Tony Stajcer

    2009-01-01

    Here, a new thermally actuated latching wideband RF microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch is presented. The switch employs two thermal actuators connected to two thin metal arms which serve as signal lines of coplanar waveguide switch. The actuators pull the thin arms sequentially, and latch the switch. The switch can be actuated on and off by using either short voltage or

  6. A Novel Zero-Voltage Switching Resonant Pole Inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanbo Pan; Junmin Pan

    2006-01-01

    In order to realize a simple topology, high efficiency, high frequency, low voltage stress, easy to control soft switching three phase inverter, this paper introduces a novel resonant pole three phase inverter, which realized the zero-voltage switching of the main switches, zero-current switching of auxiliary switches and possesses the small power auxiliary circuit and full PWM capability. It avoids the

  7. Wavelength-division-multiplexing optical switch using acoustooptic deflector

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Shimazu; Shigendo Nishi; Noriaki Yoshikai

    1987-01-01

    A new wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical switch using an acoustooptic deflector (AOD) is presented. This switch requires minimal hardware and is highly applicable in high-speed signal switching. Theoretical calculations based on the Gaussian beam approximation show that up to a 20 × 20 switch is possible using present technology. As a preliminary study, a 3 × 3 WDM switch is constructed.

  8. A novel resonant snubber based soft-switching inverter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Lai; C. P. White; J. W. McKeever; D. Chen

    1995-01-01

    A new soft-switching inverter has been developed to overcome overvoltage and overcurrent problems in the existing resonant link inverters. This inverter employs a single auxiliary switch and a resonant inductor per phase to produce a zero voltage across the main switch so that the main switch can turn on at a lossless condition. Both the auxiliary switch and the resonant

  9. Gastroprotective effect of desmosdumotin C isolated from Mitrella kentii against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhage in rats: possible involvement of glutathione, heat-shock protein-70, sulfhydryl compounds, nitric oxide, and anti-Helicobacter pylori activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mitrella kentii (M. kentii) (Bl.) Miq, is a tree-climbing liana that belongs to the family Annonaceae. The plant is rich with isoquinoline alkaloids, terpenylated dihydrochalcones and benzoic acids and has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. The purpose of this study is to assess the gastroprotective effects of desmosdumotin C (DES), a new isolated bioactive compound from M. kentii, on gastric ulcer models in rats. Methods DES was isolated from the bark of M. kentii. Experimental rats were orally pretreated with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of the isolated compound and were subsequently subjected to absolute ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. Gross evaluation, mucus content, gastric acidity and histological gastric lesions were assessed in vivo. The effects of DES on the anti-oxidant system, non-protein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) content, nitric oxide (NO)level, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme activity, bcl-2-associated X (Bax) protein expression and Helicabacter pylori (H pylori) were also investigated. Results DES pre-treatment at the administered doses significantly attenuated ethanol-induced gastric ulcer; this was observed by decreased gastric ulcer area, reduced or absence of edema and leucocytes infiltration compared to the ulcer control group. It was found that DES maintained glutathione (GSH) level, decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level, increased NP-SH content and NO level and inhibited COX-2 activity. The compound up regulated heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and down regulated Bax protein expression in the ulcerated tissue. DES showed interesting anti-H pylori effects. The efficacy of DES was accomplished safely without any signs of toxicity. Conclusions The current study reveals that DES demonstrated gastroprotective effects which could be attributed to its antioxidant effect, activation of HSP-70 protein, intervention with COX-2 inflammatory pathway and potent anti H pylori effect. PMID:23866830

  10. Multi-megavolt low jitter multistage switch

    DOEpatents

    Humphreys, D.R.; Penn, K.J. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    It is one object of the present invention to provide a multistage switch capable of holding off numerous megavolts, until triggered, from a particle beam accelerator of the type used for inertial confinement fusion. The invention provides a multistage switch having low timing jitter and capable of producing multiple spark channels for spreading current over a wider area to reduce electrode damage and increase switch lifetime. The switch has fairly uniform electric fields and a short spark gap for laser triggering and is engineered to prevent insulator breakdowns.

  11. Ferrofluid-based reconfigurable optofluidic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentino, Gianna; Mongeau, Eric; Gu, Yu

    2014-03-01

    We present a low-cost, reconfigurable optofluidic switch exploiting both the optical and magnetic properties of a water-based ferrofluid. This switch is composed of an integrated waveguide orthogonally crossing a microfluidic channel containing high-index oil and a ferrofluid plug. The switch is turned ``ON'' or ``OFF'' by the movement of the ferrofluid plug in response to an external magnetic field. Each switch exhibits a high contrast ratio and millisecond response time. Parallel geometries for both mode and multi-mode waveguides are shown. Saint Joseph's University summer research fund, McNulty Fellows Program.

  12. Picosecond High Pressure Gas Switch experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Cravey, W.R.; Freytag, E.K.; Goerz, D.A.; Poulsen, P.; Pincosy, P.A.

    1993-08-01

    A high Pressure Gas Switch has been developed and tested at LLNL. Risetimes on the order of 200 picoseconds have been observed at 1 kHz prf and 1 atmosphere pressures. Calculations show that switching closure times on the order of tens of picoseconds can be achieved at higher pressures and electric fields. A voltage hold-off of 1 MV/cm has been measured at 10 atmospheres and several MV/cm appears possible with the HPGS. With such high electric field levels, energy storage of tens of Joules in a reasonably sized package is achievable. Initial HPGS performance has been characterized using the WASP pulse generator at LLNL. A detailed description of the switch used for initial testing is given. Switch recovery times of 1-ms have been measured at 1 atmosphere. Data on the switching uniformity, voltage hold-off recovery, and pulse repeatability, is presented. In addition, a physics switch model is described and results are compared with experimental data. Modifications made to the WASP HV pulser in order to drive the HPGS will also be discussed. Recovery times of less than 1 ms were recorded without gas flow in the switch chambers. Low pressure synthetic air was used as the switch dielectric. Longer recovery times were required when it was necessary to over-voltage the switch.

  13. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25...Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. ...by a master ignition control. (c) Each...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25...Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. ...by a master ignition control. (c) Each...

  15. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25...Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. ...by a master ignition control. (c) Each...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25...Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. ...by a master ignition control. (c) Each...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1145 - Ignition switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Powerplant Controls and Accessories § 25...Ignition switches must control each engine ignition circuit on each engine. ...by a master ignition control. (c) Each...

  18. High-index-contrast electromechanical optical switches

    E-print Network

    Bryant, Reginald (Reginald Eugene), 1978-

    2011-01-01

    System developers are looking to replace protocol-dependent, bandwidth-limited optical networks with intelligent optically-transparent integrated photonic networks. Several electromechanical optical switches are explored ...

  19. Soft-switching techniques in PWM converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guichao Hua; Fred C. Lee

    1995-01-01

    A number of soft-switching pulse-width-modulated (PWM) converter techniques have been proposed, aimed at combining the desirable features of both the conventional PWM and resonant converters while avoiding their respective limitations. In this paper, three classes of zero-voltage soft-switching (PWM) converters (namely the zero-voltage-switched (ZVS) quasi-square-wave converters, ZVS-PWM converters, and zero-voltage-transition PWM converters) and two classes of zero-current soft-switching PWM converters

  20. Single-controllable-switch-based switched reluctance motor drive for low-cost variable- speed applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehyuck Kim; R. Krishnan

    2009-01-01

    A new low-cost, brushless variable-speed drive requiring only a single controllable switch is presented. The proposed converter (referred to as new single-switch converter) overcomes the drawback of the original single-switch-based four-quadrant motor drive in terms of recovery energy circulation. The drive system is realized using an asymmetric two-phase switched reluctance motor (SRM) and the proposed converter. The new drive system

  1. Design of a single-switch-per-phase converter for switched reluctance motor drives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Krishnan; P. N. Materu

    1990-01-01

    The main considerations in the design of a single-switch-per-phase converter for a switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive are described, with particular attention given to the choice of converter topology, the type of switching devices, the normalized rating of the power devices, and input filter design. The converter uses MOSFET switches. Experimental verification is included with a 6\\/4 pole personal-computer-controlled prototype

  2. Single-Controllable-Switch-Based Switched Reluctance Motor Drive for Low Cost, Variable-Speed Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaehyuck Kim; Keunsoo Ha; R. Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    A new low-cost, brushless variable-speed drive requiring only a single controllable switch is presented. The proposed converter (referred to as new single-switch converter) overcomes the drawback of the original single-switch-based four-quadrant motor drive in terms of recovery energy circulation. The drive system is realized using an asymmetric two-phase switched reluctance motor (SRM), the proposed converter, and DSP controller. The new

  3. Sub-?s switching time in silicon-on-insulator Mach-Zehnder thermooptic switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Harjanne; Markku Kapulainen; Timo Aalto; Päivi Heimala

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated both rise and fall times below 1 ?s with 10%-90% modulation in a silicon-on-insulator thermooptical Mach-Zehnder switch. The switch is based on 9-?m-thick and 10-?m-wide single-mode rib waveguides. Very fast switching was achieved by using a differential control method. The switch was driven with a digital signal processor accompanied by simple electronic circuitry.

  4. Sub s Switching Time in Silicon-on-Insulator Mach-Zehnder Thermooptic Switch

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mikko Harjanne; Markku Kapulainen; Timo Aalto; Päivi Heimala

    2004-01-01

    We have demonstrated both rise and fall times below 1 s with 10%-90% modulation in a silicon-on-insulator thermooptical Mach-Zehnder switch. The switch is based on 9- m-thick and 10- m-wide single-mode rib waveguides. Very fast switching was achieved by using a differential control method. The switch was driven with a digital signal processor accompanied by simple electronic circuitry. Index Terms—Integrated

  5. Photo-injection p-i-n diode switch for high-power RF switching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. W. Jacobs; D. W. Fogliatti; H. Nguyen; D. J. Albares; C. T. Chang; C. K. Sun

    2002-01-01

    The high RF power-switching properties of the photo-injection p-i-n switch (PIPINS), an optically controlled RF switch, are investigated. Proper functioning of a PIPINS as a low insertion-loss RF switch requires that it operates as a photoconductor, where the photo-injected charge is much greater than the RF sweep out charge. Insertion loss using 650-mW optical power was <0.4 dB at RF

  6. Double Two Switch Forward Soft Switching PWM DC-DC Converter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satoshi Hamada; Serguei Moisseev; Oleg Koudriavtsev; Mutsuo Nakaoka

    2004-01-01

    A novel prototype of a double two-switch forward transformer linked zero-voltage and zero-current mode soft-switching (ZVZCS) pulse width modulation (PWM) DC-DC power converter using IGBTs for high power applications is presented. Based on a conventional two-switch forward transformer linked PWM DC-DC converter topology, this converter circuit configuration doesn't include any complex auxiliary resonant circuit. Combining two identical two-switch forward type

  7. A novel single-phase soft-switching AC chopper without auxiliary switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Ming Wang; Ching-Hung Su; Chang-Hua Lin; Shih-Yuan Chang

    2009-01-01

    A single-phase soft-switched series-resonant ac chopper without auxiliary switches is presented. The presented single-phase ac chopper is configured by a series-resonant conversion without cycloconversion and auxiliary switches. The presented single-phase ac chopper is a series resonator with four main switches to configure adaptively the resonant voltage robes. The output sinusoidal voltage is synthesized by a series of sinusoidal amplitude Quasi-Sinusoidal

  8. Novel soft switched three-phase voltage source converters with reduced auxiliary switch stresses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hengchun Mao; Fred C. Lee; Xunwei Zhou; Heping Dai

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes new three-phase ZVT topologies. With a split DC link, the auxiliary switch voltage rating is reduced to half DC-link voltage, so the conduction loss and switching loss in the auxiliary circuit are significantly reduced compared to previous ZVT circuit. With the ZVT circuit reducing main switch turn-on loss, the converter can be operated at high switching frequencies

  9. A soft-switched series-resonant DC\\/AC inverter without auxiliary switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Ming Wang

    2002-01-01

    A soft-switched series-resonant DC\\/AC inverter without auxiliary switches is presented. The inverter is configured by a full-bridge series-resonant inversion (FB-SRI) without cycloconversion and auxiliary switches. The inverter is a series resonator with four main switches to configure adaptively the output current suitable for impedance load. The output sinusoidal voltage is synthesized by a series of equal-amplitude quasi-sinusoidal pulses (QSPs) and

  10. A Novel Single-Phase Soft-Switching AC Chopper Without Auxiliary Switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien-Ming Wang; Chang-Hua Lin; Ching-Hung Su; Shih-Yuan Chang

    2011-01-01

    A single-phase soft-switched series-resonant ac chop- per without auxiliary switches is presented. The presented single- phase ac chopper is configured by a series-resonant conversion without cycloconversion and auxiliary switches. The presented single-phase ac chopper is a series resonator with four main switches to configure adaptively the resonant voltage robes. The output sinusoidal voltage is synthesized by a series of sinusoidal

  11. Thermally activated switching rate of a nanomagnet in the presence of spin torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Utsumi, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    The current dependence of the spin torque switching rate in a thermally activated region of an in-plane magnetized system was studied. The logarithm of the switching rate depended nonlinearly on current in the high-current region, Ic?Icritical currents distinguishing the stability of the magnetization. We also found that the attempt frequency had a minimum around Ic, and that the attempt frequency at Ic was three orders of magnitude smaller than that at zero current, contrary to the assumption in previous analyses of experiments that it remains constant.

  12. Switching Frequency Limit for Soft-Switching MF Transformer System for AC-fed Traction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommy Kjellqvist

    The migration to line side power conversion topolo- gies comprising a medium frequency transformer in AC-fed propulsion systems may reduce size and weight of the conversion system. The switching frequency is a crucial factor affecting the viability of such a conversion system. An increased switching frequency of a mutually commutated conversion system comprising a medium frequency transformer employing soft switching

  13. Switching Frequency Limit for Soft-Switching MF Transformer System for AC-fed Traction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tommy Kjellqvist; Staffan Norrga; S. Ostlund

    2005-01-01

    The migration to line side power conversion topologies comprising a medium frequency transformer in AC-fed propulsion systems may reduce size and weight of the conversion system. The switching frequency is a crucial factor affecting the viability of such a conversion system. An increased switching frequency of a mutually commutated conversion system comprising a medium frequency transformer employing soft switching is

  14. 47 CFR 32.2212 - Digital electronic switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...digital switches and their associated equipment. Included in this account are digital switches which utilize either dedicated or non-dedicated circuits. This account shall also include the cost of remote digital electronic switches. The investment in digital...

  15. 47 CFR 32.2212 - Digital electronic switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...digital switches and their associated equipment. Included in this account are digital switches which utilize either dedicated or non-dedicated circuits. This account shall also include the cost of remote digital electronic switches. The investment in digital...

  16. 47 CFR 32.2212 - Digital electronic switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...digital switches and their associated equipment. Included in this account are digital switches which utilize either dedicated or non-dedicated circuits. This account shall also include the cost of remote digital electronic switches. The investment in digital...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870.2350 Section...Devices § 870.2350 Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2350 - Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. 870.2350 Section...Devices § 870.2350 Electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor. (a) Identification. An electrocardiograph lead switching adaptor is a passive...

  19. 47 CFR 32.6212 - Digital electronic switching expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Digital electronic switching expense...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS...32.6212 Digital electronic switching expense...associated with digital electronic switching....

  20. 47 CFR 32.6212 - Digital electronic switching expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Digital electronic switching expense...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS...32.6212 Digital electronic switching expense...associated with digital electronic switching....

  1. 47 CFR 32.6212 - Digital electronic switching expense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Digital electronic switching expense...Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED...SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS...32.6212 Digital electronic switching expense...associated with digital electronic switching....

  2. 47 CFR 69.129 - Signalling for tandem switching.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Signalling for tandem switching. 69.129 Section 69...Charges § 69.129 Signalling for tandem switching. A charge that is expressed...company for provision of signalling for tandem switching. [59 FR 32930, June...

  3. 44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. EXTERIOR VIEW, GREEN SWITCH TOWER, COS COB, SHOWING BARS LINKING SWITCH LEVERS AND PIPES LEADING TO SWITCHES - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Automatic Signalization System, Long Island Sound shoreline between Stamford & New Haven, Stamford, Fairfield County, CT

  4. Self Organized Criticality

    E-print Network

    Schumaker, Mark

    We have learned so far: Critical behavior at phase transitions leads to power-law scaling But exactSelf Organized Criticality Jonas J. Funke Introduction Phase Transitions and Critical Behavior Self Organized Critical Behavior Forest-Fire Model Summary Self Organized Criticality (SOC) Jonas J. Funke

  5. Critical Apparatus Talk 9: Critical Apparatus

    E-print Network

    Erjavec, TomaÂ?

    2; So, she is drownde: Q1. #12;Critical Apparatus Critical Apparatus: , , and lem> . (reading) contains a single reading within a textual variation. lem> (lemma) contains the lemma, or base text, of a textual variation. #12;Critical Apparatus Example of , and lem>

  6. On Packet Switches with Infinite Storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Nagle

    1987-01-01

    Most prior work on congestion in datagram systems focuses on buffer management. We find it illuminating to consider the case of a packet switch with infinite storage. Such a packet switch can never run out of buffers. It can, however, still become congested. The meaning of congestion in an infinite-storage system is explored. We demonstrate the unexpected result that a

  7. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  8. Manipulating Kondo Temperature via Single Molecule Switching

    E-print Network

    Hla, Saw-Wai

    Manipulating Kondo Temperature via Single Molecule Switching Violeta Iancu, Aparna Deshpande the Cu(111) substrate can cause a Kondo resonance. Tunneling spectroscopy data reveal that switching from Kondo temperature from 130 to 170 K. This result demonstrates that the Kondo temperature can

  9. Electro-optically-indexed microwave switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neff, D. E.; Nixon, D. L.; Reilly, H. F.

    1977-01-01

    Mechanical parts used in conventional switches to index stepper motor that drives switch elements are replaced by optoelectronic indexing device that controls magnetic-detent motor. Unit eliminates major source of wear and maintains detent accuracy longer. Design of device achieves reduction of insertion loss, crosstalk, and wave guide reflections when receiving and transmitting.

  10. PORTFOLIO INSURANCE AND VOLATILITY REGIME SWITCHING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel M. Vanden

    2006-01-01

    A new equilibrium model of portfolio insurance is presented in order to study the volatility effects of dynamic insurance strategies. While prior research has focused on the relationship between portfolio insurance and the overall level of market volatility, this article shows that the salient feature of portfolio insurance is volatility regime switching. Regime switching is shown to be a necessary

  11. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Fernow, R.C. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting.

  12. Switched-capacitor power electronics circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Ioinovici

    2001-01-01

    One of the main orientations in power electronics in the last decade has been the development of switching-mode converters without inductors and transformers. Light weight, small size and high power density are the result of using only switches and capacitors in the power stage of these converters. Thus, they serve as ideal power supplies for mobile electronic systems (e.g. cellular

  13. Limitation of transmission line switching overvoltages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heresh Seyedi; Smko Golabi; Zaher Abam

    2010-01-01

    In this paper switching overvoltages of an actual transmission line are studied. Simulations are executed using Electro Magnetic Transients Program. A comprehensive switching transient study is performed for the Azerbaijan province network in Iran. The purpose of this study is to determine the unnecessary pre-insertion resistors in the UHV network, since the new policy is to use pre-insertion resistors only

  14. Stochastic Switching Circuit Synthesis Daniel Wilhelm

    E-print Network

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    introduce a new duality property for series-parallel stochastic switching circuits. Finally, we construct on the so-called two-terminal series-parallel circuits. A two-terminal circuit is an undirected graph. A two-terminal circuit C is series-parallel (sp) iff C is: (1) a single switch, or (2) a series

  15. Low contact resistance series MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitrios Peroulis; Kamal Sarabandi; Linda P. B. Katehi

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and development of a novel DC-contact MEMS switch for microwave applications. The switching operation utilizes two different forces: electrostatic and stress-induced forces. The former is employed as the actuation force, while the latter is responsible for achieving the actual DC contact. In particular, when no bias voltage is applied, the deformation of a metallic

  16. General Impedance Synthesis Using Simple Switching Converters

    E-print Network

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    General Impedance Synthesis Using Simple Switching Converters Joe C. P. Liu, Chi K. Tse, Franki N Kong, Hong Kong Abstract-- A general impedance synthesizer using a minimum number of switching a lot of applications in power electronics. For instance, a resistance synthesizer can be used for power

  17. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  18. Differentiation-Induced Switching Costs and Poaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Gehrig; Rune Stenbacka

    2004-01-01

    We show that the presence of sufficiently significant switching costs, which are increasing in the degree of product differentiation, generates an equilibrium configuration with maximal differentiation within the framework of a Hotelling model with linear transportation costs. The equilibrium with maximal differentiation offers a formalization of the idea that competing firms have noncooperative incentives to establish maximal switching cost barriers.

  19. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...so that they remain energized after the switch is opened, if they are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the electric power source. (c) The master switch or its controls must be installed so that the...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...so that they remain energized after the switch is opened, if they are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the electric power source. (c) The master switch or its controls must be installed so that the...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...so that they remain energized after the switch is opened, if they are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the electric power source. (c) The master switch or its controls must be installed so that the...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...so that they remain energized after the switch is opened, if they are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the electric power source. (c) The master switch or its controls must be installed so that the...

  3. 14 CFR 27.1361 - Master switch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...so that they remain energized after the switch is opened, if they are protected by circuit protective devices, rated at five amperes or less, adjacent to the electric power source. (c) The master switch or its controls must be installed so that the...

  4. Priority scheduling in switched industrial Ethernet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qizhi Zhang; Weidong Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Switched Ethernet is increasingly advocated as a solution for industrial communication. One typical requirement in such fields is the need to guarantee deterministic transfer delay for cyclic control data, but traditional Ethernet communication does not provide priority feature for industrial data transfer. To address this problem, the IEEE 802.1p queuing feature is introduced into both Ethernet switches and communication nodes

  5. Analysis of continuous-time switching networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Edwards

    2000-01-01

    Models of a number of biological systems, including gene regulation and neural networks, can be formulated as switching networks, in which the interactions between the variables depend strongly on thresholds. An idealized class of such networks in which the switching takes the form of Heaviside step functions but variables still change continuously in time has been proposed as a useful

  6. Piezoelectric Diffraction-Based Optical Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spremo, Stevan; Fuhr, Peter; Schipper, John

    2003-01-01

    Piezoelectric diffraction-based optoelectronic devices have been invented to satisfy requirements for switching signals quickly among alternative optical paths in optical communication networks. These devices are capable of operating with switching times as short as microseconds or even nanoseconds in some cases.

  7. Fast acting switching valves for servopneumatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Veit Zoppig; Karsten Feindt; Tom Strohla; E. Kallenbach

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses the application of switching valves with electromagnetic actuators for servopneumatic drives. Fast acting (switching times of 1 ms or less) valves with nominal bores of 1 mm or more (at the industrial pressure of 6 bar) are needed in order to replace expensive 5\\/3-way proportional valves. Due to these requirements the electromagnetic valve has to be designed

  8. Switching particle filters for efficient visual tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Bando; Tomohiro Shibata; Kenji Doya; Shin Ishii

    2006-01-01

    Abstract In this article, we propose a new particle filtering scheme, called a switching particle filter, which allows robust and accurate visual tracking under typical circumstances of real-time visual tracking. This scheme switches two complementary sampling algorithms, Condensation and Auxiliary Particle Filter, in an on-line fashion based on the confidence of the filtered state of the visual target. The accuracy

  9. Switching particle filters for efficient visual tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takashi Bando; Tomohiro Shibata; Kenji Doya; Shin Ishii

    In this article, we propose a new particle filtering scheme, called a switching particle filter, which allows robust and accurate visual tracking under typical circumstances of real-time visual tracking. This scheme switches two complementary sampling algorithms, Condensation and Auxiliary Particle Filter, in an on-line fashion based on the confidence of the filtered state of the visual target. The accuracy and

  10. ERICA Switch Algorithm: A Complete Description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raj Jain; Shiv Kalyanaraman; Rohit Goyal; Sonia Fahmy; Ram Viswanathan

    1996-01-01

    : The ERICA switch algorithm has been discussed extensively in TM group in the past. However, over the last two years, the algorithm has been substantially modified. This contribution describes the current version of ERICA switch algorithm in complete detail. The algorithm achieves both efficiency and fairness, and exhibits a fast transient response. The development of the algorithm is traced,

  11. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); McCorkle, Dennis L. (Knoxville, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches.

  12. Lifetime characterization of capacitive RF MEMS switches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Goldsmith; J. Ehmke; A. Malczewski; B. Pillans; S. Eshelman; Z. Yao; J. Brank; M. Eberly

    2001-01-01

    The first experimental characterization of dielectric charging within capacitive RF MEMS switches has been demonstrated. Standard devices have been inserted into a time domain setup and their lifetimes have been characterized as a function of actuation voltage. Switch lifetimes were measured using a dual-pulse waveform with 30 to 65 V of actuation voltage. Resulting lifetimes were between 104 and 108

  13. Soft-switching PWM three-level converters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinbo Ruan; Linquan Zhou; Yangguang Yan

    2001-01-01

    This paper proposes a family of modulation strategies for PWM three-level (TL) converters. The modulation strategies can be classified into two kinds according to the turn-off sequence of the two switches of the pair of switches. The concept of the leading switches and the lagging switches is introduced to realize soft-switching for PWM TL converters. The realization of soft-switching for

  14. New Insights into VEGF-A Alternative Splicing: Key Regulatory Switching in the Pathological Process.

    PubMed

    Dehghanian, Fariba; Hojati, Zohreh; Kay, Maryam

    2014-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) is one of the most important regulatory factors in pathological and physiological angiogenesis. Alternative splicing is a complicated molecular process in VEGF-A gene expression which adds complexity to VEGF-A biology. Among all VEGF-A exons, alternative splicing of exon 8 is the key determinant of isoform switching from pro-angio-genic VEGF-xxx to anti-angiogenic VEGF-xxxb. This is known as a key molecular switching in many pathological situations. In fact, the balance between VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms is a critical controlling switch in both conditions of health and disease. Here, the properties of VEGF-xxx and VEGF-xxxb isoforms were discussed and their regulatory mechanism and their roles in certain pathological processes were evaluated. In summary, it was suggested that C-terminal VEGF-A alternative splicing can provide a new treatment opportunity in angiogenic diseases. PMID:25414781

  15. Comprehensive physical model of dynamic resistive switching in an oxide memristor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungho; Choi, ShinHyun; Lu, Wei

    2014-03-25

    Memristors have been proposed for a number of applications from nonvolatile memory to neuromorphic systems. Unlike conventional devices based solely on electron transport, memristors operate on the principle of resistive switching (RS) based on redistribution of ions. To date, a number of experimental and modeling studies have been reported to probe the RS mechanism; however, a complete physical picture that can quantitatively describe the dynamic RS behavior is still missing. Here, we present a quantitative and accurate dynamic switching model that not only fully accounts for the rich RS behaviors in memristors in a unified framework but also provides critical insight for continued device design, optimization, and applications. The proposed model reveals the roles of electric field, temperature, oxygen vacancy concentration gradient, and different material and device parameters on RS and allows accurate predictions of diverse set/reset, analog switching, and complementary RS behaviors using only material-dependent device parameters. PMID:24571386

  16. Deterministic conversion between memory and threshold resistive switching via tuning the strong electron correlation

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hai Yang; Li, Yong Feng; Lin, Wei Nan; Wang, Yu Zhan; Gao, Xing Yu; Wu, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Intensive investigations have been launched worldwide on the resistive switching (RS) phenomena in transition metal oxides due to both fascinating science and potential applications in next generation nonvolatile resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices. It is noteworthy that most of these oxides are strongly correlated electron systems, and their electronic properties are critically affected by the electron-electron interactions. Here, using NiO as an example, we show that rationally adjusting the stoichiometry and the associated defect characteristics enables controlled room temperature conversions between two distinct RS modes, i.e., nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching, within a single device. Moreover, from first-principles calculations and x-ray absorption spectroscopy studies, we found that the strong electron correlations and the exchange interactions between Ni and O orbitals play deterministic roles in the RS operations. PMID:22679556

  17. Laser with optically driven Q-switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An optically driven interactive Q-switch, i.e., a Q-switch that responds to a short pulse of light, for example, from external light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or diode lasers, is provided for producing an output laser pulse from electronic energy stored in a laser medium. Q-switching is thus achieved on demand by electrically pulsing the light source to produce a pulse of light directed onto a Q-switch medium in the laser cavity. Electronic control of the light pulse from the external source will thus provide not only efficient Q-switching frequency but also independent control of output laser pulse width with a fast rise time for each output laser pulse.

  18. Laser with optically driven Q-switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hemmati, Hamid (inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An optically driven interactive Q-switch, i.e., a Q-switch that responds to a short pulse of light, for example, from external light-emitting diodes (LED's) or diode lasers, is provided for producing an output laser pulse from electronic energy stored in a laser medium. Q-switching is thus achieved on demand by electrically pulsing the light source to produce a pulse of light directed onto a Q-switch medium in the laser cavity. Electronic control of the light pulse from the external source will thus provide not only efficient Q-switching frequency but also independent control of output laser pulse width with a fast rise time for each output laser pulse.

  19. Digital SPC switching technology: Foreign technology assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischman, Kurt; Jorstad, Norman D.

    1990-12-01

    This paper provides a foreign technology assessment of digital switching technology. Leading suppliers of digital switching technology are identified; although the United States holds a large part of the market, major companies in France, Sweden, Japan, the U.K., and Germany are also important. These countries, along with Belgium and Canada, are the most innovative and technically advanced. A listing is provided of transfers of digital switching technology to non-COCOM countries through licensing and joint ventures which reflects the widespread dissemination of this technology. Detailed technical specifications are provided for selected digital switching systems worldwide. The report concludes that considering the degree to which the technology is in place, that control of digital switching technology may not be feasible.

  20. Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

    2013-11-01

    Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed. PMID:24057010

  1. Nanoscale resistive switching devices: mechanisms and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuchao; Lu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Resistive switching devices (also termed memristive devices or memristors) are two-terminal nonlinear dynamic electronic devices that can have broad applications in the fields of nonvolatile memory, reconfigurable logic, analog circuits, and neuromorphic computing. Current rapid advances in memristive devices in turn demand better understanding of the switching mechanism and the development of physics-based as well as simplified device models to guide future device designs and circuit-level applications. In this article, we review the physical processes behind resistive switching (memristive) phenomena and discuss the experimental and modeling efforts to explain these effects. In this article three categories of devices, in which the resistive switching effects are driven by cation migration, anion migration, and electronic effects, will be discussed. The fundamental driving forces and the stochastic nature of resistive switching will also be discussed.

  2. 49 CFR 229.87 - Hand-operated switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.87 Hand-operated switches. All hand-operated switches carrying...

  3. 49 CFR 229.87 - Hand-operated switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.87 Hand-operated switches. All hand-operated switches carrying...

  4. 49 CFR 229.87 - Hand-operated switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.87 Hand-operated switches. All hand-operated switches carrying...

  5. 49 CFR 229.87 - Hand-operated switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.87 Hand-operated switches. All hand-operated switches carrying...

  6. 49 CFR 229.87 - Hand-operated switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD LOCOMOTIVE SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Requirements Electrical System § 229.87 Hand-operated switches. All hand-operated switches carrying...

  7. Critical Materials Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Alex King

    2013-01-09

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  8. Critical Materials Institute

    ScienceCinema

    Alex King

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory Director Alex King talks about the goals of the Critical Materials Institute in diversifying the supply of critical materials, developing substitute materials, developing tools and techniques for recycling critical materials, and forecasting materials needs to avoid future shortages.

  9. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.

    1986-01-01

    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  10. Switch: An Electronic Art Journal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Volume 3, number 1 of the electronic arts journal of the CADRE (Computers in Art, Design, Research & Education) Institute of the School of Art and Design at San Jose State University is now online, and focuses on "art of the world wide web." Articles include "Useless Web Pages: Conceptual Folk Art or Post Modern Web Dada?" and "The Construction of Art on the Internet and the Mediating Influence of the Search Engine." The essays are peppered with hypertext links, which may lead the reader to appendices or other websites or even personal homepages with relevance to the topic at hand. Previous issues of Switch have covered such topics as interactive narrative, virtual reality, and artificial life; as befits an arts journal, each issue has its own look and feel (though this can make navigation challenging). The next issue, due in July, will cover web-specific art.

  11. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOEpatents

    Goldhar, Julius (San Ramon, CA); Henesian, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  12. High-voltage coaxial switch

    SciTech Connect

    Rink, J.P.

    1981-06-03

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode is described. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  13. Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosinska, Lena; Glick, Madeleine

    2006-04-01

    Call for Papers: Photonics in Switching

    Guest Editors:

    Lena Wosinska, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) / ICT Sweden Madeleine Glick, Intel Research, Cambridge, UK

    Technologies based on DWDM systems allow data transmission with bit rates of Tbit/s on a single fiber. To facilitate this enormous transmission volume, high-capacity and high-speed network nodes become inevitable in the optical network. Wideband switching, WDM switching, optical burst switching (OBS), and optical packet switching (OPS) are promising technologies for harnessing the bandwidth of WDM optical fiber networks in a highly flexible and efficient manner. As a number of key optical component technologies approach maturity, photonics in switching is becoming an increasingly attractive and practical solution for the next-generation of optical networks. The scope of this special issue is focused on the technology and architecture of optical switching nodes, including the architectural and algorithmic aspects of high-speed optical networks.

    Scope of Submission

    The scope of the papers includes, but is not limited to, the following topics:
    • WDM node architectures
    • Novel device technologies enabling photonics in switching, such as optical switch fabrics, optical memory, and wavelength conversion
    • Routing protocols
    • WDM switching and routing
    • Quality of service
    • Performance measurement and evaluation
    • Next-generation optical networks: architecture, signaling, and control
    • Traffic measurement and field trials
    • Optical burst and packet switching
    • OBS/OPS node architectures
    • Burst/Packet scheduling and routing algorithms
    • Contention resolution/avoidance strategies
    • Services and applications for OBS/OPS (e.g., grid networks, storage-area networks, etc.)
    • Burst assembly and ingress traffic shaping
    • Hybrid OBS/TDM or OBS/wavelength routing

    Manuscript Submission

    To submit to this special issue, follow the normal procedure for submission to JON and select ``Photonics in Switching' in the features indicator of the online submission form. For all other questions relating to this feature issue, please send an e-mail to jon@osa.org, subject line ``Photonics in Switching.' Additional information can be found on the JON website: http://www.osa-jon.org/journal/jon/author.cfm. Submission Deadline: 15 September 2006

  14. Resistance switching memories are memristors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chua, Leon

    2011-03-01

    All 2-terminal non-volatile memory devices based on resistance switching are memristors, regardless of the device material and physical operating mechanisms. They all exhibit a distinctive "fingerprint" characterized by a pinched hysteresis loop confined to the first and the third quadrants of the v- i plane whose contour shape in general changes with both the amplitude and frequency of any periodic "sine-wave-like" input voltage source, or current source. In particular, the pinched hysteresis loop shrinks and tends to a straight line as frequency increases. Though numerous examples of voltage vs. current pinched hysteresis loops have been published in many unrelated fields, such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc., and observed from many unrelated phenomena, such as gas discharge arcs, mercury lamps, power conversion devices, earthquake conductance variations, etc., we restrict our examples in this tutorial to solid-state and/or nano devices where copious examples of published pinched hysteresis loops abound. In particular, we sampled arbitrarily, one example from each year between the years 2000 and 2010, to demonstrate that the memristor is a device that does not depend on any particular material, or physical mechanism. For example, we have shown that spin-transfer magnetic tunnel junctions are examples of memristors. We have also demonstrated that both bipolar and unipolar resistance switching devices are memristors. The goal of this tutorial is to introduce some fundamental circuit-theoretic concepts and properties of the memristor that are relevant to the analysis and design of non-volatile nano memories where binary bits are stored as resistances manifested by the memristor's continuum of equilibrium states. Simple pedagogical examples will be used to illustrate, clarify, and demystify various misconceptions among the uninitiated.

  15. Magnetization switching through giant spin-orbit torque in the magnetically doped topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yabin

    2015-03-01

    Recent demonstrations of magnetization switching induced by in-plane current in heavy metal/ferromagnetic heterostructures (HMFHs) have drawn great interest to spin torques arising from the large spin-orbit coupling (SOC)... in heavy metals. Considering the intrinsic strong SOC, topological insulators (TIs) are expected to be promising candidates for exploring spin-orbit torque (SOT)-related physics.... In this talk, we report the magnetization switching through giant SOT in the magnetically doped TI structures. In particular, we demonstrate the magnetization switching in a chromium-doped TI bilayer heterostructure, and the current induced SOT possibly has contribution from the spin-momentum locked surface states of TI. The critical current density for switching is below 8.9 × 104A/cm2 at 1.9 K. Moreover, we use second-harmonic methods to measure the spin torque efficiencies which are more than three orders of magnitude larger than those reported in heavy metals. The giant SOT and efficient current-induced magnetization switching exhibited by the bilayer heterostructure may lead to innovative spintronics applications such as ultralow power dissipation memory and logic devices. We are grateful to the support from the DARPA Meso program under Contract No. N66001-12-1-4034 and N66001-11-1-4105. We also acknowledge the support from the Western Institute of Nanoelectronics (WIN) and the support from the FAME center.

  16. Phase diagram and optimal switching induced by spin Hall effect in a perpendicular magnetic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Shu; Bazaliy, Ya. B.

    2015-06-01

    In a ferromagnet/heavy-metal bilayer device with strong spin Hall effect an in-plane current excites magnetic dynamics through spin torque. We analyze bilayers with perpendicular magnetization and calculate three-dimensional phase diagrams describing switching by external magnetic field at a fixed current. We then concentrate on the case of a field applied in the plane formed by the film normal and the current direction. Here we analytically study the evolution of both the conventional "up"/"down" magnetic equilibria and the additional equilibria created by the spin torque. Expressions for the stability regions of all equilibria are derived, and the nature of switching at each critical boundary is discussed. The qualitative picture obtained this way predicts complex hysteresis patterns that should occur in bilayers. Analyzing the phase portraits of the system we find regimes where switching between the up and down states proceeds through the current-induced state as an intermediate. The first step of such two-step process is fast and resembles ballistic switching for the reasons discussed in the paper. Using numeric simulations we analyze the switching time and compare it to that of a conventional spin torque device with collinear magnetizations of the polarizer and the free layer.

  17. Comparison of switching control algorithms effective in restricting the switching in the neighborhood of the origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joung, JinWook; Smyth, Andrew W.; Chung, Lan

    2010-06-01

    The active interaction control (AIC) system consisting of a primary structure, an auxiliary structure and an interaction element was proposed to protect the primary structure against earthquakes and winds. The objective of the AIC system in reducing the responses of the primary structure is fulfilled by activating or deactivating the switching between the engagement and the disengagement of the primary and auxiliary structures through the interaction element. The status of the interaction element is controlled by switching control algorithms. The previously developed switching control algorithms require an excessive amount of switching, which is inefficient. In this paper, the excessive amount of switching is restricted by imposing an appropriately designed switching boundary region, where switching is prohibited, on pre-designed engagement-disengagement conditions. Two different approaches are used in designing the newly proposed AID-off and AID-off2 algorithms. The AID-off2 algorithm is designed to affect deactivated switching regions explicitly, unlike the AID-off algorithm, which follows the same procedure of designing the engagement-disengagement conditions of the previously developed algorithms, by using the current status of the AIC system. Both algorithms are shown to be effective in reducing the amount of switching times triggered from the previously developed AID algorithm under an appropriately selected control sampling period for different earthquakes, but the AID-off2 algorithm outperforms the AID-off algorithm in reducing the number of switching times.

  18. Critical issues in electrical energy storage and transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G.J.; Sarjeant, W.J.

    1984-02-01

    The trend in repetitive pulse power system design is toward higher energies, larger average power levels, and factor pulse repetition rates. This trend results in requirements for components with better reliability, lower losses, and longer life times. Critical components for these pulsed power systems will be reviewed. Emphasis will be placed on those components and materials requiring significant development efforts. Capacitors, for example, are one of the weakest elements in high-power pulsed systems especially when operated at high-repetition frequencies for extended periods of time. Switches are by far the weakest active components of pulse power systems. Improved insulation in systems and components is essential to increasing energy density and reliability. Results of recent capacitor, switch and insulation experiments are discussed. Recent developments in switch and pulse transformer design are reviewed. 37 references, 28 figures, 4 tables.

  19. Resistance switching devices based on amorphous insulator-metal thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiang

    Nanometallic resistance switching devices based on amorphous insulator-metal thin films are developed to provide a novel non-volatile resistance-switching random-access memory (RRAM) that is CMOS-compatible and meeting technological demand. In these devices, data recording/converting is controlled by a bipolar voltage, which tunes electron localization lengths, hence resistivity, through electron trapping and detrapping. The low-resistance state is a metallic state while the high-resistance state is an insulating state, as established by conductivity studies from 2K to 300K. The material is exemplified by a Si3N4 thin film with randomly dispersed Pt or Cr. It has been extended to other materials, spanning a large library of oxide and nitride insulator films, dispersed with transition and main-group metal atoms. Metallic nanoparticles, which form at metal levels greater than 10 atomic percent, are nonessential for resistance switching: nanometallicity and resistance switching in nanometer thin films start at levels well below the metal percolation threshold. Nanometallic RRAMs have superior properties that set them apart from other RRAMs. The critical switching voltage is independent of the film thickness, device area, operating temperature and switching speed. Trapped electrons are relaxed by electron-phonon interaction, adding stability which enables long-term memory retention despite a low switching voltage. As electron-phonon interaction is mechanically altered, trapped electron can be destabilized, and sub-picosecond switching has been demonstrated using an electromagnetically generated stress pulse. The resistance state is finely tunable throughout the entire continuum between the fully metallic state and the fully insulating state, by voltage, thickness and composition. AC impedance spectroscopy confirms the resistance state is spatially uniform, providing a capacitance that linearly scales with area and inversely scales with thickness. The spatial uniformity is also manifested in outstanding uniformity of switching properties. Device degradation, due to moisture, electrode oxidation and dielectrophoresis, is minimal when dense thin films are used or when a hermetic seal is provided. The potential for low power operation, multi-bit storage and complementary stacking have been demonstrated in various RRAM configurations. These studies furnish a firmer understanding of nanometallicity and nanometallic switching. They also establish nanometallic RRAM as a viable candidate for emerging memory.

  20. Scalable, high-capacity optical switches for Internet routers and moving platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joe, In-Sung

    Internet traffic nearly doubles every year, and we need faster routers with higher ports count, yet lower electrical power consumption. Current internet routers use electrical switches that consume large amounts of electrical power to operate at high data rates. These internet routers dissipate ˜ 10kW per rack, and their capacity is limited by cooling constraints. The power consumption is also critical for moving platforms. As avionics advance, the demand for larger capacity networks increases. Optical fibers are already chosen for high speed data transmission in advanced aircraft. In optical communication systems, integrated passive optical components, such as Array Waveguide Gratings (AWGs), have provided larger capacity with lower power consumption, because minimal electrical power is required for their operation. In addition, compact, wavelength-tunable semiconductor lasers with wide tuning ranges that can switch their wavelengths in tens of nanoseconds have been demonstrated. Here we present a wavelength-selective optical packet switch based on Waveguide Grating Routers (WGRs), passive splitters, and combiners. Tunable lasers on the transmitter side are the only active switching elements. The WGR is operated on multiple Free Spectral Ranges (FSRs) to achieve increased port count and switching capacity while maintaining strict-sense, non-blocking operation. Switching times of less than 24ns between two wavelengths covering three FSRs is demonstrated experimentally. The electrical power consumption, size, weight, and cost of our optical switch is compared with those of conventional electrical switches, showing substantial improvements at large throughputs (˜2 Tb/s full duplex). A revised switch design that does not suffer optical loss from star couplers is proposed. This switch design uses only WGRs, and it is suitable for networks with stringent power budgets. The burst nature of the optical packet transmission requires clock recovery for every incoming packet, and conventional continuous-mode receivers are not suitable for this application. An Embedded Clock Transport (ECT) technique is adopted here. The ECT combines a clock tone with the data payload before the transmission. Simple band pass filtering can extract the transmitted clock tone, and low pass filtering can recover the data. Error-free transmissions at 2.488 Gb/s with ˜16 ns clock recovery time were demonstrated.