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Sample records for cronbach alpha coefficient

  1. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Visual Analogue Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of outliers on Cronbach's coefficient [alpha] has not been documented in the psychometric or statistical literature. This is an important gap because coefficient [alpha] is the most widely used measurement statistic in all of the social, educational, and health sciences. The impact of outliers on coefficient [alpha] is investigated for…

  2. Bayesian meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha to evaluate informative hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kensuke

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes a new method to evaluate informative hypotheses for meta-analysis of Cronbach's coefficient alpha using a Bayesian approach. The coefficient alpha is one of the most widely used reliability indices. In meta-analyses of reliability, researchers typically form specific informative hypotheses beforehand, such as 'alpha of this test is greater than 0.8' or 'alpha of one form of a test is greater than the others.' The proposed method enables direct evaluation of these informative hypotheses. To this end, a Bayes factor is calculated to evaluate the informative hypothesis against its complement. It allows researchers to summarize the evidence provided by previous studies in favor of their informative hypothesis. The proposed approach can be seen as a natural extension of the Bayesian meta-analysis of coefficient alpha recently proposed in this journal (Brannick and Zhang, ). The proposed method is illustrated through two meta-analyses of real data that evaluate different kinds of informative hypotheses on superpopulation: one is that alpha of a particular test is above the criterion value, and the other is that alphas among different test versions have ordered relationships. Informative hypotheses are supported from the data in both cases, suggesting that the proposed approach is promising for application. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26123160

  3. The Impact of Outliers on Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Estimate of Reliability: Ordinal/Rating Scale Item Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2010-01-01

    In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…

  4. Minimum Sample Size for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha: A Monte-Carlo Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdugul, Halil

    2008-01-01

    The coefficient alpha is the most widely used measure of internal consistency for composite scores in the educational and psychological studies. However, due to the difficulties of data gathering in psychometric studies, the minimum sample size for the sample coefficient alpha has been frequently debated. There are various suggested minimum sample…

  5. Understanding a Widely Misunderstood Statistic: Cronbach's "Alpha"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritter, Nicola L.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to explore score reliability in virtually all studies, because tests are not reliable. The present paper explains the most frequently used reliability estimate, coefficient alpha, so that the coefficient's conceptual underpinnings will be understood. Researchers need to understand score reliability because of the possible impact…

  6. Note on Two Generalizations of Coefficient Alpha.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, Nambury S.

    1979-01-01

    An important relationship is given for two generalizations of coefficient alpha: (1) Rajaratnam, Cronbach, and Gleser's generalizability formula for stratified-parallel tests, and (2) Raju's coefficient beta. (Author/CTM)

  7. On the Use, the Misuse, and the Very Limited Usefulness of Cronbach's Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sijtsma, Klaas

    2009-01-01

    This discussion paper argues that both the use of Cronbach's alpha as a reliability estimate and as a measure of internal consistency suffer from major problems. First, alpha always has a value, which cannot be equal to the test score's reliability given the inter-item covariance matrix and the usual assumptions about measurement error. Second, in…

  8. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  9. Cronbach's [Alpha], Revelle's [Beta], and McDonald's [Omega][sub H]: Their Relations with Each Other and Two Alternative Conceptualizations of Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen

    2005-01-01

    We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…

  10. Treating Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Coefficients as Data in Counseling Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helms, Janet E.; Henze, Kevin T.; Sass, Terry L.; Mifsud, Venus A.

    2006-01-01

    Scientific associations and measurement experts in psychology and education have voiced various standards and best-practice recommendations concerning reliability data over the years. Yet in the counseling psychology literature, there is virtually no single-source compilation and articulation of good practices for reporting, analyzing, and…

  11. Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Brian M.

    Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…

  12. My Current Thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and Successor Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronbach, Lee J.; Shavelson, Richard J.

    2004-01-01

    In 1997, noting that the 50th anniversary of the publication of "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests" was fast approaching, Lee Cronbach planned what have become the notes published here. His aim was to point out the ways in which his views on coefficient alpha had evolved, doubting now that the coefficient was the best way of…

  13. Testing the Equality of Independent Alpha Coefficients Adjusted for Test Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alsawalmeh, Yousef M.; Feldt, Leonard S.

    1999-01-01

    Develops a statistical test for the hypothesis that alpha'(1) =alpha'(2) when alpha'(1) is the Spearman-Brown extrapolated value of Cronbach's alpha reliability for test 1 and alpha'(2) is the unadjusted coefficient for test 2. The test is shown to exercise tight control of Type I error. (Author/SLD)

  14. Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.

    2011-01-01

    Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…

  15. A Direct Latent Variable Modeling Based Method for Point and Interval Estimation of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A direct approach to point and interval estimation of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for multiple component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on a latent variable modeling application with widely circulated software. As a by-product, using sample data the method permits ascertaining whether the population discrepancy…

  16. A Direct Latent Variable Modeling Based Method for Point and Interval Estimation of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2015-01-01

    A direct approach to point and interval estimation of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for multiple component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on a latent variable modeling application with widely circulated software. As a by-product, using sample data the method permits ascertaining whether the population discrepancy…

  17. Testing the Difference between Two Alpha Coefficients with Small Samples of Subjects and Raters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Kim, Seonghoon

    2006-01-01

    Researchers sometimes need a statistical test of the hypothesis that two values of Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient are equal. The situation may involve scores from two different measures administered to independent random samples or from the same measure administered to random samples from two different populations. Feldt derived a test…

  18. Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…

  19. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  20. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  1. Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko

    2006-01-01

    The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…

  2. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  3. Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almehrizi, Rashid S.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…

  4. Bayesian Statistical Inference for Coefficient Alpha. ACT Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jun Corser; Woodruff, David J.

    Coefficient alpha is a simple and very useful index of test reliability that is widely used in educational and psychological measurement. Classical statistical inference for coefficient alpha is well developed. This paper presents two methods for Bayesian statistical inference for a single sample alpha coefficient. An approximate analytic method…

  5. Bayesian meta-analysis of coefficient alpha.

    PubMed

    Brannick, Michael T; Zhang, Nanhua

    2013-06-01

    The current paper describes and illustrates a Bayesian approach to the meta-analysis of coefficient alpha. Alpha is the most commonly used estimate of the reliability or consistency (freedom from measurement error) for educational and psychological measures. The conventional approach to meta-analysis uses inverse variance weights to combine information from independent studies to provide an overall estimate. The Bayesian approach provides similar estimates to the conventional approach if a diffuse prior is used. However, the Bayesian approach also provides 'shrunken' local estimates of reliability in each context. The amount of shrinkage depends upon both the variability in the underlying populations and the sampling variance of the local estimates. Advantages of the approach are the estimation of individual studies adjusted for sampling error and the application of meta-analytic results to new local studies in which the local study 'borrows strength' from the meta-analysis. The ability to borrow strength for the new local studies is particularly useful in applied work in which the estimate of the local parameter is of primary interest. The approach is illustrated by the analysis of studies of the reliability of the General Ethnicity Questionnaire - Abridged, a measure of identification with the culture of one's heritage and the culture of one's host country. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26053658

  6. A Clarification of the Effects of Rapid Guessing on Coefficient [Alpha]: A Note on Attali's "Reliability of Speeded Number-Right Multiple-Choice Tests"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Steven L.; DeMars, Christine E.

    2009-01-01

    Attali (2005) recently demonstrated that Cronbach's coefficient [alpha] estimate of reliability for number-right multiple-choice tests will tend to be deflated by speededness, rather than inflated as is commonly believed and taught. Although the methods, findings, and conclusions of Attali (2005) are correct, his article may inadvertently invite a…

  7. Evaluation of Dimensionality in the Assessment of Internal Consistency Reliability: Coefficient Alpha and Omega Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2015-01-01

    In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…

  8. Varying Coefficient Meta-Analytic Methods for Alpha Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonett, Douglas G.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional fixed-effects (FE) and random-effects (RE) confidence intervals that are used to assess the average alpha reliability across multiple studies have serious limitations. The FE method, which is based on a constant coefficient model, assumes equal reliability coefficients across studies and breaks down under minor violations of this…

  9. Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…

  10. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  11. SIMREL: Software for Coefficient Alpha and Its Confidence Intervals with Monte Carlo Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdugul, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This article describes SIMREL, a software program designed for the simulation of alpha coefficients and the estimation of its confidence intervals. SIMREL runs on two alternatives. In the first one, if SIMREL is run for a single data file, it performs descriptive statistics, principal components analysis, and variance analysis of the item scores…

  12. SIMREL: Software for Coefficient Alpha and Its Confidence Intervals with Monte Carlo Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurdugul, Halil

    2009-01-01

    This article describes SIMREL, a software program designed for the simulation of alpha coefficients and the estimation of its confidence intervals. SIMREL runs on two alternatives. In the first one, if SIMREL is run for a single data file, it performs descriptive statistics, principal components analysis, and variance analysis of the item scores…

  13. [Estimators of internal consistency in health research: the use of the alpha coefficient].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Gonçalves, Elizandra; Arancibia, Beatriz Angélica Valdivia; Bento, Gisele Graziele; Castro, Thiago Luis da Silva; Hernandez, Salma Stephany Soleman; da Silva, Rudney

    2015-01-01

    Academic production has increased in the area of health, increasingly demanding high quality in publications of great impact. One of the ways to consider quality is through methods that increase the consistency of data analysis, such as reliability which, depending on the type of data, can be evaluated by different coefficients, especially the alpha coefficient. Based on this, the present review systematically gathers scientific articles produced in the last five years, which in a methodological manner gave the ? coefficient psychometric use as an estimator of internal consistency and reliability in the processes of construction, adaptation and validation of instruments. The identification of the studies was conducted systematically in the databases BioMed Central Journals, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, Journals@Ovid, BMJ and Springer, using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data analyses were performed by means of triangulation, content analysis and descriptive analysis. It was found that most studies were conducted in Iran (f=3), Spain (f=2) and Brazil (f=2). These studies aimed to test the psychometric properties of instruments, with eight studies using the ? coefficient to assess reliability and nine for assessing internal consistency. All studies were classified as methodological research when their objectives were analyzed. In addition, four studies were also classified as correlational and one as descriptive-correlational. It can be concluded that though the ? coefficient is widely used as one of the main parameters for assessing internal consistency of questionnaires in health sciences, its use as an estimator of trust of the methodology used and internal consistency has some critiques that should be considered. PMID:26102116

  14. Diffusion coefficients in systems with inclusion compounds. 1. alpha. -Cyclodextrin-L-phenylalanine-water at 25 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Paduano, L.; Sartorio, R.; Vitagliano, V. ); Albright, J.G.; Miller, D.G.; Mitchell, J. )

    1990-08-23

    Diffusion coefficients in the ternary system {alpha}-cyclodextrin (at one concentration)-L-phenylalanine (at four concentrations)-water have been measured by using the Gouy interferometric technique. The effect of the inclusion equilibrium on the cross-term diffusion coefficients was observed. The measured diffusion coefficients in the ternary systems were used to calculate values of the binding constants. These values are in good agreement with the value obtained from calorimetric studies.

  15. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianbing; Zhang, Xianmei; Yu, Limin; Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-01

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?? of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?? increases with the parallel refraction index n? while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?LH over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?? when ne?8×1019m-3 for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  16. Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang

    2014-02-12

    Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the ? particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient ?{sub ?} of LH waves due to ? particles. Results show that, the ?{sub ?} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ?} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ?{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of ?{sub ?} when n{sub e}?8×10{sup 19}m{sup ?3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, ? ? 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.

  17. Comparing Fit and Reliability Estimates of a Psychological Instrument Using Second-Order CFA, Bifactor, and Essentially Tau-Equivalent (Coefficient Alpha) Models via AMOS 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ryan A.; Yang, Yanyun; Beitra, Danette; McCaffrey, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of composite reliability within a hierarchical modeling framework has recently become of particular interest given the growing recognition that the underlying assumptions of coefficient alpha are often untenable. Unfortunately, coefficient alpha remains the prominent estimate of reliability when estimating total scores from a scale with…

  18. Comparing Fit and Reliability Estimates of a Psychological Instrument Using Second-Order CFA, Bifactor, and Essentially Tau-Equivalent (Coefficient Alpha) Models via AMOS 22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ryan A.; Yang, Yanyun; Beitra, Danette; McCaffrey, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of composite reliability within a hierarchical modeling framework has recently become of particular interest given the growing recognition that the underlying assumptions of coefficient alpha are often untenable. Unfortunately, coefficient alpha remains the prominent estimate of reliability when estimating total scores from a scale with…

  19. Magnetoconvection and dynamo coefficients:. Dependence of the alpha effect on rotation and magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ossendrijver, M.; Stix, M.; Brandenburg, A.

    2001-09-01

    We present numerical simulations of three-dimensional compressible magnetoconvection in a rotating rectangular box that represents a section of the solar convection zone. The box contains a convectively unstable layer, surrounded by stably stratified layers with overshooting convection. The magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, is chosen subcritical, thus excluding spontaneous growth of the magnetic field through dynamo action, and the magnetic energy is maintained by introducing a constant magnetic field into the box, once convection has attained a statistically stationary state. Under the influence of the Coriolis force, the advection of the magnetic field results in a non-vanishing contribution to the mean electric field, given by . From this electric field, we calculate the alpha -effect, separately for the stably and the unstably stratified layers, by averaging over time and over suitably defined volumes. From the variation of alpha we derive an error estimate, and the dependence of alpha on rotation and magnetic field strength is studied. Evidence is found for rotational quenching of the vertical alpha effect, and for a monotonic increase of the horizontal alpha effect with increasing rotation. For Rm~ 30, our results for both vertical and horizontal alpha effect are consistent with magnetic quenching by a factor [1+Rm (B0/Beq)2]-1. The signs of the small-scale current helicity and of the vertical component of alpha are found to be opposite to those for isotropic turbulence.

  20. A Comparison of Interval Estimation of Coefficient Alpha Using the Feldt and the Jackknife Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandey, Tej N.; Hubert, Lawrence J.

    This investigation had two major purposes. The first was to explore the use of an inferential technique called Tukey's Jackknife in establishing a confidence interval about cooefficient alpha reliability. The second purpose was to study the robustness of the Feldt and the jackknife procedures when the data fails to satisfy usual normality…

  1. A Monte Carlo Study of Eight Confidence Interval Methods for Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine L.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hibbard, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine eight of the different methods for computing confidence intervals around alpha that have been proposed to determine which of these, if any, is the most accurate and precise. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate samples under known and controlled population conditions. In general, the differences in…

  2. Influence of plasma parameters on the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.

    2014-12-15

    In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.

  3. Comparison of aerodynamic coefficients obtained from theoretical calculations wind tunnel tests and flight tests data reduction for the alpha jet aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.

    1980-01-01

    The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.

  4. Bilinear forms and soliton solutions for a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation in an inhomogeneous Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain or an alpha helical protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.

  5. Confidence Interval Methods for Coefficient Alpha on the Basis of Discrete, Ordinal Response Items: Which One, If Any, Is the Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine L.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Owens, Corina M.; Scott, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors aimed to examine 8 of the different methods for computing confidence intervals around alpha that have been proposed to determine which of these, if any, is the most accurate and precise. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate samples under known and controlled population conditions wherein the underlying item…

  6. The Sampling Theory for the Intraclass Reliability Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    Sampling theory for the intraclass reliability coefficient, a Spearman-Brown extrapolation of alpha to a single measurement for each examinee, is less recognized and less cited than that of coefficient alpha. Techniques for constructing confidence intervals and testing hypotheses for the intraclass coefficient are presented. (SLD)

  7. A parametric study of planform and aeroelastic effects on aerodynamic center, alpha- and q- stability derivatives. Appendix C: Method for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix of nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1972-01-01

    Expressions are derived for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix for nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations. An aerodynamic influence coefficient is defined as the load in lbs. induced on a panel as a result of a unit angle of attack on another panel. Fuselage, wing and tail thickness are assumed to be small with the result that the thickness effect on the flow-field is negligible. The method for determining the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is based on the lifting solution to the small perturbation, steady potential flow equation.

  8. Alpha Particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Term that is sometimes used to describe a helium nucleus, a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons, bound together. Alpha particles, which were discovered by Ernest Rutherford (1871-1937) in 1898, are emitted by atomic nuclei that are undergoing alpha radioactivity. During this process, an unstable heavy nucleus spontaneously emits an alpha particle and transmut...

  9. Coefficient ? as a Measure of Test Score Reliability: Review of 3 Popular Misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Morera, Osvaldo F; Stokes, Sonya M

    2016-03-01

    We discuss 3 popular misconceptions about Cronbach ? or coefficient ?, traditionally used in public health and the behavioral sciences as an index of test score reliability. We also review several other indices of test score reliability. We encourage researchers to thoughtfully consider the nature of their data and the options when choosing an index of reliability, and to clearly communicate this choice and its implications to their audiences. PMID:26885962

  10. Alpha Thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Thalassemia Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have ... αα −− Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have ...

  11. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Fara

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…

  12. Optical absorption coefficient of magneto-optic garnet films

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Gong-qiang; Yu Zhi-qiang; Liu Xianglin

    1986-02-01

    This paper analyzes various factors contributing to optical attenuation in magneto-optic garnet films and derives expressions for the optical absorption and scattering coefficients ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma... The values of ..cap alpha.. and ..gamma.. for (BiTm)/sub 3/(FeGa)/sub 5/O/sub 12/ films were measured in a magneto-optic modulation device by comparing the magneto-optic rotations. Compared with other methods, this technique has two advantages: (1) absorption in the substrate is eliminated, and the measured values ..cap alpha.. are not affected by reflection at the film/substrate interface; (2) the optical scattering coefficient ..gamma.. can be separated from the optical absorption ..cap alpha.., so that the measured value ..cap alpha.. closely approximates the true optical absorption coefficient for magneto-optic garnet film materials.

  13. Alpha fetoprotein

    MedlinePLUS

    Alpha fetoprotein (AFP) is a protein produced by the liver and yolk sac of a developing baby during pregnancy. AFP levels go down soon after birth. It is likely that ... A test can be done to measure the amount of AFP in your blood.

  14. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Liver Disease Information > Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Explore this section to learn more about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, including a description of the disorder ...

  15. Coefficients Alpha, Beta, Omega, and the glb: Comments on Sijtsma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revelle, William; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    There are three fundamental problems in Sijtsma ("Psychometrika," 2008): (1) contrary to the name, the glb is not the greatest lower bound of reliability but rather is systematically less than omega[subscript t] (McDonald, "Test theory: A unified treatment," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1999), (2) we agree with Sijtsma that when considering how well a test…

  16. Coefficients Alpha, Beta, Omega, and the glb: Comments on Sijtsma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revelle, William; Zinbarg, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    There are three fundamental problems in Sijtsma ("Psychometrika," 2008): (1) contrary to the name, the glb is not the greatest lower bound of reliability but rather is systematically less than omega[subscript t] (McDonald, "Test theory: A unified treatment," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1999), (2) we agree with Sijtsma that when considering how well a test…

  17. Generalized Hansen Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Sławomir; Métris, Gilles; Vokrouhlický, David

    2004-02-01

    Hansen coefficients X kn,j were originally defined for integer superscript n referring to the power of distance. We show, that most of the theory of Hansen coefficients remains valid for X kγ,j, when γ is a real number. The generalized coefficients can be applied in a variety of perturbed problems that involve some drag effects. A more detailed discussion of the case X 0(2n+1)/2,j is given.

  18. Coefficients of Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)

  19. Measuring Seebeck Coefficient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.

  20. JKTLD: Limb darkening coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southworth, John

    2015-11-01

    JKTLD outputs theoretically-calculated limb darkening (LD) strengths for equations (LD laws) which predict the amount of LD as a function of the part of the star being observed. The coefficients of these laws are obtained by bilinear interpolation (in effective temperature and surface gravity) in published tables of coefficients calculated from stellar model atmospheres by several researchers. Many observations of stars require the strength of limb darkening (LD) to be estimated, which can be done using theoretical models of stellar atmospheres; JKTLD can help in these circumstances.

  1. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... decreases the ability of red blood cells to transport oxygen around the body. continue Types of Alpha ... if untreated. Complications of alpha thalassemia include: Excess iron. When children have alpha thalassemia, they can end ...

  2. Spin-coefficient formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Ezra Ted; Penrose, Roger

    2009-06-01

    The spin-coefficient formalism (SC formalism) (also known in the literature as Newman-Penrose formalism (NP formalism) ) is a commonly used technique based on the use of null tetrads, with ideas taken from 2-component spinors, for the detailed treatment of 4-dimensional space-times satisfying the equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity.

  3. Generalized Reflection Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remling, Christian

    2015-07-01

    I consider general reflection coefficients for arbitrary one-dimensional whole line differential or difference operators of order 2. These reflection coefficients are semicontinuous functions of the operator: their absolute value can only go down when limits are taken. This implies a corresponding semicontinuity result for the absolutely continuous spectrum, which applies to a very large class of maps. In particular, we can consider shift maps (thus recovering and generalizing a result of Last-Simon) and flows of the Toda and KdV hierarchies (this is new). Finally, I evaluate an attempt at finding a similar general setup that gives the much stronger conclusion of reflectionless limit operators in more specialized situations.

  4. Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.

  5. Phenyl-/alpha/,/alpha/,/omega/-trihydropolyfluoroalkyliodonium fluoroborates

    SciTech Connect

    Mironova, A.A.; Soloshonok, I.V.; Maletina, I.I.; Orda, V.V.; Yagupol'skii, L.M.

    1988-08-20

    The reaction of difluoroiodo-/alpha/,/alpha/,/omega/-trihydrofluoroalkanes (I) with boron trifluoride and benzene gave phenyl-/alpha/,/alpha/,/omega/-trihydropolyfluoroalkyliodonium fluoroborates (II). It was established that the polyfluoroalkyl radical adds at the sulfur atom in reaction with p-chlorothiophenol, the N-polyfluoroalkylation product is formed with aniline, pyridine is polyfluoroalkylated at the nitrogen atom with the formation of a quaternary salt, and a mixture of products from polyfluoroalkylation at the nitrogen atom of the dimethylamino group and at the para position of the benzene ring is formed with dimethylaniline.

  6. Resonance scattering and alpha-transfer reactions for nuclear astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachev, G. V.; Johnson, E. D.; Mitchell, J.; Kemper, K. W.; Wiedenhoever, I.; Goldberg, V. Z.

    2010-03-01

    Resonances in atomic nuclei play a vital role in determining rates of astrophysically important nuclear reactions. Efficient experimental technique, Thick Target Inverse Kinematics method, which allows to study properties of resonances in exotic nuclei with radioactive beams using resonance elastic scattering is discussed. Various extensions of this technique for measurements of inelastic excitation functions and application of one of these methods for {sup 7}Be(p,p'){sup 7}Be*(0.43 MeV) reaction is considered.The astrophysical rates of some (alpha, gamma), (alpha, n), (alpha, p) reactions are often determined by the near alpha-threshold resonances. Application of sub-Coulomb alpha-transfer reactions ({sup 7}Li,t) and ({sup 6}Li,d) allow to determine alpha-particle Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients of these resonances with minimal dependance on model parameters. The {sup 14}C(alpha,gamma) reaction is considered as an example for application of this approach.

  7. Statistical Considerations in Choosing a Test Reliability Coefficient. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (10)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…

  8. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    PubMed

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. PMID:26632590

  9. TF-ripple loss reduced alpha heating

    SciTech Connect

    Hladschik, T.; Schoepf, K.

    1994-11-01

    In ITER the main loss mechanism of fast fusion alpha particles is expected to be due to toroidal field (TF) ripples caused by the finite number of TF coils. The associated radial diffusion of fast alphas is specified by an energy and space dependent diffusion coefficient which can be extended to account also for toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) diffusion. Energy transfer from the fast alphas to the thermal background plasma is considered to occur due to Coulomb collisions and nuclear elastic scattering (NES). The {alpha}-transport is described here by a reduced slowing down kinetic equation of which the numerical solution provides for the energy-, space- and time-dependent alpha particle distribution in the tokamak plasma. This alpha distribution then constitutes the basis for a determinative calculation of the actual fusion power allocation to each distinct background species. Though TAE diffusion alone is not a significant fusion power loss mechanism, recent calculations indicate that the coaction of TF-ripple (TFR) and TAE transport processes synergisticly results in a substantial reduction of fusion alpha power deposition.

  10. alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass

  11. Coefficients of associated Legendre functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peasley, Q. D.

    1976-01-01

    The exact coefficients for the explicit forms of the associated Legendre functions Pm for integer values of m,n=0,1,2,...25 are presented in tabular form together with two cross-referenced listings of the zeroes for these functions rounded to five decimal places. The unfactored coefficients and the interger coefficients are presented in adjacent columns for each function. The greatest common factor and divisor have been removed and listed separately for the integer coefficients.

  12. The Alpha Centauri System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderblom, David R.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)

  13. Rapid determination of alpha-tocopherol in muscle and adipose tissues of pork.

    PubMed

    Pfalzgraf, A; Steinhart, H; Frigg, M

    1995-03-01

    A fast, sensitive and reproducible method for the analysis of alpha-tocopherol in pork tissues is presented. It combines saponification of the tissue and alpha-tocopherol extraction in a single vessel, followed by HPLC separation and fluorescence detection. Added alpha-tocopherol was recovered quantitatively. The reduction of lipid peroxides with potassium iodide before the saponification step did not alter the amounts of alpha-tocopherol detected. Membrane-bound alpha-tocopherol was not oxidized by lipid peroxides during the procedure. The coefficient of variation of alpha-tocopherol analysed using this method was +/- 4.2% for muscle and +/- 2.5% for adipose tissues. PMID:7785343

  14. Analytic properties of Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadov, Sergey Yu.

    2008-04-01

    Hansen’s coefficients in the theory of elliptic motion with eccentricity e are studied as functions of the parameter η = (1 - e 2)1/2. Their analytic behavior in the complex η plane is described and some symmetry relations are derived. In particular, for every Hansen coefficient, multiplication by suitable powers of e and η results in an entire analytic function of η. Consequently, Hansen’s coefficients can be in principle computed by means of rapidly convergent series in powers of η. A representation of Hansen’s coefficients in terms of two entire functions of e 2 follows.

  15. Alpha ash transport and ash control

    SciTech Connect

    Miley, G.H.; Hu, S.C.; Varadarajan, V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses: thermal {alpha}-particle transport is a crucial issue in ash buildup. The transport will determine if buildup prevents ignition and if external control is necessary. Due to uncertainties in the transport coefficients, 1-1/2-D sensitivity study of the influence on the fusion power density is done using the BALDUR code. The Baldur simulations with varying diffusion coefficients for ash plasma are performed. The results of ash transport in the presence of sawteeth and varying edge conditions are discussed. Also, the nature of the fishbone oscillation in the presence of two hot species consisting of hot alphas and beam injected ions is discussed. The sawteeth and fishbones can be potential mechanisms for enhanced ash transport; the latter will indirectly influence the ash transport.

  16. Alpha, Dimension-Free, and Model-Based Internal Consistency Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentler, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    As pointed out by Sijtsma ("in press"), coefficient alpha is inappropriate as a single summary of the internal consistency of a composite score. Better estimators of internal consistency are available. In addition to those mentioned by Sijtsma, an old dimension-free coefficient and structural equation model based coefficients are proposed to…

  17. Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.

    1989-01-01

    Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.

  18. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  19. Imaging alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, David F.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  20. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-08-27

    An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.

  1. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Event counting alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.

  3. Reexamination of the {alpha}-{alpha}''fishbone'' potential

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J. P.; McEwen, J. E.; Elhanafy, M.; Smith, E.; Woodhouse, R.; Papp, Z.

    2011-09-15

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the {alpha}-{alpha} fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-{alpha} resonance energies, experimental phase shifts, and three-{alpha} binding energies. We found that, essentially, a simple Gaussian can provide a good description of two-{alpha} and three-{alpha} experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  4. Diffusion Coefficients in White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saumon, D.; Starrett, C. E.; Daligault, J.

    2015-06-01

    Models of diffusion in white dwarfs universally rely on the coefficients calculated by Paquette et al. (1986). We present new calculations of diffusion coefficients based on an advanced microscopic theory of dense plasmas and a numerical simulation approach that intrinsically accounts for multiple collisions. Our method is validated against a state-of-the-art method and we present results for the diffusion of carbon ions in a helium plasma.

  5. Wrong Signs in Regression Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGee, Holly

    1999-01-01

    When using parametric cost estimation, it is important to note the possibility of the regression coefficients having the wrong sign. A wrong sign is defined as a sign on the regression coefficient opposite to the researcher's intuition and experience. Some possible causes for the wrong sign discussed in this paper are a small range of x's, leverage points, missing variables, multicollinearity, and computational error. Additionally, techniques for determining the cause of the wrong sign are given.

  6. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-06-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations are suggested: An optimization method for the surface impedances for locally reacting absorbers, the flow resistivity for extendedly reacting absorbers, and the flow resistance for fabrics. With four porous type absorbers, the conversion methods are validated. For absorbers backed by a rigid wall, the surface impedance optimization produces the best results, while the flow resistivity optimization also yields reasonable results. The flow resistivity and flow resistance optimization for extendedly reacting absorbers are also found to be successful. However, the theoretical conversion factors based on Miki's model do not guarantee reliable estimations, particularly at frequencies below 250 Hz and beyond 2500?Hz. PMID:23742349

  7. The alpha channeling effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  8. Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branham, Richard L., Jr.

    1990-06-01

    Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.

  9. Alpha One Foundation

    MedlinePLUS

    Languages French (Francais) German (Deutsch) Italian (Italiano) Spanish (Español) Portuguese (Portugues) Swedish (Svenska) Donate One Time Monthly Keep In Touch | About Us | Contact Us | What is the Alpha-1 ...

  10. Portable alpha spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Martín Sánchez, A; de la Torre Pérez, J

    2012-09-01

    Many portable devices have been designed to detect ?-rays or alpha and beta particles. Most of the ?-particle detectors give the total count as a result, without identifying the radionuclides existing in the sample. The development of a device allowing rapid and straightforward ?-particle spectrometry would be very useful for detecting the radioactive contents of unknown samples. This work describes the construction of a portable device using silicon semiconductor detectors designed to rapidly detect and possibly identify alpha-emitting radionuclides. PMID:22405957

  11. Flow coefficients of monosleeve valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldron, C D

    1941-01-01

    The flow coefficients of the intake and the exhaust ports of a sleeve-valve cylinder were measured by attaching the cylinder to a large tank and measuring the changes in pressure and temperature in the tank that were caused by short periods of air flow through the valve ports. The derivation of the equations on which the flow coefficients are based is given. The distribution of total pressure in the arms of the sleeve-valve intake manifold was measured. The arms are found to have as little as 75 percent of the total pressure within the manifold entrance.

  12. Transport coefficients of fluid mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Castillo, R.; de Haro, M.L.; Martina, E.

    1986-07-01

    On the basis of the successful description of the equilibrium properties of simple fluids and fluid mixtures using perturbation theory, the consequences of including density- and temperature-dependent diameters in the formulas for the transport coefficients of dense hard-sphere fluid mixtures are investigated. The advantages and limitations of this approach for the correlation of the experimental data of real mixtures, together with numerical estimates for particular mixtures, are discussed. On the other hand, recent mean field kinetic theories which include the effect of the attractive tail in the intermolecular potential are employed to derive transport coefficients for mixtures. Numerical results are presented and comparison with other theories is also made.

  13. Seebeck coefficient of one electron

    SciTech Connect

    Durrani, Zahid A. K.

    2014-03-07

    The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ?T between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ?T are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ?T, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.

  14. Alpha Particle Diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, Ray, K.

    2009-05-13

    The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.

  15. The Mass-8 experiment -- Measuring the {beta}-{alpha} angular correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Amsbaugh, J.F.; Beck, M.; Braeckeleer, L. de; Storm, D.W.; Swanson, E.; Swartz, K.B.; Schagen, J.P.S. van; Wright, D.C.; Zhao, Z.

    1997-12-31

    The objective of the Mass-8 experiment is to perform a precision test of the conservation of the vector current hypothesis and a search for second class currents. The authors present preliminary data on the correlation coefficients of the {beta}-{alpha} angular correlations of the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-decays of {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B.

  16. Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ames, Joseph S

    1918-01-01

    The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)

  17. Tables of the coefficients A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1974-01-01

    Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.

  18. Some properties of Hansen's coefficients.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribanov, A. V.

    Precise formulae for Hansen's coefficients X0n,m calculation when |n| ≤ 20 and |m| ≤ 20 are constructed. By using properties of the hypergeometrical function estimates of X0n,m for any higher indexes are obtained.

  19. Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, Ronald E.

    1990-01-01

    Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.

  20. Profile Loss Coefficient Definitions Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Calzada, Pedro

    2011-09-01

    A critical and integrated view on the profile loss coefficient definitions commonly used in turbomachinery is offered. By solving the compressible flow equations in boundary layers (characterized by their integral parameters) mixing at constant area the dependence of different loss coefficients (total pressure loss and kinetic energy loss coefficient, KSI) on the Mach number and boundary layer characteristics is investigated. KSI appears as the best parameter to measure the merit of the process since it is fundamentally independent of Mach number and only dependent on the boundary layer parameters. Results from expressions obtained by different formulations and levels of approximations are compared with the solution of the full set of compressible equations. KSI estimated by the expression 2θ/(t - δ*) + (δ*/t)2 is identified as the best parameter of merit to be used as profile loss coefficient. Additionally a comparison between losses from boundary layers discharging into constant area and discharging into constant pressure is given and the relevance played by the shape parameter, H, in the latter case is remarked.

  1. Neural Network Prediction of New Aircraft Design Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgaard, Magnus; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Ross, James C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses a neural network tool for more effective aircraft design evaluations during wind tunnel tests. Using a hybrid neural network optimization method, we have produced fast and reliable predictions of aerodynamical coefficients, found optimal flap settings, and flap schedules. For validation, the tool was tested on a 55% scale model of the USAF/NASA Subsonic High Alpha Research Concept aircraft (SHARC). Four different networks were trained to predict coefficients of lift, drag, moment of inertia, and lift drag ratio (C(sub L), C(sub D), C(sub M), and L/D) from angle of attack and flap settings. The latter network was then used to determine an overall optimal flap setting and for finding optimal flap schedules.

  2. Transport coefficients of quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bennaceur, D.; Khalfaoui, A.H. )

    1993-09-01

    Transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas with a weakly coupled, completely degenerate electron gas and classical ions with a wide range of coupling strength are expressed within the Bloch transport equation. Using the Kohler variational principle the collision integral of the quantum Boltzmann equation is derived, which accounts for quantum effects through collective plasma oscillations. The physical implications of the results are investigated through comparisons with other theories. For practical applications, electrical and thermal conductivities are derived in simple analytical formulas. The relation between these two transport coefficients is expressed in an explicit form, giving a generalized Wiedemann-Franz law, where the Lorentz ratio is a dependent function of the coupling parameter and the degree of degeneracy of the plasma.

  3. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  4. Video compression by coefficient compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hirohisa

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses a new video compression algorithm called Coefficient Compensation that achieves high performance by optimizing the DCT encoding loop structure, and demonstrates its improvement characteristic as compared with the conventional JPEG or MPEG I/P picture encoding under the condition that movement compensation is not available. The first part of the paper analyzes the performance of the DCT encoding loop structure, the method of optimization and the concept of soft-decision. The second part reports on the simulation results. Encoding performance is tested by various MPEG test sequences compressed in 20 Mbits/sec. The difference between JPEG and MPEG I is in the quantization table. For JPEG, the quantization table widely accepted as one producing a good compression quality is used. All the encoded binary outputs are fully compatible to the MPEG2 syntax but additional 2 bits/block information is coded as the user data for the Coefficient Compensation.

  5. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K.

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  6. High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.

    2010-12-15

    We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.

  7. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    SciTech Connect

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  8. Hydrogen alpha laser ablation plasma diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Parigger, C G; Surmick, D M; Gautam, G; El Sherbini, A M

    2015-08-01

    Spectral measurements of the H(?) Balmer series line and the continuum radiation are applied to draw inferences of electron density, temperature, and the level of self-absorption in laser ablation of a solid ice target in ambient air. Electron densities of 17 to 3.2×10(24) m(-3) are determined from absolute calibrated emission coefficients for time delays of 100-650 ns after generation of laser plasma using Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation. The corresponding temperatures of 4.5-0.95 eV were evaluated from the absolute spectral radiance of the continuum at the longer wavelengths. The redshifted, Stark-broadened hydrogen alpha line emerges from the continuum radiation after a time delay of 300 ns. The electron densities inferred from power law formulas agree with the values obtained from the plasma emission coefficients. PMID:26258326

  9. Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.

    1996-01-01

    An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.

  10. Drag Coefficients of Drifting Waterbirds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Ellenrieder, Karl; Kenow, Kevin; Qu, Huajin (Ariel); Su, Tsung-Chow (Joe)

    2013-11-01

    A series of towing tank experiments has been performed to support the development of a probabilistic source tracking model that can be used to estimate the origin of waterbird die-offs. While monitoring the appearance of waterbird carcasses on beaches provides the primary means of assessing the magnitude, as well as the spatial and temporal patterns of die-offs, interpreting the actual site of exposure to toxins is hampered by a lack of information on the drift patterns of carcasses and the confounding influences of wind/current. In this work, a series of experimental measurements were conducted on Common Loon and Lesser Scaup carcasses to obtain steady drag coefficients of representative waterbird species. The tests were designed to capture the drag coefficients associated with current speeds of between 0.2 and 0.8 meters per second and wind speeds of up to 10 meters per second at different levels of carcass submergence. Using the submerged frontal area of an ellipse, together with the frontal area of any submerged portions of the head and neck gives good similarity across the ranges of speeds and submergence levels tested. An example approach to determining waterbird drift velocity and direction from knowledge of the drag coefficients, wind and current is provided. This effort was supported by the US Geological Survey.

  11. The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.

    1973-01-01

    Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.

  12. The Lyman alpha coronagraph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Reeves, E. M.; Kirkham, B.

    1977-01-01

    The rocket-borne Lyman alpha coronagraph (RLAC) is to be used in the absence of a natural solar eclipse to determine coronal temperatures from measurements of the line width of Lyman-alpha and to determine neutral hydrogen densities of coronal material from the absolute intensity. The coronagraph consists of a 75-cm Fastie-Ebert scanning spectrometer with an AMR 641 photoelectric detection system, an off-axis parabolic primary mirror, and an occulting system. A special optical arrangement achieves rejection of radiation from the solar disk.

  13. Alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Søren Krogh; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin E comprises a group of compounds possessing vitamin E activity. alpha-Tocopherol is the compound demonstrating the highest vitamin E activity, which is available both in its natural form as RRR-alpha-tocopherol isolated from plant sources, but more common as synthetically manufactured all-rac-alpha-tocopherol. Synthetic all-rac-alpha-tocopherol consists of a racemic mixture of all eight possible stereoisomers. Assessing the correct biological activity in form of bioavailability and biopotency has been a great challenge during many years as it is difficult to measure clinical endpoints in larger animals than rats and poultry. Thus, the biological effects in focus are resorption of fetuses, testicular degeneration, muscle dystrophy, anemia, encephalomalacia, and in recent years the influence of vitamin E on the immune system are the most important clinical markers of interest. For humans and animals, only different biomarkers or surrogate markers of bioactivity have been measured. In studies with rats, a good consistency between the classical resorption-gestation test and the bioavailability of the individual stereoisomers in fluids and tissues has been shown. For humans and other animals, only different biomarkers or surrogate markers of bioactivity have been measured, and due to the lack of good biological markers for bioactivities, bioavailability is often used as one of the surrogate markers for bioactivities with those limitations this must give. Therefore, a relatively simple analytical method, which allows analysis of the individual stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol, is an important tool in order to quantify relative bioavailability of the individual stereoisomers. The analytical method presented here allows the quantification of total tocopherol content and composition by normal phase HPLC and subsequent separation of the stereoisomers of alpha-tocopherol as methyl ethers by chiral HPLC. Using this method, the alpha-tocopherol stereoisomers are separated into five peaks. The first peak consists of the four 2S isomers (SSS-, SSR-, SRR-, SRS-), the second peak consists of RSS-, the third peak consists of RRS-, the fourth peak consists of RRR-, and the fifth peak consists of RSR-alpha-tocopherol. The discussion on the bioavailability of RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate has primarily been based on human and animal studies using deuterium-labeled forms, whereby a higher biopotency of 2:1 (of RRR: all-rac) has been demonstrated, differing from the accepted biopotency ratio of 1.36:1. In agreement with previous studies, the 2S-forms exert very little importance for the vitamin E activity due to their limited bioavailability. We find notable differences between animal species with regard to the biodiscrimination between the 2R-forms. Especially, cows preferentially transfer RRR- alpha-tocopherol into the milk and blood system. The distribution of the stereoisomer forms varies from tissue to tissue, and in some cases, higher levels of the synthetic 2R-forms than of the RRR-form are obtained, for example, for rats. However, the biodiscrimination of the stereoisomers forms is influenced by other factors such as age, dietary levels, and time after dosage. More focus should be given on the bioactivity of the individual 2R-forms rather than just the comparison between RRR- and all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate. PMID:17628178

  14. Nitric oxide reaction with lipid peroxyl radicals spares alpha-tocopherol during lipid peroxidation. Greater oxidant protection from the pair nitric oxide/alpha-tocopherol than alpha-tocopherol/ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Rubbo, H; Radi, R; Anselmi, D; Kirk, M; Barnes, S; Butler, J; Eiserich, J P; Freeman, B A

    2000-04-14

    The reactions of nitric oxide ((.)NO) and alpha-tocopherol (alpha-TH) during membrane lipid oxidation were examined and compared with the pair alpha-TH/ascorbate. Nitric oxide serves as a more potent inhibitor of lipid peroxidation propagation reactions than alpha-TH and protects alpha-TH from oxidation. Mass spectrometry, oxygen and (.)NO consumption, conjugated diene analyses, and alpha-TH fluorescence determinations all demonstrated that (.)NO preferentially reacts with lipid radical species, with alpha-TH consumption not occurring until (.)NO concentrations fell below a critical level. In addition, alpha-TH and (.)NO cooperatively inhibit lipid peroxidation, exhibiting greater antioxidant capacity than the pair alpha-TH/ascorbate. Pulse radiolysis analysis showed no direct reaction between (.)NO and alpha-tocopheroxyl radical (alpha-T(.)), inferring that peroxyl radical termination reactions are the principal lipid-protective mechanism mediated by (.)NO. These observations support the concept that (.)NO is a potent chain breaking antioxidant toward peroxidizing lipids, due to facile radical-radical termination reactions with lipid radical species, thus preventing alpha-TH loss. The reduction of alpha-T(.) by ascorbate was a comparatively less efficient mechanism for preserving alpha-TH than (.)NO-mediated termination of peroxyl radicals, due to slower reaction kinetics and limited transfer of reducing equivalents from the aqueous phase. Thus, the high lipid/water partition coefficient of (.)NO, its capacity to diffuse and concentrate in lipophilic milieu, and a potent reactivity toward lipid radical species reveal how (.)NO can play a critical role in regulating membrane and lipoprotein lipid oxidation reactions. PMID:10753874

  15. From Alpha to Omega

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Paul Clement

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha point of the authors' life as a Montessori educator began in 1959, when he was a graduate student studying philosophy at Fordham University in the Bronx, New York. While studying the works of the great American philosopher William James, the author came across the writings of Maria Montessori and immediately became captivated by her…

  16. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  17. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  18. cap alpha. -. cap alpha. collisions at the CERN ISR

    SciTech Connect

    Symons, T.J.M.

    1982-09-01

    ..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-p collisions have been studied at ..sqrt..s = 126 Gev/c and ..sqrt..s = 88 GeV, respectively, using colliding ..cap alpha..-particle and proton beams at the CERN intersecting storage rings. A brief review of the experimental results is given together with a discussion of future prospects in this field.

  19. Stereoselective Synthesis of [alpha, alpha][superscript ']-Biprolines

    SciTech Connect

    Vartak, Ashish P.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Johnson, Rodney L.

    2010-11-10

    A means to induce dehydrodimerization of Seebach's oxazolidinone (5), the stereochemical outcome of which is entirely temperature dependent, is described. The resultant dimers 3 and 4 are precursors to (R,R)-alpha,alpha'-biproline (1) and meso-alpha,alpha'-biproline (2), respectively. An organohypobromite and an iminium halide are proposed to serve as electrophiles in the reaction with the enolate of 5 to give 3 and 4, respectively.

  20. Deformation of. cap alpha. -emitting nuclei from spin alignment with the spin spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Dilmanian, F.A.; Sarantites, D.G.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.; Puchta, H.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Halbert, M.L.; Adler, L.; Choudhury, R.K.; Namboodiri, M.N.

    1982-01-01

    The Spin Spectrometer was used to measure the angular distribution of alpha particles with respect to the spin direction of residual nuclei from fusion of 176-MeV /sup 20/Ne with /sup 150/Nd. The results show an enhancement of the ratio of 90/sup 0/ to 0/sup 0/ alpha yields with respect to spin direction with decreasing E/sub ..cap alpha../ at subbarrier energies. This effect is not reproduced by statistical-model calculation made with transmission coefficients for spherical potentials, which may indicate that the ..cap alpha..-emitting nuclei are deformed with their longest axis perpendicular to the spin direction. 15 references.

  1. Turbulent transport coefficients and residual energy in mean-field dynamo theory

    SciTech Connect

    Hamba, Fujihiro; Sato, Hisanori

    2008-02-15

    The turbulent electromotive force in the mean-field equation needs to be modeled to predict a large-scale magnetic field in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at high Reynolds number. Using a statistical theory for inhomogeneous turbulence, model expressions for transport coefficients appearing in the turbulent electromotive force are derived including the {alpha} coefficient and the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, as one of the dynamo effects, the pumping effect is investigated and a model expression for the pumping term is obtained. It is shown that the pumping velocity is closely related to the gradient of the turbulent residual energy, or the difference between the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energies. The production terms in the transport equation for the turbulent electromotive force are also examined and the validity of the model expression is assessed by comparing with earlier results concerning the isotropic {alpha} coefficient. The mean magnetic field in a rotating spherical shell is calculated using a turbulence model to demonstrate the pumping effect.

  2. Summary of Alpha Particle Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.

    1998-08-19

    This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is affected. Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of alpha thalassemia? These resources address the diagnosis or management of alpha thalassemia and may include treatment providers. ...

  4. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  5. Temperature-induced alpha factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Cun-Zheng

    1998-07-01

    We study the temperature effects on gain, refractive index, and the linewidth enhancement (or alpha) factor in a 2D semiconductor. We consider both the standard alpha factor due to carrier density variation and that due to temperature variation. The so-called total alpha factor due to both carrier density and temperature is also studied. As a result of temperature change, the alpha factors can be positive, negative, or zero.

  6. {alpha}-Decay half-lives, {alpha}-capture, and {alpha}-nucleus potential

    SciTech Connect

    Denisov, V. Yu. Khudenko, A.A.

    2009-11-15

    {alpha}-Decay half-lives and {alpha}-capture cross sections are evaluated in the framework of a unified model for {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture. In this model {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture are considered as penetration of the {alpha}-particle through the potential barrier formed by the nuclear, Coulomb, and centrifugal interactions between the {alpha}-particle and nucleus. The spins and parities of the parent and daughter nuclei as well as the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the daughter nuclei are taken into account for evaluation of the {alpha}-decay half-lives. The {alpha}-decay half-lives for 344 nuclei and the {alpha}-capture cross sections of {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 59}Co, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 209}Bi agree well with the experimental data. The evaluated {alpha}-decay half-lives within the range of 10{sup -9}{<=}T{sub 1/2}{<=}10{sup 38} s for 1246 {alpha}-emitters are tabulated.

  7. Determination of reaeration coefficients: Whole-lake approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gelda, R.K.; Effler, S.W.; Auer, M.T.; Chapra, S.C.; Storey, M.L.

    1996-04-01

    Onondaga Lake, NY, experiences a marked annual dissolved oxygen depletion over the entire water column at fall turnover. Depletion occurs as a result of the entrainment of reduced substances that have accumulated in the lake`s hypolimnion over the summer. Recovery (return to near-saturated conditions) occurs over a period of 3--4 weeks. Observations of dissolved oxygen (DO) levels during the recovery period of two years are used to calculate the reaeration coefficient (K{sub a,20} = 0.22 d{sup {minus}1} in 1989, and 0.13 d{sup {minus}1} in 1990) and the liquid film transfer coefficient for oxygen (K{sub L,20} = 2.64 m {center_dot} d{sup {minus}1} in 1989, and 1.50 m {center_dot} d{sup {minus}1} in 1990). Local wind measurements are used to develop an empirical relationship between wind speed (U{sub 10}, m {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1}) and K{sub L,20}: K{sub L,20} = {alpha} {center_dot} U{sub 10}{sup {beta}}, with {alpha} = 0.2; {beta} = 1.0 for U{sub 10} {le} 3.5 m {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1} and {alpha} = 0.057; and {beta} = 2.0 for U{sub 10} > 3.5 m {center_dot} s{sup {minus}1}. Model output and field observations are compared with estimates generated using other published relationships.

  8. Alpha Centauri A+B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, R.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B comprise the closest BINARY SYSTEM to Earth. A third star, PROXIMA CENTAURI, is thought to be in orbit about the center of mass of Alpha Centauri A and B. Other common names for this binary include Rigel Kentaurus and Toliman....

  9. Clustering coefficients of lexical neighborhoods

    PubMed Central

    Altieri, Nicholas; Gruenenfelder, Thomas; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    High neighborhood density reduces the speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition. The two studies reported here investigated whether Clustering Coefficient (CC) — a graph theoretic variable measuring the degree to which a word’s neighbors are neighbors of one another, has similar effects on spoken word recognition. In Experiment 1, we found that high CC words were identified less accurately when spectrally degraded than low CC words. In Experiment 2, using a word repetition procedure, we observed longer response latencies for high CC words compared to low CC words. Taken together, the results of both studies indicate that higher CC leads to slower and less accurate spoken word recognition. The results are discussed in terms of activation-plus-competition models of spoken word recognition. PMID:21423865

  10. Photon absorption coefficient and the Franz-Keldysh shift of cutoff wavelength for mercury cadmium telluride detectors.

    PubMed

    Ye, Y; Luo, J; Li, J; Ye, L; Hong, Y; Shu, H; Li, Z

    1997-04-20

    Based on the calculation of photon absorption coefficient alpha and width W of the depletion region of mercury cadmium telluride detectors, we derived the equation for alpha, W and the effective Franz-Keldysh shift Dlambda(ce). An interpretation of the substantial difference between Dlambda(ce) and the maximum Franz-Keldysh shift Dlambda(cm) of the cutoff wavelength is presented. We also propose a method to increase the Dlambda(ce) of mercury cadmium telluride detectors. PMID:18253225

  11. A model for the disc Lyman alpha emission of Uranus

    SciTech Connect

    Jaffel, L.B.; Vidal-Madjar, A. ); Prange, R.; Emerich, C. ); McConnell, J.C. )

    1991-06-01

    A new efficient radiative transfer algorithm for inhomogeneous atmospheres has been used to simulate the limb to limb Lyman {alpha} reflectivities observed with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer during the flyby of Uranus. It was shown that complete frequency redistribution should be adequate to describe the disc emissions. The model atmosphere used was derived using a combination of Voyager measurements and modeling. Atomic H densities calculated had sources derivable directly from solar FUV and EUV fluxes. To fit the observations, four contributions are evaluated: (1) the resonance scattering of solar Lyman {alpha} radiation, (2) Rayleigh-Raman scattering of solar Lyman {alpha} radiation, (3) the resonance scattering of interplanetary Lyman {alpha} radiation, and (4) a possible internal source of unknown origin. From comparison with the observations, and provided that the published Voyager calibrations are correct, it is shown that only atmospheres with low eddy diffusion coefficients (K{sub H}{le}100 cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}) and an internal source could simulate both the shape and the strength of the measured disc emission. The main results are then that the direct solar Lyman {alpha} scattering contribution (type 1 plus type 2) is of the order of 760 R, the scattering of interplanetary Lyman {alpha} contributes about 320 R, and a small additional internal source providing about 100-500 R is needed to match the measurements. Further, the analysis of the disc intensities suggests that there is no strong variation of K with latitude.

  12. Estimation of bounds for the geopotential coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    A numerical analysis of zonal geopotential coefficients and the bounds on the tesseral coefficients is presented. Modifications designed to incorporate data on the earth's density distribution are developed. The nature of the modifications and the application are discussed.

  13. A Note on Using Stratified Alpha to Estimate the Composite Reliability of a Test Composed of Interrelated Nonhomogeneous Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rae, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between stratified alpha (alpha-sub(s)) and the reliability of a test composed of interrelated nonhomogeneous items is examined. It is mathematically demonstrated that when there is congeneric equivalence within the strata or subtests, the difference between the coefficients is a function of the variances of the loadings within…

  14. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  15. Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheret, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)

  16. Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…

  17. widehat {su}( 3 ; )k FUSION COEFFICIENTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bégin, L.; Mathieu, P.; Walton, M. A.

    A closed and explicit formula for all widehat {su}( 3 ; )k fusion coefficients is presented which, in the limit k??, turns into a simple and compact expression for the su(3) tensor product coefficients. The derivation is based on a new diagrammatic method which gives directly both tensor product and fusion coefficients.

  18. Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.

    2010-01-01

    We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…

  19. Coefficient rings of formal group laws

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchstaber, V. M.; Ustinov, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles.

  20. M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asiru, Muniru A.

    2010-01-01

    In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.

  1. The effect of N2/+/ recombination on the aeronomic determination of the charge exchange rate coefficient of O/+//2D/ with N2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, D. G.; Orsini, N.

    1978-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer (AE) data are reexamined in the light of new laboratory measurements of the N2(+) recombination rate coefficient alpha. The new measurements support earlier measurements which yielded values of alpha significantly lower than the AE values. It is found that the values for alpha determined from the satellite data can be reconciled with the laboratory measurements, if the charge exchange rate coefficient for O(+)(2D) with N2 is less than one-quarter of that derived in the laboratory by Rutherford and Vroom (1971).

  2. Symmetry chains and adaptation coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Fritzer, H.P.; Gruber, B.

    1985-06-01

    Given a symmetry chain of physical significance it becomes necessary to obtain states which transform properly with respect to the symmetries of the chain. In this article we describe a method which permits us to calculate symmetry-adapted quantum states with relative ease. The coefficients for the symmetry-adapted linear combinations are obtained, in numerical form, in terms of the original states of the system and can thus be represented in the form of numerical tables. In addition, one also obtains automatically the matrix elements for the operators of the symmetry groups which are involved, and thus for any physical operator which can be expressed either as an element of the algebra or of the enveloping algebra. The method is well suited for computers once the physically relevant symmetry chain, or chains, have been defined. While the method to be described is generally applicable to any physical system for which semisimple Lie algebras play a role we choose here a familiar example in order to illustrate the method and to illuminate its simplicity. We choose the nuclear shell model for the case of two nucleons with orbital angular momentum l = 1. While the states of the entire shell transform like the smallest spin representation of SO(25) we restrict our attention to its subgroup SU(6) x SU(2)/sub T/. We determine the symmetry chains which lead to total angular momentum SU(2)/sub J/ and obtain the symmetry-adapted states for these chains.

  3. Prediction of alpha factor values for fine pore aeration systems.

    PubMed

    Gillot, S; Héduit, A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work was to analyse the impact of different geometric and operating parameters on the alpha factor value for fine bubble aeration systems equipped with EPDM membrane diffusers. Measurements have been performed on nitrifying plants operating under extended aeration and treating mainly domestic wastewater. Measurements performed on 14 nitrifying plants showed that, for domestic wastewater treatment under very low F/M ratios, the alpha factor is comprised between 0.44 and 0.98. A new composite variable (the Equivalent Contact Time, ECT) has been defined and makes it possible for a given aeration tank, knowing the MCRT, the clean water oxygen transfer coefficient and the supplied air flow rate, to predict the alpha factor value. ECT combines the effect on mass transfer of all generally accepted factors affecting oxygen transfer performances (air flow rate, diffuser submergence, horizontal flow). PMID:18469400

  4. Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.

  5. Statistical Estimation of the Atmospheric Aerosol Absorption Coefficient Based on the Data of Optical Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis of simultaneous measurements of the spectral aerosol extinction coefficients {alpha}({lambda}), the directed scattering coefficient of dry aerosol {sigma}{sub 0}(0.55) and the mass concentration of aerosol containing BC (black carbon) Ms.

  6. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.

    1996-06-11

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.

  7. Background canceling surface alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Allander, Krag S. (Ojo Caliente, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.

  8. Water transport by the bacterial channel alpha-hemolysin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paula, S.; Akeson, M.; Deamer, D.

    1999-01-01

    This study is an investigation of the ability of the bacterial channel alpha-hemolysin to facilitate water permeation across biological membranes. alpha-Hemolysin channels were incorporated into rabbit erythrocyte ghosts at varying concentrations, and water permeation was induced by mixing the ghosts with hypertonic sucrose solutions. The resulting volume decrease of the ghosts was followed by time-resolved optical absorption at pH 5, 6, and 7. The average single-channel permeability coefficient of alpha-hemolysin for water ranged between 1.3x10-12 cm/s and 1.5x10-12 cm/s, depending on pH. The slightly increased single-channel permeability coefficient at lower pH-values was attributed to an increase in the effective pore size. The activation energy of water transport through the channel was low (Ea=5.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the properties of water inside the alpha-hemolysin channel resemble those of bulk water. This conclusion was supported by calculations based on macroscopic hydrodynamic laws of laminar water flow. Using the known three-dimensional structure of the channel, the calculations accurately predicted the rate of water flow through the channel. The latter finding also indicated that water permeation data can provide a good estimate of the pore size for large channels.

  9. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, Duncan W. (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); McAtee, James L. (Los Alamos, NM); Unruh, Wesley P. (Los Alamos, NM); Cucchiara, Alfred L. (Los Alamos, NM); Huchton, Roger L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  10. Long range alpha particle detector

    DOEpatents

    MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.

    1993-02-02

    An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.

  11. Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.

    1990-01-01

    Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.

  12. Alpha particle confinement in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Mynick, H.E.

    1988-11-01

    An assessment of diffusive tokamak transport mechanisms of concern for alpha particles indicates that the ''stochastic regime'' is the only one which appears to pose a real danger for adequate alpha confinement. This fact, in conjunction with the threshold character of that mechanism, allows one to decide whether an alpha born at a given location will be lost or confined, according to a very simple criterion. Implementing this criterion numerically results in a new code for the assessment of alpha confinement, which is orders of magnitude faster than earlier codes used for this purpose. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273

  14. Gas-film coefficients for streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.

  15. A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha for the Maslach Burnout Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Denna L.; Vassar, Matt; Worley, Jody A.; Barnes, Laura L. B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency reliability for the subscale scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The authors addressed three research questions: (a) What is the mean subscale score reliability for the MBI across studies? (b) What factors are associated with observed variance in MBI subscale score…

  16. Reliability of Summed Item Scores Using Structural Equation Modeling: An Alternative to Coefficient Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun

    2009-01-01

    A method is presented for estimating reliability using structural equation modeling (SEM) that allows for nonlinearity between factors and item scores. Assuming the focus is on consistency of summed item scores, this method for estimating reliability is preferred to those based on linear SEM models and to the most commonly reported estimate of…

  17. My Current Thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and Successor Procedures. CSE Report 643

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronbach, Lee J.

    2004-01-01

    Where the accuracy of a measurement is important, whether for scientific or practical purposes, the investigator should evaluate how much random error affects the measurement. New research may not be necessary when a procedure has been studied enough to establish how much error it involves. But, with new measures, or measures being transferred…

  18. A new neutron monitor and extended conversion coefficients for HP(10).

    PubMed

    d'Errico, F; Giusti, V; Siebert, B R L

    2007-01-01

    A new personal dose equivalent monitor for neutrons, the 'HpSLAB', is introduced. The device consists of a 30x30x15 cm3 polymethyl-methacrylate slab hosting a superheated drop detector embedded at a depth of 10 mm. The personal dose equivalent monitor was characterised experimentally with fast neutron calibrations in the 0.144-14.8 MeV range and numerically with Monte Carlo simulations. In order to evaluate the performance of the device, its response was compared to the fluence-to-directional dose equivalent conversion coefficients, hp(10;alpha,E). Since published coefficients only cover neutron angles of incidence up to 75 degrees, a new extended set of coefficients was computed for angles of incidence up to 180 degrees. The method used in these calculations was the very same used in the generation of the dose equivalent coefficients recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection publication 74. The response of the HpSLAB follows with good approximation the trend of the conversion coefficients for monoenergetic neutrons above approximately 0.5 MeV. The device was extensively tested in broad-spectrum workplace-fields encountered at nuclear installations and its response was on average within a factor 1.4 of the reference personal dose equivalent values, regardless of angle and energy distribution of the neutron fluence. PMID:17846028

  19. Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's Reading Improvement Program for Minorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marable, June Morehead

    This document discusses the founding and establishment of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority's reading experience pilot project. The efforts of this project were aligned with those of Right to Read and Reading Is Fundamental (RIF). Because of the response from parents and children, plans are being made to increase present operations within the next…

  20. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fournier, T; Medjoubi-N, N; Porquet, D

    2000-10-18

    Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) or orosomucoid (ORM) is a 41-43-kDa glycoprotein with a pI of 2.8-3.8. The peptide moiety is a single chain of 183 amino acids (human) or 187 amino acids (rat) with two and one disulfide bridges in humans and rats,respectively. The carbohydrate content represents 45% of the molecular weight attached in the form of five to six highly sialylated complex-type-N-linked glycans. AGP is one of the major acute phase proteins in humans, rats, mice and other species. As most acute phase proteins, its serum concentration increases in response to systemic tissue injury, inflammation or infection, and these changes in serum protein concentrations have been correlated with increases in hepatic synthesis. Expression of the AGP gene is controlled by a combination of the major regulatory mediators, i.e. glucocorticoids and a cytokine network involving mainly interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 and IL-6 related cytokines. It is now well established that the acute phase response may take place in extra-hepatic cell types, and may be regulated by inflammatory mediators as observed in hepatocytes. The biological function of AGP remains unknown; however,a number of activities of possible physiological significance, such as various immunomodulating effects, have been described. AGP also has the ability to bind and to carry numerous basic and neutral lipophilic drugs from endogenous (steroid hormones) and exogenous origin; one to seven binding sites have been described. AGP can also bind acidic drugs such as phenobarbital. The immunomodulatory as well as the binding activities of AGP have been shown to be mostly dependent on carbohydrate composition. Finally, the use of AGP transgenic animals enabled to address in vivo, functionality of responsive elements and tissue specificity, as well as the effects of drugs that bind to AGP and will be an useful tool to determine the physiological role of AGP. PMID:11058758

  1. Nonlinear optical coefficients of narrow-gap semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Youngdale, E.R.; Hoffman, C.A.; Meyer, J.R.; Bartoli, F.J. ); Han, J.W.; Cook, J.W. Jr.; Schetzina, J.F. ); Engelhardt, M.A.; Niles, E.W.; Hoechst, H. )

    1990-03-01

    Nondegenerate four-wave mixing experiments have been performed at CO{sub 2} laser wavelengths on HgTe--CdTe superlattices and {alpha}-Sn{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ge{sub {ital x}} films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In HgTe--CdTe, the magnitude, temperature dependence, and laser-intensity dependences of {chi}{sup (3)} are found to vary systematically with superlattice energy gap. A theoretical model for nonlinear optical coefficients in narrow-gap semiconductors gives excellent agreement with the experimental results when the nonlinearity is assumed to be due to optical modulation of the free carrier temperature. In the first investigation of {alpha}-Sn{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}Ge{sub {ital x}} as a nonlinear optical material, we find that the measured {chi}{sup (3)}'s are quite large (up to 8{times}10{sup {minus}5} esu), particularly in heavily strained films with compositions up to {ital x}=0.08. The mechanism responsible for the nonlinearity in that system is unclear at present.

  2. Microscopic cluster model of {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, {alpha}+ {sup 3}He, and {alpha}+{alpha} elastic scattering from a realistic effective nuclear interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.

    2011-07-15

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.

  3. Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Samuel

    2012-07-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).

  4. The derivation and interpretation of control coefficients.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, B; Newsholme, E A

    1987-01-01

    1. Equations for control coefficients are derived by using a method that generates all the control coefficients for a system in a single procedure. This requires solving fewer simultaneous equations than an equivalent method based on 'control theorems'. 2. The interpretation of control coefficients is discussed: in particular, it is shown that these functions are unsatisfactory as measures of 'control' and are perhaps best used as a means of testing control theories (models). PMID:3689338

  5. Spatially adaptive alpha-rooting in BM3D sharpening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkitalo, Markku; Foi, Alessandro

    2011-03-01

    The block-matching and 3-D filtering (BM3D) algorithm is currently one of the most powerful and effective image denoising procedures. It exploits a specific nonlocal image modelling through grouping and collaborative filtering. Grouping finds mutually similar 2-D image blocks and stacks them together in 3-D arrays. Collaborative filtering produces individual estimates of all grouped blocks by filtering them jointly, through transform-domain shrinkage of the 3-D arrays (groups). BM3D can be combined with transform-domain alpha-rooting in order to simultaneously sharpen and denoise the image. Specifically, the thresholded 3-D transform-domain coefficients are modified by taking the alpha-root of their magnitude for some alpha > 1, thus amplifying the differences both within and between the grouped blocks. While one can use a constant (global) alpha throughout the entire image, further performance can be achieved by allowing different degrees of sharpening in different parts of the image, based on content-dependent information. We propose to vary the value of alpha used for sharpening a group through weighted estimates of the low-frequency, edge, and high-frequency content of the average block in the group. This is shown to be a viable approach for image sharpening, and in particular it can provide an improvement (both visually and in terms of PSNR) over its global non-adaptive counterpart.

  6. Gas phase hydrogen permeation in alpha titanium and carbon steels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. L.; Shah, K. K.; Reeves, B. H.; Gadgeel, V. L.

    1980-01-01

    Commercially pure titanium and heats of Armco ingot iron and steels containing from 0.008-1.23 w/oC were annealed or normalized and machined into hollow cylinders. Coefficients of diffusion for alpha-Ti and alpha-Fe were determined by the lag-time technique. Steady state permeation experiments yield first power pressure dependence for alpha-Ti and Sievert's law square root dependence for Armco iron and carbon steels. As in the case of diffusion, permeation data confirm that alpha-titanium is subject to at least partial phase boundary reaction control while the steels are purely diffusion controlled. The permeation rate in steels also decreases as the carbon content increases. As a consequence of Sievert's law, the computed hydrogen solubility decreases as the carbon content increases. This decreases in explained in terms of hydrogen trapping at carbide interfaces. Oxidizing and nitriding the surfaces of alpha-titanium membranes result in a decrease in the permeation rate for such treatment on the gas inlet surfaces but resulted in a slight increase in the rate for such treatment on the gas outlet surfaces. This is explained in terms of a discontinuous TiH2 layer.

  7. Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, B.J.; Arndt, S.

    2007-07-01

    This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)

  8. Validating modeling assumptions of alpha particles in electrostatic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkie, G. J.; Abel, I. G.; Highcock, E. G.; Dorland, W.

    2015-06-01

    To rigorously model fast ions in fusion plasmas, a non-Maxwellian equilibrium distribution must be used. In this work, the response of high-energy alpha particles to electrostatic turbulence has been analyzed for several different tokamak parameters. Our results are consistent with known scalings and experimental evidence that alpha particles are generally well confined: on the order of several seconds. It is also confirmed that the effect of alphas on the turbulence is negligible at realistically low concentrations, consistent with linear theory. It is demonstrated that the usual practice of using a high-temperature Maxwellian, while previously shown to give an adequate order-of-magnitude estimate of the diffusion coefficient, gives incorrect estimates for the radial alpha particle flux, and a method of correcting it in general is provided. Furthermore, we see that the timescales associated with collisions and transport compete at moderate energies, calling into question the assumption that alpha particles remain confined to a flux surface that is used in the derivation of the slowing-down distribution.

  9. DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALPHA-MALTOTRIOSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...

  10. Stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients for composite laminates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Tenek, Lazarus H.

    1992-01-01

    Simple analytic expressions are presented for the stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients of composite laminates in terms of the material properties of the individual layers. Expressions for the derivatives of the various coefficients with respect to each of the material properties and fiber orientation angles are also included. For typical high-performance composites, numerical values are given showing the effects of the stacking sequence and the fiber orientation angle of quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates on the values of the various coefficients and their sensitivity derivatives. The expressions for the thermoelastic coefficients and the sensitivity derivatives are given herein for the first time.

  11. Some Recurrence Relations Between Hansen Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhidov, Akmal A.

    2001-11-01

    A new system of recurrence relations for Hansen coefficients is obtained. This system gives a connection between only those coefficients which are included in the disturbing function of planetary or satellite motion and allows to compute efficiently the Hansen coefficients for perturbations both from internal and external bodies. The recurrence process can be realized both from high to low and from low to high harmonical terms of the disturbing function. The corresponding algorithms of evaluation of Hansen coefficients are presented. The efficiency of the obtained system of recurrence relations is discussed.

  12. Generation of K{sub {alpha}} radiation by high-efficiency laser targets

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, A A; Platonov, Konstantin Yu

    2011-06-30

    The intensity of K{sub {alpha}} radiation emanating from transversely limited thin laser targets with a periodic relief superposed onto its front side was calculated. The relief parameters and the geometrical target dimensions were optimised with the help of an analytic model. The optimal target was shown to possess a nearly 100% absorption coefficient for laser radiation and a high (up to 10{sup -3}) coefficient of laser radiation conversion to the X-ray K{sub {alpha}} radiation. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  13. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 ?m of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  15. THE COMPLEX FATE OF ALPHA-KETOACIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cells are unique in that they contain four species of alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex: plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate (2-oxoglutarate) dehydrogenase, and branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase. All complexes include multi...

  16. Decay of (p,q)-Fourier coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Edmunds, David E.; Gurka, Petr; Lang, Jan

    2014-01-01

    We show that essentially the speed of decay of the Fourier sine coefficients of a function in a Lebesgue space is comparable to that of the corresponding coefficients with respect to the basis formed by the generalized sine functions sinp,q. PMID:25294961

  17. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.

    2013-01-01

    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  18. The Seebeck Coefficient of Insulators: Electrochemical Potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2016-03-01

    We discuss the theory behind low-temperature measurement of the Seebeck coefficient in materials with few electrons, such as insulators and lightly doped semiconductors. The Seebeck coefficient is defined thermodynamically as being related to the electrochemical potential. However, the measurement is of the voltage for a material with no current, which is not the same as the gradient of the electrochemical potential.

  19. Construction of polynomial approximation for Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakhidov, Akmal A.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of constructing efficient approximations of Hansen coefficients using polynomials in terms of the eccentricity is considered. The properties of the following approximating schemes are studied in detail: approximation by fragments of Taylor series, interpolation by Lagrange polynomials, Chebyshev approximation. The accuracy of all these approximating schemes is investigated for different values of eccentricities and for different indices of the Hansen coefficients.

  20. Radiometer gives true absorption and emission coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fymat, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    Novel radiometer, unaffected by scattering and polarization, measures true absorption and emmission coefficients for arbitrary mixture of gases and polluting particles. It has potential astronomical, meteorological, and environmental applications, such as determination of radiative heat budget, aerosol relative concentration, and morphology of cloud, haze, and fog formations. Data and temperature can be coupled directly to small computer for online calculation of radiation coefficients.

  1. An agreement coefficient for image comparison

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ji, L.; Gallo, K.

    2006-01-01

    Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  2. Venus - Alpha Regio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The eastern edge of Alpha Regio is shown in this image centered at 30 degrees south latitude and 11.8 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east). Seven circular, dome-like hills, averaging 25 kilometers (15 miles) in diameter with maximum heights of 750 meters (2,475 feet) dominate the scene. These features are interpreted as very thick lava flows that came from an opening on the relatively level ground, which allowed the lava to flow in an even pattern outward from the opening. The complex fractures on top of the domes suggest that if the domes were created by lava flows, a cooled outer layer formed and then further lava flowing in the interior stretched the surface. The domes may be similar to volcanic domes on Earth. Another interpretation is that the domes are the result of molten rock or magma in the interior that pushed the surface layer upward. The near-surface magma then withdrew to deeper levels, causing the collapse and fracturing of the dome surface. The bright margins possibly indicate the presence of rock debris on the slopes of the domes. Some of the fractures on the plains cut through the domes, while others appear to be covered by the domes. This indicates that active processes pre date and post date the dome-like hills. The prominent black area in the northeast corner of the image is a data gap. North is at the top of the image.

  3. Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.

    1972-01-01

    Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.

  4. Estimation of Internal Consistency Reliability When Test Parts Vary in Effective Length.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluating a test's reliability often requires dividing it into 3 or more unequal parts, which causes violation of the tau equivalence assumption of Cronbach's alpha. This article presents a criterion for abandoning alpha and an approach for computing a more appropriate estimate of reliability, the Gilmer-Feldt coefficient. (Author)

  5. On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Alpha thalassemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a blood disorder that reduces the production of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin is the protein in red blood cells that ... alpha thalassemia, a reduction in the amount of hemoglobin prevents enough oxygen from reaching the body's tissues. ...

  7. Alpha decay in electron surrounding

    SciTech Connect

    Igashov, S. Yu.; Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M.

    2013-12-15

    The influence of atomic electron shells on the constant of alpha decay of heavy and mediummass nuclei was considered in detail. A method for simultaneously taking into account the change in the potential-barrier shape and the effect of reflection of a diverging Coulomb wave in the classically allowed region was developed. The ratios of decay probabilities per unit time for a bare nucleus and the respective neutral atom were found for some alpha-decaying isotopes.

  8. Heat transfer coefficient of cryotop during freezing.

    PubMed

    Li, W J; Zhou, X L; Wang, H S; Liu, B L; Dai, J J

    2013-01-01

    Cryotop is an efficient vitrification method for cryopreservation of oocytes. It has been widely used owing to its simple operation and high freezing rate. Recently, the heat transfer performance of cryotop was studied by numerical simulation in several studies. However, the range of heat transfer coefficient in the simulation is uncertain. In this study, the heat transfer coefficient for cryotop during freezing process was analyzed. The cooling rates of 40 percent ethylene glycol (EG) droplet in cryotop during freezing were measured by ultra-fast measurement system and calculated by numerical simulation at different value of heat transfer coefficient. Compared with the results obtained by two methods, the range of the heat transfer coefficient necessary for the numerical simulation of cryotop was determined, which is between 9000 W/(m(2)·K) and 10000 W/(m (2)·K). PMID:23812315

  9. Determination of reaeration coefficients for Ohio streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hren, Janet

    1984-01-01

    The hydrocarbon-gas tracer technique was used to determine reaeration coefficients on 30 reaches of Ohio streams. The studies were done from September 1979 through August 1982 to determine the reaeration coefficients for the individual reaches and to develop general equation that could be used to estimate the coefficients. Multiple linear regression was used to determine relationships among the reaeration coefficients and physical stream characteristics. Four special equation based on the general equation were developed from various combinations of discharge, slope, width, depth, measured velocity, and estimated velocity. The standard errors of estimate for these equations ranged from 37 to 47 percent. The variables that resulted in the lowest standard error of estimate were discharge, slope, width, depth, and measured velocity. The most significant variables were depth and velocity.

  10. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging

    PubMed Central

    Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  11. Universal relations of transport coefficients from holography

    SciTech Connect

    Cherman, Aleksey; Nellore, Abhinav

    2009-09-15

    We show that there are universal high-temperature relations for transport coefficients of plasmas described by a wide class of field theories with gravity duals. These theories can be viewed as strongly coupled large-N{sub c} conformal field theories deformed by one or more relevant operators. The transport coefficients we study are the speed of sound and bulk viscosity, as well as the conductivity, diffusion coefficient, and charge susceptibility of probe U(1) charges. We show that the sound bound v{sub s}{sup 2}{<=}1/3 is satisfied at high temperatures in these theories and also discuss bounds on the diffusion coefficient, the conductivity, and the bulk viscosity.

  12. Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging.

    PubMed

    Burgo, Thiago A L; Silva, Cristiane A; Balestrin, Lia B S; Galembeck, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227

  13. Second coefficient of viscosity in air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.

  14. String & Sticky Tape Experiments: Coefficient of Restitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, R. D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Described is an experiment for measuring the coefficient of restitution with a meter stick, balls of different types, and scraps of material for the plates. Provides the experimental procedure and an apparatus diagram. (YP)

  15. Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2011-05-01

    In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.

  16. Development of a 3D pharmacophore for nonspecific ligand recognition of alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha5, and alpha6 containing GABA(A)/benzodiazepine receptors.

    PubMed

    Filizola, M; Harris, D L; Loew, G H

    2000-07-01

    Transfected cells containing GABA(A) benzodiazepine receptors (BDZRs) have been utilized to systematically determine the affinity of ligands at alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha6 subtypes in combination with beta2 and gamma2. All but a few of the ligands thus far studied have relatively high affinities for each of these alpha subtype receptors. Thus, these ligands must contain common stereochemical properties favorable for recognition by each of the subtype combinations. In the present work, such a common three-dimensional (3D) pharmacophore for recognition of alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha5 and alpha6 containing GABA(A)/BDZRs types of receptors has been developed and assessed, using as a database receptor affinities measured in transfected cells for 27 diverse compounds. The 3D-recognition pharmacophore developed consists of three proton accepting groups, a hydrophobic group, and the centroid of an aromatic ring found in a common geometric arrangement in the 19 nonselective ligands used. Three tests were made to assess this pharmacophore: (i) Four low affinity compounds were used as negative controls, (ii) Four high affinity compounds, excluded from the pharmacophore development, were used as compounds for pharmacophore validation, (iii) The 3D pharmacophore was used to search 3D databases. The results of each of these types of assessments provided robust validation of the 3D pharmacophore. This 3D pharmacophore can now be used to discover novel nonselective ligands that could be activation selective at different behavioral end points. Additionally, it may serve as a guide in the design of more selective ligands, by determining if candidate ligands proposed for synthesis conform to this pharmacophore and selecting those that do not for further experimental assessment. PMID:10976528

  17. Local Rank Inference for Varying Coefficient Models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Kai, Bo; Li, Runze

    2009-12-01

    By allowing the regression coefficients to change with certain covariates, the class of varying coefficient models offers a flexible approach to modeling nonlinearity and interactions between covariates. This paper proposes a novel estimation procedure for the varying coefficient models based on local ranks. The new procedure provides a highly efficient and robust alternative to the local linear least squares method, and can be conveniently implemented using existing R software package. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations both reveal that the gain of the local rank estimator over the local linear least squares estimator, measured by the asymptotic mean squared error or the asymptotic mean integrated squared error, can be substantial. In the normal error case, the asymptotic relative efficiency for estimating both the coefficient functions and the derivative of the coefficient functions is above 96%; even in the worst case scenarios, the asymptotic relative efficiency has a lower bound 88.96% for estimating the coefficient functions, and a lower bound 89.91% for estimating their derivatives. The new estimator may achieve the nonparametric convergence rate even when the local linear least squares method fails due to infinite random error variance. We establish the large sample theory of the proposed procedure by utilizing results from generalized U-statistics, whose kernel function may depend on the sample size. We also extend a resampling approach, which perturbs the objective function repeatedly, to the generalized U-statistics setting; and demonstrate that it can accurately estimate the asymptotic covariance matrix. PMID:20657760

  18. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....

  19. The molecular chaperone, alpha-crystallin, inhibits amyloid formation by apolipoprotein C-II.

    PubMed

    Hatters, D M; Lindner, R A; Carver, J A; Howlett, G J

    2001-09-01

    Under lipid-free conditions, human apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) exists in an unfolded conformation that over several days forms amyloid ribbons. We examined the influence of the molecular chaperone, alpha-crystallin, on amyloid formation by apoC-II. Time-dependent changes in apoC-II turbidity (at 0.3 mg/ml) were suppressed potently by substoichiometric subunit concentrations of alpha-crystallin (1-10 microg/ml). alpha-Crystallin also inhibits time-dependent changes in the CD spectra, thioflavin T binding, and sedimentation coefficient of apoC-II. This contrasts with stoichiometric concentrations of alpha-crystallin required to suppress the amorphous aggregation of stressed proteins such as reduced alpha-lactalbumin. Two pieces of evidence suggest that alpha-crystallin directly interacts with amyloidogenic intermediates. First, sedimentation equilibrium and velocity experiments exclude high affinity interactions between alpha-crystallin and unstructured monomeric apoC-II. Second, the addition of alpha-crystallin does not lead to the accumulation of intermediate sized apoC-II species between monomer and large aggregates as indicated by gel filtration and sedimentation velocity experiments, suggesting that alpha-crystallin does not inhibit the relatively rapid fibril elongation upon nucleation. We propose that alpha-crystallin interacts stoichiometrically with partly structured amyloidogenic precursors, inhibiting amyloid formation at nucleation rather than the elongation phase. In doing so, alpha-crystallin forms transient complexes with apoC-II, in contrast to its chaperone behavior with stressed proteins. PMID:11447233

  20. Circulating integrins: alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1, but not alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 or LFA-1.

    PubMed Central

    Bretscher, M S

    1992-01-01

    The alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 integrins all participate in the endocytotic cycle. By contrast, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 and LFA-1 do so much more slowly, or not at all, in the cell lines examined. This indicates that the alpha-chains appear to determine whether an integrin cycles or not, and that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 can be brought to the leading edge of a moving cell by endocytosis and recycling. Images PMID:1531629

  1. Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.

  2. [sup 222]Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for [sup 222] Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom [sup 222] Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M[sup [minus]3]. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high [sup 222] Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma.

  3. {sup 222}Rn alpha dose to organs other than lung

    SciTech Connect

    Harley, N.H.; Robbins, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The alpha dose to cells in tissues or organs other theft the lung has been calculated using the solubility coefficients for {sup 222} Rn measured in human tissue. The annual alpha dose equivalent f rom {sup 222} Rn and decay products in most tissues is a maximum of 30% of the annual average natural background dose equivalent (1 mSv) for external and internally deposited nuclides. The dose to the small population of lymphocytes located in or under the bronchial epithelium is a special case and their annual dose equivalent is essentially the same as that to basal cells in bronchial epithelium (200 mSv) for continuous exposure to 200 Bq M{sup {minus}3}. The significance of this dose is uncertain because the only excess cancer observed in follow up studies of underground miners with high {sup 222} Rn exposure is bronchogenic carcinoma.

  4. Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

  5. Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Reliability in Likert Scale. Paper-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Bhat, Mehraj Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper an attempt was made to analyze the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient and the Split Half reliability coefficient in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and sample of 510 undergraduate students were selected by used random sampling…

  6. Estimating Ordinal Reliability for Likert-Type and Ordinal Item Response Data: A Conceptual, Empirical, and Practical Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…

  7. Biotransformation of 3alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-dihydro-beta-agarofuran by Rhizopus nigricans.

    PubMed

    Alarcón, Julio; Aguila, Sergio

    2004-01-01

    3alpha,4alpha-Dihydroxy-dihydro-beta-agarofuran (1), prepared from (+)-dihydrocarvone by a traditional synthetic method, the Robinson annelation, was biotransformed by R. nigricans to afford a new metabolite characterized as 1alpha,3alpha,4alpha-trihydroxy-dihydro-beta-agarofuran (2) by spectroscopic method. An acetylated derivative was prepared. PMID:15241929

  8. Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...

  9. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...

  10. Mouse. cap alpha. -globin genes and. cap alpha. -globin-like pseudogenes are not syntenic

    SciTech Connect

    Popp, R.A.; Lalley, P.A.; Whitney, J.B.; Anderson, W.F.

    1981-10-01

    A genetic polymorphism for a Bgl I endonuclease site near the ..cap alpha..-globin-like pseudogene ..cap alpha..-4 of C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN mice was used to show that ..cap alpha..-4 was not affected by three independent mutations in which the adult globin genes ..cap alpha..-1 and ..cap alpha..-2 were deleted. These results indicated that ..cap alpha..-4 might not be located adjacent to the adult ..cap alpha..-globin genes on chromosome 11. Restriction endonuclease analysis of DNA of a primary clone of a Chinese hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrid that had lost mouse chromosomes 11 and 18 showed that this clone lacked the adult murine globin genes ..cap alpha..-1 and ..cap alpha..-2 but it did contain the ..cap alpha..-globin-like pseudogenes ..cap alpha..-3 and ..cap alpha..-4. These results indicated that the adult ..cap alpha..-globin genes and ..cap alpha..-globin-like pseudogenes are not located on the same chromosome. Similar analyses of several other Chinese hamster-mouse somatic cell hybrids that had segregated other mouse chromosomes indicated that the ..cap alpha..-globin-like pseudogenes ..cap alpha..-3 and ..cap alpha..-4 are located on mouse chromosomes 15 and 17, respectively. These data explain why ..cap alpha..-3 and ..cap alpha..-4 were not affected by the three independently induced deletion-type mutations that cause ..cap alpha..-thalassemia in the mouse.

  11. Theoretical basis for an anomalous temperature coefficient in swelling pressure of rabbit corneal stroma.

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, L S; Klyce, S D

    1990-01-01

    In the rabbit corneal stroma, the swelling pressure, P, has been reported to have an anomalous (negative) temperature coefficient, alpha P, contradicting traditional Donnan swelling theory. A parallel-plate, diffuse double layer Gouy-Chapman model was used to resolve this discrepancy. The present model incorporates the possibility that surface charge, sigma, is temperature dependent. It is shown that negative, zero, or positive coefficients of swelling pressure change with temperature are not mutually exclusive conditions, but can be attributed to the same underlying mechanism. For likely values of alpha P(range -7 x 10(-3) K-1 to +3.2 x 10(-3)K-1), the effective stromal charge has a negative temperature dependency, or dln sigma/dT less than 0. The present formalism is robust against variation in assumed alpha P, and is able to simultaneously satisfy the known values of swelling pressure, its thermal dependency, and stromal charge. These results implicate significant coulombic forces behind P. Predicted stromal surface charge is approximately 0.01 Cm-2. The predictions were confirmed with macrocontinuum Donnan swelling theory, suggesting that Donnan osmotic swelling is the principal macroscopic component of P. PMID:2306510

  12. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    SciTech Connect

    Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  13. A study of multiplicative watermark detection in the contourlet domain using alpha-stable distributions.

    PubMed

    Sadreazami, Hamidreza; Ahmad, M Omair; Swamy, M N S

    2014-10-01

    In the past decade, several schemes for digital image watermarking have been proposed to protect the copyright of an image document or to provide proof of ownership in some identifiable fashion. This paper proposes a novel multiplicative watermarking scheme in the contourlet domain. The effectiveness of a watermark detector depends highly on the modeling of the transform-domain coefficients. In view of this, we first investigate the modeling of the contourlet coefficients by the alpha-stable distributions. It is shown that the univariate alpha-stable distribution fits the empirical data more accurately than the formerly used distributions, such as the generalized Gaussian and Laplacian, do. We also show that the bivariate alpha-stable distribution can capture the across scale dependencies of the contourlet coefficients. Motivated by the modeling results, a blind watermark detector in the contourlet domain is designed by using the univariate and bivariate alpha-stable distributions. It is shown that the detectors based on both of these distributions provide higher detection rates than that based on the generalized Gaussian distribution does. However, a watermark detector designed based on the alpha-stable distribution with a value of its parameter ? other than 1 or 2 is computationally expensive because of the lack of a closed-form expression for the distribution in this case. Therefore, a watermark detector is designed based on the bivariate Cauchy member of the alpha-stable family for which ? = 1 . The resulting design yields a significantly reduced-complexity detector and provides a performance that is much superior to that of the GG detector and very close to that of the detector corresponding to the best-fit alpha-stable distribution. The robustness of the proposed bivariate Cauchy detector against various kinds of attacks, such as noise, filtering, and compression, is studied and shown to be superior to that of the generalized Gaussian detector. PMID:25051554

  14. Terrestrial tidal variations in the selenopotential coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yu. V.; Ferrándiz, J. M.; Navarro, Juan F.

    2005-06-01

    The variations in the coefficients of the harmonics of second degree of the selenopotential caused by the terrestrial tides have been studied. In the paper we use analytical expressions for the tidal variations in the Stokes coefficients obtained for a model of the elastic celestial body with a concentric distribution of mass using the fundamental elastic parameter k2 of the Moon. Taking into account the resonant properties of the Moon’s motion, the variations in the selenopotential coefficients are presented in the form of Fourier series in the arguments of the theory of lunar orbital motion: lM, lS, F and D. The variations in the polar moment of inertia of the Moon due to the terrestrial tides lead to marked variations in the Moon’s axial rotation, which also have been determined and tabulated. From the results obtained, it follows that the tide periodic variations in the gravitational coefficients of the Moon are an order larger than the corresponding tide variations in the geopotential coefficients.

  15. An activity coefficient model for proteins.

    PubMed

    Agena, S M; Bogle, I D; Pessoa, F L

    1997-07-01

    Modeling of the properties of biochemical components is gaining increasing interest due to its potential for further application within the area of biochemical process development. Generally protein solution properties such as protein solubility are expressed through component activity coefficients which are studied here. The original UNIQUAC model is chosen for the representation of protein activity coefficients and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first time it has been directly applied to protein solutions. Ten different protein-salt-water systems with four different proteins, serum albumin, alphacymotrypsin, beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin, are investigated. A root-mean-squared deviation of 0.54% is obtained for the model by comparing calculated protein activity coefficients and protein activity coefficients deduced from osmotic measurements through virial expansion. Model predictions are used to analyze the effect of salt concentrations, pH, salt types, and temperature on protein activity coefficients and also on protein solubility and demonstrate consistency with results from other references. PMID:18636445

  16. Measurement of electrostrictive coefficients of polymer films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, François M.; Jarzynski, Jacek; Balizer, Edward

    2001-12-01

    A new technique to experimentally determine the electrostrictive coefficients of thin polymer films is presented. This technique is a second-order extension of the first-order quasistatic method for the measurement of piezoelectric coefficients previously introduced by Guillot and Jarzynski [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 600-607 (2000)]. In the present method, electrically induced strains are measured optically on a rubber-encapsulated sample. These strains are used in a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure that minimizes the total energy of the sample and whose output is a set of three tensile electrostrictive coefficients. The total energy of the sample includes elastic contributions from the polymer and the encapsulating rubber as well as two quadratic electromechanical terms corresponding to Maxwell stress and to electrostriction. Therefore, the external electrostatic effects can be separated from the intrinsic electrostrictive behavior, and the measured coefficients are true material properties. Data obtained on two types of polyurethanes submitted to a bias field of approximately 4 MV/m at 2 kHz and at room temperature are presented. It was found that these materials possess very large electrostrictive coefficients and that the Maxwell stress effect is responsible for less than 13% of their total electromechanical behavior.

  17. Phonon anharmonicity and Gruneisen parameters of alpha-plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filanovich, A. N.; Povzner, A. A.

    2015-12-01

    A self-consistent thermodynamic model of alpha-phase of plutonium is constructed. The calculations of thermal and elastic properties of ?-Pu, carried out within this model, demonstrate that anomalously strong temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and unusually high value of the coefficient of thermal expansion of ?-Pu are caused by its strong lattice anharmonicity. The isothermal and isobaric Gruneisen parameters of ?-Pu and ?-Pu Pu0.96Ga0.04 are calculated. It is shown that wide spread of the values of Gruneisen parameter of ?-Pu, obtained previously from different experimental data, is explained by the dependence of Gruneisen parameter of ?-Pu on temperature.

  18. Space Station alpha joint bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.

    1987-01-01

    Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.

  19. Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1991-11-01

    When a pair of images are compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This paper evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitation of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair images. Results show that three-stage procedure, consisting of first establishing congruence of the two images, than using the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives, and finally qualifying a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These algorithmic stages would be especially useful in arms control treaty verification.

  20. Roughness coefficients for densely vegetated flood plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arcement, G.J.; Schneider, V.R.

    1987-01-01

    Although much research has been done on Manning 's roughness coefficients for stream channels, very little has been done on the selection of roughness values for densely vegetated flood plains. In this report four method for determining roughness coefficients for flood plains are examined and evaluated. Field data were collected at 13 sites on wide, densely vegetated flood plains where verified n values were known. The ' vegetation density ' of representative sample areas was measured at each site for use in determining roughness coefficients. The vegetation density method, proved to be useful in determining n values for wide, densely wooded plains. By measuring the area occupied by tree trunks and vegetation in a representative sample area, the vegetation density can be determined. Using the vegetation density in an equation developed from Manning 's formula, the Manning 's n can be determined for the representative sample area. (USGS)

  1. General dissipative coefficient in strong anisotropic inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Saleem, Rabia

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effects of generalized dissipative coefficient on the dynamics of warm intermediate and logamediate inflationary universe models during strong dissipative regime. We explore these models within the framework of locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I universe. In both cases, we evaluate inflaton, effective scalar potential, dissipative coefficient, slow-roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, scalar spectral index and tensor-scalar ratio under slow-roll approximation. The inflationary model as well as perturbed parameters are constrained using recent data. We conclude that intermediate anisotropic inflationary universe model with generalized dissipative coefficient remains compatible with WMAP9, Planck and BICEP2 data while n=1 (arbitrary integer) is the only consistent case during logamediate era. Also, both of these models interpolate between weak and strong regimes.

  2. The Computation of Tables of Hansen Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, S.

    1981-09-01

    Computer produced tables of analytical expressions for the Hansen coefficientsX {0/ n, ±m }(e) andX {0/-(n+1), ±m }(e) are obtained when 1≤n≤30 and 0≤m≤n. The most important properties of these coefficients are briefly discussed together with a description of the recursive procedures used to compute them. The computation ofX {k/ n, ±m } andX {k/-(n+1), ±m } whenk≠0 is also discussed. Although tables of these coefficients for 1≤n≤30, -n≤m≤n and |m-k|≤12 have been computed they are not presented here due to their inordinate length.

  3. Double-smoothing for Varying Coefficient Models.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan; Zuo, Guoxin; He, Hua

    2011-12-01

    Moderation analyses are widely used in biomedical and psychosocial research to investigate differential treatment effects, with moderators frequently identified through testing the significance of the interaction between the predictor and the potential moderator under strong parametric assumptions. Without imposing any parametric forms on how the moderators may affect the relationship between predictors and responses, varying coefficient models address this fundamental problem of strong parametric assumptions with current practice of moderation analysis and provide a much broader class of models for complex moderation relationships. Local polynomial, especially local linear, methods are commonly used in estimating the varying coefficient models. Recently, a double-smoothing (DS) local linear method has been proposed for nonparametric regression models, with nice properties compared to local linear and local cubic methods. In this paper, we generalize DS to varying coefficient models, and show that it holds similar advantages over local linear and local cubic methods. PMID:22121327

  4. Coefficient of restitution of aspherical particles.

    PubMed

    Glielmo, Aldo; Gunkelmann, Nina; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    We consider the motion of an aspherical inelastic particle of dumbbell type bouncing repeatedly on a horizontal flat surface. The coefficient of restitution of such a particle depends not only on material properties and impact velocity but also on the angular orientation at the instant of the collision whose variance is considerable, even for small eccentricity. Assuming random angular orientation of the particle at the instant of contact we characterize the measured coefficient of restitution as a fluctuating quantity and obtain a wide probability density function including a finite probability for negative values of the coefficient of restitution. This may be understood from the partial exchange of translational and rotational kinetic energy. PMID:25493788

  5. Long-range alpha detector sample monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. D.; Allander, K. S.; Bounds, J. A.; Garner, S. E.; Johnson, J. P.; MacArthur, D. W.; Sprouse, L. L.; Walters, S. G.

    1994-12-01

    Long-range alpha detector (LRAD) systems are designed to monitor alpha sources and contamination by measuring the number of ions created in air by ionizing radiation. Traditional alpha detectors are designed to detect alpha particles directly and must be passed slowly within about 3 cm of an alpha source to operate effectively. LRAD detectors collect the ions created from alpha interactions with air. Therefore, they are better able to monitor equipment and complex surfaces and can be operated at a much greater distance from an alpha source than traditional alpha detectors. Furthermore, because LRAD detectors remain stationary during monitoring, they are less subject to operator error than traditional alpha detectors. This paper will discuss the basic operation as well as recent advances that have been made to LRAD Sample Monitors.

  6. NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1957-01-01

    NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.

  7. Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined

    SciTech Connect

    Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.

    2007-07-13

    A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.

  8. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  9. Internal heat transfer coefficients of porous metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kar, K. K.; Dybbs, A.

    1982-01-01

    The internal heat transfer coefficients of porous metals have been experimentally determined in order to develop correlations between approximately defined Nusselt and Reynolds numbers. Scaled-up models of porous materials, and actual porous metal specimens, were subjected to countercurrent heat and mass transfer boundary conditions. Solid and gas phase temperatures were measured for both the scaled-up models and the actual porous metal specimens. On the basis of these measurements, the average internal heat transfer coefficient was evaluated, and a correlation between the Nusselt and Reynolds numbers was derived.

  10. Increasing fluorous partition coefficients by solvent tuning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Marvin S; Curran, Dennis P; Nagashima, Tadamichi

    2005-08-18

    Low partition coefficients of fluorous components have been a persistent problem in liquid-liquid separations using perfluoroalkanes as the fluorous phase. Solvent tuning of both the nonfluorous and the fluorous phase dramatically enhances the partitioning of light or polar fluorous molecules into the fluorous liquid phase, while minimally effecting partition coefficients of nonfluorous molecules. These findings suggest an expanded scope for liquid-based separations in fluorous biphasic catalysis, fluorous-tagged reagents, fluorous-supported oligomer synthesis, and related areas. [reaction: see text] PMID:16092848

  11. Calculation of surface tension temperature coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Papazian, H.A.

    1984-12-01

    In three previous communications the relationship between bulk properties and the surface tension of liquid metals and alloys was demonstrated. The surface tension of liquid metals was correlated with plasma frequency. It was then shown that the surface tension of liquid metals as well as alloys could be obtained from the bulk modulus and most recently a method was given for predicting the surface tension from the plasma frequency of the constituents of a binary alloy. The purpose of the present communication is to show that the temperature coefficient of surface tension of liquid metals may be calculated from another bulk property - the bulk coefficient of thermal expansion.

  12. Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.

    2015-05-15

    Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.

  13. Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals

    SciTech Connect

    Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200

    2000-07-15

    Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  14. Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.

  15. The effect of thermal cycling to 1100 C on the alpha /Mo/ phase in directionally solidified gamma/gamma-prime-alpha alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harf, F. H.

    1981-01-01

    Specimens of gamma/gamma-prime-alpha (Mo) eutectic alloy were thermally cycled or isothermally exposed at temperatures of 1075 to 1100 C. Transmission electron microscopy examination of cycled specimens indicated that even an exposure of 10 minutes effected noticeable changes in the shape of the alpha phase, and that the changes were cumulative as more cycles were added. The cross sections of fine, smooth fibers changed from rectangles to octagons, while lamellae and irregular shapes spheroidized. These effects are attributed to the differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the alpha phase and the gamma/gamma-prime matrix, and to the higher diffusion rates prevailing at elevated temperatures. Where the configuration of the alpha phase is a simple shape, such as a fiber, increasing the temperature eventually brings about a stress free interface between the alpha phase and the matrix by differential thermal expansion. Where the shape of the alpha phase is more complex, a stressed interface persists to higher temperatures where diffusion produces the more drastic morphological changes.

  16. Energetic particle diffusion coefficients upstream of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of about 30 to 130-keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE 3 spacecraft during 1978-1979 were analyzed, and the values for the upstream energegic particle diffusion coefficient, kappa, in these six events were deduced for a number of energies and upstream positions. These observations were compared with predictions of Lee's (1983) theory of shock acceleration. It was found that the observations verified the prediction of the A/Q dependence (where A and Q are the particle atomic mass and ionization state, respectively) of kappa for alpha and proton particles upstream of the quasi-parallel shocks.

  17. Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients: It's All One General Linear Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, S. Neil

    This paper explains the meaning and use of three important factor analytic statistics: factor scores, factor structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. For the discussion, 301 observations of junior high school students 11 measured variables from a previous study are analyzed. While factors provide the researcher with general…

  18. Extending the Constant Coefficient Solution Technique to Variable Coefficient Ordinary Differential Equations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.

  19. Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozetic, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Zaplotnik, Rok

    2015-04-01

    Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 ?m, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/?m2 were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C2H2/H2/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O2 plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 1021 m-3. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.

  20. Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...

  1. Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...

  2. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  3. Measurement of Coefficient of Restitution Made Easy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    We present a simple activity that permits students to determine the coefficient of restitution of bouncing balls using only a stopwatch, a metre stick and graphical analysis. The experiment emphasizes that simple models, in combination with careful attention to how students make measurements, can lead to good results in a straightforward way.

  4. Apparatus Measures Seebeck Coefficient And Resistivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoltan, Leslie D.; Wood, Charles; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Yixin

    1993-01-01

    Electrical measurements made by four point probes, two of which double as temperature probes. Laboratory apparatus measures both Seebeck coefficients and electrical resistivities of candidate thermoelectric materials at temperatures from ambient to 1,300 K. Apparatus makes possible to take both measurements alternately and in rapid succession during same heating cycle, thereby reducing distortion.

  5. Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James

    2004-01-01

    Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…

  6. EXAMINATION OF SCALE-DEPENDENT DISPERSION COEFFICIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many hydrologists have observed that dispersion coefficients, when measured in the field, turn out to be scale-dependent. Recently, Guven, et al., (1983) presented a study which contains a basis for understanding the phenomenon of scale-dependent dispersion within a deterministic...

  7. The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2015-01-28

    We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.

  8. Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin

    2013-01-01

    The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…

  9. Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...

  10. Determination Of The Surface Drag Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahrt, L.; Vickers, Dean; Sun, Jielun; et al.

    This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficienton stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches.The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhovstability functions decreases with increasing wind speed. This dependence on wind speed cannot be eliminated by adjusting the stability functions. If physical, the decrease of the roughness length with increasing wind speed might be due to the decreasing role of viscous effectsand streamlining of the vegetation, although these effects cannot be isolated from existing atmospheric data.

  11. Coupling coefficients for coupled-cavity lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, R.J.; Yariv, A.

    1987-03-01

    The authors derive simple, analytic formulas for the field coupling coefficients in a two-section coupled-cavity laser using a local field rate equation treatment. They show that there is a correction to the heuristic formulas based on power flow calculated by Marcuse; the correction is in agreement with numerical calculations from a coupled-mode approach.

  12. Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)

  13. Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, J.L.

    1994-04-01

    Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO {yields} N{sub 2} + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900-1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch, and at the low temperatures (100-200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox. Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation is accurate at 300 K, the authors derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. They find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10{sup {minus}10}(T/300){sup 0.5}exp({minus}400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10{sup {minus}10}(T/300){sup 0.5}exp({minus}600/T) cm{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Hansen Coefficients and Generalized Spherical Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacaglia, G. E. O.

    Hansen's coefficients for the Fourier series in terms of the mean anomaly correspond to a rotation of the orbital plane proportional to the eccentricity of the orbit. Here, they are given in terms of Bessel functions and generalized associated Legendre functions. These functions arise naturally when one considers the transformation of spherical harmonics under rotation.

  15. Recursive harmonic analysis for computing Hansen coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adel Sharaf, Mohamed; Hassan Selim, Hadia

    2010-12-01

    We report on a simple pure numerical method developed for computing Hansen coefficients by using a recursive harmonic analysis technique. The precision criteria of the computations are very satisfactory and provide materials for computing Hansen's and Hansen's like expansions, and also to check the accuracy of some existing algorithms.

  16. Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.

  17. Direct measurement of piezoelectric shear coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2013-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials exhibit electromechanical coupling which has led to their widespread application for sensors, actuators, and energy harvesters. These materials possess anisotropic behavior with the shear coefficient, and have the largest electromechanical coupling coefficient. However, the shear mode is difficult to measure with existing techniques and thus has not been fully capitalized upon in recent devices. Better understanding of the full shear response with respect to the driving electric field would significantly help the design of optimized piezoelectric shear devices. Here, a simple and low cost direct measurement method based on digital image correlation is developed to characterize the shear response of piezoelectric materials and its nonlinear behavior as a function of external field. The piezoelectric shear coefficient (d15) of a commercial shear plate actuator is investigated in both bipolar and unipolar electric fields. Two different nonlinearities and hysteresis behaviors of the actuators were observed, and the relation between the driving field amplitude and the corresponding d15 coefficient is determined. Moreover, the measured transverse displacement of the plate actuator in simple shear condition is validated through a laser interferometry technique.

  18. The Lorenz Curve and the Gini Coefficient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rycroft, Robert

    2003-01-01

    States that the Lorenz Curve and the Gini Coefficient is a Web-based interactive tutorial developed for students in an upper level, undergraduate, elective economics course about income and wealth distribution, poverty, and discrimination. States that students achieve mastery because they cannot complete the tutorial without adequate understanding…

  19. The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…

  20. Experimental Influence Coefficients and Vibration Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weidman, Deene J.; Kordes, Eldon E.

    1959-01-01

    Test results are presented for both symmetrical and antisymmetrical static loading of a wing model mounted on a three-point support system. The first six free-free vibration modes were determined experimentally. A comparison is made of the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies with the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies calculated from the experimental influence coefficients.

  1. Melanoma and IFN alpha: potential adjuvant therapy.

    PubMed

    Bottoni, U; Clerico, R; Paolino, G; Corsetti, P; Ambrifi, M; Brachini, A; Richetta, A; Nisticò, S; Pranteda, G; Calvieri, S

    2014-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNalpha) is the most used adjuvant treatment in clinical practice for melanoma (MEL) high-medium risk patients; however, the use of IFNalpha has yielded conflicting data on Overall Survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. Starting from these considerations, we carried out an analysis on our MEL patients who received adjuvant IFNalpha therapy, in order to identify possible predictors for their outcome. A total of 140 patients were included in our analysis. Patients with Breslow thickness ?2.00 mm presented a significantly longer mean DFS than patients with Breslow ?2.01 mm (p = 0.01). Using non- parametric Spearman?s Coefficient test we found association between DFS and Breslow thickness (p < 0.001) and between DFS and ulceration (p = 0.03). Performing Multiple Regression test, Breslow thickness (p < 0.001) remained the only statistically significant predictor. From the OS analysis we found that patients with lower Breslow values ? 2.00 mm (p < 0.0001), and absence of ulceration (p <0.004) showed a significantly better long-term survival. From the current analysis we found that the use of low dose IFNalpha is justified only for cutaneous melanoma ? 4.01 mm that was not ulcerated; patients with Breslow ? 4.01 mm, in our opinion, should not carry out adjuvant treatment with low dose IFNalpha, because its side effects could be higher than the its benefits. PMID:25001659

  2. Alpha Testing Escape from Diab

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha testing was conducted of sessions 2 and 3 from Diab to assess whether the activities worked as expected, and whether children in the target ages enjoyed it. Data include both RA observations of child performance while playing the games and cognitive interview responses from the players after t...

  3. Alpha proton x ray spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.

    1994-01-01

    Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.

  4. Meet the Alpha-Pets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish

    1985-01-01

    "Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)

  5. Entrance loss coefficients and exit coefficients for a physical model of the glottis with convergent angles

    PubMed Central

    Fulcher, Lewis P.; Scherer, Ronald C.; Anderson, Nicholas V.

    2014-01-01

    Pressure distributions were obtained for 5°, 10°, and 20° convergent angles with a static physical model (M5) of the glottis. Measurements were made for minimal glottal diameters from d?=?0.005–0.32?cm with a range of transglottal pressures of interest for phonation. Entrance loss coefficients were calculated at the glottal entrance for each minimal diameter and transglottal pressure to measure how far the flows in this region deviate from Bernoulli flow. Exit coefficients were also calculated to determine the presence and magnitude of pressure recovery near the glottal exit. The entrance loss coefficients for the three convergent angles vary from values near 2.3–3.4 for d?=?0.005?cm to values near 0.6 for d?=?0.32?cm. These coefficients extend the tables of entrance loss and exit coefficients obtained for the uniform glottis according to Fulcher, Scherer, and Powell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1548–1553 (2011)]. PMID:25190404

  6. Maximum likelihood estimation of seismic reflection coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Ozdemir, H.

    1985-10-01

    A seismic trace is modeled as a moving average (MA) process both in signal and noise: a signal wavelet convolved with a reflection coefficient series plus colored random noise. Seismic reflection coefficients can be estimated from seismic traces using suitable estimation algorithms if the input wavelet is known and vice versa. The maximum likelihood (ML) algorithm is used to estimate the system order and the reflection coefficients. The system order is related to the arrival time of the latest signal in a complex seismic reflection event. The least-squares (LS) method does not provide such information. The ML algorithm makes assumptions only about the Gaussian nature of the noise. It is better suited for seismic applications since the LS method inherits the white noise assumption. The Gauss-Newton (G-N) and Newton-Raphson (N-R) optimization algorithms are used to obtain the ML and the LS estimates. Reflection coefficient estimations are affected by the choice of sampling rate of seismic data. Theoretically, the optimum choice in system identification is the Nyquist rate. Experience with synthetic data confirms the theory. In practice, good estimates of reflection coefficients are possible only up to certain pulse separations (or, equivalently, orders). This is mostly due to numerical problems with the optimization algorithms used and partly due to the limited bandwidth of seismic signals. Good estimates from data simulated using three airgun array pulses recorded with 6-128 Hz filter setting are possible up to about 40.0 ms pulse separations. Successful estimations from pinchout and thin layer simulations and well controlled offshore ''bright-spots'' are given.

  7. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, J.C.; Horne, P.; Eddy, B.; Greguski, R.; Fraser, C.M.

    1984-09-01

    The structure of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor was investigated by comparing polypeptides identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate (NaDodSO4)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the size of the intact receptor in cell membranes as determined by target size analysis. The alpha 1-adrenergic receptor from rat liver membranes affinity-labeled with (/sup 3/H)phenoxybenzamine, a covalent affinity reagent, appeared as a single polypeptide with a molecular mass of 85,000 daltons (Da) on NaDodSO4-polyacrylamide gels. In the absence of protease inhibitors, smaller peptides of 58-62 kDa and 40-45 kDa, specifically labeled with (/sup 3/H)phenoxybenzamine, were also apparent on NaDodSO4 gels. In order to determine whether the 85-kDa protein represented all or only a portion of the alpha 1-receptor, radiation inactivation (target size analysis) was undertaken. Radiation-induced receptor inactivation was measured by the loss of specific (/sup 3/H)phenoxybenzamine and (/sup 3/H)prazosin binding and by the loss of affinity-labeled alpha 1-adrenergic receptors on NaDodSO4 gels. Target size analysis of rat liver alpha 1-receptors indicated that the intact membrane-bound receptor has an average molecular mass of 160,000 Da. These data suggest that the intact alpha-receptor may exist in the membrane as a dimer of two 85,000-Da subunits. The structure of the alpha 1-receptor was further studied by limited proteolysis of the 85-kDa protein isolated from NaDodSO4 gels. Trypsin, chymotrypsin, and papain produce smaller peptides similar to those produced during membrane isolation in the absence of protease inhibition. Limited proteolysis of the membrane-bound receptor produces water-soluble peptides, the largest of which is 45,000 Da. This peptide contains the ligand-binding domain and protrudes from the membrane into the extracellular space.

  8. Crosslinking of alpha 2-antiplasmin to fibrin.

    PubMed

    Lee, K N; Lee, C S; Tae, W C; Jackson, K W; Christiansen, V J; McKee, P A

    2001-01-01

    Human alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) is the primary inhibitor of plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis and is an efficient substrate of activated factor XIII (FXIIIa). Among 452 amino acid residues in alpha 2AP, Gln2 is believed to be the sole FXIIIa-reactive site that participates in crosslinking alpha 2AP to fibrin. We studied the effect of mutating Gln2 on the ability of FXIIIa to catalyze crosslinking of alpha 2AP to fibrin. By FXIIIa catalysis, [14C]methylamine was incorporated into a Q2A-alpha 2AP mutant in which Gln2 (Q) was replaced by Ala (A), thereby indicating that wildtype alpha 2AP has more than one FXIIIa-reactive site. To identify the FXIIIa-reactive sites in alpha 2AP, wildtype alpha 2AP and Q2A-alpha 2AP were labeled with 5-(biotinamido)pentylamine by FXIIIa. Each labeled alpha 2AP was digested with trypsin and applied to an avidin affinity column to capture labeled peptides. Edman sequencing and mass analysis of each labeled peptide showed that out of 35 Gln residues in wildtype alpha 2AP, four were labeled with the following order of efficiency: Gln2 > Gln21 > Gln419 > Gln447. Q2A-alpha 2AP was also labeled at the three minor sites, Gln21 > Gln419 > Gln447. Q2A-alpha 2AP became crosslinked to fibirin(ogen) by FXIIIa catalysis at approximately one-tenth the rate of wt-alpha 2AP. These results demonstrate that alpha 2AP has one primary (Gln2) and three minor substrate sites for FXIIIa and that the three minor sites identified in this study can also participate in crosslink formation between alpha 2AP and fibrin, but at a much lower efficiency than the Gln2 site. PMID:11460490

  9. Association Coefficients of Identity and Proportionality for Metric Scales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Robert F.; Mazo, Robert M.

    1989-01-01

    F. E. Zegers' (1986) chance-corrected association coefficients are derived via alternative methods of deriving coefficients of identity and proportionality. Three assumptions for deriving metric coefficients are examined: variable reflection, zero covariance, and covariance reflection. (TJH)

  10. Cloning and expression of metallothionein mutant alpha-KKS-alpha in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qiang; Shi, Ding-Ji; Hao, Fu-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Chen, Zhen-Jia; Yu, Mei-Min; Ru, Bing-Gen

    2002-01-01

    The mouse metallothionein (mMT) mutant alpha-KKS-alpha has a higher capacity for binding heavy metals than wild type mMT. The mMT mutant alpha-KKS-alpha gene was placed under the control of the strong promoter PpbsA to generate the intermediate vector pRL-alpha-KKS-alpha. pRLalpha-KKS-alpha was then linked with the plasmid pDC-08 to construct shuttle expression vector pDC-alphaKKS-alpha. This expression vector was transformed into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using triparental conjugative transfer. After antibiotic selection (ampicillin and kanamycin), transgenic Anabaena was identified by PCR and Western blotting. The expression level of the mMT mutation alpha-KKS-alpha reached 7.4 mg/g dry cells weight, as detected by ELISA, and heavy metal resistance of the transgenic Anabaena was significantly improved. PMID:12398381

  11. THE CYCLES OF {alpha} CENTAURI

    SciTech Connect

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2009-05-10

    The main AB pair of the nearby {alpha} Centauri triple system has one of the most extensive X-ray records of any cosmic object, stretching over 30 years. The primary, {alpha} Cen A (G2 V), is a near twin of the Sun, with a similarly soft (1-2 MK) corona. The secondary, {alpha} Cen B (K1 V), is more active than the Sun, with a generally harder coronal spectrum. Here, more than a decade of spatially resolved measurements from ROSAT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra are compared on a common basis, with careful attention to conversion factors that translate count rates of the different instruments into absolute energy fluxes. For the latter purpose, two epochs of Chandra transmission grating spectra, which fully resolve the binary, were modeled using a differential emission measure formalism. The aggregate time series suggests that {alpha} Cen B was near X-ray maximum in the mid-1990s, minimum in the late-1990s, then peaked again in 2004-2005, and more recently has been declining toward another minimum. Meanwhile, {alpha} Cen A showed minimal variability 1995-2000, and like the secondary presently is mired in an activity lull (in fact, as seen by XMM-Newton, the primary 'fainted' from view in the 2005 time frame). Comparisons between X-ray luminosities in the 0.2-2 keV (6-60 A) ROSAT 'WGACAT' band and a softer counterpart 0.06-1.2 keV (10-200 A) reinforce the idea that cycle depth is strongly dependent on the energy span of the measurement, and that much of the coronal luminosity of cool-corona objects like the Sun falls at longer wavelengths than are recorded efficiently by contemporary instruments. Consequently, one must be careful in discussing X-ray cycles, their amplitudes, and coronal heating requirements unless one can demonstrate good control over the out-of-band component.

  12. Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...

  13. Coexistence of {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.

    2008-06-15

    The coexistence of the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {alpha} clusters. However, the {alpha}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {alpha}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({alpha}+t+t three-center) and {alpha}-type ({alpha}+{alpha}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.

  14. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" ... have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from each parent. These genes tell cells in ...

  15. A Statistical Analysis of YORP Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, D.

    2013-10-01

    The YORP (Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack) effect is theorized to be a major factor in the evolution of small asteroids (<10 km) in the near-Earth and main belt populations. YORP torques, which originate from absorbed sunlight and subsequent thermal radiation, causes secular changes in an asteroid's spin rate and spin vector orientation (e.g. Rubincam, Journal of Geophysical Research, 1995). This in turn controls the magnitude and direction of the Yarkovsky effect, which causes a drift in an asteroid's heliocentric semi-major axis (Vokrouhlicky and Farinella, Nature, 2000). YORP is also thought to be responsible for the creation of multiple asteroid systems and asteroid pairs through the process of rotational fission (Pravec et al, Nature, 2010). Despite the fact that the YORP effect has been measured on several asteroids (e.g. Taylor et al, Science, 2007 and Kaasalainen et al, Nature, 2007), it has proven very difficult to predict the effect accurately from a shape model due to the sensitivity of the YORP coefficients to shape changes (Statler, Icarus, 2009). This has been especially troublesome for Itokawa, for which a very detailed shape model is available (Scheeres et al, Icarus 2007; Breiter et al, Astronomy & Astrophysics, 2009). In this study, we compute the YORP coefficients for a number asteroids with detailed shape models available on the PDS-SBN. We then statistically perturb the asteroid shapes at the same resolution, creating a family of YORP coefficients for each shape. Next, we analyze the change in YORP coefficients between a shape model of accuracy obtainable from radar with one including small-scale topography on the surface as was observed on Itokawa. The combination of these families of coefficients will effectively give error bars on our knowledge of the YORP coefficients given a shape model of some accuracy. Finally, we discuss the statistical effect of boulder and craters, and the modification of these results due to recent studies on thermal beaming (Rozitis and Green, Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 2012) and "tangential" YORP (Golubov and Krugly, The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 2012).

  16. Association of actin with alpha crystallins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.

  17. Internal consistency and factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire in visually impaired students

    PubMed Central

    Bakhla, Ajay Kumar; Verma, Vijay; Hembram, Mahesh; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Sinha, Vinod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Background: As there are no instruments to measure psychological wellness or distress in visually impaired students, we studied internal consistency and factor structure of GHQ-12 in visually impaired children. Materials and Methods: Internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha and item total correlation) and exploratory factor analysis (principal component analysis) were carried out to identify factor structure of 12-item general health questionnaire (GHQ-12). Results: All items of GHQ-12 were significantly associated with each other and the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the scale was 0.7. On analysis of principal component, three-factor solution was found that accounted for 47.92% of the total variance. The factors included, ‘general well-being’, ‘depression’ and ‘cognitive’, with Cronbach's alpha coefficients being 0.70, 0.59, and 0.34, respectively. Conclusion: Our study findings suggest GHQ-12 is a reliable with adequate internal consistency scale and multidimensional factor structure in visually impaired students. PMID:25013310

  18. Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer

    1996-01-01

    The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.

  19. Enzyme mass-transfer coefficient in aqueous two-phase systems using static mixer extraction column.

    PubMed

    Rostami, K; Alamshahi, M

    2002-09-01

    Recent technical advances in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have made this a sound technique for the extraction of biomacromolecules. The extraction of alpha-amylase was investigated using aqueous two-phase systems formed by sodium sulphate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water in a 47-mm inner diameter spray column packed with three types of static mixers. The effects of dispersed-phase flow rate, phase composition, column height and diameter were studied. The extraction column was operated in a semi-batch manner. It was found that the hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients increased with an increase in dispersed (PEG-rich) phase velocity and decreased with increasing phase composition. Empirical correlations were developed for fractional dispersed-phase hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients. PMID:14508675

  20. Nonlinear Diffusions and Stable-Like Processes with Coefficients Depending on the Median or VaR

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.

    2013-08-01

    The paper is devoted to the well-posedness for nonlinear McKean-Vlasov type diffusions with coefficients depending on the median or, more generally, on the {alpha}-quantile of the underlying distribution. The median is not a continuous function on the space of probability measures equipped with the weak convergence. This is one reason why well-posedness of the SDE considered in the paper does not follow by standard arguments.

  1. Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha

  2. Recent Results on the CKM Angle Alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison

    2005-10-18

    The method to measure the CKM angle {alpha} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {alpha}, which is found to be {alpha} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).

  3. Materials with Tailored Thermal Expansion Coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Katia; Liu, Jia; Shan, Sicong; Kang, Sung Hoon

    2013-03-01

    Designing materials with tailored coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) has applications in a number of fields, including biomedical and mechanical engineering and solar energy. It is particularly important to combine a desired (usually low) CTE with mechanical robustness. Most of previous work has been focused on designing low-CTE materials by modifying compounds at the chemical level. It is also possible to design materials with tailored CTE by using specific topologies of different materials to achieve overall properties outside the range of the constituent materials. Here, we exploit buckling in laminated periodic structures to design materials whose coefficient of thermal expansion can be tuned (from positive to negative) by varying the unit cell geometry.

  4. Hopfield coefficients measured by inverse polariton series

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Eiji; Ivanov, A. L.; Nair, Selvakumar V.; Masumoto, Yasuaki

    2001-06-15

    We report observation of the inverse polariton series and a detailed experimental study of the exciton components in polaritons (Hopfield coefficients). Spontaneous emission of excitonic molecules into outgoing polaritons associated with the i(=1,2,3,4,5)th exciton states in bulk CuCl is detected and analyzed by the bipolariton model. Because the intensities of the emission lines, which form the inverse polariton series, are determined by the exciton components in the final-state polaritons, we are able to measure the Hopfield coefficients for the highly composite outgoing polaritons. Quantum interference in the optical decay of excitonic molecules, due to the multiple exciton components in the polariton and biexciton states, is also demonstrated.

  5. Angular Fock coefficients: Refinement and further development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

    2015-10-01

    The angular coefficients ?k ,p(? ,? ) of the Fock expansion characterizing the S -state wave function of the two-electron atomic system are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates ? and ? . To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power j of the nucleus charge Z are applied. The "pure" j components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to the hyperspherical harmonics Yk l, are found for even values of k . To this end, the specific coupling equation is proposed and applied. Effective techniques for solving the individual equations with the simplest nonseparable and separable right-hand sides are proposed. Some mistakes or misprints made earlier in representations of ?2 ,0, are noted and corrected. All j components of ?4 ,1 and the majority of components and subcomponents of ?3 ,0 are calculated and presented. All calculations are carried out with the help of Wolfram Mathematica.

  6. Rotational dissipation and the Miesowicz coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, M.; Yamaguti, K.; Palangana, A. J.

    2009-12-01

    In this work, we will study the relative contribution of each of the two dissipative channels of the Eriksen, Leslie, and Parodi (ELP) approach to the observed values of the Miesowicz viscosity coefficients of the nematic liquid crystals. According to the fundamental equation of the liquid crystal’s viscosity dissipative process, T?=-?d3r{?ijAij+h??N?} , there are two channels by which the nematic viscous dissipation can occur: or it occurs by means of a shear flow configuration, where Aij is the characterizing term, or it occurs by means of a rotational configuration, where N? is the characterizing term (these parameters will be defined in the paper). It will be also shown that this relative contribution can be measured by a simple relationship connecting the Miesowicz coefficients, which exhibits a quasitemperature independent behavior, suggesting that it is nearly constant through the entire domain of the nematic phase.

  7. Minior Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Nolan E. Hertel; Dwayne Blaylock

    2008-04-10

    The "Minor Actinide Doppler Coefficient Measurement Assessment" was a Department of Energy (DOE) U-NERI funded project intended to assess the viability of using either the FLATTOP or the COMET critical assembly to measure high temperature Doppler coefficients. The goal of the project was to calculate using the MCNP5 code the gram amounts of Np-237, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-241, AM-241, AM-242m, Am-243, and CM-244 needed to produce a 1E-5 in reactivity for a change in operating temperature 800C to 1000C. After determining the viability of using the assemblies and calculating the amounts of each actinide an experiment will be designed to verify the calculated results. The calculations and any doncuted experiments are designed to support the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative in conducting safety analysis of advanced fast reactor or acceoerator-driven transmutation systems with fuel containing high minor actinide content.

  8. Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.

  9. Quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.; Lemaire, P.; Suckewer, S.

    1987-09-01

    We have observed changing Einstein coefficients of spontaneous emission as a function of electron density in CO/sub 2/ laser-produced plasmas. These measurements are based on the intensity branching ratio of CIV lines 5801 to 5812 A and 312.41 to 312.46 A which share a common upper level. Similar observations for CIII lines are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS OF TERMINAL PEPTIDES TO THE ASSOCIATIVE BEHAVIOR OF ALPHA-S1 CASEIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The N- and C-terminal segments of bovine alpha-s1 casein-B (f1-23 and f136-196) were characterized under conditions that promoted or inhibited self-association to determine the relative contributions of each fragment to the interaction of alpha-s1 casein with itself or with other caseins. In earlie...

  11. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha

  12. Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    DeVolpi, A.

    1993-02-01

    When a pair of images is compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This report evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitations of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair of otherwise identical images. Results show an optimal three-stage procedure: first, establish congruence of the two images; second, use the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives; and, third, qualify a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These three algorithmic stages would be especially useful in application to arms control treaty verification, particularly for comparison of unique identifiers (tags or seals). This is illustrated by comparing scanning-electron microscope topographical images for an intrinsic-surface tag.

  13. Transport coefficients of He(+) ions in helium.

    PubMed

    Viehland, Larry A; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R; Wright, Timothy G

    2016-02-21

    This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of (4)He(+) in (4)He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X(2)?u (+) and A(2)?g (+) states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of (4)He(+) in (4)He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:26896985

  14. Roughness coefficients for stream channels in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aldridge, B.N.; Garrett, J.M.

    1973-01-01

           n in which V = mean cross-sectional velocity of flow, in feet per second; R = hydraulic radius at a cross section, which is the cross-sectional area divided by the wetter perimeter, in feet; Se = energy slope; and n = coefficient of roughness. Many research studies have been made to determine "n" values for open-channel flow (Carter and others, 1963). Guidelines for selecting coefficient of roughness for stream channels are given in most of the literature of stream-channel hydraulics, but few of the data relate directly to streams of Arizona, The U.S> Geological Survey, at the request of the Arizona Highway Department, assembled the color photographs and tables of the Manning "n" values in this report to aid highway engineers in the selection of roughness coefficients for Arizona streams. Most of the photographs show channel reaches for which values of "n" have been assigned by experienced Survey personnel; a few photographs are included for reaches where "n" values have been verified. Verified "n" values are computed from a known discharge and measured channel geometry. Selected photographs of stream channels for which "n" values have been verified are included in U.S. Geological Survey Water-Supply Paper 1849 (Barnes, 1967); stereoscopic slides of Barnes' (1967) photographs and additional photographs can be inspected at U.S> Geological Survey offices in: 2555 E. First Street, Tucson; and 5017 Federal Building, 230 N. First Avenue, Phoenix.

  15. The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.

    1974-01-01

    A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).

  16. Associations between Alpha Angle and Herniation Pit on MRI Revisited in 185 Asymptomatic Hip Joints

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunchae

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI in asymptomatic hip joints and their associations with demographic variables. Materials and Methods Hip MRI of 185 asymptomatic hip joints of 105 adults (age 18 to 80 years) from September 2011 through December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Alpha angles were measured on oblique axial MR images by 2 observers. Herniation pit was determined by 1 observer. Size measures, prevalence, and statistical analyses were conducted regarding its association with age, gender, laterality (right or left hip). Intra- and inter-observer agreements were determined by intra-class correlation coefficient. Results The prevalence of herniation pit in asymptomatic hips was 21.6%. The range of alpha angle was 27.6-65.0 degrees. Seventeen and 16 out of 185 (9.1% and 8.6%) hip joints showed alpha angle of ≥ 55 degrees in first and second measurement sessions, respectively. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and presence of herniation pit. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and the size of herniation pit. Inter-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.485 between first measurements of first vs. second observer, respectively. Intra-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.654, respectively. Forty (21.6%) of 185 hip joints (35 of 105 patients, 33.3%) had herniation pit, with no difference according to age, gender, or laterality of hip joint. Conclusion There is no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 degrees and presence of herniation pit or demographic variables. PMID:26576122

  17. {alpha}-particle spectrum in the reaction p + {sup 11}B {yields} {alpha} + {sup 8}Be* {yields} 3{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Dmitriev, V. F.

    2009-07-15

    Using a simple phenomenological parametrization of the reaction amplitude we calculated {alpha}-particle spectrumin the reaction p + {sup 11}B {yields} {alpha} + {sup 8}Be* {yields} 3{alpha} at the resonance proton energy of 675 keV. The parametrization includes Breit-Wigner factor with an energy-dependent width for intermediate {sup 8}Be* state and the Coulomb and the centrifugal factors in {alpha}-particle-emission vertices. The shape of the spectrum consists of a well-defined peak corresponding to emission of the primary {alpha} and a flat shoulder going down to very low energy. We found that below 1.5MeV there are 17.5% of {alpha}'s and below 1MeV there are 11% of them.

  18. Determination of the enantiomers of alpha-hydroxy- and alpha-amino acids in capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Pormsila, Worapan; Gong, Xiao Yang; Hauser, Peter C

    2010-06-01

    The enantiomers of the anions of five alpha-hydroxy acids, namely lactic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-hydroxycaproic acid, 2-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 2-hydroxydecanoic acid, as well as the two alpha-amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, were baseline separated and detected by CE with contactless conductivity detection. Vancomycin was employed as chiral selector and could be used with conductivity detection without having to resort to a partial filling protocol as needed when this reagent is used with UV absorbance measurements. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of the lactic acid enantiomers in samples of milk and yogurt. Linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 10-500 micromol/L with good correlation coefficients (0.9993 and 0.9990 for L- and D-lactic acid, respectively). The LODs (3 S/N) for L- and D-lactic acid were determined as 2.8 and 2.4 micromol/L, respectively. PMID:20496346

  19. Voglibose: An Alpha Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Dabhi, Ajay S.; Bhatt, Nikita R.; Shah, Mohit J.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a morbid disease worldwide, with increasing incidence as time passes. It has macro-vascular and micro-vascular complications. The main cause of these complications is poorly controlled postprandial hyperglycaemia. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors, namely acarbose, voglibose and miglitol, are available for therapy. Voglibose is well tolerated and effective in comparable doses among these drugs. This article highlights the important features of voglibose. PMID:24551718

  20. THE LYMAN ALPHA REFERENCE SAMPLE: EXTENDED LYMAN ALPHA HALOS PRODUCED AT LOW DUST CONTENT

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Matthew; Oestlin, Goeran; Duval, Florent; Guaita, Lucia; Melinder, Jens; Sandberg, Andreas; Schaerer, Daniel; Verhamme, Anne; Orlitova, Ivana; Mas-Hesse, J. Miguel; Oti-Floranes, Hector; Adamo, Angela; Atek, Hakim; Cannon, John M.; Herenz, E. Christian; Kunth, Daniel; Laursen, Peter

    2013-03-10

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Ly{alpha}), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028 < z < 0.18 in continuum-subtracted Ly{alpha}, H{alpha}, and the far ultraviolet continuum. We show that Ly{alpha} is emitted on scales that systematically exceed those of the massive stellar population and recombination nebulae: as measured by the Petrosian 20% radius, R{sub P20}, Ly{alpha} radii are larger than those of H{alpha} by factors ranging from 1 to 3.6, with an average of 2.4. The average ratio of Ly{alpha}-to-FUV radii is 2.9. This suggests that much of the Ly{alpha} light is pushed to large radii by resonance scattering. Defining the Relative Petrosian Extension of Ly{alpha} compared to H{alpha}, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} = R {sup Ly{alpha}}{sub P20}/R {sup H{alpha}}{sub P20}, we find {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} to be uncorrelated with total Ly{alpha} luminosity. However, {xi}{sub Ly{alpha}} is strongly correlated with quantities that scale with dust content, in the sense that a low dust abundance is a necessary requirement (although not the only one) in order to spread Ly{alpha} photons throughout the interstellar medium and drive a large extended Ly{alpha} halo.

  1. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  2. Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design

    SciTech Connect

    Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented.

  3. Alpha channeling in a rotating plasma.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2008-11-14

    The wave-particle alpha-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with alpha particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the alpha particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the alpha-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity. PMID:19113347

  4. A Computer for Calculating Kendall's Rank Correlation Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberge, James J.

    1970-01-01

    A program for calculating Kendall's tau-a, tau-b, partial tau, coefficient of concordance, coefficient of consistence, and coefficient of agreement is presented. In addition, the program provides tests of significance for each of the coefficients except partial tau. (DG)

  5. Collagen type IV, laminin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA), alpha1 and alpha6 integrins expression in the liver with metastases from malignant gastrointestinal tumours.

    PubMed

    Gulubova, Maya Vladova

    2004-01-01

    Basement membrane proteins and integrins can profoundly affect the biological behaviour of metastasic tumour cells. Using light and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry, we showed the presence of alterations in the occurrence of collagen type IV and laminin, and the expression of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in the livers of patients with metastases from gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. The myofibroblast-like cells in the metastatic stroma were studied. Parallel expressions of alpha-SMA, collagen type IV and alpha1 integrin chain, and appearance of laminin and alpha6 integrin chain immunoreactivity in the extratumoral liver tissue were markedly increased in sinusoids associated with metastases. Furthermore, ultrastructural immunohistochemistry detected tumour cells adhered to amorphous laminin deposits in the metastases. Laminin occurrence in liver sinusoids was visible as fine amorphous deposits in the space of Disse. The similarity between alpha-SMA-positive stromal cells in metastatic stroma and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was established by the presence of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The immune deposits of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains were observed on the hepatocyte microvilli and on the membrane of sinusoidal endothelial cells. These findings suggest that metastatic cells produce stimuli that induce HSCs activation and sinusoidal changes. In addition, the enhanced parallel expression of alphaSMA, collagen type IV, laminin and of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in sinusoids associated with metastases, might potentiate the further dissemination of tumour cells in new liver areas. PMID:15679046

  6. Copernicus measurement of the Jovian Lyman-alpha emission and its aeronomical significance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.; Kerr, R. B.; Upson, W. L., II; Festou, M. C.; Donahue, T. M.; Barker, E. S.; Cochran, W. D.; Bertaux, J. L.

    1982-01-01

    It is pointed out that the intensity of the Lyman-alpha emission is a good indicator of the principal aeronomical processes on the major planets. The high-resolution ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Copernicus was used in 1980 April and May to detect the Jovian Lyman-alpha emission by spectroscopically discriminating it from other Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha emissions such as those of the geocorona, and the interplanetary medium. Taking into consideration the reported emission data, it appears that an unusually large energy input due to the particle precipitation in the auroral region must have been responsible for the large observed Lyman-alpha intensity during the Voyager encounter. At most other times, the observed Jovian Lyman-alpha intensity can be explained, within the range of statistical uncertainty, by a model that takes into consideration the solar EUV flux, the solar Lyman-alpha flux, the high exospheric temperature, and the eddy diffusion coefficient without energy input from the auroral sources.

  7. Modeling of MeV alpha particle energy transfer to lower hybrid waves

    SciTech Connect

    Schivell, J.; Monticello, D.A.; Fisch, N.; Rax, J.M.

    1993-10-01

    The interaction between a lower hybrid wave and a fusion alpha particle displaces the alpha particle simultaneously in space and energy. This results in coupled diffusion. Diffusion of alphas down the density gradient could lead to their transferring energy to the wave. This could, in turn, put energy into current drive. An initial analytic study was done by Fisch and Rax. Here the authors calculate numerical solutions for the alpha energy transfer and study a range of conditions that are favorable for wave amplification from alpha energy. They find that it is possible for fusion alpha particles to transfer a large fraction of their energy to the lower hybrid wave. The numerical calculation shows that the net energy transfer is not sensitive to the value of the diffusion coefficient over a wide range of practical values. An extension of this idea, the use of a lossy boundary to enhance the energy transfer, is investigated. This technique is shown to offer a large potential benefit.

  8. alpha-Tocopheryl phosphate – an active lipid mediator?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, alphaT) derivative, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), is detectable in small amounts in plasma, tissues, and cultured cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo suggest that alphaT can become phosphorylated and alphaTP dephosphorylated, suggesting the existence of ...

  9. Resting-state alpha in autism spectrum disorder and alpha associations with thalamic volume.

    PubMed

    Edgar, J Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Roberts, Timothy P L

    2015-03-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha rhythms, associations between thalamic structure and alpha activity were examined. RS magnetoencephalography was obtained from 47 typically-developing children (TDC) and 41 children with ASD. RS alpha activity was measured using distributed source localization. Left and right thalamic volume measurements were also obtained. In both groups, the strongest alpha activity was observed in Calcarine Sulcus regions. In Calcarine regions, only TDC showed the expected association between age and alpha peak frequency. ASD had more alpha activity than TDC in regions bordering the Central Sulcus as well as parietal association cortices. In ASD, whereas greater left Central Sulcus relative alpha activity was associated with higher Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores, greater Calcarine region relative alpha activity was associated with lower SRS scores. Although thalamic volume group differences were not observed, relationships between thalamic volume and Calcarine alpha power were unique to TDC. The present study also identified a failure to shift peak alpha frequency as a function of age in primary alpha-generating areas in children with ASD. Findings suggested that increased RS alpha activity in primary motor and somatosensory as well as parietal multimodal areas-with increased alpha thought to reflect greater inhibition-might impair the ability to identify or interpret social cues. Finally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report associations between thalamic volume and alpha power, an association observed only in TDC. The lack of thalamic and alpha associations in ASD suggests thalamic contributions to RS alpha abnormalities in ASD. PMID:25231288

  10. Tests of Hypotheses Arising In the Correlated Random Coefficient Model*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Schmierer, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the correlated random coefficient model. It extends the analysis of Swamy (1971), who pioneered the uncorrelated random coefficient model in economics. We develop the properties of the correlated random coefficient model and derive a new representation of the variance of the instrumental variable estimator for that model. We develop tests of the validity of the correlated random coefficient model against the null hypothesis of the uncorrelated random coefficient model. PMID:21170148

  11. Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.

    1988-01-01

    Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.

  12. Random Matrices and Lyapunov Coefficients Regularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallavotti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Analyticity and other properties of the largest or smallest Lyapunov exponent of a product of real matrices with a "cone property" are studied as functions of the matrices entries, as long as they vary without destroying the cone property. The result is applied to stability directions, Lyapunov coefficients and Lyapunov exponents of a class of products of random matrices and to dynamical systems. The results are not new and the method is the main point of this work: it is is based on the classical theory of the Mayer series in Statistical Mechanics of rarefied gases.

  13. Modelling of tungsten re-deposition coefficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tskhakaya, D.; Groth, M.

    2015-08-01

    We study tungsten prompt re-deposition processes at the divertor plates via kinetic modelling of the JET SOL for different divertor plasma parameters. Our simulations demonstrate that the electric field and not the Lorentz Force is the major contributor to the prompt re-deposition process. The fraction of tungsten ions escaping from the divertor plasma is defined by the number of tungsten atoms ionized outside the magnetic sheath and does not exceed 3% of the ions sputtered from the divertor surface. We derived the corresponding fit function for estimation of the re-deposition coefficient.

  14. Using CFD software to calculate hydrodynamic coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, He; Xu, Yu-Ru; Cai, Hao-Peng

    2010-06-01

    Applications of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) to the maritime industry continue to grow with the increasing development of computers. Numerical approaches have evolved to a level of accuracy which allows them to be applied for hydrodynamic computations in industry areas. Hydrodynamic tests, especially planar-motion-mechanism (PMM) tests are simulated by CFD software -FLUENT, and all of the corresponding hydrodynamic coefficients are obtained, which satisfy the need of establishing the simulation system to evaluate maneuverability of vehicles during the autonomous underwater vehicle scheme design stage. The established simulation system performed well in tests.

  15. Micro-Fluidic Diffusion Coefficient Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, F.K.; Galambos, P.

    1998-10-06

    A new method for diffusion coefficient measurement applicable to micro-fluidics is pre- sented. The method Iltilizes an analytical model describing laminar dispersion in rect- anglllar ~llicro_channe]s. The Illethod ~vas verified throllgh measllremen~ of fllloresceill diffusivity in water and aqueolls polymer solutions of differing concentration. The diffll- sivity of flllorescein was measlmed as 0.64 x 10-gm2/s in water, 0.49 x 10-gm2/s in the 4 gm/dl dextran solution and 0.38 x 10-9n12/s in the 8 gnl/dl dextran solution.

  16. Electron distribution function and recombination coefficient in ultracold plasma in a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Bobrov, A. A.; Bronin, S. Ya.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.; Manykin, E. A.; Khikhlukha, D. R.

    2013-07-15

    The electron distribution function and diffusion coefficient in energy space have been calculated for the first time for a weakly coupled ultracold plasma in a magnetic field in the range of magnetic fields B = 100-50000 G for various temperatures. The dependence of these characteristics on the magnetic field is analyzed and the distribution function is shown to depend on the electron energy shift in a magnetic field. The position of the 'bottleneck' of the distribution function has been found to be shifted toward negative energies with increasing magnetic field. The electron velocity autocorrelators as a function of the magnetic field have been calculated; their behavior suggests that the frequency of collisions between charged particles decreases significantly with increasing magnetic field. The collisional recombination coefficient {alpha}{sub B} has been calculated in the diffusion approximation for a weakly coupled ultracold plasma in a magnetic field. An increase in magnetic field is shown to lead to a decrease in {alpha}{sub B} and this decrease can be several orders of magnitude.

  17. SDSS-II: Determination of shape and color parameter coefficients for SALT-II fit model

    SciTech Connect

    Dojcsak, L.; Marriner, J.; /Fermilab

    2010-08-01

    In this study we look at the SALT-II model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, {alpha} and {beta} respectively, in the SALT-II model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for {alpha} and {beta}. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results.

  18. Rogue-Wave Interaction of a Nonlinear Schrödinger Model for the Alpha Helical Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hui-Xian; Liu, Yu-Jun; Wang, Ya-Ning

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate a fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the Davydov solitons in the alpha helical protein with higher-order effects. By virtue of the generalised Darboux transformation, higher-order rogue-wave solutions are derived. Propagation and interaction of the rogue waves are analysed: (i) Coefficients affect the existence time of the first-order rogue waves; (ii) coefficients affect the interaction time of the second- and third-order rogue waves; (iii) direction of the rogue-wave propagation remain unchanged after interaction.

  19. The Assessment of Reliability Under Range Restriction: A Comparison of [Alpha], [Omega], and Test-Retest Reliability for Dichotomous Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Dustin A.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Terry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Though much research and attention has been directed at assessing the correlation coefficient under range restriction, the assessment of reliability under range restriction has been largely ignored. This article uses item response theory to simulate dichotomous item-level data to assess the robustness of KR-20 ([alpha]), [omega], and test-retest…

  20. The Assessment of Reliability Under Range Restriction: A Comparison of [Alpha], [Omega], and Test-Retest Reliability for Dichotomous Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Dustin A.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Terry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Though much research and attention has been directed at assessing the correlation coefficient under range restriction, the assessment of reliability under range restriction has been largely ignored. This article uses item response theory to simulate dichotomous item-level data to assess the robustness of KR-20 ([alpha]), [omega], and test-retest…

  1. Synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgen and estrogen substrates for 16 alpha-hydroxylase.

    PubMed

    Cantineau, R; Kremers, P; De Graeve, J; Cornelis, A; Laszlo, P; Gielen, J E; Lambotte, R

    1981-02-01

    The synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgens and estrogens is described. 1-(3H)-Acetic acid in the presence of zinc dust reacts with 16 alpha-bromo-17-ketosteroids to produce 16 alpha-3H-17-ketosteroids. This chemical reaction was used to prepare 16 alpha-3H-dehydroepiandrosterone (I) and 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate (XI) from 16 alpha-bromo-dehydroepiandrosterone (X) and from 16 alpha-bromo-estrone acetate (XII), respectively. Using appropriate microbiological techniques, it was possible to convert these radiolabelled substrates into 16 alpha-3H-androstenedione (II) and 16 alpha-3H-estradiol-17 beta (VII). 16 alpha-3H-Estrone (VI) was obtained by the chemical hydrolysis of 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate. The label distribution as determined by microbiological 16 alpha-hydroxylations indicated a specific labelling of 77% for androgens and 65% for estrogens in the 16 alpha position. These substrates can be used for measuring the 16 alpha hydroxylase activity, an important step in the biosynthesis of estriol (VIII) and estetrol (IX). PMID:7013160

  2. Separation of Cf, Es, and Fm by eluative chromatography using ammonium. cap alpha. -hydroxyisobutyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Auerman, L.N.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Rumer, I.A.; Novichenko, V.L.

    1987-11-01

    The method of separation of californium, einsteinium, fermium, and certain lanthanides, based on the use of ammonium ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyrate as the eluent, has been improved. The use of a 0.10-0.14 M solution of this reagent and columns (9 x 0.5 cm) filled with the resin Aminex SB with particle size 20-25 ..mu.., permitted the production of about 0.5 ..mu..g of einsteinium-253 from irradiated californium-252 with coefficient of purification of einsteinium from californium in two cycles of adsorption and elution of approx. 10/sup 10/. The coefficient of separation of californium and einsteinium is equal to 1.6 and that of einsteinium and fermium 1.9. The behavior of certain lanthanides in the separation of californium, einsteinium, and fermium using a 0.010 M solution of ammonium ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyrate is discussed.

  3. Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems

    SciTech Connect

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.

  4. Drawing inferences about the coancestry coefficient.

    PubMed

    Samanta, Suvajit; Li, Yi-Ju; Weir, Bruce S

    2009-06-01

    The coancestry coefficient, also known as the population structure parameter, is of great interest in population genetics. It can be thought of as the intraclass correlation of pairs of alleles within populations and it can serve as a measure of genetic distance between populations. For a general class of evolutionary models it determines the distribution of allele frequencies among populations. Under more restrictive models it can be regarded as the probability of identity by descent of any pair of alleles at a locus within a random mating population. In this paper we review estimation procedures that use the method of moments or are maximum likelihood under the assumption of normally distributed allele frequencies. We then consider the problem of testing hypotheses about this parameter. In addition to parametric and non-parametric bootstrap tests we present an asymptotically-distributed chi-square test. This test reduces to the contingency-table test for equal sample sizes across populations. Our new test appears to be more powerful than previous tests, especially for loci with multiple alleles. We apply our methods to HapMap SNP data to confirm that the coancestry coefficient for humans is strictly positive. PMID:19345237

  5. On Learning Cluster Coefficient of Private Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao; Zhu, Jun; Xiang, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as clustering coefficient or modularity often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we treat a graph statistics as a function f and develop a divide and conquer approach to enforce differential privacy. The basic procedure of this approach is to first decompose the target computation f into several less complex unit computations f1, …, fm connected by basic mathematical operations (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), then perturb the output of each fi with Laplace noise derived from its own sensitivity value and the distributed privacy threshold ?i, and finally combine those perturbed fi as the perturbed output of computation f. We examine how various operations affect the accuracy of complex computations. When unit computations have large global sensitivity values, we enforce the differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We illustrate our approach by using clustering coefficient, which is a popular statistics used in social network analysis. Empirical evaluations on five real social networks and various synthetic graphs generated from three random graph models show the developed divide and conquer approach outperforms the direct approach. PMID:24429843

  6. Subtomogram alignment by adaptive Fourier coefficient thresholding

    PubMed Central

    Comolli, Luis; Moussavi, Farshid; Downing, Kenneth H.; Horowitz, Mark

    2014-01-01

    In the past few years, three-dimensional (3D) subtomogram alignment has become an important tool in cryo-electron tomography (CET). This technique allows one to resolve higher resolution structures of targets that can not be reconstructed by single-particle methods. Based on previous approaches, we present a new dissimilarity measure between subtomograms: Thresholded Constrained Cross-Correlation (TCCC). TCCC improves alignment results for low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) images (SNR < 0.1). This allows one to analyze macromolecules in thicker samples like whole cells or lower the defocus in thinner samples to push the first zero of the Contrast Transfer Function (CTF). TCCC uses statistics of the noise to automatically select only a small percentage of the Fourier coefficients to compute the cross-correlation. The thresholding has two main advantages: first, it reduces the influence of the noise; second, it avoids the missing wedge normalization problem since we consider the same amount of coefficients for all possible pairs of subtomograms. We present results in synthetic and real data and we compare them with existing methods under different SNR and missing wedge conditions. We have made our source code freely available for the community. PMID:20621702

  7. Rotordynamic coefficients for stepped labyrinth gas seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharrer, Joseph K.

    1989-01-01

    The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a stepped labyrinth gas seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are presented in the form of a parametric study, since there are no known experimental data for the rotordynamic coefficients of stepped labyrinth gas seals. The parametric study investigates the relative rotordynamic stability of convergent, straight and divergent stepped labyrinth gas seals. The results show that, generally, the divergent seal is more stable, rotordynamically, than the straight or convergent seals. The results also show that the teeth-on-stator seals are not always more stable, rotordynamically, then the teeth-on-rotor seals as was shown by experiment by Childs and Scharrer (1986b) for a 15 tooth seal.

  8. Fast computation of local correlation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaobai; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Bientinesi, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents an acceleration method, using both algorithmic and architectural means, for fast calculation of local correlation coefficients, which is a basic image-based information processing step for template or pattern matching, image registration, motion or change detection and estimation, compensation of changes, or compression of representations, among other information processing objectives. For real-time applications, the complexity in arithmetic operations as well as in programming and memory access latency had been a divisive issue between the so-called correction-based methods and the Fourier domain methods. In the presented method, the complexity in calculating local correlation coefficients is reduced via equivalent reformulation that leads to efficient array operations or enables the use of multi-dimensional fast Fourier transforms, without losing or sacrificing local and non-linear changes or characteristics. The computation time is further reduced by utilizing modern multi-core architectures, such as the Sony-Toshiba-IBM Cell processor, with high processing speed and low power consumption.

  9. The Convergence Coefficient across Political Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schofield, Norman

    2013-01-01

    Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move. PMID:24385886

  10. Estimating biokinetic coefficients in the PACTâ„¢ system.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhiyao; Arbuckle, Wm Brian

    2016-02-01

    When powdered activated carbon (PAC) is continuously added to the aeration tank of an activated sludge reactor, the modification is called a PACTâ„¢ process (for powdered activated carbon treatment). The PAC provides many benefits, but complicates the determination of biological phenomena. Determination of bio-oxidation kinetics in a PACT system is a key to fully understanding enhanced biological mechanisms resulting from PAC addition. A model is developed to account for the main mechanisms involved in the PACT system -- adsorption, air stripping and bio-oxidation. The model enables the investigation of biokinetic information, including possible synergistic effects. Six parallel reactors were used to treat a synthetic waste; three activated sludge and three PACT. The PACT reactors provided significantly reduced effluent TOC (total organic carbon). Biokinetic coefficients were obtained from steady-state data using averaged reactor data and by using all data (22 points for each reactor). As expected, the PACT reactors resulted in a substantial reduction in the effluent concentration of non-biodegradable total organic carbon. The Monod equation's half-saturation coefficient (Ks) was reduced significantly in the PACT reactors, resulting in higher growth rates at lower concentrations. The maximum specific substrate utilization (qm) rate was also reduced about 25% using the averaged data and remained unchanged using all the data. The substrate utilization values are affected by errors in biomass determination and more research is needed to accurately determine biomass. PMID:26613352

  11. Coefficient of tangential restitution for viscoelastic spheres.

    PubMed

    Schwager, T; Becker, V; Pöschel, T

    2008-09-01

    The collision of frictional granular particles may be described by an interaction force whose normal component is that of viscoelastic spheres while the tangential part is described by the model by Cundall and Strack (Géotechnique 29, 47 (1979)) being the most popular tangential collision model in Molecular Dynamics simulations. Albeit being a rather complicated model, governed by 5 phenomenological parameters and 2 independent initial conditions, we find that it is described by 3 independent parameters only. Surprisingly, in a wide range of parameters the corresponding coefficient of tangential restitution, epsilont, is well described by the simple Coulomb law with a cut-off at epsilont = 0. A more complex behavior of the coefficient of restitution as a function on the normal and tangential components of the impact velocity, gn and gt, including negative values of epsilont, is found only for very small ratio gt/gn. For the analysis presented here we neglect dissipation of the interaction in normal direction. PMID:18839235

  12. Coefficient of tangential restitution for viscoelastic spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwager, T.; Becker, V.; Pã¶Schel, T.

    2008-09-01

    The collision of frictional granular particles may be described by an interaction force whose normal component is that of viscoelastic spheres while the tangential part is described by the model by Cundall and Strack (Géotechnique 29, 47 (1979)) being the most popular tangential collision model in Molecular Dynamics simulations. Albeit being a rather complicated model, governed by 5 phenomenological parameters and 2 independent initial conditions, we find that it is described by 3 independent parameters only. Surprisingly, in a wide range of parameters the corresponding coefficient of tangential restitution, ɛt , is well described by the simple Coulomb law with a cut-off at ɛt = 0 . A more complex behavior of the coefficient of restitution as a function on the normal and tangential components of the impact velocity, gn and gt, including negative values of ɛt , is found only for very small ratio gt/gn . For the analysis presented here we neglect dissipation of the interaction in normal direction.

  13. On Varying-coefficient Independence Screening for High-dimensional Varying-coefficient Models

    PubMed Central

    Song, Rui; Yi, Feng; Zou, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Varying coefficient models have been widely used in longitudinal data analysis, nonlinear time series, survival analysis, and so on. They are natural non-parametric extensions of the classical linear models in many contexts, keeping good interpretability and allowing us to explore the dynamic nature of the model. Recently, penalized estimators have been used for fitting varying-coefficient models for high-dimensional data. In this paper, we propose a new computationally attractive algorithm called IVIS for fitting varying-coefficient models in ultra-high dimensions. The algorithm first fits a gSCAD penalized varying-coefficient model using a subset of covariates selected by a new varying-coefficient independence screening (VIS) technique. The sure screening property is established for VIS. The proposed algorithm then iterates between a greedy conditional VIS step and a gSCAD penalized fitting step. Simulation and a real data analysis demonstrate that IVIS has very competitive performance for moderate sample size and high dimension. PMID:25484548

  14. The solar Ly-alpha line profile

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, Thomas N.; Rottman, Gary J.; White, O. R.; Fontenla, Juan; Avrett, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    Solar Ly-alpha irradiance measurements from the SOLar STellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) have been made since 1991 October with a spectral resolution of 0.1 nm. The uniqueness of the small molecular oxygen cross section near Ly-alpha permits the Ly-alpha radiation to penetrate much deeper into the atmosphere than the other emissions near Ly-alpha. We have taken advantage of this phenomenon by performing solar occultation experiments near the Ly-alpha to evaluate precisely the instrument scattered light contribution. After correcting for scattered light, the broad wings of the solar Ly-alpha line can be extracted out to 5 nm from line center with a typical accuracy of +/-20%. The variability in the Ly-alpha wings near 2 nm from line center is about one-half that of the Ly-alpha core emission, defined within 0.1 nm from line center. These Ly-alpha profile measurements are found to be consistent with the Skylab radiance measurements and theoretical models of the Ly-alpha line profiles computed using partial redistribution of photons in the source function.

  15. alpha,alpha-Difluoro-beta-aminodeoxystatine-containing renin inhibitory peptides.

    PubMed

    Thaisrivongs, S; Schostarez, H J; Pals, D T; Turner, S R

    1987-10-01

    The preparations of sodium 4(S)-[(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)amino]-2,2-difluoro-3(S)- and -3(R)-[(4-methoxyphenyl)amino]-6-methylheptanoates (7a and 7b) from sodium 4(S)-[(tert-butyloxycarbonyl)amino]-2,2-difluoro-3(R)- and -3(S)-hydroxy-6-methylheptanoates (1a and 1b) are described. The key step involves the stereospecific intramolecular displacement via a Mitsunobu reaction for the conversion of a beta-hydroxy hydroxamate to a beta-lactam ring. Compounds 7a and 7b are useful as synthetic intermediates for the preparation of enzyme inhibitors that contain 3(S),4(S)- and 3(R),4(S)-diamino-2,2-difluoro-6-methylheptanoic acid inserts. Angiotensinogen analogues VII and VIII that contain these novel amino analogues of difluorostatine were shown to be inhibitors of the enzyme renin. The alpha,alpha-difluoro-beta-aminodeoxystatine-containing compounds were shown to be weaker inhibitors than the corresponding difluorostatine-containing congeners. PMID:3309315

  16. Trace-Element Diffusion Coefficients in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandler, C.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2006-12-01

    We have undertaken chemical diffusion experiments at 1300°C to determine both crystal/melt partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients for a wide range of trace elements in forsteritic olivine. Experiments were conducted at 1 atm under controlled fO2 for up to 25 days using synthetic melts made to a composition in equilibrium with olivine for major elements, and doped with selected trace elements. The melt was put into a 5 mm diameter cylindrical hole in gem quality San Carlos olivine crystals drilled paralell to the a axis. Diffusion profiles were obtained both for trace elements that were added to the starting material and diffuse into the olivine, and also for several trace elements present at natural abundances in the olivine that diffuse out. The profiles were measured across sections perpendicular to crystal/melt boundary at a variety of crystallographic orientations (confirmed by EBSD) by laser-ablation ICP-MS. A thin laser slit oriented parallel to the crystal/melt interface was traversed from the melt through the crystal. Element concentrations were fitted to the diffusion equation to obtain both diffusion coefficients and concentrations at the crystal/melt interface, and hence partition coefficients. Calculated diffusivities for many trace elements (Ca, REE, Y, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, Na, Li, Be, Ti) are relatively fast (D = 10-16 to 10^{-13 m2/s at 1300°C). The diffusion of Li in olivine (approx. D = 10^{-15} m2/s) is only slightly slower than REEs and similar to divalent cations, in good agreement with inferences from zoning profiles in natural olivine [1]. This rate is considerably slower than for plagioclase and clinopyroxene [2], a result which has important implications for interpreting Li isotopic data from mantle-derived rocks. The fastest diffusing trace element we observe is Be. Applying our diffusion and partition coefficients to the model of Qin et al. [3], we calculate that the REEs of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the mantle will extensively re-equilibrate with external magma in weeks (heavy REEs) to a few years (light REEs). These timescales are significantly shorter than the times estimated for the production and extraction of magma from the mantle or magma residence in the lower crust, implying anomalous melt inclusions are probably not a direct result of melting of heterogeneities in the mantle. Instead, anomalous melt inclusions likely form by assimilation processes shortly before eruption [4] and so may be useful monitors of such processes. Refs: [1] Parkinson et al., Abstract, Goldschmidt Conference 2006; [2] Coogan et al., EPSL 240, 415-424 (2005); [3] Qin et al. Am. Min. 77, 565-576 (1992); [4] Danyushevsky et al., J. Petrol. 45, 2531-2553 (2004).

  17. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.

    1996-05-07

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.

  18. Targeted alpha therapy for cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John

    2004-08-01

    Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human patients are effective in regressing melanomas, with no concomitant complications. These results point to the application of local and systemic TAT in the management of secondary cancer. Results of the phase 1 clinical trial of TAT of subcutaneous, secondary melanoma indicate proof of the principle that TAT can make tumours in patients regress.

  19. High gas flow alpha detector

    DOEpatents

    Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM); Bounds, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Rawool-Sullivan, Mohini W. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors.

  20. Alpha Channeling in Mirror Machines

    SciTech Connect

    Fisch, N. J.

    2006-12-01

    The injection of radio frequency waves can cool charged particles trapped in a magnetic mirror. This cooling effect relies upon waves with azimuthal and axial phase velocities resonating with ions in different axial locations. The ions are then forced to diffuse along highly constrained orbits, such that they can only exit the magnetic trap at low energy. This cooling effect may have application to magnetic fusion mirror machines, where the free energy of the fusion by-products, the {alpha} particles, might be channeled into the waves that effect the cooling, thereby both extracting the fusion ash quickly and making that energy available in a convenient form for more useful purposes.

  1. Alpha channeling in mirror machines.

    PubMed

    Fisch, N J

    2006-12-01

    The injection of radio frequency waves can cool charged particles trapped in a magnetic mirror. This cooling effect relies upon waves with azimuthal and axial phase velocities resonating with ions in different axial locations. The ions are then forced to diffuse along highly constrained orbits, such that they can only exit the magnetic trap at low energy. This cooling effect may have application to magnetic fusion mirror machines, where the free energy of the fusion by-products, the alpha particles, might be channeled into the waves that effect the cooling, thereby both extracting the fusion ash quickly and making that energy available in a convenient form for more useful purposes. PMID:17155807

  2. On the analysis of the H Lyman-alpha dayglow of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emerich, C.; Ben Jaffel, L.; Prange, R.

    1993-05-01

    A new radiative transfer model, particularly well adapted to calculations in inhomogeneous atmospheres, has been applied, during the last four years, to analyze new and older Lyman-alpha airglow data from three giant planets. We review all the results obtained so far. Several features which were not accounted for by using the previous transfer codes were satisfactorily simulated, using essentially the scattering of the solar and the interplanetary Lyman-alpha lines by hydrogen in the upper atmospheres. The search for a good fit both in intensity and in shape of the limb to limb data, and/or of the line profiles, provided constraints on the dynamics of the atmospheres, through the estimate of either the eddy diffusion coefficient, the total H column density, or of the possibility of some nonthermal turbulence processes at high altitude. Consequently, the need for an 'electroglow' process for the Lyman-alpha emission was considerably reduced and may be dismissed in the majority of cases.

  3. A new coefficient of concordance with applications to biosignal analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weichao; Chen, Zhaoguo; Liu, Wenqing

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we propose a novel concordance coefficients called Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients based on order statistics and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. For comparison, we also construct other three similar index based on Average Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Kendall's Concordance Coefficients, Average Kendall's tau. We propose Multivariate Normal Model to estimate the correlation coefficient, Linear Model and Nonlinear Model to model the linear and nonlinear association between multichannel signals, And we also apply the concordance coefficients to biosignal analysis developed a new organizational index for quantifying organization of AF. Statistical evidences suggest that (a) Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients have better robust than other three index; (b) capable of distinguishing fibrillatory rhythms from nonfibrillatory rhythms, such as Atiral flutter; (c) can reflect the effectiveness of adenosine, a drug commonly used during electrophysiological procedures; and (d) perform better than other three concordance coefficients.

  4. Systematics of Alpha-Capture Reactions and Alpha-Optical Potentials for the p Process

    SciTech Connect

    Demetriou, P.; Lagoyannis, A.; Spyrou, A.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Axiotis, M.; Harissopulos, S.; Becker, H. W.

    2009-01-28

    Systematic cross section measurements of alpha-capture reactions at sub-Coulomb energies relevant to the p process were performed in the Ge-Sn region. At the same time a recent global {alpha}-nucleus optical model potential (OMP) based on the double-folding method was updated using all existing data on alpha elastic scattering and alpha-induced reactions. In this paper, we report on our recent measurements of alpha-capture reactions and present calculations using the improved alpha-nucleus OMP.

  5. Pharmacological effects of ephedrine alkaloids on human alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Guoyi; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Davis, Yolande M; Lalchandani, Shilpa G; Nagmani, Rangaswamy; Schaneberg, Brian T; Khan, Ikhlas A; Feller, Dennis R

    2007-07-01

    Ephedra species of plants have both beneficial and adverse effects primarily associated with the presence of ephedrine alkaloids. Few reports have appeared that examine the direct actions of ephedrine alkaloids on human subtypes of adrenergic receptors (ARs). In the present study, ephedrine alkaloids were evaluated for their binding affinities on human alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-, alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, and alpha(2C)-AR subtypes expressed in HEK and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cell-based reporter gene assays were used to establish functional activity of ephedrine alkaloids at alpha(1A)-, alpha(2A)-, and alpha(2C)-ARs. The data showed that ephedrine alkaloids did not activate alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-ARs and that they antagonized the agonist-mediated effects of phenylephrine and medetomidine on alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-ARs, respectively. As in the binding studies, 1R,2R- and 1R,2S-ephedrine showed greater functional antagonist activity than the 1S,2R- and 1S,2S-isomers. The rank order of affinity for the isomers was 1R,2R > 1R,2S > 1S,2R > 1S,2S. The rank order of potencies of alkaloids containing a 1R,2S-configuration was norephedrine > or = ephedrine > N-methylephedrine. These studies have demonstrated that orientation of the beta-hydroxyl group on the ethylamino side chain and the state of N-methyl substitution are important for alpha-AR binding and functional activity of the ephedrine alkaloids. In conclusion, the ephedrine isomers and analogs studied did not exhibit any direct agonist activity and were found to possess moderate antagonist activities on cloned human alpha-ARs. The blockade of presynaptic alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-ARs may have a pharmacological role in the direct actions of Ephedra alkaloids. PMID:17405867

  6. The large coefficient problem; can we make sense out of QCD perturbation theory

    SciTech Connect

    West, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    There is the possibility of an impending crisis looming on the horizon for QCD. The problem is that in many processes, large coefficients arise in the perturbation series expansion leading to serious uncertainties concerning its predictive power. Until recently most of the examples of such a phenomenon occurred in the calculation of decay rates. These were, by and large, either ignored or dismissed using possible scheme-dependence arguments as a way out. However, more recently a calculation of the 3-loop contribution to the total e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross-section was performed which gave an enormous coefficient of the order of 50 times that of the 2-loop term. If correct, this would imply that the 3-loop contribution actually exceeds that of the 2-loop Thus, from a conservative viewpoint, the validity of the perturbation series expansion as an estimate for the total e{sup +}e{sup -} cross-section is called into question. Since this process has played a key role in the development and understanding of QCD and since, in many ways, it is one of the cleanest methods for extracting {alpha}{sub s} the problem can no longer be avoided. Furthermore, there is no reason to doubt that this problem should occur in all physical processes. Coming to grips with it is, of course, not only important for testing QCD but also for extracting fundamental quantities such as {alpha}{sub s}. Clearly one needs to understand the nature and origin of such large coefficients before one can confidently continue to use perturbative estimates. The purpose of this talk is to focus on these problems. I shall first review the experimental situation with some examples illustrating the problem. I shall then discuss various general components and properties of perturbation theory before attempting to give a possible resolution of the problem. 18 refs., 5 figs.

  7. A new method for evaluating radon and thoron alpha-activities per unit volume inside and outside various natural material samples by calculating SSNTD detection efficiencies for the emitted alpha-particles and measuring the resulting track densities.

    PubMed

    Misdaq, M A; Aitnouh, F; Khajmi, H; Ezzahery, H; Berrazzouk, S

    2001-08-01

    A Monte Carlo computer code for determining detection efficiencies of the CR-39 and LR-115 II solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) for alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series inside different natural material samples was developed. The influence of the alpha-particle initial energy on the SSNTD detection efficiencies was investigated. Radon (222Rn) and thoron (220Rn) alpha-activities per unit volume were evaluated inside and outside the natural material samples by exploiting data obtained for the detection efficiencies of the SSNTD utilized for the emitted alpha-particles, and measuring the resulting track densities. Results obtained were compared to those obtained by other methods. Radon emanation coefficients have been determined for some of the considered material samples. PMID:11393761

  8. Condensation heat transfer coefficient versus wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roudgar, M.; De Coninck, J.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we show how condensation on substrates can induce wetting behavior that is quite different from that of deposited or impinging drops. We describe surfaces with the same wettability in ambient conditions presenting different wetting behavior and growth of droplets in condensation. The experimental results show a rapid spread of droplets and formation of the film on the copper surface, while droplets on SU-8 surface remains on the regular shape while they grow within the time, without coalescence, as observed for Cu. Although the heat conductivity of SU-8 is much lower, due to a difference in wetting behavior, the heat transfer coefficient (h) is higher for dropwise condensation on Cu with a thin layer of SU-8 than filmwise on the bare copper.

  9. Asymptotic normalization coefficients and radiative widths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pang, D. Y.

    2015-07-01

    The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) is an important quantity in the calculation of radiative width amplitudes, providing limits on the radiative width. Here we present some examples showing the connection between the ANC and radiative width. In particular, the radiative width of the E 1 transition 17F(1 /2-,Ex=3.104 MeV ) to 17F(1 /2+,Ex=0.495 MeV ) reported by Rolfs [Nucl. Phys. A 217, 29 (1973), 10.1016/0375-9474(73)90622-2] is (1.2 ±0.2 ) ×10-2 eV. Meanwhile the ANC for the first excited state in 17F puts a lower limit on the radiative width, which is (3.4 ±0.50 ) ×10-2 eV. Such a strong disagreement between the measured radiative width and the lower limit imposed by the ANC calls for a new measurement of this radiative width. Other examples are also considered.

  10. Implicit Extrapolation Methods for Variable Coefficient Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, M.; Ruede, U.

    1996-01-01

    Implicit extrapolation methods for the solution of partial differential equations are based on applying the extrapolation principle indirectly. Multigrid tau-extrapolation is a special case of this idea. In the context of multilevel finite element methods, an algorithm of this type can be used to raise the approximation order, even when the meshes are nonuniform or locally refined. Here previous results are generalized to the variable coefficient case and thus become applicable for nonlinear problems. The implicit extrapolation multigrid algorithm converges to the solution of a higher order finite element system. This is obtained without explicitly constructing higher order stiffness matrices but by applying extrapolation in a natural form within the algorithm. The algorithm requires only a small change of a basic low order multigrid method.

  11. Transport Coefficients in weakly compressible turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubinstein, Robert; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    A theory of transport coefficients in weakly compressible turbulence is derived by applying Yoshizawa's two-scale direct interaction approximation to the compressible equations of motion linearized about a state of incompressible turbulence. The result is a generalization of the eddy viscosity representation of incompressible turbulence. In addition to the usual incompressible eddy viscosity, the calculation generates eddy diffusivities for entropy and pressure, and an effective bulk viscosity acting on the mean flow. The compressible fluctuations also generate an effective turbulent mean pressure and corrections to the speed of sound. Finally, a prediction unique to Yoshizawa's two-scale approximation is that terms containing gradients of incompressible turbulence quantities also appear in the mean flow equations. The form these terms take is described.

  12. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  13. Effective Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Coefficient Alignment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ching-Yu; Wang, Wen-Fong

    2016-03-01

    This study presents two types of data hiding methods based on coefficient alignment for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, namely, lossy and reversible ECG steganographys. The lossy method is divided into high-quality and high-capacity ECG steganography, both of which are capable of hiding confidential patient data in ECG signals. The reversible data hiding method can not only hide secret messages but also completely restore the original ECG signal after bit extraction. Simulations confirmed that the perceived quality generated by the lossy ECG steganography methods was good, while hiding capacity was acceptable. In addition, these methods have a certain degree of robustness, which is rare in conventional ECG stegangraphy schemes. Moreover, the proposed reversible ECG steganography method can not only successfully extract hidden messages but also completely recover the original ECG data. PMID:26711443

  14. Partition Coefficients at High Pressure and Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Drake, M. J.

    2003-12-01

    Differentiation of terrestrial planets includes separation of a metallic core and possible later fractionation of mineral phases within either a solid or molten mantle (Figure 1). Lithophile and siderophile elements can be used to understand these two different physical processes, and ascertain whether they operated in the early Earth. The distribution of elements in planets can be understood by measuring the partition coefficient, D (ratio of concentrations of an element in different phases (minerals, metals, or melts)). (14K)Figure 1. Schematic cross-section through the Earth, showing: (a) an early magma ocean stage and (b) a later cool and differentiated stage. The siderophile elements (iron-loving) encompass over 30 elements and are defined as those elements for which D(metal/silicate)>1, and are useful for deciphering the details of core formation. This group of elements is commonly broken up into several subclasses, including the slightly siderophile elements (1104). Because these three groups encompass a wide range of partition coefficient values, they can be very useful in trying to determine the conditions under which metal may have equilibrated with the mantle (or a magma ocean). Because metal and silicate may equilibrate by several different mechanisms, such as at the base of a deep magma ocean, or as metal droplets descend through a molten mantle, partition coefficients can potentially shed light on which mechanism may be most important, thus linking the physics and chemistry of core formation. In this chapter, we summarize metal/silicate partitioning of siderophile elements and show how they may be used to understand planetary core formation.Once a planet is differentiated into core and mantle, a mantle will cool during convection, and can start in either a molten or solid state, depending upon the initial thermal conditions. If hot enough, minerals will crystallize from a molten mantle, and become entrained in the convecting melt, or eventually settle out at the bottom. The entrainment and settling process has been studied in detail (e.g., Tonks and Melosh, 1990), and is a potential mechanism for differentiation between the deep and shallow parts of Earth's mantle. The lithophile elements, those elements that have D(metal/silicate) <1, fall into many different subclasses and all hold information about the deep mineral structure of the mantle. Rare-earth elements (REEs) have proven to be useful: europium anomalies have helped elucidate the role of plagioclase in lunar crust formation (e.g., Schnetzler and Philpotts, 1971; Weill et al., 1974), and LREE/HREE depletion and enrichment are indicators of partial melting in the presence of garnet in the mantle. High-field-strength elements (HFSEs) - niobium, zirconium, tantalum, and hafnium - are all refractory and hence more resilient to fractionation processes such as volatility or condensation. They also have an affinity for ilmenite and rutile, and can explain differences between lunar and martian samples as well as features of Earth's continental crust ( Taylor and McLennan, 1985). Alkaline-earth and alkaline elements include rubidium, strontium, barium, potassium, caesium, and calcium, some of which are involved in radioactive decay couples, e.g., Rb-Sr and K-Ar. The latter is important in understanding the contribution of radioactive decay to planetary heat production, and potential deep sources of radiogenic argon (see Chapter 2.06). Rubidium and potassium are further useful as tracers of hydrous phases such as mica and amphibole. Possible fractionation of any of these elements from chondritic abundances (see Chapter 2.01) can be assessed with the knowledge of partition coefficients. In this chapter we summarize our understanding of mineral/melt fractionation of minor and trace elements at high pressures and temperatures and discuss the implications for mantle differentiation.

  15. Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.

    2012-01-01

    Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/.

  16. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, Gregory K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Martz, Dowell E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1989-01-01

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.

  17. Beta/alpha continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.

    1988-06-27

    A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.

  18. Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H

    1996-01-01

    alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570

  19. Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Zweben, S.J.

    1987-05-01

    TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.

  20. COMPARISON OF TELEPHOTOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF EXTINCTION COEFFICIENTS WITH SCATTERING AND ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the summer of 1979, coefficients for light extinction in the atmosphere were calculated from measurements made with a telephotometer placed 251 m from a black target in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The results are well correlated (r = 0.92 to 0.96) with integrat...

  1. Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

  2. Sedimentation Coefficient, Frictional Coefficient, and Molecular Weight: A Preparative Ultracentrifuge Experiment for the Advanced Undergraduate Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…

  3. Recovering DC coefficients in block-based DCT.

    PubMed

    Uehara, Takeyuki; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh; Ogunbona, Philip

    2006-11-01

    It is a common approach for JPEG and MPEG encryption systems to provide higher protection for dc coefficients and less protection for ac coefficients. Some authors have employed a cryptographic encryption algorithm for the dc coefficients and left the ac coefficients to techniques based on random permutation lists which are known to be weak against known-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. In this paper we show that in block-based DCT, it is possible to recover dc coefficients from ac coefficients with reasonable image quality and show the insecurity of image encryption methods which rely on the encryption of dc values using a cryptoalgorithm. The method proposed in this paper combines dc recovery from ac coefficients and the fact that ac coefficients can be recovered using a chosen ciphertext attack. We demonstrate that a method proposed by Tang to encrypt and decrypt MPEG video can be completely broken. PMID:17076416

  4. The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trafimow, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.

  5. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Persian Adaptation of Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid

    2010-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…

  6. (De)Motivation in Preparatory EFL Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva; Ayan, Hatice Ç.

    2015-01-01

    This survey study aimed to explore EFL learners' (de)motivation in the preparatory classes at a tertiary institution in Northern Cyprus. It administered questionnaires to 105 preparatory learners and 30 language teachers. The statistical analysis revealed the Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.88 for the Learners' version, and 0.89 for…

  7. The Validation of a Food Label Literacy Questionnaire for Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Jesse S.; Treu, Judith A.; Njike, Valentine; Walker, Jennifer; Smith, Erica; Katz, Catherine S.; Katz, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the reliability and validity of a 10-item questionnaire, the Food Label Literacy for Applied Nutrition Knowledge questionnaire. Methods: Participants were elementary school children exposed to a 90-minute school-based nutrition program. Reliability was assessed via Cronbach alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient

  8. The Effect of Music on the Test Scores of the Students in Limits and Derivatives Subject in the Mathematics Exams Done with Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz

    2012-01-01

    In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Persian Adaptation of Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid

    2010-01-01

    Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…

  10. An Update on the Internal Consistency of the Manifest Needs Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chusmir, Leonard H.

    1988-01-01

    Calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients for five recent studies (N=1,723) which used the Manifest Needs Questionnaire (MNQ) to measure needs for achievement, autonomy, affiliation, and dominance. Results showed acceptable levels of internal consistency for achievement and dominance needs. Found support for autonomy and affiliation needs with some…

  11. Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…

  12. Age Band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition: Exploring Its Usefulness in Mainland China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hua, Jing; Gu, Guixiong; Meng, Wei; Wu, Zhuochun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the validity and reliability of age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) in preparation for its standardization in mainland China. Interrater and test-retest reliability of the MABC-2 was estimated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Cronbach's alpha for…

  13. Probability density of the empirical wavelet coefficients of a noisy chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    We are interested in the random empirical wavelet coefficients of a noisy signal when this signal is a unidimensional or multidimensional chaos. More precisely we provide an expression of the conditional probability density of such coefficients, given a discrete observation grid. The noise is assumed to be described by a symmetric alpha-stable random variable. If the noise is a dynamic noise, then we present the exact expression of the probability density of each wavelet coefficient of the noisy signal. If we face a measurement noise, then the noise has a non-linear influence and we propose two approximations. The first one relies on a Taylor expansion whereas the second one, relying on an Edgeworth expansion, improves the first general Taylor approximation if the cumulants of the noise are defined. We give some illustrations of these theoretical results for the logistic map, the tent map and a multidimensional chaos, the Hénon map, disrupted by a Gaussian or a Cauchy noise.

  14. A model for the disc Lyman alpha emission of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben Jaffel, L.; Prange, R.; Emerich, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Mcconnell, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    A new efficient radiative transfer algorithm for nonhomogeneous model atmospheres has been applied to the Uranian atmosphere. The contribution of the scatter solar Lyman-alpha to the Uranain emission is of the order of 300 R, and the Rayleigh contribution may reach 450 R for small values of the eddy diffusion coefficient (EDC). The total solar contribution may then reach about 750 R for a solar flux of 2.5 x 10 to the 11th photons/sq cm/s/A. A level of up to 400 R is confirmed in some directions for the interstellar wind contribution. The values of the atmospheric EDC necessary to mimic the observations are 50-100 sq cm/s. A small additional source located on the dayside Uranian atmosphere seems necessary correctly to fit the shape of the limb to limb intensity variation, especially near the limbs. Its contribution to the emergent intensity would range from 100 to 500 R.

  15. Mathematical model of an air-filled alpha stirling refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, Patrick; Semperlotti, Fabio; Sen, Mihir

    2013-10-01

    This work develops a mathematical model for an alpha Stirling refrigerator with air as the working fluid and will be useful in optimizing the mechanical design of these machines. Two pistons cyclically compress and expand air while moving sinusoidally in separate chambers connected by a regenerator, thus creating a temperature difference across the system. A complete non-linear mathematical model of the machine, including air thermodynamics, and heat transfer from the walls, as well as heat transfer and fluid resistance in the regenerator, is developed. Non-dimensional groups are derived, and the mathematical model is numerically solved. The heat transfer and work are found for both chambers, and the coefficient of performance of each chamber is calculated. Important design parameters are varied and their effect on refrigerator performance determined. This sensitivity analysis, which shows what the significant parameters are, is a useful tool for the design of practical Stirling refrigeration systems.

  16. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10300 - Benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester. 721.10300 Section 721.10300 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....-phenyl-, ethyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as benzeneacetic acid, .alpha.-chloro-.alpha.-phenyl-, ethyl ester (PMN...

  19. Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…

  20. On Estimation and Hypothesis Testing Problems for Correlation Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraemer, Helena Chmura

    1975-01-01

    A selection of statistical problems commonly encountered in psychological or psychiatric research concerning correlation coefficients are re-evaluated in the light of recently developed simplifications in the forms of the distribution theory of the intraclass correlation coefficient, of the product-moment correlation coefficient, and the Spearman…

  1. An Ordinal Coefficient of Relational Agreement for Multiple Judges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagot, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A previous paper proposed a generalized family of coefficients of relational agreement for multiple judges. It focused on the concept of empirically meaningful relationships. This paper presents an ordinal coefficient of relational agreement as a special case of the generalized family. The proposed ordinal coefficient encompasses other ordinal…

  2. Ballistic Coefficient Prediction for Resident Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, R.; Arora, N.; Vittaldev, V.; Gaylor, D.

    2012-09-01

    Recent improvements in atmospheric density modeling now provide more confidence in spacecraft ballistic coefficient (BC) estimations, which were previously corrupted by large errors in density. Without attitude knowledge, forecasting the true BC for accurate future state and uncertainty predictions remains elusive. In this paper, our objective is to improve this predictive capability for ballistic coefficients for Resident Space Objects (RSOs), thus improving the existing drag models and associated accuracy of the U.S. Space Object Catalog. To work towards this goal we implement a two-pronged strategy that includes elements of time series analysis and physics based simulations. State-of-the-art empirical time series prediction methods are applied and tested on BC time series in the context of both simulation data and actual data provided by the Air Force. An archive of simulated BC data is generated using custom 6DOF high fidelity simulations for RSOs using plate models for shapes. The simulator includes force and torque perturbations due to the nonspherical Earth, third-body perturbations, SRP, and atmospheric drag. The simulated BC profiles demonstrate significant variation over short time spans (due primarily to varying frontal areas), providing motivation to improve future BC estimation strategies. The 6DOF modeling is intended to provide a physics-based BC data set to complement the BC data set provided by the AF. For the ‘black-box' time series algorithms, a variety of approaches are considered, whereas two prediction models showed the most promising performance: a multi-tone harmonic model and an autoregressive (AR) model. Both the multi-tone harmonic model and the AR model are subjected to multiple levels of optimizations resulting in highly optimized final models that are tuned specifically with the 205 BC time series provided by the AF. Two versions of the AR model are developed based on the model prediction methodology. The second version of the AR model performs approximately as well as the optimized multi-tone model. The proposed algorithms automatically select the fitting function and duration of the fit span tuned for the best prediction performance based on past known data. The results demonstrate the ability to robustly and automatically fit real past BC data in order to predict forward for 1-10 days with improved accuracy. These improvements are mapped to position error predictions for typical satellites, demonstrating the utility of such predictions in the context of conjunction analysis and other catalog applications. The improved performance of the time series prediction algorithms applied to the physics-based simulated data suggests that the actual estimated BCs include other signatures.

  3. High-alpha space trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, L.M.; Ball, J.

    1997-01-01

    Vertically-landing Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) are the best hope of building a true {open_quotes}Space Truck{close_quotes} with current technology. Because they do not require a low angle-of-attack (AOA, or alpha) horizontal landing, they can be designed to operate exclusively at very high angles-of-attack. This offers savings in vehicle dry weight and complexity, which can be traded for significantly heavier payload, more ascent velocity, or extra design margin. The price for abandoning low angle-of-attack flight is reduced crossrange. To quantify the potential weight reduction, a trade study was performed to determine the relationship between a vehicle{close_quote}s maximum crossrange (angle-of-attack) and it{close_quote}s dry weight (payload margin). At the study conclusion, three vertically-landing (VL) vehicles provided multiple points on a payload weight vs. maximum crossrange curve, showing significant payload increases as crossrange is sacrificed. This is primarily the result of being able to simplify the structure, fly a cooler entry trajectory, and be aerodynamically stable through the entire flight. This reduces subsystem requirements and complexity, enhancing reliability. Further benefits are realized in reduced landing propellant requirements and simplifying or eliminating the {open_quotes}rotation{close_quotes} maneuver. This paper also suggests unique operability solutions that adapt high-alpha vehicles to traditional high-crossrange missions such as the polar {open_quotes}once-around{close_quotes} flight, and proposes a small scale drop-test program to prove the subsonic and landing portion of the flight envelope. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  5. Testing the Correlated Random Coefficient Model*

    PubMed Central

    Heckman, James J.; Schmierer, Daniel; Urzua, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    The recent literature on instrumental variables (IV) features models in which agents sort into treatment status on the basis of gains from treatment as well as on baseline-pretreatment levels. Components of the gains known to the agents and acted on by them may not be known by the observing economist. Such models are called correlated random coe cient models. Sorting on unobserved components of gains complicates the interpretation of what IV estimates. This paper examines testable implications of the hypothesis that agents do not sort into treatment based on gains. In it, we develop new tests to gauge the empirical relevance of the correlated random coe cient model to examine whether the additional complications associated with it are required. We examine the power of the proposed tests. We derive a new representation of the variance of the instrumental variable estimator for the correlated random coefficient model. We apply the methods in this paper to the prototypical empirical problem of estimating the return to schooling and nd evidence of sorting into schooling based on unobserved components of gains. PMID:21057649

  6. Radiation transport coefficients for degenerate plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Khalfaoui, A.H.; Bennaceur, D.

    1997-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of radiation heat conduction is presented for dense plasma at very high temperature. The main objective is to correctly evaluate radiation transport coefficients, and thereby to determine the relative importance of conductive opacity and radiative opacity. Here, the latter is related to the radiative mean free path and therefore to the Rosseland mean opacity. The electron conduction opacity, however, is calculated through a quantum collective approach, taking into account several plasma nonideality effects such as electron{endash}electron (e-e) collisions, dynamic shielding, electron degeneracy, and ion coupling. Opacity ratios are determined as functions of the degree of the plasma degeneracy and coupling strength, hence identifying plasma conditions for which radiation heat conduction should be evaluated with care. A comparison with existing models is also presented. It is shown that, over a wide range of density and temperature, the conductive opacity can be very important and cannot be neglected in radiation physics. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg’s slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg’s slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Findings Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. Conclusions The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research. PMID:23902896

  8. First-principles calculations of flexoelectric coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jiawang; Vanderbilt, David

    2013-03-01

    Flexoelectricity, which is the linear response of polarization to a strain gradient, can have a significant effect on the functional properties of dielectric thin films, superlattices and nanostructures. Despite growing experimental interest, there have been relatively few theoretical studies of flexoelectricity, especially in the context of first-principles calculations. In this talk, we present a complete theory of both the electronic (or ``frozen-ion'')[1] and lattice contributions to flexoelectricity, and demonstrate a supercell method for calculating the flexoelectric coefficients using first-principles density-functional methods. Results are presented for cubic materials including CsCl and SrTiO3. In order to obtain all the elements of the flexoelectric tensor, transverse as well as longitudinal, we carry out calculations on supercells extended along different orientations (e.g., [110] as well as [100]), taking special care to carry out conversions between objects calculated under fixed E or fixed D electric boundary conditions in different parts of the procedure. In this way, all the elements of both the electronic and lattice contributions to the flexoelectric tensor are determined.

  9. Ghost imaging based on Pearson correlation coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Li, Long-Zhen; Zhai, Guang-Jie

    2015-05-01

    Correspondence imaging is a new modality of ghost imaging, which can retrieve a positive/negative image by simple conditional averaging of the reference frames that correspond to relatively large/small values of the total intensity measured at the bucket detector. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a more rigorous and general approach in which a ghost image is retrieved by calculating a Pearson correlation coefficient between the bucket detector intensity and the brightness at a given pixel of the reference frames, and at the next pixel, and so on. Furthermore, we theoretically provide a statistical interpretation of these two imaging phenomena, and explain how the error depends on the sample size and what kind of distribution the error obeys. According to our analysis, the image signal-to-noise ratio can be greatly improved and the sampling number reduced by means of our new method. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA122902).

  10. Backscatter Coefficient Estimation Using Tapers with Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Luchies, Adam C.; Oelze, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    When using the backscatter coefficient (BSC) to estimate quantitative ultrasound parameters such as the effective scatterer diameter (ESD) and the effective acoustic concentration (EAC), it is necessary to assume that the interrogated medium contains diffuse scatterers. Structures that invalidate this assumption can affect the estimated BSC parameters in terms of increased bias and variance and decrease performance when classifying disease. In this work, a method was developed to mitigate the effects of echoes from structures that invalidate the assumption of diffuse scattering, while preserving as much signal as possible for obtaining diffuse scatterer property estimates. Backscattered signal sections that contained nondiffuse signals were identified and a windowing technique was used to provide BSC estimates for diffuse echoes only. Experiments from physical phantoms were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed BSC estimation methods. Tradeoffs associated with effective mitigation of specular scatterers and bias and variance introduced into the estimates were quantified. Analysis of the results suggested that discrete prolate spheroidal (PR) tapers with gaps provided the best performance for minimizing BSC error. Specifically, the mean square error for BSC between measured and theoretical had an average value of approximately 1.0 and 0.2 when using a Hanning taper and PR taper respectively, with six gaps. The BSC error due to amplitude bias was smallest for PR (N? = 1) tapers. The BSC error due to shape bias was smallest for PR (N? = 4) tapers. These results suggest using different taper types for estimating ESD versus EAC. PMID:25189857

  11. Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.

    PubMed

    Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin

    2014-06-17

    Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482

  12. alpha-Synuclein at the synaptic gate.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Surmeier DJ

    2010-01-14

    Only doubling or tripling alpha-synuclein expression significantly increases the risk of developing Parkinson's disease. In this issue of Neuron, Nemani et al. show that this modest overexpression of alpha-synuclein does not lead to obvious toxicity in the near term, but impairs glutamate and dopamine release, potentially leading to broad network dysfunction and eventual pathology.

  13. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  14. Status of {alpha}{sub s} measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1993-05-05

    I review the current determinations of {alpha}{sub s}. Attention is given to the theoretical uncertainties inherent in most determinations. all current determinations are consistent with an average of {alpha}{sub s}(M{sub Z}) = 0.119{plus_minus}0.005. Prospects for reduction of the errors in the future are discussed.

  15. Elementary Processes Underlying Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    NM.J. Fisch

    2012-06-15

    Alpha channeling in tokamaks is speculative, but also extraordinarily attractive. Waves that can accomplish this effect have been identified. Key aspects of the theory now enjoy experimental confirmation. This paper will review the elementary processes of wave-particle interactions in plasma that underlie the alpha channeling effect

  16. 21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An...

  17. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  18. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.95 Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at...

  19. Measurement of alpha particles on PLT

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.; Strachan, J.D.

    1984-12-01

    The radial emission profile of the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction was measured on PLT by pitch angle resolution of the escaping 3.7-MeV alphas. The d-/sup 3/He reactions were produced by /sup 3/He minority ICRF and the emission was strongly peaked at the ICRF resonance layer.

  20. Determination of the Strong Coupling Alpha

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yuekuan

    An experimental determination of the strong coupling alpha_{s}, and Lambda_{overline{MS }}, the fundamental scale parameter of QCD, have been extracted from the differential jet rates of multi-hadronic final states in e^+e^ - annihilations using the AMY detector at TRISTAN. The theoretical predictions from Next-to-Leading-Logarithm (NLL) Parton-Shower QCD calculations are compared to the data. The use of NLL allows one to fix the QCD scale parameter, which significantly reduces the systematic effects associated with the choice of a renormalization scale. The precision of previous extractions of alpha_ {s} based on second-order Matrix Element calculations have been severely limited by renormalization scale uncertainties. Using a NLL calculation we obtain alpha_{s}(M _{rm Z}) = 0.119 +/- 0.006 (total error) and its corresponding Lambda{(5)over MS} is 240 +/- _sp{65 }{80} MeV (total error). Systematic errors due to fragmentation and jet-clustering schemes are discussed. Comparisons are made to values of alpha_{s} derived from other measurements, and the running nature of the strong coupling is demonstrated at different energies by the energy dependence of alpha_{s}.

  1. 27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.95 Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at...

  2. Permeation study of five formulations of alpha-tocopherol acetate through human cadaver skin.

    PubMed

    Mahamongkol, Hansa; Bellantone, Robert A; Stagni, Grazia; Plakogiannis, Fotios M

    2005-01-01

    Alpha-tocopherol (AT) is the vitamin E homologue with the highest in vivo biological activity. AT protects against the carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of ionizing radiation and chemical agents, and possibly against UV-induced cutaneous damage. For stability consideration, alpha-tocopherol is usually used as its prodrug ester, alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA), which once absorbed into the skin is hydrolyzed to alpha-tocopherol, the active form. The objective of this research was to characterize in vitro the permeation properties of ATA from various solutions and gel formulations. Permeation studies were conducted using modified Franz diffusion cells and human cadaver skin as the membrane. Specifically, 5% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol acetate was formulated in the following vehicles: ethanol, isopropyl myristate, light mineral oil, 1% Klucel gel in ethanol, and 3% Klucel gel in ethanol (w/w). The receiver temperature was 37 degrees C. Samples from the receiver were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours and analyzed by HPLC for concentrations of alpha-tocopherol acetate and alpha-tocopherol. The permeabilities of ATA through human cadaver skin were 1.0x10(-4), 1.1x10(-2), 1.4x10(-4), 2.1x10(-4), and 4.7x10(-4) cm/h for the ethanol solution, isopropyl myristate solution, light mineral oil solution, 1% Klucel gel, and 3% Klucel gel, respectively. The results show that the formulation had relatively minor effects on the permeability coefficients of ATA through cadaver skin in all cases except for the isopropyl myristate solution. PMID:15868062

  3. Rotational Raman lidar for obtaining aerosol scattering coefficients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dukhyeon; Cha, Hyungki

    2005-07-01

    Two-channel lidar signals that are composed of total rotational scattering and elastic signals provide good information about aerosol scattering coefficients. We can calculate the aerosol backscattering coefficient and extinction coefficient directly, without making any assumption or calibration. Generally, a high-spectral-resolution lidar is used for aerosol monitoring, but we have designed a new low-spectral-resolution lidar system that contains both kinds of scattering information simultaneously, and we have retrieved the aerosol scattering coefficient. The results show that there is no need to assume any relation between aerosol backscattering and extinction or to consider any wavelength calibration to determine the aerosol scattering coefficient. PMID:16075552

  4. The alpha-chain-termination mutants and their relation to the alpha-thalassaemias.

    PubMed

    Weatherall, D J; Clegg, J B

    1975-08-01

    The structure, synthesis, genetic transmission, clinical associations and distribution of the elongated alpha-chain haemoglobin variants has been described. The data indicate that the most likely molecular basis for these common abnormal haemoglobins is a single base substitution in the alpha-chain termination codon. Because these variants are produced inefficiently they give rise to the clinical picture of alpha-thalassaemia. When these findings are taken together with recent work regarding the molecular basis for other forms of alpha-thalassaemia it is possible to build up a fairly complete picture of the molecular pathology of the alpha-thalassaemias. PMID:240178

  5. TFTR alpha extraction and measurement project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdin, G. A.; Wehring, B. W.

    1983-09-01

    A passive approach to the extraction and measurement of alpha particles from Tokamak fusion reactors is analyzed and the construction and preliminary results of a fast data-acquisition system are described. The passive approach is the converter foil concept whereby alphas leaving the plasma on large banana orbits strike carbon foils which slow down to around 0.5 MeV. At this energy a sizeable fraction of the alphas are neutral and hence can be analyzed by methods similar to those used in charge-exchange neutral detectors. Alpha loss orbits in TFTR, the thermal and particle flux to the foil on the TFTR edge, and the limitations in detector location caused by radiation are analyzed. The fast data-acquisition system, which operates in the pulse-height-analysis (PHA) mode to discriminate against low-energy background radiation, consists of an alpha detector, a commercial preamplifier, a fast PHA module (built-in house) and an inexpensive microcomputer.

  6. An Alpha Schottky Junction Power Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litz, Marc; Carroll, James; Henriquez, Stan

    2011-10-01

    Isotope batteries present solutions for long-lived low power sources. Compact sensors, and electronic circuit boards can be powered for the lifetime of infrastructure. Alpha sources are practical for safety reasons because of the limited distance before energy absorption in materials, and the high energy (~5MeV) per particle. Damage to materials from the alphas limits the practical use. A Schottky diode geometry is created from an alpha foil on a diamond-like crystal. A power source is proposed that takes advantage of the radiation damage tolerance of diamond, combined with the short range of the alpha radiation. The internal field of the Schottky barrier creates a current through the diode from electron-hole pairs created by alpha bombardment in the gap. Calculations of the expected current, circuit model results, and design parameters for a device are described.

  7. Microbial transformations of alpha-santonin.

    PubMed

    Ata, Athar; Nachtigall, Jason A

    2004-01-01

    Fungal biotransformations of alpha-santonin (1) were conducted with Mucor plumbeus (ATCC 4740), Cunninghamella bainieri (ATCC 9244), Cunninghamella echinulata (ATCC 9245), Curvularia lunata (ATCC 12017) and Rhizopus stolonifer (ATCC 10404). Rhizopus stolonifer (ATCC 10404) metabolized compound 1 to afford 3,4-epoxy-alpha-santonin (2) and 4,5-dihydro-alpha-santonin (3) while Cunninghamella bainieri (ATCC 9244), Cunninghamella echinulata (ATCC 9245) and Mucor plumbeus (ATCC 4740) were capable of metabolizing compound 1 to give a reported metabolite, 1,2-dihydro-alpha-santonin (4). The structures of these transformed metabolites were established with the aid of extensive spectroscopic studies. These fungi regiospecifically reduced the carbon-carbon double bond in ring A of alpha-santonin. PMID:15241928

  8. Improved peak shape fitting in alpha spectra.

    PubMed

    Pommé, S; Caro Marroyo, B

    2015-02-01

    Peak overlap is a recurrent issue in alpha-particle spectrometry, not only in routine analyses but also in the high-resolution spectra from which reference values for alpha emission probabilities are derived. In this work, improved peak shape formulae are presented for the deconvolution of alpha-particle spectra. They have been implemented as fit functions in a spreadsheet application and optimum fit parameters were searched with built-in optimisation routines. Deconvolution results are shown for a few challenging spectra with high statistical precision. The algorithm outperforms the best available routines for high-resolution spectrometry, which may facilitate a more reliable determination of alpha emission probabilities in the future. It is also applicable to alpha spectra with inferior energy resolution. PMID:25497323

  9. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic-weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 9. Air-drop instrumentation. Part 2. Teller-alpha

    SciTech Connect

    Grier, H.E.

    1985-09-01

    It was the purpose of the Teller-Alpha experiment to measure the coefficient alpha by means of detectors placed a long distance from the bomb. The detectors are photoelectric devices that respond to visible light produced in the air surrounding the bomb by the absorbed gamma rays. A measurement of this sort was proposed by Edward Teller prior to the Sandstone Operation. The main components of the Teller-Alpha equipment were the photohead, the 200-Mc timing oscillator, and the high-speed-sensitivity recoding oscilloscope. A complete discussion of the experiment is provided.

  10. Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase

    SciTech Connect

    Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.

  11. Ab initio alpha–alpha scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon–oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha–alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons.

  12. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  13. Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.

    2009-11-01

    We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.

  14. Surface diffusion coefficients for room acoustics: free-field measures.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, T J; Cox, T J; Lam, Y W; D'Antonio, P

    2000-10-01

    A surface diffusion coefficient is needed in room acoustics to enable the quality of diffusing surfaces to be evaluated. It may also facilitate more accurate geometric room acoustic models. This paper concentrates on diffusion coefficients derived from free-field polar responses. An extensive set of two- and three-dimensional measurements and predictions was used to test the worth of different diffusion coefficient definitions. The merits and problems associated with these types of coefficients are discussed, and past parameters reviewed. Two new coefficients are described. The new measure based on the autocorrelation function is forwarded as the best free-field coefficient. The strengths and weaknesses of the coefficient are defined. PMID:11051498

  15. Determination of the spherical harmonic coefficients from the ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients of the Earth's external potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershkov, A. N.

    Due to proximity of the Earth's figure to ellipsoid of revolution it is more reasonable to represent the external Earth's potential in a form of the ellipsoidal harmonic series than in the conventional spherical harmonic expansion. The ellipsoidal harmonic series was used, as an intermediate one, when constructing the geopotential models OSU91 and EGM96. The exact and most simple relations between the coefficients of the above series were derived by Jekeli (1988). However the transformation formulae between these two sets of coefficients depend on hypergeometric series which converge very slowly. It can lead to cumbersome calculations and the loss of the accuracy. In Petrovskaya and Vershkov (2000) the convergence of these series was improved. In the present paper further simplifications of the formulae are performed. Besides, the parameters of the optimal external reference ellipsoid are determined. This ellipsoid has to be used, instead of the normal one, when constructing geopotential models, because the latter passes partly inside the Earth. This will avoid additional errors in the geopotential coefficients. The numerical research is carried out for establishing the efficiency of the results. The numerical results demonstrate that for high degree spherical harmonics the number of terms in the hypergeometric series can be reduced to one order. The derived formulae can be applied for constructing future geopotential models.

  16. {alpha} ratio 2n ratio {alpha} Molecular Band in {sup 10}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, M.; Ashwood, N.I.; Curtis, N.; Price, D.; Ziman, V.A.; Casarejos, E.; Angulo, C.; Demaret, P.; Harlin, C.; Milin, M.; Soic, N.; Raabe, R.

    2006-02-03

    The 10.15 MeV resonance in {sup 10}Be has been probed via resonant {sup 6}He+{sup 4}He elastic scattering. It is demonstrated that it is the J{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} member of a rotational band built on the 6.18 MeV 0{sup +} state. A {gamma}{sub {alpha}} of 0.10-0.13 MeV and {gamma}{sub {alpha}}/{gamma}=0.35-0.46 were deduced. The corresponding reduced {alpha} width, {gamma}{sub {alpha}}{sup 2}, indicates one of the largest {alpha}-cluster spectroscopic factors known. The deformation of the band, including the 7.54 MeV, 2{sup +} member, is large (({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){sup 2}/2I=200 keV). Such a deformation and the significant degree of clusterization signals a well-developed {alpha} ratio 2n ratio {alpha} molecular structure.

  17. Distribution Coefficients of Impurities in Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, J. V.

    2014-04-01

    Impurities dissolved in very pure metals at the level of parts per million often cause an elevation or depression of the freezing temperature of the order of millikelvins. This represents a significant contribution to the uncertainty of standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrations. An important parameter for characterizing the behavior of impurities is the distribution coefficient , which is the ratio of the solid solubility to liquid solubility. A knowledge of for a given binary system is essential for contemporary methods of evaluating or correcting for the effect of impurities, and it is therefore of universal interest to have the most complete set of values possible. A survey of equilibrium values of (in the low concentration limit) reported in the literature for the International Temperature Scale of 1990 fixed points of Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Au, Ag, and Cu is presented. In addition, thermodynamic calculations of using MTDATA are presented for 170 binary systems. In total, the combined values of from all available sources for 430 binary systems are presented. In addition, by considering all available values of for impurities in 25 different metal solvents (1300 binary systems) enough data are available to characterize patterns in the value of for a given impurity as a function of its position in the periodic table. This enables prediction of for a significant number of binary systems for which data and calculations are unavailable. By combining data from many sources, values of for solutes (atomic number from 1 to 94) in ITS-90 fixed points from Hg to Cu are suggested, together with some tentative predicted values where literature data and calculations are unavailable.

  18. Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.

  19. [Contents and its change during storage of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in potatoes].

    PubMed

    Shindo, Tetsuya; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Yasuda, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuo

    2004-10-01

    Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in native species of potato (May Queen, Danshaku and Waseshiro), and in species (Jagakids Red '90 (Red) and Jagakids Purple '90 (Purple)) on the market, and their change during storage at room temparature were investigated. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were extracted from potatoes with methanol, cleaned up by using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge, and then subjected to HPLC. The recoveries of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine from potatoes were both more than 96%, and the quantitation limits were both 2 microg/g. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in periderm in all samples at the levels of 260-320 microg/g in May Queen,190-240 microg/g in Danshaku, 43-63 microg/g in Waseshiro, 140-200 microg/g in Red and 84-130 microg/g in Purple, respectively. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in the cortex in all samples of May Queen and Danshaku at the levels of 2.7-12 microg/g and 5.8-31 microg/g, respectively. Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the cortex of May Queen and Danshaku were less than 10% of those in the periderm. When potatoes were stored for 90 days at room temparature in a dark place, no marked change in the contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine was observed in any of the potato samples. PMID:15678944

  20. Characterization of the G alpha(s) regulator cysteine string protein.

    PubMed

    Natochin, Michael; Campbell, Tessa N; Barren, Brandy; Miller, Linda C; Hameed, Shahid; Artemyev, Nikolai O; Braun, Janice E A

    2005-08-26

    Cysteine string protein (CSP) is an abundant regulated secretory vesicle protein that is composed of a string of cysteine residues, a linker domain, and an N-terminal J domain characteristic of the DnaJ/Hsp40 co-chaperone family. We have shown previously that CSP associates with heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) and promotes G protein inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. To elucidate the mechanisms by which CSP modulates G protein signaling, we examined the effects of CSP(1-198) (full-length), CSP(1-112), and CSP(1-82) on the kinetics of guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis. In this report, we demonstrate that CSP selectively interacts with G alpha(s) and increases steady-state GTP hydrolysis. CSP(1-198) modulation of G alpha(s) was dependent on Hsc70 (70-kDa heat shock cognate protein) and SGT (small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein), whereas modulation by CSP(1-112) was Hsc70-SGT-independent. CSP(1-112) preferentially associated with the inactive GDP-bound conformation of G alpha(s). Consistent with the stimulation of GTP hydrolysis, CSP(1-112) increased guanine nucleotide exchange of G alpha(s). The interaction of native G alpha(s) and CSP was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and showed that G alpha(s) associates with CSP. Furthermore, transient expression of CSP in HEK cells increased cellular cAMP levels in the presence of the beta2 adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Together, these results demonstrate that CSP modulates G protein function by preferentially targeting the inactive GDP-bound form of G alpha(s) and promoting GDP/GTP exchange. Our results show that the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of full-length CSP is, in turn, regulated by Hsc70-SGT. PMID:15972823

  1. Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.

    2004-08-10

    The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.

  2. Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu

    2009-01-01

    Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.55.

  3. Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B

    1982-12-01

    10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915

  4. Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J.

    2012-05-15

    The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.

  5. Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.

    1990-01-01

    The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.

  6. 222Rn detection efficiency and sensitivity coefficient of the LR 115-II nuclear track detector.

    PubMed

    Planini?, J

    1992-04-01

    Radon activity concentrations in air were measured by the Kodak-Pathé LR 115-II nuclear track detector. Using the calibrated sensitivity coefficient of the detector (k = 0.0285 Bq-1 m3 tr cm-2 d-1 = 0.33 cm), the critical detection angle was calculated. In the alpha-particle energy region of 1-3.7 MeV, the detector efficiency for 241Am was near 32% but the 222Rn detector efficiency was 23%. The permeability constant of the detector paper filter was measured in a standard radon atmosphere and a value of 9.08 x 10(-6) cm2 s-1 was obtained. PMID:1597388

  7. Scalable encryption using alpha rooting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wharton, Eric J.; Panetta, Karen A.; Agaian, Sos S.

    2008-04-01

    Full and partial encryption methods are important for subscription based content providers, such as internet and cable TV pay channels. Providers need to be able to protect their products while at the same time being able to provide demonstrations to attract new customers without giving away the full value of the content. If an algorithm were introduced which could provide any level of full or partial encryption in a fast and cost effective manner, the applications to real-time commercial implementation would be numerous. In this paper, we present a novel application of alpha rooting, using it to achieve fast and straightforward scalable encryption with a single algorithm. We further present use of the measure of enhancement, the Logarithmic AME, to select optimal parameters for the partial encryption. When parameters are selected using the measure, the output image achieves a balance between protecting the important data in the image while still containing a good overall representation of the image. We will show results for this encryption method on a number of images, using histograms to evaluate the effectiveness of the encryption.

  8. Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537

  9. Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlin, Phillip C.

    2011-01-01

    The Lyman Alpha Spicule Observatory (LASO) sounding rocket will observe smallscale eruptive events called "Rapid Blue-shifted Events" (RBEs) [Rouppe van der Voort et al., 2009], the on-disk equivalent of Type-II spicules, and extend observations that explore their role in the solar coronal heating problem [De Pontieu et al., 2011]. LASO utilizes a new and novel optical design to simultaneously observe two spatial dimensions at 4.2" spatial resolution (2.1" pixels) over a 2'x2' field of view with high spectral resolution of 66mAngstroms (33mAngstroms pixels) across a broad 20Angstrom spectral window. This spectral window contains three strong chromospheric and transition region emissions and is centered on the strong Hydrogen Lyman-a emission at 1216Angstroms. This instrument makes it possible to obtain new data crucial to the physical understanding of these phenomena and their role in the overall energy and momentum balance from the upper chromosphere to lower corona. LASO was submitted March 2011 in response to the ROSES SHP-LCAS call.

  10. Comparison of the chemical, physical, and survival properties of normal and Z-variant alpha-1-antitrypsins.

    PubMed

    Miller, R R; Kuhlenschmidt, M S; Coffee, C J; Kuo, I; Glew, R H

    1976-08-10

    A procedure has been developed for the purification of Z-type alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha-1-AT) which is rapid, gentle, and results in good yields. From 4 units (750 ml) of fresh human plasma, obtained from two individuals possessing the Pizz phenotype, 53 mg of pure Z-type alpha-1-AT was obtained. The preparation was homogeneous by the criteria of polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, both in the presence and absence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and by analytical ultracentrifugation. When compared to pure alpha-1-AT from plasma of individuals possessing the normal PiMM phenotype, the two proteins were indistinguishable with respect to amino acid composition, sedimentation coefficient (s20w of 3.33 for both M and Z), molecular weight (51,000 by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis and 47,000 by sedimentation equilibrium for both M and Z), and trypsin-combining ratio (0.91 for Z and 0.99 for M). The only difference which was observed between the variant forms of alpha-1-AT was in the carbohydrate composition. The Z-type alpha1-AT contains between 20 and 25% less carbohydrate than the M-type alpha-1-AT. Specifically, the Z-type alpha-1-AT is deficient in 1 glucosamine residue, 3 neutral sugar residues (1 mannose and 2 galactose), and 2 sialic acid residues. Although the Z-variant is deficient in sialic acid, its survival time in the serum of a rabbit was not significantly different from that of M-type alpha-1-AT. PMID:1084886

  11. Divergence of human [alpha]-chain constant region gene sequences: A novel recombinant [alpha]2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Chintalacharuvu, K. R.; Morrison, S.L. ); Raines, M. )

    1994-06-01

    IgA is the major Ig synthesized in humans and provides the first line of defense at the mucosal surfaces. The constant region of IgA heavy chain is encoded by the [alpha] gene on chromosome 14. Previous studies have indicated the presence of two [alpha] genes, [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 existing in two allotypic forms, [alpha]2 m(1) and [alpha]2 m(2). Here the authors report the cloning and complete nucleotide sequence determination of a novel human [alpha] gene. Nucleotide sequence comparison with the published [alpha] sequences suggests that the gene arose as a consequence of recombination or gene conversion between the two [alpha]2 alleles. The authors have expressed the gene as a chimeric protein in myeloma cells indicating that it encodes a functional protein. The novel IgA resembles IgA2 m(2) in that disulfide bonds link H and L chains. This novel recombinant gene provides insights into the mechanisms of generation of different constant regions and suggests that within human populations, multiple alleles of [alpha] may be present providing IgAs of different structures.

  12. Fibrinogen {alpha} genes: Conservation of bipartite transcripts and carboxy-terminal-extended {alpha} subunits in vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.

    1995-11-01

    All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Direct analysis of the genes encoding G proteins G alpha T2, G alpha o, G alpha Z in ADHD.

    PubMed

    Turic, D; Langley, K; Kirov, G; Owen, M J; Thapar, A; O'Donovan, M C

    2004-05-15

    We have followed up the extensive replicated evidence that the dopamine DRD4 receptor is involved in the aetiology of ADHD by undertaking direct analysis of genes encoding other proteins in this effector system. We prioritised the genes encoding G protein alpha subunits G alpha(T2), G alpha(o), G alpha(Z) as these have been shown to transduce the effects of ligand binding at DRD4. We screened the exons of all three genes for sequence variation in 28 unrelated subjects with ADHD and identified 13 novel polymorphisms. All were tested for possible association with ADHD using a combination of pooled and individual genotyping. The results of our study do not suggest that polymorphisms in these genes contribute to susceptibility to ADHD. PMID:15108183

  14. Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.; Woo, J.T.

    1980-10-10

    Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.

  15. Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source.

    PubMed

    Sychov, Maxim; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth

    2008-02-01

    Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: Isc=14 microA; Uoc=2.3 V; power output -21 microW. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch. PMID:17977736

  16. Study of the influence of porosity on the radon emanation coefficient in different building material samples by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misdaq, M. A.; Khajmi, H.; Ktata, A.

    1998-10-01

    Radon alpha-activities per unit volume have been measured inside and outside different building material samples by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD). Radon emanation coefficients of the studied building materials have been evaluated. The porosities of the building material samples studied have been determined by using a Monte Carlo calculational method adapted to the experimental conditions and compared with data obtained by the Archimedes's method. The influence of the building material porosity on the radon emanation coefficient has been investigated.

  17. Purification and properties of a novel recombinant human hybrid interferon, delta-4 alpha 2/alpha 1.

    PubMed

    Le, H V; Syto, R; Schwartz, J; Nagabhushan, T L; Trotta, P P

    1988-11-01

    The human interferon (huIFN) delta-4 alpha 2(5-62)/alpha 1(64-166) is a genetically engineered hybrid that consists of residues 5-62 of huIFN alpha 2 and residues 64-166 of huIFN alpha 1. This variant contains four cysteine residues at positions 29, 86, 99 and 139, but does not contain the cysteine at position 1 that is characteristic of naturally occurring huIFN alpha subtypes. This novel recombinant hybrid was purified from Escherichia coli to greater than 95% homogeneity. The purification was based on ethanol extraction of a trichloroacetic acid precipitate and Matrex Gel Blue A chromatography followed by either a selective precipitation or DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. The purified protein that was treated with 2-mercaptoethanol exhibited two closely migrating bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with apparent molecular weight values of 17,800 and 17,100, both of which exhibited antiviral activity. Electrophoresis performed without prior reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol indicated only a minor extent of intermolecular disulfide bonding. The purified protein exhibited a high specific antiviral activity of 7 x 10(7) units/mg when assayed on human fibroblast cells and, in distinction to the parental huIFN alpha 2, it also demonstrated antiviral activity on human fibroblast cells and, in distinction to the parental huIFN alpha 2, it also demonstrated antiviral activity on murine L929 cells. The level of antiproliferative activity of huIFN delta-4 alpha 2(5-62)/alpha 1(64-166) on various cell lines of different histological origin appeared to be more comparable to that of huIFN alpha 1 than huIFN alpha 2. The data suggest that huIFN delta-4 alpha 2(5-62)/alpha 1(64-166) hybrid may be a useful tool for understanding huIFN structure-function relations. PMID:3052593

  18. Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458

  19. Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2014-01-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457

  20. Piezo-optic coefficients of CaWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mytsyk, B. G.; Kost', Ya. P.; Demyanyshyn, N. M.; Andrushchak, A. S.; Solskii, I. M.

    2015-01-01

    All components of the piezo-optic coefficient matrix of calcium tungstate crystals, belonging to the 4/ m symmetry class, are determined. The reliability of the piezo-optic effect measurements in CaWO4 crystals is achieved by determining each piezo-optic coefficient from several experimental geometries and is also based on the correlation of the absolute piezo-electric coefficients and the path-difference coefficients. The rotation-shear diagonal coefficients ?44 and ?66 and three principal piezo-optic coefficients ?11, ?13, and ?31 are refined by the polarization-optical method. It is confirmed that both the interferometric and polarization-optical methods should be used to study the piezo-optic effect with high accuracy. The results show that calcium tungstate is a promising material for acousto-optical and photoelastic modulation.

  1. ANALYTIC FORMS OF THE PERPENDICULAR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN NRMHD TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shalchi, A.

    2015-02-01

    In the past different analytic limits for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence were discussed. These different limits or cases correspond to different transport modes describing how the particles are diffusing across the large-scale magnetic field. In the current paper we describe a new transport regime by considering the model of noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We derive different analytic forms of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, and while we do this, we focus on the aforementioned new transport mode. We show that for this turbulence model a small perpendicular diffusion coefficient can be obtained so that the latter diffusion coefficient is more than hundred times smaller than the parallel diffusion coefficient. This result is relevant to explain observations in the solar system where such small perpendicular diffusion coefficients have been reported.

  2. Note on the Generalized Hansen and Laplace Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Jacques

    2005-03-01

    Recently, Breiter et al. [Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron., 2004, 88, 153 161] reported the computation of Hansen coefficients X k γ ,m for non-integer values of γ. In fact, the Hansen coefficients are closely related to the Laplace b s (m), and generalized Laplace coefficients b s,r (m) [Laskar and Robutel, 1995, Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron., 62, 193 217] that do not require s,r to be integers. In particular, the coefficients X 0 γ ,m have very simple expressions in terms of the usual Laplace coefficients b γ +2 (m), and all their properties derive easily from the known properties of the Laplace coefficients.

  3. Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Anthony B.

    2014-03-01

    The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given.

  4. Connection between effective-range expansion and nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient

    SciTech Connect

    Yarmukhamedov, R.; Baye, D.

    2011-08-15

    Explicit relations between the effective-range expansion and the nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay B{yields}A+a are derived for an arbitrary orbital momentum together with the corresponding location condition for the (A+a) bound-state energy. They are valid both for the charged case and for the neutral case. Combining these relations with the standard effective-range function up to order six makes it possible to reduce to two the number of free effective-range parameters if an ANC value is known from experiment. Values for the scattering length, effective range, and form parameter are determined in this way for the {sup 16}O+p, {alpha}+t, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions in partial waves where a bound state exists by using available ANCs deduced from experiments. The resulting effective-range expansions for these collisions are valid up to energies larger than 5 MeV.

  5. The role of Kupffer cell alpha(2)-adrenoceptors in norepinephrine-induced TNF-alpha production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Yang, S; Koo, D J; Ornan, D A; Chaudry, I H; Wang, P

    2001-07-27

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that plasma levels of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) increase during early sepsis, the precise mechanism responsible for its upregulation remains to be elucidated. Since recent studies have shown that the gut is an important source of norepinephrine (NE) release during early sepsis and enterectomy prior to the onset of sepsis attenuates TNF-alpha production, we hypothesized that gut-derived NE plays a major role in upregulating TNF-alpha via the activation of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors on Kupffer cells. To confirm that NE increases TNF-alpha synthesis and release, Kupffer cells were isolated from normal rats and incubated with NE (20 or 50 nM) or another alpha(2)-adrenergic agonist clonidine (50 nM) without addition of Escherichia coli endotoxin. Supernatant levels of TNF-alpha were then measured. In additional animals, intraportal infusion of NE (20 microM) with or without the specific alpha(2)-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (1 mM) at a rate of 13 microl/min was carried out for 2 h. Plasma and Kupffer cell levels of TNF-alpha were assayed thereafter. Moreover, the effects of NE and yohimbine on TNF-alpha production was further examined using an isolated perfused liver preparation. The results indicate that both NE and clonidine increased TNF-alpha release by approximately 4-7-fold in the isolated cultured Kupffer cells. Similarly, intraportal infusion of NE in vivo or in isolated livers increased TNF-alpha synthesis and release which was inhibited by co-infusion of yohimbine. Furthermore, the increased cellular levels of TNF-alpha in Kupffer cells after in vivo administration of NE was also blocked by yohimbine. These results, taken together, suggest that gut-derived NE upregulates TNF-alpha production in Kupffer cells through an alpha(2)-adrenergic pathway, which appears to be responsible at least in part for the increased levels of circulating TNF-alpha observed during early sepsis as well as other pathophysiologic conditions such as trauma, hemorrhagic shock, or gut ischemia/reperfusion. PMID:11476962

  6. On the Connection Coefficients of the Chebyshev-Boubaker Polynomials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Chebyshev-Boubaker polynomials are the orthogonal polynomials whose coefficient arrays are defined by ordinary Riordan arrays. Examples include the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and the Boubaker polynomials. We study the connection coefficients of this class of orthogonal polynomials, indicating how Riordan array techniques can lead to closed-form expressions for these connection coefficients as well as recurrence relations that define them. PMID:23990760

  7. DCFPAK: Dose coefficient data file package for Sandia National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Eckerman, K.F.; Leggett, R.W.

    1996-07-31

    The FORTRAN-based computer package DCFPAK (Dose Coefficient File Package) has been developed to provide electronic access to the dose coefficient data files summarized in Federal Guidance Reports 11 and 12. DCFPAK also provides access to standard information regarding decay chains and assembles dose coefficients for all dosimetrically significant radioactive progeny of a specified radionuclide. DCFPAK was designed for application on a PC but, with minor modifications, may be implemented on a UNIX workstation.

  8. Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.

    1993-01-01

    Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.

  9. Strategies on the evaluation of binomial coefficients for all integers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yükçü, Niyazi; Öztekin, Emin

    2013-01-01

    Binomial coefficients are used in many fields such as computational and applied mathematics, statistics and probability, theoretical physics and chemistry. For accurate numerical results, the correct calculation of these coefficients is very important. We present some new recurrence relationships and numerical methods for the evaluation of binomial coefficients for negative integers. For this purpose, we give some comparisons of the outputs for different computer programming languages in case of negative integers, and also we wrote two new algorithms for computations.

  10. Computation of Elliptic Hansen Coefficients and Their Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolsky, Andrej G.; Vakhidov, Akmal A.; Vasiliev, Nickolay N.

    1996-01-01

    The problem of computation of elliptic Hansen coefficients and their derivatives is considered for constructing a motion theory of an artificial Earth satellite with large eccentricity. An algorithm for analytical and numerical computation of these coefficients and their derivatives is described. The recurrence relations for derivatives of the first and second order and initial values for recurrences are obtained. As an example, numerical values of some elliptic Hansen coefficients are given for the orbit with eccentricityk=0.74.

  11. Effects of structure on transport coefficients in a random medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, P.-M.

    1994-11-01

    The transport coefficients for a system of classical particles moving in a random medium are shown to depend on the detailed structure of the medium even at strictly fixed scatterer concentration. An example is developed in which the diffusion coefficient can be expressed in terms of the distribution of distances between scatterers; this expression reduces considerably the maximum and average relative error when compared with previous results. Some statistical properties of the distribution of coefficients at fixed concentration are investigated.

  12. Analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle wind-tunnel model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cao, Jichang; Garrett, Frederick, Jr.; Hoffman, Eric; Stalford, Harold

    1990-01-01

    A 6 DOF analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle is derived. The derivation is based on wind-tunnel model data valid in the altitude-Mach flight envelope centered at 15,000 ft altitude and 0.6 Mach number with Mach range between 0.3 and 0.9. The analytical models of the aerodynamics coefficients are nonlinear functions of alpha with all control variable and other states fixed. Interpolation is required between the parameterized nonlinear functions. The lift and pitching moment coefficients have unsteady flow parts due to the time range of change of angle-of-attack (alpha dot). The analytical models are plotted and compared with their corresponding wind-tunnel data. Piloted simulated maneuvers of the wind-tunnel model are used to evaluate the analytical model. The maneuvers considered are pitch-ups, 360 degree loaded and unloaded rolls, turn reversals, split S's, and level turns. The evaluation finds that (1) the analytical model is a good representation at Mach 0.6, (2) the longitudinal part is good for the Mach range 0.3 to 0.9, and (3) the lateral part is good for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 0.9. The computer simulations show that the storage requirement of the analytical model is about one tenth that of the wind-tunnel model and it runs twice as fast.

  13. Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.

  14. Coefficients of convergent multiple Walsh-Paley series

    SciTech Connect

    Plotnikov, Mikhail G

    2012-09-30

    The paper is concerned with the behaviour of the coefficients of multiple Walsh-Paley series that are cube convergent to a finite sum. It is shown that even an everywhere convergent series of this kind may contain coefficients with numbers from a sufficiently large set that grow faster than any preassigned sequence. By Cohen's theorem, this sort of thing cannot happen for multiple trigonometric series that are cube convergent on a set of full measure - their coefficients cannot grow even exponentially. Null subsequences of coefficients are determined for multiple Walsh-Paley series that are cube convergent on a set of definite measure. Bibliography: 18 titles.

  15. Towards a realistic deposition coefficient expression for cirrus cloud modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, J. T.; Kay, J. E.

    2007-12-01

    Ice crystal deposition (condensation) coefficients affect ice crystal shape and size, two parameters that are important for cloud processes and cloud radiative impacts. Moreover, due to their effect on crystal mass uptake, deposition coefficients affect both the supersaturation at the crystal surface and the ambient supersaturation in the cloud. However, deposition coefficients are sensitive to the surface supersaturation (a fact that is widely ignored), which makes it difficult to use realistic deposition coefficient values in cloud models. The goal of our work is to find a realistic expression for the ice deposition coefficient that can be easily inserted into existing cloud models. For simplicity, we assume that only one coefficient applies to the entire surface, an assumption that gives a reasonable approximation for spherical and isometric crystal shapes. After relating the surface supersaturation to the ambient supersaturation, we determine a general expression for the deposition coefficient as a function of the ambient supersaturation and ice crystal size. Using an adiabatic parcel model with binned microphysics (Kay et al., 2006), we demonstrate the influence of a realistic deposition coefficient on ice crystal nucleation and growth.Finally, we assess if a more realistic deposition coefficient can help explain recent observations of high ice supersaturation in cirrus.

  16. Alpha modification of Tokamak ballooning instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Spong, D.A.; Leboeuf, J-N.; Holmes, J.A.; Christenson, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper will discuss the high-n ballooning limit (drift resonant effects included in noncircular tokamak geometry) and the hybrid fluid-particle code (inhomogeneous, sheared slab geometry, full FLR alphas, linear and nonlinear).

  17. Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles

    DOEpatents

    Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.

    1983-11-23

    This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.

  18. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, M R; Sgouros, G; Finn, R D; Humm, J L; Jurcic, J G; Larson, S M; Scheinberg, D A

    1998-09-01

    This review discusses the application of alpha particle-emitting radionuclides in targeted radioimmunotherapy. It will outline the production and chemistry of astatine-211, bismuth-212, lead-212, actinium-225, bismuth-213, fermium-255, radium-223 and terbium-149, which at present are the most promising alpha-emitting isotopes available for human clinical use. The selective cytotoxicity offered by alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs is due to the high linear energy transfer and short particle path length of these radionuclides. Based upon the pharmacokinetics of alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs, both stochastic and conventional dosimetric methodology is discussed, as is the preclinical and initial clinical use of these radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of human neoplasia. PMID:9724387

  19. Alpha Coincidence Spectroscopy studied with GEANT4

    SciTech Connect

    Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Warren, Glen A.

    2013-11-02

    Abstract The high-energy side of peaks in alpha spectra, e.g. 241Am, as measured with a silicon detector has structure caused mainly by alpha-conversion electron and to some extent alphagamma coincidences. We compare GEANT4 simulation results to 241Am alpha spectroscopy measurements with a passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A large discrepancy between the measurements and simulations suggest that the GEANT4 photon evaporation database for 237Np (daughter of 241Am decay) does not accurately describe the conversion electron spectrum and therefore was found to have large discrepancies with experimental measurements. We describe how to improve the agreement between GEANT4 and alpha spectroscopy for actinides of interest by including experimental measurements of conversion electron spectroscopy into the photon evaporation database.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Alpha-mannosidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... forehead, low hairline, rounded eyebrows, large ears, flattened bridge of the nose, protruding jaw, widely spaced teeth, ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of alpha-mannosidosis? These resources address the diagnosis ...

  1. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  2. Search for alpha driven BAEs in TFTR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Batha, S. H.; Bell, R. E.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D. S.; Fang, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; James, R. A.; Levington, F. M.; Nazikian, R.; Paul, S. F.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Santoro, R. A.; Strait, E. J.; Synakowski, E. J.; Taylor, G.; Turnbull, A. D.; Wong, K.-L.; Zweben, S. J.

    1996-12-01

    A search for alpha driven beta-induced Alfven eigenmodes (BAEs) was conducted in low current (1.0-1.6 MA) TFTR supershots. Stable high beta deuterium-tritium (DT) discharges were obtained with beta p=2.4 and a central alpha beta of 0.1%. Instabilities between 75 and 200 kHz were observed by magnetics probes in many DT discharges, but the activity was also present in deuterium-deuterium (DD) comparison discharges, indicating that these modes are not destabilized (principally) by the alpha particle population. Losses of fusion products are also similar in the two sets of discharges. Theoretical simulations confirm that the achieved alpha particle pressure is too small to produce instability

  3. Genetics Home Reference: 5-alpha reductase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for a chemical reaction that converts the hormone testosterone to DHT. DHT is essential for the normal ... steroid 5-alpha reductase 2 from effectively converting testosterone to DHT in the developing reproductive tissues. These ...

  4. Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.

    1996-12-31

    A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.

  5. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  6. Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil

    SciTech Connect

    Icenhour, A.S.

    2005-05-19

    The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.

  7. Efficiency of natural phenolic compounds regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Manuel; Andersen, Mogens L; Medina, Isabel; Skibsted, Leif H

    2007-05-01

    Benzoic acid-derived phenolics (p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, and gallic acid) and the polyphenols epicatechin and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) were evaluated for their efficiency in regenerating alpha-tocopherol from alpha-tocopheroxyl radical in comparison with ascorbyl palmitate, which is known to regenerate alpha-tocopherol. Ethanolic solutions of phenolic compounds were added to a homogeneous hexane medium containing alpha-tocopheroxyl radical generated by reaction of alpha-tocopherol in molar excess with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, and the alpha-tocopheroxyl radical was monitored by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid (400 microM) did not exhibit a significant effect on alpha-tocopheroxyl radical concentration (0.6-0.7 microM). In contrast, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and gallic acid were able to reduce the concentration of alpha-tocopheroxyl radical by 16 and 64%, respectively. Epicatechin showed a reduction of alpha-tocopheroxyl radical similar to gallic acid, and EGCG and ascorbyl palmitate were the most effective, reducing alpha-tocopheroxyl radical completely at a much lower phenolic concentration (66.7 microM). The moles of alpha-tocopheroxyl radical reduced per mole of ascorbyl palmitate (0.93), EGCG (0.066), gallic acid (4.3 x 10(-4)), and epicatechin (4.5 x 10(-4)) were determined, and the logarithm of these stoichoimetric ratios showed a negative linear relationship with the bond dissociation enthalpies of the O-H bond of the phenolics. The relative capacity to reduce alpha-tocopheroxyl radical was found to be ascorbyl palmitate (2142) > EGCG (151) > gallic acid (1) approximately epicatechin (1). PMID:17419638

  8. Conserved alpha-helix acts as autoinhibitory sequence in AMP-activated protein kinase alpha subunits.

    PubMed

    Pang, Tao; Xiong, Bing; Li, Jing-Ya; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Jin, Guo-Zhang; Shen, Jin-Kang; Li, Jia

    2007-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as an energy sensor, being activated by metabolic stresses and regulating cellular metabolism. AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of a catalytic alpha subunit and two regulatory subunits, beta and gamma. It had been reported that the mammalian AMPK alpha subunit contained an autoinhibitory domain (alpha1: residues 313-392) and had little kinase activity. We have found that a conserved short segment of the alpha subunit (alpha1-(313-335)), which includes a predicted alpha-helix, is responsible for alpha subunit autoinhibition. The role of the residues in this segment for autoinhibition was further investigated by systematic site-directed mutation. Several hydrophobic and charged residues, in particular Leu-328, were found to be critical for alpha1 autoinhibition. An autoinhibitory structural model of human AMPK alpha1-(1-335) was constructed and revealed that Val-298 interacts with Leu-328 through hydrophobic bonding at a distance of about 4 A and may stabilize the autoinhibitory conformation. Further mutation analysis showed that V298G mutation significantly activated the kinase activity. Moreover, the phosphorylation level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the AMPK downstream substrate, was significantly increased in COS7 cells overexpressing AMPK alpha1-(1-394) with deletion of residues 313-335 (Deltaalpha394) and a V298G or L328Q mutation, and the glucose uptake was also significantly enhanced in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with Deltaalpha394, V298G, or L328Q mutants, which indicated that these AMPK alpha1 mutants are constitutively active in mammalian cells and that interaction between Leu-328 and Val-298 plays an important role in AMPK alpha autoinhibitory function. PMID:17088252

  9. Acid-induced dissociation of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin homopolymers.

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, A; Augusteyn, R C

    1993-01-01

    Homopolymers were constructed from the alpha A and alpha B polypeptides isolated from the lens protein alpha-crystallin. As the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 3.4, these homopolymers dissociate to smaller species with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 250 kDa for the alpha A and around 140 kDa for the alpha B dissociation products. The pKa for this dissociation was 3.8 +/- 0.2 for alpha A and 4.1 +/- 0.1 for alpha B homopolymers. Further decreases in pH, to 2.5, resulted in the presence of only denatured alpha B polypeptides, whereas the alpha A dissociation products remained intact. Fractionation of the acid dissociation products from the alpha A homopolymer at pH 2.5 yielded stable species with molecular masses of 220 +/- 30, 160 +/- 20, and 90 +/- 10 kDa. The majority of the population at acid pH consisted of the 160 kDa species. Conformational analysis of these species revealed that most of the secondary structure of the original alpha A homopolymer was retained but that the tertiary structure was perturbed. Fluorescence quenching and energy transfer measurements suggested that the molecule had undergone acid expansion, with the greatest perturbation observed in the smallest particles. The results from this work suggest that alpha A homopolymers are heterogeneous populations of aggregates of a "monomeric" molecule with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. This "monomeric" molecule may be formed from the association of two tetrameric units. PMID:8274652

  10. Different polyphenolic components of soft fruits inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase.

    PubMed

    McDougall, Gordon J; Shpiro, Faina; Dobson, Patricia; Smith, Pauline; Blake, Alison; Stewart, Derek

    2005-04-01

    Polyphenol-rich extracts from soft fruits were tested for their ability to inhibit alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase. All extracts tested caused some inhibition of alpha-amylase, but there was a 10-fold difference between the least and most effective extracts. Strawberry and raspberry extracts were more effective alpha-amylase inhibitors than blueberry, blackcurrant, or red cabbage. Conversely, alpha-glucosidase was more readily inhibited by blueberry and blackcurrant extracts. The extent of inhibition of alpha-glucosidase was related to their anthocyanin content. For example, blueberry and blackcurrant extracts, which have the highest anthocyanin content, were the most effective inhibitors of alpha-glucosidase. The extracts most effective in inhibiting alpha-amylase (strawberry and raspberry) contain appreciable amounts of soluble tannins. Other tannin-rich extracts (red grape, red wine, and green tea) were also effective inhibitors of alpha-amylase. Indeed, removing tannins from strawberry extracts with gelatin also removed inhibition. Fractionation of raspberry extracts on Sephadex LH-20 produced an unbound fraction enriched in anthocyanins and a bound fraction enriched in tannin-like polyphenols. The unbound anthocyanin-enriched fraction was more effective against alpha-glucosidase than the original extract, whereas the alpha-amylase inhibitors were concentrated in the bound fraction. The LH-20 bound sample was separated by preparative HPLC, and fractions were assayed for inhibition of alpha-amylase. The inhibitory components were identified as ellagitannins using LC-MS-MS. This study suggests that different polyphenolic components of fruits may influence different steps in starch digestion in a synergistic manner. PMID:15796622

  11. Two renal. cap alpha. /sub 2/-adrenergic receptor sites revealed by of-aminoclonidine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Sripanidkulchai, B.; Dawson, R.; Oparil, S.; Wyss, J.M.

    1987-02-01

    (/sup 3/H)p-aminoclonidine (/sup 3/H)PAC, a specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonist, was used to characterize ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor binding in rat renal membranes. Rosenthal plots demonstrated two binding sites with K/sub dS/ of approx. 1.7 and 14.2 nM and B/sub max/S (maximum binding) of 47.3 and 218.8 fmol/mg protein for the high- and low-affinity sites, respectively. These characteristics were confirmed by estimate of K/sub d/ parameters based on association and dissociation experiments. Pseudo-Hill coefficients generated from drug inhibition experiments were all less than unity, suggesting differential binding at two ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor binding sites. Specific ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists exhibited greater binding affinity to both sites than did nonspecific drugs, and all drugs displayed greater affinity for the high- than the low-affinity binding site. Both guanyl nucleotides and sodium chloride inhibited (/sup 3/H)PAC binding more at the high-affinity than at the low-affinity site. Renal denervation resulted in significant upregulation of receptor density only at the high-affinity sites with no change in receptor affinity at either site, suggesting that a majority of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors in the kidney are postsynaptic. Thus all lines of evidence in this study indicate that two ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptor binding sites exist in the rat kidney.

  12. Alpha particle analysis using PEARLS spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    McKlveen, J.W.; Klingler, G.W.; McDowell, W.J.; Case, G.N.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha particle assay by conventional plate-counting methods is difficult because chemical separation, tracer techniques, and/or self-absorption losses in the final sample may cause either non-reproducible results or create unacceptable errors. PEARLS (Photon-Electron Rejecting Alpha Liquid Scintillation) Spectrometry is an attractive alternative since radionuclides may be extracted into a scintillator in which there would be no self-absorption or geometry problems and in which up to 100% chemical recovery and counting efficiency is possible. Sample preparation may include extraction of the alpha emitter of interest by a specific organic-phase-soluble compound directly into the liquid scintillator. Detection electronics use energy and pulse-shape discrimination to provide discrete alpha spectra and virtual absence of beta and gamma backgrounds. Backgrounds on the order of 0.01 cpm are readily achievable. Accuracy and reproducibility are typically in the 100 +-1% range. Specific procedures have been developed for gross alpha, uranium, plutonium, thorium, and polonium assay. This paper will review liquid scintillation alpha counting methods and reference some of the specific applications. 8 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Structures of G [alpha [superscript i1

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Christopher A.; Willard, Francis S.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Fredericks, Zoey; Bodor, Erik T.; Jones, Miller B.; Blaesius, Rainer; Watts, Val J.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John; Ramer, J. Kevin; Siderovski, David P.

    2010-07-19

    Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP bound state and an active, GTP bound state. Under basal conditions, G proteins exist in the inactive, GDP bound state; thus, nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide state-dependent G{alpha} binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective G{alpha} binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of G{alpha}{sub i} subunits. Structural determination of the G{alpha}{sub i1}/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the G{alpha} switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which G{alpha} subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange.

  14. [Alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and arterial pressure].

    PubMed

    Senard, J M; Valet, P; Galinier, M; Tran, M A; Galinier, F; Boneu, B; Montastruc, J L

    1989-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of blood pressure levels on human platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptivity. The study was carried out on 12 mild essential hypertensive patients and 7 normotensive parkinsonians with orthostatic hypotension. Alpha 2-adrenoceptors number and affinity were determined by 3H-yohimbine binding, plasma catecholamines were measured by HPLC and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by turbidimetry. Results obtained were compared with those of two groups of 12 normotensive control subjects. In hypertensive patients, both platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors (139 +/- 6 vs 176 +/- 18 fmol/mg protein) and velocity of adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation were decreased whereas plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline remained unchanged. In patients with orthostatic hypotension, there was an increased number of platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors (313 +/- 52 vs 168 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein) associated with a significant decrease in plasma noradrenaline (62 +/- 11 vs 190 +/- 25 pg/ml). In none of the two groups of patients there was any change in receptor affinity for 3H-yohimbine. These results indicate that human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors levels are related to blood pressure values. Moreover, up-regulation in orthostatic hypotension and lack of down-regulation in essential hypertension suggest that only sustained abnormal plasma noradrenaline levels could allow the development of alpha 2-adrenoceptors regulatory mechanisms. These variations can represent tentative compensatory mechanisms for normalization of blood pressure levels. PMID:2554834

  15. Alpha-dispersion in human tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.

    2010-04-01

    Beta dispersion is found in living tissue in the kilohertz - megahertz range and is caused by the cellular structure of biological materials with low frequency properties caused by cell membranes. Alpha dispersion is found in the hertz range and the causes are not so well known. Alpha dispersions are the first to disappear when tissue dies. Tissue data have often been based upon excised specimen from animals and are therefore not necessarily representative for human tissue alpha dispersions. Here we present data obtained with non-invasive skin surface electrodes for different segments of the living human body. We found alpha dispersions in all cases; the ankle-wrist results had the smallest. Large alpha dispersions were found where the distance between the electrodes and muscle masses was small, e.g. on the calf. Further studies on electrode technique and reciprocity, electrode positioning, statistical variations, gender, age and bodily constitutions are necessary in order to reveal more about the alpha dispersion, its appearance and disappearance.

  16. Contribution from 3 alpha-Condensed States to the Triple-Alpha Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Kiyoshi; Kurokawa, Chie; Arai, Koji

    2010-06-01

    The alpha-condensed state in nuclear systems has been proposed by Tohsaki et al. and has given rise to interesting discussions. The Hoyle state of {sup 12}C has been studied as the most typical example of such an alpha-condensed state. A new resonant 0{sub 3}{sup +} state (E{sub r} = 1.66 MeV, GAMMA = 1.48 MeV) is predicted as an excited alpha-condensed state in addition to the second 0{sup +} state of the Hoyle state by calculations of the 3 alpha orthogonality condition model (3 alpha OCM) using the complex scaling method. Based on this result, the breakup strengths of the inversion reaction for sequential ({sup 8}Be+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) and direct (alpha+alpha+alpha->{sup 12}C+gamma) processes are calculated. It is discussed that a large reaction strength calculated recently by Ogata et al. in non-resonant energies is considered as a contribution from the excited 0{sub 3}{sup +} state.

  17. Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes

    DOEpatents

    Ferraris, John P. (Coppell, TX); Neef, Charles J. (Garland, TX)

    2002-07-30

    The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.

  18. Binary-YORP Coefficients for Known Asteroid Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2012-10-01

    The binary YORP (bYORP) effect has been hypothesized to be a significant factor in the evolution of near-Earth binary asteroid systems (Cuk and Burns, Icarus, v.176, pp.418-431, 2005; McMahon and Scheeres, CMDA, v.106, pp.261-300, 2010). However, understanding of the coefficient values for realistic asteroid shapes is lacking due to the small number of shape models available for the generally smaller secondary asteroids. Until now, we have only calculated the coefficients based on the shape of 1999 KW4 Beta, although various studies by other authors have computed coefficients for artificially generated asteroids based on Gaussian Spheres and some shape models without self-shadowing (Steinberg and Sari, The Astronomical Journal, v.141, pp.55-64, 2011). We also scaled the 1999 KW4 Beta coefficients to other binary systems with no knowledge of the other systems' secondary shapes in order to make evolutionary predictions (McMahon and Scheeres, Icarus Vol. 209, pp 494-509, 2010). In this study, we compute the bYORP coefficient for a range of asteroid shapes, using these as a stand-in for actual secondaries. This allows us to circumvent the lack of information on binary asteroid secondaries and to develop a richer database of realistic coefficients. While this approach may miss some key features of binary secondaries, at the least it provides some statistics on the expected variability of the bYORP coefficient. We analyze all available asteroid shape models on the PDS-SBN, including radar-based shape models and models estimated from past spacecraft missions. The coefficients are computed with an updated algorithm that includes the effects of self-shadowing. We also present the coefficients for perturbed versions of the available shape models, which give effective error bars to the computed coefficients due to inexact shape models. Finally, we discuss the dynamical implications of the derived bYORP coefficients on binary asteroid evolution.

  19. Evolution of haptoglobin: comparison of complementary DNA encoding Hp alpha 1S and Hp alpha 2FS.

    PubMed Central

    Brune, J L; Yang, F; Barnett, D R; Bowman, B H

    1984-01-01

    Haptoglobin is a transport glycoprotein which removes free hemoglobin from the circulation of vertebrates. In human populations haptoglobin is polymorphic due to three alleles, Hp alpha 1F, Hp alpha 1S and Hp alpha 2. The Hp alpha 2 allele is roughly twice the length of the Hp alpha 1 alleles and is the product of a partial gene duplication possibly resulting from an unequal crossover event in a heterozygous genotype Hp alpha 1F/Hp alpha 1S. In the study described here we compare the cDNA encoding Hp alpha 1S to that encoding Hp alpha 2FS . Both have a leader sequence followed by the genotypic alpha chain sequence, a beta sequence and an untranslated sequence in the 3' end. The cDNA encoding Hp alpha 2FS is composed of alpha 1F and alpha 1S domains differing by four nucleotide replacements. Hp alpha 1S cDNA contains the same replacement site mutations found in the alpha 1S domain of Hp alpha 2FS , indicating that this coding region has sustained few, if any, mutations since its incorporation into the Hp alpha 2FS gene. Images PMID:6330675

  20. Rogue-Wave Interaction of a Nonlinear Schrödinger Model for the Alpha Helical Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Hui-Xian; Liu, Yu-Jun; Wang, Ya-Ning

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we investigate a fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the Davydov solitons in the alpha helical protein with higher-order effects. By virtue of the generalised Darboux transformation, higher-order rogue-wave solutions are derived. Propagation and interaction of the rogue waves are analysed: (i) Coefficients affect the existence time of the first-order rogue waves; (ii) coefficients affect the interaction time of the second- and third-order rogue waves; (iii) direction of the rogue-wave propagation remain unchanged after interaction.

  1. On the mechanism of membrane damage by Staphylococcus aureus alpha- toxin

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Rabbit or human erythrocytes lysed with Staphylococcus aureus alpha- toxin were solubilized with Triton X-100, and the toxin was subsequently isolated by gel chromatography, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and reincorporation into liposomes. In the presence of Triton X-100, the toxin exhibited a sedimentation coefficient of 11S and eluted at a position between those of IgG and alpha 2-macroglobulin in gel chromatography. A single polypeptide subunit of 34,000 mol wt was found in SDS PAGE. In the electron microscope, ring-shaped or cylindrical structures were observed, 8.5-10 nm in diameter, harboring central pits or channels 2-3 nm in diameter. An amphiphilic nature of these structures was evident from their capacity to bind lipid and detergent, aggregation in the absence of detergents, and low elutability from biological and artificial membranes through ionic manipulations. In contrast to the membrane-derived form of alpha-toxin, native toxin was a water-soluble, 34,000 mol wt, 3S molecule, devoid of an annular structure. Because studies on the release of radioactive markers from resealed erythrocyte ghosts indicated the presence of circumscribed lesions of approximately 3-nm effective diameter in toxin- treated membranes, the possibility is raised that native alpha-toxin oligomerizes on and in the membrane to form an amphiphilic annular complex that, through its partial embedment within the lipid bilayer, generates a discrete transmembrane channel. PMID:6271794

  2. Serum alpha 1 antichymotrypsin concentration as a marker of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Chard, M D; Calvin, J; Price, C P; Cawston, T E; Hazleman, B L

    1988-01-01

    Serum alpha 1 antichymotrypsin (alpha 1ACT), C reactive protein (CRP), orosomucoid, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured sequentially in 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with gold or penicillamine. Pain score, morning stiffness, grip strength, and articular index were measured and a Mallya score calculated. Based on a total of 148 sets of observations, significant correlations were found between alpha 1ACT and other variables (p less than 0.001 except morning stiffness at p less than 0.05). The actual correlation coefficients indicated a closer association with the other laboratory tests, CRP (0.62), orosomucoid (0.69), and ESR (0.61), than with clinical measurements: pain score (0.38), articular index (0.41), grip strength (-0.3), morning stiffness (0.19), and Mallya score (0.5). Sequential data on individual patients showed differing patterns of change in the variables indicating the importance of measuring more than one acute phase protein (APP), especially when CRP is inappropriately low. Serum alpha 1ACT concentration does reflect disease activity in RA. Its potential advantages are discussed. PMID:3261967

  3. alpha-Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Siala, H; Ouali, F; Messaoud, T; Bibi, A; Fattoum, S

    2008-12-01

    Unlike the other haemoglobinopathies, few researches have been published concerning alpha-thalassaemia in Tunisia. The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning alpha-thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying alpha-thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have displayed the prevalence of 7.38% Hb Bart's carriers at birth. Molecular analyses were conducted by PCR and DNA sequencing on 20 families' cases from the above survey carrying the Hb Bart's at birth and on 10 Hb H diseased patients. The results showed six alpha-globin gene molecular defects and were responsible for alpha-thalassaemia: -alpha(3.7), - -(MedI), alpha(TSaudi), alpha(2)(cd23GAG->Stop), Hb Greone Hart: alpha(1)(119CCT->TCT) corresponding to 11 genotypes out of which two are responsible for Hb H disease (- -(Med)/-alpha(3.7)) and (alpha(TSaudi)alpha/alpha(TSaudi)alpha) and a newly described polymorphism: alpha+6C->G. The geographical repartition of alpha-thal carriers showed that the -alpha3.7 deletion is distributed all over the country, respectively the alpha(HphI) and alpha(TSaudi) seem to be more frequent in the central region of the northeast region. The haematological and clinical data showed a moderate phenotype with a late age of diagnosis for Hb H disease. This work had permitted, in addition to an overview on alpha-thalassaemia in the country, the optimization of protocols for alpha-thalassaemia detection in our lab, allowing further investigations concerning phenotype-genotype correlation in sickle cell disease or beta-thalassaemia. PMID:19147907

  4. Alpha-adrenoceptors: recent development and some comparative aspects.

    PubMed

    Johansson, P

    1984-01-01

    On anatomical and functional bases, alpha-adrenoceptors have been divided into pre- and postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors. Recently, alpha-adrenoceptors have been classified as alpha 1 and alpha 2 according to their pharmacological responses, irrespective of their anatomical location. The presynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors, which have been recognized as alpha 2, determine the frequency of the nerve impulses travelling along the axon and also the amount of transmitter released per nerve impulse from the varicose terminal. Postsynaptic alpha-adrenoceptors have been recognized in various tissues including smooth muscle, pancreatic islets, fat cells, platelets and other tissues. Both alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors have been located postsynaptically. alpha-Adrenoceptors have been found also in the central nervous system. Generally, they fall into the same categories (alpha 1 and alpha 2) as the peripheral alpha-adrenoceptors. A new class of drugs, the so called calcium blockers, inhibit the postsynaptic response to alpha 2 stimulation but not the alpha 1-mediated response, indicating that the alpha 2-adrenoceptors are dependent on Ca2+ ions for their function. In the most primitive group of vertebrates, the fishes, alpha-adrenoceptors seem to be different in as much as they do not respond to many of the classical drugs employed to distinguish between alpha-adrenoceptors in mammals. In reptiles and amphibians alpha 2-adrenoceptors have been shown to exist. These receptors are involved in the regulation of melanocytes. In the most advanced non-mammalian vertebrates (birds) both peripheral and central alpha-adrenoceptors seem to be qualitatively similar to the mammalian types. PMID:6149062

  5. Alpha Com eclipse observing campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waagen, Elizabeth O.

    2014-12-01

    Drs. Matthew W. Muterspaugh and Gregory W. Henry (Tennessee State University) have requested AAVSO observers' ssistance in monitoring the possible Algol-like binary star alpha Com before, during, and after the eclipse they have predicted for mid-to-late January 2015. The PIs will be using the Fairborn Observatory automated photometric telescopes on Mt. Hopkins, but they are requesting additional observations not only to supplement theirs but also specifically to have good coverage in the event of bad weather at Mt. Hopkins. Alf Com has a 26-year period and is 4.32V at maximum. The expected amplitude of the eclipse is about 0.8 magnitude and the duration somewhere between 28 and 45 hours. The eclipse is predicted for January 25 ± three days (JD 2457047 ± 3). Muterspaugh at al. first calculated the possibility of a 2015 eclipse in 2010 (AJ). Muterspaugh and Henry recently published an article with updated information (arXiv 2014). V and/or R photometry (other bands welcome) is requested, with a minimal cadence of one measurement/2 hours, to make sure the eclipse is caught right as it begins and to ensure having multiple data points on any unseen objects that might eclipse as well. During eclipse, continuous observations are important. Infrared (H-band) observations could be interesting, should the CHARA array image the event. The precision photometry in the weeks before and after the eclipse is requested in order to catch possible evidence for planets or other materials around the eclipsing star. Updated astrometry from the current epoch would greatly improve the eclipse preductions. Charts with comparison star sequence for alf Com may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). The PIs recommend using the comparison stars HD 113848 (39 Com, HR 4946, HIP 63948, V=5.990, B-V=0.39, F4V) and HD 114520 (HIP 64312, V=6.820, B-V=0.46,F2II). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See AAVSO Alert Notice 506 for full details.

  6. Analysis of a heat transfer device for measuring film coefficients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medrow, R. A.; Johnson, R. L.; Loomis, W. R.; Wedeven, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    A heat transfer device consisting of a heated rotating cylinder in a bath was analyzed for its effectiveness to determine heat transfer coefficient of fluids. A time dependent analysis shows that the performance is insensitive to the value of heat transfer coefficient with the given rig configuration.

  7. A program to compute aquifer-response coefficients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maddock, Thomas

    1974-01-01

    An alternating direction technique is used to solve finite difference equations approximating the flow of water in an aquifer. The solutions produce response coefficients relating pumping from wells to drawdowns within those wells. The product of the response coefficient with the pumping values produces a linear algebraic technological function that can be used for integrating hydrologic phenomena into planning and management models.

  8. Critical Values of the Rank-Biserial Correlation Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, Victor L.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that the rank-biserial correlation coefficient is a linear function of the U-statistic (Mann and Whitney), so that a test of group mean difference is equivalent to a test of zero correlation for the rank-biserial coefficient. (RC)

  9. Coefficients of Correlation and Concordance for Sets of Triads Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degerman, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Coefficients of correlation and concordance are defined for profiles consisting of ensembles of partially ordered sets, by extending Kendall's rank order correlation (tau) and Kendall's coefficient of concordance (W) to cases where subjects are asked to rank order, or to choose among, the given alternatives in multiple sets of items. (Author/PN)

  10. A Simple Geometric Approach to Approximating the Gini Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Hirschel; Golden, John

    2008-01-01

    The author shows how a quick approximation of the Lorenz curve's Gini coefficient can be calculated empirically using numerical data presented in cumulative income quintiles. When the technique here was used to estimate 621 income quintile/Gini coefficient observations from the Deninger and Squire/World Bank data set, this approach performed…

  11. Crop coefficient development and application to an evapotranspiration network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop coefficients derived from properly designed, operated, and maintained lysimeters provide the most accurate values throughout the growing season and are critical in the computation of hourly and daily,regionally based, crop evapotranspiration (ET) values. Multi-stage crop coefficients can be der...

  12. On the coefficients of differentiated expansions of ultraspherical polynomials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karageorghis, Andreas; Phillips, Timothy N.

    1989-01-01

    A formula expressing the coefficients of an expression of ultraspherical polynomials which has been differentiated an arbitrary number of times in terms of the coefficients of the original expansion is proved. The particular examples of Chebyshev and Legendre polynomials are considered.

  13. Factor Scores, Structure and Communality Coefficients: A Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Mary

    2011-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this paper is to present an easy-to-understand primer on three important concepts of factor analysis: Factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Given that statistical analyses are a part of a global general linear model (GLM), and utilize weights as an integral part of analyses (Thompson, 2006;…

  14. Extinction coefficients of chlorine monoxide and chlorine heptoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C.-L.

    1976-01-01

    The ultraviolet and visible extinction coefficients of Cl2O and Cl2O7 were measured from 180 to 800 nm. The results are comparable in shape with literature values, but different in magnitude. The approximate extinction coefficients at the peaks of infrared absorption lines are also given.

  15. Elastic Moduli and Poisson's Coefficient of Optical Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Darmaev, M. V.

    2015-09-01

    Product of the hardness of a solid body and the squared RMS velocity of strain waves having the characteristics typical of the elastic modulus is referred to as the effective elastic modulus. The ratio of the bulk compression modulus to the effective elastic modulus of optical glasses is an unambiguous function of Poisson's coefficient. The nature of Poisson's coefficient of the glasses is discussed.

  16. Biases and Standard Errors of Standardized Regression Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Ke-Hai; Chan, Wai

    2011-01-01

    The paper obtains consistent standard errors (SE) and biases of order O(1/n) for the sample standardized regression coefficients with both random and given predictors. Analytical results indicate that the formulas for SEs given in popular text books are consistent only when the population value of the regression coefficient is zero. The sample…

  17. Calculation of fusion product angular correlation coefficients for fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, T.J.

    1987-08-01

    The angular correlation coefficients for fusion products are calculated in the cases of Maxwellian and beam-target plasmas. Measurement of these coefficients as a localized ion temperature or fast-ion diagnostic is discussed. 8 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Second-order bounds for linear recurrences with negative coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Morton, Daniel C.

    2006-02-01

    This paper introduces a generalization of Fibonacci and Pell polynomials in order to obtain optimal second-order bounds for general linear recurrences with negative coefficients. An important aspect of the derived bounds is that they are applicable and easily computable. The results imply bounds on all entries in inverses of triangular matrices as well as on coefficients of reciprocals of power series.

  19. A Simple Geometric Approach to Approximating the Gini Coefficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasper, Hirschel; Golden, John

    2008-01-01

    The author shows how a quick approximation of the Lorenz curve's Gini coefficient can be calculated empirically using numerical data presented in cumulative income quintiles. When the technique here was used to estimate 621 income quintile/Gini coefficient observations from the Deninger and Squire/World Bank data set, this approach performed…

  20. The dyadic diffraction coefficient for a curved edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kouyoumjian, R. G.; Pathak, P. H.

    1974-01-01

    A compact dyadic diffraction coefficient for electromagnetic waves obliquely incident on a curved edge formed by perfectly conducting curved or plane surfaces is obtained. This diffraction coefficent remains valid in the transition regions adjacent to shadow and reflection boundaries, where the diffraction coefficients of Keller's original theory fail. The method is on Keller's method of the canonical problem, which in this case is the perfectly conducting wedge illuminated by plane, cylindrical, conical, and spherical waves. When the proper ray fixed coordinate system is introduced, the dyadic diffraction coefficient for the wedge is found to be the sum of only two dyads, and it is shown that this is also true for the dyadic diffraction coefficients of higher order edges. One dyad contains the acoustic soft diffraction coefficient; the other dyad contains the acoustic hard diffraction coefficient. The expressions for the acoustic wedge diffraction coefficients contain Fresnel integrals, which ensure that the total field is continuous at shadow and reflection boundaries. The diffraction coefficients have the same form for the different types of edge illumination; only the arguments of the Fresnel integrals are different. Since diffraction is a local phenomenon, and locally the curved edge structure is wedge shaped, this result is readily extended to the curved edge.