ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yan; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2007-01-01
The impact of outliers on Cronbach's coefficient [alpha] has not been documented in the psychometric or statistical literature. This is an important gap because coefficient [alpha] is the most widely used measurement statistic in all of the social, educational, and health sciences. The impact of outliers on coefficient [alpha] is investigated for…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Liu, Yan; Wu, Amery D.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2010-01-01
In a recent Monte Carlo simulation study, Liu and Zumbo showed that outliers can severely inflate the estimates of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for continuous item response data--visual analogue response format. Little, however, is known about the effect of outliers for ordinal item response data--also commonly referred to as Likert, Likert-type,…
Minimum Sample Size for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha: A Monte-Carlo Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yurdugul, Halil
2008-01-01
The coefficient alpha is the most widely used measure of internal consistency for composite scores in the educational and psychological studies. However, due to the difficulties of data gathering in psychometric studies, the minimum sample size for the sample coefficient alpha has been frequently debated. There are various suggested minimum sample…
Understanding a Widely Misunderstood Statistic: Cronbach's "Alpha"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ritter, Nicola L.
2010-01-01
It is important to explore score reliability in virtually all studies, because tests are not reliable. The present paper explains the most frequently used reliability estimate, coefficient alpha, so that the coefficient's conceptual underpinnings will be understood. Researchers need to understand score reliability because of the possible impact…
On the Use, the Misuse, and the Very Limited Usefulness of Cronbach's Alpha
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sijtsma, Klaas
2009-01-01
This discussion paper argues that both the use of Cronbach's alpha as a reliability estimate and as a measure of internal consistency suffer from major problems. First, alpha always has a value, which cannot be equal to the test score's reliability given the inter-item covariance matrix and the usual assumptions about measurement error. Second, in…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen
2005-01-01
We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zinbarg, Richard E.; Revelle, William; Yovel, Iftah; Li, Wen
2005-01-01
We make theoretical comparisons among five coefficients--Cronbach's [alpha], Revelle's [beta], McDonald's [omega][sub h], and two alternative conceptualizations of reliability. Though many end users and psychometricians alike may not distinguish among these five coefficients, we demonstrate formally their nonequivalence. Specifically, whereas…
Treating Cronbach's Alpha Reliability Coefficients as Data in Counseling Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Helms, Janet E.; Henze, Kevin T.; Sass, Terry L.; Mifsud, Venus A.
2006-01-01
Scientific associations and measurement experts in psychology and education have voiced various standards and best-practice recommendations concerning reliability data over the years. Yet in the counseling psychology literature, there is virtually no single-source compilation and articulation of good practices for reporting, analyzing, and…
Factors Affecting Coefficient Alpha: A Mini Monte Carlo Study.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Reinhardt, Brian M.
Factors affecting a lower-bound estimate of internal consistency reliability, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, are explored. Theoretically, coefficient alpha is an estimate of the correlation between two tests drawn at random from a pool of items like the items in the test under consideration. As a practical matter, coefficient alpha can be an index…
My Current Thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and Successor Procedures
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronbach, Lee J.; Shavelson, Richard J.
2004-01-01
In 1997, noting that the 50th anniversary of the publication of "Coefficient Alpha and the Internal Structure of Tests" was fast approaching, Lee Cronbach planned what have become the notes published here. His aim was to point out the ways in which his views on coefficient alpha had evolved, doubting now that the coefficient was the best way of…
Coefficient alpha and interculture test selection.
Thurber, Steven; Kishi, Yasuhiro
2014-04-01
The internal consistency reliability of a measure can be a focal point in an evaluation of the potential adequacy of an instrument for adaptation to another cultural setting. Cronbach's alpha (α) coefficient is often used as the statistical index for such a determination. However, alpha presumes a tau-equivalent test and may constitute an inaccurate population estimate for multidimensional tests. These notions are expanded and examined with a Japanese version of a questionnaire on nursing attitudes toward suicidal patients, originally constructed in Sweden using the English language. The English measure was reported to have acceptable internal consistency (α) albeit the dimensionality of the questionnaire was not addressed. The Japanese scale was found to lack tau-equivalence. An alternative to alpha, "composite reliability," was computed and found to be below acceptable standards in magnitude and precision. Implications for research application of the Japanese instrument are discussed. PMID:22523134
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2015-01-01
A direct approach to point and interval estimation of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for multiple component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on a latent variable modeling application with widely circulated software. As a by-product, using sample data the method permits ascertaining whether the population discrepancy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.
2015-01-01
A direct approach to point and interval estimation of Cronbach's coefficient alpha for multiple component measuring instruments is outlined. The procedure is based on a latent variable modeling application with widely circulated software. As a by-product, using sample data the method permits ascertaining whether the population discrepancy…
Testing the Difference between Two Alpha Coefficients with Small Samples of Subjects and Raters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldt, Leonard S.; Kim, Seonghoon
2006-01-01
Researchers sometimes need a statistical test of the hypothesis that two values of Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient are equal. The situation may involve scores from two different measures administered to independent random samples or from the same measure administered to random samples from two different populations. Feldt derived a test
Coefficient Alpha: A Reliability Coefficient for the 21st Century?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yang, Yanyun; Green, Samuel B.
2011-01-01
Coefficient alpha is almost universally applied to assess reliability of scales in psychology. We argue that researchers should consider alternatives to coefficient alpha. Our preference is for structural equation modeling (SEM) estimates of reliability because they are informative and allow for an empirical evaluation of the assumptions…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Ke-Hai
2016-01-01
Cronbach's coefficient alpha is a widely used reliability measure in social, behavioral, and education sciences. It is reported in nearly every study that involves measuring a construct through multiple items. With non-tau-equivalent items, McDonald's omega has been used as a popular alternative to alpha in the literature. Traditional estimation…
Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rodriguez, Michael C.; Maeda, Yukiko
2006-01-01
The meta-analysis of coefficient alpha across many studies is becoming more common in psychology by a methodology labeled reliability generalization. Existing reliability generalization studies have not used the sampling distribution of coefficient alpha for precision weighting and other common meta-analytic procedures. A framework is provided for…
Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew
2012-01-01
Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…
Commentary on Coefficient Alpha: A Cautionary Tale
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2009-01-01
The general use of coefficient alpha to assess reliability should be discouraged on a number of grounds. The assumptions underlying coefficient alpha are unlikely to hold in practice, and violation of these assumptions can result in nontrivial negative or positive bias. Structural equation modeling was discussed as an informative process both to…
Coefficient Alpha and Reliability of Scale Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Almehrizi, Rashid S.
2013-01-01
The majority of large-scale assessments develop various score scales that are either linear or nonlinear transformations of raw scores for better interpretations and uses of assessment results. The current formula for coefficient alpha (a; the commonly used reliability coefficient) only provides internal consistency reliability estimates of raw…
Sample Size Requirements for Testing and Estimating Coefficient Alpha.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonett, Douglas G.
2002-01-01
Derived an approximate test and confidence interval for coefficient alpha and used the approximate test and confidence interval to derive closed-form sample size formulas that can be used to determine the sample size needed to test coefficient alpha with desired power or to test coefficient alpha with desired precision. (SLD)
Asymptotically Distribution-Free (ADF) Interval Estimation of Coefficient Alpha
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Maydeu-Olivares, Alberto; Coffman, Donna L.; Hartmann, Wolfgang M.
2007-01-01
The point estimate of sample coefficient alpha may provide a misleading impression of the reliability of the test score. Because sample coefficient alpha is consistently biased downward, it is more likely to yield a misleading impression of poor reliability. The magnitude of the bias is greatest precisely when the variability of sample alpha is…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wise, Steven L.; DeMars, Christine E.
2009-01-01
Attali (2005) recently demonstrated that Cronbach's coefficient [alpha] estimate of reliability for number-right multiple-choice tests will tend to be deflated by speededness, rather than inflated as is commonly believed and taught. Although the methods, findings, and conclusions of Attali (2005) are correct, his article may inadvertently invite a…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2015-01-01
In the lead article, Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love demonstrate the relationship among homogeneity, internal consistency, and coefficient alpha, and also distinguish among them. These distinctions are important because too often coefficient alpha--a reliability coefficient--is interpreted as an index of homogeneity or internal consistency.…
Varying Coefficient Meta-Analytic Methods for Alpha Reliability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bonett, Douglas G.
2010-01-01
The conventional fixed-effects (FE) and random-effects (RE) confidence intervals that are used to assess the average alpha reliability across multiple studies have serious limitations. The FE method, which is based on a constant coefficient model, assumes equal reliability coefficients across studies and breaks down under minor violations of this
Correcting Coefficient Alpha for Correlated Errors: Is [alpha][K]a Lower Bound to Reliability?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rae, Gordon
2006-01-01
When errors of measurement are positively correlated, coefficient alpha may overestimate the "true" reliability of a composite. To reduce this inflation bias, Komaroff (1997) has proposed an adjusted alpha coefficient, ak. This article shows that ak is only guaranteed to be a lower bound to reliability if the latter does not include correlated…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.
2015-01-01
This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…
A Note on the Estimator of the Alpha Coefficient for Standardized Variables Under Normality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hayashi, Kentaro; Kamata, Akihito
2005-01-01
The asymptotic standard deviation (SD) of the alpha coefficient with standardized variables is derived under normality. The research shows that the SD of the standardized alpha coefficient becomes smaller as the number of examinees and/or items increase. Furthermore, this research shows that the degree of the dependence of the SD on the number of…
SIMREL: Software for Coefficient Alpha and Its Confidence Intervals with Monte Carlo Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yurdugul, Halil
2009-01-01
This article describes SIMREL, a software program designed for the simulation of alpha coefficients and the estimation of its confidence intervals. SIMREL runs on two alternatives. In the first one, if SIMREL is run for a single data file, it performs descriptive statistics, principal components analysis, and variance analysis of the item scores
SIMREL: Software for Coefficient Alpha and Its Confidence Intervals with Monte Carlo Studies
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yurdugul, Halil
2009-01-01
This article describes SIMREL, a software program designed for the simulation of alpha coefficients and the estimation of its confidence intervals. SIMREL runs on two alternatives. In the first one, if SIMREL is run for a single data file, it performs descriptive statistics, principal components analysis, and variance analysis of the item scores…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuan, Ke-Hai; Guarnaccia, Charles A.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.
2003-01-01
Studied the sample coefficient alpha for each of the five subscales of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSL; L. Derogaitis and others, 1974) in a sample of 419 adults. Findings show that the normal-theory-based distribution has a systematic bias in describing the behavior of the sample coefficient alpha. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Paek, Insu
2016-01-01
The effect of guessing on the point estimate of coefficient alpha has been studied in the literature, but the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test characteristics on the interval estimators for coefficient alpha has not been fully investigated. This study examined the impact of guessing and its interactions with other test…
Improving Construct Validity: Cronbach, Meehl, and Neurath's Ship--Comment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Westen, Drew; Rosenthal, Robert
2005-01-01
Smith's article "On Construct Validity: Issues of Method and Measurement" is a fine tribute to L. J. Cronbach and P. E. Meehl (1955) that clarifies the current state and future directions in the understanding of construct validity. Construct validity is a dynamic process, and fit indices need to be used at the service of understanding, not in…
[Estimators of internal consistency in health research: the use of the alpha coefficient].
da Silva, Franciele Cascaes; Gonalves, Elizandra; Arancibia, Beatriz Anglica Valdivia; Bento, Gisele Graziele; Castro, Thiago Luis da Silva; Hernandez, Salma Stephany Soleman; da Silva, Rudney
2015-01-01
Academic production has increased in the area of health, increasingly demanding high quality in publications of great impact. One of the ways to consider quality is through methods that increase the consistency of data analysis, such as reliability which, depending on the type of data, can be evaluated by different coefficients, especially the alpha coefficient. Based on this, the present review systematically gathers scientific articles produced in the last five years, which in a methodological manner gave the ? coefficient psychometric use as an estimator of internal consistency and reliability in the processes of construction, adaptation and validation of instruments. The identification of the studies was conducted systematically in the databases BioMed Central Journals, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, Medline, SciELO, Scopus, Journals@Ovid, BMJ and Springer, using inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data analyses were performed by means of triangulation, content analysis and descriptive analysis. It was found that most studies were conducted in Iran (f=3), Spain (f=2) and Brazil (f=2). These studies aimed to test the psychometric properties of instruments, with eight studies using the ? coefficient to assess reliability and nine for assessing internal consistency. All studies were classified as methodological research when their objectives were analyzed. In addition, four studies were also classified as correlational and one as descriptive-correlational. It can be concluded that though the ? coefficient is widely used as one of the main parameters for assessing internal consistency of questionnaires in health sciences, its use as an estimator of trust of the methodology used and internal consistency has some critiques that should be considered. PMID:26102116
Study of the absorption coefficient of alpha particles to lower hybrid waves in tokamak
Wang, Jianbing Zhang, Xianmei Yu, Limin Zhao, Xiang
2014-02-12
Part of the energy of the Lower Hybrid (LH) waves may be absorbed by the α particles via the so-called perpendicular landau damping mechanism, which depends on various parameters of fusion reactors and the LH waves. In this article, we calculate the absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles. Results show that, the γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ∥} while deceases with increasing the frequency of LH waves ω{sub LH} over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e}≈8×10{sup 19}m{sup −3} for ITER-like scenario. The thermal corrections to the cold plasma dispersion relation will change the damping rate to a certain extent under some specific conditions. We have also evaluated the fraction of LH power absorbed by the alpha particles, η ≈ 0.47% and 4.1% for an LH frequency of 5 GHz and 3.7 GHz respectively for ITER-like scenario. This work gives the effective reference for the choice of parameters of future fusion reactors.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black, Ryan A.; Yang, Yanyun; Beitra, Danette; McCaffrey, Stacey
2015-01-01
Estimation of composite reliability within a hierarchical modeling framework has recently become of particular interest given the growing recognition that the underlying assumptions of coefficient alpha are often untenable. Unfortunately, coefficient alpha remains the prominent estimate of reliability when estimating total scores from a scale with…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ossendrijver, M.; Stix, M.; Brandenburg, A.
2001-09-01
We present numerical simulations of three-dimensional compressible magnetoconvection in a rotating rectangular box that represents a section of the solar convection zone. The box contains a convectively unstable layer, surrounded by stably stratified layers with overshooting convection. The magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, is chosen subcritical, thus excluding spontaneous growth of the magnetic field through dynamo action, and the magnetic energy is maintained by introducing a constant magnetic field into the box, once convection has attained a statistically stationary state. Under the influence of the Coriolis force, the advection of the magnetic field results in a non-vanishing contribution to the mean electric field, given by
A Monte Carlo Study of Eight Confidence Interval Methods for Coefficient Alpha
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romano, Jeanine L.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hibbard, Susan T.
2010-01-01
The purpose of this research is to examine eight of the different methods for computing confidence intervals around alpha that have been proposed to determine which of these, if any, is the most accurate and precise. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate samples under known and controlled population conditions. In general, the differences in…
Generalization of Connor and Hastie's ripple-trapping coefficient, G(. cap alpha. )
Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.
1980-02-01
In their calculation of transport due to ripple trapping, Connor and Hastie employ a factor G(..cap alpha..) to take into account the poloidal variation of the depth and shape of the local magnetic wells. They assume, however, that the toroidal-field ripple strength, delta, is independent of the poloidal angle. This letter generalizes G to treat any arbitrary poloidal variation of delta, and also high-beta, non-circular plasma configurations of arbitrary aspect ratio.
Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Yu, L.; Zhao, X.
2014-12-15
In tokamaks, fusion generated α particles may absorb lower hybrid (LH) wave energy, thus reducing the LH current drive efficiency. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} of LH waves due to α particles changing with some typical parameters is calculated in this paper. Results show that γ{sub α} increases with the parallel refraction index n{sub ‖}, while decreases with the frequency of LH waves ω over a wide range. Higher background plasma temperature and toroidal magnetic field will increase the absorption. The absorption coefficient γ{sub α} increases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} ≤ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, while decreases with n{sub e} when n{sub e} becomes larger, and there is a peak value of γ{sub α} when n{sub e} ≈ 8 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −1} for the ITER-like scenario. The influence of spectral broadening in parametric decay instabilities on the absorption coefficient is evaluated. The value of γ{sub α} with n{sub ‖} being 2.5 is almost two times larger than that with n{sub ‖} being 2.0 and is even lager in the case of 2.9, which will obviously increase the absorption of the LH power by alpha particles.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Guiot, R.; Wunnenberg, H.
1980-01-01
The methods by which aerodynamic coefficients are determined and discussed. These include: calculations, wind tunnel experiments and experiments in flight for various prototypes of the Alpha Jet. A comparison of obtained results shows good correlation between expectations and in-flight test results.
Rodrigues, C; Gameiro, P; Reis, S; Lima, J L; de Castro, B
2001-12-11
The partition coefficients (K(p)) between lipid bilayers of dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) unilamellar liposomes and water were determined using derivative spectrophotometry for chlordiazepoxide (benzodiazepine), isoniazid and rifampicin (tuberculostatic drugs) and dibucaine (local anaesthetic). A comparison of the K(p) values in water/DMPG with those in water/DMPC (dimyristoyl-L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) revealed that for chlordiazepoxide and isoniazid, neutral drugs at physiological pH, the partition coefficients are similar in anionic (DMPG) and zwitterionic (DMPC) liposomes. However, for ionised drugs at physiological pH, the electrostatic interactions are different with DMPG and DMPC, with the cationic dibucaine having a stronger interaction with DMPG, and the anionic rifampicin having a much larger K(p) in zwitterionic DMPC. These results show that liposomes are a better model membrane than an isotropic two-phase solvent system, such as water-octanol, to predict drug-membrane partition coefficients, as they mimic better the hydrophobic part and the outer polar charged surface of the phospholipids of natural membranes. PMID:11744194
Delimiting Coefficient a from Internal Consistency and Unidimensionality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sijtsma, Klaas
2015-01-01
I discuss the contribution by Davenport, Davison, Liou, & Love (2015) in which they relate reliability represented by coefficient a to formal definitions of internal consistency and unidimensionality, both proposed by Cronbach (1951). I argue that coefficient a is a lower bound to reliability and that concepts of internal consistency and…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jin-Wei; Gao, Yi-Tian; Wang, Qi-Min; Su, Chuan-Qi; Feng, Yu-Jie; Yu, Xin
2016-01-01
In this paper, a fourth-order variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equation is studied, which might describe a one-dimensional continuum anisotropic Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin chain with the octuple-dipole interaction or an alpha helical protein with higher-order excitations and interactions under continuum approximation. With the aid of auxiliary function, we derive the bilinear forms and corresponding constraints on the variable coefficients. Via the symbolic computation, we obtain the Lax pair, infinitely many conservation laws, one-, two- and three-soliton solutions. We discuss the influence of the variable coefficients on the solitons. With different choices of the variable coefficients, we obtain the parabolic, cubic, and periodic solitons, respectively. We analyse the head-on and overtaking interactions between/among the two and three solitons. Interactions between a bound state and a single soliton are displayed with different choices of variable coefficients. We also derive the quasi-periodic formulae for the three cases of the bound states.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Romano, Jeanine L.; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Owens, Corina M.; Scott, Heather M.
2011-01-01
In this study, the authors aimed to examine 8 of the different methods for computing confidence intervals around alpha that have been proposed to determine which of these, if any, is the most accurate and precise. Monte Carlo methods were used to simulate samples under known and controlled population conditions wherein the underlying item…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2016-01-01
Coefficient omega and alpha are both measures of the composite reliability for a set of items. Unlike coefficient alpha, coefficient omega remains unbiased with congeneric items with uncorrelated errors. Despite this ability, coefficient omega is not as widely used and cited in the literature as coefficient alpha. Reasons for coefficient omega's…
Alpha Thalassemia Physicians often mistake alpha thalassemia trait for iron deficiency anemia and incorrectly prescribe iron supplements that have no effect 1 on the anemia. αα αα Normal alpha globin genes ...
Eddy mixing coefficient on Saturn
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atreya, S. K.
1982-01-01
Data on the composition, thermal structure, and Lyman-alpha dayglow of Saturn, when analyzed in conjunction with photochemical models of the hydrocarbons and the atomic hydrogen production, yield the homopause value of the eddy diffusion coefficient to be approximately 100 million/sq cm per sec. The equatorial value of the eddy diffusion coefficient at the homopause of Saturn is thus found to be approximately 100 times greater than on Jupiter. The mesosphere (and presumably, troposphere) of Saturn appears to be considerably more turbulent than the upper atmosphere of Jupiter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roskam, J.
1972-01-01
Expressions are derived for computing the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix for nonplanar wing-body-tail configurations. An aerodynamic influence coefficient is defined as the load in lbs. induced on a panel as a result of a unit angle of attack on another panel. Fuselage, wing and tail thickness are assumed to be small with the result that the thickness effect on the flow-field is negligible. The method for determining the aerodynamic influence coefficient matrix is based on the lifting solution to the small perturbation, steady potential flow equation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roskam, J.; Smith, H.; Gibson, G.
1972-01-01
The method used in computing the structural influence coefficient matrix of the computer program of Reference 1 (appendix A of the Summary Report) is reported. This matrix is computed for complete wing-body-tail configurations by assuming that all major airplane components can be structurally represented by a slender beam called the elastic axis. A structural influence coefficient is defined as the rotation about the Y-stability axis at panel j induced by a unit load on panel k. A description of how a structural breakdown is performed in detail is included.
Coefficient α as a Measure of Test Score Reliability: Review of 3 Popular Misconceptions.
Morera, Osvaldo F; Stokes, Sonya M
2016-03-01
We discuss 3 popular misconceptions about Cronbach α or coefficient α, traditionally used in public health and the behavioral sciences as an index of test score reliability. We also review several other indices of test score reliability. We encourage researchers to thoughtfully consider the nature of their data and the options when choosing an index of reliability, and to clearly communicate this choice and its implications to their audiences. PMID:26885962
INTERNAL CONVERSION COEFFICIENTS - HOW GOOD ARE THEY NOW?
KIBEDI,T.; BURROWS, T.W.; TRZHASKOVSKAYA, M.B.; NESTOR, JR., C.W.; DAVIDSON, P.M.
2007-04-22
Internal conversion coefficients involving atomic electrons (ICC) and electron-positron pairs (IPC) are often required to determine transition multipolarities and total transition rates. A new internal conversion coefficient data base, BrIcc has been developed which integrates a number of tabulations on ICC and IPC, as well as {Omega}(E0) electronic factors. To decide which theoretical internal conversion coefficient table to use, the accurately determined experimental {alpha}{sub K}, {alpha}{sub L}, {alpha}{sub Total} and {alpha}{sub K}/{alpha}{sub L} values were compared with the new Dirac-Fock calculations using extreme assumptions on the effect of the atomic vacancy. While the overall difference between experiment and theory is less than 1%, our analysis shows preference towards the so called ''Frozen Orbital'' approximation, which takes into account the effect of the atomic vacancy.
Prediction of coefficients of thermal expansion for unidirectional composites
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowles, David E.; Tompkins, Stephen S.
1989-01-01
Several analyses for predicting the longitudinal, alpha(1), and transverse, alpha(2), coefficients of thermal expansion of unidirectional composites were compared with each other, and with experimental data on different graphite fiber reinforced resin, metal, and ceramic matrix composites. Analytical and numerical analyses that accurately accounted for Poisson restraining effects in the transverse direction were in consistently better agreement with experimental data for alpha(2), than the less rigorous analyses. All of the analyses predicted similar values of alpha(1), and were in good agreement with the experimental data. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine the relative influence of constituent properties on the predicted values of alpha(1), and alpha(2). As would be expected, the prediction of alpha(1) was most sensitive to longitudinal fiber properties and the prediction of alpha(2) was most sensitive to matrix properties.
Factor Scores, Structure Coefficients, and Communality Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goodwyn, Fara
2012-01-01
This paper presents heuristic explanations of factor scores, structure coefficients, and communality coefficients. Common misconceptions regarding these topics are clarified. In addition, (a) the regression (b) Bartlett, (c) Anderson-Rubin, and (d) Thompson methods for calculating factor scores are reviewed. Syntax necessary to execute all four…
... helpful? Also known as: Alpha 1 -antitrypsin; A1AT; AAT Formal name: Alpha 1 Antitrypsin; α1-antitrypsin Related ... know? How is it used? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) testing is used to help diagnose alpha-1 ...
Coefficients Alpha, Beta, Omega, and the glb: Comments on Sijtsma
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Revelle, William; Zinbarg, Richard E.
2009-01-01
There are three fundamental problems in Sijtsma ("Psychometrika," 2008): (1) contrary to the name, the glb is not the greatest lower bound of reliability but rather is systematically less than omega[subscript t] (McDonald, "Test theory: A unified treatment," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1999), (2) we agree with Sijtsma that when considering how well a test
Coefficients Alpha, Beta, Omega, and the glb: Comments on Sijtsma
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Revelle, William; Zinbarg, Richard E.
2009-01-01
There are three fundamental problems in Sijtsma ("Psychometrika," 2008): (1) contrary to the name, the glb is not the greatest lower bound of reliability but rather is systematically less than omega[subscript t] (McDonald, "Test theory: A unified treatment," Erlbaum, Hillsdale, 1999), (2) we agree with Sijtsma that when considering how well a test…
Generalized Hansen Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breiter, Sławomir; Métris, Gilles; Vokrouhlický, David
2004-02-01
Hansen coefficients X
Coefficients of Effective Length.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edwards, Roger H.
1981-01-01
Under certain conditions, a validity Coefficient of Effective Length (CEL) can produce highly misleading results. A modified coefficent is suggested for use when empirical studies indicate that underlying assumptions have been violated. (Author/BW)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A high temperature Seebeck coefficient measurement apparatus and method with various features to minimize typical sources of errors is described. Common sources of temperature and voltage measurement errors which may impact accurate measurement are identified and reduced. Applying the identified principles, a high temperature Seebeck measurement apparatus and method employing a uniaxial, four-point geometry is described to operate from room temperature up to 1300K. These techniques for non-destructive Seebeck coefficient measurements are simple to operate, and are suitable for bulk samples with a broad range of physical types and shapes.
JKTLD: Limb darkening coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Southworth, John
2015-11-01
JKTLD outputs theoretically-calculated limb darkening (LD) strengths for equations (LD laws) which predict the amount of LD as a function of the part of the star being observed. The coefficients of these laws are obtained by bilinear interpolation (in effective temperature and surface gravity) in published tables of coefficients calculated from stellar model atmospheres by several researchers. Many observations of stars require the strength of limb darkening (LD) to be estimated, which can be done using theoretical models of stellar atmospheres; JKTLD can help in these circumstances.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Newman, Ezra Ted; Penrose, Roger
2009-06-01
The spin-coefficient formalism (SC formalism) (also known in the literature as Newman-Penrose formalism (NP formalism) ) is a commonly used technique based on the use of null tetrads, with ideas taken from 2-component spinors, for the detailed treatment of 4-dimensional space-times satisfying the equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity.
Nesis, E.I.; Shatalov, A.F.; Karmatskii, N.P.
1995-02-01
The effect of mechanical vibrations of a heated string on the heat transfer coefficient {alpha} at various heat fluxes has been studied experimentally. An empirical relation between the coefficient {alpha} and the vibration frequency and amplitude with unchanged q has been found.
Prediction of Aerodynamic Coefficients using Neural Networks for Sparse Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rajkumar, T.; Bardina, Jorge; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
Basic aerodynamic coefficients are modeled as functions of angles of attack and sideslip with vehicle lateral symmetry and compressibility effects. Most of the aerodynamic parameters can be well-fitted using polynomial functions. In this paper a fast, reliable way of predicting aerodynamic coefficients is produced using a neural network. The training data for the neural network is derived from wind tunnel test and numerical simulations. The coefficients of lift, drag, pitching moment are expressed as a function of alpha (angle of attack) and Mach number. The results produced from preliminary neural network analysis are very good.
Turbulent MHD transport coefficients - An attempt at self-consistency
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, H.; Montgomery, D.
1987-01-01
In this paper, some multiple scale perturbation calculations of turbulent MHD transport coefficients begun in earlier papers are first completed. These generalize 'alpha effect' calculations by treating the velocity field and magnetic field on the same footing. Then the problem of rendering such calculations self-consistent is addressed, generalizing an eddy-viscosity hypothesis similar to that of Heisenberg for the Navier-Stokes case. The method also borrows from Kraichnan's direct interaction approximation. The output is a set of integral equations relating the spectra and the turbulent transport coefficients. Previous 'alpha effect' and 'beta effect' coefficients emerge as limiting cases. A treatment of the inertial range can also be given, consistent with a -5/3 energy spectrum power law. In the Navier-Stokes limit, a value of 1.72 is extracted for the Kolmogorov constant. Further applications to MHD are possible.
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons.
Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.
Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G
2015-12-01
Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of quarks and gluons. PMID:26632590
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodruff, David; Wu, Yi-Fang
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to illustrate alpha's robustness and usefulness, using actual and simulated educational test data. The sampling properties of alpha are compared with the sampling properties of several other reliability coefficients: Guttman's lambda[subscript 2], lambda[subscript 4], and lambda[subscript 6]; test-retest reliability;…
alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane (alpha-HCH)
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
alpha - Hexachlorocyclohexane ( alpha - HCH ) ; CASRN 319 - 84 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Ass
... Stories A lung-affected Alpha enjoys hiking up mountains when she is not on duty as a ... police officer. Read More Alpha police officer climbs mountains in her spare time Eight-year-old Lucas ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Soderblom, David R.
1987-01-01
Describes the Alpha Centauri star system, which is the closest star system to the sun. Discusses the difficulties associated with measurements involving Alpha Centauri, along with some of the recent advances in stellar seismology. Raises questions about the possibilities of planets around Alpha Centauri. (TW)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Yuan, Ke-Hai; Bentler, Peter M.
2002-01-01
Examined the asymptotic distributions of three reliability coefficient estimates: (1) sample coefficient alpha; (2) reliability estimate of a composite score following factor analysis; and (3) maximal reliability of a linear combination of item scores after factor analysis. Findings show that normal theory based asymptotic distributions for these…
Drag Coefficient of Hexadecane Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakao, Yoshinobu; Hishida, Makoto; Kajimoto, Sadaaki; Tanaka, Gaku
This paper deals with the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles and their free rising velocity in liquid. The drag coefficient was experimentally investigated in Reynolds number range of about 40-300. The present experimental results are summarized in the following; (1) the drag coefficient of solidified hexadecane particles formed in liquid coolant by direct contact cooling is higher than that of a smooth surface sphere, this high drag coefficient seems to be attributed to the non-smooth surface of the solidified hexadecane particles, (2) experimental correlation for the drag coefficient of the solidified hexadecane particles was proposed, (3 ) the measured rising velocity of the solidified hexadecane particle agrees well with the calculated one, (4) the drag coefficients of hexadecane particles that were made by pouring hexadecane liquid into a solid hollow sphere agreed well with the drag coefficient of smooth surface sphere.
Rapid determination of alpha-tocopherol in muscle and adipose tissues of pork.
Pfalzgraf, A; Steinhart, H; Frigg, M
1995-03-01
A fast, sensitive and reproducible method for the analysis of alpha-tocopherol in pork tissues is presented. It combines saponification of the tissue and alpha-tocopherol extraction in a single vessel, followed by HPLC separation and fluorescence detection. Added alpha-tocopherol was recovered quantitatively. The reduction of lipid peroxides with potassium iodide before the saponification step did not alter the amounts of alpha-tocopherol detected. Membrane-bound alpha-tocopherol was not oxidized by lipid peroxides during the procedure. The coefficient of variation of alpha-tocopherol analysed using this method was +/- 4.2% for muscle and +/- 2.5% for adipose tissues. PMID:7785343
Alpha, Dimension-Free, and Model-Based Internal Consistency Reliability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bentler, Peter M.
2009-01-01
As pointed out by Sijtsma ("in press"), coefficient alpha is inappropriate as a single summary of the internal consistency of a composite score. Better estimators of internal consistency are available. In addition to those mentioned by Sijtsma, an old dimension-free coefficient and structural equation model based coefficients are proposed to…
Alpha, Dimension-Free, and Model-Based Internal Consistency Reliability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bentler, Peter M.
2009-01-01
As pointed out by Sijtsma ("in press"), coefficient alpha is inappropriate as a single summary of the internal consistency of a composite score. Better estimators of internal consistency are available. In addition to those mentioned by Sijtsma, an old dimension-free coefficient and structural equation model based coefficients are proposed to
Quadrature formulas for Fourier coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bojanov, Borislav; Petrova, Guergana
2009-09-01
We consider quadrature formulas of high degree of precision for the computation of the Fourier coefficients in expansions of functions with respect to a system of orthogonal polynomials. In particular, we show the uniqueness of a multiple node formula for the Fourier-Tchebycheff coefficients given by Micchelli and Sharma and construct new Gaussian formulas for the Fourier coefficients of a function, based on the values of the function and its derivatives.
Analytic properties of Hansen coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadov, Sergey Yu.
2008-04-01
Hansen’s coefficients in the theory of elliptic motion with eccentricity e are studied as functions of the parameter η = (1 - e 2)1/2. Their analytic behavior in the complex η plane is described and some symmetry relations are derived. In particular, for every Hansen coefficient, multiplication by suitable powers of e and η results in an entire analytic function of η. Consequently, Hansen’s coefficients can be in principle computed by means of rapidly convergent series in powers of η. A representation of Hansen’s coefficients in terms of two entire functions of e 2 follows.
RADIONUCLIDE RISK COEFFICIENT UNCERTAINTY REPORT
EPA has published excess cancer risk coefficients for the US population in Federal Guidance Report 13 (FGR 13). FGR 13 gives separate risk coefficients for food ingestion, water ingestion, inhalation, and external exposure for each of over 800 radionuclides. Some information on...
Approximate formulation of redistribution in the Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, H-alpha system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cooper, J.; Ballagh, R. J.; Hubeny, I.
1989-01-01
Simple approximate formulas are given for the coupled redistribution of Ly-alpha, Ly-beta, and H-alpha, by using well-defined approximations to an essentially exact formulation. These formulas incorporate all the essential physics including Raman scattering, lower state radiative decay, and correlated terms representing emission during a collision which must be retained in order that the emission coefficients are properly behaved in the line wings. Approximate expressions for the appropriate line broadening parameters are collected. Finally, practical expressions for the source functions are given. These are formulated through newly introduced nonimpact redistribution functions, which are shown to be reasonably approximated by existing (ordinary and generalized) redistribution functions.
Isospin symmetry in mirror {alpha} decays
Timofeyuk, N. K.; Johnson, R. C.; Descouvemont, P.
2007-03-15
We show that a consequence of isospin symmetry, recently discovered in mirror conjugated one-nucleon decays, can be extended to mirror-conjugated {alpha}-particle decays, both virtual and real. For virtual {alpha} decays of bound mirror pairs this symmetry manifests itself as a relation between the asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) of {alpha}-particle overlap integrals. This relation is given by a simple analytical formula that involves {alpha}-particle separation energies and charges of residual nuclei. For bound-unbound mirror pairs, the ANC of a bound nucleus is related to the {alpha} width of the mirror unbound level. For unbound mirror pairs we get a new analytical formula that relates the widths of mirror resonances. We test the validity of these analytical formulas against the predictions of a two-body potential and of a many-body microscopic cluster model for several mirror states in {sup 7}Li-{sup 7}Be, {sup 11}B-{sup 11}C, and {sup 19}F-{sup 19}Ne isotopes. We show that these analytical formulas are valid in many cases but that some deviations can be expected for isotopes with strongly deformed and easily excited cores. In general, the results from microscopic model are not very sensitive to model assumptions and can be used to predict unknown astrophysically relevant cross sections using known information about mirror systems.
Young, K.M.
1991-01-01
This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.
Bolton, Richard D.; MacArthur, Duncan W.
1996-01-01
An electrostatic detector for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure.
Bolton, R.D.; MacArthur, D.W.
1996-08-27
An electrostatic detector is disclosed for atmospheric radon or other weak sources of alpha radiation. In one embodiment, nested enclosures are insulated from one another, open at the top, and have a high voltage pin inside and insulated from the inside enclosure. An electric field is produced between the pin and the inside enclosure. Air ions produced by collision with alpha particles inside the decay volume defined by the inside enclosure are attracted to the pin and the inner enclosure. With low alpha concentrations, individual alpha events can be measured to indicate the presence of radon or other alpha radiation. In another embodiment, an electrical field is produced between parallel plates which are insulated from a single decay cavity enclosure. 6 figs.
Imaging alpha particle detector
Anderson, David F.
1985-01-01
A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A conducting coated high voltage electrode (1) and a tungsten wire grid (2) constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source (3) to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window (4) allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.
Imaging alpha particle detector
Anderson, D.F.
1980-10-29
A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.
Reexamination of the {alpha}-{alpha}''fishbone'' potential
Day, J. P.; McEwen, J. E.; Elhanafy, M.; Smith, E.; Woodhouse, R.; Papp, Z.
2011-09-15
The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the {alpha}-{alpha} fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-{alpha} resonance energies, experimental phase shifts, and three-{alpha} binding energies. We found that, essentially, a simple Gaussian can provide a good description of two-{alpha} and three-{alpha} experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Indarsih, Indrati, Ch. Rini
2016-02-01
In this paper, we define variance of the fuzzy random variables through alpha level. We have a theorem that can be used to know that the variance of fuzzy random variables is a fuzzy number. We have a multi-objective linear programming (MOLP) with fuzzy random of objective function coefficients. We will solve the problem by variance approach. The approach transform the MOLP with fuzzy random of objective function coefficients into MOLP with fuzzy of objective function coefficients. By weighted methods, we have linear programming with fuzzy coefficients and we solve by simplex method for fuzzy linear programming.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fisch, N. J.
2015-12-01
Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.
Fuel Temperature Coefficient of Reactivity
Loewe, W.E.
2001-07-31
A method for measuring the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity in a heterogeneous nuclear reactor is presented. The method, which is used during normal operation, requires that calibrated control rods be oscillated in a special way at a high reactor power level. The value of the fuel temperature coefficient of reactivity is found from the measured flux responses to these oscillations. Application of the method in a Savannah River reactor charged with natural uranium is discussed.
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
... various organs. Individuals with Alpha-1 have a genetic disorder that prevents their body from creating enough of this protein. This trait must be inherited from both parents (who are, by definition, carriers) in order to cause the disorder. How ...
Martn Snchez, A; de la Torre Prez, J
2012-09-01
Many portable devices have been designed to detect ?-rays or alpha and beta particles. Most of the ?-particle detectors give the total count as a result, without identifying the radionuclides existing in the sample. The development of a device allowing rapid and straightforward ?-particle spectrometry would be very useful for detecting the radioactive contents of unknown samples. This work describes the construction of a portable device using silicon semiconductor detectors designed to rapidly detect and possibly identify alpha-emitting radionuclides. PMID:22405957
Fisher, Ray, K.
2009-05-13
The study of burning plasmas is the next frontier in fusion energy research, and will be a major objective of the U.S. fusion program through U.S. collaboration with our international partners on the ITER Project. For DT magnetic fusion to be useful for energy production, it is essential that the energetic alpha particles produced by the fusion reactions be confined long enough to deposit a significant fraction of their initial ~3.5 MeV energy in the plasma before they are lost. Development of diagnostics to study the behavior of energetic confined alpha particles is a very important if not essential part of burning plasma research. Despite the clear need for these measurements, development of diagnostics to study confined the fast confined alphas to date has proven extremely difficult, and the available techniques remain for the most part unproven and with significant uncertainties. Research under this grant had the goal of developing diagnostics of fast confined alphas, primarily based on measurements of the neutron and ion tails resulting from alpha particle knock-on collisions with the plasma deuterium and tritium fuel ions. One of the strengths of this approach is the ability to measure the alphas in the hot plasma core where the interesting ignition physics will occur.
Recursive calculation of Hansen coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Branham, Richard L., Jr.
1990-06-01
Hansen coefficients are used in expansions of the elliptic motion. Three methods for calculating the coefficients are studied: Tisserand's method, the Von Zeipel-Andoyer (VZA) method with explicit representation of the polynomials required to compute the Hansen coefficients, and the VZA method with the values of the polynomials calculated recursively. The VZA method with explicit polynomials is by far the most rapid, but the tabulation of the polynomials only extends to 12th order in powers of the eccentricity, and unless one has access to the polynomials in machine-readable form their entry is laborious and error-prone. The recursive calculation of the VZA polynomials, needed to compute the Hansen coefficients, while slower, is faster than the calculation of the Hansen coefficients by Tisserand's method, up to 10th order in the eccentricity and is still relatively efficient for higher orders. The main advantages of the recursive calculation are the simplicity of the program and one's being able to extend the expansions to any order of eccentricity with ease. Because FORTRAN does not implement recursive procedures, this paper used C for all of the calculations. The most important conclusion is recursion's genuine usefulness in scientific computing.
Dynamic model with scale-dependent coefficients in the viscous range
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meneveau, C.; Lund, T. S.
1996-01-01
The standard dynamic procedure is based on the scale-invariance assumption that the model coefficient C is the same at the grid and test-filter levels. In many applications this condition is not met, e.g. when the filter-length, delta, approaches the Kolmogorov scale, and C(delta approaches eta) approaches O. Using a priori tests, we show that the standard dynamic model yields the coefficient corresponding to the test-filter scale (alpha delta) instead of the grid-scale (delta). Several approaches to account for scale dependence are examined and/or tested in large eddy simulation of isotropic turbulence: (a) take the limit alpha approaches 1; (b) solve for two unknown coefficients C(Delta) and C(alpha delta) in the least-square-error formulation; (c) the 'bi-dynamic model', in which two test-filters (e.g. at scales 2(delta) and 4(delta) are employed to gain additional information on possible scale-dependence of the coefficient, and an improved estimate for the grid-level coefficient is obtained by extrapolation, (d) use theoretical predictions for the ratio C(alpha delta)/C(delta) and dynamically solve for C(delta). None of these options is found to be entirely satisfactory, although the last approach appears applicable to the viscous range.
The Mass-8 experiment -- Measuring the {beta}-{alpha} angular correlations
Amsbaugh, J.F.; Beck, M.; Braeckeleer, L. de; Storm, D.W.; Swanson, E.; Swartz, K.B.; Schagen, J.P.S. van; Wright, D.C.; Zhao, Z.
1997-12-31
The objective of the Mass-8 experiment is to perform a precision test of the conservation of the vector current hypothesis and a search for second class currents. The authors present preliminary data on the correlation coefficients of the {beta}-{alpha} angular correlations of the {beta}-delayed {alpha}-decays of {sup 8}Li and {sup 8}B.
Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia
... four alpha-globin alleles results in alpha thalassemia trait. People with alpha thalassemia trait may have unusually small, pale red blood cells ... Hb Bart syndrome, HbH disease, or alpha thalassemia trait. The precise risk depends on how many alleles ...
Assessment of the aversion coefficient in nuclear safety in Hungary.
Eged, Katalin; Kanyár, Béla; Kis, Zoltán; Tatay, Tibor
2002-06-01
The key elements of the optimization practice as applied to radiation protection are the monetary value of the averted person-sievert and the aversion coefficient. Determination of the monetary value of the unit averted person-sievert (as alpha(base)-parameter) in Hungary was presented in a previous paper. The estimation of this parameter was carried out by the willingness-to-pay (WTP) method associated with averted occupational exposure (at the NPP Paks/Hungary). The aversion coefficient predicts the importance of dose reduction based on the magnitude of the dose. The assessment of the aversion coefficient occurred also by means of the WTP method in the spring of 2000. Its value has been estimated on the basis of individual preferences concerning the distribution of individual exposure in nuclear safety. The results achieved by the WTP among the radiation specialists from the NPP Paks, Hungary, assessed a value for the aversion coefficient of 1.86 over the whole range of individual exposure levels. This value is a bit greater than the value obtained in France (1.7) and the higher coefficient expresses a higher priority to reduce the highest individual exposures. PMID:12046754
Seebeck coefficient of one electron
Durrani, Zahid A. K.
2014-03-07
The Seebeck coefficient of one electron, driven thermally into a semiconductor single-electron box, is investigated theoretically. With a finite temperature difference ΔT between the source and charging island, a single electron can charge the island in equilibrium, directly generating a Seebeck effect. Seebeck coefficients for small and finite ΔT are calculated and a thermally driven Coulomb staircase is predicted. Single-electron Seebeck oscillations occur with increasing ΔT, as one electron at a time charges the box. A method is proposed for experimental verification of these effects.
Flow coefficients of monosleeve valves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waldron, C D
1941-01-01
The flow coefficients of the intake and the exhaust ports of a sleeve-valve cylinder were measured by attaching the cylinder to a large tank and measuring the changes in pressure and temperature in the tank that were caused by short periods of air flow through the valve ports. The derivation of the equations on which the flow coefficients are based is given. The distribution of total pressure in the arms of the sleeve-valve intake manifold was measured. The arms are found to have as little as 75 percent of the total pressure within the manifold entrance.
Learning about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD)
... terms used on this page Learning About Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD) What is alpha-1 antitrypsin ... for Alpha-1 Anttrypsin Deficiency What is alpha-1 antitrypsin defciency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is ...
Dependence of the elastic strain coefficient of copper on the pre-treatment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuntze, Wilhelm
1950-01-01
The effect of various pre-treatments on the elastic strain coefficient (alpha) (defined as the reciprocal of the modulus of elasticity E) (Epsilon) and on the mechanical hysteresis of copper has been investigated. Variables comprising the pre-treatments were pre-straining by stretching in a tensile testing machine and by drawing through a die, aging at room and elevated temperatures and annealing. The variation of the elastic strain coefficient with test stress was also investigated.
Prediction of stream volatilization coefficients
Rathbun, Ronald E.
1990-01-01
Equations are developed for predicting the liquid-film and gas-film reference-substance parameters for quantifying volatilization of organic solutes from streams. Molecular weight and molecular-diffusion coefficients of the solute are used as correlating parameters. Equations for predicting molecular-diffusion coefficients of organic solutes in water and air are developed, with molecular weight and molal volume as parameters. Mean absolute errors of prediction for diffusion coefficients in water are 9.97% for the molecular-weight equation, 6.45% for the molal-volume equation. The mean absolute error for the diffusion coefficient in air is 5.79% for the molal-volume equation. Molecular weight is not a satisfactory correlating parameter for diffusion in air because two equations are necessary to describe the values in the data set. The best predictive equation for the liquid-film reference-substance parameter has a mean absolute error of 5.74%, with molal volume as the correlating parameter. The best equation for the gas-film parameter has a mean absolute error of 7.80%, with molecular weight as the correlating parameter.
Some properties of Hansen's coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gribanov, A. V.
Precise formulae for Hansen's coefficients X0n,m calculation when |n| ≤ 20 and |m| ≤ 20 are constructed. By using properties of the hypergeometrical function estimates of X0n,m for any higher indexes are obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chandra, N.
1974-01-01
Numerical coefficients required to express the angular distribution for the rotationally elastic or inelastic scattering of electrons from a diatomic molecule were tabulated for the case of nitrogen and in the energy range from 0.20 eV to 10.0 eV. Five different rotational states are considered.
Logistic Regression with Random Coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Longford, Nicholas T.
An approximation to the likelihood for the generalized linear models with random coefficients is derived and is the basis for an approximate Fisher scoring algorithm. The method is illustrated on the logistic regression model for one-way classification, but it has an extension to the class of generalized linear models and to more complex data…
Aerodynamic coefficients and transformation tables
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ames, Joseph S
1918-01-01
The problem of the transformation of numerical values expressed in one system of units into another set or system of units frequently arises in connection with aerodynamic problems. Report contains aerodynamic coefficients and conversion tables needed to facilitate such transformation. (author)
Profile Loss Coefficient Definitions Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de la Calzada, Pedro
2011-09-01
A critical and integrated view on the profile loss coefficient definitions commonly used in turbomachinery is offered. By solving the compressible flow equations in boundary layers (characterized by their integral parameters) mixing at constant area the dependence of different loss coefficients (total pressure loss and kinetic energy loss coefficient,
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lanzerotti, L. J.
1973-01-01
Interplanetary disturbances frequently change the instantaneous values of the low energy solar flare alpha-to-proton flux ratios. The fluxes of alpha particles were integrated over the duration of seven large solar events occurring between May 28, 1967, and November 6, 1969, in order to investigate the total alpha particles fluxes observed at 1 AU resulting from the flares. The spectra of the event integrated alphas are always softer than the spectra of the event integrated protons. As a consequence, the event-integrated alpha-to-proton ratios decrease slightly with increasing energy per nucleon. The He-4/H-1 ratios averaged over the seven events are found to vary as 0.026 (E/nucl) sup -0.2 in the range 1 to 10 MeV/nucleon. The value of the ratio at 1 MeV/nucleon is less than the helium-to-hydrogen abundance determined from spectroscopic studies of prominences and the chromosphere, and is less than the average solar wind helium-to-hydrogen abundance.
Hydrogen alpha laser ablation plasma diagnostics.
Parigger, C G; Surmick, D M; Gautam, G; El Sherbini, A M
2015-08-01
Spectral measurements of the H(?) Balmer series line and the continuum radiation are applied to draw inferences of electron density, temperature, and the level of self-absorption in laser ablation of a solid ice target in ambient air. Electron densities of 17 to 3.210(24) m(-3) are determined from absolute calibrated emission coefficients for time delays of 100-650 ns after generation of laser plasma using Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation. The corresponding temperatures of 4.5-0.95 eV were evaluated from the absolute spectral radiance of the continuum at the longer wavelengths. The redshifted, Stark-broadened hydrogen alpha line emerges from the continuum radiation after a time delay of 300 ns. The electron densities inferred from power law formulas agree with the values obtained from the plasma emission coefficients. PMID:26258326
Alpha-Particle Gas-Pressure Sensor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehler, M. C.; Bell, L. D.; Hecht, M. H.
1996-01-01
An approximate model was developed to establish design curves for the saturation region and a more complete model developed to characterize the current-voltage curves for an alpha-particle pressure sensor. A simple two-parameter current-voltage expression was developed to describe the dependence of the ion current on pressure. The parameters are the saturation-current pressure coefficient and mu/D, the ion mobility/diffusion coefficient. The sensor is useful in the pressure range between 0.1 and 1000 mb using a 1 - mu Ci(241) Am source. Experimental results, taken between 1 and up to 200 mb, show the sensor operates with an anode voltage of 5 V and a sensitivity of 20 fA/mb in nitrogen.
Semiconductor polycrystalline alpha detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schieber, M.; Roth, M.; Zuck, A.; Marom, G.; Khakhan, O.; Alfassi, Z. B.
2006-08-01
In order to check possible novel neutron detectors based on composite semiconductor detectors containing nuclides with large cross sections for neutron, we tested their response to alpha particles. In the present paper we describe results obtained with composite samples made of hexagonal Boron Nitride particles bound with Polystyrene or Nylon-6. The samples were tested under 5.5 MeV alpha particle radiation emitted from 241Am source and 4.8MeV alpha particle of 226Ra source. Some of the responses of these composite detectors to thermal neutrons were already reported and here we shall show some newer results obtained with thermal neutrons, from a low intensity 241Am - 9Be and also from a medium intensity 252Cf source, which were thermalized using 10 cm thick paraffin. The Alpha detection experiments show that all the tested samples, regardless of the binder, show a well-defined peak around the 270 energy channel. There was very little polarization of the alpha radiation, since the amplitude of the alpha peak is reduced after ~ 2min from start of the irradiation, from 100% to 95% and it stayed stable at this level for another 10 minutes. The alpha spectrum detected from a PbI II single crystal is also shown for comparison. The neutron spectrum obtained by the composite BN samples showed an apparent peak around the 150 energy channel. The Signal to noise ratio for neutron detection from radionuclide shown here is about 2 only, whereas recent results to be published later, obtained with our composite BN detectors from a neutron beam of about 10 7 sec -1cm -2 is ~2 5. The 1.4 and 1.7 MeV alpha peaks resulting from the nuclear reaction of thermal neutrons with 10B of the boron nitride detector are not buried in the noise range. The capacitance noise requires small contact areas, therefore for large area detectors it is necessary to produce an electronic read-out device which can add up a multitude of small (less than 10sq.mm) pixilated contacts.
The Apollo Alpha Spectrometer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jagoda, N.; Kubierschky, K.; Frank, R.; Carroll, J.
1973-01-01
Located in the Science Instrument Module of Apollo 15 and 16, the Alpha Particle Spectrometer was designed to detect and measure the energy of alpha particles emitted by the radon isotopes and their daughter products. The spectrometer sensor consisted of an array of totally depleted silicon surface barrier detectors. Biased amplifier and linear gate techniques were utilized to reduce resolution degradation, thereby permitting the use of a single 512 channel PHA. Sensor identification and in-flight radioactive calibration were incorporated to enhance data reduction.
Neural Network Prediction of New Aircraft Design Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Norgaard, Magnus; Jorgensen, Charles C.; Ross, James C.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses a neural network tool for more effective aircraft design evaluations during wind tunnel tests. Using a hybrid neural network optimization method, we have produced fast and reliable predictions of aerodynamical coefficients, found optimal flap settings, and flap schedules. For validation, the tool was tested on a 55% scale model of the USAF/NASA Subsonic High Alpha Research Concept aircraft (SHARC). Four different networks were trained to predict coefficients of lift, drag, moment of inertia, and lift drag ratio (C(sub L), C(sub D), C(sub M), and L/D) from angle of attack and flap settings. The latter network was then used to determine an overall optimal flap setting and for finding optimal flap schedules.
Transport coefficients of quantum plasmas
Bennaceur, D.; Khalfaoui, A.H. )
1993-09-01
Transport coefficients of fully ionized plasmas with a weakly coupled, completely degenerate electron gas and classical ions with a wide range of coupling strength are expressed within the Bloch transport equation. Using the Kohler variational principle the collision integral of the quantum Boltzmann equation is derived, which accounts for quantum effects through collective plasma oscillations. The physical implications of the results are investigated through comparisons with other theories. For practical applications, electrical and thermal conductivities are derived in simple analytical formulas. The relation between these two transport coefficients is expressed in an explicit form, giving a generalized Wiedemann-Franz law, where the Lorentz ratio is a dependent function of the coupling parameter and the degree of degeneracy of the plasma.
Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter
Ho, Clifford K.
2007-06-12
An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.
High temperature Seebeck coefficient metrology
Martin, J.; Tritt, T.; Uher, C.
2010-12-15
We present an overview of the challenges and practices of thermoelectric metrology on bulk materials at high temperature (300 to 1300 K). The Seebeck coefficient, when combined with thermal and electrical conductivity, is an essential property measurement for evaluating the potential performance of novel thermoelectric materials. However, there is some question as to which measurement technique(s) provides the most accurate determination of the Seebeck coefficient at high temperature. This has led to the implementation of nonideal practices that have further complicated the confirmation of reported high ZT materials. To ensure meaningful interlaboratory comparison of data, thermoelectric measurements must be reliable, accurate, and consistent. This article will summarize and compare the relevant measurement techniques and apparatus designs required to effectively manage uncertainty, while also providing a reference resource of previous advances in high temperature thermoelectric metrology.
Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.
1986-01-01
A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.
[Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist (blocker)].
Shigetomi, S
1997-08-01
Alpha adrenergic receptors localized in blood vessels, heart, and kidneys as well as pre- and post-synaptic membrane are significantly important for controlling blood pressure. The treatment of alpha-adrenoceptor blocking drugs induce vasodilatation subsequently lowering blood pressure. Selective alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocking drugs (alpha-1 blockers) are recommended as a first line treatment of hypertension, because of their desirable effect on lipid and glucose metabolism. alpha-1 blockers decrease in total cholesterol and triglycerides, and increase in HDL-cholesterol. It is suggested that alpha-1 blockers improve insulin tolerance, cardiomegaly and atherosclerosis. Although they have many beneficial effect, we should consider adverse effects (orthostatic hypotension, flushing, etc.). PMID:9284423
The interpretation of selection coefficients.
Barton, N H; Servedio, M R
2015-05-01
Evolutionary biologists have an array of powerful theoretical techniques that can accurately predict changes in the genetic composition of populations. Changes in gene frequencies and genetic associations between loci can be tracked as they respond to a wide variety of evolutionary forces. However, it is often less clear how to decompose these various forces into components that accurately reflect the underlying biology. Here, we present several issues that arise in the definition and interpretation of selection and selection coefficients, focusing on insights gained through the examination of selection coefficients in multilocus notation. Using this notation, we discuss how its flexibility-which allows different biological units to be identified as targets of selection-is reflected in the interpretation of the coefficients that the notation generates. In many situations, it can be difficult to agree on whether loci can be considered to be under "direct" versus "indirect" selection, or to quantify this selection. We present arguments for what the terms direct and indirect selection might best encompass, considering a range of issues, from viability and sexual selection to kin selection. We show how multilocus notation can discriminate between direct and indirect selection, and describe when it can do so. PMID:25790030
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.
2010-01-01
Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.
2010-01-01
Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH
cap alpha. -. cap alpha. collisions at the CERN ISR
Symons, T.J.M.
1982-09-01
..cap alpha..-..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-p collisions have been studied at ..sqrt..s = 126 Gev/c and ..sqrt..s = 88 GeV, respectively, using colliding ..cap alpha..-particle and proton beams at the CERN intersecting storage rings. A brief review of the experimental results is given together with a discussion of future prospects in this field.
Stereoselective Synthesis of [alpha, alpha][superscript ']-Biprolines
Vartak, Ashish P.; Young, Jr., Victor G.; Johnson, Rodney L.
2010-11-10
A means to induce dehydrodimerization of Seebach's oxazolidinone (5), the stereochemical outcome of which is entirely temperature dependent, is described. The resultant dimers 3 and 4 are precursors to (R,R)-alpha,alpha'-biproline (1) and meso-alpha,alpha'-biproline (2), respectively. An organohypobromite and an iminium halide are proposed to serve as electrophiles in the reaction with the enolate of 5 to give 3 and 4, respectively.
Deformation of. cap alpha. -emitting nuclei from spin alignment with the spin spectrometer
Dilmanian, F.A.; Sarantites, D.G.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, M.; Puchta, H.; Beene, J.R.; Hensley, D.C.; Halbert, M.L.; Adler, L.; Choudhury, R.K.; Namboodiri, M.N.
1982-01-01
The Spin Spectrometer was used to measure the angular distribution of alpha particles with respect to the spin direction of residual nuclei from fusion of 176-MeV /sup 20/Ne with /sup 150/Nd. The results show an enhancement of the ratio of 90/sup 0/ to 0/sup 0/ alpha yields with respect to spin direction with decreasing E/sub ..cap alpha../ at subbarrier energies. This effect is not reproduced by statistical-model calculation made with transmission coefficients for spherical potentials, which may indicate that the ..cap alpha..-emitting nuclei are deformed with their longest axis perpendicular to the spin direction. 15 references.
Summary of Alpha Particle Transport
Medley, S.S.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.J.
1998-08-19
This paper summarizes the talks on alpha particle transport which were presented at the 5th International Atomic Energy Agency's Technical Committee Meeting on "Alpha Particles in Fusion Research" held at the Joint European Torus, England in September 1997.
{alpha}-Decay half-lives, {alpha}-capture, and {alpha}-nucleus potential
Denisov, V. Yu. Khudenko, A.A.
2009-11-15
{alpha}-Decay half-lives and {alpha}-capture cross sections are evaluated in the framework of a unified model for {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture. In this model {alpha}-decay and {alpha}-capture are considered as penetration of the {alpha}-particle through the potential barrier formed by the nuclear, Coulomb, and centrifugal interactions between the {alpha}-particle and nucleus. The spins and parities of the parent and daughter nuclei as well as the quadrupole and hexadecapole deformations of the daughter nuclei are taken into account for evaluation of the {alpha}-decay half-lives. The {alpha}-decay half-lives for 344 nuclei and the {alpha}-capture cross sections of {sup 40}Ca, {sup 44}Ca, {sup 59}Co, {sup 208}Pb, and {sup 209}Bi agree well with the experimental data. The evaluated {alpha}-decay half-lives within the range of 10{sup -9}{<=}T{sub 1/2}{<=}10{sup 38} s for 1246 {alpha}-emitters are tabulated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohr, R.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Alpha Centauri A and Alpha Centauri B comprise the closest BINARY SYSTEM to Earth. A third star, PROXIMA CENTAURI, is thought to be in orbit about the center of mass of Alpha Centauri A and B. Other common names for this binary include Rigel Kentaurus and Toliman....
Turbulent transport coefficients and residual energy in mean-field dynamo theory
Hamba, Fujihiro; Sato, Hisanori
2008-02-15
The turbulent electromotive force in the mean-field equation needs to be modeled to predict a large-scale magnetic field in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence at high Reynolds number. Using a statistical theory for inhomogeneous turbulence, model expressions for transport coefficients appearing in the turbulent electromotive force are derived including the {alpha} coefficient and the turbulent diffusivity. In particular, as one of the dynamo effects, the pumping effect is investigated and a model expression for the pumping term is obtained. It is shown that the pumping velocity is closely related to the gradient of the turbulent residual energy, or the difference between the turbulent kinetic and magnetic energies. The production terms in the transport equation for the turbulent electromotive force are also examined and the validity of the model expression is assessed by comparing with earlier results concerning the isotropic {alpha} coefficient. The mean magnetic field in a rotating spherical shell is calculated using a turbulence model to demonstrate the pumping effect.
Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.
Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle
2005-10-01
A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.
Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Lambdin, H.D.; Bowen, P.L.
1984-06-01
ALPHA is the most powerful and versatile of the Management Information Systems (MISs) sponsored and developed by the Finance and Materials Division of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA can perform at least 75% of the common tasks required of MISs; it allows users to access any System 1022 data base on ORNL's PDP-10 computer to obtain information for use in the management process. This user's manual contains a description of the function of each ALPHA command and option. Besides the explanation of ALPHA's commands and options, this manual also contains a description of the ALPHA system, pointers on using ALPHA, an explanation of ALPHA's design in terms of its working vocabulary, and a sample problem.
A model for the disc Lyman alpha emission of Uranus
Jaffel, L.B.; Vidal-Madjar, A. ); Prange, R.; Emerich, C. ); McConnell, J.C. )
1991-06-01
A new efficient radiative transfer algorithm for inhomogeneous atmospheres has been used to simulate the limb to limb Lyman {alpha} reflectivities observed with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer during the flyby of Uranus. It was shown that complete frequency redistribution should be adequate to describe the disc emissions. The model atmosphere used was derived using a combination of Voyager measurements and modeling. Atomic H densities calculated had sources derivable directly from solar FUV and EUV fluxes. To fit the observations, four contributions are evaluated: (1) the resonance scattering of solar Lyman {alpha} radiation, (2) Rayleigh-Raman scattering of solar Lyman {alpha} radiation, (3) the resonance scattering of interplanetary Lyman {alpha} radiation, and (4) a possible internal source of unknown origin. From comparison with the observations, and provided that the published Voyager calibrations are correct, it is shown that only atmospheres with low eddy diffusion coefficients (K{sub H}{le}100 cm{sup 2} s{sup {minus}1}) and an internal source could simulate both the shape and the strength of the measured disc emission. The main results are then that the direct solar Lyman {alpha} scattering contribution (type 1 plus type 2) is of the order of 760 R, the scattering of interplanetary Lyman {alpha} contributes about 320 R, and a small additional internal source providing about 100-500 R is needed to match the measurements. Further, the analysis of the disc intensities suggests that there is no strong variation of K with latitude.
Ratios of internal conversion coefficients
Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.
2006-03-15
We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.
Clustering coefficients of lexical neighborhoods
Altieri, Nicholas; Gruenenfelder, Thomas; Pisoni, David B.
2011-01-01
High neighborhood density reduces the speed and accuracy of spoken word recognition. The two studies reported here investigated whether Clustering Coefficient (CC) — a graph theoretic variable measuring the degree to which a word’s neighbors are neighbors of one another, has similar effects on spoken word recognition. In Experiment 1, we found that high CC words were identified less accurately when spectrally degraded than low CC words. In Experiment 2, using a word repetition procedure, we observed longer response latencies for high CC words compared to low CC words. Taken together, the results of both studies indicate that higher CC leads to slower and less accurate spoken word recognition. The results are discussed in terms of activation-plus-competition models of spoken word recognition. PMID:21423865
Ye, Y; Luo, J; Li, J; Ye, L; Hong, Y; Shu, H; Li, Z
1997-04-20
Based on the calculation of photon absorption coefficient alpha and width W of the depletion region of mercury cadmium telluride detectors, we derived the equation for alpha, W and the effective Franz-Keldysh shift Dlambda(ce). An interpretation of the substantial difference between Dlambda(ce) and the maximum Franz-Keldysh shift Dlambda(cm) of the cutoff wavelength is presented. We also propose a method to increase the Dlambda(ce) of mercury cadmium telluride detectors. PMID:18253225
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rae, Gordon
2007-01-01
The relationship between stratified alpha (alpha-sub(s)) and the reliability of a test composed of interrelated nonhomogeneous items is examined. It is mathematically demonstrated that when there is congeneric equivalence within the strata or subtests, the difference between the coefficients is a function of the variances of the loadings within
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rae, Gordon
2007-01-01
The relationship between stratified alpha (alpha-sub(s)) and the reliability of a test composed of interrelated nonhomogeneous items is examined. It is mathematically demonstrated that when there is congeneric equivalence within the strata or subtests, the difference between the coefficients is a function of the variances of the loadings within…
The emission coefficient of uranium plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.
1973-01-01
The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (Temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range (200 A - 6000 A). The results are compared to theory and other measurements. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lenoble, J.; Pruvost, P.
1983-01-01
SAGE four-channel transmission profiles are inverted to retrieve the extinction profiles from which the aerosol Angstrom coefficient alpha is obtained. The procedure allows one to check the influence of the NO2 absorption profile, which is small below 25 km. The results compare well with those obtained by a completely different procedure at NASA Langley Research Center, and the main features of the alpha profiles seem to be significant, even considering the rather large error bars. The relation between the retrieved Angstrom coefficient, the particle effective radius and the asymmetry factor is considered.
Alpha-amylase supplementation of broiler diets based on corn.
Gracia, M I; Araníbar, M J; Lázaro, R; Medel, P; Mateos, G G
2003-03-01
A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of exogenous alpha-amylase on digestive and performance traits in broilers fed a corn-soybean meal diet. There were two treatments (control and alpha-amylase supplemented diet) and six replicates (14 Cobb male chicks caged together) per treatment. At 7 d of age, alpha-amylase supplementation improved daily gain by 9.4% (P < or = 0.05) and feed conversion by 4.2% (P < or = 0.01). At the end of the trial, birds fed the alpha-amylase-supplemented diet ate more and grew faster (P < or = 0.05) and hadbetter feed conversion (P < or = 0.10) than broilers fed the control diet. Also, alpha-amylase supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of organic matter and starch (P < or = 0.01) and AMEn of the diet (P < or = 0.001). However, no effects were detected for CP or fat digestibility. Nutrient digestibility and AMEn of the diet increased with age (P < or = 0.001); however, no interactions of alpha-amylase x age were observed for any trait. Coefficients of apparent ileal and fecal digestibility of starch at 28 d of age were similar, which indicated that most of the undigested starch was not fermented in the hindgut of the chick. alpha-Amylase supplementation reduced relative pancreas weight (P < or = 0.001) but did not affect the weight of the remaining organs. Age consistently reduced intestinal viscosity and relative weights of all the organs (P < or = 0.001). The data indicated that alpha-amylase supplementation of a corn-soybean meal diet improved digestibility of nutrients and performance of broilers. PMID:12705405
M-Bonomial Coefficients and Their Identities
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Asiru, Muniru A.
2010-01-01
In this note, we introduce M-bonomial coefficients or (M-bonacci binomial coefficients). These are similar to the binomial and the Fibonomial (or Fibonacci-binomial) coefficients and can be displayed in a triangle similar to Pascal's triangle from which some identities become obvious.
Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menard, Scott
2011-01-01
Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a…
Standards for Standardized Logistic Regression Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Menard, Scott
2011-01-01
Standardized coefficients in logistic regression analysis have the same utility as standardized coefficients in linear regression analysis. Although there has been no consensus on the best way to construct standardized logistic regression coefficients, there is now sufficient evidence to suggest a single best approach to the construction of a
Parallel computation of recoupling coefficients using transputers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fack, V.; Van der Jeugt, J.; Rao, K. Srinivasa
1992-09-01
Parallel algorithms for the computation of angular momentum recoupling coefficients are discussed. The first situation where parallelisation has a remarkable impact is for the computation of the 9- j coefficient. A parallel program in C for the numerical calculation of the 9- j coefficient is presented and compared with sequential programs in C.
Note on Methodology: The Coefficient of Variation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sheret, Michael
1984-01-01
Addresses applications of the coefficient of variation as a measure of educational inequality or as a means of measuring changes of inequality status. Suggests the Gini coefficient has many advantages over the coefficient of variation since it can be used with the Lorenz curve (Lorenz provides detail Gini omits). (BRR)
Soccer Ball Lift Coefficients via Trajectory Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goff, John Eric; Carre, Matt J.
2010-01-01
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin…
Coefficient rings of formal group laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchstaber, V. M.; Ustinov, A. V.
2015-11-01
We describe the coefficient rings of universal formal group laws which arise in algebraic geometry, algebraic topology and their application to mathematical physics. We also describe the homomorphisms of these coefficient rings coming from reductions of one formal group law to another. The proofs are based on the number-theoretic properties of binomial coefficients. Bibliography: 37 titles.
Finite Range Effects in (alpha, 2alpha) Reactions
Jain, Arun K.; Joshi, Bhushan N.
2009-09-25
Finite range calculations for the (alpha, 2alpha) reactions are performed for the first time to remove huge inconsistencies obtained earlier in conventional zero range analyses. Vagaries of the energy dependent experimental observations up to 200 MeV are understood using the well-established nuclear radii and distorting optical potentials. The results are found to be sensitive to the short distance behavior of the alpha-alpha interaction, indicating the utility of the knockout reactions as a probe of the knockout vertex at short distances. Our approach paves the way to include finite range effects in atomic and molecular physics as also in neutron multiplication calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Torr, D. G.; Orsini, N.
1978-01-01
The Atmosphere Explorer (AE) data are reexamined in the light of new laboratory measurements of the N2(+) recombination rate coefficient alpha. The new measurements support earlier measurements which yielded values of alpha significantly lower than the AE values. It is found that the values for alpha determined from the satellite data can be reconciled with the laboratory measurements, if the charge exchange rate coefficient for O(+)(2D) with N2 is less than one-quarter of that derived in the laboratory by Rutherford and Vroom (1971).
Substitutional and Interstitial Diffusion in alpha2-Ti3Al(O)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Copland, Evan; Young, David J.; Gleeson, Brian; Jacobson, Nathan
2007-01-01
The reaction between Al2O3 and alpha2-Ti3Al was studied with a series of Al2O3/alpha2-Ti3Al multiphase diffusion couples annealed at 900, 1000 and 1100 C. The diffusion-paths were found to strongly depend on alpha2- Ti3Al(O) composition. For alloys with low oxygen concentrations the reaction involved the reduction of Al2O3, the formation of a gamma-TiAl reaction-layer and diffusion of Al and O into the alpha2-Ti3Al substrate. Measured concentration profiles across the interaction-zone showed "up-hill" diffusion of O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) indicating a significant thermodynamic interaction between O and Al, Ti or both. Diffusion coefficients for the interstitial O in alpha2-Ti3Al(O) were determined independently from the interdiffusion of Ti and Al on the substitutional lattice. Diffusion coefficients are reported for alpha2-Ti3Al(O) as well as gamma-TiAl. Interpretation of the results were aided with the subsequent measurement of the activities of Al, Ti and O in alpha 2-Ti3Al(O) by Knudsen effusion-cell mass spectrometry.
Background canceling surface alpha detector
MacArthur, D.W.; Allander, K.S.; Bounds, J.A.
1996-06-11
A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone. 5 figs.
Background canceling surface alpha detector
MacArthur, Duncan W.; Allander, Krag S.; Bounds, John A.
1996-01-01
A background canceling long range alpha detector which is capable of providing output proportional to both the alpha radiation emitted from a surface and to radioactive gas emanating from the surface. The detector operates by using an electrical field between first and second signal planes, an enclosure and the surface or substance to be monitored for alpha radiation. The first and second signal planes are maintained at the same voltage with respect to the electrically conductive enclosure, reducing leakage currents. In the presence of alpha radiation and radioactive gas decay, the signal from the first signal plane is proportional to both the surface alpha radiation and to the airborne radioactive gas, while the signal from the second signal plane is proportional only to the airborne radioactive gas. The difference between these two signals is proportional to the surface alpha radiation alone.
Mason, D Adam; Fleming, Robert J; Goldfarb, David S
2002-01-01
Importin alpha's mediate the nuclear transport of many classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS)-containing proteins. Multicellular animals contain multiple importin alpha genes, most of which fall into three conventional phylogenetic clades, here designated alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3. Using degenerate PCR we cloned Drosophila melanogaster importin alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 genes, demonstrating that the complete conventional importin alpha gene family arose prior to the split between invertebrates and vertebrates. We have begun to analyze the genetic interactions among conventional importin alpha genes by studying their capacity to rescue the male and female sterility of importin alpha2 null flies. The sterility of alpha2 null males was rescued to similar extents by importin alpha1, alpha2, and alpha3 transgenes, suggesting that all three conventional importin alpha's are capable of performing the important role of importin alpha2 during spermatogenesis. In contrast, sterility of alpha2 null females was rescued only by importin alpha2 transgenes, suggesting that it plays a paralog-specific role in oogenesis. Female infertility was also rescued by a mutant importin alpha2 transgene lacking a site that is normally phosphorylated in ovaries. These rescue experiments suggest that male and female gametogenesis have distinct requirements for importin alpha2. PMID:12019231
Water transport by the bacterial channel alpha-hemolysin
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paula, S.; Akeson, M.; Deamer, D.
1999-01-01
This study is an investigation of the ability of the bacterial channel alpha-hemolysin to facilitate water permeation across biological membranes. alpha-Hemolysin channels were incorporated into rabbit erythrocyte ghosts at varying concentrations, and water permeation was induced by mixing the ghosts with hypertonic sucrose solutions. The resulting volume decrease of the ghosts was followed by time-resolved optical absorption at pH 5, 6, and 7. The average single-channel permeability coefficient of alpha-hemolysin for water ranged between 1.3x10-12 cm/s and 1.5x10-12 cm/s, depending on pH. The slightly increased single-channel permeability coefficient at lower pH-values was attributed to an increase in the effective pore size. The activation energy of water transport through the channel was low (Ea=5.4 kcal/mol), suggesting that the properties of water inside the alpha-hemolysin channel resemble those of bulk water. This conclusion was supported by calculations based on macroscopic hydrodynamic laws of laminar water flow. Using the known three-dimensional structure of the channel, the calculations accurately predicted the rate of water flow through the channel. The latter finding also indicated that water permeation data can provide a good estimate of the pore size for large channels.
Long range alpha particle detector
MacArthur, Duncan W.; Wolf, Michael A.; McAtee, James L.; Unruh, Wesley P.; Cucchiara, Alfred L.; Huchton, Roger L.
1993-01-01
An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.
Polarization bremsstrahlung in {alpha} decay
Amusia, M. Ya.; Zon, B. A. Kretinin, I. Yu.
2007-08-15
A mechanism of formation of electromagnetic radiation that accompanies {alpha} decay and is associated with the emission of photons by electrons of atomic shells due to the scattering of {alpha} particles by these atoms (polarization bremsstrahlung) is proposed. It is shown that, when the photon energy is no higher than the energy of K electrons of an atom, polarization bremsstrahlung makes a significant contribution to the bremsstrahlung in {alpha} decay.
Long range alpha particle detector
MacArthur, D.W.; Wolf, M.A.; McAtee, J.L.; Unruh, W.P.; Cucchiara, A.L.; Huchton, R.L.
1993-02-02
An alpha particle detector capable of detecting alpha radiation from distant sources. In one embodiment, a high voltage is generated in a first electrically conductive mesh while a fan draws air containing air molecules ionized by alpha particles through an air passage and across a second electrically conductive mesh. The current in the second electrically conductive mesh can be detected and used for measurement or alarm. The detector can be used for area, personnel and equipment monitoring.
Modeling Solar Lyman Alpha Irradiance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pap, J.; Hudson, H. S.; Rottman, G. J.; Willson, R. C.; Donnelly, R. F.; London, J.
1990-01-01
Solar Lyman alpha irradiance is estimated from various solar indices using linear regression analyses. Models developed with multiple linear regression analysis, including daily values and 81-day running means of solar indices, predict reasonably well both the short- and long-term variations observed in Lyman alpha. It is shown that the full disk equivalent width of the He line at 1083 nm offers the best proxy for Lyman alpha, and that the total irradiance corrected for sunspot effect also has a high correlation with Lyman alpha.
Alpha particle confinement in tokamaks
White, R.B.; Mynick, H.E.
1988-11-01
An assessment of diffusive tokamak transport mechanisms of concern for alpha particles indicates that the ''stochastic regime'' is the only one which appears to pose a real danger for adequate alpha confinement. This fact, in conjunction with the threshold character of that mechanism, allows one to decide whether an alpha born at a given location will be lost or confined, according to a very simple criterion. Implementing this criterion numerically results in a new code for the assessment of alpha confinement, which is orders of magnitude faster than earlier codes used for this purpose. 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Uzhegov, V.N.; Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Pkhalagov, Yu.A.; Pol'kin, V.V.; Terpugova, S.A.; Shmargunov, V.P.; Yausheva, E.P.
2005-03-18
The problem of the choice of the aerosol optical constants and, in particular, imaginary part of the refractive index of particles in visible and infrared (IR) wavelength ranges is very important for calculation of the global albedo of the atmosphere in climatic models. The available models of the aerosol optical constants obtained for the prescribed chemical composition of particles (see, for example, Ivlev et al. 1973; Ivlev 1982; Volz 1972), often are far from real aerosol. It is shown in (Krekov et al. 1982) that model estimates of the optical characteristics of the atmosphere depending on the correctness of real and imaginary parts of the aerosol complex refractive index can differ by some hundreds percent. It is known that the aerosol extinction coefficient {alpha}({lambda}) obtained from measurements on a long horizontal path can be represented as {alpha}({lambda})={sigma}({lambda})+{beta}({lambda}), where {sigma} is the directed light scattering coefficient, and {beta} is the aerosol absorption coefficient. The coefficient {sigma}({lambda}) is measured by means of a nephelometer. Seemingly, if measure the values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}), it is easy to determine the value {beta}({lambda}). However, in practice it is almost impossible for a number of reasons. Firstly, the real values {alpha}({lambda}) and {sigma}({lambda}) are very close to each other, and the estimate of the parameter {beta}({lambda}) is concealed by the errors of measurements. Secondly, the aerosol optical characteristics on the long path and in the local volume of nephelometer can be different, that also leads to the errors in estimating {beta}({lambda}). Besides, there are serious difficulties in performing spectral measurements of {sigma}({lambda}) in infrared wavelength range. Taking into account these circumstances, in this paper we consider the statistical technique, which makes it possible to estimate the absorption coefficient of real aerosol on the basis of analysis of simultaneous measurements of the spectral aerosol extinction coefficients {alpha}({lambda}), the directed scattering coefficient of dry aerosol {sigma}{sub 0}(0.55) and the mass concentration of aerosol containing BC (black carbon) Ms.
Fournier, T; Medjoubi-N, N; Porquet, D
2000-10-18
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) or orosomucoid (ORM) is a 41-43-kDa glycoprotein with a pI of 2.8-3.8. The peptide moiety is a single chain of 183 amino acids (human) or 187 amino acids (rat) with two and one disulfide bridges in humans and rats,respectively. The carbohydrate content represents 45% of the molecular weight attached in the form of five to six highly sialylated complex-type-N-linked glycans. AGP is one of the major acute phase proteins in humans, rats, mice and other species. As most acute phase proteins, its serum concentration increases in response to systemic tissue injury, inflammation or infection, and these changes in serum protein concentrations have been correlated with increases in hepatic synthesis. Expression of the AGP gene is controlled by a combination of the major regulatory mediators, i.e. glucocorticoids and a cytokine network involving mainly interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), interleukin-6 and IL-6 related cytokines. It is now well established that the acute phase response may take place in extra-hepatic cell types, and may be regulated by inflammatory mediators as observed in hepatocytes. The biological function of AGP remains unknown; however,a number of activities of possible physiological significance, such as various immunomodulating effects, have been described. AGP also has the ability to bind and to carry numerous basic and neutral lipophilic drugs from endogenous (steroid hormones) and exogenous origin; one to seven binding sites have been described. AGP can also bind acidic drugs such as phenobarbital. The immunomodulatory as well as the binding activities of AGP have been shown to be mostly dependent on carbohydrate composition. Finally, the use of AGP transgenic animals enabled to address in vivo, functionality of responsive elements and tissue specificity, as well as the effects of drugs that bind to AGP and will be an useful tool to determine the physiological role of AGP. PMID:11058758
Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback
Wan, Feng; Nan, Wenya; Vai, Mang I.; Rosa, Agostinho
2014-01-01
Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the brain activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity can predict the learning ability in alpha neurofeedback. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback and the learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback. PMID:25071528
A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis of Coefficient Alpha for the Maslach Burnout Inventory
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wheeler, Denna L.; Vassar, Matt; Worley, Jody A.; Barnes, Laura L. B.
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to synthesize internal consistency reliability for the subscale scores on the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). The authors addressed three research questions: (a) What is the mean subscale score reliability for the MBI across studies? (b) What factors are associated with observed variance in MBI subscale score…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Green, Samuel B.; Yang, Yanyun
2009-01-01
A method is presented for estimating reliability using structural equation modeling (SEM) that allows for nonlinearity between factors and item scores. Assuming the focus is on consistency of summed item scores, this method for estimating reliability is preferred to those based on linear SEM models and to the most commonly reported estimate of…
My Current Thoughts on Coefficient Alpha and Successor Procedures. CSE Report 643
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cronbach, Lee J.
2004-01-01
Where the accuracy of a measurement is important, whether for scientific or practical purposes, the investigator should evaluate how much random error affects the measurement. New research may not be necessary when a procedure has been studied enough to establish how much error it involves. But, with new measures, or measures being transferred…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ting, Samuel
2012-07-01
The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a precision particle physics magnetic spectrometer designed to measure electrons, positrons, gamma rays and various nuclei and anti-nuclei from the cosmos up to TeV energy ranges. AMS weighs 7.5 tons and measures 5 meters by 4 meters by 3 meters. It contains 300,000 channels of electronics and 650 onboard microprocessors. It was delivered to the International Space Station onboard space shuttle Endeavour and installed on May 19, 2011. Since that time, more than 14 billion cosmic ray events have been collected. All the detectors function properly. At this moment, we are actively engaged in data analysis. AMS is an international collaboration involving 16 countries and 60 institutes. It took 16 years to construct and test. AMS is the only major physical science experiment on the International Space Station and will continue to collect data over the entire lifetime of the Space Station (10-20 years).
Dohet-Eraly, J.; Baye, D.
2011-07-15
An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction adapted to cluster-model calculations of collisions is derived from the realistic Argonne potential AV18 with the unitary correlation operator method. The unitary correlation is determined from the {alpha}+{alpha} elastic phase shifts calculated in a cluster approach by the generator coordinate method coupled with the microscopic R-matrix method. With this interaction, the elastic phase shifts for the {alpha}+n, {alpha}+p, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions are calculated within the same model. Without further adjustment, a good agreement with experimental data is obtained with a small model space.
Gas-film coefficients for streams
Rathbun, R.E.; Tai, D.Y.
1983-01-01
Equations for predicting the gas-film coefficient for the volatilization of organic solutes from streams are developed. The film coefficient is a function of windspeed and water temperature. The dependence of the coefficient on windspeed is determined from published information on the evaporation of water from a canal. The dependence of the coefficient on temperature is determined from laboratory studies on the evaporation of water. Procedures for adjusting the coefficients for different organic solutes are based on the molecular diffusion coefficient and the molecular weight. The molecular weight procedure is easiest to use because of the availability of molecular weights. However, the theoretical basis of the procedure is questionable. The diffusion coefficient procedure is supported by considerable data. Questions, however, remain regarding the exact dependence of the film coefficint on the diffusion coefficient. It is suggested that the diffusion coefficient procedure with a 0.68-power dependence be used when precise estimate of the gas-film coefficient are needed and that the molecular weight procedure be used when only approximate estimates are needed.
Investigating bias in squared regression structure coefficients
Nimon, Kim F.; Zientek, Linda R.; Thompson, Bruce
2015-01-01
The importance of structure coefficients and analogs of regression weights for analysis within the general linear model (GLM) has been well-documented. The purpose of this study was to investigate bias in squared structure coefficients in the context of multiple regression and to determine if a formula that had been shown to correct for bias in squared Pearson correlation coefficients and coefficients of determination could be used to correct for bias in squared regression structure coefficients. Using data from a Monte Carlo simulation, this study found that squared regression structure coefficients corrected with Pratt's formula produced less biased estimates and might be more accurate and stable estimates of population squared regression structure coefficients than estimates with no such corrections. While our findings are in line with prior literature that identified multicollinearity as a predictor of bias in squared regression structure coefficients but not coefficients of determination, the findings from this study are unique in that the level of predictive power, number of predictors, and sample size were also observed to contribute bias in squared regression structure coefficients. PMID:26217273
Gas phase hydrogen permeation in alpha titanium and carbon steels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, D. L.; Shah, K. K.; Reeves, B. H.; Gadgeel, V. L.
1980-01-01
Commercially pure titanium and heats of Armco ingot iron and steels containing from 0.008-1.23 w/oC were annealed or normalized and machined into hollow cylinders. Coefficients of diffusion for alpha-Ti and alpha-Fe were determined by the lag-time technique. Steady state permeation experiments yield first power pressure dependence for alpha-Ti and Sievert's law square root dependence for Armco iron and carbon steels. As in the case of diffusion, permeation data confirm that alpha-titanium is subject to at least partial phase boundary reaction control while the steels are purely diffusion controlled. The permeation rate in steels also decreases as the carbon content increases. As a consequence of Sievert's law, the computed hydrogen solubility decreases as the carbon content increases. This decreases in explained in terms of hydrogen trapping at carbide interfaces. Oxidizing and nitriding the surfaces of alpha-titanium membranes result in a decrease in the permeation rate for such treatment on the gas inlet surfaces but resulted in a slight increase in the rate for such treatment on the gas outlet surfaces. This is explained in terms of a discontinuous TiH2 layer.
Gross alpha analytical modifications that improve wastewater treatment compliance
Tucker, B.J.; Arndt, S.
2007-07-01
This paper will propose an improvement to the gross alpha measurement that will provide more accurate gross alpha determinations and thus allow for more efficient and cost-effective treatment of site wastewaters. To evaluate the influence of salts that may be present in wastewater samples from a potentially broad range of environmental conditions, two types of efficiency curves were developed, each using a thorium-230 (Th-230) standard spike. Two different aqueous salt solutions were evaluated, one using sodium chloride, and one using salts from tap water drawn from the Bergen County, New Jersey Publicly Owned Treatment Works (POTW). For each curve, 13 to 17 solutions were prepared, each with the same concentration of Th-230 spike, but differing in the total amount of salt in the range of 0 to 100 mg. The attenuation coefficients were evaluated for the two salt types by plotting the natural log of the counted efficiencies vs. the weight of the sample's dried residue retained on the planchet. The results show that the range of the slopes for each of the attenuation curves varied by approximately a factor of 2.5. In order to better ensure the accuracy of results, and thus verify compliance with the gross alpha wastewater effluent criterion, projects depending on gross alpha measurements of environmental waters and wastewaters should employ gross alpha efficiency curves prepared with salts that mimic, as closely as possible, the salt content of the aqueous environmental matrix. (authors)
DFT CONFORMATIONAL STUDIES OF ALPHA-MALTOTRIOSE
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Recent DFT optimization studies on alpha-maltose improved our understanding of the preferred conformations of alpha-maltose and the present study extends these studies to alpha-maltotriose with three alpha-D-glucopyranose residues linked by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. Combina...
Alpha particle emitters in medicine
Fisher, D.R.
1989-09-01
Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.
Apparatus for measurement of coefficient of friction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slifka, A. J.; Siegwarth, J. D.; Sparks, L. L.; Chaudhuri, Dilip K.
An apparatus designed to measure the coefficient of friction in certain controlled atmospheres is described. The coefficient of friction observed during high-load tests was nearly constant, with an average value of 0.56. This value is in general agreement with that found in the literature and also with the initial friction coefficient value of 0.67 measured during self-mated friction of 440C steel in an oxygen environment.
The derivation and interpretation of control coefficients.
Crabtree, B; Newsholme, E A
1987-01-01
1. Equations for control coefficients are derived by using a method that generates all the control coefficients for a system in a single procedure. This requires solving fewer simultaneous equations than an equivalent method based on 'control theorems'. 2. The interpretation of control coefficients is discussed: in particular, it is shown that these functions are unsatisfactory as measures of 'control' and are perhaps best used as a means of testing control theories (models). PMID:3689338
Coupling coefficient of gain-guided lasers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J.; Kapon, E.; Lindsey, C.; Margalit, S.; Yariv, A.
1984-01-01
An analytical model is presented for the coupling coefficient for two gain-guided coupled waveguides, e.g., semiconductor laser arrays. A common parabolic gain distribution is assumed for the lasers, and the effective dielectric constant distribution is approximated in terms of the bulk refraction index, wavelength, power filling factor, and the antiguiding factor. The fundamental mode is then formulated and used in an integral for the coupling coefficient. The dependence of the coefficient of various waveguide parameters is described.
Estimation of Internal Consistency Reliability When Test Parts Vary in Effective Length.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.
2003-01-01
Evaluating a test's reliability often requires dividing it into 3 or more unequal parts, which causes violation of the tau equivalence assumption of Cronbach's alpha. This article presents a criterion for abandoning alpha and an approach for computing a more appropriate estimate of reliability, the Gilmer-Feldt coefficient. (Author)
Some Recurrence Relations Between Hansen Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakhidov, Akmal A.
2001-11-01
A new system of recurrence relations for Hansen coefficients is obtained. This system gives a connection between only those coefficients which are included in the disturbing function of planetary or satellite motion and allows to compute efficiently the Hansen coefficients for perturbations both from internal and external bodies. The recurrence process can be realized both from high to low and from low to high harmonical terms of the disturbing function. The corresponding algorithms of evaluation of Hansen coefficients are presented. The efficiency of the obtained system of recurrence relations is discussed.
Data analysis for Seebeck coefficient measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Boor, J.; Müller, E.
2013-06-01
The Seebeck coefficient is one of the key quantities of thermoelectric materials and routinely measured in various laboratories. There are, however, several ways to calculate the Seebeck coefficient from the raw measurement data. We compare these different ways to extract the Seebeck coefficient, evaluate the accuracy of the results, and show methods to increase this accuracy. We furthermore point out experimental and data analysis parameters that can be used to evaluate the trustworthiness of the obtained result. The shown analysis can be used to find and minimize errors in the Seebeck coefficient measurement and therefore increase the reliability of the measured material properties.
Stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients for composite laminates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Noor, Ahmed K.; Tenek, Lazarus H.
1992-01-01
Simple analytic expressions are presented for the stiffness and thermoelastic coefficients of composite laminates in terms of the material properties of the individual layers. Expressions for the derivatives of the various coefficients with respect to each of the material properties and fiber orientation angles are also included. For typical high-performance composites, numerical values are given showing the effects of the stacking sequence and the fiber orientation angle of quasi-isotropic and angle-ply laminates on the values of the various coefficients and their sensitivity derivatives. The expressions for the thermoelastic coefficients and the sensitivity derivatives are given herein for the first time.
Relationship between direct and converse flexoelectric coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shu, Longlong; Li, Fei; Huang, Wenbin; Wei, Xiaoyong; Yao, Xi; Jiang, Xiaoning
2014-10-01
Flexoelectric effect, as a universal electromechanical coupling, has drawn lots of interests in dielectric materials. However, due to the restrictions of present measurement techniques, only part of coefficients has been experimentally examined. In this study, we derived the coordinate-dependent Gibbs free energy density function in the inhomogeneous spatial field to investigate the relationship between the direct and converse flexoelectric coefficients. In crystalline mediums and systems, the direct and converse flexoelectric coefficients are proved to equivalent according to the Maxwell relation. These results will broaden the application of the Maxwell relation into non-linear spatial field, and provide the guideline for experimental measurement and prediction of flexoelectric coefficients.
Learning about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD)
... disease in children and adults. Alpha-1 Association Genetic Counseling Service [alpha1.org] The Alpha-1 Association Genetic Counseling Center provides toll-free, confidential genetic counseling to ...
THE COMPLEX FATE OF ALPHA-KETOACIDS
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Plant cells are unique in that they contain four species of alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex: plastidial pyruvate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate (2-oxoglutarate) dehydrogenase, and branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase. All complexes include multi...
Electron and hole impact ionization coefficients in GaAs-Al(x)Ga(1-x)As superlattices
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Juang, F.-Y.; Das, U.; Nashimoto, Y.; Bhattacharya, P. K.
1985-01-01
Electron and hole multiplication and impact ionization coefficients have been measured with pure carrier injection in p(+)-n(-)-n(+) diodes grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Values of the electron and hole ionization coefficient ratio alpha/beta = 2-5 are measured for superlattices with well width Lz greater than or equal to 100 A and alpha/beta greater than 10 is measured in a graded band-gap superlattice with a total well and barrier width LB + LZ = 120 A. The ratio decreases and becomes less than unity for smaller well sizes. This is caused by an increase in beta (E) while alpha (E) remains fairly constant. The results have been interpreted by considering varying hole confinement and scattering in the coupled quantum wells.
Construction of polynomial approximation for Hansen coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vakhidov, Akmal A.
2000-01-01
The problem of constructing efficient approximations of Hansen coefficients using polynomials in terms of the eccentricity is considered. The properties of the following approximating schemes are studied in detail: approximation by fragments of Taylor series, interpolation by Lagrange polynomials, Chebyshev approximation. The accuracy of all these approximating schemes is investigated for different values of eccentricities and for different indices of the Hansen coefficients.
The Seebeck Coefficient of Insulators: Electrochemical Potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahan, G. D.
2016-03-01
We discuss the theory behind low-temperature measurement of the Seebeck coefficient in materials with few electrons, such as insulators and lightly doped semiconductors. The Seebeck coefficient is defined thermodynamically as being related to the electrochemical potential. However, the measurement is of the voltage for a material with no current, which is not the same as the gradient of the electrochemical potential.
A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Chris J.; van der Slot, Peter J. M.; Boller, Klaus-J.
2013-01-01
We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.
Radiometer gives true absorption and emission coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fymat, A. L.
1977-01-01
Novel radiometer, unaffected by scattering and polarization, measures true absorption and emmission coefficients for arbitrary mixture of gases and polluting particles. It has potential astronomical, meteorological, and environmental applications, such as determination of radiative heat budget, aerosol relative concentration, and morphology of cloud, haze, and fog formations. Data and temperature can be coupled directly to small computer for online calculation of radiation coefficients.
Alpha-particle spectrometer experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.
1972-01-01
Mapping the radon emanation of the moon was studied to find potential areas of high activity by detection of radon isotopes and their daughter products. It was felt that based on observation of regions overflown by Apollo spacecraft and within the field of view of the alpha-particle spectrometer, a radon map could be constructed, identifying and locating lunar areas of outgassing. The basic theory of radon migration from natural concentrations of uranium and thorium is discussed in terms of radon decay and the production of alpha particles. The preliminary analysis of the results indicates no significant alpha emission.
An agreement coefficient for image comparison
Ji, L.; Gallo, K.
2006-01-01
Combination of datasets acquired from different sensor systems is necessary to construct a long time-series dataset for remotely sensed land-surface variables. Assessment of the agreement of the data derived from various sources is an important issue in understanding the data continuity through the time-series. Some traditional measures, including correlation coefficient, coefficient of determination, mean absolute error, and root mean square error, are not always optimal for evaluating the data agreement. For this reason, we developed a new agreement coefficient for comparing two different images. The agreement coefficient has the following properties: non-dimensional, bounded, symmetric, and distinguishable between systematic and unsystematic differences. The paper provides examples of agreement analyses for hypothetical data and actual remotely sensed data. The results demonstrate that the agreement coefficient does include the above properties, and therefore is a useful tool for image comparison. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.
Analytic structure of one-loop coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Bo; Wang, Honghui
2013-05-01
By the unitarity cut method, analytic expressions of one-loop coefficients have been given in spinor forms. In this paper, we present one-loop coefficients of various bases in Lorentz-invariant contraction forms of external momenta. Using these forms, the analytic structure of these coefficients becomes manifest. Firstly, coefficients of bases contain only second-type singularities while the first-type singularities are included inside scalar bases. Secondly, the highest degree of each singularity is correlated with the degree of the inner momentum in the numerator. Thirdly, the same singularities will appear in different coefficients, thus our explicit results could be used to provide a clear physical picture under various limits (such as soft or collinear limits) when combining contributions from all bases.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gadermann, Anne M.; Guhn, Martin; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2012-01-01
This paper provides a conceptual, empirical, and practical guide for estimating ordinal reliability coefficients for ordinal item response data (also referred to as Likert, Likert-type, ordered categorical, or rating scale item responses). Conventionally, reliability coefficients, such as Cronbach's alpha, are calculated using a Pearson…
Effect of Items Direction (Positive or Negative) on the Reliability in Likert Scale. Paper-11
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gul, Showkeen Bilal Ahmad; Qasem, Mamun Ali Naji; Bhat, Mehraj Ahmad
2015-01-01
In this paper an attempt was made to analyze the effect of items direction (positive or negative) on the Alpha Cronbach reliability coefficient and the Split Half reliability coefficient in Likert scale. The descriptive survey research method was used for the study and sample of 510 undergraduate students were selected by used random sampling…
Prothymosin alpha receptors on lymphocytes.
Cordero, O J; Sarandeses, C; Nogueira, M
1995-08-01
Recent results indicate that prothymosin alpha (ProT alpha) may be useful in designing future therapeutic interventions in cancer patients and in potentiating the immune system. We described recently the presence and characteristics of two binding sites for ProT alpha on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). In search of a receptor upregulation, we decided to corroborate this finding on two lymphocytic populations, (PHA-activated) lymphoblasts and YT cells. The kinetics of [125I]ProT alpha binding to lymphoblasts were fast at room temperature but with YT cells were slower. Analysis of steady-state binding data identified two binding sites in lymphoblasts with an apparent equilibrium Kd of 44-75 pM and 4228-9143 sites per cell for the high-affinity receptor and 1.7-2.9 nM and 20,534-35,044 sites per cell for the low-affinity receptor. However, it identified only one site with a Kd of 265-435 pM and 8318-27,237 sites per cell in YT cells. We conclude that exists a ProT alpha receptor in the CD3+ T cell population, and this presence is regulated. After binding to cell surface, [125I]ProT alpha is internalized in a short period of time and then degraded; therefore, we conclude that the dynamics of ProT alpha receptor turnover in part determines the concentration of ProT alpha available to induce its enhancing effects. PMID:8528946
Spreading coefficients of aliphatic hydrocarbons on water
Takii, Taichi; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)
1993-11-01
Experiments have been performed to determine the equilibrium spreading coefficients of some aliphatic hydrocarbons (C[sub 6]C[sub 10]) on water. The thickness of a discrete lens of each hydrocarbon sample floating on a stagnant water pool was measured interferometrically and used to calculate the spreading coefficient of the hydrocarbon with the aid of Langmuir's capillarity theory. The dependences of the spreading coefficient, thus observed, on temperature (0--50 C) and on the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule are in qualitative agreement with the predictions based on the Lifshitz theory of van der Waals forces.
On the emission coefficient of uranium plasmas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, R. T.; Campbell, H. D.; Mack, J. M.
1973-01-01
The emission coefficient for uranium plasmas (temperature: 8000 K) was measured for the wavelength range from 1200 to 6000 A. The results were compared to theoretical calculations and other measurements. Reasonable agreement between theoretical predictions and our measurements was found in the region from 1200 to 2000 A. Although it was difficult to make absolute comparisons among the different reported measurements, considerable disagreement was found for the higher wavelength region. A short discussion regarding the overall comparisons is given, and final suggestions are made as to the most appropriate emission coefficient values to be used in future design calculations. The absorption coefficient for the same wavelength interval is also reported.
Statistical Methods with Varying Coefficient Models
Fan, Jianqing; Zhang, Wenyang
2008-01-01
The varying coefficient models are very important tool to explore the dynamic pattern in many scientific areas, such as economics, finance, politics, epidemiology, medical science, ecology and so on. They are natural extensions of classical parametric models with good interpretability and are becoming more and more popular in data analysis. Thanks to their flexibility and interpretability, in the past ten years, the varying coefficient models have experienced deep and exciting developments on methodological, theoretical and applied sides. This paper gives a selective overview on the major methodological and theoretical developments on the varying coefficient models. PMID:18978950
Generalized Coefficients for Hopf Cyclic Cohomology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassanzadeh, Mohammad; Kucerovsky, Dan; Rangipour, Bahram
2014-09-01
A category of coefficients for Hopf cyclic cohomology is defined. It is shown that this category has two proper subcategories of which the smallest one is the known category of stable anti Yetter-Drinfeld modules. The middle subcategory is comprised of those coefficients which satisfy a generalized SAYD condition depending on both the Hopf algebra and the (co)algebra in question. Some examples are introduced to show that these three categories are different. It is shown that all components of Hopf cyclic cohomology work well with the new coefficients we have defined.
Determination of absorption coefficients of thin films
Lodenquai, J.F. )
1994-08-01
The equations that are usually presented as those used to determine the absorption coefficients of materials in film form based on measurements of transmission and reflection coefficients are fundamentally incorrect. These equations omit a multiplicative factor arising from the complex nature of the refractive indices of the materials. This factor enters explicitly into the relationship between the transmission and reflection coefficients for such materials and is not necessarily close to unity, although in practice this factor can be approximated by unity at least in the infrared through the optical range of wavelengths.
Soccer ball lift coefficients via trajectory analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goff, John Eric; Carré, Matt J.
2010-07-01
We performed experiments in which a soccer ball was launched from a machine while two high-speed cameras recorded portions of the trajectory. Using the trajectory data and published drag coefficients, we extracted lift coefficients for a soccer ball. We determined lift coefficients for a wide range of spin parameters, including several spin parameters that have not been obtained by today's wind tunnels. Our trajectory analysis technique is not only a valuable tool for professional sports scientists, it is also accessible to students with a background in undergraduate-level classical mechanics.
Scheer, H; Robaire, B
1983-01-01
Epididymal delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase (cholestenone 5 alpha-reductase), the enzyme that catalyses the conversion of testosterone into the biologically active metabolite dihydrotestosterone (17 beta-hydroxy-5 alpha-androstan-3-one), is a membrane-bound enzyme found in both nuclear and microsomal subcellular fractions. In order to characterize epididymal delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase, it was first necessary to solubilize the enzymic activity. Of the various treatments tested, a combination of 0.5% (w/v) Lubrol WX, 0.1 M-sodium citrate and 0.1 M-KCl maintained enzymic activity at control values and solubilized 66% of total epididymal delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase activity in an active and stable form. The sedimentation coefficient of solubilized delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase, as determined in continuous sucrose density gradients, was greater for the microsomal than for the nuclear enzyme (11.6S compared with 10.1S). Although the apparent Km values of the enzyme for testosterone were similar in nuclear and microsomal subcellular fractions (range 1.75 x 10(-7) - 4.52 x 10(-7)M), the apparent Km of the enzyme for NADPH was about 30-fold greater for the microsomal enzyme than for the nuclear enzyme. The apparent Km of the enzyme for either substrate was not significantly altered after solubilization. The relative capacity of steroids to inhibit the enzymic activity, the pH optima and the effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ were similar for membrane-bound and solubilized delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase in both the nuclear and the microsomal fractions. The results reported demonstrate that epididymal delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase can be solubilized in an active and stable form with no significant changes in the kinetic characteristics of the enzyme after solubilization; furthermore, kinetic and molecular-size differences observed for the nuclear and the microsomal forms of the enzyme suggest that there may exist at least two forms of epididymal delta 4-steroid 5 alpha-reductase. PMID:6870829
21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....
21 CFR 882.1610 - Alpha monitor.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha monitor. 882.1610 Section 882.1610 Food and... NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1610 Alpha monitor. (a) Identification. An alpha... electroencephalogram which is referred to as the alpha wave. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards)....
Bretscher, M S
1992-01-01
The alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 integrins all participate in the endocytotic cycle. By contrast, alpha 3 beta 1, alpha 4 beta 1 and LFA-1 do so much more slowly, or not at all, in the cell lines examined. This indicates that the alpha-chains appear to determine whether an integrin cycles or not, and that alpha 5 beta 1, alpha 6 beta 4 and Mac-1 can be brought to the leading edge of a moving cell by endocytosis and recycling. Images PMID:1531629
Binding of actin to lens alpha crystallins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gopalakrishnan, S.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
1992-01-01
Actin has been coupled to a cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose 4B column, then tested for binding to alpha, beta, and gamma crystallin preparations from the bovine lens. Alpha, but not beta or gamma, crystallins bound to the actin affinity column in a time dependent and saturable manner. Subfractionation of the alpha crystallin preparation into the alpha-A and alpha-B species, followed by incubation with the affinity column, demonstrated that both species bound approximately the same. Together, these studies demonstrate a specific and saturable binding of lens alpha-A and alpha-B with actin.
Second coefficient of viscosity in air
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ash, Robert L.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Zheng, Zhonquan
1991-01-01
Acoustic attenuation measurements in air were analyzed in order to estimate the second coefficient of viscosity. Data over a temperature range of 11 C to 50 C and at relative humidities between 6 percent and 91 percent were used. This analysis showed that the second coefficient of viscosity varied between 1900 and 20,000 times larger than the dynamic or first coefficient of viscosity over the temperature and humidity range of the data. In addition, the data showed that the molecular relaxation effects, which are responsible for the magnitude of the second coefficient of viscosity, place severe limits on the use of time-independent, thermodynamic equations of state. Compressible flows containing large streamwise velocity gradients, like shock waves, which cause significant changes in particle properties to occur during time intervals shorter than hundredths of seconds, must be modeled using dynamic equations of state. The dynamic model approach is described briefly.
Averaging of Fourier-Haar coefficients
Montgomery-Smith, S; Semenov, E M
1999-10-31
An operator defined by averaging of the Fourier-Haar coefficients of a function is studied. A criterion for the boundedness of such an operator acting in a pair of rearrangement-invariant spaces is derived.
Friction coefficient dependence on electrostatic tribocharging
Burgo, Thiago A. L.; Silva, Cristiane A.; Balestrin, Lia B. S.; Galembeck, Fernando
2013-01-01
Friction between dielectric surfaces produces patterns of fixed, stable electric charges that in turn contribute electrostatic components to surface interactions between the contacting solids. The literature presents a wealth of information on the electronic contributions to friction in metals and semiconductors but the effect of triboelectricity on friction coefficients of dielectrics is as yet poorly defined and understood. In this work, friction coefficients were measured on tribocharged polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), using three different techniques. As a result, friction coefficients at the macro- and nanoscales increase many-fold when PTFE surfaces are tribocharged, but this effect is eliminated by silanization of glass spheres rolling on PTFE. In conclusion, tribocharging may supersede all other contributions to macro- and nanoscale friction coefficients in PTFE and probably in other insulating polymers. PMID:23934227
Microcomputer listens to the coefficient of restitution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, P. A.; Spencer, C. D.; Jones, D. E.
1981-02-01
A previous article in this Journal titled ''Listening to the coefficient of restitution,'' describes a procedure for determining the coefficient by measuring the times between bounces for a ball dropped onto a hard surface. The procedure has been completely computerized. A microcomputer collects and sends data to a large computer where analysis is done and graphical output is generated. The data collection hardware and software are described. Results are illustrated.
Mechanism of alpha-tocopheryl-phosphate (alpha-TP) transport across the cell membrane
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
We have reported that alpha-TP is synthesized and hydrolyzed in animal cells and tissues; it modulates also several cell functions (FRBM 39:970, and UBMB Life, 57:23, 2005). While it is similar to alpha-tocopherol (alpha-T), alpha-TP appears to be more potent than alpha-T in inhibiting cell prolifer...
Biotransformation of 3alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-dihydro-beta-agarofuran by Rhizopus nigricans.
Alarcón, Julio; Aguila, Sergio
2004-01-01
3alpha,4alpha-Dihydroxy-dihydro-beta-agarofuran (1), prepared from (+)-dihydrocarvone by a traditional synthetic method, the Robinson annelation, was biotransformed by R. nigricans to afford a new metabolite characterized as 1alpha,3alpha,4alpha-trihydroxy-dihydro-beta-agarofuran (2) by spectroscopic method. An acetylated derivative was prepared. PMID:15241929
Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent in reducing cell proliferation and the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor than the un-phosphorylated alpha-tocopherol (alpha T). We have now assessed the effects of alpha T an...
Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$
Bethke, Siegfried; Hoang, Andre H.; Kluth, Stefan; Schieck, Jochen; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS
2011-10-01
These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.
Sadreazami, Hamidreza; Ahmad, M Omair; Swamy, M N S
2014-10-01
In the past decade, several schemes for digital image watermarking have been proposed to protect the copyright of an image document or to provide proof of ownership in some identifiable fashion. This paper proposes a novel multiplicative watermarking scheme in the contourlet domain. The effectiveness of a watermark detector depends highly on the modeling of the transform-domain coefficients. In view of this, we first investigate the modeling of the contourlet coefficients by the alpha-stable distributions. It is shown that the univariate alpha-stable distribution fits the empirical data more accurately than the formerly used distributions, such as the generalized Gaussian and Laplacian, do. We also show that the bivariate alpha-stable distribution can capture the across scale dependencies of the contourlet coefficients. Motivated by the modeling results, a blind watermark detector in the contourlet domain is designed by using the univariate and bivariate alpha-stable distributions. It is shown that the detectors based on both of these distributions provide higher detection rates than that based on the generalized Gaussian distribution does. However, a watermark detector designed based on the alpha-stable distribution with a value of its parameter ? other than 1 or 2 is computationally expensive because of the lack of a closed-form expression for the distribution in this case. Therefore, a watermark detector is designed based on the bivariate Cauchy member of the alpha-stable family for which ? = 1 . The resulting design yields a significantly reduced-complexity detector and provides a performance that is much superior to that of the GG detector and very close to that of the detector corresponding to the best-fit alpha-stable distribution. The robustness of the proposed bivariate Cauchy detector against various kinds of attacks, such as noise, filtering, and compression, is studied and shown to be superior to that of the generalized Gaussian detector. PMID:25051554
Alpha thalassaemia in British people.
Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J S; Weatherall, D J
1985-01-01
Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered who had a moderately severe form of thalassaemia (HbH disease) due to the inheritance of one form of alpha thalassaemia from the British parent and another type from the foreign parent. This shows the importance of careful genetic counselling of British patients with haematological findings of thalassaemia. Images FIG 3 PMID:2986751
ALPHA: antihydrogen and fundamental physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Madsen, Niels
2014-02-01
Detailed comparisons of antihydrogen with hydrogen promise to be a fruitful test bed of fundamental symmetries such as the CPT theorem for quantum field theory or studies of gravitational influence on antimatter. With a string of recent successes, starting with the first trapped antihydrogen and recently resulting in the first measurement of a quantum transition in anti-hydrogen, the ALPHA collaboration is well on its way to perform such precision comparisons. We will discuss the key innovative steps that have made these results possible and in particular focus on the detailed work on positron and antiproton preparation to achieve antihydrogen cold enough to trap as well as the unique features of the ALPHA apparatus that has allowed the first quantum transitions in anti-hydrogen to be measured with only a single trapped antihydrogen atom per experiment. We will also look at how ALPHA plans to step from here towards more precise comparisons of matter and antimatter.
Space Station alpha joint bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Everman, Michael R.; Jones, P. Alan; Spencer, Porter A.
1987-01-01
Perhaps the most critical structural system aboard the Space Station is the Solar Alpha Rotary Joint which helps align the power generation system with the sun. The joint must provide structural support and controlled rotation to the outboard transverse booms as well as power and data transfer across the joint. The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint is composed of two transition sections and an integral, large diameter bearing. Alpha joint bearing design presents a particularly interesting problem because of its large size and need for high reliability, stiffness, and on orbit maintability. The discrete roller bearing developed is a novel refinement to cam follower technology. It offers thermal compensation and ease of on-orbit maintenance that are not found in conventional rolling element bearings. How the bearing design evolved is summarized. Driving requirements are reviewed, alternative concepts assessed, and the selected design is described.
On the diffusion of alpha-helical proteins in solvents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barredo, Wilson I.; Bornales, Jinky B.; Bernido, Christopher C.; Aringa, Henry P.
2015-01-01
The winding probability function for a biopolymer diffusing in a crowded cell is obtained with the drift coefficient f(s) involving Bessel functions of general form f(s) = kJ2p+1 (νs). The variable s is the length along the chain and ν is a constant which can be used to simulate the frequency of appearance of a certain type of amino acid. Application of a particular case p = 3 to protein chains is carried out for different alpha helical proteins found in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). Analysis of our results leads us to an empirical formula that can be used to conveniently predict k/D and ν, where D is the diffusion coefficient of various α-helical proteins in solvents.
NACA Physicist Studying Alpha Rays
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1957-01-01
NACA Physicits studying Alpha Rays in a continuous cloud chamber. A cloud chamber is used by Lewis scientists to obtain information aimed at minimizing undesirable effects of radiation on nuclear-powered aircraft components. Here, alpha particles from a polonium source emit in a flower-like pattern at the cloud chamber's center. The particles are made visible by means of alcohol vapor diffusing from an area at room temperature to an area at minus -78 deg. Centigrade. Nuclear-powered aircraft were never developed and aircraft nuclear propulsion systems were canceled in the early 1960s.
Bremsstrahlung in {alpha} Decay Reexamined
Boie, H.; Scheit, H.; Jentschura, U. D.; Koeck, F.; Lauer, M.; Schwalm, D.; Milstein, A. I.; Terekhov, I. S.
2007-07-13
A high-statistics measurement of bremsstrahlung emitted in the {alpha} decay of {sup 210}Po has been performed, which allows us to follow the photon spectra up to energies of {approx}500 keV. The measured differential emission probability is in good agreement with our theoretical results obtained within the quasiclassical approximation as well as with the exact quantum mechanical calculation. It is shown that, due to the small effective electric dipole charge of the radiating system, a significant interference between the electric dipole and quadrupole contributions occurs, which is altering substantially the angular correlation between the {alpha} particle and the emitted photon.
Test chamber for alpha spectrometry
Larsen, Robert P.
1977-01-01
Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.
Long-range alpha detector sample monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, J. D.; Allander, K. S.; Bounds, J. A.; Garner, S. E.; Johnson, J. P.; MacArthur, D. W.; Sprouse, L. L.; Walters, S. G.
1994-12-01
Long-range alpha detector (LRAD) systems are designed to monitor alpha sources and contamination by measuring the number of ions created in air by ionizing radiation. Traditional alpha detectors are designed to detect alpha particles directly and must be passed slowly within about 3 cm of an alpha source to operate effectively. LRAD detectors collect the ions created from alpha interactions with air. Therefore, they are better able to monitor equipment and complex surfaces and can be operated at a much greater distance from an alpha source than traditional alpha detectors. Furthermore, because LRAD detectors remain stationary during monitoring, they are less subject to operator error than traditional alpha detectors. This paper will discuss the basic operation as well as recent advances that have been made to LRAD Sample Monitors.
Measurement of electrostrictive coefficients of polymer films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillot, Franois M.; Jarzynski, Jacek; Balizer, Edward
2001-12-01
A new technique to experimentally determine the electrostrictive coefficients of thin polymer films is presented. This technique is a second-order extension of the first-order quasistatic method for the measurement of piezoelectric coefficients previously introduced by Guillot and Jarzynski [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 600-607 (2000)]. In the present method, electrically induced strains are measured optically on a rubber-encapsulated sample. These strains are used in a Rayleigh-Ritz procedure that minimizes the total energy of the sample and whose output is a set of three tensile electrostrictive coefficients. The total energy of the sample includes elastic contributions from the polymer and the encapsulating rubber as well as two quadratic electromechanical terms corresponding to Maxwell stress and to electrostriction. Therefore, the external electrostatic effects can be separated from the intrinsic electrostrictive behavior, and the measured coefficients are true material properties. Data obtained on two types of polyurethanes submitted to a bias field of approximately 4 MV/m at 2 kHz and at room temperature are presented. It was found that these materials possess very large electrostrictive coefficients and that the Maxwell stress effect is responsible for less than 13% of their total electromechanical behavior.
Removal of Arg141 from the alpha chain of human hemoglobin by carboxypeptidases N and M.
Michel, B; Igić, R; Leray, V; Deddish, P A; Erdös, E G
1996-04-01
Both human plasma carboxypeptidase N (CPN) and membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) released the C-terminal arginine (alpha-Arg141) of the alpha chain of human adult hemoglobin. An arginase contamination present in the hemoglobin preparation, which converted the released arginine to ornithine, was removed by gel filtration. CPM was about 20 times more efficient than CPN or its active subunit in hydrolyzing oxyhemoglobin and cleaved oxyhemoglobin twice as fast as deoxyhemoglobin. The hydrolysis of the peptide bond of alpha-Arg141 accelerated the dissociation rate of the tetramer deoxy-des-alpha-Arg141 hemoglobin to dimers 2500-fold over that of deoxyhemoglobin, as measured by haptoglobin binding. Moreover, the dissociation of the deoxy-des-alpha-Arg141 hemoglobin tetramer to dimers was not affected by 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid. Des-alpha-Arg141 hemoglobin had a higher oxygen affinity (P50, 5.51 mm Hg; control, 19.94 mm Hg [P50 is the partial pressure of oxygen that gives 50% of the saturation of hemoglobin]) and a lower apparent cooperativity (Hill coefficient: n, 1.02; control, 2.24) than unhydrolyzed hemoglobin. After hemoglobin was incubated in human plasma, its oxygen-binding parameters, the P50, and the Hill coefficient decreased drastically due to cleavage by CPN. In the perfused rat heart, des-alpha-Arg141 hemoglobin was a more effective coronary vasoconstrictor than hemoglobin, possibly because it dissociated to dimers in the coronary vascular bed. A covalently cross-linked hemoglobin was less active than native hemoglobin. The coronary vasoconstriction was caused by multiple factors, including interference with vasodilation by nitric oxide and eicosanoids. Thus, the hydrolysis of hemoglobin by CPM and CPN demonstrated the contribution of the alpha-Arg141 residue to sustaining the tetrameric structure of hemoglobin and its normal oxygen affinity and vasoactivity. PMID:8635221
Understanding correlation coefficients in treaty verification
DeVolpi, A.
1991-11-01
When a pair of images are compared on a point-by-point basis, the linear-correlation coefficient is usually used as a measure of similarity or dissimilarity. This paper evaluates the theoretical underpinnings and limitation of the linear-correlation coefficient, as well as other related statistics, particularly for cases where inherent white noise is present. As a result of the limitations in linear-correlation, an additional step has been derived -- local-sum clustering -- in order to improve recognition of small dissimilarities in a pair images. Results show that three-stage procedure, consisting of first establishing congruence of the two images, than using the linear-correlation coefficient as a test of true negatives, and finally qualifying a true positive by using the cluster (local-sum) method. These algorithmic stages would be especially useful in arms control treaty verification.
The Computation of Tables of Hansen Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, S.
1981-09-01
Computer produced tables of analytical expressions for the Hansen coefficientsX {0/ n, ±m }(e) andX {0/-(n+1), ±m }(e) are obtained when 1≤n≤30 and 0≤m≤n. The most important properties of these coefficients are briefly discussed together with a description of the recursive procedures used to compute them. The computation ofX {k/ n, ±m } andX {k/-(n+1), ±m } whenk≠0 is also discussed. Although tables of these coefficients for 1≤n≤30, -n≤m≤n and |m-k|≤12 have been computed they are not presented here due to their inordinate length.
Standardized sensitivity coefficients for power system networks
Barcelo, W.R.; Lemmon, W.W. )
1988-11-01
A simple mathematical transformation for converting power system network sensitivity coefficients from one reference frame to another is derived using a generalized power center concept. The generalized power center consists of a swing power center and an angle center. A standard power center is presented wherein the swing power and angle centers are set equal to the load center. The resulting standardized sensitivity coefficients are independent of the swing bus. Solving a Lagrangian formulation of the economic dispatch problem results in the direct calculation of true system incremental cost only when standardized sensitivity coefficients are used. Results are presented for several practical cases involving the Jacobian and DC load flow matrices and several different power centers. The importance of the swing power sensitivity vector is identified and other key network relationships are developed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harf, F. H.
1981-01-01
Specimens of gamma/gamma-prime-alpha (Mo) eutectic alloy were thermally cycled or isothermally exposed at temperatures of 1075 to 1100 C. Transmission electron microscopy examination of cycled specimens indicated that even an exposure of 10 minutes effected noticeable changes in the shape of the alpha phase, and that the changes were cumulative as more cycles were added. The cross sections of fine, smooth fibers changed from rectangles to octagons, while lamellae and irregular shapes spheroidized. These effects are attributed to the differences in thermal expansion coefficients between the alpha phase and the gamma/gamma-prime matrix, and to the higher diffusion rates prevailing at elevated temperatures. Where the configuration of the alpha phase is a simple shape, such as a fiber, increasing the temperature eventually brings about a stress free interface between the alpha phase and the matrix by differential thermal expansion. Where the shape of the alpha phase is more complex, a stressed interface persists to higher temperatures where diffusion produces the more drastic morphological changes.
Huge Seebeck coefficients in nonaqueous electrolytes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonetti, M.; Nakamae, S.; Roger, M.; Guenoun, P.
2011-03-01
The Seebeck coefficients of the nonaqueous electrolytes tetrabutylammonium nitrate, tetraoctylphosphonium bromide, and tetradodecylammonium nitrate in 1-octanol, 1-dodecanol, and ethylene-glycol are measured in a temperature range from T = 30 °C to T = 45 °C. The Seebeck coefficient is generally of the order of a few hundreds of microvolts per Kelvin for aqueous solution of inorganic ions. Here we report huge values of 7 mV/K at 0.1 M concentration for tetrabutylammonium nitrate in 1-dodecanol. These striking results open the question of unexpectedly large kosmotrope or "structure making" effects of tetraalkylammonium ions on the structure of alcohols.
Diffusion and transport coefficients in synthetic opals
Sofo, J. O.; Mahan, G. D.; Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-1200
2000-07-15
Opals are structures composed of close-packed spheres in the size range of nano to micrometers. They are sintered to create small necks at the points of contact. We have solved the diffusion problem in such structures. The relation between the diffusion coefficient and the thermal and electrical conductivity is used to estimate the transport coefficients of opal structures as a function of the neck size and the mean free path of the carriers. The theory presented is also applicable to the diffusion problem in other periodic structures. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Thermomagnetic coefficients in terms of thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sergeev, Andrei; Reyzer, Michael; Mitin, Vladimir
2014-03-01
Nernst-Ettingshausen coefficient in relatively strong magnetic fields is obtained and expressed via thermodynamics parameters. The relation is general and applicable to any strongly interacting systems. Contrary to a number of recent publications, this relation clearly demonstrates that the magnetization currents as well as superconducting currents do not transfer any entropy and do not participate in thermomagnetic transport. The developed machinery is applied to thermomagnetic effects in the fluctuation area. The results demonstrate that in the interacting Fermi systems the thermomagnetic coefficient is always proportional to the ratio of kT to the Fermi energy. Work is supported by NSF.
Shear viscosity coefficient of liquid lanthanides
Patel, H. P. Thakor, P. B. Prajapati, A. V.; Sonvane, Y. A.
2015-05-15
Present paper deals with the computation of shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides. The effective pair potential v(r) is calculated through our newly constructed model potential. The Pair distribution function g(r) is calculated from PYHS reference system. To see the influence of local field correction function, Hartree (H), Tailor (T) and Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function are used. Present results are compared with available experimental as well as theoretical data. Lastly, we found that our newly constructed model potential successfully explains the shear viscosity coefficient (η) of liquid lanthanides.
Absorption coefficient instrument for turbid natural waters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Friedman, E.; Cherdak, A.; Poole, L.; Houghton, W.
1980-01-01
The paper presents an instrument that directly measures multispectral absorption coefficient of turbid natural water. Attention is given to the design, which is shown to incorporate methods for the compensation of variation in the internal light source intensity, correction of the spectrally dependent nature of the optical elements, and correction for variation in the background light level. In addition, when used in conjunction with a spectrally matched total attenuation instrument, the spectrally dependent scattering coefficient can also be derived. Finally, it is reported that systematic errors associated with multiple scattering have been estimated using Monte Carlo techniques.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zitlaw, Jo Ann Bruce; Frank, Cheryl Standish
1985-01-01
"Alpha-Pets" are the focal point of an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum. Each pet is featured for a week in a vocabulary-rich story and introduces related activities beginning with the featured letter, such as the four food groups during Freddie Fish's week or universe during Ulysses Unicorn's week. (MT)
Alcoholism, Alpha Production, and Biofeedback
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jones, Frances W.; Holmes, David S.
1976-01-01
Electroencephalograms of 20 alcoholics and 20 nonalcoholics were obtained. Data indicated that alcoholics produced less alpha than nonalcoholics. In one training condition subjects were given accurate biofeedback, whereas in the other condition subjects were given random (noncontingent) feedback. Accurate biofeedback did not result in greater…
Alpha Testing Escape from Diab
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Alpha testing was conducted of sessions 2 and 3 from Diab to assess whether the activities worked as expected, and whether children in the target ages enjoyed it. Data include both RA observations of child performance while playing the games and cognitive interview responses from the players after t...
Alpha proton x ray spectrometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rieder, Rudi; Waeke, H.; Economou, T.
1994-01-01
Mars Pathfinder will carry an alpha-proton x ray spectrometer (APX) for the determination of the elemental chemical composition of Martian rocks and soils. The instrument will measure the concentration of all major and some minor elements, including C, N, and O at levels above typically 1 percent.
Energetic particle diffusion coefficients upstream of quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.
1989-01-01
The properties of about 30 to 130-keV/e protons and alpha particles upstream of six quasi-parallel interplanetary shocks that passed by the ISEE 3 spacecraft during 1978-1979 were analyzed, and the values for the upstream energegic particle diffusion coefficient, kappa, in these six events were deduced for a number of energies and upstream positions. These observations were compared with predictions of Lee's (1983) theory of shock acceleration. It was found that the observations verified the prediction of the A/Q dependence (where A and Q are the particle atomic mass and ionization state, respectively) of kappa for alpha and proton particles upstream of the quasi-parallel shocks.
Cloning and expression of metallothionein mutant alpha-KKS-alpha in Anabaena sp. PCC 7120.
Shao, Qiang; Shi, Ding-Ji; Hao, Fu-Ying; Ma, Li-Na; Chen, Zhen-Jia; Yu, Mei-Min; Ru, Bing-Gen
2002-01-01
The mouse metallothionein (mMT) mutant alpha-KKS-alpha has a higher capacity for binding heavy metals than wild type mMT. The mMT mutant alpha-KKS-alpha gene was placed under the control of the strong promoter PpbsA to generate the intermediate vector pRL-alpha-KKS-alpha. pRLalpha-KKS-alpha was then linked with the plasmid pDC-08 to construct shuttle expression vector pDC-alphaKKS-alpha. This expression vector was transformed into Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 using triparental conjugative transfer. After antibiotic selection (ampicillin and kanamycin), transgenic Anabaena was identified by PCR and Western blotting. The expression level of the mMT mutation alpha-KKS-alpha reached 7.4 mg/g dry cells weight, as detected by ELISA, and heavy metal resistance of the transgenic Anabaena was significantly improved. PMID:12398381
THE CYCLES OF {alpha} CENTAURI
Ayres, Thomas R.
2009-05-10
The main AB pair of the nearby {alpha} Centauri triple system has one of the most extensive X-ray records of any cosmic object, stretching over 30 years. The primary, {alpha} Cen A (G2 V), is a near twin of the Sun, with a similarly soft (1-2 MK) corona. The secondary, {alpha} Cen B (K1 V), is more active than the Sun, with a generally harder coronal spectrum. Here, more than a decade of spatially resolved measurements from ROSAT, XMM-Newton, and Chandra are compared on a common basis, with careful attention to conversion factors that translate count rates of the different instruments into absolute energy fluxes. For the latter purpose, two epochs of Chandra transmission grating spectra, which fully resolve the binary, were modeled using a differential emission measure formalism. The aggregate time series suggests that {alpha} Cen B was near X-ray maximum in the mid-1990s, minimum in the late-1990s, then peaked again in 2004-2005, and more recently has been declining toward another minimum. Meanwhile, {alpha} Cen A showed minimal variability 1995-2000, and like the secondary presently is mired in an activity lull (in fact, as seen by XMM-Newton, the primary 'fainted' from view in the 2005 time frame). Comparisons between X-ray luminosities in the 0.2-2 keV (6-60 A) ROSAT 'WGACAT' band and a softer counterpart 0.06-1.2 keV (10-200 A) reinforce the idea that cycle depth is strongly dependent on the energy span of the measurement, and that much of the coronal luminosity of cool-corona objects like the Sun falls at longer wavelengths than are recorded efficiently by contemporary instruments. Consequently, one must be careful in discussing X-ray cycles, their amplitudes, and coronal heating requirements unless one can demonstrate good control over the out-of-band component.
Modulation of gene expression by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl phosphate in thp-1 monocytes
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The naturally occurring vitamin E analogue, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), has been reported to be more potent than the un-phosphorylated alpha alpha-tocopherol (alphaT). We have now measured plasma levels of alphaTP and compared the cellular effects of alphaTP and gamma-tocopheryl phosphate ...
Coexistence of {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in {sup 10}Be
Itagaki, N.; Ito, M.; Milin, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.
2008-06-15
The coexistence of the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n and {alpha}+t+t cluster structures in the excited states of {sup 10}Be has been discussed. In the previous analysis, all the low-lying states of {sup 10}Be were found to be well described by the motion of the two valence neutrons around two {alpha} clusters. However, the {alpha}+t+t cluster structure was found to coexist with the {alpha}+{alpha}+n+n structure around E{sub x}=15 MeV, close to the corresponding threshold. We have introduced a microscopic model to solve the coupling effect between these two configurations. The K=0 and K=1 states are generated from the {alpha}+t+t configurations due to the spin coupling of two triton clusters. The present case of {sup 10}Be is one of the few examples in which completely different configurations of triton-type ({alpha}+t+t three-center) and {alpha}-type ({alpha}+{alpha}+n+n two-center) clusters coexist in a single nucleus in the same energy region.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohammed, Ahmed; Zeleke, Aklilu
2015-01-01
We introduce a class of second-order ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with variable coefficients whose closed-form solutions can be obtained by the same method used to solve ODEs with constant coefficients. General solutions for the homogeneous case are discussed.
The Seebeck coefficient of superionic conductors
Mahan, G. D.
2015-01-28
We present a theory of the anomalous Seebeck coefficient found in the superionic conductor Cu{sub 2}Se. It has a phase transition at T = 400 K where the cations disorder but the anions do not. This disorder gives a temperature-dependent width to the electronic states in the conduction band. This width provides the anomalous Seebeck contribution.
Hansen Coefficients and Generalized Spherical Harmonics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacaglia, G. E. O.
Hansen's coefficients for the Fourier series in terms of the mean anomaly correspond to a rotation of the orbital plane proportional to the eccentricity of the orbit. Here, they are given in terms of Bessel functions and generalized associated Legendre functions. These functions arise naturally when one considers the transformation of spherical harmonics under rotation.
Recursive harmonic analysis for computing Hansen coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adel Sharaf, Mohamed; Hassan Selim, Hadia
2010-12-01
We report on a simple pure numerical method developed for computing Hansen coefficients by using a recursive harmonic analysis technique. The precision criteria of the computations are very satisfactory and provide materials for computing Hansen's and Hansen's like expansions, and also to check the accuracy of some existing algorithms.
Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James
2004-01-01
Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's…
Experimental Influence Coefficients and Vibration Modes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weidman, Deene J.; Kordes, Eldon E.
1959-01-01
Test results are presented for both symmetrical and antisymmetrical static loading of a wing model mounted on a three-point support system. The first six free-free vibration modes were determined experimentally. A comparison is made of the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies with the symmetrical nodal patterns and frequencies calculated from the experimental influence coefficients.
Determination Of The Surface Drag Coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahrt, L.; Vickers, Dean; Sun, Jielun; et al.
This study examines the dependence of the surface drag coefficienton stability, wind speed, mesoscale modulation of the turbulent flux and method of calculation of the drag coefficient. Data sets over grassland, sparse grass, heather and two forest sites are analyzed. For significantly unstable conditions, the drag coefficient does not depend systematically on z/L but decreases with wind speed for fixed intervals of z/L, where L is the Obukhov length. Even though the drag coefficient for weak wind conditions is sensitive to the exact method of calculation and choice of averaging time, the decrease of the drag coefficient with wind speed occurs for all of the calculation methods. A classification of flux calculation methods is constructed, which unifies the most common previous approaches.The roughness length corresponding to the usual Monin-Obukhovstability functions decreases with increasing wind speed. This dependence on wind speed cannot be eliminated by adjusting the stability functions. If physical, the decrease of the roughness length with increasing wind speed might be due to the decreasing role of viscous effectsand streamlining of the vegetation, although these effects cannot be isolated from existing atmospheric data.
Recursive Construction of Operator Product Expansion Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan
2015-06-01
We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula involves just the OPE coefficients themselves but no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula requires no further UV-renormalization, i.e., it is completely well-defined from the start. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV- and IR-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features of the identity, is given for the example of massive, Euclidean theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space. It relies on the renormalization group flow equation method and is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes neither explicit reference to the renormalization group flow, nor to perturbation theory, and we conjecture that it also holds non-perturbatively. Our identity can be applied constructively because it gives a novel recursive algorithm for the computation of OPE coefficients to arbitrary (finite) perturbation order in terms of the zeroth order coefficients corresponding to the underlying free field theory, which in turn are trivial to obtain. We briefly illustrate the relation of this method to more standard methods for computing the OPE in some simple examples.
Phosphorus Availability Coefficients from Various Organic Sources
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The objectives of this study were to determine Phosphorus Availability Coefficients (PACs) for a variety of organic phosphorus (P) sources, and to examine the relationship between PACs measured in simulated rainfall runoff and alternative soil incubations. PAC is an important parameter in the P-Ind...
Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO
Fox, J.L.
1994-04-01
Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO {yields} N{sub 2} + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900-1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch, and at the low temperatures (100-200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox. Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation is accurate at 300 K, the authors derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. They find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10{sup {minus}10}(T/300){sup 0.5}exp({minus}400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10{sup {minus}10}(T/300){sup 0.5}exp({minus}600/T) cm{sup 3}s{sup {minus}1}. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, J. L.
1994-04-01
Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.
Rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fox, J. L.
1994-01-01
Evidence has been advanced that the rate coefficient for the reaction N + NO right arrow N2 + O has a small positive temperature dependence at the high temperatures (900 to 1500 K) that prevail in the terrestrial middle and upper thermosphere by Siskind and Rusch (1992), and at the low temperatures (100 to 200 K) of the Martian lower thermosphere by Fox (1993). Assuming that the rate coefficient recommended by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory evaluation (DeMore et al., 1992) is accurate at 300 K, we derive here the low temperature value of the activation energy for this reaction and thus the rate coefficient that best fits the Viking 1 measured NO densities. We find that the fit is acceptable for a rate coefficient of about 1.3 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-400/T) and better for a value of about 2.5 x 10(exp -10)(T/300)(exp 0.5)exp(-600/T)cu cm/s.
Bitplane Image Coding With Parallel Coefficient Processing.
Auli-Llinas, Francesc; Enfedaque, Pablo; Moure, Juan C; Sanchez, Victor
2016-01-01
Image coding systems have been traditionally tailored for multiple instruction, multiple data (MIMD) computing. In general, they partition the (transformed) image in codeblocks that can be coded in the cores of MIMD-based processors. Each core executes a sequential flow of instructions to process the coefficients in the codeblock, independently and asynchronously from the others cores. Bitplane coding is a common strategy to code such data. Most of its mechanisms require sequential processing of the coefficients. The last years have seen the upraising of processing accelerators with enhanced computational performance and power efficiency whose architecture is mainly based on the single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) principle. SIMD computing refers to the execution of the same instruction to multiple data in a lockstep synchronous way. Unfortunately, current bitplane coding strategies cannot fully profit from such processors due to inherently sequential coding task. This paper presents bitplane image coding with parallel coefficient (BPC-PaCo) processing, a coding method that can process many coefficients within a codeblock in parallel and synchronously. To this end, the scanning order, the context formation, the probability model, and the arithmetic coder of the coding engine have been re-formulated. The experimental results suggest that the penalization in coding performance of BPC-PaCo with respect to the traditional strategies is almost negligible. PMID:26441420
Oxygen atom loss coefficient of carbon nanowalls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mozetic, Miran; Vesel, Alenka; Stoica, Silviu Daniel; Vizireanu, Sorin; Dinescu, Gheorghe; Zaplotnik, Rok
2015-04-01
Extremely high values of atomic oxygen loss coefficient on carbon nanowall (CNW) surface are reported. CNW layers consisting of interconnected individual nanostructures with average length of 1.1 μm, average thickness of 66 nm and surface density of 3 CNW/μm2 were prepared by plasma jet enhanced chemical-vapor deposition using C2H2/H2/Ar gas mixtures. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectrometry (RS) as well as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface loss coefficient was measured at room temperature in a flowing afterglow at different densities of oxygen atoms supplied from inductively coupled radiofrequency O2 plasma. The RF generator operated at 13.56 MHz and different nominal powers up to 900 W corresponding to different O-atom density in the afterglow up to 1.3 × 1021 m-3. CNW and several different samples of known coefficients for heterogeneous surface recombination of neutral oxygen atoms have been placed separately in the afterglow chamber and the O-atom density in their vicinity was measured with calibrated catalytic probes. Comparison of measured results allowed for determination of the loss coefficient for CNWs and the obtained value of 0.59 ± 0.03 makes this material an extremely effective sink for O-atoms.
Fastening Parts Having Mismatched Thermal Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jackson, L. R.; Davis, R. C.; Taylor, A. H.; Mcwithey, R. R.; Blosser, M. L.
1985-01-01
Fastener eliminates thermal stresses and maintains snug fit. Conicalhead bolt and metal washer main components of fastener that keeps constant tension on carbon/carbon parts regardless of thermal stress. Fastener used in cases where fastened parts have unmatched thermalexpansion coefficients. Does not become looser or tighter as conventional bolts and nuts or rivets do at elevated temperatures.
A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.
1989-01-01
Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)
The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.
2008-01-01
This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The…
Pressure-viscosity coefficient of biobased lubricants
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Film thickness is an important tribological property that is dependent on the combined effect of lubricant properties, material property of friction surfaces, and the operating conditions of the tribological process. Pressure-viscosity coefficient (PVC) is one of the lubricant properties that influe...
Molecular Diffusion Coefficients: Experimental Determination and Demonstration.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fate, Gwendolyn; Lynn, David G.
1990-01-01
Presented are laboratory methods which allow the demonstration and determination of the diffusion coefficients of compounds ranging in size from water to small proteins. Included are the procedures involving the use of a spectrometer, UV cell, triterated agar, and oxygen diffusion. Results including quantification are described. (CW)
The Evolution of Pearson's Correlation Coefficient
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kader, Gary D.; Franklin, Christine A.
2008-01-01
This article describes an activity for developing the notion of association between two quantitative variables. By exploring a collection of scatter plots, the authors propose a nonstandard "intuitive" measure of association; and by examining properties of this measure, they develop the more standard measure, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient. The
Problems on Divisibility of Binomial Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Osler, Thomas J.; Smoak, James
2004-01-01
Twelve unusual problems involving divisibility of the binomial coefficients are represented in this article. The problems are listed in "The Problems" section. All twelve problems have short solutions which are listed in "The Solutions" section. These problems could be assigned to students in any course in which the binomial theorem and Pascal's
The Lorenz Curve and the Gini Coefficient.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rycroft, Robert
2003-01-01
States that the Lorenz Curve and the Gini Coefficient is a Web-based interactive tutorial developed for students in an upper level, undergraduate, elective economics course about income and wealth distribution, poverty, and discrimination. States that students achieve mastery because they cannot complete the tutorial without adequate understanding…
Pressure viscosity coefficient of vegetable oils
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The elastohydrodynamic (EHD) pressure viscosity coefficient (PVC) of ten vegetable oils from commodity and new crops, and two petroleum-based oils, polyalphaolefin (PAO) and hexadecane, were investigated. PVC was measured using three different methods: the So and Klaus (S-K) procedure from oil visco...
Measurement of Coefficient of Restitution Made Easy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farkas, N.; Ramsier, R. D.
2006-01-01
We present a simple activity that permits students to determine the coefficient of restitution of bouncing balls using only a stopwatch, a metre stick and graphical analysis. The experiment emphasizes that simple models, in combination with careful attention to how students make measurements, can lead to good results in a straightforward way.
Coefficient Omega Bootstrap Confidence Intervals: Nonnormal Distributions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin
2013-01-01
The performance of the normal theory bootstrap (NTB), the percentile bootstrap (PB), and the bias-corrected and accelerated (BCa) bootstrap confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient omega was assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation under conditions not previously investigated. Of particular interests were nonnormal Likert-type and binary items.…
What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?
... Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" means it's ... parents to children through genes. Children who have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from ...
How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?
... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its related lung ... pulmonary disease). If you have symptoms related to AAT deficiency, your doctor may recommend: Medicines called inhaled ...
How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed?
... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency usually is diagnosed after you develop a ... related to the condition. Your doctor may suspect AAT deficiency if you have signs or symptoms of ...
Genetics Home Reference: alpha-mannosidosis
... H, Evjen G, Nilssen Ø, Tollersrud OK. Intracellular transport of human lysosomal alpha-mannosidase and alpha-mannosidosis- ... Reviewed : May 2014 Published : May 25, 2016 The resources on this site should not be used as ...
Q (Alpha) Function and Squeezing Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yunjie, Xia; Xianghe, Kong; Kezhu, Yan; Wanping, Chen
1996-01-01
The relation of squeezing and Q(alpha) function is discussed in this paper. By means of Q function, the squeezing of field with gaussian Q(alpha) function or negative P(a)function is also discussed in detail.
Association of actin with alpha crystallins
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gopalakrishnan, S.; Boyle, D.; Takemoto, L.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)
1993-01-01
The alpha crystallins are cytosolic proteins that co-localize and co-purify with actin-containing microfilaments. Affinity column chromatography employing both covalently-coupled actin or alpha crystallin was used to demonstrate specific and saturable binding of actin with alpha crystallin. This conclusion was confirmed by direct visualization of alpha aggregates bound to actin polymerized in vitro. The significance of this interaction in relation to the functional properties of these two polypeptides will be discussed.
The ultraviolet spectra of Alpha Aquilae and Alpha Canis Minoris
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Morton, D. C.; Bruzual A., G.; Kurucz, R. L.; Spinrad, H.
1977-01-01
Scans of Alpha Aql (A7 IV, V) and Alpha CMi (F5 IV-V) obtained with the Copernicus satellite spectrometer over the wavelength range from 2100 to 3200 A are presented along with a spectrum of the integrated solar disk over the same range procured during a calibrated rocket flight. About 1500 fairly strong absorption lines in the Alpha CMi spectrum between 2400 and 2961 A are identified by comparison with a solar atlas and by using a theoretical spectrum synthesized from a blanketed LTE model with an effective temperature of 6500 K and a surface gravity of 10,000 cm/sec per sec. The Mg II resonance doublet at 2795.528 and 2802.704 A is found to be present in all three stars together with a discontinuity at 2635 A due to Fe II, Fe I, Cr I, and Mn II. It is concluded that the Mg II resonance lines and the 2635-A continuum break would be the best spectral features for estimating the redshift of a galaxy observed at low resolution provided the redshift is not less than about 0.75.
Effectiveness of Alpha Biofeedback Therapy: Negative Results.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Watson, Charles G.; Herder, Joseph
1980-01-01
Assessed the utility of alpha biofeedback training in the treatment of patients (N=66). Biofeedback and placebo biofeedback groups were given alpha or mock-alpha training sessions. Improvement on 54 variables was compared to that of no-treatment controls. Only a chance number of significant changes appeared among the groups. (Author)
Recent Results on the CKM Angle Alpha
Mihalyi, A.; /Wisconsin U., Madison
2005-10-18
The method to measure the CKM angle {alpha} and the modes sensitive to it are discussed. It is shown that the B {yields} {rho}{rho} decays provide the most stringent constraint on {alpha}, which is found to be {alpha} = 96{sup o} {+-} 10{sup o}(stat) {+-} 4{sup o}(syst){+-} 13{sup o}(penguin).
CONTRIBUTIONS OF TERMINAL PEPTIDES TO THE ASSOCIATIVE BEHAVIOR OF ALPHA-S1 CASEIN
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The N- and C-terminal segments of bovine alpha-s1 casein-B (f1-23 and f136-196) were characterized under conditions that promoted or inhibited self-association to determine the relative contributions of each fragment to the interaction of alpha-s1 casein with itself or with other caseins. In earlie...
Associations between Alpha Angle and Herniation Pit on MRI Revisited in 185 Asymptomatic Hip Joints
Lee, Eunchae
2015-01-01
Objective To evaluate the association between alpha angle and herniation pit on MRI in asymptomatic hip joints and their associations with demographic variables. Materials and Methods Hip MRI of 185 asymptomatic hip joints of 105 adults (age 18 to 80 years) from September 2011 through December 2012 were retrospectively studied. Alpha angles were measured on oblique axial MR images by 2 observers. Herniation pit was determined by 1 observer. Size measures, prevalence, and statistical analyses were conducted regarding its association with age, gender, laterality (right or left hip). Intra- and inter-observer agreements were determined by intra-class correlation coefficient. Results The prevalence of herniation pit in asymptomatic hips was 21.6%. The range of alpha angle was 27.6-65.0 degrees. Seventeen and 16 out of 185 (9.1% and 8.6%) hip joints showed alpha angle of ≥ 55 degrees in first and second measurement sessions, respectively. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and presence of herniation pit. There was no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 and the size of herniation pit. Inter-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.485 between first measurements of first vs. second observer, respectively. Intra-observer agreement of alpha angle was 0.654, respectively. Forty (21.6%) of 185 hip joints (35 of 105 patients, 33.3%) had herniation pit, with no difference according to age, gender, or laterality of hip joint. Conclusion There is no association between alpha angle ≥ 55 degrees and presence of herniation pit or demographic variables. PMID:26576122
Midgley, S M
2004-01-21
A novel parameterization of x-ray interaction cross-sections is developed, and employed to describe the x-ray linear attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficient for both elements and mixtures. The new parameterization scheme addresses the Z-dependence of elemental cross-sections (per electron) using a simple function of atomic number, Z. This obviates the need for a complicated mathematical formalism. Energy dependent coefficients describe the Z-direction curvature of the cross-sections. The composition dependent quantities are the electron density and statistical moments describing the elemental distribution. We show that it is possible to describe elemental cross-sections for the entire periodic table and at energies above the K-edge (from 6 keV to 125 MeV), with an accuracy of better than 2% using a parameterization containing not more than five coefficients. For the biologically important elements 1 < or = Z < or = 20, and the energy range 30-150 keV, the parameterization utilizes four coefficients. At higher energies, the parameterization uses fewer coefficients with only two coefficients needed at megavoltage energies. PMID:15083673
Demir, D; Turşucu, A; Oznülüer, T
2012-11-01
Mass attenuation coefficient, μm, atomic cross-section, σi, electronic cross-section, σe, effective atomic number, Zeff and effective electron density, Nel, were determined experimentally and theoretically for some vitamins (retinol, beta-carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, niacinamide, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, biotin, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, ascorbic acid, cholecalciferol, alpha-tocopherol, ketamine, hesperidin) at 30.82, 59.54, 80.99, 356.61, 661.66 and 1,408.01 keV photon energies using a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The theoretical mass attenuation coefficients were estimated using mixture rules. The calculated values were compared with the experimental values for all vitamins. PMID:22733080
Electron-Ion Recombination Rate Coefficient Measurements in a Flowing Afterglow Plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gougousi, Theodosia; Golde, Michael F.; Johnsen, Rainer
1996-01-01
The flowing-afterglow technique in conjunction with computer modeling of the flowing plasma has been used to determine accurate dissociative-recombination rate coefficients alpha for the ions O2(+), HCO(+), CH5(+), C2H5(+), H3O(+), CO2(+), HCO2(+), HN2O(+), and N2O(+) at 295 K. We find that the simple form of data analysis that was employed in earlier experiments was adequate and we largely confirm earlier results. In the case of HCO(+) ions, published coefficients range from 1.1 X 10(exp -7) to 2.8 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S, while our measurements give a value of 1.9 x 10(exp -7) cu cm/S.
Enzyme mass-transfer coefficient in aqueous two-phase systems using static mixer extraction column.
Rostami, K; Alamshahi, M
2002-09-01
Recent technical advances in aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have made this a sound technique for the extraction of biomacromolecules. The extraction of alpha-amylase was investigated using aqueous two-phase systems formed by sodium sulphate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) in water in a 47-mm inner diameter spray column packed with three types of static mixers. The effects of dispersed-phase flow rate, phase composition, column height and diameter were studied. The extraction column was operated in a semi-batch manner. It was found that the hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients increased with an increase in dispersed (PEG-rich) phase velocity and decreased with increasing phase composition. Empirical correlations were developed for fractional dispersed-phase hold-up and volumetric mass transfer coefficients. PMID:14508675
Nonlinear Diffusions and Stable-Like Processes with Coefficients Depending on the Median or VaR
Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.
2013-08-01
The paper is devoted to the well-posedness for nonlinear McKean-Vlasov type diffusions with coefficients depending on the median or, more generally, on the {alpha}-quantile of the underlying distribution. The median is not a continuous function on the space of probability measures equipped with the weak convergence. This is one reason why well-posedness of the SDE considered in the paper does not follow by standard arguments.
Pormsila, Worapan; Gong, Xiao Yang; Hauser, Peter C
2010-06-01
The enantiomers of the anions of five alpha-hydroxy acids, namely lactic acid, alpha-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-hydroxycaproic acid, 2-hydroxyoctanoic acid and 2-hydroxydecanoic acid, as well as the two alpha-amino acids aspartic acid and glutamic acid, were baseline separated and detected by CE with contactless conductivity detection. Vancomycin was employed as chiral selector and could be used with conductivity detection without having to resort to a partial filling protocol as needed when this reagent is used with UV absorbance measurements. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of the lactic acid enantiomers in samples of milk and yogurt. Linearity was achieved in the concentration range of 10-500 micromol/L with good correlation coefficients (0.9993 and 0.9990 for L- and D-lactic acid, respectively). The LODs (3 S/N) for L- and D-lactic acid were determined as 2.8 and 2.4 micromol/L, respectively. PMID:20496346
Electrochemical determination of partition coefficients of drugs.
Kontturi, K; Murtomäki, L
1992-10-01
An electrochemical method for the determination of partition coefficients of drugs that can exist as ions in aqueous solutions is presented. The method involves cyclic voltammetry at the polarizable interface between two immiscible electrolyte solutions. Because n-octanol is an unsuitable solvent for electrochemical purposes, 1,2-dichloroethane, which has electronic properties similar to those of n-octanol, was used in the measurements. The values obtained could be correlated with the values for n-octanol-water partition taken from the literature by an approach based on the linear solvation relationship: log P1 = a log P2 + b; in this relationship, a and b are constants and P1 and P2 correspond to the two different organic and aqueous phase partition equilibria. Furthermore, aqueous diffusion coefficients of drugs were determined from voltammograms. PMID:1432622
Rotational dissipation and the Miesowicz coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simes, M.; Yamaguti, K.; Palangana, A. J.
2009-12-01
In this work, we will study the relative contribution of each of the two dissipative channels of the Eriksen, Leslie, and Parodi (ELP) approach to the observed values of the Miesowicz viscosity coefficients of the nematic liquid crystals. According to the fundamental equation of the liquid crystals viscosity dissipative process, T?=-?d3r{?ijAij+h??N?} , there are two channels by which the nematic viscous dissipation can occur: or it occurs by means of a shear flow configuration, where Aij is the characterizing term, or it occurs by means of a rotational configuration, where N? is the characterizing term (these parameters will be defined in the paper). It will be also shown that this relative contribution can be measured by a simple relationship connecting the Miesowicz coefficients, which exhibits a quasitemperature independent behavior, suggesting that it is nearly constant through the entire domain of the nematic phase.
Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)
2011-01-01
An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.
Innovations in Los Alamos alpha box design
Ledbetter, J.M.; Dowler, K.E.; Cook, J.H.
1985-01-01
Destructive examinations of irradiated fuel pins containing plutonium fuel must be performed in shielded hot cells with strict provisions for containing the plutonium. Alpha boxes provide containment for the plutonium, toxic fission products, and other hazardous highly radioactive materials. The alpha box contains windows for viewing and a variety of transfer systems specially designed to allow transfers in and out of the alpha box without spread of the hazardous materials that are contained in the box. Alpha boxes have been in use in the Wing 9 hot cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than 20 years. Features of the newly designed alpha boxes are presented.
Alpha channeling in a rotating plasma.
Fetterman, Abraham J; Fisch, Nathaniel J
2008-11-14
The wave-particle alpha-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with alpha particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the alpha particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the alpha-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity. PMID:19113347
Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, a corporate perspective.
Stern, Lawrence D
2013-03-01
Best-in-class systems have evolved among alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) producers, specialty pharmacies and the Alpha-1 Foundation and AlphaNet patient groups. The Genetic Alliance, NORD and other independent parties have recognized the benefits regarding public policy, patient advocacy, medical research, medication adherence, patient identification and health outcomes. Driving the next quantum leap in disease state management for Alpha-1 patients will require strong leadership from both industry and patient groups. Six initiatives are suggested that will sustain best-in-class approaches to identify, treat and even cure Alpha-1 patients. PMID:23527855
A correlation between Hydrogen Alpha-extinction-excess and Hydrogen Alpha surface brightness
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Cong
In the procedure of extinction correction for a hydrogen alpha map of the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) (Xu et al. 1992), we found a significant correlation between the hydrogen alpha-extinction-excess E(AH alpha)), defined by the difference between the measured extinction and the extinction estimated from the column density of neutral atomic and molecular gas, and the hydrogen alpha surface brightness B(sub(H alpha)).
Quenching of spontaneous emission coefficients in plasmas
Chung, Y.; Lemaire, P.; Suckewer, S.
1987-09-01
We have observed changing Einstein coefficients of spontaneous emission as a function of electron density in CO/sub 2/ laser-produced plasmas. These measurements are based on the intensity branching ratio of CIV lines 5801 to 5812 A and 312.41 to 312.46 A which share a common upper level. Similar observations for CIII lines are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.
Correlation and prediction of gaseous diffusion coefficients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marrero, T. R.; Mason, E. A.
1973-01-01
A new correlation method for binary gaseous diffusion coefficients from very low temperatures to 10,000 K is proposed based on an extended principle of corresponding states, and having greater range and accuracy than previous correlations. There are two correlation parameters that are related to other physical quantities and that are predictable in the absence of diffusion measurements. Quantum effects and composition dependence are included, but high-pressure effects are not. The results are directly applicable to multicomponent mixtures.
Drag coefficients for winter Antarctic pack ice
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wamser, Christian; Martinson, Douglas G.
1993-01-01
Air-ice and ice-water drag coefficients referenced to 10-m-height winds for winter Antarctic pack ice based on measurements made from R/V Polarstern during the Winter Weddell Sea Project, 1986 (WWSP-86), and from R/V Akademik Fedorov during the Winter Weddell Gyre Study, 1989 (WWGS-89), are presented. The optimal values of the air-ice drag coefficients, made from turbulent flux measurements, are (1.79 +/- 0.06) x 10 exp -3 for WWSP-86 and (1.45 +/- 0.09) x 10 exp -3 for WWGS-89. A single ice-water drag coefficient for both WWSP-86 and WWGS-89, estimated from periods of ice drift throught to represent free-drift conditions, is (1.13 +/- 0.26) x 10 exp -3, and the ice-water turning angle is 18 +/- 18 deg. It is suggested that for a typical Antarctic winter pack ice cover, the ice cover reduces the momentum flux from the atmosphere to the ocean by about 33 percent.
Field verification of the wind tunnel coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, W. K.; Mellstrom, J. A.
1994-01-01
Accurate information about wind action on antennas is required for reliable prediction of antenna pointing errors in windy weather and for the design of an antenna controller with wind disturbance rejection properties. The wind tunnel data obtained 3 years ago using a scaled antenna model serves as an antenna industry standard, frequently used for the first purpose. The accuracy of the wind tunnel data has often been challenged, since they have not yet been tested in a field environment (full-aized antenna, real wind, actual terrain, etc.). The purpose of this investigation was to obtain selected field measurements and compare them with the available wind tunnel data. For this purpose, wind steady-state torques of the DSS-13 antenna were measured, and dimensionless wind torque coefficients were obtained for a variety of yaw and elevation angles. The results showed that the differences between the wind tunnel torque coefficients and the field torque coefficients were less than 10 percent of their values. The wind-gusting action on the antenna was characterized by the power spectra of the antenna encoder and the antenna torques. The spectra showed that wind gusting primarily affects the antenna principal modes.
The electron diffusion coefficient in Jupiter's magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Birmingham, T.; Northrop, T.; Baxter, R.; Hess, W.; Lojko, M.
1974-01-01
A steady-state model of Jupiter's electron radiation belt is developed. The model includes injection from the solar wind, radial diffusion, energy degradation by synchrotron radiation, and absorption at Jupiter's surface. A diffusion coefficient of the form D sub RR/R sub J squared = k times R to the m-th power is assumed, and then observed data on synchrotron radiation are used to fit the model. The free parameters determined from this fit are m = 1.95 plus or minus 0.5, k = 1.7 plus or minus 0.5 x 10 to the 9th power per sec, and the magnetic moment of injected particles equals 770 plus or minus 300 MeV/G. The value of m shows quite clearly that the diffusion is not caused by magnetic pumping by a variable solar wind or by a fluctuating convection electric field. The process might be field line exchange driven by atmospheric-ionospheric winds; our diffusion coefficient has roughly the same radial dependence but is considerably smaller in magnitude than the upper bound diffusion coefficients recently suggested for this process by Brice and McDonough (1973) and Jacques and Davis (1972).
Gulubova, Maya Vladova
2004-01-01
Basement membrane proteins and integrins can profoundly affect the biological behaviour of metastasic tumour cells. Using light and ultrastructural immunohistochemistry, we showed the presence of alterations in the occurrence of collagen type IV and laminin, and the expression of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in the livers of patients with metastases from gastric, colorectal and pancreatic cancers. The myofibroblast-like cells in the metastatic stroma were studied. Parallel expressions of alpha-SMA, collagen type IV and alpha1 integrin chain, and appearance of laminin and alpha6 integrin chain immunoreactivity in the extratumoral liver tissue were markedly increased in sinusoids associated with metastases. Furthermore, ultrastructural immunohistochemistry detected tumour cells adhered to amorphous laminin deposits in the metastases. Laminin occurrence in liver sinusoids was visible as fine amorphous deposits in the space of Disse. The similarity between alpha-SMA-positive stromal cells in metastatic stroma and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) was established by the presence of lipid droplets in their cytoplasm. The immune deposits of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains were observed on the hepatocyte microvilli and on the membrane of sinusoidal endothelial cells. These findings suggest that metastatic cells produce stimuli that induce HSCs activation and sinusoidal changes. In addition, the enhanced parallel expression of alphaSMA, collagen type IV, laminin and of alpha1 and alpha6 integrin chains in sinusoids associated with metastases, might potentiate the further dissemination of tumour cells in new liver areas. PMID:15679046
Third Order Elastic Coefficients of Rocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bandyopadhyay, K.
2006-12-01
We present a methodology to determine third order elastic (TOE) coefficients of rock from velocity measurements at different hydrostatic stress level. TOE coefficients help us to obtain a quantitative measure of the variation of velocity with stress. It is one of the most general ways to parameterize the stress sensitivity of rocks. We usually determine the isotropic TOE coefficients from measurements of all the independent stiffness elements under non-hydrostatic stress. However, for initially isotropic or weakly anisotropic rocks, most of the laboratory experiments are carried out under hydrostatic stress. In that case, the measurements of P- and S-wave velocities at different hydrostatic pressure alone are not enough to invert for the isotropic TOE parameters. In this underdetermined situation, more information about the rock microstructure causing the non-linearity is required to predict seismic velocities at any arbitrary stress state. Our workflow is based on the model of Mavko et al. (1995) to compute stress-induced anisotropy. This model assumes that the cause of elastic nonlinearity is the presence of compliant crack-like pore. The pressure dependence of generalized compliances is mainly governed by normal tractions resolved across cracks. This assumption allows one to map the pressure dependence from hydrostatic stress to any state of stress. Applying the model of Mavko et al. (1995), we obtain the full stiffness tensor at different non-hydrostatic stress levels from the usual Vp and Vs measurements. Changes in elastic stiffness elements from a reference state of stress are then used to invert for the TOE coefficients, C111, C112 and C123 using the third order stress- strain relations. This method allows us to compute the TOE elements using hydrostatic measurements of an initially isotropic rock. We show an application of the workflow with laboratory measurements of P- and S-wave velocities under varying hydrostatic stress. This enables us to express stress sensitivity of a rock using simple parameters without requiring a lot of measurements. We also show examples of linking different reservoir properties like sorting, clay content, organic content etc. with the stress sensitivity of the rock through TOE coefficients.
Copernicus measurement of the Jovian Lyman-alpha emission and its aeronomical significance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Atreya, S. K.; Kerr, R. B.; Upson, W. L., II; Festou, M. C.; Donahue, T. M.; Barker, E. S.; Cochran, W. D.; Bertaux, J. L.
1982-01-01
It is pointed out that the intensity of the Lyman-alpha emission is a good indicator of the principal aeronomical processes on the major planets. The high-resolution ultraviolet spectrometer aboard the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory Copernicus was used in 1980 April and May to detect the Jovian Lyman-alpha emission by spectroscopically discriminating it from other Doppler shifted Lyman-alpha emissions such as those of the geocorona, and the interplanetary medium. Taking into consideration the reported emission data, it appears that an unusually large energy input due to the particle precipitation in the auroral region must have been responsible for the large observed Lyman-alpha intensity during the Voyager encounter. At most other times, the observed Jovian Lyman-alpha intensity can be explained, within the range of statistical uncertainty, by a model that takes into consideration the solar EUV flux, the solar Lyman-alpha flux, the high exospheric temperature, and the eddy diffusion coefficient without energy input from the auroral sources.
alpha-Tocopheryl phosphate – an active lipid mediator?
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol, alphaT) derivative, alpha-tocopheryl phosphate (alphaTP), is detectable in small amounts in plasma, tissues, and cultured cells. Studies done in vitro and in vivo suggest that alphaT can become phosphorylated and alphaTP dephosphorylated, suggesting the existence of ...
High-Resolution {alpha} and Electron Spectroscopy of {sup 249}{sub 98}Cf
Ahmad, I.; Greene, J. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Zhu, S.
2015-04-13
alpha-particle spectra of Cf-249 have been measured with a double-focusing magnetic spectrometer and with passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detectors. The conversion-electron spectra of Cf-249 have been measured with a cooled Si(Li) detector and with a room-temperature PIPS detector. Precise energies of a groups in the decay of Cf-249 have been measured with respect to the known energy of Cf-250. In addition, alpha-electron, alpha-gamma, and gamma-gamma coincidence measurements were also performed to determine the spin-parity of the previously known 643.64-keV level. From electron intensities, conversion coefficients of transitions in the daughter Cm-245 have been determined. The measured L-3 conversion coefficients of the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions are found to be in agreement with the theoretical conversion coefficients for pure E1 multipolarity. On the other hand, the K, L-1 + L-2, M, and N conversion coefficients are approximately twice the theoretical values for pure E1 transitions. These measurements indicate anomalous E1 conversion coefficients for the 333.4- and 388.2-keV transitions, as has been pointed out in earlier measurements. The measured conversion coefficient of the 255.5-keV transition gives an M1 multipolarity for this transition which establishes a spin-parity of 7/2(-) and the 7/2(-)[743] single-particle assignment to the 643.64-keV level.
Resting-state alpha in autism spectrum disorder and alpha associations with thalamic volume.
Edgar, J Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E; Schultz, Robert T; Roberts, Timothy P L
2015-03-01
Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha rhythms, associations between thalamic structure and alpha activity were examined. RS magnetoencephalography was obtained from 47 typically-developing children (TDC) and 41 children with ASD. RS alpha activity was measured using distributed source localization. Left and right thalamic volume measurements were also obtained. In both groups, the strongest alpha activity was observed in Calcarine Sulcus regions. In Calcarine regions, only TDC showed the expected association between age and alpha peak frequency. ASD had more alpha activity than TDC in regions bordering the Central Sulcus as well as parietal association cortices. In ASD, whereas greater left Central Sulcus relative alpha activity was associated with higher Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) scores, greater Calcarine region relative alpha activity was associated with lower SRS scores. Although thalamic volume group differences were not observed, relationships between thalamic volume and Calcarine alpha power were unique to TDC. The present study also identified a failure to shift peak alpha frequency as a function of age in primary alpha-generating areas in children with ASD. Findings suggested that increased RS alpha activity in primary motor and somatosensory as well as parietal multimodal areas-with increased alpha thought to reflect greater inhibition-might impair the ability to identify or interpret social cues. Finally, to our knowledge, this is the first study to report associations between thalamic volume and alpha power, an association observed only in TDC. The lack of thalamic and alpha associations in ASD suggests thalamic contributions to RS alpha abnormalities in ASD. PMID:25231288
Alpha thalassaemia in Yemeni children with sickle cell disease.
el-Hazmi, M A; Warsy, A S
1999-12-01
Alpha thalassaemia frequently occurs in several of the Middle Eastern populations. This study was conducted on 26 sickle cell disease (SCD) patients from Yemen and 19 normal children (Hb AA) living in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Blood samples were extracted by venepuncture, and haematological and biochemical parameters were estimated. DNA was extracted from the buffy coat and analysed for alpha-gene arrangement using Bam HI and Bgl II. The frequency of alpha-gene deletion in the total Yemeni group (26 SCD + 19 Hb AA) was 0.311 for one alpha-gene deletion (-alpha/alpha alpha) and 0.13 for two alpha-gene deletions (-alpha/-alpha). When separated on the basis of the Hb phenotype the alpha-gene deletion frequency was significantly higher (-alpha/alpha alpha = 0.346 and -alpha/-alpha = 0.231) in the SCD patients compared to the normal Hb AA group (-alpha/alpha alpha = 0.263 and -alpha/-alpha = 0). In the Hb AA group one child had triple alpha-gene arrangement (alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha) giving an overall frequency of triple alpha-gene as 0.022. Haematological parameters showed variations in the SCD patients with and without alpha-gene deletion. This paper shows for the first time that alpha-gene deletion occurs in the Yemenis and the frequency is higher in patients with SCD. Further population-based studies are required to determine the exact frequency of the different types of alpha-thalassaemias in the overall Yemeni population. PMID:10667010
A Computer for Calculating Kendall's Rank Correlation Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roberge, James J.
1970-01-01
A program for calculating Kendall's tau-a, tau-b, partial tau, coefficient of concordance, coefficient of consistence, and coefficient of agreement is presented. In addition, the program provides tests of significance for each of the coefficients except partial tau. (DG)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fife, Dustin A.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Terry, Robert
2012-01-01
Though much research and attention has been directed at assessing the correlation coefficient under range restriction, the assessment of reliability under range restriction has been largely ignored. This article uses item response theory to simulate dichotomous item-level data to assess the robustness of KR-20 ([alpha]), [omega], and test-retest…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fife, Dustin A.; Mendoza, Jorge L.; Terry, Robert
2012-01-01
Though much research and attention has been directed at assessing the correlation coefficient under range restriction, the assessment of reliability under range restriction has been largely ignored. This article uses item response theory to simulate dichotomous item-level data to assess the robustness of KR-20 ([alpha]), [omega], and test-retest
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Linxin
1990-08-01
In previous work in our laboratory accurate backscatter coefficient measurements were obtained with a data reduction method that explicitly accounts for experimental factors involved in recording echo data. An alternative, relative processing method for determining the backscatter coefficient and the attenuation coefficient is presented here. This method involves comparison of echo data from a sample with data recorded from a reference phantom whose backscatter and attenuation coefficients are known. The ratio of the signals cancels depth-dependent instrumentation factors. This saves the efforts of beam profile computation and various calibrations. The attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient of the sample are found from these ratios and the known acoustic properties of the reference phantom. This method is tested using tissue-mimicking phantoms with known scattering and attenuation properties. Various experiments have been done using clinical scanners with different transducers to compute attenuation coefficients and backscatter coefficients, and to make quantitative images. This method has been found to be accurate for media containing Rayleigh scatterers, as well as samples containing intermediate-size scatterers. Accuracy was maintained over different frequency bands and for a wide range of transducer-to-ROI distances. Measurements were done in vivo for human livers, kidneys and dog myocardium. The results have shown that the reference phantom method simplifies the measurement procedure as well as keeps the accuracy, and therefore is practical clinically. Statistical uncertainties propagated in the data reduction have been analyzed in detail. Formulae are deduced to predict statistical errors in the attenuation and backscatter coefficients measured with the reference phantom method. Spatial correlations of the echo signals are also considered. A 2-dimensional lateral correlation matrix is introduced to compute the number of effective independent lines from the acoustic lines acquired by a clinical scanner, and a 1-dimensional axial correlation array is used to estimate the number of effective independent samples along a line. Thus, for a given volume of tissue the uncertainty in the attenuation and backscatter coefficients measured from scattered echo data can be computed.
Tests of Hypotheses Arising In the Correlated Random Coefficient Model*
Heckman, James J.; Schmierer, Daniel
2010-01-01
This paper examines the correlated random coefficient model. It extends the analysis of Swamy (1971), who pioneered the uncorrelated random coefficient model in economics. We develop the properties of the correlated random coefficient model and derive a new representation of the variance of the instrumental variable estimator for that model. We develop tests of the validity of the correlated random coefficient model against the null hypothesis of the uncorrelated random coefficient model. PMID:21170148
Mikheev, N.B.; Kamenskaya, A.N.; Auerman, L.N.; Kulyukhin, S.A.; Rumer, I.A.; Novichenko, V.L.
1987-11-01
The method of separation of californium, einsteinium, fermium, and certain lanthanides, based on the use of ammonium ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyrate as the eluent, has been improved. The use of a 0.10-0.14 M solution of this reagent and columns (9 x 0.5 cm) filled with the resin Aminex SB with particle size 20-25 ..mu.., permitted the production of about 0.5 ..mu..g of einsteinium-253 from irradiated californium-252 with coefficient of purification of einsteinium from californium in two cycles of adsorption and elution of approx. 10/sup 10/. The coefficient of separation of californium and einsteinium is equal to 1.6 and that of einsteinium and fermium 1.9. The behavior of certain lanthanides in the separation of californium, einsteinium, and fermium using a 0.010 M solution of ammonium ..cap alpha..-hydroxyisobutyrate is discussed.
SDSS-II: Determination of shape and color parameter coefficients for SALT-II fit model
Dojcsak, L.; Marriner, J.; /Fermilab
2010-08-01
In this study we look at the SALT-II model of Type IA supernova analysis, which determines the distance moduli based on the known absolute standard candle magnitude of the Type IA supernovae. We take a look at the determination of the shape and color parameter coefficients, {alpha} and {beta} respectively, in the SALT-II model with the intrinsic error that is determined from the data. Using the SNANA software package provided for the analysis of Type IA supernovae, we use a standard Monte Carlo simulation to generate data with known parameters to use as a tool for analyzing the trends in the model based on certain assumptions about the intrinsic error. In order to find the best standard candle model, we try to minimize the residuals on the Hubble diagram by calculating the correct shape and color parameter coefficients. We can estimate the magnitude of the intrinsic errors required to obtain results with {chi}{sup 2}/degree of freedom = 1. We can use the simulation to estimate the amount of color smearing as indicated by the data for our model. We find that the color smearing model works as a general estimate of the color smearing, and that we are able to use the RMS distribution in the variables as one method of estimating the correct intrinsic errors needed by the data to obtain the correct results for {alpha} and {beta}. We then apply the resultant intrinsic error matrix to the real data and show our results.
Transport coefficients for the shear dynamo problem at small Reynolds numbers
Singh, Nishant K.; Sridhar, S.
2011-05-15
We build on the formulation developed in S. Sridhar and N. K. Singh [J. Fluid Mech. 664, 265 (2010)] and present a theory of the shear dynamo problem for small magnetic and fluid Reynolds numbers, but for arbitrary values of the shear parameter. Specializing to the case of a mean magnetic field that is slowly varying in time, explicit expressions for the transport coefficients {alpha}{sub il} and {eta}{sub iml} are derived. We prove that when the velocity field is nonhelical, the transport coefficient {alpha}{sub il} vanishes. We then consider forced, stochastic dynamics for the incompressible velocity field at low Reynolds number. An exact, explicit solution for the velocity field is derived, and the velocity spectrum tensor is calculated in terms of the Galilean-invariant forcing statistics. We consider forcing statistics that are nonhelical, isotropic, and delta correlated in time, and specialize to the case when the mean field is a function only of the spatial coordinate X{sub 3} and time {tau}; this reduction is necessary for comparison with the numerical experiments of A. Brandenburg, K. H. Raedler, M. Rheinhardt, and P. J. Kaepylae [Astrophys. J. 676, 740 (2008)]. Explicit expressions are derived for all four components of the magnetic diffusivity tensor {eta}{sub ij}({tau}). These are used to prove that the shear-current effect cannot be responsible for dynamo action at small Re and Rm, but for all values of the shear parameter.
Transport coefficients of He+ ions in helium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viehland, Larry A.; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R.; Wright, Timothy G.
2016-02-01
This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of 4He+ in 4He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X2Σu+ and A2Σg+ states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of 4He+ in 4He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects.
Transport coefficients of He(+) ions in helium.
Viehland, Larry A; Johnsen, Rainer; Gray, Benjamin R; Wright, Timothy G
2016-02-21
This paper demonstrates that the transport coefficients of (4)He(+) in (4)He can be calculated over wide ranges of E/N, the ratio of the electrostatic field strength to the gas number density, with the same level of precision as can be obtained experimentally if sufficiently accurate potential energy curves are available for the X(2)Σu (+) and A(2)Σg (+) states and one takes into account resonant charge transfer. We start by computing new potential energy curves for these states and testing their accuracy by calculating spectroscopic values for the separate states. It is established that the potentials obtained by extrapolation of results from d-aug-cc-pVXZ (X = 6, 7) basis sets using the CASSCF+MRCISD approach are each in exceptionally close agreement with the best potentials available and with experiment. The potentials are then used in a new computer program to determine the semi-classical phase shifts and the transport cross sections, and from these the gaseous ion transport coefficients are determined. In addition, new experimental values are reported for the mobilities of (4)He(+) in (4)He at 298.7 K, as a function of E/N, where careful consideration is given to minimizing various sources of uncertainty. Comparison with previously measured values establishes that only one set of previous data is reliable. Finally, the experimental and theoretical ion transport coefficients are shown to be in very good to excellent agreement, once corrections are applied to account for quantum-mechanical effects. PMID:26896985
Micro-Fluidic Diffusion Coefficient Measurement
Forster, F.K.; Galambos, P.
1998-10-06
A new method for diffusion coefficient measurement applicable to micro-fluidics is pre- sented. The method Iltilizes an analytical model describing laminar dispersion in rect- anglllar ~llicro_channe]s. The Illethod ~vas verified throllgh measllremen~ of fllloresceill diffusivity in water and aqueolls polymer solutions of differing concentration. The diffll- sivity of flllorescein was measlmed as 0.64 x 10-gm2/s in water, 0.49 x 10-gm2/s in the 4 gm/dl dextran solution and 0.38 x 10-9n12/s in the 8 gnl/dl dextran solution.
Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon
Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.
1988-09-15
Reactive sticking coefficients (RSCs) were measured for silane and disilane on polycrystalline silicon for a wide range of temperature and flux (pressure) conditions. The data were obtained from deposition rate measurements using molecular beam scattering and a very low pressure cold wall reactor. The RSCs have non-Arrhenius temperature dependences and decreases with increasing flux at low (710/sup 0/) temperatures. A simple model involving dissociative adsorption of silane is consistent with these results. The results are compared with previous studies of the SiH/sub 4//Si(s) reaction.
Surface area coefficients for airship envelopes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Diehl, W S
1922-01-01
In naval architecture, it is customary to determine the wetted surface of a ship by means of some formula which involves the principal dimensions of the design and suitable constants. These formulas of naval architecture may be extended and applied to the calculation of the surface area of airship envelopes by the use of new values of the constants determined for this purpose. Surface area coefficients were calculated from the actual dimensions, surfaces, and volumes of 52 streamline bodies, which form a series covering the entire range of shapes used in the present aeronautical practice.
Random Matrices and Lyapunov Coefficients Regularity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gallavotti, Giovanni
2015-12-01
Analyticity and other properties of the largest or smallest Lyapunov exponent of a product of real matrices with a "cone property" are studied as functions of the matrices entries, as long as they vary without destroying the cone property. The result is applied to stability directions, Lyapunov coefficients and Lyapunov exponents of a class of products of random matrices and to dynamical systems. The results are not new and the method is the main point of this work: it is is based on the classical theory of the Mayer series in Statistical Mechanics of rarefied gases.
Transport coefficients of a hot pion gas
Davesne, D.
1996-06-01
General expressions for transport coefficients of a single-component gas (namely, thermal conductivity and shear and bulk viscosities) of bosons are derived from a Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck transport equation by means of the Chapman-Enskog method to first order. These expressions are then used for the calculation of the associated transport relaxation times and applied to the pion gas produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. The influence of Bose enhancement factors on transport properties can be seen by comparison with previous calculations. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Experimental rotordynamic coefficient results for honeycomb seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Elrod, David A.; Childs, Dara W.
1988-01-01
Test results (leakage and rotordynamic coefficients) are presented for seven honeycomb-stator smooth-rotor seals. Tests were carried out with air at rotor speeds up to 16,000 cpm and supply pressures up to 8.2 bars. Test results for the seven seals are compared, and the most stable configuration is identified based on the whirl frequency ratio. Results from tests of a smooth-rotor/smooth-stator seal, a teeth-on-stator labyrinth seal, and the most stable honeycomb seal are compared.
Gauge Invariance of Thermal Transport Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ercole, Loris; Marcolongo, Aris; Umari, Paolo; Baroni, Stefano
2016-04-01
Thermal transport coefficients are independent of the specific microscopic expression for the energy density and current from which they can be derived through the Green-Kubo formula. We discuss this independence in terms of a kind of gauge invariance resulting from energy conservation and extensivity, and demonstrate it numerically for a Lennard-Jones fluid, where different forms of the microscopic energy density lead to different time correlation functions for the heat flux, all of them, however, resulting in the same value for the thermal conductivity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Lihong; Jacques, Steven L.
1995-05-01
A simple and quick approach is used to measure the reduced scattering coefficient ( mu s `) of a semi-infinite turbid medium having a much smaller absorption coefficient than mu s`. A laser beam with an oblique angle of incidence to the medium causes the center of the diffuse reflectance that is several transport mean-free paths away from the incident point to shift away from the point of incidence by an amount Delta x. This amount is used to compute mu s` by mu s` = sin( alpha i)/(n Delta x), where n is the refractive index of the turbid medium divided by that of the incident medium and alpha i is the angle of incidence measured from the surface normal. For a turbid medium having an absorption coefficient comparable with mu s `, a revision to the above formula is made. This method is tested theoretically by Monte Carlo simulations and experimentally by a video reflectometer.
Measuring Cultural Awareness in Nursing Students.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rew, Lynn; Becker, Heather; Cookston, Jeff; Khosropour, Shirin; Martinez, Stephanie
2003-01-01
A multicultural awareness scale completed by 72 nursing students obtained a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of .91. An expert panel analyzed content validity and the revised scale was completed by 118 students. Factor analysis supported the measure's construct validity. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kesan, Cenk; Ozkalkan, Zuhal; Iric, Hamdullah; Kaya, Deniz
2012-01-01
In the exams based on limits and derivatives, in this study, it was tried to determine that if there was any difference in students' test scores according to the type of music listened to and environment without music. For this purpose, the achievement test including limits and derivatives and whose reliability coefficient of Cronbach Alpha is…
Psychometric Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity Scales in Academia
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Khan, Anwar; Yusoff, Rosman Bin Md.; Khan, Muhammad Muddassar; Yasir, Muhammad; Khan, Faisal
2014-01-01
A comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of Rizzo et al.'s (1970) Role Conflict & Ambiguity (RCA) scales were performed after its distribution among 600 academic staff working in six universities of Pakistan. The reliability analysis includes calculation of Cronbach Alpha Coefficients and Inter-Items statistics, whereas validity was determined by…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hatami, Gissou; Motamed, Niloofar; Ashrafzadeh, Mahshid
2010-01-01
Validity and reliability of Persian adaptation of MSLSS in the 12-18 years, middle and high school students (430 students in grades 6-12 in Bushehr port, Iran) using confirmatory factor analysis by means of LISREL statistical package were checked. Internal consistency reliability estimates (Cronbach's coefficient [alpha]) were all above the…
An Update on the Internal Consistency of the Manifest Needs Questionnaire.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chusmir, Leonard H.
1988-01-01
Calculated Cronbach's alpha coefficients for five recent studies (N=1,723) which used the Manifest Needs Questionnaire (MNQ) to measure needs for achievement, autonomy, affiliation, and dominance. Results showed acceptable levels of internal consistency for achievement and dominance needs. Found support for autonomy and affiliation needs with some…
The Effects of Methods of Imputation for Missing Values on the Validity and Reliability of Scales
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cokluk, Omay; Kayri, Murat
2011-01-01
The main aim of this study is the comparative examination of the factor structures, corrected item-total correlations, and Cronbach-alpha internal consistency coefficients obtained by different methods used in imputation for missing values in conditions of not having missing values, and having missing values of different rates in terms of testing…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hua, Jing; Gu, Guixiong; Meng, Wei; Wu, Zhuochun
2013-01-01
The aim of this paper was to examine the validity and reliability of age band 1 of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2) in preparation for its standardization in mainland China. Interrater and test-retest reliability of the MABC-2 was estimated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Cronbach's alpha for…
(De)Motivation in Preparatory EFL Classrooms
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vefali, Gülsen Musayeva; Ayan, Hatice Ç.
2015-01-01
This survey study aimed to explore EFL learners' (de)motivation in the preparatory classes at a tertiary institution in Northern Cyprus. It administered questionnaires to 105 preparatory learners and 30 language teachers. The statistical analysis revealed the Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.88 for the Learners' version, and 0.89 for…
Bolton, R.D.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.
1996-05-07
An alpha detector for application in areas of high velocity gas flows, such as smokestacks and air vents. A plurality of spaced apart signal collectors are placed inside an enclosure, which would include smokestacks and air vents, in sufficient numbers to substantially span said enclosure so that gas ions generated within the gas flow are electrostatically captured by the signal collector means. Electrometer means and a voltage source are connected to the signal collectors to generate an electrical field between adjacent signal collectors, and to indicate a current produced through collection of the gas ions by the signal collectors. 4 figs.
Targeted alpha therapy for cancer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Barry J.; Raja, Chand; Rizvi, Syed; Li, Yong; Tsui, Wendy; Zhang, David; Song, Emma; Qu, Chang Fa; Kearsley, John; Graham, Peter; Thompson, John
2004-08-01
Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers the potential to inhibit the growth of micrometastases by selectively killing isolated and preangiogenic clusters of cancer cells. The practicality and efficacy of TAT is tested by in vitro and in vivo studies in melanoma, leukaemia, colorectal, breast and prostate cancers, and by a phase 1 trial of intralesional TAT for melanoma. The alpha-emitting radioisotope used is Bi-213, which is eluted from the Ac-225 generator and chelated to a cancer specific monoclonal antibody (mab) or protein (e.g. plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 PAI2) to form the alpha-conjugate (AC). Stable alpha-ACs have been produced which have been tested for specificity and cytotoxicity in vitro against melanoma (9.2.27 mab), leukaemia (WM60), colorectal (C30.6), breast (PAI2, herceptin), ovarian (PAI2, herceptin, C595), prostate (PAI2, J591) and pancreatic (PAI2, C595) cancers. Subcutaneous inoculation of 1-1.5 million human cancer cells into the flanks of nude mice causes tumours to grow in all mice. Tumour growth is compared for untreated controls, nonspecific AC and specific AC, for local (subcutaneous) and systemic (tail vein or intraperitoneal) injection models. The 213Bi-9.2.27 AC is injected into secondary skin melanomas in stage 4 patients in a dose escalation study to determine the effective tolerance dose, and to measure kinematics to obtain the equivalent dose to organs. In vitro studies show that TAT is one to two orders of magnitude more cytotoxic to targeted cells than non-specific ACs, specific beta emitting conjugates or free isotopes. In vivo local TAT at 2 days post-inoculation completely prevents tumour formation for all cancers tested so far. Intra-lesional TAT can completely regress advanced sc melanoma but is less successful for breast and prostate cancers. Systemic TAT inhibits the growth of sc melanoma xenografts and gives almost complete control of breast and prostate cancer tumour growth. Intralesional doses up to 450 µCi in human patients are effective in regressing melanomas, with no concomitant complications. These results point to the application of local and systemic TAT in the management of secondary cancer. Results of the phase 1 clinical trial of TAT of subcutaneous, secondary melanoma indicate proof of the principle that TAT can make tumours in patients regress.
Autocrine regulation of osteoclast formation and bone resorption by IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha.
Tani-Ishii, N; Tsunoda, A; Teranaka, T; Umemoto, T
1999-10-01
Bone resorption is regulated by the cytokines within marrow cells that mediate osteoclast formation and activation. IL-1 and TNF induce bone resorption by stimulating the production of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells and by increasing the bone-resorbing activity of formed osteoclasts. This study was designed to detect IL-1 and TNF in osteoclasts in vitro and to determine whether these cytokines up-regulate osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The production of IL-1 alpha, -beta, and TNF alpha, beta in osteoclasts was examined immunohistochemically and by in situ hybridization. In the co-culture of C57BL/6N mouse bone marrow and MC3T3-G2/PA6 cells, a colony of osteoclasts formed, and IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha were detected. However, IL-1 beta and TNF beta were not detected. To investigate the role of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha from osteoclasts, we enumerated TRAP-positive cells and measured the resorption pit areas in the presence of antibodies against IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. The addition of antibodies against IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha to the co-culture system decreased the number of TRAP-positive colonies at seven days after incubation (anti-IL-1 alpha, 25.0 +/- 2.3%; anti-TNF alpha, 41.7 +/- 3.7%; anti-IL-1 alpha + anti-TNF alpha, 40.5 +/- 1.3%; and control, 100%), and the ratio of mononuclear to multinuclear cells had changed (anti-IL-1 alpha, 90:10; anti-TNF alpha, 75:25; anti-IL-1 alpha+ anti-TNF alpha, 88:12; and control, 60:40). The total pit areas per dentin slice also decreased with the addition of antibodies (anti-IL-1 alpha, 28,828; anti-TNF alpha, 49,249; anti-IL-1 alpha + anti-TNF alpha, 30,685; and control, 303,139 mm2). These results suggest that local production of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha by osteoclasts is an important mechanism for regulating the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorptive process. PMID:10520966
Analysis of Raman scattered Ly-alpha emissions from the atmosphere of Uranus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yelle, R. V.; Doose, L. R.; Tomasko, M. G.; Strobel, D. F.
1987-01-01
A line at 1280 A, due to Raman scattering of solar Lyman alpha (Ly-alpha) in the atmosphere of Uranus, has been detected by the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometer. The measured intensity of 40 + or - 20 R implies that 200 R to 500 R of the measured 1500 R Ly-alpha intensity at the subsolar point is due to Rayleigh scattering of the solar line. The presence of Rayleigh and Raman scattering at 1216 A suggests that the Uranian atmosphere is largely devoid of absorbing hydrocarbons above the 0.5 mbar level. The most natural explanation of this depletion is very weak vertical mixing equivalent to an eddy coefficient on the order of 200 sq cm/sec between 0.5 mbar and 100 mbar.
Fulcher, Lewis P.; Scherer, Ronald C.; Anderson, Nicholas V.
2014-01-01
Pressure distributions were obtained for 5°, 10°, and 20° convergent angles with a static physical model (M5) of the glottis. Measurements were made for minimal glottal diameters from d = 0.005–0.32 cm with a range of transglottal pressures of interest for phonation. Entrance loss coefficients were calculated at the glottal entrance for each minimal diameter and transglottal pressure to measure how far the flows in this region deviate from Bernoulli flow. Exit coefficients were also calculated to determine the presence and magnitude of pressure recovery near the glottal exit. The entrance loss coefficients for the three convergent angles vary from values near 2.3–3.4 for d = 0.005 cm to values near 0.6 for d = 0.32 cm. These coefficients extend the tables of entrance loss and exit coefficients obtained for the uniform glottis according to Fulcher, Scherer, and Powell [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 1548–1553 (2011)]. PMID:25190404
Fast computation of local correlation coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Xiaobai; Pitsianis, Nikos P.; Bientinesi, Paolo
2008-08-01
This paper presents an acceleration method, using both algorithmic and architectural means, for fast calculation of local correlation coefficients, which is a basic image-based information processing step for template or pattern matching, image registration, motion or change detection and estimation, compensation of changes, or compression of representations, among other information processing objectives. For real-time applications, the complexity in arithmetic operations as well as in programming and memory access latency had been a divisive issue between the so-called correction-based methods and the Fourier domain methods. In the presented method, the complexity in calculating local correlation coefficients is reduced via equivalent reformulation that leads to efficient array operations or enables the use of multi-dimensional fast Fourier transforms, without losing or sacrificing local and non-linear changes or characteristics. The computation time is further reduced by utilizing modern multi-core architectures, such as the Sony-Toshiba-IBM Cell processor, with high processing speed and low power consumption.
On Learning Cluster Coefficient of Private Networks
Wang, Yue; Wu, Xintao; Zhu, Jun; Xiang, Yang
2013-01-01
Enabling accurate analysis of social network data while preserving differential privacy has been challenging since graph features such as clustering coefficient or modularity often have high sensitivity, which is different from traditional aggregate functions (e.g., count and sum) on tabular data. In this paper, we treat a graph statistics as a function f and develop a divide and conquer approach to enforce differential privacy. The basic procedure of this approach is to first decompose the target computation f into several less complex unit computations f1, …, fm connected by basic mathematical operations (e.g., addition, subtraction, multiplication, division), then perturb the output of each fi with Laplace noise derived from its own sensitivity value and the distributed privacy threshold εi, and finally combine those perturbed fi as the perturbed output of computation f. We examine how various operations affect the accuracy of complex computations. When unit computations have large global sensitivity values, we enforce the differential privacy by calibrating noise based on the smooth sensitivity, rather than the global sensitivity. By doing this, we achieve the strict differential privacy guarantee with smaller magnitude noise. We illustrate our approach by using clustering coefficient, which is a popular statistics used in social network analysis. Empirical evaluations on five real social networks and various synthetic graphs generated from three random graph models show the developed divide and conquer approach outperforms the direct approach. PMID:24429843
Volume and surface symmetry energy coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, H.; Fu, G. J.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.
2012-02-01
In this paper we study the volume and surface symmetry energy coefficients (csym(V) and csym(S)) by using the double differences of “experimental” symmetry energies. We assume asym=csym(V)-csym(S)/A1/3 and obtain csym(V)=31.26±0.32 MeV and csym(S)=52.15±1.12 MeV, or csym(V)=32.10±0.31 MeV and csym(S)=58.91±1.08 MeV, depending on the form of the Wigner energy. The uncertainties of these coefficients are smaller than those in the literature. The values of csym(V) and κS/V are unstable for different mass regions if one assumes asym=csym(V)/(1+κS/V/A1/3). We notice an odd-even staggering in the double differences of “experimental” symmetry energies under a few situations, and suggest that the pairing interaction might not be properly taken into account in the current mass formulas.
Hierarchical coefficient of a multifractal based network
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moreira, Darlan A.; Lucena, Liacir dos Santos; Corso, Gilberto
2014-02-01
The hierarchical property for a general class of networks stands for a power-law relation between clustering coefficient, CC and connectivity k: CC∝kβ. This relation is empirically verified in several biologic and social networks, as well as in random and deterministic network models, in special for hierarchical networks. In this work we show that the hierarchical property is also present in a Lucena network. To create a Lucena network we use the dual of a multifractal lattice ML, the vertices are the sites of the ML and links are established between neighbouring lattices, therefore this network is space filling and planar. Besides a Lucena network shows a scale-free distribution of connectivity. We deduce a relation for the maximal local clustering coefficient CCimax of a vertex i in a planar graph. This condition expresses that the number of links among neighbour, N△, of a vertex i is equal to its connectivity ki, that means: N△=ki. The Lucena network fulfils the condition N△≃ki independent of ki and the anisotropy of ML. In addition, CCmax implies the threshold β=1 for the hierarchical property for any scale-free planar network.
Iconic feature registration with sparse wavelet coefficients.
Cathier, Pascal
2006-01-01
With the growing acceptance of nonrigid registration as a useful tool to perform clinical research, and in particular group studies, the storage space needed to hold the resulting transforms is deemed to become a concern for vector field based approaches, on top of the traditional computation time issue. In a recent study we lead, which involved the registration of more than 22,000 pairs of T1 MR volumes, this constrain appeared critical indeed. In this paper, we propose to decompose the vector field on a wavelet basis, and let the registration algorithm minimize the number of non-zero coefficients by introducing an L1 penalty. This enables a sparse representation of the vector field which, unlike parametric representations, does not confine the estimated transform into a small parametric space with a fixed uniform smoothness : nonzero wavelet coefficients are optimally distributed depending on the data. Furthermore, we show that the iconic feature registration framework allows to embed the non-differentiable L1 penalty into a C1 energy that can be efficiently minimized by standard optimization techniques. PMID:17354833
Coefficient of tangential restitution for viscoelastic spheres.
Schwager, T; Becker, V; Pöschel, T
2008-09-01
The collision of frictional granular particles may be described by an interaction force whose normal component is that of viscoelastic spheres while the tangential part is described by the model by Cundall and Strack (Géotechnique 29, 47 (1979)) being the most popular tangential collision model in Molecular Dynamics simulations. Albeit being a rather complicated model, governed by 5 phenomenological parameters and 2 independent initial conditions, we find that it is described by 3 independent parameters only. Surprisingly, in a wide range of parameters the corresponding coefficient of tangential restitution, epsilont, is well described by the simple Coulomb law with a cut-off at epsilont = 0. A more complex behavior of the coefficient of restitution as a function on the normal and tangential components of the impact velocity, gn and gt, including negative values of epsilont, is found only for very small ratio gt/gn. For the analysis presented here we neglect dissipation of the interaction in normal direction. PMID:18839235
Coefficient of tangential restitution for viscoelastic spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwager, T.; Becker, V.; Pã¶Schel, T.
2008-09-01
The collision of frictional granular particles may be described by an interaction force whose normal component is that of viscoelastic spheres while the tangential part is described by the model by Cundall and Strack (Géotechnique 29, 47 (1979)) being the most popular tangential collision model in Molecular Dynamics simulations. Albeit being a rather complicated model, governed by 5 phenomenological parameters and 2 independent initial conditions, we find that it is described by 3 independent parameters only. Surprisingly, in a wide range of parameters the corresponding coefficient of tangential restitution, ɛt , is well described by the simple Coulomb law with a cut-off at ɛt = 0 . A more complex behavior of the coefficient of restitution as a function on the normal and tangential components of the impact velocity, gn and gt, including negative values of ɛt , is found only for very small ratio gt/gn . For the analysis presented here we neglect dissipation of the interaction in normal direction.
The Convergence Coefficient across Political Systems
Schofield, Norman
2013-01-01
Formal work on the electoral model often suggests that parties or candidates should locate themselves at the electoral mean. Recent research has found no evidence of such convergence. In order to explain nonconvergence, the stochastic electoral model is extended by including estimates of electoral valence. We introduce the notion of a convergence coefficient, c. It has been shown that high values of c imply that there is a significant centrifugal tendency acting on parties. We used electoral surveys to construct a stochastic valence model of the the elections in various countries. We find that the convergence coefficient varies across elections in a country, across countries with similar regimes, and across political regimes. In some countries, the centripetal tendency leads parties to converge to the electoral mean. In others the centrifugal tendency dominates and some parties locate far from the electoral mean. In particular, for countries with proportional electoral systems, namely, Israel, Turkey, and Poland, the centrifugal tendency is very high. In the majoritarian polities of the United States and Great Britain, the centrifugal tendency is very low. In anocracies, the autocrat imposes limitations on how far from the origin the opposition parties can move. PMID:24385886
Coefficient adaptive triangulation for strongly anisotropic problems
D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.; Donato, J.M.
1996-01-01
Second order elliptic partial differential equations arise in many important applications, including flow through porous media, heat conduction, the distribution of electrical or magnetic potential. The prototype is the Laplace problem, which in discrete form produces a coefficient matrix that is relatively easy to solve in a regular domain. However, the presence of anisotropy produces a matrix whose condition number is increased, making the resulting linear system more difficult to solve. In this work, we take the anisotropy into account in the discretization by mapping each anisotropic region into a ``stretched`` coordinate space in which the anisotropy is removed. The region is then uniformly triangulated, and the resulting triangulation mapped back to the original space. The effect is to generate long slender triangles that are oriented in the direction of ``preferred flow.`` Slender triangles are generally regarded as numerically undesirable since they tend to cause poor conditioning; however, our triangulation has the effect of producing effective isotropy, thus improving the condition number of the resulting coefficient matrix.
Rotordynamic coefficients for stepped labyrinth gas seals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scharrer, Joseph K.
1989-01-01
The basic equations are derived for compressible flow in a stepped labyrinth gas seal. The flow is assumed to be completely turbulent in the circumferential direction where the friction factor is determined by the Blasius relation. Linearized zeroth and first-order perturbation equations are developed for small motion about a centered position by an expansion in the eccentricity ratio. The zeroth-order pressure distribution is found by satisfying the leakage equation while the circumferential velocity distribution is determined by satisfying the momentum equations. The first order equations are solved by a separation of variables solution. Integration of the resultant pressure distribution along and around the seal defines the reaction force developed by the seal and the corresponding dynamic coefficients. The results of this analysis are presented in the form of a parametric study, since there are no known experimental data for the rotordynamic coefficients of stepped labyrinth gas seals. The parametric study investigates the relative rotordynamic stability of convergent, straight and divergent stepped labyrinth gas seals. The results show that, generally, the divergent seal is more stable, rotordynamically, than the straight or convergent seals. The results also show that the teeth-on-stator seals are not always more stable, rotordynamically, then the teeth-on-rotor seals as was shown by experiment by Childs and Scharrer (1986b) for a 15 tooth seal.
Estimating biokinetic coefficients in the PACT™ system.
Shen, Zhiyao; Arbuckle, Wm Brian
2016-02-01
When powdered activated carbon (PAC) is continuously added to the aeration tank of an activated sludge reactor, the modification is called a PACT™ process (for powdered activated carbon treatment). The PAC provides many benefits, but complicates the determination of biological phenomena. Determination of bio-oxidation kinetics in a PACT system is a key to fully understanding enhanced biological mechanisms resulting from PAC addition. A model is developed to account for the main mechanisms involved in the PACT system -- adsorption, air stripping and bio-oxidation. The model enables the investigation of biokinetic information, including possible synergistic effects. Six parallel reactors were used to treat a synthetic waste; three activated sludge and three PACT. The PACT reactors provided significantly reduced effluent TOC (total organic carbon). Biokinetic coefficients were obtained from steady-state data using averaged reactor data and by using all data (22 points for each reactor). As expected, the PACT reactors resulted in a substantial reduction in the effluent concentration of non-biodegradable total organic carbon. The Monod equation's half-saturation coefficient (Ks) was reduced significantly in the PACT reactors, resulting in higher growth rates at lower concentrations. The maximum specific substrate utilization (qm) rate was also reduced about 25% using the averaged data and remained unchanged using all the data. The substrate utilization values are affected by errors in biomass determination and more research is needed to accurately determine biomass. PMID:26613352
Link prediction with node clustering coefficient
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhihao; Lin, Youfang; Wang, Jing; Gregory, Steve
2016-06-01
Predicting missing links in incomplete complex networks efficiently and accurately is still a challenging problem. The recently proposed Cannistrai-Alanis-Ravai (CAR) index shows the power of local link/triangle information in improving link-prediction accuracy. Inspired by the idea of employing local link/triangle information, we propose a new similarity index with more local structure information. In our method, local link/triangle structure information can be conveyed by clustering coefficient of common-neighbors directly. The reason why clustering coefficient has good effectiveness in estimating the contribution of a common-neighbor is that it employs links existing between neighbors of a common-neighbor and these links have the same structural position with the candidate link to this common-neighbor. In our experiments, three estimators: precision, AUP and AUC are used to evaluate the accuracy of link prediction algorithms. Experimental results on ten tested networks drawn from various fields show that our new index is more effective in predicting missing links than CAR index, especially for networks with low correlation between number of common-neighbors and number of links between common-neighbors.
Angular Fock coefficients: Refinement and further development
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir
2015-10-01
The angular coefficients ψk ,p(α ,θ ) of the Fock expansion characterizing the S -state wave function of the two-electron atomic system are calculated in hyperspherical angular coordinates α and θ . To solve the problem the Fock recurrence relations separated into the independent individual equations associated with definite power j of the nucleus charge Z are applied. The "pure" j components of the angular Fock coefficients, orthogonal to the hyperspherical harmonics Yk l, are found for even values of k . To this end, the specific coupling equation is proposed and applied. Effective techniques for solving the individual equations with the simplest nonseparable and separable right-hand sides are proposed. Some mistakes or misprints made earlier in representations of ψ2 ,0, are noted and corrected. All j components of ψ4 ,1 and the majority of components and subcomponents of ψ3 ,0 are calculated and presented. All calculations are carried out with the help of Wolfram Mathematica.
Friction coefficient influence upon fluid jet atomization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beniuga, Marius; Mihai, Ioan; Suciu, Cornel; Sprinceanǎ, Silviu
2015-02-01
The work presented herein illustrates the differences between aerodynamic friction coefficients of liquid droplets of different shapes and dimensions that come into contact with air. Aerodynamic friction forces on a drop can be calculated if the aerodynamic coefficient of friction and cross-sectional area normal to the flow are known. The crosssectional area can be calculated on the basis of the maximum diameter of the droplet, dc, if it is assumed that the deformed droplets have the form of a flattened spheroid. According to Clift et al[6], when a drop of liquid has weak internal tensions or high surface tension due to viscosity, external flow may differ from the surrounding liquid drop at the same Reynolds number. Internal tensions that exist in most systems of practical importance are negligible compared to surface tension. Given the fact that the ratio of the viscosity of the liquid and the gas jet spray is significant, we can assume that internal circulation is an important parameter.
Selective sorting of alpha-granule proteins
Italiano, J.E.; Battinelli, E. M.
2010-01-01
Summary One of the main functions of blood platelets is to secrete a variety of substances that can modify a developing thrombus, regulate the growth of the vasculature, promote wound repair, and contribute to cell-adhesive events. The majority of this vast array of secreted proteins is stored in alpha-granules. Until recently, it was assumed that platelets contained one homogeneous population of alpha-granules that undergo complete de-granulation during platelet activation. This review focuses on the mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis and secretion, with a particular emphasis on recent findings that clearly demonstrate that platelets contain distinct subpopulations of alpha-granules that undergo differential release during activation. We consider the implications of this new paradigm of platelet secretion, discuss mechanisms of alpha-granule biogenesis, and review the molecular basis of transport and delivery of alpha-granules to assembling platelets. PMID:19630794
Microtubule depolymerization potentiates alpha-synuclein oligomerization.
Esteves, A Raquel; Arduíno, Daniela M; Swerdlow, Russell H; Oliveira, Catarina R; Cardoso, Sandra M
2010-01-01
Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with perturbed mitochondria function and alpha-synuclein fibrillization. We evaluated potential mechanistic links between mitochondrial dysfunction and alpha-synuclein aggregation. We studied a PD cytoplasmic hybrid (cybrid) cell line in which platelet mitochondria from a PD subject were transferred to NT2 neuronal cells previously depleted of endogenous mitochondrial DNA. Compared to a control cybrid cell line, the PD line showed reduced ATP levels, an increased free/polymerized tubulin ratio, and alpha-synuclein oligomer accumulation. Taxol (which stabilizes microtubules) normalized the PD tubulin ratio and reduced alpha-synuclein oligomerization. A nexus exists between mitochondrial function, cytoskeleton homeostasis, and alpha-synuclein oligomerization. In our model, mitochondrial dysfunction triggers an increased free tubulin, which destabilizes the microtubular network and promotes alpha-synuclein oligomerization. PMID:20552056
Ma, Guoyi; Bavadekar, Supriya A; Davis, Yolande M; Lalchandani, Shilpa G; Nagmani, Rangaswamy; Schaneberg, Brian T; Khan, Ikhlas A; Feller, Dennis R
2007-07-01
Ephedra species of plants have both beneficial and adverse effects primarily associated with the presence of ephedrine alkaloids. Few reports have appeared that examine the direct actions of ephedrine alkaloids on human subtypes of adrenergic receptors (ARs). In the present study, ephedrine alkaloids were evaluated for their binding affinities on human alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-, alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, and alpha(2C)-AR subtypes expressed in HEK and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Cell-based reporter gene assays were used to establish functional activity of ephedrine alkaloids at alpha(1A)-, alpha(2A)-, and alpha(2C)-ARs. The data showed that ephedrine alkaloids did not activate alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-ARs and that they antagonized the agonist-mediated effects of phenylephrine and medetomidine on alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-ARs, respectively. As in the binding studies, 1R,2R- and 1R,2S-ephedrine showed greater functional antagonist activity than the 1S,2R- and 1S,2S-isomers. The rank order of affinity for the isomers was 1R,2R > 1R,2S > 1S,2R > 1S,2S. The rank order of potencies of alkaloids containing a 1R,2S-configuration was norephedrine > or = ephedrine > N-methylephedrine. These studies have demonstrated that orientation of the beta-hydroxyl group on the ethylamino side chain and the state of N-methyl substitution are important for alpha-AR binding and functional activity of the ephedrine alkaloids. In conclusion, the ephedrine isomers and analogs studied did not exhibit any direct agonist activity and were found to possess moderate antagonist activities on cloned human alpha-ARs. The blockade of presynaptic alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-ARs may have a pharmacological role in the direct actions of Ephedra alkaloids. PMID:17405867
Latex immunoassay of serum alpha-fetoprotein using polyethylene glycol pretreatment.
Passelecq, B; De Bo, M; Huber, C; Gennart, J P; Bernard, A; Lauwerys, R
1988-04-22
A latex particle immunoassay has been developed for the determination of serum alpha-fetoprotein. The assay consists of incubating the serum sample for 30 min at 50 degrees C with latex particles coated with anti-alpha-fetoprotein immunoglobulin, then quantifying the remaining unagglutinated particles with an optical particle counter. The assay is fully automated with a sampling rate of 40/h. The interference from rheumatoid factor is eliminated by precipitation with polyethylene glycol (7% final concentration). The alpha-fetoprotein standard curve, prepared in a human serum matrix, extends from 0.5 to 32 micrograms/l. Because sera are diluted ten-fold, the limit of detection of the assay lies around 5 micrograms/l. Coefficients of variation ranged from 4 to 15% and the recovery of alpha-fetoprotein tested on eight normal sera and four sera containing rheumatoid factor averaged 102.2% (SD = 13.2). The correlation coefficient between latex immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, calculated from the assay of 138 samples was 0.98. PMID:2451697
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cook, Layne M.; Ball, Jim
1997-01-01
Vertically-landing Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs) are the best hope of building a true ``Space Truck'' with current technology. Because they do not require a low angle-of-attack (AOA, or alpha) horizontal landing, they can be designed to operate exclusively at very high angles-of-attack. This offers savings in vehicle dry weight and complexity, which can be traded for significantly heavier payload, more ascent velocity, or extra design margin. The price for abandoning low angle-of-attack flight is reduced crossrange. To quantify the potential weight reduction, a trade study was performed to determine the relationship between a vehicle's maximum crossrange (angle-of-attack) and it's dry weight (payload margin). At the study conclusion, three vertically-landing (VL) vehicles provided multiple points on a payload weight vs. maximum crossrange curve, showing significant payload increases as crossrange is sacrificed. This is primarily the result of being able to simplify the structure, fly a cooler entry trajectory, and be aerodynamically stable through the entire flight. This reduces subsystem requirements and complexity, enhancing reliability. Further benefits are realized in reduced landing propellant requirements and simplifying or eliminating the ``rotation'' maneuver. This paper also suggests unique operability solutions that adapt high-alpha vehicles to traditional high-crossrange missions such as the polar ``once-around'' flight, and proposes a small scale drop-test program to prove the subsonic and landing portion of the flight envelope.
Beta/alpha continuous air monitor
Becker, G.K.; Martz, D.E.
1988-06-27
A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinquishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts. 7 figs.
Beta/alpha continuous air monitor
Becker, Gregory K.; Martz, Dowell E.
1989-01-01
A single deep layer silicon detector in combination with a microcomputer, recording both alpha and beta activity and the energy of each pulse, distinguishing energy peaks using a novel curve fitting technique to reduce the natural alpha counts in the energy region where plutonium and other transuranic alpha emitters are present, and using a novel algorithm to strip out radon daughter contribution to actual beta counts.
A new coefficient of concordance with applications to biosignal analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xu, Weichao; Chen, Zhaoguo; Liu, Wenqing
2015-12-01
In this paper we propose a novel concordance coefficients called Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients based on order statistics and Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. For comparison, we also construct other three similar index based on Average Pearson's Product Moment Correlation Coefficient, Kendall's Concordance Coefficients, Average Kendall's tau. We propose Multivariate Normal Model to estimate the correlation coefficient, Linear Model and Nonlinear Model to model the linear and nonlinear association between multichannel signals, And we also apply the concordance coefficients to biosignal analysis developed a new organizational index for quantifying organization of AF. Statistical evidences suggest that (a) Order Statistics Concordance Coefficients have better robust than other three index; (b) capable of distinguishing fibrillatory rhythms from nonfibrillatory rhythms, such as Atiral flutter; (c) can reflect the effectiveness of adenosine, a drug commonly used during electrophysiological procedures; and (d) perform better than other three concordance coefficients.
Gene transfer mediated by alpha2-macroglobulin.
Schneider, H; Huse, K; Birkenmeier, G; Otto, A; Scholz, G H
1996-01-01
alpha2-Macroglobulin covalently linked to poly(L)-lysine can be used as a vehicle for receptor-mediated gene transfer. This modified alpha2-macroglobulin maintains its ability to bind to the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor, and was shown to introduce a luciferase reporter gene plasmid into HepG2 human hepatoma cells in vitro. The alpha2-macroglobulin receptor is a very large and multifunctional cell surface receptor, whose rapid and efficient internalization rate makes it attractive for gene therapy, e.g. for hepatic gene targeting via injection into the portal vein. PMID:8871570
Prospects for alpha particle studies on TFTR
Zweben, S.J.
1987-05-01
TFTR is expected to produce approximately 5 MW of alpha heating during the D/T Q approx. = 1 phase of operation in 1990. At that point the collective confinement properties and the heating effects of alpha particles become accessible for study for the first time. This paper outlines the potential performance of TFTR with respect to alpha particle production, the diagnostics which will be available for alpha particle measurements, and the physics issues which can be studied both before and during D/T operation.
Radon diffusion coefficients in soils of varying moisture content
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papachristodoulou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Pavlides, S.
2009-04-01
Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is generated in the Earth's crust and is free to migrate through soil and be released to the atmosphere. Due to its unique properties, soil gas radon has been established as a powerful tracer used for a variety of purposes, such as exploring uranium ores, locating geothermal resources and hydrocarbon deposits, mapping geological faults, predicting seismic activity or volcanic eruptions and testing atmospheric transport models. Much attention has also been given to the radiological health hazard posed by increased radon concentrations in the living and working environment. In order to exploit radon profiles for geophysical purposes and also to predict its entry indoors, it is necessary to study its transport through soils. Among other factors, the importance of soil moisture in such studies has been largely highlighted and it is widely accepted that any measurement of radon transport parameters should be accompanied by a measurement of the soil moisture content. In principle, validation of transport models in the field is encountered by a large number of uncontrollable and varying parameters; laboratory methods are therefore preferred, allowing for experiments to be conducted under well-specified and uniform conditions. In this work, a laboratory technique has been applied for studying the effect of soil moisture content on radon diffusion. A vertical diffusion chamber was employed, in which radon was produced from a 226Ra source, was allowed to diffuse through a soil column and was finally monitored using a silicon surface barrier detector. By solving the steady-state radon diffusion equation, diffusion coefficients (D) were determined for soil samples of varying moisture content (m), from null (m=0) to saturation (m=1). For dry soil, a D value of 4.1×10-7 m2s-1 was determined, which increased moderately by a factor of ~3 for soil with low moisture content, i.e. up to m ~0.2. At higher water fractions, a decrease in D was initiated and became particularly pronounced approaching complete saturation; at m =0.9, D was as low as 2×10-9 m2s-1. A series of field experiments has also been conducted using alpha-track CR-39 detectors to follow the moisture-dependence of radon diffusion through soil under natural conditions. Diffusion coefficients were determined as a function of surface soil moisture assuming a one-dimensional diffusive radon transport model. Comparison between results obtained by the two methods showed that laboratory studies may provide a good indication of radon diffusion coefficients to be expected in the field. However, values determined in the field were systematically lower than those assessed in the laboratory. This finding could be attributed to soil-dependent parameters, such as differences in pore space geometry between the soil used in laboratory experiments and the undisturbed soil. In the latter case, the higher degree of compaction imposes a more tortuous pathway to soil gas, while at the same time the diffusive gas flux is hindered by local-scale zones of higher bulk density or water content.
The large coefficient problem; can we make sense out of QCD perturbation theory
West, G.B.
1989-01-01
There is the possibility of an impending crisis looming on the horizon for QCD. The problem is that in many processes, large coefficients arise in the perturbation series expansion leading to serious uncertainties concerning its predictive power. Until recently most of the examples of such a phenomenon occurred in the calculation of decay rates. These were, by and large, either ignored or dismissed using possible scheme-dependence arguments as a way out. However, more recently a calculation of the 3-loop contribution to the total e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation cross-section was performed which gave an enormous coefficient of the order of 50 times that of the 2-loop term. If correct, this would imply that the 3-loop contribution actually exceeds that of the 2-loop Thus, from a conservative viewpoint, the validity of the perturbation series expansion as an estimate for the total e{sup +}e{sup -} cross-section is called into question. Since this process has played a key role in the development and understanding of QCD and since, in many ways, it is one of the cleanest methods for extracting {alpha}{sub s} the problem can no longer be avoided. Furthermore, there is no reason to doubt that this problem should occur in all physical processes. Coming to grips with it is, of course, not only important for testing QCD but also for extracting fundamental quantities such as {alpha}{sub s}. Clearly one needs to understand the nature and origin of such large coefficients before one can confidently continue to use perturbative estimates. The purpose of this talk is to focus on these problems. I shall first review the experimental situation with some examples illustrating the problem. I shall then discuss various general components and properties of perturbation theory before attempting to give a possible resolution of the problem. 18 refs., 5 figs.
Sugden, D.; Anwar, N.; Klein, D. C.
1996-01-01
1. The pharmacological characteristics of alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites in rat pineal gland membranes, detected by use of a selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist ([125I]-iodo-2-[beta-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethylaminomethyl]tetralone, [125I]-HEAT), were investigated with the alkylating agent, chloroethylclonidine (CEC), and in competition experiments with a number of adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists. 2. Chloroethylclonidine (CEC) treatment (10 microM, 10 min) of rat pineal membranes inactivated approximately 70% of specific [125I]-HEAT binding sites. Higher concentrations of CEC (up to 100 microM) or longer treatment periods (up to 40 min) were no more effective. 3. Adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists competitively inhibited [125I]-HEAT binding with Hill coefficients close to unity indicating a single alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype is present. The affinity (Ki) of subtype selective agonists (oxymetazoline, SDZ NVI-085) and antagonists (5-methylurapidil, WB4101, benoxathian, phentolamine) was consistent with binding to an alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype. 4. The (-)- and (+)-enantiomers of niguldipine had an equal and low affinity for alpha 1-adrenoceptor binding sites both in untreated (log Ki-6.66 and -6.90 respectively) and CEC-treated membranes in which approximately 70% of sites had been inactivated (log Ki-6.41 and -6.86 respectively). This indicates that the small proportion of alpha 1-adrenoceptors insensitive to CEC are not alpha 1A-adrenoceptors. 5. mRNA was isolated from rat pinealocytes, cDNA was synthesized and then amplified by the polymerase chain reaction with alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype specific primers. These experiments identified both alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor mRNA, but not alpha 1D-mRNA in rat pinealocytes, although all three adrenoceptor subtypes were readily identified in rat brain cortex. 6. These data indicate that although both alpha 1A- and alpha 1B-adrenoceptor mRNAs are present in the pineal the major subtype of alpha 1-adrenoceptor expressed is the alpha 1B. Images Figure 2 PMID:8818350
Transport coefficients in superfluid neutron stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolos, Laura; Manuel, Cristina; Sarkar, Sreemoyee; Tarrus, Jaume
2016-01-01
We study the shear and bulk viscosity coefficients as well as the thermal conductivity as arising from the collisions among phonons in superfluid neutron stars. We use effective field theory techniques to extract the allowed phonon collisional processes, written as a function of the equation of state and the gap of the system. The shear viscosity due to phonon scattering is compared to calculations of that coming from electron collisions. We also comment on the possible consequences for r-mode damping in superfluid neutron stars. Moreover, we find that phonon collisions give the leading contribution to the bulk viscosities in the core of the neutron stars. We finally obtain a temperature-independent thermal conductivity from phonon collisions and compare it with the electron-muon thermal conductivity in superfluid neutron stars.
Implicit Extrapolation Methods for Variable Coefficient Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jung, M.; Ruede, U.
1996-01-01
Implicit extrapolation methods for the solution of partial differential equations are based on applying the extrapolation principle indirectly. Multigrid tau-extrapolation is a special case of this idea. In the context of multilevel finite element methods, an algorithm of this type can be used to raise the approximation order, even when the meshes are nonuniform or locally refined. Here previous results are generalized to the variable coefficient case and thus become applicable for nonlinear problems. The implicit extrapolation multigrid algorithm converges to the solution of a higher order finite element system. This is obtained without explicitly constructing higher order stiffness matrices but by applying extrapolation in a natural form within the algorithm. The algorithm requires only a small change of a basic low order multigrid method.
Transport Coefficients in weakly compressible turbulence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubinstein, Robert; Erlebacher, Gordon
1996-01-01
A theory of transport coefficients in weakly compressible turbulence is derived by applying Yoshizawa's two-scale direct interaction approximation to the compressible equations of motion linearized about a state of incompressible turbulence. The result is a generalization of the eddy viscosity representation of incompressible turbulence. In addition to the usual incompressible eddy viscosity, the calculation generates eddy diffusivities for entropy and pressure, and an effective bulk viscosity acting on the mean flow. The compressible fluctuations also generate an effective turbulent mean pressure and corrections to the speed of sound. Finally, a prediction unique to Yoshizawa's two-scale approximation is that terms containing gradients of incompressible turbulence quantities also appear in the mean flow equations. The form these terms take is described.
Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams
Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.
2012-01-01
Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/.
Effective Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Coefficient Alignment.
Yang, Ching-Yu; Wang, Wen-Fong
2016-03-01
This study presents two types of data hiding methods based on coefficient alignment for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, namely, lossy and reversible ECG steganographys. The lossy method is divided into high-quality and high-capacity ECG steganography, both of which are capable of hiding confidential patient data in ECG signals. The reversible data hiding method can not only hide secret messages but also completely restore the original ECG signal after bit extraction. Simulations confirmed that the perceived quality generated by the lossy ECG steganography methods was good, while hiding capacity was acceptable. In addition, these methods have a certain degree of robustness, which is rare in conventional ECG stegangraphy schemes. Moreover, the proposed reversible ECG steganography method can not only successfully extract hidden messages but also completely recover the original ECG data. PMID:26711443
Mathematical model of an air-filled alpha stirling refrigerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McFarlane, Patrick; Semperlotti, Fabio; Sen, Mihir
2013-10-01
This work develops a mathematical model for an alpha Stirling refrigerator with air as the working fluid and will be useful in optimizing the mechanical design of these machines. Two pistons cyclically compress and expand air while moving sinusoidally in separate chambers connected by a regenerator, thus creating a temperature difference across the system. A complete non-linear mathematical model of the machine, including air thermodynamics, and heat transfer from the walls, as well as heat transfer and fluid resistance in the regenerator, is developed. Non-dimensional groups are derived, and the mathematical model is numerically solved. The heat transfer and work are found for both chambers, and the coefficient of performance of each chamber is calculated. Important design parameters are varied and their effect on refrigerator performance determined. This sensitivity analysis, which shows what the significant parameters are, is a useful tool for the design of practical Stirling refrigeration systems.
Phonon anharmonicity and Gruneisen parameters of alpha-plutonium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filanovich, A. N.; Povzner, A. A.
2015-12-01
A self-consistent thermodynamic model of alpha-phase of plutonium is constructed. The calculations of thermal and elastic properties of α-Pu, carried out within this model, demonstrate that anomalously strong temperature dependence of the bulk modulus and unusually high value of the coefficient of thermal expansion of α-Pu are caused by its strong lattice anharmonicity. The isothermal and isobaric Gruneisen parameters of α-Pu and δ-Pu Pu0.96Ga0.04 are calculated. It is shown that wide spread of the values of Gruneisen parameter of α-Pu, obtained previously from different experimental data, is explained by the dependence of Gruneisen parameter of α-Pu on temperature.
A model for the disc Lyman alpha emission of Uranus
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ben Jaffel, L.; Prange, R.; Emerich, C.; Vidal-Madjar, A.; Mcconnell, J. C.
1991-01-01
A new efficient radiative transfer algorithm for nonhomogeneous model atmospheres has been applied to the Uranian atmosphere. The contribution of the scatter solar Lyman-alpha to the Uranain emission is of the order of 300 R, and the Rayleigh contribution may reach 450 R for small values of the eddy diffusion coefficient (EDC). The total solar contribution may then reach about 750 R for a solar flux of 2.5 x 10 to the 11th photons/sq cm/s/A. A level of up to 400 R is confirmed in some directions for the interstellar wind contribution. The values of the atmospheric EDC necessary to mimic the observations are 50-100 sq cm/s. A small additional source located on the dayside Uranian atmosphere seems necessary correctly to fit the shape of the limb to limb intensity variation, especially near the limbs. Its contribution to the emergent intensity would range from 100 to 500 R.
Resting-State Alpha in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Alpha Associations with Thalamic Volume
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Edgar, J. Christopher; Heiken, Kory; Chen, Yu-Han; Herrington, John D.; Chow, Vivian; Liu, Song; Bloy, Luke; Huang, Mingxiong; Pandey, Juhi; Cannon, Katelyn M.; Qasmieh, Saba; Levy, Susan E.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P. L.
2015-01-01
Alpha circuits (8-12 Hz), necessary for basic and complex brain processes, are abnormal in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study obtained estimates of resting-state (RS) alpha activity in children with ASD and examined associations between alpha activity, age, and clinical symptoms. Given that the thalamus modulates cortical RS alpha…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halsall, H. B.; Wermeling, J. R.
1982-01-01
Describes an experiment using a high-speed preparative centrifuge and calculator to demonstrate effects of the frictional coefficient of a macromolecule on its rate of transport in a force field and to estimate molecular weight of the macromolecule using an empirical relationship. Background information, procedures, and discussion of results are…
During the summer of 1979, coefficients for light extinction in the atmosphere were calculated from measurements made with a telephotometer placed 251 m from a black target in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The results are well correlated (r = 0.92 to 0.96) with integrat...
Recovering DC coefficients in block-based DCT.
Uehara, Takeyuki; Safavi-Naini, Reihaneh; Ogunbona, Philip
2006-11-01
It is a common approach for JPEG and MPEG encryption systems to provide higher protection for dc coefficients and less protection for ac coefficients. Some authors have employed a cryptographic encryption algorithm for the dc coefficients and left the ac coefficients to techniques based on random permutation lists which are known to be weak against known-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. In this paper we show that in block-based DCT, it is possible to recover dc coefficients from ac coefficients with reasonable image quality and show the insecurity of image encryption methods which rely on the encryption of dc values using a cryptoalgorithm. The method proposed in this paper combines dc recovery from ac coefficients and the fact that ac coefficients can be recovered using a chosen ciphertext attack. We demonstrate that a method proposed by Tang to encrypt and decrypt MPEG video can be completely broken. PMID:17076416
The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trafimow, David
2016-01-01
Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.
Flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of odd and even homologous bimesogens.
Atkinson, Katie L; Morris, Stephen M; Castles, Flynn; Qasim, Malik M; Gardiner, Damian J; Coles, Harry J
2012-01-01
It is known that bimesogenic liquid crystals exhibit a marked "odd-even" effect in the flexoelastic ratio (the effective flexoelectric coefficient to the average elastic coefficient), with the ratio being higher for the "odd-spaced" bimesogens (those with an odd number of alkyl groups in the spacer chain) than their neighboring even-spaced counterparts. To determine the contribution of each property to the flexoelastic ratio, we present experimental results on the flexoelectric and elastic coefficients of two homologous nonsymmetric bimesogens which possess odd and even alkyl spacers. Our results show that, although there are differences in the flexoelectric coefficients, there are substantially larger differences in the effective elastic coefficient. Specifically, the odd bimesogen is found to have both a low splay elastic coefficient and a very low bend elastic coefficient which, when combined, results in a significantly lower effective elastic coefficient and consequently a higher flexoelastic ratio. PMID:22400606
Probability density of the empirical wavelet coefficients of a noisy chaos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcin, Matthieu; Guégan, Dominique
2014-05-01
We are interested in the random empirical wavelet coefficients of a noisy signal when this signal is a unidimensional or multidimensional chaos. More precisely we provide an expression of the conditional probability density of such coefficients, given a discrete observation grid. The noise is assumed to be described by a symmetric alpha-stable random variable. If the noise is a dynamic noise, then we present the exact expression of the probability density of each wavelet coefficient of the noisy signal. If we face a measurement noise, then the noise has a non-linear influence and we propose two approximations. The first one relies on a Taylor expansion whereas the second one, relying on an Edgeworth expansion, improves the first general Taylor approximation if the cumulants of the noise are defined. We give some illustrations of these theoretical results for the logistic map, the tent map and a multidimensional chaos, the Hénon map, disrupted by a Gaussian or a Cauchy noise.
Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.; McIntosh, J. Michael; Han, Kyou-Hoon . E-mail: khhan600@kribb.re.kr
2006-06-23
{alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.
Psychiatric Symptoms in Alpha-Mannosidosis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Malm, D.; Pantel, J.; Linaker, O. M.
2005-01-01
Alpha-mannosidosis is characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability (ID), moderate to severe neurosensory hearing loss, frequent infections, psychomotor disturbances and skeletal dysmorphism. For the first time, a panel of nine alpha-mannosidosis patients with psychiatric symptoms is presented. The clinical picture has several…
Elementary Processes Underlying Alpha Channeling in Tokamaks
NM.J. Fisch
2012-06-15
Alpha channeling in tokamaks is speculative, but also extraordinarily attractive. Waves that can accomplish this effect have been identified. Key aspects of the theory now enjoy experimental confirmation. This paper will review the elementary processes of wave-particle interactions in plasma that underlie the alpha channeling effect
Typical uncertainties in alpha-particle spectrometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pommé, S.
2015-06-01
Alpha-particle spectrometry is routinely performed with the aim of measuring absolute activities, activity ratios between different alpha-emitting nuclides or decay data such as branching factors, alpha emission probabilities and relative half-lives. It is most commonly performed with ion-implanted silicon detectors. Strong features of the technique are the low background levels that can be achieved due to low sensitivity to other types of radiation, the intrinsic efficiency close to 1 which reduces the efficiency calculations to a geometrical problem and the uniqueness of the energy spectra for each α-decaying nuclide. The main challenge is the limitation to the attainable energy resolution, even with thin and homogenous sources, which causes alpha energy peaks to be partially unresolved due to their width and low-energy tailing. The spectral deconvolution often requires fitting of analytical functions to each peak in the alpha spectrum. True coincidence effects between alpha particles and subsequently emitted conversion electrons cause distortions of the alpha spectra which lead to significant changes in the apparent peak area ratios. Optimum energy resolution can only be achieved on very thin sources, which puts constraints on the source preparation techniques. Radiochemical separations may be needed to extract the alpha emitters from voluminous matrices and efficiency tracing is performed by adding in another isotope by known amounts. Typical uncertainty components are discussed by means of some hypothetical examples.
Determination of the Strong Coupling Alpha
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yuekuan
An experimental determination of the strong coupling alpha_{s}, and Lambda_{overline{MS }}, the fundamental scale parameter of QCD, have been extracted from the differential jet rates of multi-hadronic final states in e^+e^ - annihilations using the AMY detector at TRISTAN. The theoretical predictions from Next-to-Leading-Logarithm (NLL) Parton-Shower QCD calculations are compared to the data. The use of NLL allows one to fix the QCD scale parameter, which significantly reduces the systematic effects associated with the choice of a renormalization scale. The precision of previous extractions of alpha_ {s} based on second-order Matrix Element calculations have been severely limited by renormalization scale uncertainties. Using a NLL calculation we obtain alpha_{s}(M _{rm Z}) = 0.119 +/- 0.006 (total error) and its corresponding Lambda{(5)over MS} is 240 +/- _sp{65 }{80} MeV (total error). Systematic errors due to fragmentation and jet-clustering schemes are discussed. Comparisons are made to values of alpha_{s} derived from other measurements, and the running nature of the strong coupling is demonstrated at different energies by the energy dependence of alpha_{s}.
27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...
Atypical Alpha Asymmetry in Adults with ADHD
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hale, T. Sigi; Smalley, Susan L.; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; McCracken, James T.; McGough, James J.; Loo, Sandra K.
2009-01-01
Introduction: A growing body of literature suggests atypical cerebral asymmetry and interhemispheric interaction in ADHD. A common means of assessing lateralized brain function in clinical populations has been to examine the relative proportion of EEG alpha activity (8-12 Hz) in each hemisphere (i.e., alpha asymmetry). Increased rightward alpha…
Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne
2010-01-01
This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…
27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at 752mm 218.8-219.4 °C. (b) Density at 15° 0.9386. (c)...
Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne
2010-01-01
This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to
Measurement of alpha particles on PLT
Murphy, T.J.; Strachan, J.D.
1984-12-01
The radial emission profile of the d(/sup 3/He,p)..cap alpha.. fusion reaction was measured on PLT by pitch angle resolution of the escaping 3.7-MeV alphas. The d-/sup 3/He reactions were produced by /sup 3/He minority ICRF and the emission was strongly peaked at the ICRF resonance layer.
27 CFR 21.95 - Alpha terpineol.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha terpineol. 21.95 Section 21.95 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants 21.95 Alpha terpineol. (a) Boiling point at...
Permeation study of five formulations of alpha-tocopherol acetate through human cadaver skin.
Mahamongkol, Hansa; Bellantone, Robert A; Stagni, Grazia; Plakogiannis, Fotios M
2005-01-01
Alpha-tocopherol (AT) is the vitamin E homologue with the highest in vivo biological activity. AT protects against the carcinogenic and mutagenic activity of ionizing radiation and chemical agents, and possibly against UV-induced cutaneous damage. For stability consideration, alpha-tocopherol is usually used as its prodrug ester, alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA), which once absorbed into the skin is hydrolyzed to alpha-tocopherol, the active form. The objective of this research was to characterize in vitro the permeation properties of ATA from various solutions and gel formulations. Permeation studies were conducted using modified Franz diffusion cells and human cadaver skin as the membrane. Specifically, 5% (w/w) alpha-tocopherol acetate was formulated in the following vehicles: ethanol, isopropyl myristate, light mineral oil, 1% Klucel gel in ethanol, and 3% Klucel gel in ethanol (w/w). The receiver temperature was 37 degrees C. Samples from the receiver were collected at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 30, 36, and 48 hours and analyzed by HPLC for concentrations of alpha-tocopherol acetate and alpha-tocopherol. The permeabilities of ATA through human cadaver skin were 1.0x10(-4), 1.1x10(-2), 1.4x10(-4), 2.1x10(-4), and 4.7x10(-4) cm/h for the ethanol solution, isopropyl myristate solution, light mineral oil solution, 1% Klucel gel, and 3% Klucel gel, respectively. The results show that the formulation had relatively minor effects on the permeability coefficients of ATA through cadaver skin in all cases except for the isopropyl myristate solution. PMID:15868062
Coefficients of Association Analogous to Pearson's r for Nonparametric Statistics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stavig, Gordon; Acock, Alan C.
1980-01-01
Two r coefficients of association are discussed. One of the coefficients can be applied to any nonparametric test statistic (NTS) in which a normal approximation equation is appropriate. The other coefficient is applicable to any NTS in which exact probabilities are known. (Author/RL)
Microbial transformations of alpha-santonin.
Ata, Athar; Nachtigall, Jason A
2004-01-01
Fungal biotransformations of alpha-santonin (1) were conducted with Mucor plumbeus (ATCC 4740), Cunninghamella bainieri (ATCC 9244), Cunninghamella echinulata (ATCC 9245), Curvularia lunata (ATCC 12017) and Rhizopus stolonifer (ATCC 10404). Rhizopus stolonifer (ATCC 10404) metabolized compound 1 to afford 3,4-epoxy-alpha-santonin (2) and 4,5-dihydro-alpha-santonin (3) while Cunninghamella bainieri (ATCC 9244), Cunninghamella echinulata (ATCC 9245) and Mucor plumbeus (ATCC 4740) were capable of metabolizing compound 1 to give a reported metabolite, 1,2-dihydro-alpha-santonin (4). The structures of these transformed metabolites were established with the aid of extensive spectroscopic studies. These fungi regiospecifically reduced the carbon-carbon double bond in ring A of alpha-santonin. PMID:15241928
Catalytic Mechanism of Human Alpha-galactosidase
Guce, A.; Clark, N; Salgado, E; Ivanen, D; Kulinskaya, A; Brumer, H; Garman, S
2010-01-01
The enzyme {alpha}-galactosidase ({alpha}-GAL, also known as {alpha}-GAL A; E.C. 3.2.1.22) is responsible for the breakdown of {alpha}-galactosides in the lysosome. Defects in human {alpha}-GAL lead to the development of Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by the buildup of {alpha}-galactosylated substrates in the tissues. {alpha}-GAL is an active target of clinical research: there are currently two treatment options for Fabry disease, recombinant enzyme replacement therapy (approved in the United States in 2003) and pharmacological chaperone therapy (currently in clinical trials). Previously, we have reported the structure of human {alpha}-GAL, which revealed the overall structure of the enzyme and established the locations of hundreds of mutations that lead to the development of Fabry disease. Here, we describe the catalytic mechanism of the enzyme derived from x-ray crystal structures of each of the four stages of the double displacement reaction mechanism. Use of a difluoro-{alpha}-galactopyranoside allowed trapping of a covalent intermediate. The ensemble of structures reveals distortion of the ligand into a {sup 1}S{sub 3} skew (or twist) boat conformation in the middle of the reaction cycle. The high resolution structures of each step in the catalytic cycle will allow for improved drug design efforts on {alpha}-GAL and other glycoside hydrolase family 27 enzymes by developing ligands that specifically target different states of the catalytic cycle. Additionally, the structures revealed a second ligand-binding site suitable for targeting by novel pharmacological chaperones.
Nam, Kibo; Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A; Pawlicki, Alexander D; Kumar, Viksit; Madsen, Ernest L; Ghoshal, Goutam; Lavarello, Roberto J; Oelze, Michael L; Bigelow, Timothy A; Zagzebski, James A; O'Brien, William D; Hall, Timothy J
2011-10-01
In vivo estimations of the frequency-dependent acoustic attenuation (alpha) and backscatter (eta) coefficients using radiofrequency (rf) echoes acquired with clinical ultrasound systems must be independent of the data acquisition setup and the estimation procedures. In a recent in vivo assessment of these parameters in rodent mammary tumors, overall agreement was observed among alpha and eta estimates using data from four clinical imaging systems. In some cases, particularly in highly-attenuating heterogeneous tumors, multisystem variability was observed. This paper compares alpha and eta estimates of a well-characterized rodent-tumor-mimicking homogeneous phantom scanned using seven transducers with the same four clinical imaging systems: a Siemens Acuson S2000, an Ultrasonix RP, a Zonare Z.one and a VisualSonics Vevo2100. alpha and eta estimates of lesion-mimicking spheres in the phantom were independently assessed by three research groups, who analyzed their system's rf echo signals. Imaging-system-based estimates of alpha and eta of both lesion-mimicking spheres were comparable to through-transmission laboratory estimates and to predictions using Faran's theory, respectively. A few notable variations in results among the clinical systems were observed but the average and maximum percent difference between alpha estimates and laboratory-assessed values was 11% and 29%, respectively. Excluding a single outlier dataset, the average and maximum average difference between eta estimates for the clinical systems and values predicted from scattering theory was 16% and 33%, respectively. These results were an improvement over previous interlaboratory comparisons of attenuation and backscatter estimates. Although the standardization of our estimation methodologies can be further improved, this study validates our results from previous rodent breast-tumor model studies. PMID:22518954
Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J
1998-06-29
Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Huabei
2013-02-01
We present a study through extensive simulation that considers the impact of inhomogeneous optical scattering coefficient distribution on recovery of optical absorption coefficient maps using tomographic photoacoustic data collected from media mimicking breast tissue. We found that while the impact of scattering heterogeneities/targets is modest on photoacoustic recovery of optical absorption coefficients, the impact of scattering contrast caused by adipose tissue, a layer of normal tissue along the boundary of the breast, is dramatic on reconstruction of optical absorption coefficients using photoacoustic data—up to 25.8% relative error in recovering the absorption coefficient is estimated in such cases. To overcome this problem, we propose a new method to enhance photoacoustic recovery of the optical absorption coefficient in heterogeneous media by considering inhomogeneous scattering coefficient distribution provided by diffuse optical tomography (DOT). Results from extensive simulations show that photoacoustic recovery of absorption coefficient maps can be improved considerably with a priori scattering information from DOT.
Folate receptor {alpha} regulates cell proliferation in mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cells
Yao, Congjun; Evans, Chheng-Orn; Stevens, Victoria L.; Owens, Timothy R.; Oyesiku, Nelson M.
2009-11-01
We have previously found that the mRNA and protein levels of the folate receptor alpha (FR{alpha}) are uniquely over-expressed in clinically human nonfunctional (NF) pituitary adenomas, but the mechanistic role of FR{alpha} has not fully been determined. We investigated the effect of FR{alpha} over-expression in the mouse gonadotroph {alpha}T3-1 cell line as a model for NF pituitary adenomas. We found that the expression and function of FR{alpha} were strongly up-regulated, by Western blotting and folic acid binding assay. Furthermore, we found a higher cell growth rate, an enhanced percentage of cells in S-phase by BrdU assay, and a higher PCNA staining. These observations indicate that over-expression of FR{alpha} promotes cell proliferation. These effects were abrogated in the same {alpha}T3-1 cells when transfected with a mutant FR{alpha} cDNA that confers a dominant-negative phenotype by inhibiting folic acid binding. Finally, by real-time quantitative PCR, we found that mRNA expression of NOTCH3 was up-regulated in FR{alpha} over-expressing cells. In summary, our data suggests that FR{alpha} regulates pituitary tumor cell proliferation and mechanistically may involve the NOTCH pathway. Potentially, this finding could be exploited to develop new, innovative molecular targeted treatment for human NF pituitary adenomas.
Grier, H.E.
1985-09-01
It was the purpose of the Teller-Alpha experiment to measure the coefficient alpha by means of detectors placed a long distance from the bomb. The detectors are photoelectric devices that respond to visible light produced in the air surrounding the bomb by the absorbed gamma rays. A measurement of this sort was proposed by Edward Teller prior to the Sandstone Operation. The main components of the Teller-Alpha equipment were the photohead, the 200-Mc timing oscillator, and the high-speed-sensitivity recoding oscilloscope. A complete discussion of the experiment is provided.
Usui, E; Okuda, K
1986-06-11
A reductase catalyzing the reduction of the 3-ketone group of 7 alpha,12 alpha-dihydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-3-one and 7 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-3-one, which are the intermediates in the conversion of cholesterol to cholic acid and chenodeoxycholic acid, respectively, into the 3 alpha-hydroxyl group, was purified about 250-fold as judged by the activity from the 100,000 X g supernatant of rat liver homogenate. The purified enzyme was electrophoretically homogeneous, and its molecular weight determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretography was 32,000. The absorption spectrum of the purified enzyme showed only a peak at 280 nm due to aromatic amino acids, precluding the presence of a chromophoric prosthetic group in the molecule. The enzyme showed activity toward a variety of substrates, including 3-oxo-5 beta-cholanoic acid, androsterone, 9,10-phenanthrenquinone, p-nitrobenzaldehyde, but not toward glucuronic acid, DL-glyceraldehyde, and glycolaldehyde. The optimal pH for the reduction of 7 alpha-hydroxy-5 beta-cholestan-3-one was 7.4, and the cofactor required was either NADPH or NADH, though the former gave the higher activity. Judging from the chromatography behavior as well as substrate specificity, the enzyme was identified as 3 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3 alpha-hydroxysteroid:NAD(P)+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.50). PMID:3459552
Reactive sticking coefficients of silane on silicon
Buss, R.J.; Ho, P.; Breiland, W.G.; Coltrin, M.E.
1987-01-01
We have investigated the reaction of room-temperature silane and disilane on a hot polycrystalline silicon surface using both a collision-free molecular beam and a very low pressure CVD cell. Reactive sticking coefficients were obtained from deposition rate data over a wide range of temperatures and silane (disilane) fluxes. The RSCs are substantially less than one, ranging from 6 x 10/sup -5/ to 4 x 10/sup -2/. For silane we observed curved Arrhenius plots with slopes decreasing from approx.60 kcal mol/sup -1/ at low temperatures to approx.2 kcal mol/sup -1/ at higher temperatures. The RSCs are independent of flux (pressure) at 1040/sup 0/C, but vary as flux to the approx.-1/2 power at 710/sup 0/C. A model comprised of a dissociative adsorption mechanism with competing associative desorption and reaction was found to give reasonable agreement. For disilane, we observed RSCs that were roughly ten times higher than those for silane. We also observed a curved Arrhenius plot and a flux dependence at 710/sup 0/C for disilane. 22 refs., 5 figs.
Ghost imaging based on Pearson correlation coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wen-Kai; Yao, Xu-Ri; Liu, Xue-Feng; Li, Long-Zhen; Zhai, Guang-Jie
2015-05-01
Correspondence imaging is a new modality of ghost imaging, which can retrieve a positive/negative image by simple conditional averaging of the reference frames that correspond to relatively large/small values of the total intensity measured at the bucket detector. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a more rigorous and general approach in which a ghost image is retrieved by calculating a Pearson correlation coefficient between the bucket detector intensity and the brightness at a given pixel of the reference frames, and at the next pixel, and so on. Furthermore, we theoretically provide a statistical interpretation of these two imaging phenomena, and explain how the error depends on the sample size and what kind of distribution the error obeys. According to our analysis, the image signal-to-noise ratio can be greatly improved and the sampling number reduced by means of our new method. Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project of China (Grant No. 2013YQ030595) and the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA122902).
Attenuation coefficients for water quality trading.
Keller, Arturo A; Chen, Xiaoli; Fox, Jessica; Fulda, Matt; Dorsey, Rebecca; Seapy, Briana; Glenday, Julia; Bray, Erin
2014-06-17
Water quality trading has been proposed as a cost-effective approach for reducing nutrient loads through credit generation from agricultural or point source reductions sold to buyers facing costly options. We present a systematic approach to determine attenuation coefficients and their uncertainty. Using a process-based model, we determine attenuation with safety margins at many watersheds for total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads as they transport from point of load reduction to the credit buyer. TN and TP in-stream attenuation generally increases with decreasing mean river flow; smaller rivers in the modeled region of the Ohio River Basin had TN attenuation factors per km, including safety margins, of 0.19-1.6%, medium rivers of 0.14-1.2%, large rivers of 0.13-1.1%, and very large rivers of 0.04-0.42%. Attenuation in ditches transporting nutrients from farms to receiving rivers is 0.4%/km for TN, while for TP attenuation in ditches can be up to 2%/km. A 95 percentile safety margin of 30-40% for TN and 6-10% for TP, applied to the attenuation per km factors, was determined from the in-stream sensitivity of load reductions to watershed model parameters. For perspective, over 50 km a 1% per km factor would result in 50% attenuation = 2:1 trading ratio. PMID:24866482
Radiation transport coefficients for degenerate plasma
Khalfaoui, A.H.; Bennaceur, D.
1997-12-01
A comprehensive analysis of radiation heat conduction is presented for dense plasma at very high temperature. The main objective is to correctly evaluate radiation transport coefficients, and thereby to determine the relative importance of conductive opacity and radiative opacity. Here, the latter is related to the radiative mean free path and therefore to the Rosseland mean opacity. The electron conduction opacity, however, is calculated through a quantum collective approach, taking into account several plasma nonideality effects such as electron{endash}electron (e-e) collisions, dynamic shielding, electron degeneracy, and ion coupling. Opacity ratios are determined as functions of the degree of the plasma degeneracy and coupling strength, hence identifying plasma conditions for which radiation heat conduction should be evaluated with care. A comparison with existing models is also presented. It is shown that, over a wide range of density and temperature, the conductive opacity can be very important and cannot be neglected in radiation physics. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
First-principles calculations of flexoelectric coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hong, Jiawang; Vanderbilt, David
2013-03-01
Flexoelectricity, which is the linear response of polarization to a strain gradient, can have a significant effect on the functional properties of dielectric thin films, superlattices and nanostructures. Despite growing experimental interest, there have been relatively few theoretical studies of flexoelectricity, especially in the context of first-principles calculations. In this talk, we present a complete theory of both the electronic (or ``frozen-ion'')[1] and lattice contributions to flexoelectricity, and demonstrate a supercell method for calculating the flexoelectric coefficients using first-principles density-functional methods. Results are presented for cubic materials including CsCl and SrTiO3. In order to obtain all the elements of the flexoelectric tensor, transverse as well as longitudinal, we carry out calculations on supercells extended along different orientations (e.g., [110] as well as [100]), taking special care to carry out conversions between objects calculated under fixed E or fixed D electric boundary conditions in different parts of the procedure. In this way, all the elements of both the electronic and lattice contributions to the flexoelectric tensor are determined.
Asymptotic normalization coefficients and radiative widths
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Pang, D. Y.
2015-07-01
The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) is an important quantity in the calculation of radiative width amplitudes, providing limits on the radiative width. Here we present some examples showing the connection between the ANC and radiative width. In particular, the radiative width of the E 1 transition 17F(1 /2-,Ex=3.104 MeV ) to 17F(1 /2+,Ex=0.495 MeV ) reported by Rolfs [Nucl. Phys. A 217, 29 (1973), 10.1016/0375-9474(73)90622-2] is (1.2 ±0.2 ) ×10-2 eV. Meanwhile the ANC for the first excited state in 17F puts a lower limit on the radiative width, which is (3.4 ±0.50 ) ×10-2 eV. Such a strong disagreement between the measured radiative width and the lower limit imposed by the ANC calls for a new measurement of this radiative width. Other examples are also considered.
The anisotropic scattering coefficient of sea ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Katlein, Christian; Nicolaus, Marcel; Petrich, Chris
2014-02-01
Radiative transfer in sea ice is subject to anisotropic, multiple scattering. The impact of anisotropy on the light field under sea ice was found to be substantial and has been quantified. In this study, a large data set of irradiance and radiance measurements under sea ice has been acquired with a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) in the central Arctic. Measurements are interpreted in the context of numerical radiative transfer calculations, laboratory experiments, and microstructure analysis. The ratio of synchronous measurements of transmitted irradiance to radiance shows a clear deviation from an isotropic under-ice light field. We find that the angular radiance distribution under sea ice is more downward directed than expected for an isotropic light field. This effect can be attributed to the anisotropic scattering coefficient within sea ice. Assuming an isotropic radiance distribution under sea ice leads to significant errors in light-field modeling and the interpretation of radiation measurements. Quantification of the light field geometry is crucial for correct conversion of radiance data acquired by Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) and ROVs.
Testing the Correlated Random Coefficient Model*
Heckman, James J.; Schmierer, Daniel; Urzua, Sergio
2010-01-01
The recent literature on instrumental variables (IV) features models in which agents sort into treatment status on the basis of gains from treatment as well as on baseline-pretreatment levels. Components of the gains known to the agents and acted on by them may not be known by the observing economist. Such models are called correlated random coe cient models. Sorting on unobserved components of gains complicates the interpretation of what IV estimates. This paper examines testable implications of the hypothesis that agents do not sort into treatment based on gains. In it, we develop new tests to gauge the empirical relevance of the correlated random coe cient model to examine whether the additional complications associated with it are required. We examine the power of the proposed tests. We derive a new representation of the variance of the instrumental variable estimator for the correlated random coefficient model. We apply the methods in this paper to the prototypical empirical problem of estimating the return to schooling and nd evidence of sorting into schooling based on unobserved components of gains. PMID:21057649
Asymmetrical slip propensity: required coefficient of friction
2013-01-01
Background Most studies in performing slips and falls research reported their results after the ipsilateral leg of subjects (either right foot or left foot) was guided to contact the contaminated floor surface although many studies indicated concerns for asymmetries of legs in kinematic or kinetic variables. Thus, the present study evaluated if dominant leg’s slip tendency would be different from non-dominant leg’s slip tendency by comparing the Required Coefficient of Friction (RCOF) of the two lower limbs. Findings Forty seven health adults participated in the present study. RCOF was measured when left or right foot of subjects contacted the force platforms respectively. Paired t-test was performed to test if RCOF and heel velocity (HCV) of dominant legs was different from that of non-dominant legs. It was suggested that the asymmetry in RCOFs and HCV between the two lower limbs existed. The RCOFs of non-dominant legs were higher than that of dominant legs. Conclusions The results indicated that asymmetry in slip propensity, RCOF, was existed in lower extremity. The results from the study suggested that it would be benefit to include a variable, such as asymmetry, in slips and falls research. PMID:23902896
Fredholm differential operators with unbounded coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latushkin, Yuri; Tomilov, Yuri
We prove that a first-order linear differential operator G with unbounded operator coefficients is Fredholm on spaces of functions on R with values in a reflexive Banach space if and only if the corresponding strongly continuous evolution family has exponential dichotomies on both R+ and R- and a pair of the ranges of the dichotomy projections is Fredholm, and that the Fredholm index of G is equal to the Fredholm index of the pair. The operator G is the generator of the evolution semigroup associated with the evolution family. In the case when the evolution family is the propagator of a well-posed differential equation u'( t)= A( t) u( t) with, generally, unbounded operators A(t),t∈ R, the operator G is a closure of the operator - {d}/{dt}+A(t) . Thus, this paper provides a complete infinite-dimensional generalization of well-known finite-dimensional results by Palmer, and by Ben-Artzi and Gohberg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whittenberger, J. D.; Krishnan, R. V.
1984-01-01
The results of a study to determine the recovery rates and work-hardening coefficients for creep from constant cross-head speed compressive tests are presented. Stressing and straining rates are computed from measured time-load curves obtained from compression testing between 1200 and 1400 K of several B2 crystal structure Fe-39.8 Al intermetallic materials and the directionally solidified eutectic alloy gamma/gamma prime alpha. These quantities are then fitted to the universal form of the Bailey-Orowan equation for creep. The recovery rates were found to be functions of nominal strain rate, stress, and temperature, while the hardening coefficients were dependent only on temperature. While the work-hardening coefficient for gamma/gamma prime - alpha was about 0.05 of the elastic modulus, the work-hardening coefficients for Fe-39.8 at. pct Al were less than 0.002 of the modulus.
[Contents and its change during storage of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in potatoes].
Shindo, Tetsuya; Ushiyama, Hirofumi; Kan, Kimiko; Yasuda, Kazuo; Saito, Kazuo
2004-10-01
Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in native species of potato (May Queen, Danshaku and Waseshiro), and in species (Jagakids Red '90 (Red) and Jagakids Purple '90 (Purple)) on the market, and their change during storage at room temparature were investigated. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were extracted from potatoes with methanol, cleaned up by using a Sep-Pak Plus C18 cartridge, and then subjected to HPLC. The recoveries of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine from potatoes were both more than 96%, and the quantitation limits were both 2 microg/g. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in periderm in all samples at the levels of 260-320 microg/g in May Queen,190-240 microg/g in Danshaku, 43-63 microg/g in Waseshiro, 140-200 microg/g in Red and 84-130 microg/g in Purple, respectively. alpha-Solanine and alpha-chaconine were detected in the cortex in all samples of May Queen and Danshaku at the levels of 2.7-12 microg/g and 5.8-31 microg/g, respectively. Contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine in the cortex of May Queen and Danshaku were less than 10% of those in the periderm. When potatoes were stored for 90 days at room temparature in a dark place, no marked change in the contents of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine was observed in any of the potato samples. PMID:15678944
Characterization of the G alpha(s) regulator cysteine string protein.
Natochin, Michael; Campbell, Tessa N; Barren, Brandy; Miller, Linda C; Hameed, Shahid; Artemyev, Nikolai O; Braun, Janice E A
2005-08-26
Cysteine string protein (CSP) is an abundant regulated secretory vesicle protein that is composed of a string of cysteine residues, a linker domain, and an N-terminal J domain characteristic of the DnaJ/Hsp40 co-chaperone family. We have shown previously that CSP associates with heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) and promotes G protein inhibition of N-type Ca2+ channels. To elucidate the mechanisms by which CSP modulates G protein signaling, we examined the effects of CSP(1-198) (full-length), CSP(1-112), and CSP(1-82) on the kinetics of guanine nucleotide exchange and GTP hydrolysis. In this report, we demonstrate that CSP selectively interacts with G alpha(s) and increases steady-state GTP hydrolysis. CSP(1-198) modulation of G alpha(s) was dependent on Hsc70 (70-kDa heat shock cognate protein) and SGT (small glutamine-rich tetratricopeptide repeat domain protein), whereas modulation by CSP(1-112) was Hsc70-SGT-independent. CSP(1-112) preferentially associated with the inactive GDP-bound conformation of G alpha(s). Consistent with the stimulation of GTP hydrolysis, CSP(1-112) increased guanine nucleotide exchange of G alpha(s). The interaction of native G alpha(s) and CSP was confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation and showed that G alpha(s) associates with CSP. Furthermore, transient expression of CSP in HEK cells increased cellular cAMP levels in the presence of the beta2 adrenergic agonist isoproterenol. Together, these results demonstrate that CSP modulates G protein function by preferentially targeting the inactive GDP-bound form of G alpha(s) and promoting GDP/GTP exchange. Our results show that the guanine nucleotide exchange activity of full-length CSP is, in turn, regulated by Hsc70-SGT. PMID:15972823
Mapping High-Velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha Emission from Supernova 1987A
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
France, Kevin; McCray, Richard; Fransson, Claes; Larsson, Josefin; Frank, Kari A.; Burrows, David N.; Challis, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P.; Chevalier, Roger A.; Garnavich, Peter; Heng, Kevin; Lawrence, Stephen S.; Lundqvist, Peter; Smith, Nathan; Sonneborn, George
2015-01-01
We present new Hubble Space Telescope images of high-velocity H-alpha and Lyman-alpha emission in the outer debris of SN 1987A. The H-alpha images are dominated by emission from hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock. For the first time we observe emission from the reverse shock surface well above and below the equatorial ring, suggesting a bipolar or conical structure perpendicular to the ring plane. Using the H-alpha imaging, we measure the mass flux of hydrogen atoms crossing the reverse shock front, in the velocity intervals (-7,500 < V(sub obs) < -2,800 km/s) and (1,000 < V(sub obs) < 7,500 km/s), ?M(sub H) = 1.2 × 10(exp -3) M/ y. We also present the first Lyman-alpha imaging of the whole remnant and new Chandra X-ray observations. Comparing the spatial distribution of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission, we observe that the majority of the high-velocity Lyman-alpha emission originates interior to the equatorial ring. The observed Lyman-alpha/H-alpha photon ratio, R(L-alpha/H-alpha) approx. = 17, is significantly higher than the theoretically predicted ratio of approx. = 5 for neutral atoms crossing the reverse shock front. We attribute this excess to Lyman-alpha emission produced by X-ray heating of the outer debris. The spatial orientation of the Lyman-alpha and X-ray emission suggests that X-ray heating of the outer debris is the dominant Lyman-alpha production mechanism in SN 1987A at this phase in its evolution.
Rotational Raman lidar for obtaining aerosol scattering coefficients.
Kim, Dukhyeon; Cha, Hyungki
2005-07-01
Two-channel lidar signals that are composed of total rotational scattering and elastic signals provide good information about aerosol scattering coefficients. We can calculate the aerosol backscattering coefficient and extinction coefficient directly, without making any assumption or calibration. Generally, a high-spectral-resolution lidar is used for aerosol monitoring, but we have designed a new low-spectral-resolution lidar system that contains both kinds of scattering information simultaneously, and we have retrieved the aerosol scattering coefficient. The results show that there is no need to assume any relation between aerosol backscattering and extinction or to consider any wavelength calibration to determine the aerosol scattering coefficient. PMID:16075552
Local structure and vibrational properties of alpha-Pu, alpha-Uand the alpha-U charge density wave
Nelson, E.J.; Allen, P.G.; Blobaum, K.J.M.; Wall, W.A.; Booth, C.H.
2004-08-10
The local atomic environment and vibrational properties of atoms in monoclinic pure {alpha}-plutonium as well as orthorhombic pure a-uranium and its low-temperature charge-density-wave (CDW) modulation are examined by extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). Pu L{sub III}-edge and U L{sub III}-edge EXAFS data measured at low temperatures verify the crystal structures of {alpha}-U and {alpha}-Pu samples previously determined by x-ray diffraction and neutron scattering. Debye-Waller factors from temperature-dependent EXAFS measurements are fit with a correlated Debye model. The observed Pu-Pu bond correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-Pu) = 162 {+-} 5 K for the pure {alpha}-Pu phase agrees with our previous measurement of the correlated Debye temperature of the gallium-containing {alpha}{prime}-Pu phase in a mixed phase 1.9 at% Ga-doped {alpha}{prime}-Pu/{delta}-Pu alloy. The temperature dependence of the U-U nearest neighbor Debye-Waller factor exhibits a sharp discontinuity in slope near T{sub CDW} = 43 K, the transition temperature at which the charge-density wave (CDW) in {alpha}-U condenses from a soft phonon mode along the (100) direction. Our measurement of the CDW using EXAFS is the first observation of the structure of the CDW in polycrystalline {alpha}-U. The different temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor for T < T{sub CDW} can be modeled by the change in bond length distributions resulting from condensation of the charge density wave. For T > T{sub CDW}, the observed correlated Debye temperature of {theta}{sub cD}({alpha}-U) = 199 {+-} 3 K is in good agreement with other measurements of the Debye temperature for polycrystalline {alpha}-U. CDW structural models fit to the {alpha}-U EXAFS data support a squared CDW at the lowest temperatures, with a displacement amplitude of {var_epsilon} = 0.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom}.
Su, J Y; Peng, T S; Long, K H; Zeng, L M
1986-01-01
A novel polyhydroxylated steroid, named sartortuosterol A, with rare 3 alpha- and 6-hydroxyl groups, was isolated from the South China Sea soft coral Sarcophyton tortuosum Tixier-Durivault, and its structure was established as 24xi-methyl 5 alpha-cholestane-3 alpha, 6 beta, 9 alpha,25-tetrol 25-monoacetate from spectroscopic data and chemical conversions. PMID:2895508
Gamble, J; Smaje, L H; Spencer, P D
1988-01-01
1. The isolated perfused submandibular salivary gland of the rabbit has been used in order to make estimates of the filtration coefficient (Kf) and reflection coefficient (sigma d) of the capillary wall to albumin. 2. An isogravimetric preparation was used and in paired experiments the value for Kf obtained in glands perfused with albumin-Krebs solution, 0.96 +/- 0.086 (mean +/- S.E. of mean) ml min-1 mmHg-1 100 g-1, was not significantly different from that in blood-perfused glands, 0.90 +/- 0.15. 3. On analysing the data for reflection coefficient, it was concluded that the above values underestimated Kf by about 30%; using corrected values for Kf, osmotic reflection coefficients were determined from the weight changes following a sudden change in the oncotic pressure of the perfusate. The value for sigma d to albumin lay between 0.79 and 1.0, the lower value being obtained after the Kf correction. 4. The high hydraulic conductivity, combined with sieving properties comparable to those in continuous capillaries, is consistent with other data on fenestrated capillaries. 5. Finally, it was observed that, while the Kf value calculated from the initial flux rate was similar whether measured during fluid efflux from or influx into the microvasculature, on returning to the initial conditions after raising osmotic pressure, efflux was now more rapid than influx. This phenomenon is discussed in relation to readjustment of Starling forces and the possible existence of an asymmetric double membrane in the capillary, interstitium system and cells of the salivary gland. PMID:3392669
Correlation analysis on alpha attenuation and nasal skin temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nozawa, Akio; Tacano, Munecazu
2009-01-01
Some serious accidents caused by declines in arousal level, such as traffic accidents and mechanical control mistakes, have become issues of social concern. The physiological index obtained by human body measurement is expected to offer a leading tool for evaluating arousal level as an objective indicator. In this study, declines in temporal arousal levels were evaluated by nasal skin temperature. As arousal level declines, sympathetic nervous activity is decreased and blood flow in peripheral vessels is increased. Since peripheral vessels exist just under the skin on the fingers and nose, the psychophysiological state can be judged from the displacement of skin temperature caused by changing blood flow volume. Declining arousal level is expected to be observable as a temperature rise in peripheral parts of the body. The objective of this experiment was to obtain assessment criteria for judging declines in arousal level by nasal skin temperature using the alpha attenuation coefficient (AAC) of electroencephalography (EEG) as a reference benchmark. Furthermore, a psychophysical index of sleepiness was also measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Correlations between nasal skin temperature index and EEG index were analyzed. AAC and maximum displacement of nasal skin temperature displayed a clear negative correlation, with a correlation coefficient of -0.55.
Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Kangxian; Liu, Guanghui; Huang, Lu; Zheng, Xianyi
2015-08-01
Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of spherical dome shells are theoretically investigated within analytical wave functions and numerical quantized energy levels. Our results show that the inner radius, the outer radius and the cut-off angle of spherical dome shells have great influences on linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the total optical absorption coefficients. It is found that with the increase of the inner radius and the outer radius, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients exhibit a blueshift and a redshift, respectively. However, with the increase of the cut-off angle, linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients do not shift. Besides, the resonant peaks of linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients climb up and then decrease with increasing the cut-off angle. The influences of the incident optical intensity on the total optical absorption coefficients are studied. It is found that the bleaching effect occurs at higher incident optical intensity.
Lucid dreaming and alpha activity: a preliminary report.
Ogilvie, R D; Hunt, H T; Tyson, P D; Lucescu, M L; Jeakins, D B
1982-12-01
10 good dream recallers spent 2 nights in the sleep lab during which they were awakened 4 times per night from REM sleep, twice during their highest alpha activity in REM, and twice during low REM alpha. 5 were given alpha feedback training prior to sleep onset. Arousals from high alpha REM sleep yielded significantly higher lucidity ratings. Alpha feedback had no effect upon lucidity or REM alpha levels. Similarities between lucid dreams and meditative phenomena are discussed. PMID:7162915
Applying alpha-channeling to mirror machines
Zhmoginov, A. I.; Fisch, N. J.
2012-05-15
The {alpha}-channeling effect entails the use of radio-frequency waves to expel and cool high-energetic {alpha} particles born in a fusion reactor; the device reactivity can then be increased even further by redirecting the extracted energy to fuel ions. Originally proposed for tokamaks, this technique has also been shown to benefit open-ended fusion devices. Here, the fundamental theory and practical aspects of {alpha} channeling in mirror machines are reviewed, including the influence of magnetic field inhomogeneity and the effect of a finite wave region on the {alpha}-channeling mechanism. For practical implementation of the {alpha}-channeling effect in mirror geometry, suitable contained weakly damped modes are identified. In addition, the parameter space of candidate waves for implementing the {alpha}-channeling effect can be significantly extended through the introduction of a suitable minority ion species that has the catalytic effect of moderating the transfer of power from the {alpha}-channeling wave to the fuel ions.
Lyman alpha emission in starburst galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunth, Daniel
1999-07-01
We propose to perform a deep study of Ly-alpha emission and destruction in 3 star-forming galaxies. These objects have been already observed with the GHRS and exhibit a variety of situations, with Ly-alpha showing P Cyg profiles, secondary emissions or even a deep damped absorption line with no emission. They also span a range of intrinsic properties: IZW18 is a gas-rich, metal deficient dust free dwarf galaxy, Haro 2 has a simple morphology while IRAS 08339+6517 is a luminous IRAS starburst galaxy with more dust and complex Ly- alpha profile. The use of STIS will allow for the first time to study the geometrical/kinematical configuration of the ionized and neutral gas across the galaxies nuclear regions and pin point the effects of porosity and the kinematical structure of the ISM, that may play the key roles {in addition to dust} in the detectability of the line. This study will have important impact for cosmology since Ly-alpha emitters are nowaday found at high-re dshift. We strongly emphasize that since Ly-alpha is primarely a diagnostic of the ISM, a full understanding of how the ISM and Ly-alpha are related is a necessary step before we can hope to correlate Ly-alpha to the cosmic star-formation rate. Our results will be interpreted against the model of superbubble evolution developed with G. Tenorio Tagle.
Lyman alpha radiation in external galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neufeld, David A.; Mckee, Christopher F.
1990-01-01
The Ly alpha line of atomic hydrogen is often a luminous component of the radiation emitted by distant galaxies. Except for those galaxies which have a substantial central source of non-stellar ionizing radiation, most of the Ly alpha radiation emitted by galaxies is generated within regions of the interstellar medium which are photoionized by starlight. Conversely, much of the energy radiated by photoionized regions is carried by the Ly alpha line. Only hot, massive stars are capable of ionizing hydrogen in the interstellar medium which surrounds them, and because such stars are necessarily short-lived, Ly alpha emission traces regions of active star formation. Researchers argue that the strength of the Ly alpha emission observed from external galaxies may be used to estimate quantitatively the dust content of the emitting region, while the Ly alpha line profile is sensitive to the presence of shock waves. Interstellar dust particles and shock waves are intimately associated with the process of star formation in two senses. First, both dust particles and shock waves owe their existence to stellar activity; second, they may both serve as agents which facilitate the formation of stars, shocks by triggering gravitational instabilities in the interstellar gas that they compress, and dust by shielding star-forming molecular clouds from the ionizing and dissociative effects of external UV radiation. By using Ly alpha observations as a probe of the dust content in diffuse gas at high redshift, we might hope to learn about the earliest epochs of star formation.
Alpha-channeling in mirror machines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhmoginov, Andrey
2011-10-01
Coupling suitable electromagnetic waves in the ion cyclotron frequency range to plasmas can lead to particle ejection and cooling. This effect can be exploited for extracting energy from alpha particles to sustain the fusion reaction. First suggested for tokamaks and known as alpha-channeling, this technique might also improve mirror machine operation. But diffusion in mirror phase space is very different from in tokamaks; the waves are different and there are phase space loss boundaries. This talk summarizes the analytical and computational tools newly developed to study the feasibility of alpha-channeling in linear traps. We identified waves suitable for alpha-channeling in practical mirror devices by optimizing the energy extraction rate with respect to the wave parameters. With the optimal regime identified, we carried out a systematic search for modes with similar parameters in mirror plasmas. Modes suitable for alpha particle energy extraction are then identified in several device designs. Redirection of the energy extracted from alpha particles is shown to be possible in principle by either collisional relaxation of resonant minority ions, or by coupling the alpha-channeling mode to the ICRH waves in the tandem mirror device plugs. As a spinoff result, in the generalized extraction problem in a network of diffusion paths, we derived a fundamental theorem. This work was supported by DOE Contracts No. DE-FG02-06ER54851 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.
The isotope dependence of diatomic Dunham coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watson, James K. G.
1980-04-01
The isotope dependence of the Dunham vibration-rotation coefficients Ykl of a diatomic molecule is studied. Rovibronic interactions between different electronic states are taken into account by transformation to an effective vibration-rotation Hamiltonian for each electronic state. This contains modified vibrational and rotational reduced masses as well as the adiabatic correction to the potential energy. The effects of these contributions on the vibration-rotation energies are expressed in terms of two functions R˜i(r) and S˜i(r) for each atom i. The resultant formula for Ykl is Y kl=μ c{-(k+2l)}/{2}U kl{1+ {m eΔ kla}/{M a}+ {m eΔ klb}/{M b}+O( {m e2}/{M i2})} , where Ukl, Δ kla, and Δ klb are isotopically invariant, Ma and Mb are the atomic masses, and μ c = {M aM b}/{(M a + M b - Cm e) } is the atomic reduced mass, modified by the molecular charge number C for charged species. The Ukl with l ≥ 2 can be calculated from those with l = 0 and 1. The corrections UklΔ kli are related to the functions R˜i(r) and S˜i(r) and to the Dunham corrections. Recent data for the CO molecule are discussed, and it is suggested that some large Δ kli values are associated with accidentally small Ukl values, since the size of UklΔ kli is not directly related to that of Ukl.
[Simulation of backscattering coefficients of inland waters].
Zhang, Hong; Li, Yun-Mei; Huang, Jia-Zhu; Liu, Zhong-Hua; Xu, Yi-Fan; Xu, Xin; Guo, Yu-Long; Tan, Jing
2011-09-01
When we simulated backscattering coefficients (b(bp)) using quasi-analytical algorithm and optical closure theory, it was found that the position of reference wavelength (lambda(0)) had great impact on final results. In order to identify influence factors of the optimum lambda(0), datasets of Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu and Lake Dianchi were used. After simulating of b(bp), the relationship between optimum lambda(0) and associated water quality parameters were analyzed. Meanwhile, power functions were utilized to model b(bp) spectra, and spectral slope parameters of Lake Taihu, Lake Chaohu and Lake Dianchi were 2.643 +/- 0.317, 2.719 +/- 0.242, 1.638 +/- 0.534, respectively. The results indicate that: (1) When the whole lakes are taken as objects of study, the lambda(0) should be changed to longer wavelength with the increasing of total suspended particle matter concentration (c(SPM)), suspended organic particle matter concentration (c(SPOM)) and chlorophyll a concentration (c(CHL)), the optimum location of lambda(0) of Lake Taihu is 695 nm, Lake Chaohu is 720 nm and Lake Dianchi is 730 nm; (2) When the samples in lakes are taken as objects of study, the influence factors are different due to the complexity of optical properties of inland waters. But it is to be noted that, c(SPM) is a key factor in common. Besides, the regularity mentioned above should be weakened with high c(CHL). (3) The relationship between b(bp) and c(SPM) is much stronger in the waters with suspended particles dominated by inorganic particles, in Lake Taihu, for example, relationship between these two variables is strong with R2 = 0.852. PMID:22165215
Distribution Coefficients of Impurities in Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pearce, J. V.
2014-04-01
Impurities dissolved in very pure metals at the level of parts per million often cause an elevation or depression of the freezing temperature of the order of millikelvins. This represents a significant contribution to the uncertainty of standard platinum resistance thermometer calibrations. An important parameter for characterizing the behavior of impurities is the distribution coefficient , which is the ratio of the solid solubility to liquid solubility. A knowledge of for a given binary system is essential for contemporary methods of evaluating or correcting for the effect of impurities, and it is therefore of universal interest to have the most complete set of values possible. A survey of equilibrium values of (in the low concentration limit) reported in the literature for the International Temperature Scale of 1990 fixed points of Hg, Ga, In, Sn, Zn, Al, Au, Ag, and Cu is presented. In addition, thermodynamic calculations of using MTDATA are presented for 170 binary systems. In total, the combined values of from all available sources for 430 binary systems are presented. In addition, by considering all available values of for impurities in 25 different metal solvents (1300 binary systems) enough data are available to characterize patterns in the value of for a given impurity as a function of its position in the periodic table. This enables prediction of for a significant number of binary systems for which data and calculations are unavailable. By combining data from many sources, values of for solutes (atomic number from 1 to 94) in ITS-90 fixed points from Hg to Cu are suggested, together with some tentative predicted values where literature data and calculations are unavailable.
Diabetes and Alpha Lipoic Acid
Golbidi, Saeid; Badran, Mohammad; Laher, Ismail
2011-01-01
Diabetes mellitus is a multi-faceted metabolic disorder where there is increased oxidative stress that contributes to the pathogenesis of this debilitating disease. This has prompted several investigations into the use of antioxidants as a complementary therapeutic approach. Alpha lipoic acid, a naturally occurring dithiol compound which plays an essential role in mitochondrial bioenergetic reactions, has gained considerable attention as an antioxidant for use in managing diabetic complications. Lipoic acid quenches reactive oxygen species, chelates metal ions, and reduces the oxidized forms of other antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and glutathione. It also boosts antioxidant defense system through Nrf-2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and by modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-regulated genes. ALA inhibits nuclear factor kappa B and activates AMPK in skeletal muscles, which in turn have a plethora of metabolic consequences. These diverse actions suggest that lipoic acid acts by multiple mechanisms, many of which have only been uncovered recently. In this review we briefly summarize the known biochemical properties of lipoic acid and then discussed the oxidative mechanisms implicated in diabetic complications and the mechanisms by which lipoic acid may ameliorate these reactions. The findings of some of the clinical trials in which lipoic acid administration has been tested in diabetic patients during the last 10 years are summarized. It appears that the clearest benefit of lipoic acid supplementation is in patients with diabetic neuropathy. PMID:22125537
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott
2015-11-01
The goal of the Plasma Liner eXperiment PLX-alpha at Los Alamos National Laboratory is to establish the viability of creating a spherically imploding plasma liner for MIF and HED applications, using a spherical array of supersonic plasma jets launched by innovative contoured-gap coaxial plasma guns. PLX- α experiments will focus in particular on establishing the ram pressure and uniformity scalings of partial and fully spherical plasma liners. In order to characterize these parameters experimentally, a suite of diagnostics is planned, including multi-camera fast imaging, a 16-channel visible interferometer (upgraded from 8 channels) with reconfigurable, fiber-coupled front end, and visible and VUV high-resolution and survey spectroscopy. Tomographic reconstruction and data fusion techniques will be used in conjunction with interferometry, imaging, and synthetic diagnostics from modeling to characterize liner uniformity in 3D. Diagnostic and data analysis design, implementation, and status will be presented. Supported by the Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy - U.S. Department of Energy.
Astrocytic adrenoceptors and learning: alpha1-adrenoceptors.
Gibbs, Marie E; Bowser, David N
2010-11-01
Noradrenergic receptors are expressed on both on astrocytes and neurons and noradrenergic activation of astrocytic beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptors are necessary for memory consolidation. In this paper, we marshal evidence for astrocytic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor involvement in memory consolidation. We examine the role of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in hippocampal and mesopallial (cortical) memory processing using a discriminative avoidance task in the day-old chick. The selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor agonist, methoxamine, caused the consolidation of weakly-reinforced memory at the time of transition of short-term to intermediate memory and at the time of transition of intermediate to long-term memory. The selective antagonist prazosin prevented memory consolidation at these two times. Blockade of memory by injection of an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist into the LoC could be overcome by mesopallial or hippocampal injection of alpha(1)-, beta(2)- and beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonists. The results of studies where we challenged the ability of methoxamine to promote consolidation by pre-administration of astrocytic metabolic inhibitors of glycogenolysis or oxidative metabolism, suggest that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor effect is astrocytic. This conclusion is supported by the finding that co-administration of suboptimal doses of methoxamine and thrombin have an additive effect on promoting consolidation. Thrombin causes a calcium response in cultured chick astrocytes but not in neurons. Thrombin, like methoxamine, promotes consolidation at the transition points between short-term, intermediate memory and long-term memory stages. Thrombin enhancement of memory consolidation is blocked by an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist but not by antagonists of beta(2)- or beta(3)-adrenoceptors. In summary, noradrenaline activation of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors is necessary for consolidation from both short-term and intermediate memory in both the hippocampus and the mesopallium in the chick. Evidence is presented suggesting that the memory consolidating action of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation results from receptors located on astroctyes and involves an increase in free cytosolic calcium from internal stores. PMID:20380858
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Calloway, R. L.; White, N. H.
1979-01-01
Experimental values of shock shapes (alpha = 0 degrees and 10 degrees) and static aerodynamic coefficients (alpha = -4 degrees to 12 degrees) for sharp and spherically blunted cones having cone half-angles of 30, 45, 60, and 70 degrees and nose bluntness ratios of 0, 0.25, and 0.50 are presented. Shock shapes were also measured at 0 degree angle of attack by using a flat-faced cylinder (90 degree cone) and a hemispherically blunted cylinder (sphere). All tests were conducted in helium (gamma = 5/3) at a free-stream Mach number of 20.3 and a unit free-stream Reynolds number of 22,400,000 per meter. Comparisons between measured values and predicted values were made by using several numerical and simple engineering methods.
Palacios, Francisco; Vicario, Javier; Maliszewska, Agnieszka; Aparicio, Domitila
2007-03-30
An efficient synthesis of alpha,beta-unsaturated imines derived from alpha-aminophosphonates is achieved through aza-Wittig reaction of P-trimethyl phosphazenes with beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-ketophosphonates. Selective 1,2-reduction of such 1-azadienes affords beta,gamma-unsaturated alpha-aminophosphonates, phosphorylated analogs of vinylglycines, which are hydrogenated to yield saturated alpha-aminophosphonate derivatives. PMID:17328577
Fu, Y.; Cao, Y.; Hertzberg, K.M.; Grieninger, G.
1995-11-01
All three well-studied subunits of the clotting protein fibrinogen ({alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}) share N-terminal structural homologies, but until recently only the {beta} and {gamma} chains were recognized as having similar globular C-termini. With the discovery of an extra exon in the human fibrinogen {alpha} gene (exon VI), a minor form of the {alpha} subunit ({alpha}{sub E}) with an extended {beta}- and {gamma}-like C-terminus has been identified. In the present study, the polymerase chain reaction has been used to identify sequences that encode counterparts to {alpha}{sub E} in chicken, rabbit, rat, and baboon. The basic six-exon structure of the fibrinogen {alpha} genes is shown to be conserved among mammals and birds, as are the intron positions. Bipartite transcripts - still bearing an intron prior to the last exon - are found among the products of the various vertebrate fibrinogen {alpha} genes. The last exon represents the largest conserved segment of the gene and, in each species examined, encodes exactly 236 amino acids. The C-termini of these {alpha}{sub E} chains align without a single gap and are between 76 and 99% identical. Since the exon VI-encoded domain of {alpha}{sub E} is as well conserved as the corresponding regions of the {beta} and {gamma} chains, it follows that it is equally important and that {alpha}{sub E}-fibrinogen plays a vital, if as-yet unrecognized physiological role. 21 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.
Divergence of human [alpha]-chain constant region gene sequences: A novel recombinant [alpha]2 gene
Chintalacharuvu, K. R.; Morrison, S.L. ); Raines, M. )
1994-06-01
IgA is the major Ig synthesized in humans and provides the first line of defense at the mucosal surfaces. The constant region of IgA heavy chain is encoded by the [alpha] gene on chromosome 14. Previous studies have indicated the presence of two [alpha] genes, [alpha]1 and [alpha]2 existing in two allotypic forms, [alpha]2 m(1) and [alpha]2 m(2). Here the authors report the cloning and complete nucleotide sequence determination of a novel human [alpha] gene. Nucleotide sequence comparison with the published [alpha] sequences suggests that the gene arose as a consequence of recombination or gene conversion between the two [alpha]2 alleles. The authors have expressed the gene as a chimeric protein in myeloma cells indicating that it encodes a functional protein. The novel IgA resembles IgA2 m(2) in that disulfide bonds link H and L chains. This novel recombinant gene provides insights into the mechanisms of generation of different constant regions and suggests that within human populations, multiple alleles of [alpha] may be present providing IgAs of different structures.
Alpha indirect conversion radioisotope power source.
Sychov, Maxim; Kavetsky, Alexandr; Yakubova, Galina; Walter, Gabriel; Yousaf, Shahid; Lin, Qian; Chan, Doris; Socarras, Heather; Bower, Kenneth
2008-02-01
Advantages of radioisotope-powered electric generators include long service life, wide temperature range operation and high-energy density. We report development of a long-life generator based on indirect conversion of alpha decay energy. Prototyping used 300 mCi Pu-238 alpha emitter and AlGaAs photovoltaic cells designed for low light intensity conditions. The alpha emitter, phosphor screens, and voltaic arrays were assembled into a power source with the following characteristics: Isc=14 microA; Uoc=2.3 V; power output -21 microW. Using this prototype we have powered an eight-digit electronic calculator and wrist watch. PMID:17977736
Alpha particle confinement in tandem mirrors
Devoto, R.S.; Ohnishi, M.; Kerns, J.; Woo, J.T.
1980-10-10
Mechanisms leading to loss of alpha particles from non-axisymmetric tandem mirrors are considered. Stochastic diffusion due to bounce-drift resonances, which can cause rapid radial losses of high-energy alpha particles, can be suppressed by imposing a 20% rise in axisymmetric fields before the quadrupole transition sections. Alpha particles should then be well-confined until thermal energies when they enter the resonant plateau require. A fast code for computation of drift behavior in reactors is described. Sample calculations are presented for resonant particles in a proposed coil set for the Tandem Mirror Next Step.
Purification and properties of a novel recombinant human hybrid interferon, delta-4 alpha 2/alpha 1.
Le, H V; Syto, R; Schwartz, J; Nagabhushan, T L; Trotta, P P
1988-11-01
The human interferon (huIFN) delta-4 alpha 2(5-62)/alpha 1(64-166) is a genetically engineered hybrid that consists of residues 5-62 of huIFN alpha 2 and residues 64-166 of huIFN alpha 1. This variant contains four cysteine residues at positions 29, 86, 99 and 139, but does not contain the cysteine at position 1 that is characteristic of naturally occurring huIFN alpha subtypes. This novel recombinant hybrid was purified from Escherichia coli to greater than 95% homogeneity. The purification was based on ethanol extraction of a trichloroacetic acid precipitate and Matrex Gel Blue A chromatography followed by either a selective precipitation or DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. The purified protein that was treated with 2-mercaptoethanol exhibited two closely migrating bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with apparent molecular weight values of 17,800 and 17,100, both of which exhibited antiviral activity. Electrophoresis performed without prior reduction with 2-mercaptoethanol indicated only a minor extent of intermolecular disulfide bonding. The purified protein exhibited a high specific antiviral activity of 7 x 10(7) units/mg when assayed on human fibroblast cells and, in distinction to the parental huIFN alpha 2, it also demonstrated antiviral activity on human fibroblast cells and, in distinction to the parental huIFN alpha 2, it also demonstrated antiviral activity on murine L929 cells. The level of antiproliferative activity of huIFN delta-4 alpha 2(5-62)/alpha 1(64-166) on various cell lines of different histological origin appeared to be more comparable to that of huIFN alpha 1 than huIFN alpha 2. The data suggest that huIFN delta-4 alpha 2(5-62)/alpha 1(64-166) hybrid may be a useful tool for understanding huIFN structure-function relations. PMID:3052593
Skrable, K.W.; Phoenix, K.A.; Chabot, G.E.; French, C.S.; Jo, M.; Falo, G.A. )
1991-03-01
The classic problem of alpha absorption is discussed in terms of the quantitative determination of the activity of weightless alpha sources and the specific alpha activity of extended sources accounting for absorption in the source medium and the window of a large area ZnS(Ag) scintillation detector. The relationship for the expected counting rate gamma of a monoenergetic source of active area A, specific alpha activity C, and thickness H that exceeds the effective mass density range Rs of the alpha particle in the source medium can be expressed by a quadratic equation in the window thickness x when this source is placed in direct contact with the window of the ZnS(Ag) detector. This expression also gives the expected counting rate of a finite detector of sensitive area A exposed to an infinite homogeneous source medium. Counting rates y obtained for a source separated from a ZnS(Ag) detector by different thicknesses x of window material can be used to estimate parameter values in the quadratic equation, y = a + bx + cx2. The experimental value determined for the coefficient b provides a direct estimation of the specific activity C. This coefficient, which depends on the ratio of the ranges in the source medium and detector window and not the ranges themselves, is essentially independent of the energy of the alpha particle. Although certain experimental precautions must be taken, this method for estimating the specific activity C is essentially an absolute method that does not require the use of standards, special calibrations, or complicated radiochemical procedures. Applications include the quantitative determination of Rn and progeny in air, water, and charcoal, and the measurement of the alpha activity in soil and on air filter samples.
Oxygen binding by alpha(Fe2+)2beta(Ni2+)2 hemoglobin crystals.
Bruno, S; Bettati, S; Manfredini, M; Mozzarelli, A; Bolognesi, M; Deriu, D; Rosano, C; Tsuneshige, A; Yonetani, T; Henry, E R
2000-04-01
Oxygen binding by hemoglobin fixed in the T state either by crystallization or by encapsulation in silica gels is apparently noncooperative. However, cooperativity might be masked by different oxygen affinities of alpha and beta subunits. Metal hybrid hemoglobins, where the noniron metal does not bind oxygen, provide the opportunity to determine the oxygen affinities of alpha and beta hemes separately. Previous studies have characterized the oxygen binding by alpha(Ni2+)2beta(Fe2+)2 crystals. Here, we have determined the three-dimensional (3D) structure and oxygen binding of alpha(Fe2+)2beta(Ni2+)2 crystals grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. Polarized absorption spectra were recorded at different oxygen pressures with light polarized parallel either to the b or c crystal axis by single crystal microspectrophotometry. The oxygen pressures at 50% saturation (p50s) are 95 +/- 3 and 87 +/- 4 Torr along the b and c crystal axes, respectively, and the corresponding Hill coefficients are 0.96 +/- 0.06 and 0.90 +/- 0.03. Analysis of the binding curves, taking into account the different projections of the alpha hemes along the optical directions, indicates that the oxygen affinity of alpha1 hemes is 1.3-fold lower than alpha2 hemes. Inspection of the 3D structure suggests that this inequivalence may arise from packing interactions of the Hb tetramer within the monoclinic crystal lattice. A similar inequivalence was found for the beta subunits of alpha(Ni2+)2beta(Fe2+)2 crystals. The average oxygen affinity of the alpha subunits (p50 = 91 Torr) is about 1.2-fold higher than the beta subunits (p50 = 110 Torr). In the absence of cooperativity, this heterogeneity yields an oxygen binding curve of Hb A with a Hill coefficient of 0.999. Since the binding curves of Hb A crystals exhibit a Hill coefficient very close to unity, these findings indicate that oxygen binding by T-state hemoglobin is noncooperative, in keeping with the Monod, Wyman, and Changeux model. PMID:10794410
Analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle wind-tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cao, Jichang; Garrett, Frederick, Jr.; Hoffman, Eric; Stalford, Harold
1990-01-01
A 6 DOF analytical aerodynamic model of a high alpha research vehicle is derived. The derivation is based on wind-tunnel model data valid in the altitude-Mach flight envelope centered at 15,000 ft altitude and 0.6 Mach number with Mach range between 0.3 and 0.9. The analytical models of the aerodynamics coefficients are nonlinear functions of alpha with all control variable and other states fixed. Interpolation is required between the parameterized nonlinear functions. The lift and pitching moment coefficients have unsteady flow parts due to the time range of change of angle-of-attack (alpha dot). The analytical models are plotted and compared with their corresponding wind-tunnel data. Piloted simulated maneuvers of the wind-tunnel model are used to evaluate the analytical model. The maneuvers considered are pitch-ups, 360 degree loaded and unloaded rolls, turn reversals, split S's, and level turns. The evaluation finds that (1) the analytical model is a good representation at Mach 0.6, (2) the longitudinal part is good for the Mach range 0.3 to 0.9, and (3) the lateral part is good for Mach numbers between 0.6 and 0.9. The computer simulations show that the storage requirement of the analytical model is about one tenth that of the wind-tunnel model and it runs twice as fast.
Living with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency
... Antitrypsin Deficiency People who have alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency don't always develop serious lung or liver diseases. This means that you can have AAT deficiency and not even know it. If you ...
Alpha Coincidence Spectroscopy studied with GEANT4
Dion, Michael P.; Miller, Brian W.; Tatishvili, Gocha; Warren, Glen A.
2013-11-02
Abstract The high-energy side of peaks in alpha spectra, e.g. 241Am, as measured with a silicon detector has structure caused mainly by alpha-conversion electron and to some extent alphagamma coincidences. We compare GEANT4 simulation results to 241Am alpha spectroscopy measurements with a passivated implanted planar silicon detector. A large discrepancy between the measurements and simulations suggest that the GEANT4 photon evaporation database for 237Np (daughter of 241Am decay) does not accurately describe the conversion electron spectrum and therefore was found to have large discrepancies with experimental measurements. We describe how to improve the agreement between GEANT4 and alpha spectroscopy for actinides of interest by including experimental measurements of conversion electron spectroscopy into the photon evaporation database.
Frontal alpha asymmetry and sexually motivated states.
Prause, Nicole; Staley, Cameron; Roberts, Verena
2014-03-01
Anterior alpha asymmetry of electroencephalographic (EEG) signals has been suggested to index state approach (or avoidance) motivation. This model has not yet been extended to high approach-motivation sexual stimuli, which may represent an important model of reward system function. Sixty-five participants viewed a neutral and a sexually motivating film while their EEG was recorded, and reported their sexual feelings after each film. Greater alpha power in the left hemisphere during sexually motivated states was evident. A positive relationship between self-reported mental sexual arousal and alpha asymmetry was identified, where coherence between these indicators was higher in women. Notably, coherence was stronger when mental versus physical sexual arousal was rated. Alpha asymmetry appears to offer a new method for further examining this novel coherence pattern across men and women. PMID:24460762
NEW APPROACHES TO CONFINED ALPHA DIAGNOSTICS
FISHER,R.K
2004-04-01
Three new approaches to obtain information on the confined fast alphas in International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) are proposed. The first technique measures the energetic charge exchange (CX) neutrals that result from the alpha collision-induced knock-on fuel ion tails undergoing electron capture on the MeV D neutral beams planned for heating and current drive. The second technique measures the energetic knock-on neutron tail due to alphas using the lengths of the proton recoil tracks produced by neutron collisions in nuclear emulsions. The range of the 14 to 20 MeV recoil protons increases by {approx}140 microns per MeV. The third approach would measure the CX helium neutrals resulting from confined alphas capturing two electrons in the ablation cloud surrounding a dense gas jet that has been proposed for disruption mitigation in ITER.
Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency
... and genetic modifiers of emphysema risk. Thorax. 2004 Mar;59(3):259-64. Review. Fairbanks KD, Tavill ... alpha}1-antitrypsin deficiency. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23;169(6):546-50. doi: 10.1001/ ...
Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.
Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R
2004-12-01
An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792
Nuclear diagnostic for fast alpha particles
Grisham, L.R.; Post, D.E. Jr.; Dawson, J.M.
1983-11-23
This invention relates generally to high energy confined plasmas and more particularly is directed to measuring the velocity distribution of confined energetic alpha particles resulting from deuterium-tritium fusion reactions in a confined energetic plasma.
Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)
... often given once a week. There are three brands of augmentation therapy. They include: • Prolastin® • Aralast™ • Zemaira™ • In addition to medicines, the management of Alpha-1 related emphysema includes: • Exercise and ...
Alpha modification of Tokamak ballooning instabilities
Spong, D.A.; Leboeuf, J-N.; Holmes, J.A.; Christenson, P.J.
1989-01-01
This paper will discuss the high-n ballooning limit (drift resonant effects included in noncircular tokamak geometry) and the hybrid fluid-particle code (inhomogeneous, sheared slab geometry, full FLR alphas, linear and nonlinear).
Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.
McDevitt, M R; Sgouros, G; Finn, R D; Humm, J L; Jurcic, J G; Larson, S M; Scheinberg, D A
1998-09-01
This review discusses the application of alpha particle-emitting radionuclides in targeted radioimmunotherapy. It will outline the production and chemistry of astatine-211, bismuth-212, lead-212, actinium-225, bismuth-213, fermium-255, radium-223 and terbium-149, which at present are the most promising alpha-emitting isotopes available for human clinical use. The selective cytotoxicity offered by alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs is due to the high linear energy transfer and short particle path length of these radionuclides. Based upon the pharmacokinetics of alpha particle-emitting radioimmunoconstructs, both stochastic and conventional dosimetric methodology is discussed, as is the preclinical and initial clinical use of these radionuclides conjugated to monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of human neoplasia. PMID:9724387
Search for alpha driven BAEs in TFTR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heidbrink, W. W.; Batha, S. H.; Bell, R. E.; Chang, Z.; Darrow, D. S.; Fang, J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; James, R. A.; Levington, F. M.; Nazikian, R.; Paul, S. F.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Santoro, R. A.; Strait, E. J.; Synakowski, E. J.; Taylor, G.; Turnbull, A. D.; Wong, K.-L.; Zweben, S. J.
1996-12-01
A search for alpha driven beta-induced Alfven eigenmodes (BAEs) was conducted in low current (1.0-1.6 MA) TFTR supershots. Stable high beta deuterium-tritium (DT) discharges were obtained with beta p=2.4 and a central alpha beta of 0.1%. Instabilities between 75 and 200 kHz were observed by magnetics probes in many DT discharges, but the activity was also present in deuterium-deuterium (DD) comparison discharges, indicating that these modes are not destabilized (principally) by the alpha particle population. Losses of fusion products are also similar in the two sets of discharges. Theoretical simulations confirm that the achieved alpha particle pressure is too small to produce instability
Radiation dose estimation and mass attenuation coefficients of cement samples used in Turkey.
Damla, N; Cevik, U; Kobya, A I; Celik, A; Celik, N; Van Grieken, R
2010-04-15
Different cement samples commonly used in building construction in Turkey have been analyzed for natural radioactivity using gamma-ray spectrometry. The mean activity concentrations observed in the cement samples were 52, 40 and 324 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K, respectively. The measured activity concentrations for these radionuclides were compared with the reported data of other countries and world average limits. The radiological hazard parameters such as radium equivalent activities (Ra(eq)), gamma index (I(gamma)) and alpha index (I(alpha)) indices as well as terrestrial absorbed dose and annual effective dose rate were calculated and compared with the international data. The Ra(eq) values of cement are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg(-1), equivalent to a gamma dose of 1.5 mSv y(-1). Moreover, the mass attenuation coefficients were determined experimentally and calculated theoretically using XCOM in some cement samples. Also, chemical compositions analyses of the cement samples were investigated. PMID:20018450
Yarmukhamedov, R.; Baye, D.
2011-08-15
Explicit relations between the effective-range expansion and the nuclear vertex constant or asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) for the virtual decay B{yields}A+a are derived for an arbitrary orbital momentum together with the corresponding location condition for the (A+a) bound-state energy. They are valid both for the charged case and for the neutral case. Combining these relations with the standard effective-range function up to order six makes it possible to reduce to two the number of free effective-range parameters if an ANC value is known from experiment. Values for the scattering length, effective range, and form parameter are determined in this way for the {sup 16}O+p, {alpha}+t, and {alpha}+{sup 3}He collisions in partial waves where a bound state exists by using available ANCs deduced from experiments. The resulting effective-range expansions for these collisions are valid up to energies larger than 5 MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strobel, Nicolas V.; Hodge, Paul; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.
1990-11-01
Deep CCD narrow-band H-alpha imaging of the dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 53 has revealed a total of 18 H II regions. Positions, H-alpha luminosities, and sizes of these objects are tabulated. The luminosity function agrees, within its limited statistical significance, with the normal relation found for irregular galaxies. The size distribution has an exponential shape, as for other galaxies, with a size scale of 59 + or - 6 pc.
Alpha-emitters for medical therapy workshop
Feinendegen, L.E.; McClure, J.J.
1996-12-31
A workshop on ``Alpha-Emitters for Medical Therapy`` was held May 30-31, 1996 in Denver Colorado to identify research goals and potential clinical needs for applying alpha-particle emitters and to provide DOE with sufficient information for future planning. The workshop was attended by 36 participants representing radiooncology, nuclear medicine, immunotherapy, radiobiology, molecular biology, biochemistry, radiopharmaceutical chemistry, dosimetry, and physics. This report provides a summary of the key points and recommendations arrived at during the conference.
The ALPHA Experiment: A Cold Antihydrogen Trap
Bertsche, W.; Chapman, S.; Deutsch, A.; Fajans, J.; Gomberoff, K.; Wurtele, J.; Boston, A.; Chartier, M.; Nolan, P.; Page, R.D.; Bowe, P.D.; Hangst, J.S.; Madsen, N.; Cesar, C.L.; Miranda, D.; Charlton, M.; Jenkins, M.; Joergensen, L.V.; Telle, H.H.; Werf, D.P. van der
2005-10-26
The ALPHA experiment aims to trap antihydrogen as the next crucial step towards a precise CPT test, by a spectroscopic comparison of antihydrogen with hydrogen. The experiment will retain the salient techniques developed by the ATHENA collaboration during the previous phase of antihydrogen experiments at the antiproton decelerator (AD) at CERN. The collaboration has identified the key problems in adding a neutral antiatom trap to the previously developed experimental configuration. The solutions identified by ALPHA are described in this paper.
Transport of Radioactive Material by Alpha Recoil
Icenhour, A.S.
2005-05-19
The movement of high-specific-activity radioactive particles (i.e., alpha recoil) has been observed and studied since the early 1900s. These studies have been motivated by concerns about containment of radioactivity and the protection of human health. Additionally, studies have investigated the potential advantage of alpha recoil to effect separations of various isotopes. This report provides a review of the observations and results of a number of the studies.
Pang, Tao; Xiong, Bing; Li, Jing-Ya; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Jin, Guo-Zhang; Shen, Jin-Kang; Li, Jia
2007-01-01
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) acts as an energy sensor, being activated by metabolic stresses and regulating cellular metabolism. AMPK is a heterotrimer consisting of a catalytic alpha subunit and two regulatory subunits, beta and gamma. It had been reported that the mammalian AMPK alpha subunit contained an autoinhibitory domain (alpha1: residues 313-392) and had little kinase activity. We have found that a conserved short segment of the alpha subunit (alpha1-(313-335)), which includes a predicted alpha-helix, is responsible for alpha subunit autoinhibition. The role of the residues in this segment for autoinhibition was further investigated by systematic site-directed mutation. Several hydrophobic and charged residues, in particular Leu-328, were found to be critical for alpha1 autoinhibition. An autoinhibitory structural model of human AMPK alpha1-(1-335) was constructed and revealed that Val-298 interacts with Leu-328 through hydrophobic bonding at a distance of about 4 A and may stabilize the autoinhibitory conformation. Further mutation analysis showed that V298G mutation significantly activated the kinase activity. Moreover, the phosphorylation level of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, the AMPK downstream substrate, was significantly increased in COS7 cells overexpressing AMPK alpha1-(1-394) with deletion of residues 313-335 (Deltaalpha394) and a V298G or L328Q mutation, and the glucose uptake was also significantly enhanced in HepG2 cells transiently transfected with Deltaalpha394, V298G, or L328Q mutants, which indicated that these AMPK alpha1 mutants are constitutively active in mammalian cells and that interaction between Leu-328 and Val-298 plays an important role in AMPK alpha autoinhibitory function. PMID:17088252
Acid-induced dissociation of alpha A- and alpha B-crystallin homopolymers.
Stevens, A; Augusteyn, R C
1993-01-01
Homopolymers were constructed from the alpha A and alpha B polypeptides isolated from the lens protein alpha-crystallin. As the pH is lowered from 7.0 to 3.4, these homopolymers dissociate to smaller species with molecular masses ranging from 80 to 250 kDa for the alpha A and around 140 kDa for the alpha B dissociation products. The pKa for this dissociation was 3.8 +/- 0.2 for alpha A and 4.1 +/- 0.1 for alpha B homopolymers. Further decreases in pH, to 2.5, resulted in the presence of only denatured alpha B polypeptides, whereas the alpha A dissociation products remained intact. Fractionation of the acid dissociation products from the alpha A homopolymer at pH 2.5 yielded stable species with molecular masses of 220 +/- 30, 160 +/- 20, and 90 +/- 10 kDa. The majority of the population at acid pH consisted of the 160 kDa species. Conformational analysis of these species revealed that most of the secondary structure of the original alpha A homopolymer was retained but that the tertiary structure was perturbed. Fluorescence quenching and energy transfer measurements suggested that the molecule had undergone acid expansion, with the greatest perturbation observed in the smallest particles. The results from this work suggest that alpha A homopolymers are heterogeneous populations of aggregates of a "monomeric" molecule with a molecular mass of 160 kDa. This "monomeric" molecule may be formed from the association of two tetrameric units. PMID:8274652
ANALYTIC FORMS OF THE PERPENDICULAR DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT IN NRMHD TURBULENCE
Shalchi, A.
2015-02-01
In the past different analytic limits for the perpendicular diffusion coefficient of energetic particles interacting with magnetic turbulence were discussed. These different limits or cases correspond to different transport modes describing how the particles are diffusing across the large-scale magnetic field. In the current paper we describe a new transport regime by considering the model of noisy reduced magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. We derive different analytic forms of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient, and while we do this, we focus on the aforementioned new transport mode. We show that for this turbulence model a small perpendicular diffusion coefficient can be obtained so that the latter diffusion coefficient is more than hundred times smaller than the parallel diffusion coefficient. This result is relevant to explain observations in the solar system where such small perpendicular diffusion coefficients have been reported.
Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas
Murphy, Anthony B.
2014-01-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457
Note on the Generalized Hansen and Laplace Coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laskar, Jacques
2005-03-01
Recently, Breiter et al. [Celest. Mech. Dyn. Astron., 2004, 88, 153 161] reported the computation of Hansen coefficients X
Piezo-optic coefficients of CaWO4 crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mytsyk, B. G.; Kost', Ya. P.; Demyanyshyn, N. M.; Andrushchak, A. S.; Solskii, I. M.
2015-01-01
All components of the piezo-optic coefficient matrix of calcium tungstate crystals, belonging to the 4/ m symmetry class, are determined. The reliability of the piezo-optic effect measurements in CaWO4 crystals is achieved by determining each piezo-optic coefficient from several experimental geometries and is also based on the correlation of the absolute piezo-electric coefficients and the path-difference coefficients. The rotation-shear diagonal coefficients ?44 and ?66 and three principal piezo-optic coefficients ?11, ?13, and ?31 are refined by the polarization-optical method. It is confirmed that both the interferometric and polarization-optical methods should be used to study the piezo-optic effect with high accuracy. The results show that calcium tungstate is a promising material for acousto-optical and photoelastic modulation.
Personal dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for 1252 radionuclides.
Otto, Thomas
2016-01-01
Dose conversion coefficients for radionuclides are useful for routine calculations in radiation protection in industry, medicine and research. They give a simple and often sufficient estimate of dose rates during production, handling and storage of radionuclide sources, based solely on the source's activity. The latest compilation of such conversion coefficients dates from 20 y ago, based on nuclear decay data published 30 y ago. The present publication provides radionuclide-specific conversion coefficients to personal dose based on the most recent evaluations of nuclear decay data for 1252 radionuclides and fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficients for monoenergetic radiations. It contains previously unknown conversion coefficients for >400 nuclides and corrects those conversion coefficients that were based on erroneous decay schemes. For the first time, estimates for the protection quantity Hp(3) are included. PMID:25349458
Calculation and application of combined diffusion coefficients in thermal plasmas.
Murphy, Anthony B
2014-01-01
The combined diffusion coefficient method is widely used to treat the mixing and demixing of different plasma gases and vapours in thermal plasmas, such as welding arcs and plasma jets. It greatly simplifies the treatment of diffusion for many gas mixtures without sacrificing accuracy. Here, three subjects that are important in the implementation of the combined diffusion coefficient method are considered. First, it is shown that different expressions for the combined diffusion coefficients, arising from different definitions for the stoichiometric coefficients that assign the electrons to the two gases, are equivalent. Second, an approach is presented for calculating certain partial differential terms in the combined temperature and pressure diffusion coefficients that can cause difficulties. Finally, a method for applying the combined diffusion coefficients in computational models, which typically require diffusion to be expressed in terms of mass fraction gradients, is given. PMID:24603457
Alpha-dispersion in human tissue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grimnes, Sverre; Martinsen, Ørjan G.
2010-04-01
Beta dispersion is found in living tissue in the kilohertz - megahertz range and is caused by the cellular structure of biological materials with low frequency properties caused by cell membranes. Alpha dispersion is found in the hertz range and the causes are not so well known. Alpha dispersions are the first to disappear when tissue dies. Tissue data have often been based upon excised specimen from animals and are therefore not necessarily representative for human tissue alpha dispersions. Here we present data obtained with non-invasive skin surface electrodes for different segments of the living human body. We found alpha dispersions in all cases; the ankle-wrist results had the smallest. Large alpha dispersions were found where the distance between the electrodes and muscle masses was small, e.g. on the calf. Further studies on electrode technique and reciprocity, electrode positioning, statistical variations, gender, age and bodily constitutions are necessary in order to reveal more about the alpha dispersion, its appearance and disappearance.
alpha-Thalassaemia in Apulia: biosynthetic studies.
Guanti, G; Lonoce, A; Pietrapertosa, A; Polimeno, G; Tannoia, N
1983-01-01
Analysis of haemoglobin chain synthesis was performed in 15 Apulian patients with Hb H disease and in their patients and offspring. The Apulian carriers of Hb H disease show a marked imbalance of alpha and beta chain synthesis (0.39 +/- 0.1) with variable clinical and haematological manifestations. However, we are dealing with an intermediate form similar to that described in Italians from other regions. A significant difference was found between the mean alpha/beta ratio values (0.81 +/- 0.13) of parents and offspring of Hb H patients and those of the normal controls (1.05 +/- 0.09); however, extensive overlapping between these two groups exists. These results have led us to the conclusion that the forms of alpha-thalassaemia found in Apulia are similar to the alpha defects observed in Sicily; in both cases, in fact, haemoglobin chain synthesis was an unreliable test for discriminating between alpha-thalassaemia-1 trait and alpha-thalassaemia-2 trait. PMID:6876112
[Alpha 2-adrenergic receptors and arterial pressure].
Senard, J M; Valet, P; Galinier, M; Tran, M A; Galinier, F; Boneu, B; Montastruc, J L
1989-07-01
The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of blood pressure levels on human platelet alpha 2-adrenergic receptivity. The study was carried out on 12 mild essential hypertensive patients and 7 normotensive parkinsonians with orthostatic hypotension. Alpha 2-adrenoceptors number and affinity were determined by 3H-yohimbine binding, plasma catecholamines were measured by HPLC and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by turbidimetry. Results obtained were compared with those of two groups of 12 normotensive control subjects. In hypertensive patients, both platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors (139 +/- 6 vs 176 +/- 18 fmol/mg protein) and velocity of adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation were decreased whereas plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline remained unchanged. In patients with orthostatic hypotension, there was an increased number of platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors (313 +/- 52 vs 168 +/- 8 fmol/mg protein) associated with a significant decrease in plasma noradrenaline (62 +/- 11 vs 190 +/- 25 pg/ml). In none of the two groups of patients there was any change in receptor affinity for 3H-yohimbine. These results indicate that human platelet alpha 2-adrenoceptors levels are related to blood pressure values. Moreover, up-regulation in orthostatic hypotension and lack of down-regulation in essential hypertension suggest that only sustained abnormal plasma noradrenaline levels could allow the development of alpha 2-adrenoceptors regulatory mechanisms. These variations can represent tentative compensatory mechanisms for normalization of blood pressure levels. PMID:2554834
Structures of G [alpha [superscript i1
Johnston, Christopher A.; Willard, Francis S.; Jezyk, Mark R.; Fredericks, Zoey; Bodor, Erik T.; Jones, Miller B.; Blaesius, Rainer; Watts, Val J.; Harden, T. Kendall; Sondek, John; Ramer, J. Kevin; Siderovski, David P.
2010-07-19
Heterotrimeric G proteins are molecular switches that regulate numerous signaling pathways involved in cellular physiology. This characteristic is achieved by the adoption of two principal states: an inactive, GDP bound state and an active, GTP bound state. Under basal conditions, G proteins exist in the inactive, GDP bound state; thus, nucleotide exchange is crucial to the onset of signaling. Despite our understanding of G protein signaling pathways, the mechanism of nucleotide exchange remains elusive. We employed phage display technology to identify nucleotide state-dependent G{alpha} binding peptides. Herein, we report a GDP-selective G{alpha} binding peptide, KB-752, that enhances spontaneous nucleotide exchange of G{alpha}{sub i} subunits. Structural determination of the G{alpha}{sub i1}/peptide complex reveals unique changes in the G{alpha} switch regions predicted to enhance nucleotide exchange by creating a GDP dissociation route. Our results cast light onto a potential mechanism by which G{alpha} subunits adopt a conformation suitable for nucleotide exchange.
Cohen, V.I.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Gibson, R.E.; Fan, L.H.; Reba, R.C. )
1989-10-01
rac-4-Nitrobenzilic acid was synthesized and resolved with quinidine and quinine to give the corresponding (R)- and (S)-salts. The resolved diastereomeric salts were converted to (R)- and (S)-4-nitrobenzilic acids and subsequent esterification gave their corresponding ethyl esters. Transesterification with (R)-(-)-3-quinuclidinol afforded (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha- (4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-nitrophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. After hydrogenation, the (R,R)- and (R,S)-amines were converted to the respective triazene derivatives. The triazene derivatives reacted with sodium ({sup 125}I)iodide to give (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)- alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate and (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy- alpha-(4-(125I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate. The evaluation of their affinities to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (MAcChR) shows that (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(S)-(-)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate exhibits an affinity for the MAcChR from corpus striatum that is approximately threefold lower than that of (R)-(-)-1-azabicyclo(2.2.2)oct-3-yl-(R)-(+)-alpha-hydroxy-alpha-(4- ({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)-alpha-phenyl acetate.
Watanabe, Hikaru; Nishimoto, Tomoyuki; Sonoda, Tomohiko; Kubota, Michio; Chaen, Hiroto; Fukuda, Shigeharu
2006-06-12
A bacterial strain AM7, isolated from soil and identified as Bacillus circulans, produced two kinds of novel cyclic oligosaccharides. The cyclic oligosaccharides were produced from amylose using a culture supernatant of the strain as the enzyme preparation. The major product was a cyclomaltopentaose cyclized by an alpha-(1-->6)-linkage, cyclo-{-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->}. The other minor product was cyclomaltohexaose cyclized by an alpha-(1-->6)-linkage, cyclo-{-->6)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->4)-alpha-D-Glcp-(1-->}. We propose the names isocyclomaltopentaose (ICG5) and isocyclomaltohexaose (ICG6) for these novel cyclic maltooligosaccharides having one alpha-(1-->6)-linkage. ICG5 was digested by alpha-amylase derived from Aspergillus oryzae, cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) from Bacillus stearothermophilus, and maltogenic alpha-amylase. On the other hand, ICG6 was digested by CGTase from B. stearothermophilus and B. circulans, and maltogenic alpha-amylase. This is the first report of enzymatically produced cyclomaltopentaose and cyclomaltohexaose, which have an alpha-(1-->6)-linkage in their molecules. PMID:16545346
DCFPAK: Dose coefficient data file package for Sandia National Laboratory
Eckerman, K.F.; Leggett, R.W.
1996-07-31
The FORTRAN-based computer package DCFPAK (Dose Coefficient File Package) has been developed to provide electronic access to the dose coefficient data files summarized in Federal Guidance Reports 11 and 12. DCFPAK also provides access to standard information regarding decay chains and assembles dose coefficients for all dosimetrically significant radioactive progeny of a specified radionuclide. DCFPAK was designed for application on a PC but, with minor modifications, may be implemented on a UNIX workstation.
Computation of Elliptic Hansen Coefficients and Their Derivatives
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sokolsky, Andrej G.; Vakhidov, Akmal A.; Vasiliev, Nickolay N.
1996-01-01
The problem of computation of elliptic Hansen coefficients and their derivatives is considered for constructing a motion theory of an artificial Earth satellite with large eccentricity. An algorithm for analytical and numerical computation of these coefficients and their derivatives is described. The recurrence relations for derivatives of the first and second order and initial values for recurrences are obtained. As an example, numerical values of some elliptic Hansen coefficients are given for the orbit with eccentricityk=0.74.
Weibull crack density coefficient for polydimensional stress states
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, Bernard; Gyekenyesi, John P.
1989-01-01
A structural ceramic analysis and reliability evaluation code has recently been developed encompassing volume and surface flaw induced fracture, modeled by the two-parameter Weibull probability density function. A segment of the software involves computing the Weibull polydimensional stress state crack density coefficient from uniaxial stress experimental fracture data. The relationship of the polydimensional stress coefficient to the uniaxial stress coefficient is derived for a shear-insensitive material with a random surface flaw population.
Measuring Furnace/Sample Heat-Transfer Coefficients
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosch, William R.; Fripp, Archibald L., Jr.; Debnam, William J., Jr.; Woodell, Glenn A.
1993-01-01
Complicated, inexact calculations now unnecessary. Device called HTX used to simulate and measure transfer of heat between directional-solidification crystal-growth furnace and ampoule containing sample of crystalline to be grown. Yields measurement data used to calculate heat-transfer coefficients directly, without need for assumptions or prior knowledge of physical properties of furnace, furnace gas, or specimen. Determines not only total heat-transfer coefficients but also coefficients of transfer of heat in different modes.
On the Connection Coefficients of the Chebyshev-Boubaker Polynomials
2013-01-01
The Chebyshev-Boubaker polynomials are the orthogonal polynomials whose coefficient arrays are defined by ordinary Riordan arrays. Examples include the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and the Boubaker polynomials. We study the connection coefficients of this class of orthogonal polynomials, indicating how Riordan array techniques can lead to closed-form expressions for these connection coefficients as well as recurrence relations that define them. PMID:23990760
Microscopic formula for transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics.
Koide, T
2007-06-01
The Green-Kubo-Nakano formula should be modified in relativistic hydrodynamics because of the problem of acausality and the breaking of sum rules. In this Rapid Communication, we propose a formula to calculate the transport coefficients of causal hydrodynamics based on the projection operator method. As concrete examples, we derive the expressions for the diffusion coefficient, the shear viscosity coefficient, and corresponding relaxation times. PMID:17677204
Kubo formulas for second-order hydrodynamic coefficients.
Moore, Guy D; Sohrabi, Kiyoumars A
2011-03-25
At second order in gradients, conformal relativistic hydrodynamics depends on the viscosity η and on five additional "second-order" hydrodynamical coefficients τ(Π), κ, λ₁, λ₂, and λ₃. We derive Kubo relations for these coefficients, relating them to equilibrium, fully retarded three-point correlation functions of the stress tensor. We show that the coefficient λ₃ can be evaluated directly by Euclidean means and does not in general vanish. PMID:21517309
Scanning measurement of Seebeck coefficient of a heated sample
Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Iwanaga, Shiho
2016-04-19
A novel scanning Seebeck coefficient measurement technique is disclosed utilizing a cold scanning thermocouple probe tip on heated bulk and thin film samples. The system measures variations in the Seebeck coefficient within the samples. The apparatus may be used for two dimensional mapping of the Seebeck coefficient on the bulk and thin film samples. This technique can be utilized for detection of defective regions, as well as phase separations in the sub-mm range of various thermoelectric materials.
Strategies on the evaluation of binomial coefficients for all integers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yükçü, Niyazi; Öztekin, Emin
2013-01-01
Binomial coefficients are used in many fields such as computational and applied mathematics, statistics and probability, theoretical physics and chemistry. For accurate numerical results, the correct calculation of these coefficients is very important. We present some new recurrence relationships and numerical methods for the evaluation of binomial coefficients for negative integers. For this purpose, we give some comparisons of the outputs for different computer programming languages in case of negative integers, and also we wrote two new algorithms for computations.
Methods for the synthesis and polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-p-xylenes
Ferraris, John P.; Neef, Charles J.
2002-07-30
The present invention describes an improved method for the polymerization of .alpha.,.alpha.-dihalo-p-xylene's such as the .alpha.,.alpha.'-dihalo-2-methoxy-5-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-xylene's. The procedure for synthesis is based on the specific order of addition of reagents and the use of an anionic initiator that allows control of the molecular weight of the polymer. The molecular weight control allows processability of the polymer which is important for its utility in applications including in light-emitting-diodes, field effect transistors and photovoltaic devices.
Aerosol Angstrom Absorption Coefficient Comparisons during MILAGRO.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marley, N. A.; Marchany-Rivera, A.; Kelley, K. L.; Mangu, A.; Gaffney, J. S.
2007-12-01
Measurements of aerosol absorption were obtained as part of the MAX-Mex component of the MILAGRO field campaign at site T0 (Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City) by using a 7-channel aethalometer (Thermo- Anderson) during the month of March, 2006. The absorption measurements obtained in the field at 370, 470, 520, 590, 660, 880, and 950 nm were used to determine the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression. Since, unlike other absorbing aerosol species (e.g. humic like substances, nitrated PAHs), black carbon absorption is relatively constant from the ultraviolet to the infrared with an Angstrom absorption exponent of -1 (1), a comparison of the Angstrom exponents can indicate the presence of aerosol components with an enhanced UV absorption over that expected from BC content alone. The Angstrom exponents determined from the aerosol absorption measurements obtained in the field varied from - 0.7 to - 1.3 during the study and was generally lower in the afternoon than the morning hours, indicating an increase in secondary aerosol formation and photochemically generated UV absorbing species in the afternoon. Twelve-hour integrated samples of fine atmospheric aerosols (<0.1micron) were also collected at site T0 and T1 (Universidad Technologica de Tecamac, State of Mexico) from 5 am to 5 pm (day) and from 5 pm to 5 am (night) during the month of March 2006. Samples were collected on quartz fiber filters with high volume impactor samplers. Continuous absorption spectra of these aerosol samples have been obtained in the laboratory from 280 to 900nm with the use of an integrating sphere coupled to a UV spectrometer (Beckman DU with a Labsphere accessory). The integrating sphere allows the detector to collect and spatially integrate the total radiant flux reflected from the sample and therefore allows for the measurement of absorption on highly reflective or diffusely scattering samples. These continuous spectra have also been used to obtain the aerosol Angstrom absorption exponents by linear regression over the entire UV-visible spectral range. These results are compared to results obtained from the absorbance measurements obtained in the field. The differences in calculated Angstrom absorption exponents between the field and laboratory measurements are attributed partly to the differences in time resolution of the sample collection resulting in heavier particle pileup on the filter surface of the 12-hour samples. Some differences in calculated results can also be attributed to the presence of narrow band absorbers below 400 nm that do not fall in the wavelengths covered by the 7 wavelengths of the aethalometer. 1. Marley, N.A., J.S. Gaffney, J.C. Baird, C.A. Blazer, P.J. Drayton, and J.E. Frederick, "The determination of scattering and absorption coefficients of size-fractionated aerosols for radiative transfer calculations." Aerosol Sci. Technol., 34, 535-549, (2001). This work was conducted as part of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program as part of the Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City during MILAGRO. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64329. We also wish to thank Mexican Scientists and students for their assistance from the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo (IMP) and CENICA.
Coefficients of convergent multiple Walsh-Paley series
Plotnikov, Mikhail G
2012-09-30
The paper is concerned with the behaviour of the coefficients of multiple Walsh-Paley series that are cube convergent to a finite sum. It is shown that even an everywhere convergent series of this kind may contain coefficients with numbers from a sufficiently large set that grow faster than any preassigned sequence. By Cohen's theorem, this sort of thing cannot happen for multiple trigonometric series that are cube convergent on a set of full measure - their coefficients cannot grow even exponentially. Null subsequences of coefficients are determined for multiple Walsh-Paley series that are cube convergent on a set of definite measure. Bibliography: 18 titles.
Rigorous bounds on Transmission, Reflection, and Bogoliubov coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boonserm, Petarpa
2009-06-01
This thesis describes the development of some basic mathematical tools of wide relevance to mathematical physics. Transmission and reflection coefficients are associated with quantum tunneling phenomena, while Bogoliubov coefficients are associated with the mathematically related problem of excitations of a parametric oscillator. While many approximation techniques for these quantities are known, very little is known about rigorous upper and lower bounds. In this thesis four separate problems relating to rigorous bounds on transmission, reflection and Bogoliubov coefficients are considered, divided into four separate themes: 1) Bounding the Bogoliubov coefficients; 2) Bounding the greybody factors for Schwarzschild black holes; 3) Transformation probabilities and the Miller--Good transformation; 4) Analytic bounds on transmission probabilities.
Process controls on event runoff coefficients in Austria
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merz, R.; Blöschl, G.
2009-04-01
In this paper we analyze the controls on the spatiotemporal variability of event runoff coefficients. A total of about 64,000 events in 459 Austrian catchments ranging from 5 to 10000 km2 are analyzed. Event runoff coefficients vary in space, depending on the longterm controls such as climate and catchment formation. Event runoff coefficients also vary in time, depending on event characteristics such as antecedent soil moisture and event rainfall depth. Both types of controls are analyzed separately in the paper. The spatial variability is analyzed in terms of a correlation analysis of the statistical moments of the runoff coefficients and catchment attributes. Mean runoff coefficients are most strongly correlated to indicators representing climate such as mean annual precipitation and the long-term ratio of actual evaporation to precipitation through affecting long-term soil moisture. Land use, soil types, and geology do not seem to exert a major control on runoff coefficients of the catchments under study. The temporal variability is analyzed by comparing the deviation of the event runoff coefficients from their mean depending on event characteristics. The analysis indicates that antecedent soil moisture conditions control runoff coefficients to a higher degree than does event rainfall. The analysis also indicates that soil moisture derived from soil moisture accounting schemes has more predictive power for the temporal variability of runoff coefficients than antecedent rainfall.
Update of and suggested increase in calculatedradiative association rate coefficients
Herbst, E.
1985-04-01
A sizable number of radiative association reaction rate coefficients involving polyatomic molecular ions have now been calculated and utilized in ion-molecule models of the chemistry of dense interstellar clouds. Recent evidence suggests that these calculated rate coefficients may be an order of magnitude too low in many cases. The evidence is reviewed and developed and calculated rate coefficients are updated. In addition, the temperature dependence of each reaction rate coefficient in the 10--50 K range is estimated if this information has not previously appeared in the literature.
Evolution of haptoglobin: comparison of complementary DNA encoding Hp alpha 1S and Hp alpha 2FS.
Brune, J L; Yang, F; Barnett, D R; Bowman, B H
1984-01-01
Haptoglobin is a transport glycoprotein which removes free hemoglobin from the circulation of vertebrates. In human populations haptoglobin is polymorphic due to three alleles, Hp alpha 1F, Hp alpha 1S and Hp alpha 2. The Hp alpha 2 allele is roughly twice the length of the Hp alpha 1 alleles and is the product of a partial gene duplication possibly resulting from an unequal crossover event in a heterozygous genotype Hp alpha 1F/Hp alpha 1S. In the study described here we compare the cDNA encoding Hp alpha 1S to that encoding Hp alpha 2FS . Both have a leader sequence followed by the genotypic alpha chain sequence, a beta sequence and an untranslated sequence in the 3' end. The cDNA encoding Hp alpha 2FS is composed of alpha 1F and alpha 1S domains differing by four nucleotide replacements. Hp alpha 1S cDNA contains the same replacement site mutations found in the alpha 1S domain of Hp alpha 2FS , indicating that this coding region has sustained few, if any, mutations since its incorporation into the Hp alpha 2FS gene. Images PMID:6330675
Liu, Cong; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars; Zhang, Yinping
2015-10-20
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been found to be persistent in the environment and possibly harmful. Many buildings are characterized with high PCB concentrations. Knowledge about partitioning between primary sources and building materials is critical for exposure assessment and practical remediation of PCB contamination. This study develops a C-depth method to determine diffusion coefficient (D) and partition coefficient (K), two key parameters governing the partitioning process. For concrete, a primary material studied here, relative standard deviations of results among five data sets are 5%-22% for K and 42-66% for D. Compared with existing methods, C-depth method overcomes the inability to obtain unique estimation for nonlinear regression and does not require assumed correlations for D and K among congeners. Comparison with a more sophisticated two-term approach implies significant uncertainty for D, and smaller uncertainty for K. However, considering uncertainties associated with sampling and chemical analysis, and impact of environmental factors, the results are acceptable for engineering applications. This was supported by good agreement between model prediction and measurement. Sensitivity analysis indicated that effective diffusion distance, contacting time of materials with primary sources, and depth of measured concentrations are critical for determining D, and PCB concentration in primary sources is critical for K. PMID:26347992
Rogue-Wave Interaction of a Nonlinear Schrödinger Model for the Alpha Helical Protein
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Hui-Xian; Liu, Yu-Jun; Wang, Ya-Ning
2016-01-01
In this article, we investigate a fourth-order nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which governs the Davydov solitons in the alpha helical protein with higher-order effects. By virtue of the generalised Darboux transformation, higher-order rogue-wave solutions are derived. Propagation and interaction of the rogue waves are analysed: (i) Coefficients affect the existence time of the first-order rogue waves; (ii) coefficients affect the interaction time of the second- and third-order rogue waves; (iii) direction of the rogue-wave propagation remain unchanged after interaction.
Alpha Com eclipse observing campaign
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Waagen, Elizabeth O.
2014-12-01
Drs. Matthew W. Muterspaugh and Gregory W. Henry (Tennessee State University) have requested AAVSO observers' ssistance in monitoring the possible Algol-like binary star alpha Com before, during, and after the eclipse they have predicted for mid-to-late January 2015. The PIs will be using the Fairborn Observatory automated photometric telescopes on Mt. Hopkins, but they are requesting additional observations not only to supplement theirs but also specifically to have good coverage in the event of bad weather at Mt. Hopkins. Alf Com has a 26-year period and is 4.32V at maximum. The expected amplitude of the eclipse is about 0.8 magnitude and the duration somewhere between 28 and 45 hours. The eclipse is predicted for January 25 ± three days (JD 2457047 ± 3). Muterspaugh at al. first calculated the possibility of a 2015 eclipse in 2010 (AJ). Muterspaugh and Henry recently published an article with updated information (arXiv 2014). V and/or R photometry (other bands welcome) is requested, with a minimal cadence of one measurement/2 hours, to make sure the eclipse is caught right as it begins and to ensure having multiple data points on any unseen objects that might eclipse as well. During eclipse, continuous observations are important. Infrared (H-band) observations could be interesting, should the CHARA array image the event. The precision photometry in the weeks before and after the eclipse is requested in order to catch possible evidence for planets or other materials around the eclipsing star. Updated astrometry from the current epoch would greatly improve the eclipse preductions. Charts with comparison star sequence for alf Com may be created using the AAVSO Variable Star Plotter (http://www.aavso.org/vsp). The PIs recommend using the comparison stars HD 113848 (39 Com, HR 4946, HIP 63948, V=5.990, B-V=0.39, F4V) and HD 114520 (HIP 64312, V=6.820, B-V=0.46,F2II). Observations should be submitted to the AAVSO International Database. See AAVSO Alert Notice 506 for full details.
Chard, M D; Calvin, J; Price, C P; Cawston, T E; Hazleman, B L
1988-01-01
Serum alpha 1 antichymotrypsin (alpha 1ACT), C reactive protein (CRP), orosomucoid, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured sequentially in 20 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated with gold or penicillamine. Pain score, morning stiffness, grip strength, and articular index were measured and a Mallya score calculated. Based on a total of 148 sets of observations, significant correlations were found between alpha 1ACT and other variables (p less than 0.001 except morning stiffness at p less than 0.05). The actual correlation coefficients indicated a closer association with the other laboratory tests, CRP (0.62), orosomucoid (0.69), and ESR (0.61), than with clinical measurements: pain score (0.38), articular index (0.41), grip strength (-0.3), morning stiffness (0.19), and Mallya score (0.5). Sequential data on individual patients showed differing patterns of change in the variables indicating the importance of measuring more than one acute phase protein (APP), especially when CRP is inappropriately low. Serum alpha 1ACT concentration does reflect disease activity in RA. Its potential advantages are discussed. PMID:3261967
Binary-YORP Coefficients for Known Asteroid Shapes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McMahon, Jay W.; Scheeres, D. J.
2012-10-01
The binary YORP (bYORP) effect has been hypothesized to be a significant factor in the evolution of near-Earth binary asteroid systems (Cuk and Burns, Icarus, v.176, pp.418-431, 2005; McMahon and Scheeres, CMDA, v.106, pp.261-300, 2010). However, understanding of the coefficient values for realistic asteroid shapes is lacking due to the small number of shape models available for the generally smaller secondary asteroids. Until now, we have only calculated the coefficients based on the shape of 1999 KW4 Beta, although various studies by other authors have computed coefficients for artificially generated asteroids based on Gaussian Spheres and some shape models without self-shadowing (Steinberg and Sari, The Astronomical Journal, v.141, pp.55-64, 2011). We also scaled the 1999 KW4 Beta coefficients to other binary systems with no knowledge of the other systems' secondary shapes in order to make evolutionary predictions (McMahon and Scheeres, Icarus Vol. 209, pp 494-509, 2010). In this study, we compute the bYORP coefficient for a range of asteroid shapes, using these as a stand-in for actual secondaries. This allows us to circumvent the lack of information on binary asteroid secondaries and to develop a richer database of realistic coefficients. While this approach may miss some key features of binary secondaries, at the least it provides some statistics on the expected variability of the bYORP coefficient. We analyze all available asteroid shape models on the PDS-SBN, including radar-based shape models and models estimated from past spacecraft missions. The coefficients are computed with an updated algorithm that includes the effects of self-shadowing. We also present the coefficients for perturbed versions of the available shape models, which give effective error bars to the computed coefficients due to inexact shape models. Finally, we discuss the dynamical implications of the derived bYORP coefficients on binary asteroid evolution.
Overview Of Suborbital Human Transportation Concept Alpha
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adirim, H.; Pilz, N.; Marini, M.; Hendrick, P.; Schmid, M.; Behr, R.; Barth, T.; Tarfeld, F.; Wiegand, A.; Charbonnier, D.; Haya Ramos, R.; Steeland, J.; Mack, A.
2011-05-01
Within the EC co-funded project FAST20XX (Future high-Altitude high-Speed Transport 20XX), the European suborbital passenger transportation system concept ALPHA (Airplane Launched PHoenix Aircraft), which shall be based to a maximum extent on existing technologies and capabilities, is currently being investigated as collaborative project by a European consortium under coordination of ESA. The ALPHA concept incorporates an air-launch from a carrier aircraft, which shall be used as first stage. The ALPHA vehicle shall be capable of transporting up to four passengers plus one pilot to an altitude of at least 100 km. The ALPHA vehicle is a down-scaled version of the suborbital space transportation concept Hopper, which was already deeply investigated within the European FESTIP System Study and the German ASTRA program including the successfully flown experimental landing demonstrator Phoenix. This approach has allowed the use of existing aerodynamic vehicle data and has led to the adaptation of the external Hopper/Phoenix configuration for ALPHA. In FESTIP and ASTRA, the Hopper configuration showed sufficient stability margins. Due to the geometric similarity of the ALPHA and Hopper vehicles, a trimable and flyable configuration could be derived by means of ALPHA flight trajectory calculations. In its current configuration, the ALPHA vehicle has a length of ca. 9 m and a gross take-off mass of ca. 3.5 Mg. The launch, staging and separation of ALPHA shall be performed either as internal air-launch from the cargo bay of the carrier aircraft, as under-wing air-launch or as towed air-launch. After separation from the carrier aircraft, the ALPHA vehicle ignites its onboard rocket propulsion system. Since conventional liquid and solid propulsion did not seem suitable for ALPHA due to Their high cost, limited safety and toxicity, a low-cost, “green” and non-hazardous hybrid propulsion system based on liquid nitrous oxide in combination with a solid polymer fuel was selected as baseline ALPHA propulsion. The general feasibility of hybrid propulsion for suborbital vehicle application with this propellant combination was already successfully demonstrated in the first reusable and privately-funded manned launch vehicle SpaceShipOne and consequently represents the solution with the lowest development risk for the investigated application. Due to the huge success of SpaceShipOne, the same type of hybrid propulsion is foreseen for Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo. ALPHA vehicle guidance will preferably be fully autonomous during the entire mission flight profile. The required technology for autonomous vehicle guidance can be adapted from the European RLV demonstrator Phoenix, which successfully demonstrated automated landing when it was dropped three times by a helicopter and landed precisely after a GPS-guided glide. This paper outlines the current status of the technology development work for ALPHA and has a special focus on aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic aspects of the concept.
Pharmacologic specificity of alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes
Petrash, A.; Bylund, D.
1986-03-01
The authors have defined alpha-2 adrenergic receptor subtypes in human and rat tissues using prazosin as a subtype selective drug. Prazosin has a lower affinity (250 nM) at alpha-2A receptor and a higher affinity (5 nM) at alpha-2B receptors. In order to determine if other adrenergic drugs are selective for one or the other subtypes, the authors performed (/sup 3/H)yohimbine inhibition experiments with various adrenergic drugs in tissues containing alpha-2A, alpha-2B or both subtypes. Oxymetazoline, WB4101 and yohimbine were found to be 80-, 20- and 10-fold more potent at alpha-2A receptors than at alpha-2B receptors. Phentolamine, adazoxan, (+)- and (-)-mianserin, clonidine, (+)-butaclamol, (-)- and (+)-norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine and thioridazine were found to have equal affinities for the two subtypes. These results further validate the subdivision of alpha-2 adrenergic receptors into alpha-2A and alpha-2B subtypes.
Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method
Dana, Saswati; Raha, Soumyendu
2011-10-01
Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.
Cancer radioimmunotherapy with alpha-emitting nuclides.
Couturier, Olivier; Supiot, Stéphane; Degraef-Mougin, Marie; Faivre-Chauvet, Alain; Carlier, Thomas; Chatal, Jean-François; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel
2005-05-01
In lymphoid malignancies and in certain solid cancers such as medullary thyroid carcinoma, somewhat mixed success has been achieved when applying radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with beta-emitters for the treatment of refractory cases. The development of novel RIT with alpha-emitters has created new opportunities and theoretical advantages due to the high linear energy transfer (LET) and the short path length in biological tissue of alpha-particles. These physical properties offer the prospect of achieving selective tumoural cell killing. Thus, RIT with alpha-emitters appears particularly suited for the elimination of circulating single cells or cell clusters or for the treatment of micrometastases at an early stage. However, to avoid non-specific irradiation of healthy tissues, it is necessary to identify accessible tumoural targets easily and rapidly. For this purpose, a small number of alpha-emitters have been investigated, among which only a few have been used for in vivo preclinical studies. Another problem is the availability and cost of these radionuclides; for instance, the low cost and the development of a reliable actinium-225/bismuth-213 generator were probably determining elements in the choice of bismuth-213 in the only human trial of RIT with an alpha-emitter. This article reviews the literature concerning monoclonal antibodies radiolabelled with alpha-emitters that have been developed for possible RIT in cancer patients. The principal radio-immunoconjugates are considered, starting with physical and chemical properties of alpha-emitters, their mode of production, the possibilities and difficulties of labelling, in vitro studies and finally, when available, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:15841373
Kakiyama, Genta; Iida, Takashi; Goto, Takaaki; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi; Nambara, Toshio; Hagey, Lee R; Schteingart, Claudio D; Hofmann, Alan F
2006-07-01
By HPLC, a taurine-conjugated bile acid with a retention time different from that of taurocholate was found to be present in the bile of the black-necked swan, Cygnus melanocoryphus. The bile acid was isolated and its structure, established by (1)H and (13)C NMR and mass spectrometry, was that of the taurine N-acyl amidate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid. The compound was shown to have chromatographic and spectroscopic properties that were identical to those of the taurine conjugate of authentic 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid, previously synthesized by us from ursodeoxycholic acid. By HPLC, the taurine conjugate of 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid was found to be present in 6 of 6 species in the subfamily Dendrocygninae (tree ducks) and in 10 of 13 species in the subfamily Anserinae (swans and geese) but not in other subfamilies in the Anatidae family. It was also not present in species from the other two families of the order Anseriformes. 3alpha,7alpha,15alpha-Trihydroxy-5beta-cholan-24-oic acid is a new primary bile acid that is present in the biliary bile acids of swans, tree ducks, and geese and may be termed 15alpha-hydroxy-chenodeoxycholic acid. PMID:16648547
Enantioselective alpha-trifluoromethylation of aldehydes via photoredox organocatalysis.
Nagib, David A; Scott, Mark E; MacMillan, David W C
2009-08-12
The first enantioselective, organocatalytic alpha-trifluoromethylation and alpha-perfluoroalkylation of aldehydes have been accomplished using a readily available iridium photocatalyst and a chiral imidazolidinone catalyst. A range of alpha-trifluoromethyl and alpha-perfluoroalkyl aldehydes were obtained from commercially available perfluoroalkyl halides with high efficiency and enantioselectivity. The resulting alpha-trifluoromethyl aldehydes were subsequently shown to be versatile precursors for the construction of a variety of enantioenriched trifluoromethylated building blocks. PMID:19722670
Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves
A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch
2010-02-15
An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high nθ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.
Micro- and macroscale coefficients of friction of cementitious materials
Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang, Kejin
2013-12-15
Millions of metric tons of cementitious materials are produced, transported and used in construction each year. The ease or difficulty of handling cementitious materials is greatly influenced by the material friction properties. In the present study, the coefficients of friction of cementitious materials were measured at the microscale and macroscale. The materials tested were commercially-available Portland cement, Class C fly ash, and ground granulated blast furnace slag. At the microscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from the interaction forces between cementitious particles using an Atomic Force Microscope. At the macroscale, the coefficient of friction was determined from stresses on bulk cementitious materials under direct shear. The study indicated that the microscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.020 to 0.059, and the macroscale coefficient of friction ranged from 0.56 to 0.75. The fly ash studied had the highest microscale coefficient of friction and the lowest macroscale coefficient of friction. -- Highlights: •Microscale (interparticle) coefficient of friction (COF) was determined with AFM. •Macroscale (bulk) COF was measured under direct shear. •Fly ash had the highest microscale COF and the lowest macroscale COF. •Portland cement against GGBFS had the lowest microscale COF. •Portland cement against Portland cement had the highest macroscale COF.
Crop coefficient development and application to an evapotranspiration network
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Crop coefficients derived from properly designed, operated, and maintained lysimeters provide the most accurate values throughout the growing season and are critical in the computation of hourly and daily,regionally based, crop evapotranspiration (ET) values. Multi-stage crop coefficients can be der...