Science.gov

Sample records for cross language plagiarism

  1. Plagiarism in Second-Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecorari, Diane; Petric, Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a broad and multidisciplinary field of study, and within second-language (L2) writing, research on the topic goes back to the mid-1980s. In this review article we first discuss the received view of plagiarism as a transgressive act and alternative understandings which have been presented in the L1 and L2 writing literature. We then…

  2. How to Verify Plagiarism of the Paper Written in Macedonian and Translated in Foreign Language?

    PubMed Central

    Spiroski, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to show how to verify plagiarism of the paper written in Macedonian and translated in foreign language. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Original article “Ethics in Medical Research Involving Human Subjects”, written in Macedonian, was submitted as an assay-2 for the subject Ethics and published by Ilina Stefanovska, PhD candidate from the Iustinianus Primus Faculty of Law, Ss Cyril and Methodius University of Skopje (UKIM), Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Fabruary, 2013. Suspected article for plagiarism was published by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova from the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University Goce Delchev, Shtip, Republic of Macedonia in English with the identical title and identical content in International scientific on-line journal “SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGIES”, Publisher “Union of Scientists - Stara Zagora”. RESULTS: Original document (written in Macedonian) was translated with Google Translator; suspected article (published in English pdf file) was converted into Word document, and compared both documents with several programs for plagiarism detection. It was found that both documents are identical in 71%, 78% and 82%, respectively, depending on the computer program used for plagiarism detection. It was obvious that original paper was entirely plagiarised by Prof. Dr. Gordana Panova, including six references from the original paper. CONCLUSION: Plagiarism of the original papers written in Macedonian and translated in other languages can be verified after computerised translation in other languages. Later on, original and translated documents can be compared with available software for plagiarism detection. PMID:27275319

  3. CrossCheck plagiarism screening : Experience of the Journal of Epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Katsumi

    Due to technological advances in the past two decades, researchers now have unprecedented access to a tremendous amount of useful information. However, because of the extreme pressure to publish, this abundance of information can sometimes tempt researchers to commit scientific misconduct. A serious form of such misconduct is plagiarism. Editors are always concerned about the possibility of publishing plagiarized manuscripts. The plagiarism detection tool CrossCheck allows editors to scan and analyze manuscripts effectively. The Journal of Epidemiology took part in a trial of CrossCheck, and this article discusses the concerns journal editors might have regarding the use of CrossCheck and its analysis. In addition, potential problems identified by CrossCheck, including self-plagiarism, are introduced.

  4. Gauging the Effectiveness of Anti-Plagiarism Software: An Empirical Study of Second Language Graduate Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stapleton, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The use of anti-plagiarism services has grown very quickly in recent years to the point where over half of American universities now have a license. The most popular of these services, Turnitin, claims that it is licensed in 126 countries and available in 10 languages suggesting that the service is becoming widely used around the world. In order…

  5. Stealing or Sharing? Cross-Cultural Issues of Plagiarism in an Open-Source Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haitch, Russell

    2016-01-01

    More professors and institutions want to move from a detect-and-punish to an educate-and-prevent model for dealing with plagiarism. Understanding the causes of plagiarism, especially among international students, can aid in efforts to educate students and prevent plagiarism. Research points to a confluence of causal factors, such as time pressure,…

  6. Beyond the Accusation of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Qing; Brooks, Jane

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores the complexity of the notion of plagiarism from sociocultural and psychological perspectives. Plagiarism is a dynamic and multi-layered phenomenon [Russikoff, K., Fucaloro, L., Salkauskiene, D., 2003. "Plagiarism as a cross-cultural phenomenon." "The CAL Poly Pomona Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies" 16, 109-120.…

  7. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    Plagiarism Plagiarism is, we are pleased to observe, not a common occurrence in Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB); however, like those responsible for all scientific journals, we are concerned about plagiarism, and very keen to prevent it. The Publications Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) has prepared a generic editorial on plagiarism. The editorial is reproduced here (with permission of the IOMP), with slight modifications to enhance its relevance to the audience of PMB, along with our procedures for dealing with any cases of plagiarism should they ever arise. Plagiarism (from the Latin 'plagiare', 'to kidnap') is defined as 'the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work' (the Random House Dictionary of the English Language—unabridged). Plagiarism is a serious breach of research ethics that, if committed intentionally, is considered research misconduct. Plagiarism in its most serious form is the passing off of all, or large sections, of another author's published paper as one's original work. If, following appropriate confidential investigation (see below), such a plagiarism is established, this will result in heavy sanctions including retraction of the article, up to a 5 year publication ban from PMB, and informing of employers and/or professional bodies (even after one offence). This may result in loss of research funding, loss of professional stature, and even termination of employment of the plagiarizing author(s). Plagiarism undermines the authenticity of research manuscripts and the journals in which they are published, and compromises the integrity of the scientific process and the public regard for science. Plagiarism violates the literary rights of the individuals who are plagiarized, and the property rights of copyright holders. Violation of these rights may result in legal action against the individual(s) committing

  8. An ELT's Solution to Combat Plagiarism: "Birth" of CALL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabieh, Christine

    One English-as-a Second-Language professor fought plagiarism using computer assisted language learning (CALL). She succeeded in getting half of her class to write documented research papers free of plagiarism. Although all of the students claimed to know how to avoid plagiarizing, 35 percent presented the work with minor traces of plagiarism. The…

  9. EDITORIAL: On plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Simon; Webb, Steve; Hendee, William R.

    2008-03-01

    Plagiarism Plagiarism is, we are pleased to observe, not a common occurrence in Physics in Medicine & Biology (PMB); however, like those responsible for all scientific journals, we are concerned about plagiarism, and very keen to prevent it. The Publications Committee of the International Organization of Medical Physics (IOMP) has prepared a generic editorial on plagiarism. The editorial is reproduced here (with permission of the IOMP), with slight modifications to enhance its relevance to the audience of PMB, along with our procedures for dealing with any cases of plagiarism should they ever arise. Plagiarism (from the Latin 'plagiare', 'to kidnap') is defined as 'the appropriation or imitation of the language, ideas, and thoughts of another author, and representation of them as one's original work' (the Random House Dictionary of the English Language—unabridged). Plagiarism is a serious breach of research ethics that, if committed intentionally, is considered research misconduct. Plagiarism in its most serious form is the passing off of all, or large sections, of another author's published paper as one's original work. If, following appropriate confidential investigation (see below), such a plagiarism is established, this will result in heavy sanctions including retraction of the article, up to a 5 year publication ban from PMB, and informing of employers and/or professional bodies (even after one offence). This may result in loss of research funding, loss of professional stature, and even termination of employment of the plagiarizing author(s). Plagiarism undermines the authenticity of research manuscripts and the journals in which they are published, and compromises the integrity of the scientific process and the public regard for science. Plagiarism violates the literary rights of the individuals who are plagiarized, and the property rights of copyright holders. Violation of these rights may result in legal action against the individual(s) committing

  10. Cross-language treatment generalisation

    PubMed Central

    Goral, Mira; Levy, Erika S.; Kastl, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent investigations of language gains following treatment in bilingual individuals with chronic aphasia appear to confirm early reports that not only the treated language but also the non-treated language(s) benefit from treatment. The evidence, however, is still suggestive, and the variables that may mitigate generalisation across languages warrant further investigation. Aims We set out to examine cross-language generalisation of language treatment in a trilingual speaker with mild chronic aphasia. Methods & Procedures Language treatment was administered in English, the participant’s second language (L2). The first treatment block focused on morphosyntactic skills and the second on language production rate. Measurements were collected in the treated language (English, L2) as well as the two non-treated languages: Hebrew (the participant’s first language, L1) and French (the participant’s third language, L3). Outcomes & Results The participant showed improvement in his production of selected morphosyntactic elements, such as pronoun gender agreement, in the treated language (L2) as well as in the non-treated French (L3) following the treatment block that focused on morphosyntactic skills. Speech rate also improved in English (L2) and French (L3) following that treatment block. No changes were observed in Hebrew, the participant’s L1. Conclusions Selective cross-language generalisation of treatment benefit was found for morphosyntactic abilities from the participant’s second language to his third language. PMID:20221311

  11. Local Plagiarisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Erik

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism and collusion are significant issues for most lecturers whatever their discipline, and to universities and the higher education sector. Universities respond to these issues by developing institutional definitions of plagiarism, which are intended to apply to all instances of plagiarism and collusion. This article first suggests that…

  12. Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oard, Douglas W.; Diekema, Anne R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews research and practice in cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) that seeks to support the process of finding documents written in one natural language with automated systems that can accept queries expressed in other languages. Addresses user needs, document preprocessing, query formulation, matching strategies, sources of translation…

  13. Plagiarism Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Probett, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism does exist at universities today. In some cases, students are naive with respect to understanding what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. In other cases, students blatantly disregard and disrespect the written work of others, claiming it as their own. Regardless, educators must be vigilant in their efforts to discourage and prevent…

  14. No one likes a copycat: a cross-cultural investigation of children's response to plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Shaw, A; Garduno, E; Olson, K R

    2014-05-01

    Copying other people's ideas is evaluated negatively by American children and adults. The current study investigated the influence of culture on children's evaluations of plagiarism by comparing children from three countries--the United States, Mexico, and China--that differ in terms of their emphasis on the protection of intellectual property and ideas. Children (3- to 6-year-olds) were presented with videos involving two characters drawing pictures and were asked to evaluate the character who drew unique work or the character who copied someone else's drawing. The study showed that 5- and 6-year-olds from all three cultures evaluated copiers negatively compared with unique drawers. These results suggest that children from cultures that place different values on the protection of ideas nevertheless develop similar concerns with plagiarism by 5-year-olds. PMID:24473471

  15. "You Fail": Plagiarism, the Ownership of Writing, and Transnational Conflicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Arabella

    2009-01-01

    Responding to cultural concerns about the ownership of writing and the nature of plagiarism, this article examines discourses about plagiarism by ESL students and argues for a plurality of approaches to understanding the ownership of language and textual appropriation. First, it uses speech act theory to explain the dynamics of plagiarism; second,…

  16. Cross-Language Effects in Biliteracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship of codes across languages, with particular reference to written language and to English in relation to Japanese and Chinese. Reviews language contact and language learning effects related to reading, writing, cognition and linguistic creativity as various types of cross-language effects in biliteracy. (42 references)…

  17. University Student Online Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-mei

    2008-01-01

    This article reports a study investigating university student online plagiarism. The following questions are investigated: (a) What is the incidence of student online plagiarism? (b) What are student perceptions regarding online plagiarism? (c) Are there any differences in terms of student perceptions of online plagiarism and print plagiarism? (d)…

  18. Text-based plagiarism in scientific publishing: issues, developments and education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-09-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or copying language from sources, has recently become an issue of growing concern in scientific publishing. Use of CrossCheck (a computational text-matching tool) by journals has sometimes exposed an unexpected amount of textual similarity between submissions and databases of scholarly literature. In this paper I provide an overview of the relevant literature, to examine how journal gatekeepers perceive textual appropriation, and how automated plagiarism-screening tools have been developed to detect text matching, with the technique now available for self-check of manuscripts before submission; I also discuss issues around English as an additional language (EAL) authors and in particular EAL novices being the typical offenders of textual borrowing. The final section of the paper proposes a few educational directions to take in tackling text-based plagiarism, highlighting the roles of the publishing industry, senior authors and English for academic purposes professionals. PMID:22535578

  19. Rethinking Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nealy, Chynette

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism, presenting someone's words or other creative products as one's own, is a mandatory discussion and writing assignment in many undergraduate business communication courses. Class discussions about this topic tend to be lively, ranging from questions about simply omitting identified sources to different standards of ethical behaviors…

  20. Between Knowledge and "Plagiarism," or, How the Chinese Language Was Studied in the West

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tong, Q. S.

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at descriptions of the Chinese language in Western intellectual writings as indicative of a particular process of knowledge formation and reproduction. Beginning with the first systematic account produced by Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), it charts views offered by John Wilkins (1614-1672), James Beattie (1735-1803), Friedrich von…

  1. Crossing Boundaries: Journeys into Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses two autobiographical accounts of language learning within the context of highly significant personal relationships to argue that the functional emphasis of communicative language teaching has narrowed our understanding of the potential personal and educational meaning of what it is to learn a language. The author's learning of…

  2. Exploring the attitudes of medical faculty members and students in Pakistan towards plagiarism: a cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach’s alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum. PMID:26157615

  3. Exploring the attitudes of medical faculty members and students in Pakistan towards plagiarism: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Farooq Azam; Waqas, Ahmed; Zia, Ahmad Marjan; Mavrinac, Martina; Farooq, Fareeha

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this survey was to explore the attitudes towards plagiarism of faculty members and medical students in Pakistan. Methods. The Attitudes Toward Plagiarism questionnaire (ATP) was modified and distributed among 550 medical students and 130 faculty members in 7 medical colleges of Lahore and Rawalpindi. Data was entered in the SPSS v.20 and descriptive statistics were analyzed. The questionnaire was validated by principal axis factoring analysis. Results. Response rate was 93% and 73%, respectively. Principal axis factoring analysis confirmed one factor structure of ATP in the present sample. It had an acceptable Cronbach's alpha value of 0.73. There were 421 medical students (218 (52%) female, 46% 3rd year MBBS students, mean age of 20.93 ± 1.4 years) and 95 faculty members (54.7% female, mean age 34.5 ± 8.9 years). One fifth of the students (19.7%) trained in medical writing (19.7%), research ethics (25.2%) or were currently involved in medical writing (17.6%). Most of the faculty members were demonstrators (66) or assistant professors (20) with work experience between 1 and 10 years. Most of them had trained in medical writing (68), research ethics (64) and were currently involved in medical writing (64). Medical students and faculty members had a mean score of 43.21 (7.1) and 48.4 (5.9) respectively on ATP. Most of the respondents did not consider that they worked in a plagiarism free environment and reported that self-plagiarism should not be punishable in the same way as plagiarism. Opinion regarding leniency in punishment of younger researchers who were just learning medical writing was divided. Conclusions. The general attitudes of Pakistani medical faculty members and medical students as assessed by ATP were positive. We propose training in medical writing and research ethics as part of the under and post graduate medical curriculum. PMID:26157615

  4. Second Language Proficiency and Cross-Language Lexical Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Hell, Janet G.; Tanner, Darren

    2012-01-01

    Although research has consistently shown that a bilingual's two languages interact on multiple levels, it is also well-established that bilinguals can vary considerably in their proficiency in the second language (L2). In this paper we review empirical studies that have examined how differences in L2 proficiency modulate cross-language…

  5. The plagiarism project.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Nancy R; Sorensen, Karen; Habousha, Racheline G; Minuti, Aurelia; Schwartz, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a problem plaguing academia for centuries. The Internet has made it easier than ever to copy material from one electronic document and paste it into another. Many cases are unintentional, as writers are unaware of the rules regarding plagiarism. This paper provides an overview of plagiarism and describes a project in which librarians partnered with the assistant dean of a graduate science program to educate students about the perils of plagiarism and encourage ethical writing practices. PMID:22040240

  6. Plagiarism in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahabuddin, Syed

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism sometimes creates legal and ethical problems for students and faculty. It can have serious consequences. Fortunately, there are ways to stop plagiarism. There are many tools available to detect plagiarism, e.g. using software for detecting submitted articles. Also, there are many ways to punish a plagiarist, e.g. banning plagiarists…

  7. Generic Language Facilitates Children's Cross-Classification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific…

  8. Generic language facilitates children's cross-classification

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Simone P.; Gelman, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Four studies examined the role of generic language in facilitating 4- and 5-year-old children's ability to cross-classify. Participants were asked to classify an item into a familiar (taxonomic or script) category, then cross-classify it into a novel (script or taxonomic) category with the help of a clue expressed in either generic or specific language. Experiment 1 showed that generics facilitate 5-year-olds' and adults' cross-classification when expressed at an appropriate level of generalization (e.g., “foods,” “birthday party things”), whereas Experiment 2 showed that such effects disappeared when labels were at an inappropriate level of generalization (e.g., “pizzas,” “balloons”). Experiments 3 and 4 offered additional controls. Taken together, the findings demonstrate that language can guide and direct children's multiple categorizations. PMID:22888182

  9. Plagiarism in computer science courses

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.K.

    1994-12-31

    Plagiarism of computer programs has long been a problem in higher education. Ease of electronic copying, vague understanding by students as to what constitutes plagiarism, increasing acceptance of plagiarism by students, lack of enforcement by instructors and school administrators, and a whole host of other factors contribute to plagiarism. The first step in curbing plagiarism is prevention, the second (and much less preferable) is detection. History files and software metrics can be used as a tool to aid in detecting possible plagiarism. This paper gives advice concerning how to deal with plagiarism and with using software monitors to detect plagiarism.

  10. A Comprehensive Definition of Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liddell, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the internet has made it easy for students to plagiarize papers. Gives definitions for plagiarism. Explains reasons why students plagiarize including the following: they don't understand what it is, they think they won't get caught, etc. Describes ways to detect and prevent plagiarism. (ontains 58 references.)(MZ)

  11. Plagiarism in Grant Proposals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markin, Karen M.

    2012-01-01

    It is not news that software exists to check undergraduate papers for plagiarism. What is less well known is that some federal grant agencies are using technology to detect plagiarism in grant proposals. That variety of research misconduct is a growing problem, according to federal experts. The National Science Foundation, in its most recent…

  12. A Cross-Linguistic Approach to Language Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Carl

    1996-01-01

    Revives Eric Hawkins' idea of a language "trivium" where language awareness activities should fill the space between the learner's two languages. Draws a distinction between awareness and consciousness of language and suggests that cross-linguistic relationships are a major source of input salience strengthening, due to bilinguals' metalinguistic…

  13. Problems and Approaches to Cross Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grefenstette, Gregory

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the problems and current research techniques being explored in the area of Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) for finding documents in languages other than the original query. Discusses language identification methods, techniques for automatically generating queries in other languages, and retrieving and merging query results.…

  14. Useful Tips on Avoiding Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamalainen, Maryellen

    2007-01-01

    Teachers are generally kind and nurturing people. Students who plagiarize their assignments from these kind and nurturing teachers are often given a second chance when caught and encouraged to do their work over, but it would be better to eliminate their need to plagiarize. The first tip for eliminating plagiarism has not so much to do with what…

  15. Managing Plagiarism: A Preventative Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insley, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is a reality in most college classes where some students plagiarize unknowingly and others do so knowingly. This situation requires instructors to decide how to manage the situation. Some may take the easy way out by ignoring the problem, simply pretending that none of their students plagiarize. In contrast, other instructors embrace…

  16. Journals May Soon Use Anti-Plagiarism Software on Their Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rampell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    This spring, academic journals may turn the anti-plagiarism software that professors have been using against their students on the professors themselves. CrossRef, a publishing industry association, and the software company iParadigms announced a deal last week to create CrossCheck, an anti-plagiarism program for academic journals. The software…

  17. Cross-Language Activation in Children's Speech Production: Evidence from Second Language Learners, Bilinguals, and Trilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poarch, Gregory J.; van Hell, Janet G.

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals,…

  18. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: An Analysis of Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Miguel E.; Srinivasan, Padmini

    1998-01-01

    Investigates an automatic method for Cross Language Information Retrieval (CLIR) that utilizes the multilingual Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus to translate Spanish natural-language queries into English. Results indicate that for Spanish, the UMLS Metathesaurus-based CLIR method is at least equivalent to if not better than…

  19. Cross-Language System Evaluation: The CLEF Campaigns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Carol; Braschler, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Describes the goals of the CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) series of evaluation campaigns for information retrieval systems operating on European languages. Examines the difficulties of organizing an activity which aims at an objective evaluation of systems running on and over a number of different languages. (Author/LRW)

  20. What is Plagiarism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2012-01-01

    Manuscripts submitted to The Astrophysical Journal are required to contain "novel and significant" material and to be free of plagiarism. There is a surprising amount of confusion regarding the definition of plagiarism and what constitutes prior publication. I will discuss the definitions used by the ApJ and the procedures we follow to to support this rule. Individual members of the community frequently show a very different understanding of these standards and are surprised at the conflict. Time allowing, I will briefly discuss some of the other common ethical problems that arise during the preparation and publication of articles.

  1. Plagiarism and Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebler, Robert

    2009-01-01

    It is costly for faculty to deal with cheating. Keith-Spiegel et al. (1998) identified several of these costs and argued that they can be grouped into four categories: emotionality, difficult, fear, and denial. I argue that the emotional and fear costs for faculty make it unlikely that the common approaches to dealing with plagiarism will be…

  2. Teaching Students about Plagiarism: What It Looks Like and How It Is Measured

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stout, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This case study examines how full-time faculty, adjunct instructors, and graduate teaching assistants teach students how to avoid plagiarism. Additionally, this case study includes a cross-section of teachers who encounter plagiarism in writing assignments across the curriculum. While many studies in the past have focused on students, this study…

  3. Developing a Non-Language Related Span Test for the Use in Language-Specific and Cross-Language Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahnazari-Dorcheh, Mohammadtaghi; Roshan, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    Due to the lack of span test for the use in language-specific and cross-language studies, this study provides L1 and L2 researchers with a reliable language-independent span test (math span test) for the measurement of working memory capacity. It also describes the development, validation, and scoring method of this test. This test included 70…

  4. Cross Currents; Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The following articles on second language teaching techniques, English as a second language, and cross cultural communication are included: (1) "'Honne' and 'Tatemae': Tools for Developing Communicative Competence in a Second Language," by Gregory J. Thompson; (2) "Using Video-Taped Movies with Advanced ESOL Students," by Steven C. Linke; (3)…

  5. On cross-language consonant identification in second language noise.

    PubMed

    Marchegiani, Letizia; Fafoutis, Xenofon

    2015-10-01

    Speech perception in everyday conditions is highly affected by the presence of noise of a different nature. The presence of overlapping speakers is considered an especially challenging scenario, as it introduces both energetic and informational masking. The efficacy of the masking also depends on the familiarity with the language of both the target and masking stimuli. This work analyses consonant identification by non-native English speakers in N-talker natural babble noise and babble-modulated noise, by varying the number of talkers in the babble. In particular, only English consonants that are also present in all the native languages of the subjects are used. As the subjects are familiar with the consonants used, this study can be considered a step towards a deeper analysis on perception of first language speech in the presence of second language maskers. PMID:26520302

  6. Development of Cross-Language Lexical Influence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storms, Gert; Ameel, Eef; Malt, Barbara C.

    2015-01-01

    Bilinguals are often not fully monolingual-like in either language. With respect to the lexicon, recent research demonstrates that their naming patterns for common household objects tend to converge on a common pattern for the two languages. The present study investigates the developmental trajectory of naming of common household objects in…

  7. Sign Languages: Contribution to Neurolinguistics from Cross-Modal Research

    PubMed Central

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Using sign language research as an example, we argue that both the cross-linguistic descriptive approach to data, advocated by Evans and Levinson (2009), as well as abstract (‘formal’) analyses are necessary steps towards the development of “neurolinguistic primitives” for investigating how human languages are instantiated in the brain. PMID:20953339

  8. Language and Cross-Cultural Training in American Multinational Corporations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inman, Marianne

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a survey done to assess the current situation in foreign language, English language, and cross-cultural training among U.S. multinational corporations. A questionnaire was sent to 300 companies representing 25 different types of business involved in international trade or development. Sixty-two percent of the companies responded to the…

  9. Applying Query Structuring in Cross-language Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirkola, Ari; Puolamaki, Deniz; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2003-01-01

    Explores ways to apply query structuring in cross-language information retrieval. Tested were: English queries translated into Finnish using an electronic dictionary, and run in a Finnish newspaper databases; effects of compound-based structuring using a proximity operator for translation equivalents of query language compound components; and a…

  10. [High frequency of plagiarism in medical thesis from a Peruvian public university].

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Gastulo, J Jhan C; Quezada-Osoria, C Claudia; Peña-Oscuvilca, Américo; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2010-03-01

    An observational study was conducted to describe the presence of plagiarism in medical thesis in 2008 performed at a public university in Peru. Search for plagiarism in 33 thesis introductions using a Google search algorithm, characterizes of the study type and we search in electronic form if the thesis mentor have published articles in scientific journals. We found evidence of plagiarism in 27/33 introductions, 37.3% (171/479) of all the paragraphs analyzed had some degree of plagiarism, literal plagiarism was the most frequent (20/27) and journals were the most common sources of plagiarism (19/27). The characteristics of the studies were observational (32/33), cross-sectional (30/33), descriptive (25/33) and retrospective (19/33). None of the authors had published in a scientific journal, and only nine of his tutors of them had at least one publication. No association was found between the characteristics of the thesis and the presence of plagiarism. In conclusion, we found a high frequency of plagiarism in theses analyzed. Is responsibility of medical schools take the necessary actions to detect and avoid plagiarism among their students. PMID:21072452

  11. Cross-language activation in children's speech production: evidence from second language learners, bilinguals, and trilinguals.

    PubMed

    Poarch, Gregory J; van Hell, Janet G

    2012-03-01

    In five experiments, we examined cross-language activation during speech production in various groups of bilinguals and trilinguals who differed in nonnative language proficiency, language learning background, and age. In Experiments 1, 2, 3, and 5, German 5- to 8-year-old second language learners of English, German-English bilinguals, German-English-Language X trilinguals, and adult German-English bilinguals, respectively, named pictures in German and in English; in Experiment 4, 6- to 8-year-old German monolinguals named pictures in German. In both language conditions, cognate status was manipulated. We found that the bidirectional cognate facilitation effect was significant in all groups except the German monolinguals (Experiment 4) and, critically, the child second language learners (Experiment 1) in whom only native language (L1) German had an effect on second language (L2) English. The findings demonstrate how the integration of languages into a child's system follows a developmental path that, at lower levels of proficiency, allows only limited cross-language activation. The results are interpreted against the backdrop of the developing language systems of the children both for early second language learners and for early bi- and trilinguals. PMID:22138311

  12. Timing of translation in cross-language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Santos, Hudson P O; Black, Amanda M; Sandelowski, Margarete

    2015-01-01

    Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross-language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue. Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated, as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross-language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data. The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language, cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. PMID:25189538

  13. PLAGIARISM IN SCIENTIFIC PUBLISHING

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader’s own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  14. Plagiarism in scientific publishing.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2012-12-01

    Scientific publishing is the ultimate product of scientist work. Number of publications and their quoting are measures of scientist success while unpublished researches are invisible to the scientific community, and as such nonexistent. Researchers in their work rely on their predecessors, while the extent of use of one scientist work, as a source for the work of other authors is the verification of its contributions to the growth of human knowledge. If the author has published an article in a scientific journal it cannot publish the article in any other journal h with a few minor adjustments or without quoting parts of the first article, which are used in another article. Copyright infringement occurs when the author of a new article with or without the mentioning the author used substantial portions of previously published articles, including tables and figures. Scientific institutions and universities should,in accordance with the principles of Good Scientific Practice (GSP) and Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) have a center for monitoring,security, promotion and development of quality research. Establish rules and compliance to rules of good scientific practice are the obligations of each research institutions,universities and every individual-researchers,regardless of which area of science is investigated. In this way, internal quality control ensures that a research institution such as a university, assume responsibility for creating an environment that promotes standards of excellence, intellectual honesty and legality. Although the truth should be the aim of scientific research, it is not guiding fact for all scientists. The best way to reach the truth in its study and to avoid the methodological and ethical mistakes is to consistently apply scientific methods and ethical standards in research. Although variously defined plagiarism is basically intended to deceive the reader's own scientific contribution. There is no general regulation of control of

  15. Tandem Language Learning through a Cross-Cultural Keypal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabata, Kaori; Edasawa, Yasuyo

    2011-01-01

    Patterns of students' language learning were examined through an asynchronous cross-cultural bilingual communication project conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Previous studies on cross-cultural communication projects have reported positive outcomes in providing…

  16. Fostering Cross-Cultural Adaptability through Foreign Language Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, David A.

    2003-01-01

    Examines two cross-cultural adaptability training tools used in multinational corporations and suggests strategies for integrating them into the foreign language classroom. Suggests students with a high degree of synthetic and analytic thinking skills as they relate to cross-cultural contexts-- tend to fill an important marketplace niche.…

  17. Can Paraphrasing Practice Help Students Define Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Elaine S.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is the new dirty word on campus, and college instructors are increasingly interested in teaching students how to prevent committing plagiarism. In this study, college students wrote definitions of plagiarism before and after 6 weeks of practice paraphrasing and citing original sources. Students' definitions of plagiarism were evaluated…

  18. Exploring Student Self-Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halupa, Colleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Student self-plagiarism is a confusing issue for both faculty and students alike. This problem is compounded because both groups perceive the concept very differently. Recent literature regarding these perceptions is reviewed and some brief preliminary results of an exploratory multi-university study of student perceptions of self-plagiarism are…

  19. University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Lori G.

    2009-01-01

    Plagiarism is an intriguing topic with many avenues for exploration. Students' perceptions of plagiarism certainly differ from their professors' and it is valuable to attempt to listen in some small measure to what those perceptions are. The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of some of the ways first- and second-year university…

  20. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance. PMID:19186631

  1. Acceptability of Treatments for Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.; Punyanunt-Carter, Narissra Maria

    2007-01-01

    This study focused on various treatments for addressing incidents of plagiarism by college students. College students rated the acceptability of different responses by college faculty to a case description of a college student who engaged in plagiarism. The findings revealed that students found some methods of addressing this problem behavior by…

  2. Plagiarism Software: No Magic Bullet!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warn, James

    2006-01-01

    The ready availability of Internet resources has made it easier than ever for students to plagiarize and many higher education institutions have resorted to checking essays with plagiarism detection software. Student behaviour is likely to change in response to this increased scrutiny but not necessarily in the desired direction. Internet…

  3. Cross-Language Communication in Heliodorus' "Aethiopica"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Robert William, IV

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes why Heliodorus pays so much attention to foreign languages in the Aethiopica and how his description of these linguistic phenomena colors the work. It demonstrates that Heliodorus is very careful to attribute linguistic abilities to characters in a sensible way that is in line with real-world expectations. Characters…

  4. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Non-Native Languages: Explaining Lexical Transfer Using Language Production Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Graham

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this research is on the nature of lexical cross-linguistic influence (CLI) between non-native languages. Using oral interviews with 157 L1 Italian high-school students studying English and German as non-native languages, the project investigated which kinds of lexis appear to be more susceptible to transfer from German to English and…

  5. Cross-language Similarity Modulates Effectiveness of Second Language Grammar Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolentino, Leida C.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of instruction method and cross-language similarity during second language (L2) grammar learning. English speakers learned a subset of Swedish using contrast and color highlighting (Salience Group), contrast and highlighting with grammatical explanations (Rule & Salience Group), or neither (Control Group with…

  6. FromTo-CLIR: Web-Based Natural Language Interface for Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Taewan; Sim, Chul-Min; Yuh, Sanghwa; Jung, Hanmin; Kim, Young-Kil; Choi, Sung-Kwon; Park, Dong-In; Choi, Key Sun

    1999-01-01

    Describes the implementation of FromTo-CLIR, a Web-based natural-language interface for cross-language information retrieval that was tested with Korean and Japanese. Proposes a method that uses a semantic category tree and collocation to resolve the ambiguity of query translation. (Author/LRW)

  7. One world, two languages: cross-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers.

    PubMed

    Singh, Leher

    2014-01-01

    The interconnectedness of bilingual memory remains a topic of great debate. Semantic priming provides a powerful methodological tool with which to investigate this issue in early bilingual toddlers. Semantic priming effects were investigated in 21 bilingual toddlers (2.5 years) within and across each of their languages. Results revealed the first evidence of cross-language and within-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers. However, priming effects were only observed when the prime was presented in the dominant language and were comparable in magnitude within and across languages. Findings point to high interconnectivity across languages; however, there appear to be strong influences of language dominance on semantic facilitation. Findings serve to inform and refine developmental models of bilingual memory. PMID:23802779

  8. Cross-language information retrieval using PARAFAC2.

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, Brett William; Chew, Peter; Abdelali, Ahmed; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2007-05-01

    A standard approach to cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) uses Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) in conjunction with a multilingual parallel aligned corpus. This approach has been shown to be successful in identifying similar documents across languages - or more precisely, retrieving the most similar document in one language to a query in another language. However, the approach has severe drawbacks when applied to a related task, that of clustering documents 'language-independently', so that documents about similar topics end up closest to one another in the semantic space regardless of their language. The problem is that documents are generally more similar to other documents in the same language than they are to documents in a different language, but on the same topic. As a result, when using multilingual LSA, documents will in practice cluster by language, not by topic. We propose a novel application of PARAFAC2 (which is a variant of PARAFAC, a multi-way generalization of the singular value decomposition [SVD]) to overcome this problem. Instead of forming a single multilingual term-by-document matrix which, under LSA, is subjected to SVD, we form an irregular three-way array, each slice of which is a separate term-by-document matrix for a single language in the parallel corpus. The goal is to compute an SVD for each language such that V (the matrix of right singular vectors) is the same across all languages. Effectively, PARAFAC2 imposes the constraint, not present in standard LSA, that the 'concepts' in all documents in the parallel corpus are the same regardless of language. Intuitively, this constraint makes sense, since the whole purpose of using a parallel corpus is that exactly the same concepts are expressed in the translations. We tested this approach by comparing the performance of PARAFAC2 with standard LSA in solving a particular CLIR problem. From our results, we conclude that PARAFAC2 offers a very promising alternative to LSA not only for

  9. Educational approaches for discouraging plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Beth A; Zigmond, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Suggested approaches to reduce the occurrence of plagiarism in academia, particularly among trainees. These include (1) educating individuals as to the definition of plagiarism and its consequences through written guidelines, active discussions, and practice in identifying proper and improper citation practices; (2) distributing checklists that break the writing task into more manageable steps, (3) requiring the submission of an outline and then a first draft prior to the deadline for a paper; (4) making assignments relevant to individual interests; and (5) providing trainees with access to software programs that detect plagiarism. PMID:21194645

  10. Cultural Cross-Currents in Second Language Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodycott, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the concept of "cultural cross-currents," their implicit nature and the potential they have to effect second language literacy learning, teaching and curriculum reform in Hong Kong primary classrooms. Despite the substantive implications for learning, the exploration of cultural influences upon teacher and student thinking and…

  11. Recruiting Languages and Lifeworlds for Border-Crossing Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Allison; Bomer, Randy

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we show how two transnational youth, with the instructional support of their teacher, recruited their languages and lifeworlds, particularly their border-crossing experiences, as tools for engaging with school-based literacy practices. We analyze literary texts that the students composed, showing how the students' uses of…

  12. SAPHIRE International: a tool for cross-language information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hersh, W R; Donohoe, L C

    1998-01-01

    The world's foremost medical literature is written in English, yet much of the world does not speak English as a primary language. This has led to increasing research interest in cross-language information retrieval, where textual databases are queried in languages other than the one in which they are written. We describe enhancements to the SAPHIRE concept-retrieval system, which maps free-text documents and queries to concepts in the UMLS Metathesaurus, that allow it to accept text input and provide Metathesaurus concept output in any of six languages: English, German, French, Russian, Spanish, and Portuguese. An example of the use of SAPHIRE International is shown in the CliniWeb catalogue of clinically-oriented Web pages. A formative evaluation of German terms shows that additional work is required in handling plural and other suffix variants as well as expanding the breadth of synonyms in the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:9929304

  13. Lexical Activation in Bilinguals' Speech Production Is Dynamic: How Language Ambiguous Words Can Affect Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermans, Daan; Ormel, E.; van Besselaar, Ria; van Hell, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Is the bilingual language production system a dynamic system that can operate in different language activation states? Three experiments investigated to what extent cross-language phonological co-activation effects in language production are sensitive to the composition of the stimulus list. L1 Dutch-L2 English bilinguals decided whether or not a…

  14. Cross-language differences of articulation rate and its transfer into Japanese as a second language.

    PubMed

    Amino, Kanae; Osanai, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    Recently, the articulation rate has been attracting attention in forensic speech investigation as an acoustic feature that varies across speakers, dialects, and languages. The present study investigates how cross-language differences in the articulation rate are transferred into Japanese as a second language. Participants were speakers of Japanese, Chinese, Korean, and Thai. They were recorded while they read a passage in their native language and in Japanese. Local and global articulation rates were calculated based on the number of syllables as well as the number of morae for Japanese speech. When we compared the articulation rate of the native languages, Japanese was the fastest, then Korean, Chinese, and Thai in that order. Also, a significant positive correlation was observed between the articulation rate of the native language and that of the second language. A gender difference was found in the articulation rate of some languages, with males speaking faster than females. The effect of age was limited to Thai speakers only. Accent discrimination and identification experiments were conducted and the results revealed that native and non-native accents could be correctly discriminated just by the articulation rate. PMID:25687812

  15. Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Reva; Hura, Gerri

    2013-01-01

    While plagiarism by college students is a serious problem that must be addressed, students generally overestimate the frequency of plagiarism at their schools and blame students they do not know for the majority of incidents. This study looked at students' estimations of the frequency of plagiarism at a large urban college and explored how…

  16. Rethinking Plagiarism in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Lea Calvert; Moorman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex issue in need of reexamination. A common misconception is there is consensus on what constitute plagiarism, and general agreement that engaging in plagiarism and other forms of academic dishonesty is a major breech of ethics. There seems to be little concern for differentiating degrees of seriousness; the intentional…

  17. Education Improves Plagiarism Detection by Biology Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.

    2012-01-01

    Regrettably, the sciences are not untouched by the plagiarism affliction that threatens the integrity of budding professionals in classrooms around the world. My research, however, suggests that plagiarism training can improve students' recognition of plagiarism. I found that 148 undergraduate ecology students successfully identified plagiarized…

  18. On-Demand Associative Cross-Language Information Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geraldo, André Pinto; Moreira, Viviane P.; Gonçalves, Marcos A.

    This paper proposes the use of algorithms for mining association rules as an approach for Cross-Language Information Retrieval. These algorithms have been widely used to analyse market basket data. The idea is to map the problem of finding associations between sales items to the problem of finding term translations over a parallel corpus. The proposal was validated by means of experiments using queries in two distinct languages: Portuguese and Finnish to retrieve documents in English. The results show that the performance of our proposed approach is comparable to the performance of the monolingual baseline and to query translation via machine translation, even though these systems employ more complex Natural Language Processing techniques. The combination between machine translation and our approach yielded the best results, even outperforming the monolingual baseline.

  19. Acquisition of Compound Words in Chinese-English Bilingual Children: Decomposition and Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chenxi; Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated compound processing and cross-language activation in a group of Chinese-English bilingual children, and they were divided into four groups based on the language proficiency levels in their two languages. A lexical decision task was designed using compound words in both languages. The compound words in one language contained…

  20. Cross-language influences: translation status affects intraword sense relatedness.

    PubMed

    Degani, Tamar; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Many words have more than one meaning, and these meanings vary in their degree of relatedness. In the present experiment, we examined whether this degree of relatedness is influenced by whether or not the two meanings share a translation in a bilingual's other language. Native English speakers with Spanish as a second language (i.e., English-Spanish bilinguals) and native Spanish speakers with English as a second language (i.e., Spanish-English bilinguals) were presented with pairs of phrases instantiating different senses of ambiguous English words (e.g., dinner date-expiration date) and were asked to decide whether the two senses were related in meaning. Critically, for some pairs of phrases, a single Spanish translation encompassed both meanings of the ambiguous word (joint-translation condition; e.g., mercado in Spanish refers to both a flea market and the housing market), but for others, each sense corresponded to a different Spanish translation (split-translation condition; e.g., cita in Spanish refers to a dinner date, but fecha refers to an expiration date). The proportions of "yes" (related) responses revealed that, relative to monolingual English speakers, Spanish-English bilinguals consider joint-translation senses to be less related than split-translation senses. These findings exemplify semantic cross-language influences from a first to a second language and reveal the semantic structure of the bilingual lexicon. PMID:23658030

  1. The Influence of Cross-Language Similarity on within- and between-Language Stroop Effects in Trilinguals.

    PubMed

    van Heuven, Walter J B; Conklin, Kathy; Coderre, Emily L; Guo, Taomei; Dijkstra, Ton

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated effects of cross-language similarity on within- and between-language Stroop interference and facilitation in three groups of trilinguals. Trilinguals were either proficient in three languages that use the same-script (alphabetic in German-English-Dutch trilinguals), two similar scripts and one different script (Chinese and alphabetic scripts in Chinese-English-Malay trilinguals), or three completely different scripts (Arabic, Chinese, and alphabetic in Uyghur-Chinese-English trilinguals). The results revealed a similar magnitude of within-language Stroop interference for the three groups, whereas between-language interference was modulated by cross-language similarity. For the same-script trilinguals, the within- and between-language interference was similar, whereas the between-language Stroop interference was reduced for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The magnitude of within-language Stroop facilitation was similar across the three groups of trilinguals, but smaller than within-language Stroop interference. Between-language Stroop facilitation was also modulated by cross-language similarity such that these effects became negative for trilinguals with languages written in different scripts. The overall pattern of Stroop interference and facilitation effects can be explained in terms of diverging and converging color and word information across languages. PMID:22180749

  2. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    PubMed

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. PMID:22739066

  3. Foreign Language Reading and Study Abroad: Cross-Cultural and Cross-Linguistic Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taillefer, Gail F.

    2005-01-01

    Little cross-cultural empirical research has been devoted to expectations for academic performance of study abroad (SA) students, particularly in their foreign language (FL) reading. This study explored premobility English and French FL reading comprehension and strategy use in 177 European SA students of law and economics. Our concern was whether…

  4. Plagiarism: An Egregious Form of Misconduct

    PubMed Central

    Juyal, Deepak; Thawani, Vijay; Thaledi, Shweta

    2015-01-01

    Background: Publishing research papers for academic fraternity has become important for career advancement and promotion. Number of publications in peer reviewed journals and subsequent citations are recognized as measures of scientific success. Non-publishing academicians and researchers are invisible to the scientific community. Discussion: With pressure to publish, misconduct has crept into scientific writing with the result that research misconduct, plagiarism, misappropriation of intellectual property, and substantial unattributed textual copying of another's publication have become common. The Office of Research Integrity, USA, defines research misconduct as “fabrication, falsification or plagiarism in proposing, performing or reviewing research, or in reporting research results.” Although plagiarism is difficult to define in few words, it can be viewed as the stealing of another person's ideas, methods, results, or words without giving proper attribution. The Office of Research Integrity defines plagiarism as being “theft or misappropriation of intellectual property and the substantial unattributed textual copying of another's work.” Plagiarism is one of the most vehemently derided breaches of research integrity as it undermines the original and honest contribution to an existing body of knowledge. Conclusion: Plagiarism has many forms viz. blatant plagiarism, technical plagiarism, patchwork plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. In any form, the plagiarism is a threat to the research integrity and is unacceptable. We do need to detect such acts and effectively prosecute the offenders. PMID:25789254

  5. English-Language Learners: Implications of Limited Vocabulary for Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness with Kindergartners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Christie, James; Gorin, Joanna S.; Garcia, Herman S.

    2010-01-01

    Research examined the influence of native vocabulary development on cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness. Participants were Spanish-speaking kindergartners learning English in immersion classrooms. Results indicated that limited Spanish vocabulary development negatively influenced cross-language transfer of phonemic awareness to English.…

  6. The Relationship between Cross-Culture Communication Activities and Student Motivation in Studying Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Hussein Zanaty Mohammed

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the positive impact of second language learners' cross-cultural awareness in the target language. More specifically, the pedagogical desired outcomes include: (1) exploring how students can increase their motivation in learning a foreign language by engaging in the cross-cultural activity "Sister School…

  7. Cross-Language Transfer in English Immersion Programs in Germany: Reading Comprehension and Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Sandra Kristina; Zaunbauer, Anna C. M.; Moller, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects on reading skills are of particular interest in the context of foreign language immersion programs. Although there is an extensive literature on cross-language effects on reading in general, research focusing on immersion students and including different dimensions of reading acquisition such as reading fluency and reading…

  8. Exploring the Further Integration of Machine Translation in English-Chinese Cross Language Information Access

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Dan; He, Daqing

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers. Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…

  9. The Enigma of Cross-Cultural Attitudes in Language Teaching--Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David; O'Neill, Shirley

    2001-01-01

    While the notion that cross-cultural awareness is is considered important in foreign language education, there are few studies that provide information on how language teaching and learning can foster positive cross-cultural attitudes. Discusses a questionnaire that asked learners about their attitudes toward learning languages, migrants, other…

  10. Pluralizing Plagiarism: Identities, Contexts, Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Robillard, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Recent cases have demonstrated that plagiarism is a hot-button issue. It is also pervasive, occurring in universities, four-year colleges, community colleges, secondary schools, graduate programs, international classrooms, multicultural classrooms, writing centers, writing-across-the-curriculum programs, scholarly publications and the popular…

  11. Plagiarism in the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Rebecca Moore; Davies, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    In an age when students gravitate to online sources for research--and when tremendous amounts of both reputable and questionable information are available online--many have come to regard the Internet itself as a culprit in students' plagiarism. Some teachers go so far as to forbid students from researching online, in the mistaken assumption that…

  12. Plagiarism: Can It Be Stopped?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, G. Jay

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be controlled, not stopped. The more appropriate question to ask is: What can be done to encourage students to "cheat" correctly by doing the assignment the way it was intended? Cheating by college students continues to reach epidemic proportions on selected campuses, as witnessed by the recent episode at Central Florida University,…

  13. Plagiarism: What's the Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Brittney; Stith, Danica; Tesdell, Lee S.

    2011-01-01

    In academic culture, plagiarism is considered to be a form of cheating and therefore unethical. Understandably, instructors try to eliminate this kind of unethical behavior from their courses. But what if they designed their assignments and exams in such a way that students would find no reason to cheat? The authors think that it is possible, at…

  14. Cross-Language Analysis and Second Language Acquisition. Volume 1. Jyvaskyla Cross-Language Studies, No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sajavaara, Kari, Ed.

    A collection of 17 papers, most presented at the Fifth International Conference on Contrastive Projects in June 1982 in Finland, includes: "Present Trends in Contrastive Linguistics,""Contrastive Linguistics in Bulgaria,""Communicative Competence in Foreign Language Teaching: A Project Report,""From Traditional Contrastive Linguistics Towards a…

  15. Mouse Click Plagiarism: The Role of Technology in Plagiarism and the Librarian's Role in Combating It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auer, Nicole J.; Krupar, Ellen M.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the growing problem of plagiarism in academia, particularly with Internet-based resources. Topics include factors influencing student behaviors and attitudes toward plagiarism; faculty attitudes; and the role of librarians in helping to prevent and detect plagiarism, including student instruction and forming partnerships with faculty.…

  16. Penguins and Plagiarism: Stemming the Tide of Plagiarism in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism is on the rise on high school and college campuses. There are many reasons why students tend to plagiarize. One of these is that many students are interested in the shortest possible route through a course. Some students also fear that their writing ability is inadequate. If student plagiarism and lack of academic integrity are…

  17. Does the Adoption of Plagiarism-Detection Software in Higher Education Reduce Plagiarism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, students at California State University, Northridge wrote papers that were checked for plagiarism using plagiarism-detection software. In the first study, half of the students in two classes were randomly selected and told by the professor that their term papers would be scanned for plagiarism using the software. Students in the…

  18. Methodological Challenges in Cross-Language Qualitative Research: A Research Review

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Allison

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Cross-language qualitative research occurs when a language barrier is present between researchers and participants. The language barrier is frequently mediated through the use of a translator or interpreter. The purpose of this critical review of cross-language qualitative research was three fold: 1) review the methods literature addressing cross language research; 2) synthesize the methodological recommendations from the literature into a list of criteria that could evaluate how researchers methodologically managed translators and interpreters in their qualitative studies; and 3) test these criteria on published cross-language qualitative studies. Data sources A group of 40 purposively selected cross-language qualitative studies found in nursing and health sciences journals. Review methods The synthesis of the cross-language methods literature produced 14 criteria to evaluate how qualitative researchers managed the language barrier between themselves and their study participants. To test the criteria, the researcher conducted a summative content analysis framed by discourse analysis techniques of the 40 cross-language studies. Results The evaluation showed that only 6 out of 40 studies met all the criteria recommended by the cross-language methods literature for the production of trustworthy results in cross-language qualitative studies. Multiple inconsistencies, reflecting disadvantageous methodological choices by cross-language researchers, appeared in the remaining 33 studies. To name a few, these included rendering the translator or interpreter as an invisible part of the research process, failure to pilot test interview questions in the participant’s language, no description of translator or interpreter credentials, failure to acknowledge translation as a limitation of the study, and inappropriate methodological frameworks for cross-language research. Conclusions The finding about researchers making the role of the translator or interpreter

  19. Measuring students' perceptions of plagiarism: modification and Rasch validation of a plagiarism attitude scale.

    PubMed

    Howard, Steven J; Ehrich, John F; Walton, Russell

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is a significant area of concern in higher education, given university students' high self-reported rates of plagiarism. However, research remains inconsistent in prevalence estimates and suggested precursors of plagiarism. This may be a function of the unclear psychometric properties of the measurement tools adopted. To investigate this, we modified an existing plagiarism scale (to broaden its scope), established its psychometric properties using traditional (EFA, Cronbach's alpha) and modern (Rasch analysis) survey evaluation approaches, and examined results of well-functioning items. Results indicated that traditional and modern psychometric approaches differed in their recommendations. Further, responses indicated that although most respondents acknowledged the seriousness of plagiarism, these attitudes were neither unanimous nor consistent across the range of issues assessed. This study thus provides rigorous psychometric testing of a plagiarism attitude scale and baseline data from which to begin a discussion of contextual, personal, and external factors that influence students' plagiarism attitudes. PMID:25232671

  20. Presenting an Alternative Source Code Plagiarism Detection Framework for Improving the Teaching and Learning of Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hattingh, Frederik; Buitendag, Albertus A. K.; van der Walt, Jacobus S.

    2013-01-01

    The transfer and teaching of programming and programming related skills has become, increasingly difficult on an undergraduate level over the past years. This is partially due to the number of programming languages available as well as access to readily available source code over the Web. Source code plagiarism is common practice amongst many…

  1. Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: Within and Cross-Language Effects on Word Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Geva, Esther; Kiefer, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated within and cross-language effects of morphological awareness on word reading among Spanish-speaking children who were English Language Learners. Participants were 97 Spanish-speaking children in grade 4 and grade 7. Morphological awareness in Spanish and in English was evaluated with two measures of derivational morphology.…

  2. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework…

  3. Judging Plagiarism: A Problem of Morality and Convention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    East, Julianne

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of plagiarism as an issue of morality. Outrage about student plagiarism in universities positions it as dishonesty and a transgression of standards. Despite this, there has been little work analysing the implications of positioning plagiarism as a moral matter in the making of judgments about plagiarism and…

  4. Rapid assessment of assignments using plagiarism detection software.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Whitney R; Abrego, Patricia C

    2011-01-01

    Faculty members most often use plagiarism detection software to detect portions of students' written work that have been copied and/or not attributed to their authors. The rise in plagiarism has led to a parallel rise in software products designed to detect plagiarism. Some of these products are configurable for rapid assessment and teaching, as well as for plagiarism detection. PMID:22024673

  5. Receptive Vocabulary and Cross-Language Transfer of Phonemic Awareness in Kindergarten Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwill, Kim; Blanchard, Jay; Gorin, Joanna S.; Burstein, Karen

    2007-01-01

    The authors investigated the influence of language proficiency on the cross-language transfer (CLT) of phonemic awareness in Spanish-speaking kindergarten students and assessed Spanish and English receptive vocabulary and phonemic awareness abilities. Correlation results indicated positive correlations between phonemic awareness across languages;…

  6. Simulating Cross-Language Priming with a Dynamic Computational Model of the Lexicon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Li, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language priming is a widely used experimental paradigm in psycholinguistics to study how bilinguals' two languages are represented and organized. Researchers have observed a number of interesting patterns from the priming effects of both translation equivalents and semantically related word pairs across languages. In this study, we…

  7. Event Categorisation and Language: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papafragou, Anna; Selimis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that languages differ in how they encode motion. Languages such as English use verbs that communicate the manner of motion (e.g., "slide", "skip"), while languages such as Greek regularly encode motion paths in verbs (e.g., "enter", "ascend"). Here we ask how such cross-linguistic encoding patterns interface with event cognition…

  8. Chinese-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language and Writing System Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Perfetti, Charles A.; Liu, Ying

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated cross-language and writing system relationship in biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read two different writing systems--Chinese and English. Forty-six Mandarin-speaking children were tested for their first language (Chinese-L1) and second language (English-L2) reading skills. Comparable experiments in Chinese…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives. Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 31.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone, Ed.; Hufeisen, Britta, Ed.; Jessner, Ulrike, Ed.

    This volume focuses on the psycholinguistic aspects of language transfer when three languages are in contact, and provides an overview of the state of the art in cross-linguistic influence in third language acquisition. This edited volume contains, in addition to an introduction, ten chapters. Chapter titles include the following: "The Effect of…

  10. Korean-English Biliteracy Acquisition: Cross-Language Phonological and Orthographic Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Min; Park, Yoonjung; Lee, Kyoung Rang

    2006-01-01

    Cross-language phonological and orthographic relationship in the biliteracy acquisition of children learning to read Korean and English was investigated in this study. Forty-five Korean-English bilingual children were tested in first-language (L1; Korean) and 2nd-language (L2; English) reading skills focusing on 2 reading processes--phonological…

  11. Is There Cross-Language Modulation when Bilinguals Process Number Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Herrera, Amparo; Paolieri, Daniela; Roman, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the possibility of cross-language activation when bilinguals process number words in their first language (Italian) and their second language (German). Italian monolinguals (Experiment 1), German monolinguals (Experiment 2), and Italian/German bilinguals (Experiment 3) were required to decide the larger of two number words…

  12. Automatic Student Plagiarism Detection: Future Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozgovoy, Maxim; Kakkonen, Tuomo; Cosma, Georgina

    2010-01-01

    The availability and use of computers in teaching has seen an increase in the rate of plagiarism among students because of the wide availability of electronic texts online. While computer tools that have appeared in recent years are capable of detecting simple forms of plagiarism, such as copy-paste, a number of recent research studies devoted to…

  13. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  14. Scientific Misconduct and the Plagiarism Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrish, Debra

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of scientific misconduct, particularly plagiarism, explores the legal issues and compares the processes by which the Office of Research Integrity and the National Science Foundation conduct investigations and evaluate misconduct allegations. Relationships between allegations of plagiarism, copyright infringement, and theft of…

  15. Source Code Plagiarism--A Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joy, M.; Cosma, G.; Yau, J. Y.-K.; Sinclair, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of source code plagiarism by students within the computing disciplines and reports the results of a survey of students in Computing departments in 18 institutions in the U.K. This survey was designed to investigate how well students understand the concept of source code plagiarism and to discover what, if any,…

  16. Chinese University EFL Teachers' Perceptions of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lei, Jun; Hu, Guangwei

    2015-01-01

    Although Chinese university students' perceptions of plagiarism have been extensively investigated, those of their teachers have been surprisingly under-researched. This study sought to address this gap by investigating 112 Chinese university English teachers' knowledge of and attitudes towards plagiarism. While 57 participating teachers had…

  17. Exploring Staff Perceptions of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Abbi; Clegg, Sue; Macdonald, Ranald

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents analysis of qualitative data from a research project looking at staff perceptions of plagiarism at a post-1992 university. Twenty-six members of staff from departments and academic schools from across the university took part in open and semi-structured interviews. Analysis shows that variable definitions of plagiarism exist;…

  18. Foreign Language Research in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees, Ed.; And Others

    Papers from a conference on empirical research on foreign language instruction in Europe and the United States include: "Foreign Language Instruction and Second Language Acquisition Research in the United States" (Charles A. Fergurson, Thom Huebner); "Empirical Foreign Language Research in Europe" (Theo van Els, Kees de Bot, Bert Weltens);…

  19. The Enigma of Cross-Cultural Attitudes in Language Teaching: Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, David; O'Neill, Shirley

    2002-01-01

    The second part of an article that discussed official policies that foster favorable cross-cultural attitudes though language teaching and described a pilot project undertaken to see whether involvement in foreign language learning was an influential factor in cross-cultural attitudes presents results of the study. (Author/VWL)

  20. Cross-Language Information Retrieval: Experiments Based on CLEF 2000 Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoy, Jacques

    2003-01-01

    Discusses cross-language, multilingual, and bilingual information retrieval on the Web; evaluates retrieval effectiveness of indexing and search strategies based on test collections from CLEF (Cross-Language Evaluation Forum) in English, French, German, and Italian; and suggests and evaluates database merging strategies. Appendices include…

  1. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required. PMID:24785995

  2. Cross-language Activation and the Phonetics of Code-switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccinini, Page Elizabeth

    It is now well established that bilinguals have both languages activated to some degree at all times. This cross-language activation has been documented in several research paradigms, including picture naming, reading, and electrophysiological studies. What is less well understood is how the degree a language is activated can vary in different language environments or contexts. Furthermore, when investigating effects of order of acquisition and language dominance, past research has been mixed, as the two variables are often conflated. In this dissertation, I test how degree of cross-language activation can vary according to context by examining phonetic productions in code-switching speech. Both spontaneous speech and scripted speech are analyzed. Follow-up perception experiments are conducted to see if listeners are able to anticipate language switches, potentially due to the phonetic cues in the signal. Additionally, by focusing on early bilinguals who are L1 Spanish but English dominant, I am able to see what plays a greater role in cross-language activation, order of acquisition or language dominance. I find that speakers do have intermediate phonetic productions in code-switching contexts relative to monolingual contexts. Effects are larger and more consistent in English than Spanish. Similar effects are found in speech perception. Listeners are able to anticipate language switches from English to Spanish but not Spanish to English. Together these results suggest that language dominance is a more important factor than order of acquisition in cross-language activation for early bilinguals. Future models on bilingual language organization and access should take into account both context and language dominance when modeling degrees of cross-language activation.

  3. Auditory and categorical effects on cross-language vowel perception.

    PubMed

    Flege, J E; Munro, M J; Fox, R A

    1994-06-01

    English monolinguals and native Spanish speakers of English rated the dissimilarity of tokens of two Spanish vowel categories, two English vowel categories, or one Spanish and one English vowel category. The dissimilarity ratings of experienced and inexperienced Spanish subjects did not differ significantly. For both the native Spanish and English subjects, perceived dissimilarity increased as the distance between vowels in an F1-F2 acoustic space increased. This supported the existence of a universal, sensory-based component in cross-language vowel perception. The native English and Spanish subjects' ratings were comparable for pairs made up of vowels that were distant in an F1-F2 space, but not for pairs made up of vowels from categories that were adjacent in an F1-F2 space. The inference that the differential classification of a pair of vowels augments perceived dissimilarity was supported by the results of experiment 2, where subjects rated pairs of vowels and participated in an oddity discrimination task. Triads in the oddity task were made up of tokens of vowel categories that were either adjacent (e.g., /a/-/ae/-/a/) or nonadjacent (e.g., /a/-/i/-/i/) in an F1-F2 space. The native English subjects' discrimination was better than the native Spanish subjects' for adjacent but not nonadjacent triads. The better the Spanish subjects performed on adjacent triads--and thus the more likely they were to have differentially classified the two phonetically distinct vowels in the triad--the more dissimilar they had earlier judged realizations of those two categories to be when presented in pairs. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for second language acquisition. PMID:8046152

  4. Cross-Language Intrusion Errors in Aging Bilinguals Reveal the Link Between Executive Control and Language Selection

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Sandoval, Tiffany; Salmon, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Bilinguals outperform monolinguals on measures of executive control, but it is not known how bilingualism introduces these advantages. To address this question, we investigated whether language-control failures increase with aging-related declines in executive control. Eighteen younger and 18 older Spanish-English bilinguals completed a verbal-fluency task, in which they produced words in 18 categories (9 in each language), and a flanker task. Performance on both tasks exhibited robust effects of aging, but cross-language and within-language errors on the verbal-fluency task differed in a number of ways. Within-language errors occurred relatively often and decreased with higher levels of education in both younger and older bilinguals. In contrast, cross-language intrusions (e.g., inadvertently saying an English word on a Spanish-language trial) were rarely produced, were not associated with education level, and were strongly associated with flanker-task errors in older but not younger bilinguals. These results imply that executive control plays a role in maintaining language selection, but they also suggest the presence of independent forces that prevent language-selection errors. PMID:21775653

  5. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  6. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  7. Social influences on unconscious plagiarism and anti-plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Hollins, Timothy J; Lange, Nicholas; Dennis, Ian; Longmore, Christopher A

    2016-08-01

    People are more likely to unconsciously plagiarise ideas from a same-sex partner than a different-sex partner, and more likely to unconsciously plagiarise if recalling alone rather than in the presence of their partner [Macrae, C. N., Bodenhausen, G. V., & Calvini, G. (1999). Contexts of cryptomnesia: May the source be with you. Social Cognition, 17, 273-297. doi: 10.1521/soco.1999.17.3.273 ]. Two sets of experiments explore these phenomena, using extensions of the standard unconscious plagiarism paradigm. In Experiment 1A participants worked together in same- or different-sex dyads before trying to recall their own ideas or their partner's ideas. More source errors were evident for same-sex dyads (Experiment 1A), but this effect was absent when participants recalled from both sources simultaneously (Experiment 1B). In Experiment 2A, participants recalled ideas from a single source either alone or in the presence of the partner, using an extended-recall task. Partner presence did not affect the availability of ideas, but did reduce the propensity to report them as task compliant, relative to a partner-present condition. Simultaneous recall from both sources removed this social effect (Experiment 2B). Thus social influences on unconscious plagiarism are apparent, but are influenced by the salience of the alternate source at retrieval. PMID:26293909

  8. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  9. Cross-Language Activation of Phonology in Young Bilingual Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether children who were learning to read simultaneously in English and French activate phonological representations from only the language in which they are reading or from both of their languages. Children in French Immersion programs in Grade 3 were asked to name aloud cognates, interlingual homographs, interlingual homophones,…

  10. Cross-Sectional Evaluation of English Language Teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuksel, Ismail; Yasin, Elif

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to identify the language teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge and to examine their competency levels in terms of gender, length of service, and workplace. This cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted with 124 language teachers in Eskisehir, Turkey. Participants were administered Technological…

  11. Reviving the "Moments": From Cultural Awareness and Cross-Cultural Mediation to Critical Intercultural Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dasli, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In the field of modern language education, the discourse of intercultural communication has experienced three "moments": "cultural awareness, cross-cultural mediation," and "critical intercultural language pedagogy". The first refers to the equation between culture and country. The second concerns the development of intercultural competence…

  12. A Cross-Curricular Approach to "Learning to Learn" Languages: Government Policy and School Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Vee

    2008-01-01

    This article connects two fields of research: "learning to learn" and school-based teacher development. The context is a cross-curricular project between English and modern languages teachers. Carried out in two London schools, the study aimed to encourage students to transfer common language learning strategies across the two subjects. Findings…

  13. Another Look at Cross-Language Competition in Bilingual Speech Production: Lexical and Phonological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Albert; Colome, Angels; Gomez, Olga; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2003-01-01

    How does lexical selection function in highly-proficient bilingual speakers? What is the role of the non-response language during the course of lexicalization? Evidence of cross-language interference was obtained by Hermans, Bongaerts, De Bot and Schreuder (1998) using the picture-word interference paradigm: participants took longer to name the…

  14. Cross-Language Transfer of Insight into the Structure of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jie; Anderson, Richard C.; Li, Hong; Dong, Qiong; Wu, Xinchun; Zhang, Yan

    2010-01-01

    Cross-language transfer of awareness of the structure of compound words was investigated among native speakers of Chinese who were learning English as a second language. Chinese fifth graders received instruction in the morphology of four types of compound words in either Chinese or English. They then completed both the Chinese and English…

  15. Teaching Languages in College: Communicative Proficiency and Cross-Cultural Issues. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G., Ed.

    A collection of papers concerning college language instruction and exploring issues related to promoting communicative skills and cross-cultural understanding includes the following titles: (1) "Languages at College: The Student and the Curriculum," by W. M. Rivers; (2) "Dimensions of Communicative Proficiency," by A. Ramirez; (3) "Communicative…

  16. Europe: Language Arts around the World, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of European cultures. The units in the book reach diverse needs by…

  17. Cross-Linguistic Differences in the Neural Representation of Human Language: Evidence from Users of Signed Languages

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David P.; Lawyer, Laurel A.; Cates, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Studies of deaf individuals who are users of signed languages have provided profound insight into the neural representation of human language. Case studies of deaf signers who have incurred left- and right-hemisphere damage have shown that left-hemisphere resources are a necessary component of sign language processing. These data suggest that, despite frank differences in the input and output modality of language, core left perisylvian regions universally serve linguistic function. Neuroimaging studies of deaf signers have generally provided support for this claim. However, more fine-tuned studies of linguistic processing in deaf signers are beginning to show evidence of important differences in the representation of signed and spoken languages. In this paper, we provide a critical review of this literature and present compelling evidence for language-specific cortical representations in deaf signers. These data lend support to the claim that the neural representation of language may show substantive cross-linguistic differences. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings with respect to an emerging understanding of the neurobiology of language. PMID:23293624

  18. Combating unethical publications with plagiarism detection services

    PubMed Central

    Garner, H.R.

    2010-01-01

    About 3,000 new citations that are highly similar to citations in previously published manuscripts that appear each year in the biomedical literature (Medline) alone. This underscores the importance for the opportunity for editors and reviewers to have detection system to identify highly similar text in submitted manuscripts so that they can then review them for novelty. New software-based services, both commercial and free, provide this capability. The availability of such tools provides both a way to intercept suspect manuscripts and serve as a deterrent. Unfortunately, the capabilities of these services vary considerably, mainly as a consequence of the availability and completeness of the literature bases to which new queries are compared. Most of the commercial software has been designed for detection of plagiarism in high school and college papers, however, there is at least one fee-based service (CrossRef) and one free service (etblast.org) which are designed to target the needs of the biomedical publication industry. Information on these various services, examples of the type of operability and output, and things that need to be considered by publishers, editors and reviewers before selecting and using these services is provided. PMID:21194644

  19. Cross Context Role of Language Proficiency in Learners' Use of Language Learning Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamalizad, Jalal; Samuel, Moses

    2015-01-01

    Responding to the controversies in the results of past studies regarding the impact of language proficiency on learners' use of language learning strategies, this article reports the effect of language proficiency on the strategy use of Iranian English learners across two different settings, namely ESL Malaysia, and EFL Iran. Some 157 Iranian…

  20. Plagiarism in Personal Statements of Anesthesiology Residency Applicants.

    PubMed

    Parks, Lance J; Sizemore, Daniel C; Johnstone, Robert E

    2016-02-15

    Plagiarism by residency applicants in their personal statements, as well as sites that sell personal statements, have been described, and led in 2011 to advice to avoid plagiarism and the caution that plagiarism detection software was available. We screened personal statements of 467 anesthesiology residency applicants from 2013-2014 using Viper Plagiarism Scanner software, and studied them for plagiarism. After quotes and commonly used phrases were removed, 82 statements contained unoriginal content of 8 or more consecutive words. After the study, 13.6% of personal statements from non-United States medical school graduates, and 4.0% from United States medical school graduates, contained plagiarized material, a significant difference. Plagiarized content ranged up to 58%. Plagiarism continues to occur in anesthesiology residency personal statements, with a higher incidence among graduates of non-United States medical schools. PMID:26462161

  1. Semantic annotation for concept-based cross-language medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Volk, Martin; Ripplinger, Bärbel; Vintar, Spela; Buitelaar, Paul; Raileanu, Diana; Sacaleanu, Bogdan

    2002-12-01

    We present a framework for concept-based cross-language information retrieval in the medical domain, which is under development in the MUCHMORE project. Our approach is based on using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) as the primary source of semantic data. Documents and queries are annotated with multiple layers of linguistic information. Linguistic processing includes part-of-speech tagging, morphological analysis, phrase recognition and the identification of medical terms and semantic relations between them. The paper describes experiments in monolingual and cross-language document retrieval, performed on a corpus of medical abstracts. Results show that linguistic processing, especially lemmatization and compound analysis for German, is a crucial step in achieving a good baseline performance. On the other hand, they show that semantic information, specifically the combined use of concepts and relations, increases the performance in monolingual and cross-language retrieval. PMID:12460635

  2. Cross-Linguistic Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Spanish-Speaking English Language Learners: The Facilitating Effect of Cognate Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Gloria; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Cross-language effects of Spanish derivational awareness on English vocabulary and reading comprehension were studied in Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (N = 90) in grades four and seven. The role of cognate vocabulary in cross-language transfer of derivational awareness was also examined. Multivariate path analyses controlling for age,…

  3. Cross-Modal Bilingualism: Language Contact as Evidence of Linguistic Transfer in Sign Bilingual Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menendez, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    New positive attitudes towards language interaction in the realm of bilingualism open new horizons for sign bilingual education. Plaza-Pust and Morales-Lopez have innovatively reconceptualised a new cross-disciplinary approach to sign bilingualism, based on both sociolinguistics and psycholinguistics. According to this framework, cross-modal…

  4. Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Iranian Learners of English as a Foreign Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talebi, Seyed Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Cross-linguistic transfer studies began from linguistic aspects of language learning and moved to non-linguistic aspects. The intriguing question is whether students are aware of the nature of these cross-linguistic interactions in their minds. For this purpose, a semi-structured interview was conducted with four Iranian university students. It…

  5. Understanding Plagiarism and How It Differs from Copyright Infringement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dames, K. Matthew

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism has become the new piracy. Just as piracy was a few years ago, plagiarism has become the hot, new crime du jour--an act that suggests immorality and often scandal at once. What's more, plagiarism allegations feed into the society's "Candid Camera" mentality--the seemingly insatiable need to uncover wrongdoing. One of the biggest…

  6. Turning to Turnitin to Fight Plagiarism among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batane, Tshepo

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project of the Turnitin plagiarism detection software, which was implemented to determine the impact of the software on the level of plagiarism among University of Botswana (UB) students. Students' assignments were first submitted to the software without their knowledge so as to gauge their level of plagiarism. The…

  7. Perceptions about Plagiarism between Faculty and Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchett, Serene

    2010-01-01

    The problem. Through observation and the review of literature, students often receive inconsistent and vague messages about plagiarism from faculty. Marcoux (2002) and Roig (2001) found a lack of consensus between faculty concerning definitions and forms of plagiarism. Although some students develop skills in order to avoid plagiarism, almost half…

  8. Rational Ignorance in Education: A Field Experiment in Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dee, Thomas S.; Jacob, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    Plagiarism appears to be a common problem among college students, yet there is little evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to minimize plagiarism. This study presents the results of a field experiment that evaluated the effects of a web-based educational tutorial in reducing plagiarism. We found that assignment to the treatment…

  9. Ethical and Unethical Methods of Plagiarism Prevention in Academic Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakhtiyari, Kaveh; Salehi, Hadi; Embi, Mohamed Amin; Shakiba, Masoud; Zavvari, Azam; Shahbazi-Moghadam, Masoomeh; Ebrahim, Nader Ale; Mohammadjafari, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses plagiarism origins, and the ethical solutions to prevent it. It also reviews some unethical approaches, which may be used to decrease the plagiarism rate in academic writings. We propose eight ethical techniques to avoid unconscious and accidental plagiarism in manuscripts without using online systems such as Turnitin and/or…

  10. The Issue of (Software) Plagiarism: A Student View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuda, D.; Navrat, P.; Kovacova, B.; Humay, P.

    2012-01-01

    The issue of plagiarism is discussed in the context of university education in disciplines related to computing. The focus is therefore mainly on software plagiarism. First, however, a case is made for the claim that the most important reason that plagiarism cannot be tolerated lies in the essence of the concept of a university as it is rooted in…

  11. Technology Enhanced Learning and Plagiarism in Entrepreneurship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to explore the relationship between entrepreneurship students' ethical views on plagiarism, their self reported engagement in plagiarism and their participation in an online plagiarism prevention tutorial. Design/methodology/approach: The study is based on a questionnaire administered to 434 undergraduate university…

  12. The Toolbox for Local and Global Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Scherbinin, Vladislav

    2009-01-01

    Digital plagiarism is a problem for educators all over the world. There are many software tools on the market for uncovering digital plagiarism. Most of them can work only with text submissions. In this paper, we present a new architecture for a plagiarism detection tool that can work with many different kinds of digital submissions, from plain or…

  13. The Crime of Plagiarism: A Critique of Literary Property Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Gary Layne

    Understanding the history of plagiarism may put scholars in a position to define plagiarism more precisely and to decide plagiarism disputes involving students and scholars more fairly. The origins of literary property are found in ritual and religious drama. In classical Greece and Rome, literary property began to hold some value for the author.…

  14. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication. Volume XI, Number 2, Fall 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross Currents, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal for interdisciplinary exchange of ideas within the areas of communication, language skills acquisition and instruction, and cross-cultural training and learning includes these articles: "Oral Interactive Testing at a Japanese University" (Eloise Pearson); "Classroom Organisation and the Teacher" (Armand…

  15. Guidelines for conducting rigorous health care psychosocial cross-cultural/language qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Arriaza, Pablo; Nedjat-Haiem, Frances; Lee, Hee Yun; Martin, Shadi S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to synthesize and chronicle the authors' experiences as four bilingual and bicultural researchers, each experienced in conducting cross-cultural/cross-language qualitative research. Through narrative descriptions of experiences with Latinos, Iranians, and Hmong refugees, the authors discuss their rewards, challenges, and methods of enhancing rigor, trustworthiness, and transparency when conducting cross-cultural/cross-language research. The authors discuss and explore how to effectively manage cross-cultural qualitative data, how to effectively use interpreters and translators, how to identify best methods of transcribing data, and the role of creating strong community relationships. The authors provide guidelines for health care professionals to consider when engaging in cross-cultural qualitative research. PMID:25375998

  16. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously. PMID:24392274

  17. Cross-linguistic influence of first language writing systems on brain responses to second language word reading in late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Kim, Jungho; Uchida, Shinya; Miyamoto, Tadao; Yoshimoto, Kei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-09-01

    Introduction How human brains acquire second languages (L2) is one of the fundamental questions in neuroscience and language science. However, it is unclear whether the first language (L1) has a cross-linguistic influence on the processing of L2. Methods Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare brain activities during L2 word reading tasks of phonographic Japanese Kana between two groups of learners of the Japanese language as their L2 and who had different orthographic backgrounds of their L1. For Chinese learners, a L1 of the Chinese language (Hanji) and a L2 of the Japanese Kana differed orthographically, whereas for Korean learners, a L1 of Korean Hangul and a L2 of Japanese Kana were similar. Results Our analysis revealed that, although proficiency and the age of acquisition did not differ between the two groups, Chinese learners showed greater activation of the left middle frontal gyrus than Korean learners during L2 word reading. Conclusion Our results provide evidence that strongly supported the hypothesis that cross-linguistic variations in orthography between L1 and L2 induce differential brain activation during L2 word reading, which has been proposed previously. PMID:24392274

  18. Strange Language. Child Victims under Cross Examination. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Mark; Brennan, Roslin E.

    The experience of the child victim as a courtroom witness in sexual abuse cases is examined in this study of a testing program involving 30 children aged 6 to 15. The purpose of the study was to identify needs not recognized by courts that can be responded to, denied, or exacerbated through language. Based on court transcripts, differences were…

  19. Cross-Pollination -- An Experiment in Language Enrichment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1975-01-01

    Describes an experiment with a second-year class of about 35 pupils in teaching English, French and Indonesian in an interconnected way, involving art and social studies as well as language and literature. Although the experiment is as yet unevaluated, the general effect was considered encouraging. (KM)

  20. The Role of Cross-Language Activation in Syntactic Ambiguity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Li-Hao

    2011-01-01

    There is much evidence demonstrating that bilinguals activate lexical representations from both of their languages in a non-selective manner even in sentence context. Comparatively less research has examined the extent to which bilingual lexical representations interacts with syntactic processing in sentence context. The purpose of this study is…

  1. Negotiating Second-Language Identities in and through Border Crossing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallucci, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe the ways in which two British university students negotiated their identity as second language learners during a year abroad in Italy and the extent to which their struggles helped them to "fit in" into the new social and cultural contexts. Building upon the lived experiences of the two participants, I follow…

  2. Cross-Language Identification of Spanish Consonants in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Marda

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that first language (L1) American English speakers discriminate the Spanish /[alveolar tap]/-/r/ and /[alveolar tap]/-/t/ contrasts significantly better than the /[alveolar tap]/-/d/ contrast, regardless of their proficiency level in Spanish (Rose, 2010a). Therefore, the current study follows the framework of the…

  3. Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Performance: A Cross Language Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Raphiq; Eviatar, Zohar; Aharon-Peretz, Judith

    2007-01-01

    The study examined two questions: (1) do the greater phonological awareness skills of bilinguals affect reading performance; (2) to what extent do the orthographic characteristics of a language influence reading performance and how does this interact with the effects of phonological awareness. We estimated phonological metalinguistic abilities and…

  4. Guidelines on What Constitutes Plagiarism and Electronic Tools to Detect it.

    PubMed

    Luksanapruksa, Panya; Millhouse, Paul W

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is a serious ethical problem among scientific publications. There are various definitions of plagiarism, and the major categories include unintentional (unsuitable paraphrasing or improper citations) and intentional. Intentional plagiarism includes mosaic plagiarism, plagiarism of ideas, plagiarism of text, and self-plagiarism. There are many Web sites and software packages that claim to detect plagiarism effectively. A violation of plagiarism laws can lead to serious consequences including author banning, loss of professional reputation, termination of a position, and even legal action. PMID:26925859

  5. Border Crossings? Exploring the Intersection of Second Language Acquisition, Conversation Analysis, and Foreign Language Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mori, Junko

    2007-01-01

    This article explores recent changes in the landscape of second language acquisition (SLA) and foreign language pedagogical (FLP) research. Firth and Wagner's (1997) proposal for the reconceptualization of SLA has been supported by SLA and FLP researchers who share the sentiment concerning the need for increased attention to social and contextual…

  6. Cross-Language Priming of Word Meaning during Second Language Sentence Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Yanli; Woltz, Dan; Zheng, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The experiment investigated the benefit to second language (L2) sentence comprehension of priming word meanings with brief visual exposure to first language (L1) translation equivalents. Native English speakers learning Mandarin evaluated the validity of aurally presented Mandarin sentences. For selected words in half of the sentences there was…

  7. Language-Specific Developmental Differences in Speech Production: A Cross-Language Acoustic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Fangfang

    2012-01-01

    Speech productions of 40 English- and 40 Japanese-speaking children (aged 2-5) were examined and compared with the speech produced by 20 adult speakers (10 speakers per language). Participants were recorded while repeating words that began with "s" and "sh" sounds. Clear language-specific patterns in adults' speech were found, with English…

  8. International Perspectives on Plagiarism and Considerations for Teaching International Trainees

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees’ scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  9. International perspectives on plagiarism and considerations for teaching international trainees.

    PubMed

    Heitman, Elizabeth; Litewka, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    In the increasingly global community of biomedical science and graduate science education, many US academic researchers work with international trainees whose views on scientific writing and plagiarism can be strikingly different from US norms. Although a growing number of countries and international professional organizations identify plagiarism as research misconduct, many international trainees come from research environments where plagiarism is ill-defined and even commonly practiced. Two research-ethics educators consider current perspectives on plagiarism around the world and contend that US research-training programs should focus on trainees' scientific writing skills and acculturation, not simply on preventing plagiarism. PMID:21194646

  10. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume 7, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutow, Howard L., Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue of a biannual journal devoted to teaching methods and techniques in English as a second language (ESL), with emphasis on a Japanese instructional context, consists of the following articles: (1) "The Missing Element in Foreign Language Communication: Self-Disclosure," by Gertrude Moskowitz; (2) "Seven Clocks: Their Ailments and Their…

  11. Cross Currents: A Journal of Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills. Volume VII, Number 2, 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerry, Ed.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    This issue contains the following articles and book reviews: (1) "Teaching Language to Young Learners," by J. Dennis; (2) "Language Development through Writing," by E. Weiner and L. Smith; (3) "Communicative Interference," by L. Loveday; (4) "Challenges for Curriculum Design," by P. Knowles; (5) "Tapping the Imagination in Advanced ESL…

  12. Recovery of language function in Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia following right basal ganglia hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lee, Boram; Moon, Hyun Im; Lim, Sung Hee; Cho, Hyesuk; Choi, Hyunjoo; Pyun, Sung-Bom

    2016-06-01

    Few studies have investigated language recovery patterns and the mechanisms of crossed bilingual aphasia following a subcortical stroke. In particular, Korean-Japanese crossed bilingual aphasia has not been reported. A 47-year-old, right-handed man was diagnosed with an extensive right basal ganglia hemorrhage. He was bilingual, fluent in both Korean and Japanese. After his stroke, the patient presented with crossed aphasia. We investigated changes in the Korean (L1) and Japanese (L2) language recovery patterns. Both Korean and Japanese versions of the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB) were completed one month after the stroke, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was performed using picture-naming tasks. The WAB showed a paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia, with an aphasia quotient (AQ) of 32 for Korean and 50.6 for Japanese, with Broca's aphasia. The patient scored better in the Japanese version of all domains of the tests. The fMRI study showed left lateralized activation in both language tasks, especially in the inferior frontal gyrus. After six months of language therapy targeting L1, the Korean-WAB score improved significantly, while the Japanese-WAB score showed slight improvement. In this case, the subcortical lesion contributed to crossed bilingual aphasia more highly affecting L1 due to loss of the cortico-subcortical control mechanism in the dominant hemisphere. The paradoxical pattern of bilingual aphasia disappeared after lengthy language therapy targeting L1, and the therapy effect did not transfer to L2. Language recovery in L1 might have been accomplished by reintegrating language networks, including the contralesional language homologue area in the left hemisphere. PMID:26853846

  13. Avoiding plagiarism: guidance for nursing students.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    The pressures of study, diversity of source materials, past assumptions relating to good writing practice, ambiguous writing guidance on best practice and students' insecurity about their reasoning ability, can lead to plagiarism. With the use of source checking software, there is an increased chance that plagiarised work will be identified and investigated, and penalties given. In extreme cases, plagiarised work may be reported to the Nursing and Midwifery Council and professional as well as academic penalties may apply. This article provides information on how students can avoid plagiarism when preparing their coursework for submission. PMID:24568425

  14. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism

  15. Combining Wikipedia-Based Concept Models for Cross-Language Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Benjamin; Klakow, Dietrich

    As a low-cost ressource that is up-to-date, Wikipedia recently gains attention as a means to provide cross-language brigding for information retrieval. Contradictory to a previous study, we show that standard Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) can extract cross-language information that is valuable for IR by simply normalizing the training data. Furthermore, we show that LDA and Explicit Semantic Analysis (ESA) complement each other, yielding significant improvements when combined. Such a combination can significantly contribute to retrieval based on machine translation, especially when query translations contain errors. The experiments were perfomed on the Multext JOC corpus und a CLEF dataset.

  16. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-03-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially similar scientific content

  17. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-05-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  18. From the Board of Editors: on Plagiarism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-04-01

    Dear Colleagues: There has been a significant increase in the number of duplicate submissions and plagiarism cases reported in all major journals, including the journals of the Optical Society of America. Duplicate submissions and plagiarism can take many forms, and all of them are violations of professional ethics, the copyright agreement that an author signs along with the submission of a paper, and OSA's published Author Guidelines. There must be a significant component of new science for a paper to be publishable. The copying of large segments of text from previously published or in-press papers with only minor cosmetic changes is not acceptable and can lead to the rejection of papers. Duplicate submission: Duplicate submission is the most common ethics violation encountered. Duplicate submission is the submission of substantially similar papers to more than one journal. There is a misperception in a small fraction of the scientific community that duplicate submission is acceptable because it sometimes takes a long time to get a paper reviewed and because one of the papers can be withdrawn at any time. This is a clear violation of professional ethics and of the copyright agreement that is signed on submission. Duplicate submission harms the whole community because editors and reviewers waste their time and in the process compound the time it takes to get a paper reviewed for all authors. In cases of duplicate submission, the Editor of the affected OSA journal will consult with the Editor of the other journal involved to determine the proper course of action. Often that action will be the rejection of both papers. Plagiarism: Plagiarism is a serious breach of ethics and is defined as the substantial replication, without attribution, of significant elements of another document already published by the same or other authors. Two types of plagiarism can occur-self-plagiarism and plagiarism from others' works. Self-plagiarism is the publication of substantially

  19. Three treatments for bilingual children with primary language impairment: Examining cross-linguistic and cross-domain effects

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examines the absolute and relative effects of three different treatment programs for school-aged bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition in bilinguals with PLI. Method Fifty-nine school-aged Spanish-English bilingual children with PLI were assigned to receive nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, bilingual (Spanish-English), or deferred treatment. Participants in each of the three active treatments received treatment administered by nationally certified speech-language pathologists. Pre- and post-treatment assessments measured change in nonlinguistic cognitive processing, English, and Spanish skills, and analyses examined change within and across both treatment groups and skill domains. Results All active treatment groups made significant pre- to post-treatment improvement on multiple outcome measures. There were fewer significant changes in Spanish than in English across groups. Between group comparisons indicate that the active treatment groups generally outperformed the deferred treatment control, reaching statistical significance for two tasks. Conclusions Results provide insight into cross-language transfer in bilingual children and advance understanding of the general PLI profile with respect to relationships between basic cognitive processing and higher level language skills. PMID:23900032

  20. Reexamining the language account of cross-national differences in base-10 number representations.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Marina; Laski, Elida V; Ermakova, Anna; Lai, Weng-Feng; Jeong, Yoonkyung; Hachigian, Amy

    2015-01-01

    East Asian students consistently outperform students from other nations in mathematics. One explanation for this advantage is a language account; East Asian languages, unlike most Western languages, provide cues about the base-10 structure of multi-digit numbers, facilitating the development of base-10 number representations. To test this view, the current study examined how kindergartners represented two-digit numbers using single unit-blocks and ten-blocks. The participants (N=272) were from four language groups (Korean, Mandarin, English, and Russian) that vary in the extent of "transparency" of the base-10 structure. In contrast to previous findings with older children, kindergartners showed no cross-language variability in the frequency of producing base-10 representations. Furthermore, they showed a pattern of within-language variability that was not consistent with the language account and was likely attributable to experiential factors. These findings suggest that language might not play as critical a role in the development of base-10 representations as suggested in earlier research. PMID:25240152

  1. Plagiarism within Extension: Origin and Current Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Dora

    2011-01-01

    Extension publication editors from around the United States are finding cases of plagiarism within manuscripts that Extension educators submit as new public education materials. When editors confront such educators with the problem, some don't understand it as such, rationalizing that reproducing published information for a new purpose qualifies…

  2. Reflections on the Cultural Climate of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willen, Matthew S.

    2004-01-01

    If frequiency of e-mail distribution is any indication, college professors and administrators indeed took notice of last fall's article in the New York Times, "A Campus Fad That's Being Copied: Internet Plagiarism" (Rimer 2003), on Rutgers Professor Donald L. McCabe's recent study of cheating in college and universities. Four copies of the…

  3. Plagiarism and the Internet: Turning the Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkins, Thomas; Nelson, Gene

    2001-01-01

    Notes the problem of Net-based plagiarism in student papers. Describes a solution that turns the tables by using the Internet: TurnItIn.com, an Internet scanner that annotates/marks unattributed material in student papers and compiles a report for the teacher overnight. (SR)

  4. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  5. Unintended Lessons: Plagiarism and the University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carol C.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism, like other ethical problems, flourishes in atmospheres with few consequences. The finding by one survey that only 27% of college students thought cutting and pasting someone else's work was "serious cheating" is troubling evidence of student inclination to cut corners ethically. Papers are easily copied from the Internet, and adult…

  6. Plagiarism: What Don't They Know?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelker, Troy A.; Love, Leonard G.; Pentina, Iryna

    2012-01-01

    The present economic environment is beneficial for universities and schools of business that are experiencing significant enrollment increases. But just as the U.S. economy is suffering from an economic recession, universities increasingly suffer from an integrity recession. Student academic misconduct, particularly plagiarism, is at an all-time…

  7. Academic Integrity and Plagiarism: Australasian Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews nearly 80 published items concerned with promoting academic integrity and reducing plagiarism. Nearly all of them were published in the last seven years and have authors based in Australasia. Most of them have authors from computing departments and many were published in computing journals or presented at computing conferences.…

  8. Plagiarism and Academic Writing of NNS Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCastro, Virginia; Masuko, Mayumi

    A study investigated attitudes toward and practices of plagiarism of Japanese college students writing in English. Data were drawn from two senior theses written in English and two in Japanese, 30 other student academic papers, interviews with students, and a questionnaire administered to 46 undergraduate and graduate students. In both…

  9. Plagiarism: Do Students Know What It Is?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Maureen M.; Overfield, Joyce A.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of students to plagiarise coursework assessments has been a topic of much debate in recent years. The consequences of plagiarism for students may be devastating, since their failure to learn and use appropriate study skills will affect both their university experience and their subsequent career. This project set out to investigate…

  10. Cross-language comparisons of contextual variation in the production and perception of vowels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strange, Winifred

    2005-04-01

    In the last two decades, a considerable amount of research has investigated second-language (L2) learners problems with perception and production of non-native vowels. Most studies have been conducted using stimuli in which the vowels are produced and presented in simple, citation-form (lists) monosyllabic or disyllabic utterances. In my laboratory, we have investigated the spectral (static/dynamic formant patterns) and temporal (syllable duration) variation in vowel productions as a function of speech-style (list/sentence utterances), speaking rate (normal/rapid), sentence focus (narrow focus/post-focus) and phonetic context (voicing/place of surrounding consonants). Data will be presented for a set of languages that include large and small vowel inventories, stress-, syllable-, and mora-timed prosody, and that vary in the phonological/phonetic function of vowel length, diphthongization, and palatalization. Results show language-specific patterns of contextual variation that affect the cross-language acoustic similarity of vowels. Research on cross-language patterns of perceived phonetic similarity by naive listeners suggests that listener's knowledge of native language (L1) patterns of contextual variation influences their L1/L2 similarity judgments and subsequently, their discrimination of L2 contrasts. Implications of these findings for assessing L2 learners perception of vowels and for developing laboratory training procedures to improve L2 vowel perception will be discussed. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  11. Language Crossings: Negotiating the Self in a Multicultural World. Language and Literacy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogulnick, Karen, Ed.

    This book includes 25 papers in 5 parts. Part 1, "Dislocations," includes (1) "Puzzle" (Myrna Nieves); (2) "No Language To Die In" (Greta Hofmann Nemiroff); (3) "Here's Your Change 'N Enjoy the Show" (Verena Stefan); (4) "The Vagabond Years" (Elizabeth Dykman); (5) "From Bayamon to Brooklyn" (Rita E. Negron Maslanek); (6) "Writing for Effect"…

  12. One World, Two Languages: Cross-Language Semantic Priming in Bilingual Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Leher

    2014-01-01

    The interconnectedness of bilingual memory remains a topic of great debate. Semantic priming provides a powerful methodological tool with which to investigate this issue in early bilingual toddlers. Semantic priming effects were investigated in 21 bilingual toddlers (2.5 years) within and across each of their languages. Results revealed the first…

  13. Morphological learning in a novel language: A cross-language comparison.

    PubMed

    Havas, Viktória; Waris, Otto; Vaquero, Lucía; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Laine, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Being able to extract and interpret the internal structure of complex word forms such as the English word dance+r+s is crucial for successful language learning. We examined whether the ability to extract morphological information during word learning is affected by the morphological features of one's native tongue. Spanish and Finnish adult participants performed a word-picture associative learning task in an artificial language where the target words included a suffix marking the gender of the corresponding animate object. The short exposure phase was followed by a word recognition task and a generalization task for the suffix. The participants' native tongues vary greatly in terms of morphological structure, leading to two opposing hypotheses. On the one hand, Spanish speakers may be more effective in identifying gender in a novel language because this feature is present in Spanish but not in Finnish. On the other hand, Finnish speakers may have an advantage as the abundance of bound morphemes in their language calls for continuous morphological decomposition. The results support the latter alternative, suggesting that lifelong experience on morphological decomposition provides an advantage in novel morphological learning. PMID:25396284

  14. Cultural Competence and Identity in Cross-Cultural Adaptation: The Role of a Vietnamese Heritage Language School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maloof, Valerie Miller; Rubin, Donald L.; Miller, Ann Neville

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines the role of a Vietnamese heritage language school in cross-cultural adaptation, as operationalised by the confluence of two independent variables, language competence and integrated cultural identity. To characterise the students' language competencies and degree of integrated cultural identities, interview…

  15. Conquering the Babel: Cross-Language Information Retrieval on the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jian

    2000-01-01

    Presents abstracts of a session that discussed cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) on the World Wide Web. Topics include CLIR research in Chinese-English, German-English, and Japanese-English involving machine translation, semantic indexing, domain concepts, integrating new technologies, large-scale multilingual lexicons, and international…

  16. Cross-Language Transfer of Morphological Awareness in Chinese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Lam, Katie; Luo, Yang C.; Ramirez, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This study examined cross-language transfer of morphological awareness in Chinese-English bilingual children. One hundred and thirty-seven first to fourth graders participated in the study. The children were tested on parallel measures of compound awareness, vocabulary, word reading and reading comprehension in Chinese and English. They also…

  17. A Cross-Cultural Survey of Students' Expectations of Foreign Language Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banno, Eri

    2003-01-01

    Investigates university students' expectations of foreign language teachers cross-culturally. Japanese, American, and Chinese college students chose five important qualities in a teacher from a list. Results indicate that students of all groups placed importance on some qualities, and that Japanese and Chinese students had some similar…

  18. The Potential of Dual-Language Cross-Cultural Peer Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Todd

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential of dual-language cross-cultural peer review and how it improves on traditional monolingual and monocultural peer review. Drawing on scholarship related to international exchange programmes, peer review, and two-way immersion programmes in the United States as well as data collected while facilitating the…

  19. Intriguing Animals. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume IV. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on intriguing animals that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  20. Persistence of Emphasis in Language Production: A Cross-Linguistic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernolet, Sarah; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Pickering, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the way in which speakers determine which aspects of an utterance to emphasize and how this affects the form of utterances. To do this, we ask whether the binding between emphasis and thematic roles persists between utterances. In one within-language (Dutch-Dutch) and three cross-linguistic (Dutch-English) structural…

  1. People Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume V. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on "people around us" that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  2. Our Environment. Language Arts Theme Units, Volume I. Cross Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the primary grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units on the environment that reach diverse needs by working through emotional memory, deductive reasoning, and multiple intelligences.…

  3. Transmigrant Women in the US: Border Crossing Narratives, Identity, Spirituality, and Language & Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nidever-Jordan, Sherilynn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how transmigrant women living in the US encounter the border crossing and settlement experience, as well as how these experiences, gender, spirituality, and residence in the US have impacted their identity construction and reconstruction and their language and literacy practices. In my feminist narrative…

  4. Development of a Cross-Platform Ubiquitous Language Learning Service via Mobile Phone and Interactive Television

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallahkhair, Sanaz; Pemberton, L.; Griffiths, R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the development processes for a cross-platform ubiquitous language learning service via interactive television (iTV) and mobile phone. Adapting a learner-centred design methodology, a number of requirements were gathered from multiple sources that were subsequently used in TAMALLE (television and mobile phone assisted language…

  5. Language Factors Associated with Achievement Grouping in Math Classrooms: A Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mido; Singh, Kusum; Filer, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The study examines the effects of classroom achievement grouping (AG) practices on the early mathematics performance of language-minority students and compares their mathematics achievement to that of English-speaking majority students. Using a nationally representative database of the USA, both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were done.…

  6. Cross-language parafoveal semantic processing: Evidence from Korean-Chinese bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiping; Yeon, Junmo; Zhou, Wei; Shu, Hua; Yan, Ming

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we aimed at testing cross-language cognate and semantic preview effects. We tested how native Korean readers who learned Chinese as a second language make use of the parafoveal information during the reading of Chinese sentences. There were 3 types of Korean preview words: cognate translations of the Chinese target words, semantically related noncognate words, and unrelated words. Together with a highly significant cognate preview effect, more critically, we also observed reliable facilitation in processing of the target word from the semantically related previews in all fixation measures. Results from the present study provide first evidence for semantic processing from parafoveally presented Korean words and for cross-language parafoveal semantic processing. PMID:26122894

  7. Overcoming terminology barrier using Web resources for cross-language medical information retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wen-Hsiang; Lin, Ray Shih-Jui; Chan, Yi-Che; Chen, Kuan-Hsi

    2006-01-01

    A number of authoritative medical websites, such as PubMed and MedlinePlus, provide consumers with the most up-to-date health information. However, non-English speakers often encounter not only language barriers (from other languages to English) but also terminology barriers (from laypersons inverted exclamation mark| terms to professional medical terms) when retrieving information from these websites. Our previous work address language barriers by developing a multilingual medical thesaurus, Chinese-English MeSH, while this study presents an approach to overcome terminology barriers based on Web resources. Two techniques were utilized in our approach: monolingual concept mapping using approximate string matching and crosslingual concept mapping using Web resources. The evaluation shows that our approach can significantly improve the performance on MeSH concept mapping and cross-language medical information retrieval. PMID:17238395

  8. Bilingual children: cross-sectional relations of psychiatric syndrome severity and dual language proficiency.

    PubMed

    Toppelberg, Claudio O; Nieto-Castañon, Alfonso; Hauser, Stuart T

    2006-01-01

    The severity of child psychiatric disorders is commonly associated with child language delays. However, the characteristics of these associations in the fast-growing population of bilingual children remain unknown. To begin to address this gap, we studied a unique sample of Spanish-English bilingual children with significant parent-reported psychopathology (n = 29), focusing on their language proficiencies and psychiatric severity using the Child Behavior Check List. We present cross-sectional analyses of associations of general and specific language proficiency in Spanish and English with the severity of specific psychiatric syndromes. We found Spanish language-proficiency scores to have negative correlations with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly externalizing (i.e., delinquency and aggression) symptoms (r = -.38 to -.61, p < or = .05). English scores were similarly associated. Dual language tests covering multiple specific language dimensions explained a large proportion (51%) of overall variance in aggression symptoms and also important proportions (40%) of total and attentional symptoms. While children's proficiency levels in both Spanish and English showed similar associations with the symptom severity measures (explaining close to 20% of the symptom variance; r(sp) = -.44, p < .01), these proficiency levels explain nonconverging variance in children's symptomatology. The findings suggest that clinical evaluation of language functioning is often needed in such populations and that it should be comprehensive and include both languages. Such thorough evaluation of bilingual children suffering from psychopathology will help us to precisely identify (1) language deficits, (2) specific relations of these deficits to the child's psychopathology, (3) differential implications of communication at home (e.g., in Spanish) and at school (e.g., in English) for clinical presentation and the child's competence in those differing contexts, and (4) language

  9. Cross Currents: A Journal of Language Teaching and Cross-Cultural Communication, Volume XI, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasky, Andrew, Ed.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This issue of the biannual journal of the Language Institute of Japan contains, in addition to book reviews, conference listings, and other announcements, these articles: "Teaching Literature with Cognitive Counseling" (Wayne Pounds); "Extending the Scope of ESL Software for Advanced Students" (Hiroko Wagner); "Psycholinguistics and Listening…

  10. Cross Currents: A Journal of Communication/Language/Cross-Cultural Skills, Volume VIII, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Gerry, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    This number of a journal devoted to ideas for teachers of English as a second language (ESL) contains the following articles: (1) "Using Authentic Discourse in Teaching the Conditional" by Helen Hoyt Schmidt, (2) "Better Communication through Summarizations" by John Battaglia, (3) "A Look at Discourse Analysis" by Virginia LoCastro, (4) "'Katakana…

  11. Perceptions of Plagiarism by STEM Graduate Students: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Michelle; Schwieder, David; Buhler, Amy; Bennett, Denise Beaubien; Royster, Melody

    2015-12-01

    Issues of academic integrity, specifically knowledge of, perceptions and attitudes toward plagiarism, are well documented in post-secondary settings using case studies for specific courses, recording discourse with focus groups, analyzing cross-cultural education philosophies, and reviewing the current literature. In this paper, the authors examine the perceptions of graduate students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines at the University of Florida regarding misconduct and integrity issues. Results revealed students' perceptions of the definition and seriousness of potential academic misconduct, knowledge of institutional procedures, and views on faculty actions, all with a focus on divergences between U.S. and internationally-educated students. The open-ended questions provide anecdotal evidence to highlight personal experiences, positive and negative, aimed at the faculty, international students and undergraduates. Combined, these findings outline an important part of the campus academic integrity culture at a major American university. Recommendations for local actions also are discussed. PMID:25377005

  12. BabelMeSH: development of a cross-language tool for MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Ackerman, Michael; Fontelo, Paul

    2006-01-01

    BabelMeSH is a cross-language tool for searching MEDLINE/PubMed. Queries can be submitted as single terms or complex phrases in French, Spanish and Portuguese. Citations will be sent to the user in English. It uses a smart parser interface with a medical terms database in MySQL. Preliminary evaluation using compound key words in foreign language medical journals showed an accuracy of 68%, 60% and 51% for French, Spanish and Portuguese, respectively. Development is continuing. PMID:17238631

  13. Experiments with Cross-Language Information Retrieval on a Health Portal for Psychology and Psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Andrenucci, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have been performed within cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) in the field of psychology and psychotherapy. The aim of this paper is to to analyze and assess the quality of available query translation methods for CLIR on a health portal for psychology. A test base of 100 user queries, 50 Multi Word Units (WUs) and 50 Single WUs, was used. Swedish was the source language and English the target language. Query translation methods based on machine translation (MT) and dictionary look-up were utilized in order to submit query translations to two search engines: Google Site Search and Quick Ask. Standard IR evaluation measures and a qualitative analysis were utilized to assess the results. The lexicon extracted with word alignment of the portal's parallel corpus provided better statistical results among dictionary look-ups. Google Translate provided more linguistically correct translations overall and also delivered better retrieval results in MT. PMID:27577345

  14. Language Re-Use among Chinese Apprentice Scientists Writing for Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John; Li, Yongyan

    2007-01-01

    Plagiarism has been a topic of considerable discussion in Applied Linguistics. In the literature on plagiarism a distinction can be found between the taking of the ideas of others and the taking of others' words. In this paper the focus is on the latter, which is referred to as "language re-use". Specifically, the study focuses on the practices…

  15. Intelligent Bar Chart Plagiarism Detection in Documents

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dabbagh, Mohammed Mumtaz; Salim, Naomie; Alkawaz, Mohammed Hazim; Saba, Tanzila; Al-Rodhaan, Mznah; Al-Dhelaan, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel features mining approach from documents that could not be mined via optical character recognition (OCR). By identifying the intimate relationship between the text and graphical components, the proposed technique pulls out the Start, End, and Exact values for each bar. Furthermore, the word 2-gram and Euclidean distance methods are used to accurately detect and determine plagiarism in bar charts. PMID:25309952

  16. Legality, Quality Assurance and Learning: Competing Discourses of Plagiarism Management in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In universities around the world, plagiarism management is an ongoing issue of quality assurance and risk management. Plagiarism management discourses are often framed by legal concepts of authorial rights, and plagiarism policies outline penalties for infringement. Learning and teaching discourses argue that plagiarism management is, and should…

  17. Addressing Plagiarism in Online Programmes at a Health Sciences University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing, Helen; Anast, Ade; Roehling, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern for all educational institutions. To build a solid foundation for high academic standards and best practices at a graduate university, aspects of plagiarism were reviewed to develop better management processes for reducing plagiarism. Specifically, the prevalence of plagiarism and software programmes for…

  18. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  19. Experiments in cross-language medical information retrieval using a mixing translation module.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tuan D; Garcelon, Nicolas; Burgun, Anita; Le Beux, Pierre

    2004-01-01

    Given the ever-increasing scale and diversity of medical literature widely published in English on the Internet, improving the performance of information retrieval by cross-language is an urgent research objective. Cross-language medical information retrieval (CLMIR) consists of providing a query in one language and searching medical document collections in one or more different languages. Our users of CLMIR are users who are able to read biomedical texts in English, but have difficulty formulating English queries. This paper proposes a French/English CLMIR system as a mixing model for supporting the retrieval of English medical documents. Methods fall into the category of query translation approach in which we use a hybrid machine translation that combines a pattern-based module with a rule-based translator and includes three steps from pre- to- post-translation. In parallel to this hybrid machine translation, we use multilingual UMLS Methasaurus as a complementary translator. The results show that using a mixing translation module outperforms machine translation-based method and thesaurus-based method used separately. PMID:15360952

  20. Executive control modulates cross-language lexical activation during L2 reading: evidence from eye movements.

    PubMed

    Pivneva, Irina; Mercier, Julie; Titone, Debra

    2014-05-01

    Models of bilingual reading such as Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (Dijkstra & van Heuven, 2002) do not predict a central role for domain-general executive control during bilingual reading, in contrast with bilingual models from other domains, such as production (e.g., the Inhibitory Control Model; Green, 1998). We thus investigated whether individual differences among bilinguals in domain-general executive control modulate cross-language activation during L2 sentence reading, over and above other factors such as L2 proficiency. Fifty French-English bilinguals read L2-English sentences while their eye movements were recorded, and they subsequently completed a battery of executive control and L2 proficiency tasks. High- and low-constraint sentences contained interlingual homographs (chat = "casual conversation" in English, "a cat" in French), cognates (piano in English and French), or L2-specific control words. The results showed that greater executive control among bilinguals but not L2 proficiency reduced cross-language activation in terms of interlingual homograph interference. In contrast, increased L2 proficiency but not executive control reduced cross-language activation in terms of cognate facilitation. These results suggest that models of bilingual reading must incorporate mechanisms by which domain-general executive control can alter the earliest stages of bilingual lexical activation. PMID:24446754

  1. Influences of listeners' native and other dialects on cross-language vowel perception.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel; Escudero, Paola

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines to what extent acoustic similarity between native and non-native vowels predicts non-native vowel perception and whether this process is influenced by listeners' native and other non-native dialects. Listeners with Northern and Southern British English dialects completed a perceptual assimilation task in which they categorized tokens of 15 Dutch vowels in terms of English vowel categories. While the cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to English vowels largely predicted Southern listeners' perceptual assimilation patterns, this was not the case for Northern listeners, whose assimilation patterns resembled those of Southern listeners for all but three Dutch vowels. The cross-language acoustic similarity of Dutch vowels to Northern English vowels was re-examined by incorporating Southern English tokens, which resulted in considerable improvements in the predicting power of cross-language acoustic similarity. This suggests that Northern listeners' assimilation of Dutch vowels to English vowels was influenced by knowledge of both native Northern and non-native Southern English vowel categories. The implications of these findings for theories of non-native speech perception are discussed. PMID:25339921

  2. Plagiarism Litigation Trends in the USA and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.; Cumming, J. Joy

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the increasing complexity of plagiarism litigation in the USA and Australia. Plagiarism has always been a serious academic issue and academic staff and students have wrestled with its definition and appropriate penalties for some time. However, the advent of the Internet and more freely accessible information resources,…

  3. Online Plagiarism Detection Services--Saviour or Scourge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, Lucy

    2006-01-01

    Although the exponential growth of the Internet has made it easier than ever to carry out plagiarism, it has also made it much easier to detect. This paper gives an overview of the many different methods of detecting web-based plagiarism which are currently available, assessing practical matters such as cost, functionality and performance.…

  4. Combating plagiarism: the role of the health librarian.

    PubMed

    Spring, Hannah; Adams, Rachel

    2013-12-01

    This feature looks at the issue of plagiarism in health care students and the role of the health librarian in combating the problem. In particular, consideration is given to how plagiarism can occur and provides some examples from two UK universities of approaches health librarians can take in supporting students to avoid these common pitfalls. PMID:24251896

  5. Plagiarism Detection Algorithm for Source Code in Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Chan; Ouyang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer programming is getting more necessary in the course of program design in college education. However, the trick of plagiarizing plus a little modification exists among some students' home works. It's not easy for teachers to judge if there's plagiarizing in source code or not. Traditional detection algorithms cannot fit this…

  6. Using Computer Simulations and Games to Prevent Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elizabeth G.

    2015-01-01

    In this increasingly digital age, student plagiarism is rampant. Roughly half of college students admit to plagiarizing using content found online, directly copying and pasting the work of others. Digital technology and social media have greatly changed the landscape of how knowledge is acquired and disseminated; thus, students must be explicitly…

  7. Decreasing Plagiarism: What Works and What Doesn't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houtman, Anne M.; Walker, Sean

    2010-01-01

    The authors tested the predictions of a game theory model of plagiarism, using a test population of student papers submitted to an online plagiarism detection program, over five semesters in a non-majors biology course with multiple sections and high enrollment. Consistent with the model, as the probability of detection and the penalty if caught…

  8. Pandora's Box: Academic Perceptions of Student Plagiarism in Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Plagiarism is viewed by many academics as a kind of Pandora's box--the elements contained inside are too frightening to allow escape for fear of the havoc that may result. Reluctance by academic members of staff to discuss student plagiarism openly may contribute to the often untenable situations we, as teachers, face when dealing with student…

  9. The Anatomy of a Plagiarism Initiative: One Library's Campus Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madray, Amrita

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism in media and print continues to be a major issue for professors, librarians, and students. Through initiatives and outreach from the B. Davis Memorial Library at the C. W. Post Campus of Long Island University, plagiarism Web sites have been created and workshops and programs continually provided for faculty and students to detect,…

  10. A Strategy to Reduce Plagiarism in an Undergraduate Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belter, Ronald W.; du Pre, Athena

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated how effective an online academic integrity module was at reducing the occurrence of plagiarism in a written assignment for a university course. In a preintervention comparison group, plagiarism was detected in 25.8% of papers submitted, compared with only 6.5% in the group that completed the academic integrity module. The…

  11. Turnitin Systems: A Deterrent to Plagiarism in College Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckler, Nina C.; Rice, Margaret; Bryan, C. Hobson

    2013-01-01

    Computer technology and the Internet now make plagiarism an easier enterprise. As a result, faculty must be more diligent in their efforts to mitigate the practice of academic integrity, and institutions of higher education must provide the leadership and support to ensure the context for it. This study explored the use of a plagiarism detection…

  12. Arresting Student Plagiarism: Are We Investigators or Educators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Lajuan

    2011-01-01

    Managing student plagiarism can cause instructors to feel as if they are serving educational institutions in the role of investigator rather than educator. Since many educators continue to struggle with the issue of student plagiarism, the author interviewed some of her colleagues. In this article, she shares her and her colleagues' antiplagiarism…

  13. Protecting Student Intellectual Property in Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Barber, Craig

    2012-01-01

    The rapid development of the Internet along with increasing computer literacy has made it easy and tempting for digital natives to copy-paste someone's work. Plagiarism is now a burning issue in education, industry and even in the research community. In this study, the authors concentrate on plagiarism detection with particular focus on the…

  14. Reducing Plagiarism by Using Online Software: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kose, Ozgur; Arikan, Arda

    2011-01-01

    This action research attempts to explore the perceptions of Turkish university students on plagiarism while evaluating the effectiveness of an online application used to deter plagiarism. The participants were 40 first year university students studying in two different sections of an academic writing class. The findings show that the participants…

  15. Realigning the Focus of Plagiarism Detection Using "Plagiarismdetect.com"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabapathy, Elangkeeran A/L; Rahim, Rozlan Abd; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the extent to which "plagiarismdetect.com," an internet help/tool to detect plagiarism helps academicians tackle the ever-growing problem of plagiarism. Concerned with term papers, essays and most of the time with full-blown research reports, a tool like "plagiarismdetect.com" may…

  16. Grade Expectations: Mapping Stakeholder Views of Online Plagiarism Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashe, Diana; Manning, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    Based upon a pilot study of the leading online plagiarism detection service, this article examines the views of faculty and students as the main stakeholders in the controversy over online plagiarism detection. Rather than give advice outside of a specific institutional context, this study offers an understanding of the reasoning that informs the…

  17. Plagiarism, Enclosure, and the Commons of the Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scurrah, William L.

    When discussing plagiarism and cheating these days, college faculty seem to find themselves using the rhetoric of crime and punishment ("It's easier to steal from the Internet") on their students rather than a rhetoric more attuned to their actual mission. A short overview in this paper of the history of plagiarism and the development of the…

  18. Instructor Perceptions of Plagiarism: Are We Finding Common Ground?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Kymberley K.; Behrendt, Linda S.; Boothby, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined instructor views of what constitutes plagiarism. The authors collected questionnaire data from 158 participants recruited through three teaching-related electronic listservs. Results showed that most participants agreed that behaviors that claim credit for someone else's work constituted plagiarism. Instructors differed in…

  19. Online Plagiarism Training Falls Short in Biology Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Emily A.; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students’ ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time. PMID:24591507

  20. Don't Let Students "Overlook" Internet Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugeja, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism involves stealing or closely imitating another's written, creative, electronic, photographed, taped, or promotional or research work, identifying it as your own without permission or authorization. In this article, the author presents a primer discussion of plagiarism prevention in middle school throughout high school. Among other…

  1. Teaching Students about Plagiarism Using a Web-Based Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetter, Maria Earman

    2013-01-01

    The following research delivered a web-based module about plagiarism and paraphrasing to avoid plagiarism in both a blended method, with live instruction paired with web presentation for 105 students, and a separate web-only method for 22 other students. Participants were graduates and undergraduates preparing to become teachers, the majority of…

  2. Good intentions: providing students with skills to avoid accidental plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Zafron, Michelle L

    2012-01-01

    This article explores one librarian's experience with creating and implementing a plagiarism seminar as part of the library liaison program to the School of Public Health and Health Professions at the University at Buffalo. The changes and evolution of the seminar over several iterations are described. This article also examines student perceptions, misperceptions, and reactions to the plagiarism workshop. PMID:22559185

  3. Online plagiarism training falls short in biology classrooms.

    PubMed

    Holt, Emily A; Fagerheim, Britt; Durham, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Online plagiarism tutorials are increasingly popular in higher education, as faculty and staff try to curb the plagiarism epidemic. Yet no research has validated the efficacy of such tools in minimizing plagiarism in the sciences. Our study compared three plagiarism-avoidance training regimens (i.e., no training, online tutorial, or homework assignment) and their impacts on students' ability to accurately discriminate plagiarism from text that is properly quoted, paraphrased, and attributed. Using pre- and postsurveys of 173 undergraduate students in three general ecology courses, we found that students given the homework assignment had far greater success in identifying plagiarism or the lack thereof compared with students given no training. In general, students trained with the homework assignment more successfully identified plagiarism than did students trained with the online tutorial. We also found that the summative assessment associated with the plagiarism-avoidance training formats (i.e., homework grade and online tutorial assessment score) did not correlate with student improvement on surveys through time. PMID:24591507

  4. Application of Plagiarism Screening Software in the Chemical Engineering Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Matthew E.; Bullard, Lisa G.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism is an area of increasing concern for written ChE assignments, such as laboratory and design reports, due to ease of access to text and other materials via the internet. This study examines the application of plagiarism screening software to four courses in a university chemical engineering curriculum. The effectiveness of plagiarism…

  5. Applying an Employee-Motivation Model to Prevent Student Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Sims, Randi L.

    1996-01-01

    A model based on Vroom's expectancy theory of employee motivation posits that instructors can prevent plagiarism by ensuring that students understand the rules of ethical writing, expect assignments to be manageable and have personal benefits, and expect plagiarism to be difficult and have important personal costs. (SK)

  6. Fighting Plagiarism: Taking the Work out of Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villano, Matt

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the rise of cut-and-paste plagiarism in schools. Students are constantly searching for essays online, however, they did not know that their teachers are using the same technology to catch them cheating. Plagiarism is happening on campuses nationwide. Yet, with veritable libraries at their fingertips, students see nothing…

  7. The Thieves of Academe: Plagiarism in the University System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Christopher S.

    1984-01-01

    The problem of literary piracy at the collegiate level was examined in an exploratory study. Forms of plagiarism, especially term paper mills; student attitudes toward plagiarism; approaches to dealing with the problem; and measures educators can take to address the problem in the classroom are discussed. (MLW)

  8. More Heat than Light: Plagiarism in Its Appearing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Sue; Flint, Abbi

    2006-01-01

    This paper argues that the recent debate about plagiarism has taken on aspects of a moral panic, which reflects underlying anxieties about the state of higher education in the United Kingdom. In contrast to the moral absolutism of some commentators, we argue for the significance of posing the phenomenological question of "what is plagiarism in its…

  9. Assessing prosodic skills in five European languages: cross-linguistic differences in typical and atypical populations.

    PubMed

    Peppé, Sue J E; Martínez-Castilla, Pastora; Coene, Martine; Hesling, Isabelle; Moen, Inger; Gibbon, Fiona E

    2010-02-01

    Following demand for a prosody assessment procedure, the test Profiling Elements of Prosody in Speech-Communication (PEPS-C), has been translated from English into Spanish, French, Flemish and Norwegian. This provides scope to examine receptive and expressive prosodic ability in Romance (Spanish and French) as well as Germanic (English and Flemish) languages, and includes the possibility of assessing these skills with regard to lexical tone (Norwegian). Cross-linguistic similarities and differences relevant to the translation are considered. Preliminary findings concerning 8-year-old neurotypical children speaking the five languages are reported. The appropriateness of investigating contrastive stress in Romance as well as Germanic languages is considered: results are reported for assessing this skill in Spanish and English speakers and suggest that in Spanish it is acquired much later than in English. We also examine the feasibility of assessing and comparing prosodic disorder in the five languages, using assessments of prosody in Spanish and English speakers with Williams syndrome as an example. We conclude that, with caveats, the original design of the UK test may indicate comparable stages of prosodic development in neurotypical children and is appropriate for the evaluation of prosodic skills for adults and children, both neurotypical and with impairment, in all five languages. PMID:20380244

  10. Plagiarism: Why is it such a big issue for medical writers?

    PubMed Central

    Das, Natasha; Panjabi, Monica

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism is the wrongful presentation of somebody else‘s work or idea as one’s own without adequately attributing it to the source. Most authors know that plagiarism is an unethical publication practice. Yet, it is a serious problem in the medical writing arena. Plagiarism is perhaps the commonest ethical issue plaguing medical writing. In this article, we highlight the different types of plagiarism and address the issues of plagiarism of text, plagiarism of ideas, mosaic plagiarism, self-plagiarism, and duplicate publication. An act of plagiarism can have several repercussions for the author, the journal in question and the publication house as a whole. Sometimes, strict disciplinary action is also taken against the plagiarist. The article cites examples of retraction of articles, suspension of authors, apology letters from journal editors, and other such actions against plagiarism. PMID:21731858

  11. Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Identify Plagiarism After an Educational Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C.; Nuzum, Donald S.; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students’ ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students’ ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  12. Pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Degeeter, Michelle; Harris, Kira; Kehr, Heather; Ford, Carolyn; Lane, Daniel C; Nuzum, Donald S; Compton, Cynthia; Gibson, Whitney

    2014-03-12

    Objective. To determine if an educational intervention in a doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) degree program increases pharmacy students' ability to identify plagiarism. Methods. First-year (P1), second-year (P2), and third-year (P3) pharmacy students attended an education session during which types of plagiarism and methods for avoiding plagiarism were reviewed. Students completed a preintervention assessment immediately prior to the session and a postintervention assessment the following semester to measure their ability. Results. Two hundred fifty-two students completed both preintervention and postintervention assessments. There was a 4% increase from preintervention to postintervention in assessment scores for the overall student sample (p<0.05). The mean change was greatest for P1 and P2 students (5% and 4.8%, respectively). Conclusion. An educational intervention about plagiarism can significantly improve students' ability to identify plagiarism. PMID:24672066

  13. Text-based plagiarism in scientific writing: what Chinese supervisors think about copying and how to reduce it in students' writing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongyan

    2013-06-01

    Text-based plagiarism, or textual copying, typically in the form of replicating or patchwriting sentences in a row from sources, seems to be an issue of growing concern among scientific journal editors. Editors have emphasized that senior authors (typically supervisors of science students) should take the responsibility for educating novices against text-based plagiarism. To address a research gap in the literature as to how scientist supervisors perceive the issue of textual copying and what they do in educating their students, this paper reports an interview study with 14 supervisors at a research-oriented Chinese university. The study throws light on the potentiality of senior authors mentoring novices in English as an Additional Language (EAL) contexts and has implications for the efforts that can be made in the wider scientific community to support scientists in writing against text-based plagiarism. PMID:22212356

  14. Attitudes towards students who plagiarize: a dental hygiene faculty perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel-Bhakta, Hemali G; Muzzin, Kathleen B; Dewald, Janice P; Campbell, Patricia R; Buschang, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine baccalaureate dental hygiene faculty members' attitudes and practices regarding student plagiarism. An email containing a link to a thirty-two-item survey was sent to fifty-two baccalaureate dental hygiene program directors in the United States; thirty of those agreed for their faculty members to participate. Of the 257 faculty members who received the survey link, 106 completed the survey, for a response rate of 41.2 percent. The responding faculty members reported thinking plagiarism is a rising concern in their dental hygiene programs (54.5 percent, 54/99). The majority said they check for plagiarism on student class assignment/projects (67.1 percent, 53/79). For those who did not check for plagiarism, 45.8 percent (11/24) stated it took "too much time to check" or it was "too hard to prove" (16.6 percent, 4/24). The most frequent form of student plagiarism observed by the respondents was "copying directly from a source electronically" (78.0 percent, 39/50). Most respondents reported checking for plagiarism through visual inspection (without technological assistance) (73.0 percent, 38/52). Of those who said they use plagiarism detection software/services, 44.4 percent (16/36) always recommended their students use plagiarism detection software/services to detect unintentional plagiarism. For those faculty members who caught students plagiarizing, 52.9 percent (27/51) reported they "always or often" handled the incident within their dental hygiene department, and 76.5 percent (39/51) said they had never reported the student's violation to an academic review board. PMID:24385532

  15. Prophylactic Treatments for Anomia in the Logopenic Variant of Primary Progressive Aphasia: Cross-Language Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Aaron M.; Snider, Sarah F.; Eckmann, Carol B.; Friedman, Rhonda B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment studies for anomia in PPA have rarely compared multiple treatments in the same individual, and few anomia treatment studies have included participants with the logopenic variant of PPA (lvPPA). Aims The goals of this study were to evaluate two types of treatment for anomia in a bilingual participant (ND) with lvPPA, and to examine possible cross-language transfer of treatment effects. Methods & Procedures ND is a Norwegian-English bilingual woman with lvPPA who began this study at the age of 69. In the phonological treatment, ND listened to a word while viewing a corresponding picture, and she repeated the word. In the orthographic treatment, ND read a word out loud while viewing the corresponding picture, and she then copied the word. Both treatments were conducted in English, and accuracy for three tasks (oral naming, written naming, and naming to definition) was assessed in English and Norwegian. The treatment occurred over a one-year period, with eight sessions at the laboratory during the first month, followed by monthly laboratory sessions and thrice-weekly home practice sessions during the subsequent 11 months. Post-treatment assessments were conducted at 1 week, 8 months, 1 year, 20 months, and 3 years. Outcomes & Results Compared to untrained items, the orthographic treatment resulted in greater English written naming accuracy. This treatment also resulted in cross-language transfer: greater Norwegian oral naming and naming to definition accuracy. The phonological treatment resulted in marginally greater English oral naming accuracy, but it did not have a significant effect on naming accuracy in Norwegian. Conclusions These findings suggest that the orthographic treatment was effective in strengthening the orthographic representations of the treated items, which facilitated ND's written naming performance. The pattern of cross-language transfer suggests that the orthographic treatment also strengthened the language-independent semantic

  16. Ecology and the Environment. Language Arts around the World, Volume V. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of ecology and the environment. The units in the book reach diverse…

  17. Lexical Access in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment: A Cross-Modal Picture-Word Interference Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiger-Gardner, Liat; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the time course of lexical information availability in 20 adults, 20 children (8;0-10;0) with typical language development, and in 20 children (8;0-10;0) with specific language impairment. A cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm was used in which participants named the pictures as quickly as possible while…

  18. Aspects of Swedish Morphology and Semantics from the Perspective of Mono- and Cross-Language Information Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedlund, Turid; Pirkola, Ari; Jarvelin, Kalervo

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes features of the Swedish language from the viewpoint of mono-and cross-language information retrieval. Results of a comparative study that tested the degree of lexical ambiguity in Swedish, Finnish, and English suggest that part-of-speech tagging might be useful in Swedish information retrieval due to the high frequency of homographic…

  19. Central and South America: Language Arts around the World, Volume II. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of Central and South American cultures. The units in the book reach…

  20. Asia and Australia: Language Arts around the World, Volume III. Cross Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lucy

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of Asian and Australian cultures. The units in the book reach diverse…

  1. Who Transfers More...and What? Cross-linguistic Influence in Relation to School Grade and Language Dominance in EFL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naves, Teresa; Miralpeix, Immaculada; Celaya, M. Luz

    2005-01-01

    Cross-linguistic influence (CLI) is receiving increasing attention in multilingual learners (Cenoz "et al.", 2001). Research with bilingual learners has analysed CLI in relation to language dominance (see, for instance, Hulk & Muller, 2000; Yip & Stephen, 2000) and to language dominance and grade in school settings (Cenoz, 2003; Lasagabaster,…

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Initial Validation of the Stroke-Specific Quality of Life Scale into the Yoruba Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.

    2012-01-01

    Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…

  3. Who Has Read the Policy on Plagiarism? Unpacking Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullifer, J. M.; Tyson, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has established that the term "plagiarism" is open to different interpretations, resulting in confusion among students and staff alike. University policy on academic integrity/misconduct defines the behaviours that all stakeholders must abide by, and the parameters for reporting, investigating and penalising infringements. These…

  4. Student Plagiarism and the Use of a Plagiarism Detection Tool by Community College Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurmond, Bradley H.

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to better inform community college administrators and faculty regarding possible factors that contribute to higher levels of student plagiarism and to suggest appropriate preventative or responsive interventions. The specific purpose of the study was to investigate a set of faculty related factors that may be associated with…

  5. Cross-language phonological activation: evidence from masked onset priming and ERPs.

    PubMed

    Jouravlev, Olessia; Lupker, Stephen J; Jared, Debra

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present research was to provide direct evidence for the cross-language interaction of phonologies at the sub-lexical level by using the masked onset priming paradigm. More specifically, we investigated whether there is a cross-language masked onset priming effect (MOPE) with L2 (English) primes and L1 (Russian) targets and whether it is modulated by the orthographic similarity of primes and targets. Primes and targets had onsets that overlapped either only phonologically, only orthographically, both phonologically and orthographically, or did not have any overlap. Phonological overlap, but not orthographic overlap, between primes and targets led to faster naming latencies. In contrast, the ERP data provided evidence for effects of both phonological and orthographic overlap. Finally, the time-course of phonological and orthographic processing for our bilinguals mirrored the time-course previously reported for monolinguals in the ERP data. These results provide evidence for shared representations at the sub-lexical level for a bilingual's two languages. PMID:24814580

  6. Machine translation-supported cross-language information retrieval for a consumer health resource.

    PubMed

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Gemoets, Darren; Browne, Allen C; Tse, Tony

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. National Institutes of Health, through its National Library of Medicine, developed ClinicalTrials.gov to provide the public with easy access to information on clinical trials on a wide range of conditions or diseases. Only English language information retrieval is currently supported. Given the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and their increasing use of the Web, we anticipate a significant increase in Spanish-speaking users. This study compares the effectiveness of two common cross-language information retrieval methods using machine translation, query translation versus document translation, using a subset of genuine user queries from ClinicalTrials.gov. Preliminary results conducted with the ClinicalTrials.gov search engine show that in our environment, query translation is statistically significantly better than document translation. We discuss possible reasons for this result and we conclude with suggestions for future work. PMID:14728236

  7. Do medical students require education on issues related to plagiarism?

    PubMed

    Varghese, Joe; Jacob, Molly

    2015-01-01

    In the course of our professional experience, we have seen that many medical students plagiarise. We hypothesised that they do so out of ignorance and that they require formal education on the subject. With this objective in mind, we conducted a teaching session on issues related to plagiarism. As a part of this, we administered a quiz to assess their baseline knowledge on plagiarism and a questionnaire to determine their attitudes towards it. We followed this up with an interactive teaching session, in which we discussed various aspects of plagiarism. We subjected the data obtained from the quiz and questionnaire to bivariate and multivariate analysis. A total of 423 medical students participated in the study. Their average score for the quiz was 4.96±1.67 (out of 10). Age, gender and years in medical school were not significantly associated with knowledge regarding plagiarism. The knowledge scores were negatively correlated with permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and positively correlated with attitudes critical of the practice. Men had significantly higher scores on permissive attitudes compared to women . In conclusion, we found that the medical students' knowledge regarding plagiarism was limited. Those with low knowledge scores tended to have permissive attitudes towards plagiarism and were less critical of the practice. We recommend the inclusion of formal instruction on this subject in the medical curriculum, so that this form of academic misconduct can be tackled. PMID:25671582

  8. Automatic lexicon acquisition for a medical cross-language information retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Markó, Kornél; Schulz, Stefan; Hahn, Udo

    2005-01-01

    We present a method for the automated acquisition of a multilingual medical lexicon (for Spanish and Swedish) to be used within the framework of a medical cross-language text retrieval system. We incorporate seed lexicons and parallel corpora derived from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The seed lexicons for Spanish and Swedish are automatically generated from (previously manually constructed) Portuguese, German and English sources. Lexical and semantic hypotheses are then validated making iterative use of co-occurrence patterns of hypothesized translation synonyms in the parallel corpora. PMID:16160361

  9. Spatial metaphor in language can promote the development of cross-modal mappings in children.

    PubMed

    Shayan, Shakila; Ozturk, Ozge; Bowerman, Melissa; Majid, Asifa

    2014-07-01

    Pitch is often described metaphorically: for example, Farsi and Turkish speakers use a 'thickness' metaphor (low sounds are 'thick' and high sounds are 'thin'), while German and English speakers use a height metaphor ('low', 'high'). This study examines how child and adult speakers of Farsi, Turkish, and German map pitch and thickness using a cross-modal association task. All groups, except for German children, performed significantly better than chance. German-speaking adults' success suggests the pitch-to-thickness association can be learned by experience. But the fact that German children were at chance indicates that this learning takes time. Intriguingly, Farsi and Turkish children's performance suggests that learning cross-modal associations can be boosted through experience with consistent metaphorical mappings in the input language. PMID:24636133

  10. Classification of health webpages as expert and non expert with a reduced set of cross-language features.

    PubMed

    Grabar, Natalia; Krivine, Sonia; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2007-01-01

    Making the distinction between expert and non expert health documents can help users to select the information which is more suitable for them, according to whether they are familiar or not with medical terminology. This issue is particularly important for the information retrieval area. In our work we address this purpose through stylistic corpus analysis and the application of machine learning algorithms. Our hypothesis is that this distinction can be performed on the basis of a small number of features and that such features can be language and domain independent. The used features were acquired in source corpus (Russian language, diabetes topic) and then tested on target (French language, pneumology topic) and source corpora. These cross-language features show 90% precision and 93% recall with non expert documents in source language; and 85% precision and 74% recall with expert documents in target language. PMID:18693843

  11. Classification of Health Webpages as Expert and Non Expert with a Reduced Set of Cross-language Features

    PubMed Central

    Grabar, Natalia; Krivine, Sonia; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2007-01-01

    Making the distinction between expert and non expert health documents can help users to select the information which is more suitable for them, according to whether they are familiar or not with medical terminology. This issue is particularly important for the information retrieval area. In our work we address this purpose through stylistic corpus analysis and the application of machine learning algorithms. Our hypothesis is that this distinction can be performed on the basis of a small number of features and that such features can be language and domain independent. The used features were acquired in source corpus (Russian language, diabetes topic) and then tested on target (French language, pneumology topic) and source corpora. These cross-language features show 90% precision and 93% recall with non expert documents in source language; and 85% precision and 74% recall with expert documents in target language. PMID:18693843

  12. Defining and relating biomedical terms: towards a cross-language morphosemantics-based system.

    PubMed

    Namer, Fiammetta; Baud, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how semantic information can be automatically assigned to compound terms, i.e. both a definition and a set of semantic relations. This is particularly crucial when elaborating multilingual databases and when developing cross-language information retrieval systems. The paper shows how morphosemantics can contribute in the constitution of multilingual lexical networks in biomedical corpora. It presents a system capable of labelling terms with morphologically related words, i.e. providing them with a definition, and grouping them according to synonymy, hyponymy and proximity relations. The approach requires the interaction of three techniques: (1) a language-specific morphosemantic parser, (2) a multilingual table defining basic relations between word roots and (3) a set of language-independent rules to draw up the list of related terms. This approach has been fully implemented for French, on an about 29,000 terms biomedical lexicon, resulting to more than 3000 lexical families. A validation of the results against a manually annotated file by experts of the domain is presented, followed by a discussion of our method. PMID:16814603

  13. Effects of a Cross-Linguistic Storybook Intervention on the Second Language Development of Two Preschool English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huennekens, Mary Ellen; Xu, Yaoying

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a shared reading experience between parent and child in the child's home language on the emergent literacy and language acquisition in English of preschool-age English Language Learners. Parents of Spanish-speaking four-year-old Head Start students read storybooks in Spanish with their…

  14. Teaching Paraphrase, Summary, and Plagiarism: An Integrated Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lasarenko, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Offers an exercise to help students understand the difference between summarizing and paraphrasing and how both practices can result in plagiarism if the original source is not cited. Explains how the exercise uses Lincoln's "Gettysburg Address." (TB)

  15. An Exercise To Teach Bioscience Students about Plagiarism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willmott, Chris J. R.; Harrison, Tim M.

    2003-01-01

    Plagiarism is an issue of increasing concern to educators, yet students are not always clear on the boundaries between acceptable and unacceptable practice. Presents an exercise to help bioscience students make this important distinction. (Author/SOE)

  16. Cross-language positive priming disappears, negative priming does not: evidence for two sources of selective inhibition.

    PubMed

    Neumann, E; McCloskey, M S; Felio, A C

    1999-11-01

    The authors used a unilingual and bilingual primed lexical decision task to investigate priming effects produced by attended and ignored words. In the unilingual experiment, accelerated lexical decisions to probe target words resulted when the word matched the preceding target word, whereas slowed lexical decisions to probe target words resulted when the word matched the preceding ignored nontarget word. In the bilingual (English-Spanish) experiment, between-language, rather than within-language, priming manipulations were used. Although the ignored repetition negative priming effect replicated across languages, cross-language attended repetition positive priming did not. This dissociation of priming effects in the inter- versus intralanguage priming conditions contradicts episodic retrieval accounts of negative priming that deny the existence of selective inhibitory processes. On the other hand, these results support an extension of inhibition-based accounts of negative priming, because they indicate that inhibition can operate at two levels of abstraction--local word and global language--simultaneously. PMID:10586580

  17. Interactive use of sign language by cross-fostered chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Jensvold, M L; Gardner, R A

    2000-12-01

    Cross-fostered as infants in Reno, Nevada, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Washoe, Moja, Tatu, and Dar freely converse in signs of American Sign Language with each other as well as with humans in Ellensburg, Washington. In this experiment, a human interlocutor waited for a chimpanzee to initiate conversations with her and then responded with 1 of 4 types of probes: general requests for more information, on-topic questions, off-topic questions, or negative statements. The responses of the chimpanzees to the probes depended on the type of probe and the particular signs in the probes. They reiterated, adjusted, and shifted the signs in their utterances in conversationally appropriate rejoinders. Their reactions to and interactions with a conversational partner resembled patterns of conversation found in similar studies of human children. PMID:11149537

  18. Native American Youth Discourses on Language Shift and Retention: Ideological Cross-Currents and Their Implications for Language Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Teresa L.; Romero-Little, Mary Eunice; Zepeda, Ofelia

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines preliminary findings from an ongoing federally funded study of Native language shift and retention in the US Southwest, focusing on in-depth ethnographic interviews with Navajo youth. We begin with an overview of Native American linguistic ecologies, noting the dynamic, variegated and complex nature of language proficiencies…

  19. Within- and Cross-Language Relations between Oral Language Proficiency and School Outcomes in Bilingual Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prevoo, Mariëlle J. L.; Malda, Maike; Mesman, Judi; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2016-01-01

    Sixteen meta-analyses were conducted to examine relations of typically developing bilingual immigrant-background children's oral language proficiency in their first and second language with the school outcomes of early literacy (k = 41), reading (k = 61), spelling (k = 9), mathematics (k = 9), and academic achievement (k = 9). Moderate to strong…

  20. Is It Cheating or Learning the Craft of Writing? Using Turnitin to Help Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham-Matheson, Lynne; Starr, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a growing problem for universities, many of which are turning to software detection for help in detecting and dealing with it. This paper explores issues around plagiarism and reports on a study of the use of Turnitin in a new university. The purpose of the study was to inform the senior management team about the plagiarism policy…

  1. The Use of Technology to Combat Plagiarism in Business Communication Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowers, Robert H.; Hummel, Julie Y.

    2011-01-01

    Some have called plagiarism literary theft. Plagiarizing is akin to stealing the intellect of another person. At times, plagiarism occurs because of ignorance, sloppy authorship, or lack of knowledge about proper sourcing. Sometimes, it is done purposefully. Experts have suggested that the concept of intellectual ownership is limited to Western…

  2. Policing--Or, at Least, Policying--Plagiarism at One Australian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Regan, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    How universities and university people deal with plagiarism is articulated in universities' plagiarism policies. Universities, policies and people are all located in a bigger context, one which is being increasingly shaped by global issues. Some global issues of particular relevance to plagiarism are associated with the Internet and its attendant…

  3. Plagiarism Awareness among Students: Assessing Integration of Ethics Theory into Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strittmatter, Connie; Bratton, Virginia K.

    2014-01-01

    The library literature on plagiarism instruction focuses on students' understanding of what plagiarism is and is not. This study evaluates the effect of library instruction from a broader perspective by examining the pre- and posttest (instruction) levels of students' perceptions toward plagiarism ethics. Eighty-six students completed a pre- and…

  4. Literacy & Identity: Trust, Betrayal, and Authorship: Plagiarism and How We Perceive Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Bronwyn T.

    2007-01-01

    Emotional responses to plagiarism are rarely addressed in professional literature that focuses on ethics and good teaching practices. Yet, the emotions that are unleashed by cases of plagiarism, or suspicions of plagiarism, influence how we perceive our students and how we approach teaching them. Such responses have been complicated by online…

  5. Is It Happening? How to Avoid the Deleterious Effects of Plagiarism and Cheating in Your Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Susan E.

    2011-01-01

    Plagiarism can be "plaguing" if it is not discussed, understood, and enforced by the professor right at the beginning of the course and throughout the semester. Students usually don't "have" to cheat or plagiarize; they do so mainly because "they can." Professors who turn a deaf ear or a blind eye to students who plagiarize create deleterious…

  6. Measuring Plagiarism: Researching What Students Do, Not What They Say They Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, John

    2010-01-01

    Student plagiarism in colleges and universities has become a controversial issue in recent years. A key problem has been the lack of reliable empirical data on the frequency, nature and extent of plagiarism in student assignments. The aim of the study described here was to provide this data. Patterns of plagiarism were tracked in two university…

  7. An Integrated Academic Literacy Approach to Improving Students' Understanding of Plagiarism in an Accounting Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Lisa; Singh, Nishani

    2016-01-01

    Plagiarism in higher education is a widespread and complex issue. Students' understanding of plagiarism differs as a result of combining their prior learning about referencing with their current experience of institutional policies and generic resources. Plagiarism was identified as a major learning issue in a core second-year undergraduate…

  8. When Emotion Stands to Reason: A Phenomenological Study of Composition Instructors' Emotional Responses to Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biswas, Ann E.

    2015-01-01

    Plagiarism has been the focus of considerable scholarly research in recent decades, much of which has examined the number of students who are plagiarizing, why they plagiarize, and what instructors can do to teach students to effectively and ethically integrate their own words and ideas with those of their sources. Overlooked in this scholarship…

  9. Pattern of Plagiarism in Novice Students' Generated Programs: An Experimental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadzadeh, Marzieh; Mahmoudabadi, Elham; Khodadadi, Farzad

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence shows that in computer programming courses plagiarism is a widespread problem. With the growing number of students in such courses, manual plagiarism detection is impractical. This requires instructors to use one of the many available plagiarism detection tools. Prior to choosing one of such tools, a metric that assures the…

  10. Is Cheating Always Intentional? The Perception of College Students toward the Issues of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabor, Erin L.

    2013-01-01

    The definition of plagiarism that is used in university handbooks is a simple one, and policies along with tiers of disciplinary strategies are used by faculty members in higher education to deter students from committing a plagiarism infraction based on this simple definition. However, plagiarism still occurs on college campuses, and this may be…

  11. Placing the Library at the Heart of Plagiarism Prevention: The University of Bradford Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Sarah; Costigan, Anne; O'hara, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Plagiarism is a vexing issue for Higher Education, affecting student transition, retention, and attainment. This article reports on two initiatives from the University of Bradford library aimed at reducing student plagiarism. The first initiative is an intensive course for students who have contravened plagiarism regulations. The second course…

  12. A Model for Determining Student Plagiarism: Electronic Detection and Academic Judgement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretag, Tracey; Mahmud, Saadia

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides insights based on the authors' own practice as university instructors, researchers and arbitrators of student plagiarism. Recognising the difficulty in defining plagiarism while still acknowledging the practical importance of doing so, the authors find the common element between the various types of plagiarism to be the lack of…

  13. Another Look at Plagiarism in the Digital Age: Is It Time to Turn in My Badge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Benie B.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about plagiarism in the digital age and how plagiarism challenges teachers in their relationship with students. With a growing body of digital commentary and the looming dominance of electronic writing, current professional consensus in the plagiarism dilemma appears dubious and the slope gets more slippery every…

  14. First-Year University Science and Engineering Students' Understanding of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Shelley

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a case study of first-year science and engineering students' understandings of plagiarism. Students were surveyed for their views on scenarios illustrating instances of plagiarism in the context of the academic work and assessment of science and engineering students. The aim was to explore their understandings of plagiarism and their…

  15. Plagiarism, Cultural Diversity and Metaphor--Implications for Academic Staff Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leask, Betty

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is a complex, culturally loaded concept which causes much anxiety for both academics and students. Exactly what constitutes plagiarism is dependent on a number of contextual factors. Despite the difficulties associated with defining and detecting plagiarism, it is said to be on the increase, and students from "other cultures" are…

  16. An Empirical Research Study of the Efficacy of Two Plagiarism-Detection Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jacob D.; Page, Elaine Fetyko

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a study of the two most popular plagiarism-detection software platforms available on today's market--Turnitin (http://www.turnitin.com/static/index.html) and SafeAssign (http://www.safeassign.com/). After a brief discussion of plagiarism's relevance to librarians, the authors examine plagiarism-detection methodology and…

  17. A Safe Place: The Role of Librarians and Writing Centers in Addressing Citation Practices and Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buranen, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In American colleges and universities, plagiarism is a hot topic: teachers wail and moan about the rise in student plagiarism (though often without evidence to demonstrate this supposed rise); they complain that the Web has "caused" plagiarism; and at the same time, many believe that technology is the key to "solving" the problem of student…

  18. Physical Aggression and Language Ability from 17 to 72 Months: Cross-Lagged Effects in a Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Lisa-Christine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Falissard, Bruno; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Does poor language ability in early childhood increase the likelihood of physical aggression or is language ability delayed by frequent physical aggression? This study examined the longitudinal associations between physical aggression and language ability from toddlerhood to early childhood in a population sample while controlling for parenting behaviours, non-verbal intellectual functioning, and children’s sex. Methods Children enrolled in the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) (N = 2, 057) were assessed longitudinally from 17 to 72 months via parent reports and standardized assessments. Results The cross-lagged models revealed modest reciprocal associations between physical aggression and language performance from 17 to 41 months but not thereafter. Conclusions Significant associations between physical aggression and poor language ability are minimal and limited to the period when physical aggression and language performance are both substantially increasing. During that period parenting behaviours may play an important role in supporting language ability while reducing the frequency of physical aggression. Further studies are needed that utilize multiple assessments of physical aggression, assess multiple domains of language abilities, and that examine the potential mediating role of parenting behaviours between 12 and 48 months. PMID:25375971

  19. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. PMID:25498747

  20. Scientists Admitting to Plagiarism: A Meta-analysis of Surveys.

    PubMed

    Pupovac, Vanja; Fanelli, Daniele

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of anonymous surveys asking scientists whether they ever committed various forms of plagiarism. From May to December 2011 we searched 35 bibliographic databases, five grey literature databases and hand searched nine journals for potentially relevant studies. We included surveys that asked scientists if, in a given recall period, they had committed or knew of a colleague who committed plagiarism, and from each survey extracted the proportion of those who reported at least one case. Studies that focused on academic (i.e. student) plagiarism were excluded. Literature searches returned 12,460 titles from which 17 relevant survey studies were identified. Meta-analysis of studies reporting committed (N = 7) and witnessed (N = 11) plagiarism yielded a pooled estimate of, respectively, 1.7% (95% CI 1.2-2.4) and 30% (95% CI 17-46). Basic methodological factors, including sample size, year of survey, delivery method and whether survey questions were explicit rather than indirect made a significant difference on survey results. Even after controlling for these methodological factors, between-study differences in admission rates were significantly above those expected by sampling error alone and remained largely unexplained. Despite several limitations of the data and of this meta-analysis, we draw three robust conclusions: (1) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is higher than for data fabrication and falsification; (2) The rate at which scientists report knowing a colleague who committed plagiarism is correlated to that of fabrication and falsification; (3) The rate at which scientists admit having committed either form of misconduct (i.e. fabrication, falsification and plagiarism) in surveys has declined over time. PMID:25352123

  1. Hermetic and Web Plagiarism Detection Systems for Student Essays--An Evaluation of the State-of-the-Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kakkonen, Tuomo; Mozgovoy, Maxim

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism has become a serious problem in education, and several plagiarism detection systems have been developed for dealing with this problem. This study provides an empirical evaluation of eight plagiarism detection systems for student essays. We present a categorical hierarchy of the most common types of plagiarism that are encountered in…

  2. Three Treatments for Bilingual Children with Primary Language Impairment: Examining Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Domain Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebert, Kerry Danahy; Kohnert, Kathryn; Pham, Giang; Disher, Jill Rentmeester; Payesteh, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the absolute and relative effects of 3 different treatment programs for school-age bilingual children with primary or specific language impairment (PLI). It serves to expand the evidence base on which service providers can base treatment decisions. It also explores hypothesized relations between languages and cognition…

  3. Space, Scale and Languages: Identity Construction of Cross-Boundary Students in a Multilingual University in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Mingyue Michelle; Tong, Ho Kin

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on the notions of scale and space, this paper investigates identity construction among a group of mainland Chinese cross-boundary students by analysing their language choices and linguistic practices in a multilingual university in Hong Kong. The research illustrates how movement across spaces by these students produces varying index…

  4. Service-Learning as a Pedagogy To Promote the Content, Cross-Cultural, and Language-Learning of ESL Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuser, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Describes the incorporation of service learning in a sheltered content course for Japanese sophomores studying in the United States. Service learning holds promise for furthering cognitive knowledge, cross cultural awareness, and language competencies. After profiling the academic program, a definition of service learning is provided with a review…

  5. School's out for the Summer: A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Second Language Learning in Informal Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feuer, Avital

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic, cross-cultural study used a dialogic, sociolinguistic framework to describe learning processes in portraits of three immersion summer camps in the eastern US. Using the data collection techniques of in-depth interviewing, participant observation and textual analysis, the study examined the process of second language learning and…

  6. Cross-Language Translation Priming Asymmetry with Chinese-English Bilinguals: A Test of the Sense Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Baoguo; Zhou, Huixia; Gao, Yiwen; Dunlap, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to test the Sense Model of cross-linguistic masked translation priming asymmetry, proposed by Finkbeiner et al. ("J Mem Lang" 51:1-22, 2004), by manipulating the number of senses that bilingual participants associated with words from both languages. Three lexical decision experiments were conducted with…

  7. Language and Cross-Cultural Training for Expatriate Employees: A Comparison Between the U.S. and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lein, Janet D.; Sisco, Nichole L.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how prevalent the provision of pre-departure cross-cultural and language training is among American companies operating internationally, and whether U.S. companies still lag behind their German counterparts in offering this type of training before sending their employees overseas. Author/VWL)

  8. The Perception Gap in Cross-Cultural Training: An Investigation of British Council English Language Teaching Projects in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Q.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the implementation of British Council English language teaching projects at Chinese universities. The study argues that the key to successful cross-cultural communication is an informed appreciation of the perception gap that separates donor and recipient. Cultural sensitivity and the use of a culturally appropriate methodology…

  9. Cross-Language Transfer of Phonological and Orthographic Processing Skills from Spanish L1 to English L2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun-Alperin, M. Kendra; Wang, Min

    2011-01-01

    Previous cross-language research has focused on L1 phonological processing and its relation to L2 reading. Less extensive is the research on the effect that L1 orthographic processing skill has on L2 reading and spelling. This study was designed to investigate how reading and spelling acquisition in English (L2) is influenced by phonological and…

  10. Cross-Lagged Relations between Motivation and Proficiency in English as a Foreign Language among Chinese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xinmiao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between motivation and EFL proficiency is an issue of great concern in previous research on foreign language learning. However, work in this area offers inconclusive evidence with regard to the directionality of their relations. Using cross-lagged structural equation modeling, this study investigated the directionality of the…

  11. Cross-Linguistic Influence on Brain Activation during Second Language Processing: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Yokoyama, Satoru; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Taira, Masato; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the effect of the linguistic distance between a first language (L1) and a second language (L2) on neural activity during second language relative to first language processing. We compared different L1-L2 pairs in which different linguistic features characterize linguistic distance. Chinese and Korean native…

  12. Cross-Cultural Differences and the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiu-Bai, Qin

    1983-01-01

    A Chinese student of English is often faced with culturally based differences in denotation and connotation, idioms and proverbs, habits, and formulaic use of language. Since the native speaker of any language has built into his language repertoire his unique cultural assumptions and values, a culture-oriented curriculum in language teaching is…

  13. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-phonetic Properties of Cross-language Lexical-tone Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of Adaptive Dispersion (TAD) (Liljencrants and Lindblom, 1972). This is a cross-language investigation of whether and how the size of a tonal inventory affects (A) acoustic tone-space size and (B) dispersion of tone categories within the tone-space. I compared five languages with very different tone inventories: Cantonese (3 contour, 3 level tones); Mandarin (3 contour, 1 level tone); Thai (2 contour, 3 level tones); Yoruba (3 level tones only); and Igbo (2 level tones only). Six native speakers (3 female) of each language produced 18 CV syllables in isolation, with each of his/her language's tones, six times. I measured tonal F0 across the vowel at onset, midpoint, and offglide. Tone-space size was the F0 difference in semitones (ST) between each language's highest and lowest tones. Tone dispersion was the F0 distance (ST) between two tones shared by multiple languages. Following the TAD, I predicted that languages with larger tone inventories would have larger tone-spaces. Against expectations, tone-space size was fixed across level-tone languages at midpoint and offglide, and across contour-tone languages (except Thai) at offglide. However, within each language type (level-tone vs. contour-tone), languages with smaller tone inventories had larger tone spaces at onset. Tone-dispersion results were also unexpected. The Cantonese mid-level tone was further dispersed from a tonal baseline than the Yoruba mid-level tone; Cantonese mid-level tone dispersion was therefore greater than theoretically necessary. The Cantonese high-level tone was also further dispersed from baseline than the Mandarin high-level tone -- at midpoint

  14. Cross-cultural adaptation of research instruments: language, setting, time and statistical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Research questionnaires are not always translated appropriately before they are used in new temporal, cultural or linguistic settings. The results based on such instruments may therefore not accurately reflect what they are supposed to measure. This paper aims to illustrate the process and required steps involved in the cross-cultural adaptation of a research instrument using the adaptation process of an attitudinal instrument as an example. Methods A questionnaire was needed for the implementation of a study in Norway 2007. There was no appropriate instruments available in Norwegian, thus an Australian-English instrument was cross-culturally adapted. Results The adaptation process included investigation of conceptual and item equivalence. Two forward and two back-translations were synthesized and compared by an expert committee. Thereafter the instrument was pretested and adjusted accordingly. The final questionnaire was administered to opioid maintenance treatment staff (n=140) and harm reduction staff (n=180). The overall response rate was 84%. The original instrument failed confirmatory analysis. Instead a new two-factor scale was identified and found valid in the new setting. Conclusions The failure of the original scale highlights the importance of adapting instruments to current research settings. It also emphasizes the importance of ensuring that concepts within an instrument are equal between the original and target language, time and context. If the described stages in the cross-cultural adaptation process had been omitted, the findings would have been misleading, even if presented with apparent precision. Thus, it is important to consider possible barriers when making a direct comparison between different nations, cultures and times. PMID:20144247

  15. Some cross-linguistic evidence for modulation of implicational universals by language-specific frequency effects in phonological development

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Jan; Beckman, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    While broad-focus comparisons of consonant inventories across children acquiring different language can suggest that phonological development follows a universal sequence, finer-grained statistical comparisons can reveal systematic differences. This cross-linguistic study of word-initial lingual obstruents examined some effects of language-specific frequencies on consonant mastery. Repetitions of real words were elicited from 2- and 3-year-old children who were monolingual speakers of English, Cantonese, Greek, or Japanese. The repetitions were recorded and transcribed by an adult native speaker for each language. Results found support for both language-universal effects in phonological acquisition and for language-specific influences related to phoneme and phoneme sequence frequency. These results suggest that acquisition patterns that are common across languages arise in two ways. One influence is direct, via the universal constraints imposed by the physiology and physics of speech production and perception, and how these predict which contrasts will be easy and which will be difficult for the child to learn to control. The other influence is indirect, via the way universal principles of ease of perception and production tend to influence the lexicons of many languages through commonly attested sound changes. PMID:19890438

  16. Changes in Research on Language Barriers in Health Care Since 2003: A Cross-Sectional Review Study

    PubMed Central

    Schwei, Rebecca J.; Pozo, Sam Del; Agger-Gupta, Niels; Alvarado-Little, Wilma; Bagchi, Ann; Chen, Alice Hm; Diamond, Lisa; Gany, Francesca; Wong, Doreena; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how to mitigate language barriers is becoming increasingly important for health care providers around the world. Language barriers adversely affect patients in their access to health services; comprehension and adherence; quality of care; and patient and provider satisfaction. In 2003, the United States (US) government made a major change in national policy guidance that significantly affected limited English proficient patients’ ability to access language services. Objective The objectives of this paper are to describe the state of the language barriers literature inside and outside the US since 2003 and to compare the research that was conducted before and after a national policy change occurred in the US. We hypothesize that language barrier research would increase inside and outside the US but that the increase in research would be larger inside the US in response to this national policy change. Methods We reviewed the research literature on language barriers in health care and conducted a cross sectional analysis by tabulating frequencies for geographic location, language group, methodology, research focus and specialty and compared the literature before and after 2003. Results Our sample included 136 studies prior to 2003 and 426 studies from 2003–2010. In the 2003–2010 time period there was a new interest in studying the providers’ perspective instead of or in addition to the patients’ perspective. The methods remained similar between periods with greater than 60% of studies being descriptive and 12% being interventions. Conclusions There was an increase in research on language barriers inside and outside the US and we believe this was larger due to the change in the national policy. We suggest that researchers worldwide should move away from simply documenting the existence of language barriers and should begin to focus their research on documenting how language concordant care influences patient outcomes, providing

  17. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. PMID:25578380

  18. Cognate Effects in Picture Naming: Does Cross-Language Activation Survive a Change of Script?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoshino, Noriko; Kroll, Judith F.

    2008-01-01

    Bilinguals are faster to name a picture in one language when the picture's name is a cognate in the other language. We asked whether cognate facilitation in picture naming would be obtained for bilinguals whose two languages differ in script. Spanish-English and Japanese-English bilinguals named cognate and noncognate pictures in English, their…

  19. Cross-Language Phonological Activation of Meaning: Evidence from Category Verification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friesen, Deanna C.; Jared, Debra

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated phonological processing in bilingual reading for meaning. English-French and French-English bilinguals performed a category verification task in either their first or second language. Interlingual homophones (words that share phonology across languages but not orthography or meaning) and single language control words served…

  20. Building a Cross-Cultural Community through a Dual Language Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This research study evaluates the effectiveness of a Spanish-English dual language immersion (DLI) program. Many researchers have found that high-quality and long-term DLI programs promote academic achievement and high levels of language proficiency for both language groups. Despite the evidence, leaders from the field of bilingual education have…

  1. Cross-Language Transfer of Indexing Concepts for Storage and Retrieval of Moving Images: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, James M.

    1996-01-01

    A French-language version of stock footage videotapes from previous research (using English-language data) was prepared, using the same images. The most popular terms identified in each of the two studies for each of the shots are compared, to determine the rate of correspondence between potential indexing terms in each language. (Author/AEF)

  2. Language Education Policies and Inequality in Africa: Cross-National Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyne, Gary

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between inequality and education through the lens of colonial language education policies in African primary and secondary school curricula. The languages of former colonizers almost always occupy important places in society, yet they are not widely spoken as first languages, meaning that most people depend…

  3. Contrastive Rhetoric: Cross-Cultural Aspects of Second-Language Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Ulla

    The book is an introduction to the field of contrastive rhetoric, an area of research in second language learning that identifies learners' problems in composition and attempts to explain them by referring to the rhetorical strategies of the first language. It traces the history of contrastive approaches to the study of second language writing and…

  4. Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadlin, Barry; Nemanich, Donald

    1974-01-01

    An article and a bibliography constitute this issue of the "Illinois English Bulletin." In "Keep the Natives from Getting Restless," Barry Gadlin examines native language learning by children from infancy through high school and discusses the theories of several authors concerning the teaching of the native language. The "Bibliography of…

  5. How language affects children's use of derivational morphology in visual word and pseudoword processing: evidence from a cross-language study

    PubMed Central

    Casalis, Séverine; Quémart, Pauline; Duncan, Lynne G.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers have been shown to rely on morphemes in visual word recognition across several naming, lexical decision and priming experiments. However, the impact of morphology in reading is not consistent across studies with differing results emerging not only between but also within writing systems. Here, we report a cross-language experiment involving the English and French languages, which aims to compare directly the impact of morphology in word recognition in the two languages. Monolingual French-speaking and English-speaking children matched for grade level (Part 1) and for age (Part 2) participated in the study. Two lexical decision tasks (one in French, one in English) featured words and pseudowords with exactly the same structure in each language. The presence of a root (R+) and a suffix ending (S+) was manipulated orthogonally, leading to four possible combinations in words (R+S+: e.g., postal; R+S−: e.g., turnip; R−S+: e.g., rascal; and R-S-: e.g., bishop) and in pseudowords (R+S+: e.g., pondal; R+S−: e.g., curlip; R−S+: e.g., vosnal; and R−S−: e.g., hethop). Results indicate that the presence of morphemes facilitates children's recognition of words and impedes their ability to reject pseudowords in both languages. Nevertheless, effects extend across accuracy and latencies in French but are restricted to accuracy in English, suggesting a higher degree of morphological processing efficiency in French. We argue that the inconsistencies found between languages emphasize the need for developmental models of word recognition to integrate a morpheme level whose elaboration is tuned by the productivity and transparency of the derivational system. PMID:25932018

  6. Altered semantic integration in autism beyond language: a cross-modal event-related potentials study.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Tatiane C; Valasek, Claudia A; Minati, Ludovico; Boggio, Paulo S

    2013-05-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by impaired communication, particularly pragmatic and semantic language, resulting in verbal comprehension deficits. Semantic processing in these conditions has been studied extensively, but mostly limited only to linguistic material. Emerging evidence, however, suggests that semantic integration deficits may extend beyond the verbal domain. Here, we explored cross-modal semantic integration using visual targets preceded by musical and linguistic cues. Particularly, we have recorded the event-related potentials to evaluate whether the N400 and late positive potential (LPP) components, two widely studied electrophysiological markers of semantic processing, are differently sensitive to congruence with respect to typically developing children. Seven ASD patients and seven neurotypical participants matched by age, education and intelligence quotient provided usable data. Neuroelectric activity was recorded in response to visual targets that were related or unrelated to a preceding spoken sentence or musical excerpt. The N400 was sensitive to semantic congruence in the controls but not the patients, whereas the LPP showed a complementary pattern. These results suggest that semantic processing in ASD children is also altered in the context of musical and visual stimuli, and point to a functional decoupling between the generators of the N400 and LPP, which may indicate delayed semantic processing. These novel findings underline the importance of exploring semantic integration across multiple modalities in ASDs and provide motivation for further investigation in large clinical samples. PMID:23629689

  7. On a Different "Plane": Cross-Language Effects on the Conceptual Representations of Within-Language Homonyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Areas Da Luz Fontes, Ana B.; Schwartz, Ana I.

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether bilinguals' conceptual representation of homonyms in one language are influenced by meanings in the other. One hundred and seventeen Spanish-English bilinguals generated sentences for 62 English homonyms that were also cognates with Spanish and which shared at least one meaning with Spanish (e.g., plane/"plano"). Production…

  8. Cross-Language Perception of Japanese Vowel Length Contrasts: Comparison of Listeners from Different First Language Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsukada, Kimiko; Hirata, Yukari; Roengpitya, Rungpat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to compare the perception of Japanese vowel length contrasts by 4 groups of listeners who differed in their familiarity with length contrasts in their first language (L1; i.e., American English, Italian, Japanese, and Thai). Of the 3 nonnative groups, native Thai listeners were expected to outperform…

  9. Bilingual Word Recognition in Deaf and Hearing Signers: Effects of Proficiency and Language Dominance on Cross-Language Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morford, Jill P.; Kroll, Judith F.; Piñar, Pilar; Wilkinson, Erin

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence demonstrates that American Sign Language (ASL) signs are active during print word recognition in deaf bilinguals who are highly proficient in both ASL and English. In the present study, we investigate whether signs are active during print word recognition in two groups of unbalanced bilinguals: deaf ASL-dominant and hearing…

  10. Word Segmentation in Monolingual Infants Acquiring Canadian English and Canadian French: Native Language, Cross-Dialect, and Cross-Language Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polka, Linda; Sundara, Megha

    2012-01-01

    In five experiments, we tested segmentation of word forms from natural speech materials by 8-month-old monolingual infants who are acquiring Canadian French or Canadian English. These two languages belong to different rhythm classes; Canadian French is syllable-timed and Canada English is stress-timed. Findings of Experiments 1, 2, and 3 show that…

  11. Plagiarism: A silent epidemic in scientific writing - Reasons, recognition and remedies.

    PubMed

    Debnath, Jyotindu

    2016-04-01

    Plagiarism is one of the most serious forms of scientific misconduct prevalent today and is an important reason for significant proportion of rejection of manuscripts and retraction of published articles. It is time for the medical fraternity to unanimously adopt a 'zero tolerance' policy towards this menace. While responsibility for ensuring a plagiarism-free manuscript primarily lies with the authors, editors cannot absolve themselves of their accountability. The only way to write a plagiarism-free manuscript for an author is to write an article in his/her own words, literally and figuratively. This article discusses various types of plagiarism, reasons for increasingly reported instances of plagiarism, pros and cons of use of plagiarism detection tools for detecting plagiarism and role of authors and editors in preventing/avoiding plagiarism in a submitted manuscript. Regular usage of professional plagiarism detection tools for similarity checks with critical interpretation by the editorial team at the pre-review stage will certainly help in reducing the menace of plagiarism in submitted manuscripts. PMID:27257327

  12. Segments and segmental properties in cross-language perception: Korean perception of English obstruents in various prosodic locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Kenneth; Silbert, Noah; Park, Hanyong

    2001-05-01

    Experimental models of cross-language perception and second-language acquisition (such as PAM and SLM) typically treat language differences in terms of whether the two languages share phonological segmental categories. Linguistic models, by contrast, generally examine properties which cross classify segments, such as features, rules, or prosodic constraints. Such models predict that perceptual patterns found for one segment will generalize to other segments of the same class. This paper presents perceptual identifications of Korean listeners to a set of voiced and voiceless English stops and fricatives in various prosodic locations to determine the extent to which such generality occurs. Results show some class-general effects; for example, voicing identification patterns generalize from stops, which occur in Korean, to nonsibilant fricatives, which are new to Korean listeners. However, when identification is poor, there are clear differences between segments within the same class. For example, in identifying stops and fricatives, both point of articulation and prosodic position bias perceptions; coronals are more often labeled fricatives, and syllable initial obstruents are more often labeled stops. These results suggest that class-general perceptual patterns are not a simple consequence of the structure of the perceptual system, but need to be acquired by factoring out within-class differences.

  13. Cheaters: A Case Study of Plagiarism in Composition Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yadgir, Sheri A.

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to find a better understanding of plagiarism in the university writing classroom; specifically, institutional and departmental honor codes and policies were looked at--as was the tendency of individual instructors to follow those policies versus creating their own. The narrow purpose of the study was to investigate plagiarism…

  14. Faculty Perceptions of Plagiarism at Queensborough Community College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Sara; Beck, Sheila

    2011-01-01

    The researchers surveyed English and Speech & Theater faculty members at Queensborough Community College on their perceptions of and attitudes toward plagiarism. The researchers used the Queensborough Community College Academic Integrity Policy as the basis for their analysis. Based on the responses received, it was determined that 50% of the…

  15. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-01-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and…

  16. Deterring Plagiarism in the Age of the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiliano, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests some effective means of identifying and preventing plagiarism in the era of high technology such as: discussing the issue in the classroom, limiting the number of choices and/or the scope of term papers, giving ample time for students to write the paper, allowing students to rewrite papers, and establishing campus honor codes. (Contains…

  17. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Teach Students about Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vosen, Melissa A.

    2008-01-01

    Melissa A. Vosen outlines a unit she has designed to help students comprehend the often unclear boundaries and issues surrounding plagiarism. Using Bloom's taxonomy of the cognitive domain, students complete increasingly complex tasks, learning to construct a works cited page and assess scholarly opinions. They also research the consequences of…

  18. Assessing Domestic vs. International Student Perceptions and Attitudes of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doss, Daniel Adrian; Henley, Russ; Gokaraju, Balakrishna; McElreath, David; Lackey, Hilliard; Hong, Qiuqi; Miller, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    The authors examined students' perceptions of plagiarism from a higher education teaching institution within the U.S. southeast. This study employed a five-point Likert-scale to examine differences of perceptions between domestic versus international students. Statistically significant outcomes were observed regarding the notions that plagiarism…

  19. Plagiarism: Academic Dishonesty or "Blind Spot" of Multicultural Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song-Turner, Helen

    2008-01-01

    One of the issues facing universities operating in a range of market situations and contexts is that of plagiarism. Different universities have taken different approaches in dealing with this issue. In an Australian university context, this issue is of particular concern, given the large numbers of overseas students studying in Australia, and…

  20. Cut and Paste 101: Plagiarism and the Net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    There are three types of Internet cheaters: unintentional, sneaky, and lazy. Plagiarism is not new, but Internet cheat sites allowing users to cut and paste papers easily from untraceable sources are widespread. Teachers should be aware of cheat sites, demand rewrites, assign unique topics, and teach source documentation. (MLH)

  1. Staff and Student Perceptions of Plagiarism and Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Cheating, plagiarism, and other forms of academic misconduct are a significant issue in higher education. In this study, the attitudes of academic staff and students in a 3 year undergraduate nursing program to various forms of academic misconduct were assessed and compared. Forty-nine percent of staff and 39% of students thought that cheating on…

  2. Loss, Responsibility, Blame? Staff Discourses of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gourlay, Lesley; Deane, Janis

    2012-01-01

    Student plagiarism and difficulties with writing have been widely investigated in the literature, but there has been less research on staff perspectives. A Joint Information Services Committee (JISC)-funded questionnaire (n = 80) and focus group study investigated the views of lecturers, librarians and study advisors at a UK post-92 university,…

  3. Exploring University Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullifer, Judith; Tyson, Graham A.

    2010-01-01

    Plagiarism is perceived to be a growing problem and universities are being required to devote increasing time and resources to combating it. Theory and research in psychology show that a thorough understanding of an individual's view of an issue or problem is an essential requirement for successful change of that person's attitudes and behaviour.…

  4. Awareness about Plagiarism amongst University Students in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramzan, Muhammad; Munir, Muhammad Asif; Siddique, Nadeem; Asif, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Research is an original and systematic investigation undertaken to discover new facts and information about a phenomenon. However a variety of empirical and ethical issues are on the rise in academia, especially plagiarism is quickly becoming part of global educational and research culture. More and more students and researchers are turning to the…

  5. Ensuring Effective Student Support in Higher Education Alleged Plagiarism Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, Craig; Dooey, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct are matters of great concern at all levels of study worldwide. This is especially so for students in higher education institutions, where higher degrees and publications are key focus activities. Ready access to internet based resources assist academic writing practices. However, the unintentional,…

  6. A Model for Exploring Student Understandings of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Anna; Taylor, David; Johnston, Carol

    2014-01-01

    A clear understanding of how students view plagiarism is needed if the extensive efforts devoted to helping them engage in high-quality scholarship are to be worthwhile. There are a variety of views on this topic, but theoretical models to integrate the literature, take account of international differences and guide practitioners are limited.…

  7. Plagiarism Isn't Just an Issue for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Deborah K.

    2011-01-01

    Everyone is appalled at reports of rampant cheating among high school and college students, primarily by cutting and pasting from the Internet without providing citations. There are situations in real life where an individual suffered serious consequences for plagiarizing work. Many schools incorporate such scenarios in character education…

  8. Confronting Plagiarism: How Conventional Teaching Invites Cyber-Cheating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterngold, Arthur

    2004-01-01

    The digital revolution makes it easy for students to plagiarize. Using Internet search engines, DVD-based reference works, online journals, Web-based news sources, article databases, and other electronic sources, students can find information about nearly any topic and paste the data directly into their papers. Or students can take credit for…

  9. Online Anti-Plagiarism Service Sets off Court Fight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2007-01-01

    As educators grapple with how best to combat plagiarism in the Internet age, several high school students are suing a company that many districts and schools have hired to help them reduce such cheating. The lawsuit alleges that the company is violating the high school students' rights under U.S. copyright law. The lawsuit was filed by four…

  10. Judge Rules Plagiarism-Detection Tool Falls under "Fair Use"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2008-01-01

    Judge Claude M. Hilton, of the U.S. District Court in Alexandria, Virginia, in March found that scanning the student papers for the purpose of detecting plagiarism is a "highly transformative" use that falls under the fair-use provision of copyright law. He ruled that the company "makes no use of any work's particular expressive or creative…

  11. Strategies to Help Legal Studies Students Avoid Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Linda B.; Bast, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is certainly not new to academics, but it may be on the rise with easy access to the vast quantities of information available on the Internet. Students researching on the Internet do not have to take handwritten or typewritten notes. They can simply print out or copy and save whatever they find. They are even spared the tedium of having…

  12. A Reflection on Plagiarism, Patchwriting, and the Engineering Master's Thesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckel, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    Early in his career as an engineering librarian, the author saw plagiarism in completely black and white terms. However, digging into the scholarly literature, he finds ample evidence that there are other factors at work in student writing besides a lack of ethics or the intent to cheat. In this article, he briefly highlights some of these…

  13. Policy, Preparation, and Prevention: Proactive Minimization of Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devlin, Marcia

    2006-01-01

    Countless cases of plagiarism are detected across the Australian higher education sector each year. Generally speaking, policy and other responses to the issue focus on punitive, rather than on educative, measures. Recently, a subtle shift is discernable. As well as ensuring appropriate consequences for plagiarists, several universities are…

  14. Protecting Students' Intellectual Property in the Web Plagiarism Detection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butakov, Sergey; Dyagilev, Vadim; Tskhay, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Learning management systems (LMS) play a central role in communications in online and distance education. In the digital era, with all the information now accessible at students' fingertips, plagiarism detection services (PDS) have become a must-have part of LMS. Such integration provides a seamless experience for users, allowing PDS to check…

  15. Electrophysiology of cross-language interference and facilitation in picture naming.

    PubMed

    Roelofs, Ardi; Piai, Vitória; Garrido Rodriguez, Gabriela; Chwilla, Dorothee J

    2016-03-01

    Disagreement exists about how bilingual speakers select words, in particular, whether words in another language compete, or competition is restricted to a target language, or no competition occurs. Evidence that competition occurs but is restricted to a target language comes from response time (RT) effects obtained when speakers name pictures in one language while trying to ignore distractor words in another language. Compared to unrelated distractor words, RT is longer when the picture name and distractor are semantically related, but RT is shorter when the distractor is the translation of the name of the picture in the other language. These effects suggest that distractor words from another language do not compete themselves but activate their counterparts in the target language, thereby yielding the semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Here, we report an event-related brain potential (ERP) study testing the prediction that priming underlies both of these effects. The RTs showed semantic interference and translation facilitation effects. Moreover, the picture-word stimuli yielded an N400 response, whose amplitude was smaller on semantic and translation trials than on unrelated trials, providing evidence that interference and facilitation priming underlie the RT effects. We present the results of computer simulations showing the utility of a within-language competition account of our findings. PMID:26820686

  16. Cross-language Babel structs—making scientific interfaces more efficient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prantl, Adrian; Ebner, Dietmar; Epperly, Thomas G. W.

    2013-01-01

    Babel is an open-source language interoperability framework tailored to the needs of high-performance scientific computing. As an integral element of the Common Component Architecture, it is employed in a wide range of scientific applications where it is used to connect components written in different programming languages. In this paper we describe how we extended Babel to support interoperable tuple data types (structs). Structs are a common idiom in (mono-lingual) scientific application programming interfaces (APIs); they are an efficient way to pass tuples of nonuniform data between functions, and are supported natively by most programming languages. Using our extended version of Babel, developers of scientific codes can now pass structs as arguments between functions implemented in any of the supported languages. In C, C++, Fortran 2003/2008 and Chapel, structs can be passed without the overhead of data marshaling or copying, providing language interoperability at minimal cost. Other supported languages are Fortran 77, Fortran 90/95, Java and Python. We will show how we designed a struct implementation that is interoperable with all of the supported languages and present benchmark data to compare the performance of all language bindings, highlighting the differences between languages that offer native struct support and an object-oriented interface with getter/setter methods. A case study shows how structs can help simplify the interfaces of scientific codes significantly.

  17. The Ethics and Politics of Policing Plagiarism: A Qualitative Study of Faculty Views on Student Plagiarism and Turnitin®

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruton, Samuel; Childers, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the usage of plagiarism detection software such as Turnitin® has increased dramatically among university instructors. At the same time, academic criticism of this software's employment has also increased. We interviewed 23 faculty members from various departments at a medium-sized, public university in the southeastern US to determine…

  18. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Pharmacy Students' Perceptions of Plagiarism and Academic Honesty

    PubMed Central

    Bonanno, Helen; Krass, Ines; Scouller, Karen; Smith, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To assess undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students' perceptions of plagiarism and academic honesty. Methods A questionnaire was administered to undergraduate and postgraduate pharmacy students to determine their levels of awareness of university policy concerning academic honesty; attitudes to plagiarism by rating the acceptability of a range of plagiarizing and cheating practices; and choice of appropriate penalties for a first and second occurrence. The choice of behaviors in response to a scenario about the preparation of a reading-based written assignment and the strategies that students would be prepared to use in order to submit the assignment on time were also assessed. Results Findings indicated widespread deficiencies in student knowledge of, and attitudes towards, plagiarism. Students did not perceive plagiarism as a serious issue and the use of inappropriate strategies for sourcing and acknowledging material was common. Conclusions The study highlights the importance of achieving a balance among the 3 dimensions of plagiarism management: prevention, detection and penalty. PMID:19885074

  19. Child-adult differences in second-language phonological learning: the role of cross-language similarity.

    PubMed

    Baker, Wendy; Trofimovich, Pavel; Flege, James E; Mack, Molly; Halter, Randall

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated whether age effects on second language (L2) speech learning derive from changes in how the native language (L1) and L2 sound systems interact. According to the "interaction hypothesis" (IH), the older the L2 learner, the less likely the learner is able to establish new vowel categories needed for accurate L2 vowel production and perception because, with age, L1 vowel categories become more likely to perceptually encompass neighboring L2 vowels. These IH predictions were evaluated in two experiments involving 64 native Korean- and English-speaking children and adults. Experiment 1 determined, as predicted, that the Korean children were less likely than the Korean adults to perceive L2 vowels as instances of a single L1 vowel category. Experiment 2 showed that the Korean children surpassed the Korean adults in production of certain vowels but equaled them in vowel perception. These findings, which partially support the IH, are discussed in relation to L2 speech learning. PMID:19348154

  20. Crossing Borders: High School Science Teachers Learning to Teach the Specialized Language of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Jennifer Drake

    2009-01-01

    The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what…

  1. A Meta-Analysis of Cross Sectional Studies Investigating Language in Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Jarrad A. G.; Powell, Martine; Timms, Lydia; Snow, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In this review article, meta-analysis was used to summarize research investigating language skills in maltreated children. Method: A systematic search of published studies was undertaken. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they investigated language skills in groups comprising maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Studies were…

  2. Cross-Language Correlates in Phonological Awareness and Naming Speed: Evidence from Deep and Shallow Orthographies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pae, Hye Kyeong; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.

    2010-01-01

    Phonological awareness (PA) and rapid automatised naming (RAN) skills in relation to reading acquisition were examined using two languages, one with a deep orthography (English) and the other with a shallow orthography (Korean). Participants were 50 Korean American children who spoke English as a dominant language (DL) and were learning to read…

  3. The History of the English Language Course: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach to the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dressman, Michael R.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the history of the English language can help students become aware of major issues in several academic fields, including history, literature, political science, anthropology, communication, economics, the Arts, and, of course, languages and linguistics. Even though instructors may not have an especially broad background in the…

  4. Cross-Language Differences in Informational Masking of Speech by Speech: English versus Mandarin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Xihong; Yang, Zhigang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Jing; Li, Liang; Daneman, Meredyth; Schneider, Bruce A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine why perceived spatial separation provides a greater release from informational masking in Chinese than English when target sentences in each of the languages are masked by other talkers speaking the same language. Method: Monolingual speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese listened to…

  5. Word Segmentation and Phonological Learning in Cross-Language Perception of Fluent Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Tuuli Morrill

    2011-01-01

    Listeners segment words from the continuous speech stream in their native language by using rhythmic structure, phrasal structure, and phonotactics (e.g. Christophe et al, 2003: McQueen, 1998). One challenging aspect of second language acquisition is the extraction of words from fluent speech, possibly because learners apply a native language…

  6. Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Children: A Multinational Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroom, Sara J.; Seaman, Alan A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most significant trends in contemporary English language teaching is the dramatic increase in English as a foreign language (EFL) programs for younger children (ages 3-12) in school systems throughout the world. These programs have created special challenges for teachers who are nonnative English speakers (NNES). To document the…

  7. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from…

  8. Sex Differences in Language: A Cross-National Perspective with Emphasis on English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeStefano, Johanna S.

    Sex-related language stereotypes and sex-related differences in language usage are examined in this paper, and some recent research findings that illuminate them are reported. The following topics are among those discussed: seemingly universal characterizations of women's speech as gossip, nagging, or chatting, partially explained by most…

  9. A short-term testing effect in cross-language recognition.

    PubMed

    Verkoeijen, Peter P J L; Bouwmeester, Samantha; Camp, Gino

    2012-06-01

    Taking a memory test after an initial study phase produces better long-term retention than restudying the items, a phenomenon known as the testing effect. We propose that this effect emerges because testing strengthens semantic features of items' memory traces, whereas restudying strengthens surface features of items' memory traces. This novel account predicts that a testing effect should be observed even after a short retention interval when a language switch occurs between the learning phase and the final test phase. We assessed this prediction with Dutch-English bilinguals who learned Dutch Deese-Roediger-McDermott word lists through restudying or through testing (retrieval practice). Five minutes after this learning phase, they took a recognition test in Dutch (within-language condition) or in English (across-language condition). We observed a testing effect in the across-language condition, but not in the within-language condition. These findings corroborate our novel account of the testing effect. PMID:22539332

  10. Where and How People Live. Language Arts around the World, Volume IV. Cross-Curricular Activities for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    Suggesting that students in the intermediate grades can explore the world around them and practice valuable skills in spelling, reading, writing, communication, and language, this book presents cross-curricular units designed to integrate language-arts activities into the study of where and how people live. The units in the book reach diverse…

  11. The Role of Language Dominance in Cross-Linguistic Syntactic Influence: A Korean Child's Use of Null Subjects in Attriting English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Sang-Gu

    2013-01-01

    While Hulk and Muller (2000) predict that the direction of cross-linguistic syntactic influence is unidirectional when the construction involves syntax-pragmatics interface and surface overlap between two languages, they explicitly rule out language dominance as a factor involved. This study questions their latter claim and argues that the syntax…

  12. The Influence of Cross-Linguistic Input and L2 Proficiency on L2 Reading Comprehension among Spanish-Speaking Adults Learning English as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Astrid Sussette

    2010-01-01

    Developing literacy and language proficiency in English is essential to thrive in school and in the workforce in American society. Research on cross-linguistic influences on text-level skills is scant, especially studies investigating reading comprehension among language-minority adults. The present study investigated the effects of…

  13. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers

    PubMed Central

    Awadh, Faris H. R.; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages –French, Spanish, and Arabic– that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  14. Cross-language activation of morphological relatives in cognates: the role of orthographic overlap and task-related processing

    PubMed Central

    Mulder, Kimberley; Dijkstra, Ton; Baayen, R. Harald

    2015-01-01

    We considered the role of orthography and task-related processing mechanisms in the activation of morphologically related complex words during bilingual word processing. So far, it has only been shown that such morphologically related words (i.e., morphological family members) are activated through the semantic and morphological overlap they share with the target word. In this study, we investigated family size effects in Dutch-English identical cognates (e.g., tent in both languages), non-identical cognates (e.g., pil and pill, in English and Dutch, respectively), and non-cognates (e.g., chicken in English). Because of their cross-linguistic overlap in orthography, reading a cognate can result in activation of family members both languages. Cognates are therefore well-suited for studying mechanisms underlying bilingual activation of morphologically complex words. We investigated family size effects in an English lexical decision task and a Dutch-English language decision task, both performed by Dutch-English bilinguals. English lexical decision showed a facilitatory effect of English and Dutch family size on the processing of English-Dutch cognates relative to English non-cognates. These family size effects were not dependent on cognate type. In contrast, for language decision, in which a bilingual context is created, Dutch and English family size effects were inhibitory. Here, the combined family size of both languages turned out to better predict reaction time than the separate family size in Dutch or English. Moreover, the combined family size interacted with cognate type: the response to identical cognates was slowed by morphological family members in both languages. We conclude that (1) family size effects are sensitive to the task performed on the lexical items, and (2) depend on both semantic and formal aspects of bilingual word processing. We discuss various mechanisms that can explain the observed family size effects in a spreading activation framework

  15. Cross-Language Modulation of Visual Attention Span: An Arabic-French-Spanish Comparison in Skilled Adult Readers.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Faris H R; Phénix, Thierry; Antzaka, Alexia; Lallier, Marie; Carreiras, Manuel; Valdois, Sylviane

    2016-01-01

    In delineating the amount of orthographic information that can be processed in parallel during a single fixation, the visual attention (VA) span acts as a key component of the reading system. Previous studies focused on the contribution of VA span to normal and pathological reading in monolingual and bilingual children from different European languages, without direct cross-language comparison. In the current paper, we explored modulations of VA span abilities in three languages -French, Spanish, and Arabic- that differ in transparency, reading direction and writing systems. The participants were skilled adult readers who were native speakers of French, Spanish or Arabic. They were administered tasks of global and partial letter report, single letter identification and text reading. Their VA span abilities were assessed using tasks that require the processing of briefly presented five consonant strings (e.g., R S H F T). All five consonants had to be reported in global report but a single cued letter in partial report. Results showed that VA span was reduced in Arabic readers as compared to French or Spanish readers who otherwise show a similar high performance in the two report tasks. The analysis of VA span response patterns in global report showed a left-right asymmetry in all three languages. A leftward letter advantage was found in French and Spanish but a rightward advantage in Arabic. The response patterns were symmetric in partial report, regardless of the language. Last, a significant relationship was found between VA span abilities and reading speed but only for French. The overall findings suggest that the size of VA span, the shape of VA span response patterns and the VA Span-reading relationship are modulated by language-specific features. PMID:27014125

  16. Self-plagiarism in academic publishing: the anatomy of a misnomer.

    PubMed

    Andreescu, Liviu

    2013-09-01

    The paper discusses self-plagiarism and associated practices in scholarly publishing. It approaches at some length the conceptual issues raised by the notion of self-plagiarism. It distinguishes among and then examines the main families of arguments against self-plagiarism, as well as the question of possibly legitimate reasons to engage in this practice. It concludes that some of the animus frequently reserved for self-plagiarism may be the result of, among others, poor choice of a label, unwarranted generalizations as to its ill effects based on the specific experience (and goals) of particular disciplines, and widespread but not necessarily beneficial publishing practices. PMID:23179068

  17. Developmental Language Disorders: Challenges and Implications of Cross-Group Comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Historically, specific language impairment (SLI) and language deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been viewed as distinct developmental language disorders. However, over the last decade or so a considerable amount of research has explored general similarities or specific areas of overlap between children with SLI and ASD based on language and cognitive profiles, neuroimaging findings, and genetic research. The clinical classification schemes that are used to identify the children necessarily influence the extent to which SLI and ASD are viewed as overlapping or distinct conditions. Yet, the criteria used to diagnosis these two populations vary across countries and even across investigators within a given country. This necessarily impacts the findings from comparative investigations of these groups. With these challenges in mind, clinical implications of evidence for similarities and distinctions between children with SLI and ASD will be discussed with respect to differential diagnosis and treatment. PMID:23942044

  18. Crossing the Moat: From Basic Skills to Whole Language in a Kindergarten Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamme, Linda Leonard; Lee, Pam

    1990-01-01

    In this interview with a Florida kindergarten teacher, the whole language philosophy is used to help elementary students learn skills through ongoing reading and writing activities. Thematic units are used to encourage teacher facilitation and peer teaching. (DG)

  19. Crossing Geographies of Language Learning--The Case of "A Successful Pupil"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koivistoinen, Hilkka Anneli

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the social actions taken around English language by a 12-year-old Finnish schoolboy, Simo, and his family members in the course of living their everyday life at home. The paper asks how everyday life learning opportunities are related to both in-class and out-of-class English-language learning. The multiple data (e.g. media…

  20. Crossing borders: High school science teachers learning to teach the specialized language of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Jennifer Drake

    The highly specialized language of science is both challenging and alienating to adolescent readers. This study investigated how secondary science teachers learn to teach the specialized language of science in their classrooms. Three research questions guided this study: (a) what do science teachers know about teaching reading in science? (b) what understanding about the unique language demands of science reading do they construct through professional development? and (c) how do they integrate what they have learned about these specialized features of science language into their teaching practices? This study investigated the experience of seven secondary science teachers as they participated in a professional development program designed to teach them about the specialized language of science. Data sources included participant interviews, audio-taped professional development sessions, field notes from classroom observations, and a prior knowledge survey. Results from this study suggest that science teachers (a) were excited to learn about disciplinary reading practices, (b) developed an emergent awareness of the specialized features of science language and the various genres of science writing, and (c) recognized that the challenges of science reading goes beyond vocabulary. These teachers' efforts to understand and address the language of science in their teaching practices were undermined by their lack of basic knowledge of grammar, availability of time and resources, their prior knowledge and experiences, existing curriculum, and school structure. This study contributes to our understanding of how secondary science teachers learn about disciplinary literacy and apply that knowledge in their classroom instruction. It has important implications for literacy educators and science educators who are interested in using language and literacy practices in the service of science teaching and learning. (Full text of this dissertation may be available via the University

  1. French MeSH Browser: a cross-language tool to access MEDLINE/PubMed.

    PubMed

    Thirion, Benoit; Pereira, Susanne; Névéol, Aurélie; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2007-01-01

    When searching the medical literature, health professionals and lay people strongly prefer to use their native language. Therefore, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) translations would be helpful to those who are not fluent in English to access scientific papers indexed in the MEDLINE bibliographic database. Furthermore, medical terminologies such as MeSH are challenging in any language. In this context, a French MeSH Browser was developed. PMID:18694229

  2. Cross-Linguistic Differences in Processing Double-Embedded Relative Clauses: Working-Memory Constraints or Language Statistics?

    PubMed

    Frank, Stefan L; Trompenaars, Thijs; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-04-01

    An English double-embedded relative clause from which the middle verb is omitted can often be processed more easily than its grammatical counterpart, a phenomenon known as the grammaticality illusion. This effect has been found to be reversed in German, suggesting that the illusion is language specific rather than a consequence of universal working memory constraints. We present results from three self-paced reading experiments which show that Dutch native speakers also do not show the grammaticality illusion in Dutch, whereas both German and Dutch native speakers do show the illusion when reading English sentences. These findings provide evidence against working memory constraints as an explanation for the observed effect in English. We propose an alternative account based on the statistical patterns of the languages involved. In support of this alternative, a single recurrent neural network model that is trained on both Dutch and English sentences is shown to predict the cross-linguistic difference in the grammaticality effect. PMID:25943302

  3. Metrics-based assessments of research: incentives for 'institutional plagiarism'?

    PubMed

    Berry, Colin

    2013-06-01

    The issue of plagiarism--claiming credit for work that is not one's own, rightly, continues to cause concern in the academic community. An analysis is presented that shows the effects that may arise from metrics-based assessments of research, when credit for an author's outputs (chiefly publications) is given to an institution that did not support the research but which subsequently employs the author. The incentives for what is termed here "institutional plagiarism" are demonstrated with reference to the UK Research Assessment Exercise in which submitting units of assessment are shown in some instances to derive around twice the credit for papers produced elsewhere by new recruits, compared to papers produced 'in-house'. PMID:22371031

  4. Student's Plagiarisms in Higher Learning Institutions in the Era of Improved Internet Access: Case Study of Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anney, Vicent Naano; Mosha, Mary Atanas

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated students' plagiarism practices in Tanzania higher learning institutions by involving two universities-one public and one private university as a case study. The universities involved have honour code and policies for plagiarism detection however they do not employ software for checking students' plagiarism. The study…

  5. Using the Google Search Engine to Detect Word-for-Word Plagiarism in Master's Theses: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Mark; Holmberg, Melissa

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore Google's potential for detecting occurrences of word-for-word (1) plagiarism in master's theses. The authors sought answers to these questions:1. Is Google an effective tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?2. Is Google an efficient tool for detecting plagiarism in master's theses?The first…

  6. Back Translation: An Emerging Sophisticated Cyber Strategy to Subvert Advances in "Digital Age" Plagiarism Detection and Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael; Sheridan, Lynnaire

    2015-01-01

    Advances have been made in detecting and deterring the student plagiarism that has accompanied the uptake and development of the internet. Many authors from the late 1990s onwards grappled with plagiarism in the digital age, presenting articles that were provoking and established the foundation for strategies to address cyber plagiarism, including…

  7. There Was a Crooked Man(uscript): A Not-so-Serious Look at the Serious Subject of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Kevin T.

    2010-01-01

    The problem of plagiarism by political scientists has not received much attention. The incidence of plagiarism, however, may be greater than one would think. In this article, I offer a humorous look at what happened when a manuscript of mine was plagiarized. Based on my experience, I offer some suggestions on how scholars might detect and prevent…

  8. An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Turnitin.Com as a Tool for Reducing Plagiarism in Graduate Student Term Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Russell K.; Thornton, Barry; Adams, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a continual problem in academia. Plagiarism-detection tools like Turnitin have been used for nearly ten years to help university faculty and administration combat this form of cheating (turnitin.com). This paper evaluates the difference in plagiarism levels in graduate-student term papers when students are not provided access to…

  9. Will the Real Author Come Forward? Questions of Ethics, Plagiarism, Theft and Collusion in Academic Research Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, Pat

    2009-01-01

    This paper raises some questions about academic authorial honesty under the headings of Plagiarism (including self-plagiarism), Theft, and Collusion. Compared with the medical sciences, the social sciences in general and education specifically, lag behind in terms of critical attention being paid to the problem of plagiarism, the peer review…

  10. Orthographic processing in balanced bilingual children: Cross-language evidence from cognates and false friends.

    PubMed

    Schröter, Pauline; Schroeder, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether beginning bilingual readers activate orthographic as well as semantic representations in both of their languages while reading in one of them. Balanced bilingual third graders who were learning to read concurrently in German and English completed two lexical decision tasks, one in each language, including cognates, false friends, and matched control words. Results showed a processing advantage for cognates over controls in both languages, indicating that the facilitation effect is driven by the level of balanced language proficiency rather than by experience with print. Except for lower accuracy scores in German, false friends did not differ in their processing from controls, pointing to the presence of semantic-to-orthographic feedback already in the beginning of reading acquisition. Confirming assumptions by the bilingual interactive activation plus (BIA+) model as well as the revised hierarchical model (RHM), findings suggest that in their strategy to resolve orthographic ambiguity, balanced bilingual children are more comparable to bilingual adults than to child second-language (L2) learners. PMID:26456673

  11. [Is there protection against copying? Thoughts about plagiarism].

    PubMed

    Schubert, András; Glänzel, Wolfgang

    2015-12-13

    There are at least two reasons why more and more cases of suspected plagiarism are perceived in the scientific literature. On one hand, the ever increasing pressure for publication makes it easier for authors, reviewers and editors to infringe or overlook this serious ethical misdemeanor; on the other hand, with the development of text analysis software, detecting text similarities has become a simple task. The judgement of actual cases, however, requires well-grounded professional knowledge and prudent human decisions. PMID:26639647

  12. Children's Faithfulness in Imitating Language Use Varies Cross-Culturally, Contingent on Prior Experience.

    PubMed

    Klinger, Jörn; Mayor, Julien; Bannard, Colin

    2016-05-01

    Despite its recognized importance for cultural transmission, little is known about the role imitation plays in language learning. Three experiments examine how rates of imitation vary as a function of qualitative differences in the way language is used in a small indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico and three Western comparison groups. Data from one hundred thirty-eight 3- to 10-year-olds suggests that children selectively imitate when they understand the function of a given linguistic element because their culture makes frequent use of that function. When function is opaque, however, children imitate faithfully. This has implications for how children manage the imitation-innovation trade-off, and offers insight into why children imitate in language learning across development. PMID:27189408

  13. Collaborative Strategies That Integrate the Language Arts for Cross-Age Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Lisa A.; Richardson, Maurine V.

    The use of peers has long been beneficial to students: especially useful are cross-age projects, where students in the elementary and secondary grades engage in a common unit featuring projects separate to each grade and whole group activities. Cross-age projects are workable with careful planning in advance among teacher and administrators.…

  14. Knowledge and Attitude of Dental Professionals of North India Toward Plagiarism

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Harkanwal Preet; Guram, Namrata

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plagiarism is stealing of some others work or idea without proper citation. It is one of the biggest challenges faced by the scholarly world and by far a grim form of delinquency in academics. Aim: The study was designed to explore the knowledge and attitudes of dental professionals toward plagiarism. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire having 14 questions was sent either via e-mails or by sending printed copies to 5000 dental professionals, while maintaining anonymity of all the participants. Result: Most of the dental professionals know about plagiarism, and they believe that plagiarism cannot be avoided successfully. Pressure to publish was a major reason along with several others, which accounts for more and more indulgence in plagiarism. At the same time lack of facilities in private institutions and lack of funding for research work were the major factors as well, which hinder in creating research environment and hence promotes plagiarism and false studies to publish it. Conclusion: Plagiarism is present in dental professionals and that significant reduction can only be brought by awareness, objective check methods and stringent punishment. Plagiarism and other forms of academic misconduct must be recognized and must not be tolerated. PMID:24678470

  15. Online Academic-Integrity Mastery Training May Improve Students' Awareness of, and Attitudes toward, Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Guy J.; Gouldthorp, Bethanie; Thomas, Emma F.; O'Brien, Geraldine M.; Correia, Helen M.

    2013-01-01

    Some evidence has emerged in recent years that plagiarism can be reduced through the use of online mastery tests that are designed to train introductory psychology students in awareness of academic integrity and referencing conventions. Although these studies demonstrated a reduction in incidents of plagiarism they did not directly examine whether…

  16. The Scarlet "P": Plagiarism, Panopticism, and the Rhetoric of Academic Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwagerman, Sean

    2008-01-01

    This article is a rhetorical analysis of the anxious and outraged discourse employed in response to the "rising tide" of cheating and plagiarism. This discourse invites actions that are antithetical to the goals of education and the roles of educators, as exemplified by the proliferation of plagiarism-detection technologies. (Contains 15 notes.)

  17. "Not Necessarily a Bad Thing ...": A Study of Online Plagiarism amongst Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selwyn, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Whilst the copying, falsification and plagiarism of essays and assignments has long been a prevalent form of academic misconduct amongst undergraduate students, the increasing use of the internet in higher education has raised concern over enhanced levels of online plagiarism and new types of "cyber-cheating". Based on a self-report study of 1222…

  18. Plagiarism by Adult Learners Online: A Case Study in Detection and Remediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jocoy, Christine; DiBiase, David

    2006-01-01

    Detecting and combating plagiarism from Web-based sources is a concern for administrators and instructors involved in online distance education. In this paper, we quantify copy-and-paste plagiarism among adult learners in an online geography course offered through Penn State's World Campus Geographic Information Systems (GIS) certificate program.…

  19. Electronic Plagiarism as a College Instructor's Nightmare--Prevention and Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLafferty, Charles L.; Foust, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    Plagiarism, aided by the emergence of massive databases of information on the World Wide Web, has become commonplace on college campuses and in business schools. Because prevention is preferable to policing, in this article the authors (a) present methods for educators to define plagiarism and educate students in appropriate citation and…

  20. A Comparison of Chinese and Australian University Students' Attitudes towards Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrich, John; Howard, Steven J.; Mu, Congjun; Bokosmaty, Sahar

    2016-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a growing problem within Australian universities and abroad. Potentially exacerbating this situation, research indicates that students' attitudes toward plagiarism are typically more permissive and lenient than the policies of their tertiary institutions. There has been suggestion that this is especially so in Asian countries…

  1. Academic Staff's Perspectives upon Student Plagiarism: A Case Study at a University in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yongyan

    2015-01-01

    Much of the previous research concerning student plagiarism has been conducted in Anglo-American settings. The present paper reports a case study of academic staff's perspectives upon student plagiarism at a university in Hong Kong. Based on interviews with 16 instructors, the study focused on the teachers' views and pedagogical practices,…

  2. Deconstructing Attitudes towards Plagiarism of Japanese Undergraduates in EFL Academic Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teeter, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a qualitative analysis of 276 first-year Japanese university science major responses to plagiarism to deconstruct prevailing generalizations regarding the incidence of plagiarism by Japanese university students. These students were enrolled in a compulsory yearlong English academic writing course. While utilizing a contextualized…

  3. Helping International Students Succeed Academically through Research Process and Plagiarism Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Yu-Hui; Van Ullen, Mary K.

    2011-01-01

    Workshops on the research process and plagiarism were designed to meet the needs of international students at the University at Albany. The research process workshop covered formulating research questions, as well as locating and evaluating sources. The plagiarism workshop focused on acknowledging sources, quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing…

  4. "Thou Shalt Not Plagiarise": From Self-Reported Views to Recognition and Avoidance of Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risquez, Angelica; O'Dwyer, Michele; Ledwith, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Throughout much of the literature on plagiarism in higher education, there is an implicit assumption that students who understand plagiarism, who have high ethical views and declare not to engage in plagiaristic behaviour are able to recognise it and avoid it in practice. Challenging this supposition, this paper contrasts students' self-reported…

  5. Practice Makes Perfect: Improving Students' Skills in Understanding and Avoiding Plagiarism with a Themed Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estow, Sarah; Lawrence, Eva K.; Adams, Kathrynn A.

    2011-01-01

    To address the issue of plagiarism, students in two undergraduate Research Methods and Analysis courses conducted, analyzed, and wrote up original research on the topic of plagiarism. Students in an otherwise identical course completed the same assignments but examined a different research topic. At the start and end of the semester, all students…

  6. Substantive Editing as a Form of Plagiarism among Postgraduate Students in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    In university plagiarism policies, and in the research into plagiarism, one form of collusion remains virtually unacknowledged: substantive editing performed by editors. While almost all Australian universities allow postgraduate students to have their thesis professionally edited, "substantive" editing is prohibited. This article…

  7. Surveillance in Programming Plagiarism beyond Techniques: An Incentive-Based Fishbone Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yanqing; Chen, Min; Liang, Yaowen; Jiang, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Lots of researches have showed that plagiarism becomes a severe problem in higher education around the world, especially in programming learning for its essence. Therefore, an effective strategy for plagiarism surveillance in program learning is much essential. Some literature focus on code similarity algorithm and the related tools can help to…

  8. Of Flattery and Thievery: Reconsidering Plagiarism in a Time of Virtual Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, P. L.

    2007-01-01

    P. L. Thomas provides a framework for discussing plagiarism and calls on us to avoid overly simplified policies. After considering various perspectives on intent and the purposes of documentation, Thomas advocates developing standard definitions and guidelines for plagiarism in the department or the classroom. We should also offer professional…

  9. Skills Training to Avoid Inadvertent Plagiarism: Results from a Randomised Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Fiona J.; Wright, Jill D.; Newton, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be a concern within academic institutions. The current study utilised a randomised control trial of 137 new entry tertiary students to assess the efficacy of a scalable short training session on paraphrasing, patch writing and plagiarism. The results indicate that the training significantly enhanced students' overall…

  10. Turnitin.com: Teachers' Perspectives of Anti-Plagiarism Software in Raising Issues of Educational Integrity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy; Carr, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    Issues of academic plagiarism in educational institutions are often played out in the public arena. Media reports that "scandals" occur in universities where plagiarism has gone undetected, or unpunished can undermine public faith in the academic integrity of higher education. Antiplagiarism software has been successfully marketed to…

  11. Evaluation of a Process and Proforma for Making Consistent Decisions about the Seriousness of Plagiarism Incidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Shelley; Chien, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Procedures for responding consistently to plagiarism incidents are neither clear-cut nor easily implemented and yet inequitable treatment is intrinsically unfair. Classifying the seriousness of a plagiarism incident is problematic and penalties recommended for a given incident can vary greatly. This paper describes the development and testing of a…

  12. Retribution, Deterrence and Reform: The Dilemmas of Plagiarism Management in Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland-Smith, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Universities face constant scrutiny about their plagiarism management strategies, policies and procedures. A resounding theme, usually media inspired, is that plagiarism is rife, unstoppable and university processes are ineffectual in its wake. This has been referred to as a "moral panic" approach (Carroll & Sutherland-Smith, forthcoming; Clegg,…

  13. Reducing the Incidence of Plagiarism in an Undergraduate Course: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Lauren; Maassen, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    Plagiarism by students is an increasing problem at higher education institutions. However, the development of academic misconduct policies has done little to reduce the incidence of plagiarism as many incidents result from ignorance and poor skill development rather than intentional misconduct. Our purpose in embarking on this research project was…

  14. Plagiarism: using a collaborative approach in an online allied health professions course.

    PubMed

    Pence, Patricia L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions to increase the awareness and understanding of plagiarism among undergraduate students enrolled in an online allied health professions course in a community college in the Midwestern United States. The results suggested that the interventions were effective in educating students about how to avoid plagiarism. PMID:22157995

  15. "No Fair, Copycat!": What Children's Response to Plagiarism Tells Us about Their Understanding of Ideas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristina R.; Shaw, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Adults believe that plagiarizing ideas is wrong, which requires an understanding that others can have ideas and that it is wrong to copy them. In order to test when this understanding emerges, we investigated when children begin to think plagiarism is wrong. In Study 1, children aged 7, 9 and 11 years old, as well as adults, disliked someone who…

  16. Chinese International Students' and Faculty Members' Views of Plagiarism in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigg, Alan

    2016-01-01

    As the enrollment of Chinese international students (CIS) increased at a private institution in the Midwest, so did suspected cases of plagiarism. This study addressed the problem of how faculty members grappled with CIS' interpretation and application of Western-based views of plagiarism. The purpose of the study was to identify similarities and…

  17. An Investigation into Electronic-Source Plagiarism in a First-Year Essay Assignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellery, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since the emergence of the electronic era, plagiarism has become an increasingly prevalent problem at tertiary institutions. This study investigated the role electronic sources of information played in influencing plagiarism in an essay assignment in a first-year geography module at the University of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Despite explicit…

  18. Students Turned Off by Turnitin? Perception of Plagiarism and Collusion by Undergraduate Bioscience Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompsett, Andrew; Ahluwalia, Jatinder

    2010-01-01

    Research on undergraduate bioscience students and the incidence of plagiarism is still in its infancy and a key problem arises in gauging the perception of undergraduate students on plagiarism and collusion in biosciences subjects because of the lack of empirical data. The aim of this study was to provide qualitative data on the perceptions of…

  19. Avoid the Plague: Tips and Tricks for Preventing and Detecting Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolkan, J. V.

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism is an ugly word. Copying someone else's work and attempting to claim credit for one's self is an act that involves a number of ethical failings--theft, laziness, coveting, and lying among others. Many educators blame the Internet for what they perceive as the rise of plagiarism. Although the Internet certainly enables more efficient…

  20. A Cross-Language Study of Perception of Lexical Stress in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Vickie Y.; Andruski, Jean E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the question of whether language background affects the perception of lexical stress in English. Thirty native English speakers and 30 native Chinese learners of English participated in a stressed-syllable identification task and a discrimination task involving three types of stimuli (real words/pseudowords/hums). The…

  1. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  2. When Boundaries Are Crossed: Evaluating Language Attrition Data from Two Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Elena

    2010-01-01

    This study provides an account for a long-term selective loss of L1 (Russian) morpho-syntactic and content components in early immigrants to the U.S. The analysis of naturally occurring data is carried out from the perspective of two theoretical approaches--three models developed within language contact (Myers-Scotton 2002, 2005) and the…

  3. Dynamic Range for Speech Materials in Korean, English, and Mandarin: A Cross-Language Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, In-Ki; Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify whether differences in dynamic range (DR) are evident across the spoken languages of Korean, English, and Mandarin. Method: Recorded sentence-level speech materials were used as stimuli. DR was quantified using different definitions of DR (defined as the range in decibels from the highest to the…

  4. The European Framework of Languages: A Piloting Sample of Cross-Curricular Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansilla, Paloma Ubeda; Riejos, Ana Maria Roldan

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of the history of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEF) and European Language Portfolio (ELP) and explains their aims and functions. It then provides a summary of the ELP use in Europe and in Spain by showing a pilot study of its implementation carried out at the Schools of Civil Engineering and…

  5. Effects of cross-language voice training on speech perception: Whose familiar voices are more intelligible?

    PubMed Central

    Levi, Susannah V.; Winters, Stephen J.; Pisoni, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has shown that familiarity with a talker’s voice can improve linguistic processing (herein, “Familiar Talker Advantage”), but this benefit is constrained by the context in which the talker’s voice is familiar. The current study examined how familiarity affects intelligibility by manipulating the type of talker information available to listeners. One group of listeners learned to identify bilingual talkers’ voices from English words, where they learned language-specific talker information. A second group of listeners learned the same talkers from German words, and thus only learned language-independent talker information. After voice training, both groups of listeners completed a word recognition task with English words produced by both familiar and unfamiliar talkers. Results revealed that English-trained listeners perceived more phonemes correct for familiar than unfamiliar talkers, while German-trained listeners did not show improved intelligibility for familiar talkers. The absence of a processing advantage in speech intelligibility for the German-trained listeners demonstrates limitations on the Familiar Talker Advantage, which crucially depends on the language context in which the talkers’ voices were learned; knowledge of how a talker produces linguistically relevant contrasts in a particular language is necessary to increase speech intelligibility for words produced by familiar talkers. PMID:22225059

  6. Assessing Online Collaboration among Language Teachers: A Cross-Institutional Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Nike; Ducate, Lara; Lomicka, Lara; Lord, Gillian

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) among foreign language (FL) graduate students from three universities, who worked together to create a wiki. In order to investigate the nature of CSCL among participants, this qualitative case study used the Curtis and Lawson framework (2001) to conduct a content analysis of…

  7. Cross Currents: Communication/Language/Cultural Skills, Volume IX, Number 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Thomas Walter, Ed.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The following articles and features are presented in this issue: (1) "Approaches to Text," by R. Gannon; (2) "A Case Study in Dealing with Cultural Reserve as an Impediment to Language Learning," by R. Harker; (3) "Student-Centered Chalkboard Activities for Beginning Learners," by W. Matreyek; (4) "Introducing Dialects in the ESL Class," by M.…

  8. Cross-Language Information Access to Multilingual Collections on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bian, Guo-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Hsi

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of language barriers when using multilingual digital library collections on the Internet focuses on query translation and document translation in a Chinese-English information retrieval system called MTIR. Highlights include a bilingual dictionary; machine transliteration algorithm; design issues for document translation; HTML tags; and…

  9. Cross-Linguistic Evidence for the Nature of Age Effects in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekeyser, Robert; Alfi-Shabtay, Iris; Ravid, Dorit

    2010-01-01

    Few researchers would doubt that ultimate attainment in second language grammar is negatively correlated with age of acquisition, but considerable controversy remains about the nature of this relationship: the exact shape of the age-attainment function and its interpretation. This article presents two parallel studies with native speakers of…

  10. Cross-Language Effects in Written Word Recognition: The Case of Bilingual Deaf Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, multiple studies have shown that the languages of a bilingual interact during processing. We investigated sign activation as deaf children read words. In a word-picture verification task, we manipulated the underlying sign equivalents. We presented children with word-picture pairs for which the sign translation equivalents varied…

  11. Establishing a Cross-Cultural Analysis Component in Business Foreign Language Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsell, Patricia R.

    Introduction of materials designed to heighten the cultural awareness of students intending to work in international business is a more difficult task than introducing cultural material to language students, due to lack of appropriate texts and methods and the limited international awareness of students. The importance of cultural understanding to…

  12. Language-Specific Effects on Number Computation in Toddlers: A European Cross-Linguistic Cartography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubin, Amelie; Pineau, Arlette; Hodent, Celia; Houde, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    A fundamental question in developmental science is how brains with and without language compute numbers. Measuring young children's verbal reactions in Spain and Finland, we show that, although there is a general arithmetic ability for small numbers that is shared by monkeys and preverbal infants, the development of such initial knowledge in…

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Motivation of Students Learning a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Jane; Chen, Yih-Lan E.

    This study examined the underlying factor structure of the Motivation Orientation Scale (MOS), determining its degree of consistency across two distinct cultures and identifying variables affecting students' motivation in learning a second language. The study investigated how intention theory with its three motivation orientations, and Gardner's…

  14. Language and Education Orientations in Lithuania: A Cross-Baltic Perspective Post-EU Accession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulajeva, Tatjana; Hogan-Brun, Gabrielle

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an up-to-date overview of language policies and practices in Lithuania, paying particular attention to the latest developments that have taken place in national educational contexts. Against the background of recent sociodemographic changes in the three Baltic republics, Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia, it analyzes issues…

  15. Vocabulary Development in Greek Children: A Cross-Linguistic Comparison Using the Language Development Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papaeliou, Christina F.; Rescorla, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1 ; 6 to 2 ; 11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the…

  16. Kinesics and Cross-Cultural Understanding. Language in Education: Theory and Practice, No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morain, Genelle G.

    Body language, also called kinesics, is the discipline concerned with the study of all bodily motions that are communicative. An understanding of kinesics across cultures necessitates a close look at posture, movement, facial expression, eye management, gestures, and proxemics (distancing). The popularity of one posture over another and the…

  17. The Animals Around Us. Language Arts Theme Units: Cross-Curricular Activities for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAllister, Elizabeth A.; Hildebrand, Joan M.; Ericson, Joann H.

    This book is part of a series of books presenting ready-to-use instructional units on themes typically taught in the primary grades. The topics focus on science, math, social studies or literature, but use language arts skills consistently in each unit. Each book in the series also uses as many frames of mind or intelligences as possible. Within a…

  18. Students' Source Misuse in Language Classrooms: Sharing Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazel, Ismaeil; Kowkabi, Nasrin

    2013-01-01

    In this article we first provide a brief discussion of what is generally referred to as "student plagiarism," which we prefer to call "source misuse" or "inappropriate textual borrowing," and then provide some of the factors that may contribute to this problem in language classes. Moreover, we provide our views and…

  19. An analysis of student privacy rights in the use of plagiarism detection systems.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Bo

    2013-09-01

    Plagiarism detection services are a powerful tool to help encourage academic integrity. Adoption of these services has proven to be controversial due to ethical concerns about students' rights. Central to these concerns is the fact that most such systems make permanent archives of student work to be re-used in plagiarism detection. This computerization and automation of plagiarism detection is changing the relationships of trust and responsibility between students, educators, educational institutions, and private corporations. Educators must respect student privacy rights when implementing such systems. Student work is personal information, not the property of the educator or institution. The student has the right to be fully informed about how plagiarism detection works, and the fact that their work will be permanently archived as a result. Furthermore, plagiarism detection should not be used if the permanent archiving of a student's work may expose him or her to future harm. PMID:22618162

  20. Large-scale evaluation of a medical cross-language information retrieval system.

    PubMed

    Markó, Kornél; Daumke, Philipp; Schulz, Stefan; Klar, Rüdiger; Hahn, Udo

    2007-01-01

    We propose an approach to multilingual medical document retrieval in which complex word forms are segmented according to medically relevant morpho-semantic criteria. At its core lies a multilingual dictionary, in which entries are equivalence classes of subwords, i.e. semantically minimal units. Using two different standard test collections for the medical domain, we evaluate our approach for six languages covered by our system. PMID:17911746

  1. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Dean; D'Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers' mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker's overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour. PMID:26426329

  2. Concurrent Relations between Face Scanning and Language: A Cross-Syndrome Infant Study

    PubMed Central

    D’Souza, Dean; D’Souza, Hana; Johnson, Mark H.; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Typically developing (TD) infants enhance their learning of spoken language by observing speakers’ mouth movements. Given the fact that word learning is seriously delayed in most children with neurodevelopmental disorders, we hypothesized that this delay partly results from differences in visual face scanning, e.g., focusing attention away from the mouth. To test this hypothesis, we used an eye tracker to measure visual attention in 95 infants and toddlers with Down syndrome (DS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and Williams syndrome (WS), and compared their data to 25 chronological- and mental-age matched 16-month-old TD controls. We presented participants with two talking faces (one on each side of the screen) and a sound (/ga/). One face (the congruent face) mouthed the syllable that the participants could hear (i.e., /ga/), while the other face (the incongruent face) mouthed a different syllable (/ba/) from the one they could hear. As expected, we found that TD children with a relatively large vocabulary made more fixations to the mouth region of the incongruent face than elsewhere. However, toddlers with FXS or WS who had a relatively large receptive vocabulary made more fixations to the eyes (rather than the mouth) of the incongruent face. In DS, by contrast, fixations to the speaker’s overall face (rather than to her eyes or mouth) predicted vocabulary size. These findings suggest that, at some point in development, different processes or strategies relating to visual attention are involved in language acquisition in DS, FXS, and WS. This knowledge may help further explain why language is delayed in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. It also raises the possibility that syndrome-specific interventions should include an early focus on efficient face-scanning behaviour. PMID:26426329

  3. Cross-language MeSH indexing using morpho-semantic normalization.

    PubMed

    Markó, Kornél; Daumke, Philipp; Schulz, Stefan; Hahn, Udo

    2003-01-01

    We consider three alternative procedures for the automatic indexing of medical documents using MeSH thesaurus identifiers as target units (document descriptors). Rather than considering complete words as the starting point of the indexing procedure, we here propose morphologically plausible subwords as basic units from which MeSH terms are derived. We describe the morphological segmentation and normalization procedures, as well as the mappings from subwords to MeSH terms, and discuss results from an evaluation carried out on a German-language corpus. PMID:14728208

  4. Metalexical Awareness: Development, Methodology or Written Language? A Cross-Linguistic Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurvers, Jeanne; Uri, Helene

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the ability to access word boundaries of pre-school children, using an on-line methodology (Karmiloff-Smith, Grant, Sims, Jones, & Cockle (1996). "Cognition, 58", 197-219.), which has hardly been used outside English-speaking countries. In a cross-linguistic study in the Netherlands and Norway, four and five-year-old children…

  5. How Cross-Language Similarity and Task Demands Affect Cognate Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkstra, Ton; Miwa, Koji; Brummelhuis, Bianca; Sappelli, Maya; Baayen, Harald

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how the cross-linguistic similarity of translation equivalents affects bilingual word recognition. Performing one of three tasks, Dutch-English bilinguals processed cognates with varying degrees of form overlap between their English and Dutch counterparts (e.g., "lamp-lamp" vs. "flood-vloed" vs. "song-lied"). In lexical…

  6. Vocabulary development in Greek children: a cross-linguistic comparison using the Language Development Survey.

    PubMed

    Papaeliou, Christina F; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated vocabulary size and vocabulary composition in Greek children aged 1;6 to 2;11 using a Greek adaptation of Rescorla's Language Development Survey (LDS; Rescorla, 1989). Participants were 273 toddlers coming from monolingual Greek-speaking families. Greek LDS data were compared with US LDS data obtained from the instrument's normative sample (Achenbach & Rescorla, 2000). Vocabulary size increased markedly with age, but Greek toddlers appeared to get off to a slower start in early word learning than US children. The correlation between percentage word use scores in Greek and US samples was moderate in size, indicating considerable overlap but some differences. Common nouns were the largest category among the fifty most frequent words in both samples. Numbers of adjectives and verbs were comparable across languages, but people and closed-class words were more numerous in the Greek sample. Finally, Greek late talkers showed similar patterns of vocabulary composition to those observed in typically developing Greek children. PMID:21729371

  7. Does Gender-Fair Language Pay Off? The Social Perception of Professions from a Cross-Linguistic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Lisa K.; Merkel, Elisa F.; Maass, Anne; Sczesny, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    In many languages, masculine forms (e.g., German Lehrer, “teachers, masc.”) have traditionally been used to refer to both women and men, although feminine forms are available, too. Feminine-masculine word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, “teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.”) are recommended as gender-fair alternatives. A large body of empirical research documents that the use of gender-fair forms instead of masculine forms has a substantial impact on mental representations. Masculine forms activate more male representations even when used in a generic sense, whereas word pairs (e.g., German Lehrerinnen und Lehrer, “teachers, fem. and teachers, masc.”) lead to a higher cognitive inclusion of women (i.e., visibility of women). Some recent studies, however, have also shown that in a professional context word pairs may be associated with lesser status. The present research is the first to investigate both effects within a single paradigm. A cross-linguistic (Italian and German) study with 391 participants shows that word pairs help to avoid a male bias in the gender-typing of professions and increase women's visibility; at the same time, they decrease the estimated salaries of typically feminine professions (but do not affect perceived social status or competence). This potential payoff has implications for language policies aiming at gender-fairness. PMID:26834662

  8. Lexical access in children with hearing loss or language impairments, using the cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, Brigitte E.; Langereis, Margreet C.; van Weerdenburg, Marjolijn; Knoors, Harry E.T.; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2015-01-01

    In this study we compared the lexical access skills of 25 deaf children with cochlear implants, 13 hard-of-hearing children and 20 children with specific language impairments (SLI). Twenty-one age-matched typically developing children served as controls. The two groups of children with hearing loss in the present study had good speech perception abilities. We used a cross-modal picture-word interference paradigm to examine the lexical access skills. Results showed that children with SLI revealed overall slower reaction times and produced more errors than the implanted children, the hard-of-hearing children, and the control children. Both groups of children with hearing loss did not reveal slower reaction times than the control children. Semantic and phonological representations in long-term memory were affected more by inadequacies in linguistic processing than by a deficit in auditory perception, suggesting that a measure of lexical access could be a suitable clinical marker for SLI identification. We recommend to differentiate between the clinical groups of children regarding the focus of their language training. PMID:25460222

  9. Lexical Diversity and Omission Errors as Predictors of Language Ability in the Narratives of Sequential Spanish-English Bilinguals: A Cross-Language Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Peggy F.; Walden, Patrick R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored the utility of language sample analysis for evaluating language ability in school-age Spanish-English sequential bilingual children. Specifically, the relative potential of lexical diversity and word/morpheme omission as predictors of typical or atypical language status was evaluated. Method: Narrative samples were…

  10. Plagiarism in law and medicine: challenges for scholarship, academia, publishers and regulators.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The phenomenon of plagiarism has evolved as a major problem in many fields with the increasing accessibility of material on the internet. It poses dilemmas for those involved in secondary and tertiary education, as well as for book publishers and those who edit journals. This editorial reviews important recent decisions in the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia by courts and regulatory bodies in respect of doctors and lawyers who have engaged in plagiarism in various ways both while undergraduates and in the course of their professional careers. It reflects on the phenomenon of plagiarism, the challenges involved in its detection and the steps that can be taken to reduce its incidence. PMID:20552930

  11. Strategies for Using Plagiarism Software in the Screening of Incoming Journal Manuscripts: Recommendations Based on a Recent Literature Survey.

    PubMed

    Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, several online tools have appeared capable of identifying potential plagiarism in science. While such tools may help to maintain or even increase the originality and ethical quality of the scientific literature, no apparent consensus exists among editors on the degree of plagiarism or self-plagiarism necessary to reject or retract manuscripts. In this study, two entire volumes of published original papers and reviews from Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology were retrospectively scanned for similarity in anonymized form using iThenticate software to explore measures to predictively identify true plagiarism and self-plagiarism and to potentially provide guidelines for future screening of incoming manuscripts. Several filters were applied, all of which appeared to lower the noise from irrelevant hits. The main conclusions were that plagiarism software offers a unique opportunity to screen for plagiarism easily but also that it has to be employed with caution as automated or uncritical use is far too unreliable to allow a fair basis for judging the degree of plagiarism in a manuscript. This remains the job of senior editors. Whereas a few cases of self-plagiarism that would not likely have been accepted with today's guidelines were indeed identified, no cases of fraud or serious plagiarism were found. Potential guidelines are discussed. PMID:26876730

  12. The short international physical activity questionnaire: cross-cultural adaptation, validation and reliability of the Hausa language version in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of physical activity is important in determining the risk for chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, cancer and obesity. The absence of culturally relevant measures in indigenous languages could pose challenges to epidemiological studies on physical activity in developing countries. The purpose of this study was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-SF) to the Hausa language, and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hausa version of IPAQ-SF in Nigeria. Methods The English IPAQ-SF was translated into the Hausa language, synthesized, back translated, and subsequently subjected to expert committee review and pre-testing. The final product (Hausa IPAQ-SF) was tested in a cross-sectional study for concurrent (correlation with the English version) and construct validity, and test-retest reliability in a sample of 102 apparently healthy adults. Results The Hausa IPAQ-SF has good concurrent validity with Spearman correlation coefficients (ρ) ranging from 0.78 for vigorous activity (Min Week-1) to 0.92 for total physical activity (Metabolic Equivalent of Task [MET]-Min Week-1), but poor construct validity, with cardiorespiratory fitness (ρ = 0.21, p = 0.01) and body mass index (ρ = 0.22, p = 0.04) significantly correlated with only moderate activity and sitting time (Min Week-1), respectively. Reliability was good for vigorous (ICC = 0.73, 95% C.I = 0.55-0.84) and total physical activity (ICC = 0.61, 95% C.I = 0.47-0.72), but fair for moderate activity (ICC = 0.33, 95% C.I = 0.12-0.51), and few meaningful differences were found in the gender and socioeconomic status specific analyses. Conclusions The Hausa IPAQ-SF has acceptable concurrent validity and test-retest reliability for vigorous-intensity activity, walking, sitting and total physical activity, but demonstrated only fair construct validity for moderate and sitting

  13. Cross-Linguistic and Cross-Cultural Effects on Verbal Working Memory and Vocabulary: Testing Language-Minority Children with an Immigrant Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel de Abreu, Pascale M. J.; Baldassi, Martine; Puglisi, Marina L.; Befi-Lopes, Debora M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored the impact of test language and cultural status on vocabulary and working memory performance in multilingual language-minority children. Method: Twenty 7-year-old Portuguese-speaking immigrant children living in Luxembourg completed several assessments of first (L1)- and second-language (L2) vocabulary…

  14. Understanding Legitimate Teacher Authority in a Cross-Cultural Teaching Context: Pre-Service Chinese Language Teachers Undertaking Teaching Practicum in International Schools in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Chun; Gu, Mingyue; Hu, Jingjing

    2015-01-01

    Legitimate teacher authority is fundamental to effective teaching, but is often a thorny issue that teachers need to grapple with when teaching in cross-cultural teaching contexts. By interviewing 18 pre-service Chinese language teachers on their understanding of legitimate teacher authority throughout teaching practicum at international schools…

  15. Integrating Cross-Cultural Interaction through Video-Communication and Virtual Worlds in Foreign Language Teaching Programs: Burden or Added Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jauregi, Kristi; de Graaff, Rick; Canto, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    Organizing and implementing telecollaboration projects in foreign language curricula is not an easy endeavour (Belz & Thorne, 2006; Guth & Helm, 2010), as pedagogical, organizational and technical issues have to be addressed before cross-cultural interaction sessions can be carried out (O'Dowd & Ritter, 2006). These issues make many teaching…

  16. Integrating Cross-Cultural Interaction through Video-Communication and Virtual Worlds in Foreign Language Teaching Programs: Is There an Added Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canto, Silvia; Jauregi, Kristi; van den Bergh, Huub

    2013-01-01

    Organizing and implementing telecollaboration projects in foreign language curricula is not an easy endeavour (Belz & Thorne, 2006; Guth & Helm, 2010), as pedagogical, organizational and technical issues have to be addressed before cross-cultural interaction sessions can be carried out (O'Dowd & Ritter, 2006; O'Dowd, 2011). These issues make many…

  17. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  18. How do bilinguals handle interhemispheric integration? Evidence from a cross-language study.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2009-12-01

    The focus on interhemispheric interaction and integration has become a prominent aspect of laterality research. The aim of the present behavioral study was to determine whether hemisphere advantage differs between language groups. This was done by comparing how hemisphere advantage affects interhemispheric integration in monolingual and in bilingual individuals. Sixty university students (20 English monolinguals, 20 Hebrew bilinguals, and 20 balanced Arabic bilinguals) participated in two experiments, in which a lexical decision task was performed in the left and/or right visual field. Stimuli were presented unilaterally and bilaterally, whereby participants were cued to respond to the stimuli. In Experiment 1, all three groups showed an effect of lexicality, that is, participants responded to word stimuli faster than to non-word stimuli, with the Hebrew and Arabic groups showing a word advantage in spotting errors. In addition, all groups except the Hebrew group showed the expected right visual field advantage in accuracy, and the English group demonstrated this advantage in reaction time as well. In Experiment 2, responses to non-word stimuli were equally accurate in the left and right visual fields, but reaction time were faster for stimuli presented in the left visual field. The performance of balanced bilingual Arabic and unbalanced bilingual Hebrew reading groups was significantly better in the bilateral condition than in the unilateral condition. The results supported the notion that bilingual individuals show more effective interhemispheric communication and that they enjoy relative superiority in their interhemispheric processing in response to task demands. PMID:20205301

  19. The credibility of a source influences the rate of unconscious plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Bink, M L; Marsh, R L; Hicks, J L; Howard, J D

    1999-05-01

    Three experiments were conducted to investigate the relationship between the credibility of information and later unconscious plagiarism of that information. In each experiment, ideas concerning ways to reduce traffic accidents were presented from a more credible source (traffic planners) and a less credible source (college freshmen). After a distractor task, participants were asked to generate novel ways to reduce traffic accidents. In Experiments 1 and 2, unconscious plagiarism of ideas presented from the more credible source was greater than from the less credible source. In neither experiment was explicit memory for ideas from each source different in tests of source monitoring or free recall. However, the difference in unconscious plagiarism was eliminated in Experiment 3 by having participants generate the implications of ideas at study. The results are discussed in terms of the explicit factors that affect the incidence of unconscious plagiarism. PMID:10659079

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of an Arabic language version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Saarti, Stéphanie; Jabbour, Hicham; El Osta, Nada; Hajj, Aline; Khabbaz, Lydia Rabbaa

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients’ positive illness perceptions (IPs) significantly contribute to treatment success. The Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ) is widely used in various diseases for assessing IPs. It was developed in English-speaking countries and studies on it in Arab countries are scarce. Objectives, Setting and design This observational cross-sectional study aimed to cross-culturally adapt the Brief IPQ English version into a modern Arabic language version and determine its psychometric properties in a sample of Lebanese cardiac disease patients. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Saint Joseph University of Beirut, Lebanon. Participants A convenience sample of 30 patients with cardiac disease were recruited during routine visits to cardiologists’ offices in Beirut, Lebanon. Inclusion criteria were at least one cardiac disease for at least 6 months with no acute episode or exacerbation of the disease during the 6 preceding months, age≥18 years, and the ability to read and comprehend Arabic. The pre-final version of the Brief IPQ Arabic version was tested for face and content validity. The meaning, comprehensibility, and acceptability were studied by individual interviews. For discriminant validity and internal consistency of the Brief IPQ Arabic version (Brief IPQ-Ar), 100 patients were recruited in a similar manner using the same inclusion criteria. To assess reproducibility, 30 patients, selected randomly from the 100 patients, filled the questionnaire a second time, 3–4 weeks after its first administration and under the same conditions. Main outcome measures Psychometric properties of the Brief IPQ-Ar among Lebanese patients suffering from cardiac diseases. Results Semantic equivalence between the Brief IPQ-Ar questions and patients’ descriptions was 100%. Cronbach's alpha was 0.717, which shows good internal consistency. Reproducibility was satisfactory (ICC values>0.776). Moreover, the Brief IPQ

  1. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-01-01

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard. PMID:23852849

  2. Language Research in Progress: Report No. 7, January 1969; A Cross-Referenced List of Documented Language Research Projects Current April 1968 - November 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Alfred S.; Vis, Joan

    This document is the seventh report in the Language Research in Progress (LRIP) series, and lists a wide variety of language-related research projects current between April 1968 and November 1968. Research projects terminated in the six months prior to publication are included as well. Approximately 250 projects in the U.S. and abroad are…

  3. Morphological Family Size Effects in Young First and Second Language Learners: Evidence of Cross-Language Semantic Activation in Visual Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zeeuw, Marlies; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent young second language (L2) learners showed morphological family size effects in L2 word recognition and whether the effects were grade-level related. Turkish-Dutch bilingual children (L2) and Dutch (first language, L1) children from second, fourth, and sixth grade performed a Dutch lexical decision task on words…

  4. Finding One's Path into Another Language: On the Expression of Boundary Crossing by English Learners of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendriks, Henriette; Hickmann, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Languages vary considerably in how they represent motion. One major source of variation (Talmy, 2000) depends on whether linguistic systems lexicalize path in the verb (verb-framed languages) or in satellites (satellite-framed languages). This typological difference involves more than different verb types in that it also affects elements outside…

  5. Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: The Case of Spanish-English Bilinguals' Acquisition of Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caralho, Ana Maria; da Silva, Antonio Jose Bacelar

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates typological distance and order of acquisition (i.e., the order in which languages were acquired) in the context in which Spanish-English bilingual students, whose first language is English or Spanish, are learning Portuguese as a third language (L3). Participants were asked to think aloud as they worked on pedagogical tasks…

  6. Analyzing differences between chinese and english clinical text: a cross-institution comparison of discharge summaries in two languages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yonghui; Lei, Jianbo; Wei, Wei-Qi; Tang, Buzhou; Denny, Joshua C; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Miller, Randolph A; Giuse, Dario A; Zheng, Kai; Xu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide adoption of Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) databases in health care have generated an unprecedented amount of clinical data available electronically. There has been an increasing trend in US and western institutions towards collaborating with China on medical research using EMR data. However, few studies have investigated characteristics of EMR data in China and their differences with the data in US hospitals. As an initial step towards differentiating EMR data in Chinese and US systems, this study attempts to understand system and cultural differences that may exist between Chinese and English clinical documents. We collected inpatient discharge summaries from one Chinese and from three US institutions and manually analyzed three major clinical components in text: medical problems, tests, and treatments. We reported comparison results at the document level and section level and discussed potential reasons for observed differences. Documenting and understanding differences in clinical reports from the US and China EMRs are important for cross-country collaborations. Our study also provided valuable insights for developing natural language processing tools for Chinese clinical text. PMID:23920639

  7. A Comparison of Source Code Plagiarism Detection Engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancaster, Thomas; Culwin, Fintan

    2004-06-01

    Automated techniques for finding plagiarism in student source code submissions have been in use for over 20 years and there are many available engines and services. This paper reviews the literature on the major modern detection engines, providing a comparison of them based upon the metrics and techniques they deploy. Generally the most common and effective techniques are seen to involve tokenising student submissions then searching pairs of submissions for long common substrings, an example of what is defined to be a paired structural metric. Computing academics are recommended to use one of the two Web-based detection engines, MOSS and JPlag. It is shown that whilst detection is well established there are still places where further research would be useful, particularly where visual support of the investigation process is possible.

  8. National CrossTalk. Volume 14, Number 1, Winter 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trombley, William, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of "National Cross Talk" is to stimulate informed discussion and debate of higher education issues. This publication contains the following articles: (1) The Plagiarism Plague: In the Internet Era, Cheating Has Become an Epidemic on College Campuses (Don Campbell); (2) Dillard's Dire Straits: Historically Black College…

  9. Cross-cultural and factorial validity of PTSD check list—military version (PCL-M) in Sinhalese language

    PubMed Central

    Semage, Saveen N.; Sivayogan, Sivagurunadan; Forbes, David; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Monaragala, Roshan M. M.; Lockwood, Emma; Dunt, David

    2013-01-01

    Background There are currently no validated instruments to assess the burden of combat-related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Sinhalese—the main spoken language in Sri Lanka. Objective The purpose of this research was to establish the cross-cultural and structural validity of the PTSD Check List—Military Version (PCL-M) translated into Sinhalese. Methods Expert committee consensus generation as well as translation–back translation approaches were used to establish the semantic, conceptual, and content equivalence of the Sinhalese and English versions of the PCL-M. Four translations of each item were made. In the absence of any “gold standard” psychometric instrument in Sinhalese to establish the criterion validity for the PCL-M (SIN), the study utilized more informal checks for assessment of validity and Sri Lankan cutoffs for caseness for PTSD to establish the psychometric strength of the translated instrument along with standard reliability analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed on PCL-M scoring of a random sample of 1,586 soldiers to examine construct validity. Results Thirteen of the 17 items were selected by popular vote, and the remaining 4 through discussion and consensus. Reliability measured by Cronbach's-α was 0.944 for the total scale and 0.812, 0.869, and 0.895 for the three DSM-IV sub-scales (re-experiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal), respectively. The desired cutoff point for the translated instrument was determined to be 44. The five-factor model by Elhai et al. and the four-factor model by King et al. fitted best, demonstrating good fit to all three fit indices, while the four-factor model and the DSM-IV three-factor model by Simms et al. only had acceptable levels of fit for root mean squared error of approximation. χ2 difference test comparing the two better-fitting models suggests that the five-factor model by Elhai et al. has the better fit. Conclusion The PCL-M (SIN) version is suitable for use in

  10. Source Credibility and Idea Improvement Have Independent Effects on Unconscious Plagiarism Errors in Recall and Generate-New Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perfect, Timothy J.; Field, Ian; Jones, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Unconscious plagiarism occurs when people try to generate new ideas or when they try to recall their own ideas from among a set generated by a group. In this study, the factors that independently influence these two forms of plagiarism error were examined. Participants initially generated solutions to real-world problems in 2 domains of knowledge…

  11. Anti-Cheating Crusader Vexes Some Professors: Software Kingpin Says Using his Product Would Cure Plagiarism Blight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Read, Brock

    2008-01-01

    A parallel between plagiarism and corporate crime raises eyebrows--and ire-- on campuses, but for John Barrie, the comparison is a perfectly natural one. In the 10 years since he founded iParadigms, which sells the antiplagiarism software Turnitin, he has argued--forcefully, and at times combatively--that academic plagiarism is growing, and that…

  12. Evaluating an Electronic Plagiarism Detection Service: The Importance of Trust and the Difficulty of Proving Students Don't Cheat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Plagiarism by students is seen as an increasing problem. The fear is that students will use the internet to obtain analysis, interpretation or even complete assignments and then submit these as their own work. Electronic plagiarism detection services may help to prevent such unfair practice but, in doing so, they create a new problem: certifying…

  13. Using Online Resources to Improve Writing Skills and Attitudes about Writing and Plagiarism of Criminal Justice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohe, B.; Schroeder, J.; Davis, S. R. B.

    2013-01-01

    Cheating and plagiarism are significant problems in higher education because they occur often and interfere with learning. Plagiarism creates shortcuts that bypass the time and effort required to develop the writing and analytical skills necessary to produce evidence of progress in mastering course content. The purpose of a two-semester writing…

  14. Police, Design, Plan and Manage: Developing a Framework for Integrating Staff Roles and Institutional Policies into a Plagiarism Prevention Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Christopher; White, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    When student plagiarism occurs, academic interest and institutional policy generally assume the fault rests with the student. This paper questions this assumption. We claim that plagiarism is a shared responsibility and a complex phenomenon that requires an ongoing calibration of the relative skills and experiences of students and staff in…

  15. Developing Students' Referencing Skills: A Matter of Plagiarism, Punishment and Morality or of Learning to Write Critically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardi, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Just as plagiarism is viewed poorly in the academic community, so is plagiarism viewed poorly in student writing, with a range of sanctions and penalties applying for not displaying academic integrity. Yet learning to cite effectively to progress one's argument, position or understandings is a skill that takes time to develop and hone. This paper…

  16. Making a Difference: Library and Teaching Faculty Working Together to Develop Strategies in Dealing with Student Plagiarism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciammarella, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Student plagiarism is a problem affecting all colleges. Various strategies have been developed to deal with this situation. But, the collaborative efforts of subject faculty and librarians in creating a team approach towards plagiarism can produce positive results. Research shows that these relationships can provide structure to assignments…

  17. A Systematic Review of Cross-Linguistic and Multilingual Speech and Language Outcomes for Children with Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Kathryn; McLeod, Sharynne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review the factors affecting the language, speech intelligibility, speech production, and lexical tone development of children with hearing loss who use spoken languages other than English. Relevant studies of children with hearing loss published between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed with reference to…

  18. Attitudes and Motivation versus Language Achievement in Cross-Linguistic Settings. What Is Cause and What Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huguet, Angel

    2006-01-01

    In the bilingual contexts of two regions of Spain, Asturias (Asturian/Spanish) and Eastern Aragon (Catalan/Spanish), and given the relationship between language attitudes and linguistic proficiency, our study has two objectives. Firstly, the attitudes to the two contact languages are described. Secondly, the variables that can explain such…

  19. English Phonological Awareness in Bilinguals: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Tamil, Malay and Chinese English-Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, L. Quentin; Chuang, Hui-Kai; Quiroz, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    To test the lexical restructuring hypothesis among bilingual English-language learners, English phonological awareness (PA), English vocabulary and ethnic language vocabulary (Mandarin Chinese, Malay or Tamil) were assessed among 284 kindergarteners (168 Chinese, 71 Malays and 45 Tamils) in Singapore. A multi-level regression analysis showed that…

  20. The Theory of Adaptive Dispersion and Acoustic-Phonetic Properties of Cross-Language Lexical-Tone Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jennifer Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Lexical-tone languages use fundamental frequency (F0/pitch) to convey word meaning. About 41.8% of the world's languages use lexical tone (Maddieson, 2008), yet those systems are under-studied. I aim to increase our understanding of speech-sound inventory organization by extending to tone-systems a model of vowel-system organization, the Theory of…

  1. Evidence for Long-Term Cross-Language Repetition Priming in Low Fluency Chinese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Li; Mo, Lei; Wang, Ruiming; Luo, Xueying; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have found that proficiency in a second language affects how the meanings of words are accessed. Support for this hypothesis is based on data from explicit memory tasks with bilingual participants who know two languages that are relatively similar phonologically and orthographically (e.g., Dutch-English, French-English). The…

  2. Self-Concept and Native Language Background: A Study of Measurement Invariance and Cross-Group Comparisons in Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niehaus, Kate; Adelson, Jill L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement and interpretation of self-concept among the growing population of children who are English Language Learners (ELLs). More specifically, a 3-group analysis was conducted comparing native English-speaking children, Spanish-speaking ELLs, and ELLs from Asian language backgrounds. Data were drawn from the Early…

  3. Beyond Vocabulary: Exploring Cross-Disciplinary Academic-Language Proficiency and Its Association with Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Barr, Christopher D.; Meneses, Alejandra; Dobbs, Christina L.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long-standing awareness of academic language as a pedagogically relevant research area, the construct of academic-language proficiency, understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary, has remained vaguely specified. In this study, we explore a more inclusive operationalization of an academic-language…

  4. Cross-Cultural Differences in the Use of Learning Strategies by Students of Greek as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psaltou-Joycey, Angeliki

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses culture-specific learning strategies of 177 students learning Greek as a second/foreign language in an academic setting. The study reports on descriptive statistics of the data collected through implementation of the Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and processed in order to determine frequency of learners'…

  5. Cross-Domain Effects of Music and Language Experience on the Representation of Pitch in the Human Auditory Brainstem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Gandour, Jackson T.; Krishnan, Ananthanarayan

    2011-01-01

    Neural encoding of pitch in the auditory brainstem is known to be shaped by long-term experience with language or music, implying that early sensory processing is subject to experience-dependent neural plasticity. In language, pitch patterns consist of sequences of continuous, curvilinear contours; in music, pitch patterns consist of relatively…

  6. Procedural versus Narrative Cross-Language Priming and Bilingual Children's Reading and Sentence Sequencing of Same Genre and Opposite Genre Text in the Other Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vital, Hedva; Karniol, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    How bilingual children represent procedural versus narrative text is important for both pedagogical and theoretical reasons. To examine this issue, bilingual children and children learning English as a Second Language (ESL) read Hebrew sentences comprising either a procedural (i.e., "how to") or a narrative text (i.e., description of "doing") and…

  7. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development

    PubMed Central

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard Purdue, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. Aims The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three- and four-year-old children with typical language development. Methods & Procedures To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. Outcomes & Results A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children’s grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Conclusions & Implications Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children’s grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. PMID:21899673

  8. Ratings of age of acquisition of 299 words across 25 languages: Is there a cross-linguistic order of words?

    PubMed

    Łuniewska, Magdalena; Haman, Ewa; Armon-Lotem, Sharon; Etenkowski, Bartłomiej; Southwood, Frenette; Anđelković, Darinka; Blom, Elma; Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; de Abreu, Pascale Engel; Gagarina, Natalia; Gavarró, Anna; Håkansson, Gisela; Hickey, Tina; de López, Kristine Jensen; Marinis, Theodoros; Popović, Maša; Thordardottir, Elin; Blažienė, Agnė; Sánchez, Myriam Cantú; Dabašinskienė, Ineta; Ege, Pınar; Ehret, Inger-Anne; Fritsche, Nelly-Ann; Gatt, Daniela; Janssen, Bibi; Kambanaros, Maria; Kapalková, Svetlana; Kronqvist, Bjarke; Kunnari, Sari; Levorato, Chiara; Nenonen, Olga; Fhlannchadha, Siobhán Nic; O'Toole, Ciara; Polišenská, Kamila; Pomiechowska, Barbara; Ringblom, Natalia; Rinker, Tanja; Roch, Maja; Savić, Maja; Slančová, Daniela; Tsimpli, Ianthi Maria; Ünal-Logacev, Özlem

    2016-09-01

    We present a new set of subjective age-of-acquisition (AoA) ratings for 299 words (158 nouns, 141 verbs) in 25 languages from five language families (Afro-Asiatic: Semitic languages; Altaic: one Turkic language: Indo-European: Baltic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Slavic, and Romance languages; Niger-Congo: one Bantu language; Uralic: Finnic and Ugric languages). Adult native speakers reported the age at which they had learned each word. We present a comparison of the AoA ratings across all languages by contrasting them in pairs. This comparison shows a consistency in the orders of ratings across the 25 languages. The data were then analyzed (1) to ascertain how the demographic characteristics of the participants influenced AoA estimations and (2) to assess differences caused by the exact form of the target question (when did you learn vs. when do children learn this word); (3) to compare the ratings obtained in our study to those of previous studies; and (4) to assess the validity of our study by comparison with quasi-objective AoA norms derived from the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (MB-CDI). All 299 words were judged as being acquired early (mostly before the age of 6 years). AoA ratings were associated with the raters' social or language status, but not with the raters' age or education. Parents reported words as being learned earlier, and bilinguals reported learning them later. Estimations of the age at which children learn the words revealed significantly lower ratings of AoA. Finally, comparisons with previous AoA and MB-CDI norms support the validity of the present estimations. Our AoA ratings are available for research or other purposes. PMID:26276517

  9. APPS’s stance on self-plagiarism: Just say no1

    PubMed Central

    Culley, Theresa M.

    2014-01-01

    Should authors be able to reuse the same text in multiple papers without citing the earlier source? Known as self-plagiarism, this practice is strongly discouraged in Applications in Plant Sciences (APPS) because it violates professional standards, is potentially deceptive, and lacks originality. The most frequent form of self-plagiarism in APPS submissions is text recycling, which depending on the extent and location of copied text, has consequences ranging from authors being required to rewrite duplicated text or add citations, to automatic rejection of a manuscript without review. Ultimately, avoidance of self-plagiarism will result in original articles that improve upon, and do not simply replicate, the existing literature. PMID:25202643

  10. [Plagiarism. Document from the Ethics Commission of the Medical School, University of Chile].

    PubMed

    Rosselot Jaramillo, Eduardo; Bravo Lechat, Mireya; Kottow Lang, Miguel; Valenzuela Yuraidini, Carlos; O'Ryan Gallardo, Miguel; Thambo Becker, Sergio; Horwitz Campos, Nina; Acevedo Pérez, Irene; Rueda Castro, Laura; Sotomayor, María Angélica

    2008-05-01

    Plagiarism is defined as the intellectual fraud in which an individual attempts to unduly appropriate, for his/her own benefit, the knowledge, ideas or discoveries of someone else. It is not uncommon in academic settings where research is conducted and a creative work is carried out. Due to the dismal consequences of plagiarism, cautionary measures and sanctions are required to avoid it. This paper is intended to warn and promote a discussion about plagiarism. The Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile and its ethics committee believe that a fight against these type of actions will contribute to prevent their detrimental effects on the moral and intellectual patrimony of our society. PMID:18769815

  11. Standardized nursing language in the systematized nomenclature of medicine clinical terms: A cross-mapping validation method.

    PubMed

    Lu, Der-Fa F; Eichmann, David; Konicek, Debra; Park, Hyun Tae; Ucharattana, Prangtip; Delaney, Connie

    2006-01-01

    Many standardized healthcare languages have been mapped to the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms known as SNOMED CT, which was developed by the College of American Pathologists. This study describes a methodology for detecting misassigned concepts from source systems to SNOMED CT and presents the results of applying this methodology to a subset of concepts from two standardized nursing languages, the Nursing Interventions Classification and the Nursing Outcomes Classification. The methodology is based on comparing the knowledge representations of a set of nursing concepts between source systems (nursing languages) and SNOMED CT. If any nursing concept differs in knowledge representation in the target system compared with the source system, editorial misassignment of the concept was declared and recommendations for target system developers were made. In a total of 75 nursing concepts used to test this method, five misassigned concepts(6.6%) were found in SNOMED CT. This method can be used to validate other healthcare languages. PMID:16980782

  12. How to Act When Research Misconduct Is Not Detected by Software but Revealed by the Author of the Plagiarized Article.

    PubMed

    Baydik, Olga D; Gasparyan, Armen Yuri

    2016-10-01

    The detection of plagiarism in scholarly articles is a complex process. It requires not just quantitative analysis with the similarity recording by anti-plagiarism software but also assessment of the readers' opinion, pointing to the theft of ideas, methodologies, and graphics. In this article we describe a blatant case of plagiarism by Chinese authors, who copied a Russian article from a non-indexed and not widely visible Russian journal, and published their own report in English in an open-access journal indexed by Scopus and Web of Science and archived in PubMed Central. The details of copying in the translated English article were presented by the Russian author to the chief editor of the index journal, consultants from Scopus, anti-plagiarism experts, and the administrator of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The correspondents from Scopus and COPE pointed to the decisive role of the editors' of the English journal who may consider further actions if plagiarism is confirmed. After all, the chief editor of the English journal retracted the article on grounds of plagiarism and published a retraction note, although no details of the complexity of the case were reported. The case points to the need for combining anti-plagiarism efforts and actively seeking opinion of non-native English-speaking authors and readers who may spot intellectual theft which is not always detected by software. PMID:27550475

  13. Evaluating the English language scientific writing skills of Saudi dental students at entry level.

    PubMed

    El Tantawi, M; Al-Ansari, A; Sadaf, S; AlHumaid, J

    2016-02-01

    Better knowledge is needed about the effectiveness of preparatory English language courses for the health professions. This study evaluated the scientific writing skills of students finishing their preparatory year of a bachelor of dentistry programme in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014-15 among first-year dental students at the University of Dammam. Students were asked to write a 150-word English language assignment that was analysed for writing statistics and problems using Microsoft Word and plagiarism detection software. Of the 89 respondents, female students used a significantly greater number of words than did male students and their assignments had significantly lower Flesch reading ease scores. Male students had significantly lower odds of using references (OR 0.04) and higher odds of making punctuation and grammar mistakes (OR 2.63 and 3.91 respectively). One course of scientific writing in the preparatory year may not be enough to develop adequate writing skills among undergraduate dental students. PMID:27180743

  14. Relationship between Television Viewing and Language Delay in Toddlers: Evidence from a Korea National Cross-Sectional Survey

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Haewon; Hong, Saemi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated the relationship between 2-year-old children’s exposure to TV and language delay. Methods The subjects of this study were 1,778 toddlers (906 males and 872 females) who participated in the Panel Study on Korean Children conducted in 2010. The linguistic ability of the toddlers was measured with the K-ASQ (Korean-Ages and Stages Questionnaire). The relationship between the amount of young children’s exposure to TV and language delay was analyzed with Poisson regression. Results The average daily TV watching time of 2-year-old Korean toddlers in this study was 1.21 hours. After all confounding variables were adjusted, toddlers with over 2 hours and less than 3 hours of TV watching time had 2.7 times more risk (RR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.13–6.65) of language delay than those with less than 1 hour of TV watching time. Those with more than 3 hours of TV watching time had approximately 3 times (RR = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.12–8.21) more risk (p<0.05). In addition, the risk of language delay increased proportionately with the increase in toddlers’ TV watching time (p = 0.004). Conclusion Two-year-old Korean toddlers’ average daily TV watching time of more than 2 hours was related with language delay. PMID:25785449

  15. Are there qualitative differences in the representation of abstract and concrete words? Within-language and cross-language evidence from the semantic priming paradigm.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Pilar; Guasch, Marc; García-Chico, Teófilo; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The different organizational frameworks theory proposes that there is a qualitative difference between the representation of concrete and abstract words in memory: Concrete concepts would be primarily organized in terms of semantic similarity whereas abstract concepts would be mainly organized by their association with other concepts. Evidence in support of this proposal has been mostly obtained with neuropsychological populations and, to a lesser extent, with healthy participants. In the present work, we tested the different organizational frameworks theory by using, for the first time, a semantic priming paradigm both within language and across languages. The results revealed that there was priming for both semantically similar and associative relations when words were concrete. However, with abstract words, priming was only observed when pairs and targets were associated. These results do not support the proposal of Crutch and coworkers, suggesting that the experimental paradigm as well as the type of relations tested may modulate the pattern of effects obtained with concrete and abstract words. PMID:25671701

  16. Internet Plagiarism in Higher Education: Tendencies, Triggering Factors and Reasons among Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eret, Esra; Ok, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    While plagiarism has been a growing problem in higher education for a long time, the use of the Internet has made this increasing problem more unmanageable. In many countries, this problem has become a matter of discussion, and higher education institutions feel obliged to review their policies on academic dishonesty. As part of these efforts, the…

  17. Examining Differences among Online Faculty Reporting Student Plagiarism Using the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeder Stowe, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Among higher education faculty, having to address academic misconduct and plagiarism is often viewed as a negative aspect of teaching resulting in inconsistent reporting by faculty. Some faculty members take no action in response. Differences exist in attitudes between traditional regular full-time and part-time adjunct faculty members in terms of…

  18. Using Anti-Plagiarism Software to Promote Academic Honesty in the Context of Peer Reviewed Assignments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledwith, Ann; Risquez, Angelica

    2008-01-01

    A variety of free and commercial software applications designed to detect plagiarism from Internet sources has appeared in recent years. However, their effectiveness and impact on student behaviour has been assumed rather than confirmed. The study presented here explores the responses and perceptions of a group of first year students at an Irish…

  19. Turnitoff: Identifying and Fixing a Hole in Current Plagiarism Detection Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heather, James

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, "plagiarism detection software" has become popular in universities and colleges, in an attempt to stem the tide of plagiarised student coursework. Such software attempts to detect any copied material and identify its source. The most popular such software is Turnitin, a commercial system used by thousands of institutions in more…

  20. Coming to Terms with Contradictions: Online Materials, Plagiarism, and the Writing Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Sibylle

    1998-01-01

    Raises the complementary issues of faculty/tutor collaboration and tutor-writing confidentiality at writing centers by relating a serious dilemma involving a student's blatant attempt at plagiarism of an online text. Raises concerns regarding conflicting roles of the writing center in upholding itself as a safe place for students and/or as a place…