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Sample records for cross sectional quality

  1. Quality Quantification of Evaluated Cross Section Covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Varet, S.; Dossantos-Uzarralde, P.

    2015-01-15

    Presently, several methods are used to estimate the covariance matrix of evaluated nuclear cross sections. Because the resulting covariance matrices can be different according to the method used and according to the assumptions of the method, we propose a general and objective approach to quantify the quality of the covariance estimation for evaluated cross sections. The first step consists in defining an objective criterion. The second step is computation of the criterion. In this paper the Kullback-Leibler distance is proposed for the quality quantification of a covariance matrix estimation and its inverse. It is based on the distance to the true covariance matrix. A method based on the bootstrap is presented for the estimation of this criterion, which can be applied with most methods for covariance matrix estimation and without the knowledge of the true covariance matrix. The full approach is illustrated on the {sup 85}Rb nucleus evaluations and the results are then used for a discussion on scoring and Monte Carlo approaches for covariance matrix estimation of the cross section evaluations.

  2. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been re-evaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding 50 years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross-section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  3. Updated ozone absorption cross section will reduce air quality compliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Evans, M. J.; Lewis, A. C.

    2015-07-01

    Photometric ozone measurements rely upon an accurate value of the ozone absorption cross section at 253.65 nm. This has recently been reevaluated by Viallon et al. (2015) as 1.8 % smaller than the accepted value (Hearn, 1961) used for the preceding fifty years. Thus, ozone measurements that applied the older cross section systematically underestimate the amount of ozone in air. We correct the reported historical surface data from North America and Europe and find that this modest change in cross section has a significant impact on the number of locations that are out of compliance with air quality regulations if the air quality standards remain the same. We find 18, 23, and 20 % increases in the number of sites that are out of compliance with current US, Canadian, and European ozone air quality health standards for the year 2012. Should the new cross section value be applied, it would impact attainment of air quality standards and compliance with relevant clean air acts, unless the air quality target values themselves were also changed proportionately. We draw attention to how a small change in gas metrology has a global impact on attainment and compliance with legal air quality standards. We suggest that further laboratory work to evaluate the new cross section is needed and suggest three possible technical and policy responses should the new cross section be adopted.

  4. Quality of web based information on treatment of depression: cross sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kathleen M; Christensen, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate quality of web based information on treatment of depression, to identify potential indicators of content quality, and to establish if accountability criteria are indicators of quality. Design Cross sectional survey. Data sources 21 frequently accessed websites about depression. Main outcome measures (i) Site characteristics; (ii) quality of content—concordance with evidence based depression guidelines (guideline score), appropriateness of other relevant site information (issues score), and subjective rating of site quality (global score); and (iii) accountability—conformity with core accountability standards (Silberg score) and quality of evidence cited in support of conclusions (level of evidence score). Results Although the sites contained useful information, their overall quality was poor: the mean guideline, issues, and global scores were only 4.7 (range 0-13) out of 43, 9.8 (6-14) out of 17, and 3 (0.5-7.5) out of 10 respectively. Sites typically did not cite scientific evidence in support of their conclusions. The guideline score correlated with the two other quality of content measures, but none of the content measures correlated with the Silberg accountability score. Content quality was superior for sites owned by organisations and sites with an editorial board. Conclusions There is a need for better evidence based information about depression on the web, and a need to reconsider the role of accountability criteria as indicators of site quality and to develop simple valid indicators of quality. Ownership by an organisation and the involvement of a professional editorial board may be useful indicators. The study methodology may be useful for exploring these issues in other health related subjects. PMID:11118181

  5. The Cross-Sectional Association between Diet Quality and Depressive Symptomology amongst Fijian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Rachael; Millar, Lynne; Allender, Steven; Snowdon, Wendy; Waqa, Gade; Jacka, Felice; Moodie, Marj; Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between diet quality and depressive symptomology amongst a community-based sample of Fijian adolescents. Methods Participants included 7,237 adolescents (52.6% girls; mean age 15.6 years) at baseline (2005) and 2,948 (56% girls; mean age 17.4 years) at follow-up (2007/2008), from the Pacific Obesity Prevention in Communities Project. Intervention schools (n = 7) were selected from Nasinu, near Suva on the main Fijian island Viti Levu, and comparison schools (n = 11) were chosen from towns on the opposite, west side of the island. A dietary questionnaire was used to measure diet quality. Factor analysis clustered dietary variables into two unique and independent factors, referred to as healthy diet quality and unhealthy diet quality. Depressive symptomology was assessed via the emotional subscale of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory. Both measures were self-reported and self-administered. Multiple linear regression was used to test cross-sectional associations (at baseline and follow-up) between diet quality and depressive symptomology. Variables controlled for included gender, age, ethnicity, study condition, BMI-z scores, and physical activity. Findings Strong, positive dose-response associations between healthy diet and high emotional scores (lower depressive symptomology) were found in cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up, among boys and girls. No association was found between emotional health and unhealthy diet. Conclusions This study suggests that cross-sectional relationships exist between a high quality diet during adolescence and less depressive symptoms, however more evidence is required to determine if these two variables are linked causally. Trial population health strategies that use dietary interventions as a mechanism for mental health promotion provide an opportunity to further test these associations. If this is indeed a true relationship, these forms of interventions have the potential to

  6. Sleep quality and its psychological correlates among university students in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep is an important physiological process for humans. University students in most resource limited countries often report poor sleep quality due to changing social opportunities and increasing academic demands. However, sleep quality among university students has not been studied in Ethiopia. Thus, this study assessed sleep quality and its demographic and psychological correlates among university students. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in two universities in Ethiopia. Multistage sampling procedures were used to enroll 2,817 students into the study. A self-administered structured questionnaire including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and selected modules of the World Health Organization STEPS instrument was used for the study. This research included 2,551 students. Frequency, median, mean with standard deviation and 95% confidence interval were used to characterize sleep quality and other variables. Analysis of variance and binary logistic regression procedures were also used. Result The prevalence of poor sleep quality (total PSQI score > 5) was 55.8% (1,424). Female students (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.23; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.57), second year (AOR 2.91; 95% CI: 2.1, 4.02) and third year students (AOR 2.25; 95% CI 1.62, 3.12) had statistically significant higher odds of poor sleep quality. Perceived stress level and symptoms of depression and anxiety were strongly associated with sleep quality. Conclusion A substantial proportion of university students are affected by poor sleep quality. If our results are confirmed in prospective studies, health promotion and educational programs for students should emphasize the importance of sleep and mental health. PMID:23270533

  7. Quality of Public Hospitals Websites: A Cross-Sectional Analytical Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806

  8. MALOCCLUSIONS AND QUALITY OF LIFE. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies in children.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor

    2015-01-01

    There are few longitudinal studies of the prevalence of malocclusions and possible self-correction of malocclusions during the development of the dentition. Early intervention might be unnecessary if self-correction of the malocclusion occurs during the transition from the primary to the permanent dentition. Most studies are cross-sectional and in those of longitudinal design, the results are inconsistent and difficult to interpret. Malocclusions may or may not influence the quality of life in children and adolescents. Thus, evaluations of the influence of different malocclusions on quality of life will certainly underpin a broader understanding and knowledge about how malocclusions affect the daily life of young patients. This information may also be important when it comes to assessing the most appropriate time for starting orthodontic treatment, not only from a professional point of view, but also, most importantly, from the patients' perspective. The overall aim of this thesis was therefore to evaluate the prevalence of malocclusions, and to document changes occurring during the development of the dentition, from the primary dentition stage at age 3, through the mixed dentition at age 7, to the early permanent dentition at age 11.5 years. Further aims were to review the current state of knowledge about the impact of malocclusions on oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL) and to investigate how malocclusions affect the quality of life in a cohort of children, aged 11.5 years, whose dental care is provided by the Swedish Public Dental Service. PMID:26642595

  9. Effect of Infertility on the Quality of Life, A Cross- Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Direkvand-Moghadam, Azadeh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Infertility is a major life crisis which causes serious mental problems and stressful experience of infertile couples. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the quality of life in fertile and infertile women. Materials and Methods: In a cross - sectional study compared the quality of life in 450 women attending both public and private health centers in Ilam, western of Iran, in 2013. Participants were divided in two groups’ fertilities and infertilities women. Data was collected by trained research midwives using demographic and SF-36 questionnaires. SPSS software Package 16 was used to analyze the data of this project. Differences were regarded statistically significant with an alpha error of 0.05. Results: Significant difference was reported in mean age between fertile and infertile women (p=0.003). Mean scores of all Mental dimensions of quality of life were higher in fertile women in comparison with infertile women. This difference was statistically significant (58.35±19.43 vs 56.56±13.18 respectively) (p= 0.000).The mean score of all physical dimensions have not statistically significant difference in fertile and infertile women (79.77± 23.19 vs 74.96±23.45 respectively) (p= 0.441). Conclusion: In most infertile women, the mean score of Mental dimensions of quality of life is lower in comparison with fertile women, therefore, it is necessary the used of counseling and treatment programs in infertile women. PMID:25478412

  10. A comparison of surface-grab and cross sectionally integrated stream-water-quality sampling methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, G.R.; Smoot, J.L.; White, K.D.

    1992-01-01

    Stream sampling for water quality data has commonly employed simple surface-grab procedures as opposed to more involved, cross sectionally integrated techniques. Paired samples for analysis of selected constituents were collected over various flow conditions at four sites to evaluate differences between the two sampling methods. Concentrations of dissolved constituents were not consistently different. However, concentrations of suspended sediment and the total forms of some sediment-associated constituents, such as phosphorus, iron, and manganese, were significantly lower in the surface-grab samples than in the cross sectionally integrated samples. The largest median percent difference in concentration for a site was 60% (total recoverable manganese). Median percent differences in concentration for sediment-associated constituents considering all sites grouped were in the range of 20-25%. The surface-grab samples underrepresented concentrations of suspended sediment and some sediment-associated constituents, thus limiting the applicability of such data for certain purposes. An association was also demonstrated between site streamflow characteristics and the observed differences.

  11. Occupational Electromagnetic Field Exposures Associated with Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Guangdi; Pan, Yifeng; Chen, Zexin; Jin, Wen; Sun, Chuan; Chen, Chunjing; Dong, Xuanjun; Chen, Kun; Xu, Zhengping; Zhang, Shanchun; Yu, Yunxian

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phone and other machineries concerns half the world’s population and raises the problem of their impact on human health. The present study aims to explore the effects of electromagnetic field exposures on sleep quality and sleep duration among workers from electric power plant. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in an electric power plant of Zhejiang Province, China. A total of 854 participants were included in the final analysis. The detailed information of participants was obtained by trained investigators using a structured questionnaire, which including socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle variables, sleep variables and electromagnetic exposures. Physical examination and venous blood collection were also carried out for every study subject. Results After grouping daily occupational electromagnetic exposure into three categories, subjects with long daily exposure time had a significantly higher risk of poor sleep quality in comparison to those with short daily exposure time. The adjusted odds ratios were 1.68 (95%CI: 1.18, 2.39) and 1.57 (95%CI: 1.10, 2.24) across tertiles. Additionally, among the subjects with long-term occupational exposure, the longer daily occupational exposure time apparently increased the risk of poor sleep quality (OR (95%CI): 2.12 (1.23∼3.66) in the second tertile; 1.83 (1.07∼3.15) in the third tertile). There was no significant association of long-term occupational exposure duration, monthly electric fee or years of mobile-phone use with sleep quality or sleep duration. Conclusions The findings showed that daily occupational EMF exposure was positively associated with poor sleep quality. It implies EMF exposure may damage human sleep quality rather than sleep duration. PMID:25340654

  12. Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers. Methods This cross-sectional study included all 797 Primary Health Care workers of a medium-sized city, Brazil: doctors, nurses, nursing technicians and nursing assistants, dentists, oral health technicians, and auxiliary oral hygienists, and community health workers. Data were collected by interviews. Quality of life was assessed using the WHOQOL-BREF; general quality of life, as well as the physical, psychological, social and environmental domains were considered, with scores from 0 to 100. Higher scores indicate a better quality of life. Poor quality of life was defined by the lowest quartiles of the WHOQOL score distributions for each of the domains. Adverse psychosocial work conditions were investigated by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model. Associations were verified using multiple logistic regression. Results Poor quality of life was observed in 117 (15.4%) workers. Workers with imbalanced effort-reward (high effort/low reward) had an increased probability of general poor quality of life (OR = 1.91; 1.07–3.42), and in the physical (OR = 1.62; 1.02–2.66), and environmental (OR = 2.39; 1.37–4.16) domains; those with low effort/low reward demonstrated a greater probability of poor quality of life in the social domain (OR = 1.82; 1.00–3.30). Workers with overcommitment at work had an increased likelihood of poor quality of life in the physical (OR = 1.55, 1.06–2.26) and environmental (OR = 1.69; 1.08–2.65) domains. These associations were independent of individual characteristics, job characteristics, lifestyle, perception of general health, or psychological and biological functions. Conclusions There is an association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among

  13. High-Quality Cross-Sectioning Method: Examples of Applications in Optimizing Solar Cell Contact Firing

    SciTech Connect

    Sopori, B.; Sahoo, S.; Mehta, V.; Guhabiswas, D.; Spiller, S.; Moutinho, H.

    2011-01-01

    A damage-free polishing method is developed to prepare a high-quality cross-section of a large length of a solar cell. A 1-inch-long sample is diced from the solar cell and embedded in wax using a specially designed chuck. The sample edge is sequentially polished by progressively reducing the grit sizes. The final polishing is done by Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP). This polishing procedure produces a highly flat edge, with excellent interfaces between metal contacts and the Si cell. The planarity of the wafer edge makes it possible to perform a variety of analyses of various regions and the interfaces of the cell, using optical microscopy, EDX, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and conductive AFM (C-AFM). Here, we will discuss some details of the chuck and the polishing procedure, and present some applications for optimizing the contact firing process. This method has an added advantage of delineating the back surface field for optical observation.

  14. High quality surface reconstruction in radiotherapy: Cross-sectional contours to 3D mesh using wavelets.

    PubMed

    Moriconi, S; Scalco, E; Broggi, S; Avuzzi, B; Valdagni, R; Rizzo, G

    2015-08-01

    A novel approach for three-dimensional (3D) surface reconstruction of anatomical structures in radiotherapy (RT) is presented. This is obtained from manual cross-sectional contours by combining both image voxel segmentation processing and implicit surface streaming methods using wavelets. 3D meshes reconstructed with the proposed approach are compared to those obtained from traditional triangulation algorithm. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations are performed in terms of mesh quality metrics. Differences in smoothness, detail and accuracy are observed in the comparison, considering three different anatomical districts and several organs at risk in radiotherapy. Overall best performances were recorded for the proposed approach, regardless the complexity of the anatomical structure. This demonstrates the efficacy of the proposed approach for the 3D surface reconstruction in radiotherapy and allows for further specific image analyses using real biomedical data. PMID:26737226

  15. How Does Chronic Back Pain Influence Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yong Soo; Kim, Dong Jun; Lee, Kyu Yeol; Park, Ye Soo; Cho, Kyu Jung; Lee, Jae Hyup; Rhim, Hyou Young

    2014-01-01

    Study Design A cross-sectional study. Purpose To explore the impact of chronic low back pain (CLBP) on individuals' quality of life; to understand current treatment practices and level of satisfaction with treatment in patients with CLBP. Overview of Literature Assessing subjective, patient-reported outcomes such as quality of life is essential to health care research. Methods Influences of the CLBP were analyzed via a questionnaire, which contained the character of CLBP, effect of pain management, Korean version Oswestry Disability Index (K-ODI) and Korean version of 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2). Results Of 3,121 subjects who responded, 67.3% had moderate to severe pain; 43.5% presented prolonged CLBP of more than two years; and 32.4% had suffered from sleep disturbance due to pain. 22.8% of the patients were not satisfied with current pain management. The mean K-ODI score was 37.63; and it was positively correlated with the mean pain intensity (r=0.6, p<0.001). The SF-12v2 result was negatively correlated with mean pain intensity (PCS: r=-0.5, p<0.001; MCS: r=-0.4, p<0.001) and also negatively correlated with the K-ODI score (PCS: r=-0.75, p<0.001; MCS: r=-0.5, p<0.001). The conformity between patients and doctors in pain assessment was fair (κ=0.2463). Conclusions CLBP negatively affects quality of life. Of total 22.8% of the patients were not satisfied with current pain management. Such needs to be taken more seriously by doctors for improvement of satisfaction and quality of life in patients with CLBP. PMID:24967049

  16. Associations Between Sleep Quality and Migraine Frequency: A Cross-Sectional Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Kai; Lin, Guan-Yu; Lee, Jiunn-Tay; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chia-Kuang; Hsu, Yu-Wei; Lin, Yu-Zhen; Tsai, Yi-Chien; Yang, Fu-Chi

    2016-04-01

    Migraine has been associated with sleep disturbances. Relationship between sleep quality and migraine frequency is yet to be determined. The present study aimed to investigate sleep disturbances among low-frequency, moderate-frequency, high-frequency, and chronic migraineurs, with and without auras, with well-controlled confounding variables.This cross-sectional controlled study included 357 subjects from an outpatient headache clinic in Taiwan. Standardized questionnaires were utilized to collect demographic, migraine, sleep, depression, anxiety, and restless leg syndrome characteristics in all participants. According to frequency of migraine attacks, patients were divided into 4 groups: with 1 to 4 migraine days per month, 5 to 8 migraine days in a month, 9 to 14 migraine days in a month, and >14 migraine days per month. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and subgroup items were used to evaluate sleep quality. The association between migraine frequency and sleep quality was investigated using multivariable linear regression and logistic regression.The PSQI total score was highest in patients with high frequent migraine (10.0 ± 3.4) and lowest in controls (7.0 ± 3.4) with a significant trend analysis (P for trend = 0.006). Migraine frequency had an independent effect on the items "Cannot get to sleep within 30 minutes" (P < 0.001), "Wake up in the middle of the night or early morning" (P < 0.001), "Bad dreams" (P = 0.001), "Pain" (P = 0.004), and "Quality of sleep" (P < 0.001). The result showed the effect of migraine frequency in both the aura-present (P for trend = 0.008) and the aura-absent subgroups (P for trend = 0.011).High migraine frequency correlates with poor sleep quality and a higher prevalence of poor sleepers. These associations occur in migraine with aura and without aura. PMID:27124064

  17. Risk of bias versus quality assessment of randomised controlled trials: cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ospina, Maria; Liang, Yuanyuan; Dryden, Donna M; Hooton, Nicola; Krebs Seida, Jennifer; Klassen, Terry P

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the risk of bias tool, introduced by the Cochrane Collaboration for assessing the internal validity of randomised trials, for inter-rater agreement, concurrent validity compared with the Jadad scale and Schulz approach to allocation concealment, and the relation between risk of bias and effect estimates. Design Cross sectional study. Study sample 163 trials in children. Main outcome measures Inter-rater agreement between reviewers assessing trials using the risk of bias tool (weighted κ), time to apply the risk of bias tool compared with other approaches to quality assessment (paired t test), degree of correlation for overall risk compared with overall quality scores (Kendall’s τ statistic), and magnitude of effect estimates for studies classified as being at high, unclear, or low risk of bias (metaregression). Results Inter-rater agreement on individual domains of the risk of bias tool ranged from slight (κ=0.13) to substantial (κ=0.74). The mean time to complete the risk of bias tool was significantly longer than for the Jadad scale and Schulz approach, individually or combined (8.8 minutes (SD 2.2) per study v 2.0 (SD 0.8), P<0.001). There was low correlation between risk of bias overall compared with the Jadad scores (P=0.395) and Schulz approach (P=0.064). Effect sizes differed between studies assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias (0.52) compared with those at low risk (0.23). Conclusions Inter-rater agreement varied across domains of the risk of bias tool. Generally, agreement was poorer for those items that required more judgment. There was low correlation between assessments of overall risk of bias and two common approaches to quality assessment: the Jadad scale and Schulz approach to allocation concealment. Overall risk of bias as assessed by the risk of bias tool differentiated effect estimates, with more conservative estimates for studies at low risk. PMID:19841007

  18. A cross-sectional investigation of the quality of selected medicines in Cambodia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to good-quality medicines in many countries is largely hindered by the rampant circulation of spurious/falsely labeled/falsified/counterfeit (SFFC) and substandard medicines. In 2006, the Ministry of Health of Cambodia, in collaboration with Kanazawa University, Japan, initiated a project to combat SFFC medicines. Methods To assess the quality of medicines and prevalence of SFFC medicines among selected products, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in Cambodia. Cefixime, omeprazole, co-trimoxazole, clarithromycin, and sildenafil were selected as candidate medicines. These medicines were purchased from private community drug outlets in the capital, Phnom Penh, and Svay Rieng and Kandal provinces through a stratified random sampling scheme in July 2010. Results In total, 325 medicine samples were collected from 111 drug outlets. Non-licensed outlets were more commonly encountered in rural than in urban areas (p < 0.01). Of all the samples, 93.5% were registered and 80% were foreign products. Samples without registration numbers were found more frequently among foreign-manufactured products than in domestic ones (p < 0.01). According to pharmacopeial analytical results, 14.5%, 4.6%, and 24.6% of the samples were unacceptable in quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution test, respectively. All the ultimately unacceptable samples in the content uniformity tests were of foreign origin. Following authenticity investigations conducted with the respective manufacturers and medicine regulatory authorities, an unregistered product of cefixime collected from a pharmacy was confirmed as an SFFC medicine. However, the sample was acceptable in quantity, content uniformity, and dissolution test. Conclusions The results of this survey indicate that medicine counterfeiting is not limited to essential medicines in Cambodia: newer-generation medicines are also targeted. Concerted efforts by both domestic and foreign manufacturers, wholesalers

  19. Does treatment adherence correlates with health related quality of life? findings from a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although medication adherence and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are two different outcome measures, it is believed that adherence to medication leads to an improvement in overall HRQoL. The study aimed to evaluate the association between medication adherence and HRQoL. Methods A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study design was undertaken with hypertension patients attending public hospitals in Quetta city, Pakistan. HRQoL was measured by Euroqol EQ-5D. Medication adherence was assessed by the Drug Attitude Inventory. Descriptive statistics was used to tabulate demographic and disease-related information. Spearmans correlation was used to assess the association between the study variables. All analysis was performed using SPSS 17.0. Results Among 385 study patients, the mean age (SD) was 39.02 (6.59), with 68.8% of males dominating the entire cohort. The mean (SD) duration of hypertension was 3.010.939years. Forty percent (n=154) had a bachelors degree level of education with 34.8% (n=134) working in the private sector. A negative and weak correlation (0.77) between medication adherence and EQ-5D was reported. In addition, a negative weak correlation (0.120) was observed among medication adherence and EQ-VAS. Conclusions Correlations among the study variables were negligible and negative. Hence, there is no apparent relationship between the variables. PMID:22545950

  20. Quality of Life among Iranian Infertile Women in Postmenopausal Period: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Infertility has a significant impact on a women's quality of life (QOL). Infertile women face with physical and mental challenges during their postmenopausal period. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the QOL among Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period using a valid and reliable instrument. Methods In this cross-sectional study both snowball and social networking methods were used for sampling. Two demographic and QOL questionnaire were used for data collection. The QOL questionnaire includes 41 items which measure the QOL in five dimensions: socioeconomic, mental health, religiousness, physical health and future imagining. Data analyzed was carried out in IBM SPSS ver. 20.0 using descriptive statistic, χ2 test, and Fisher test. A P value of 0.01 or less was considered significant. Results Overall 211 eligible participants were studied. Some participants obtained full score on socioeconomic, religiousness, physical health and future imagining dimensions of QOL but none on the mental health dimension of the QOL. Only, 6.6% of study participants have a good QOL. There was a significant relationship between age and financial provider whit status of QOL. Conclusion Most Iranian infertile women in the postmenopausal period have poor or moderate QOL. Therefore, improving the QOL among these women should be considered. PMID:27617245

  1. Practice size and quality attainment under the new GMS contract: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yingying; O'Donnell, Catherine A; Mackay, Daniel F; Watt, Graham CM

    2006-01-01

    Background The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) of the new General Medical Services contract, for the first time, incentivises certain areas of general practice workload over others. The ability of practices to deliver high quality care may be related to the size of the practice itself. Aim To explore the relationship between practice size and points attained in the QOF. Design of study Cross-sectional analyses of routinely available data. Setting Urban general practice in mainland Scotland. Method QOF points and disease prevalence were obtained for all urban general practices in Scotland (n = 638) and linked to data on the practice, GP and patient population. The relationship between QOF point attainment, disease prevalence and practice size was examined using univariate statistical analyses. Results Smaller practices were more likely to be located in areas of socioeconomic deprivation; had patients with poorer health; and were less likely to participate in voluntary practice-based quality schemes. Overall, smaller practices received fewer QOF points compared to larger practices (P = 0.003), due to lower point attainment in the organisational domain (P = 0.002). There were no differences across practice size in the other domains of the QOF, including clinical care. Smaller practices reported higher levels of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and mental health conditions and lower levels of asthma, epilepsy and hypothyroidism. There was no difference in the reported prevalence of hypertension or coronary heart disease (CHD) across practices, in contrast to CHD mortality for patients aged under 70 years, where the mortality rate was 40% greater for single-handed practices compared with large practices. Conclusions Although smaller practices obtained fewer points than larger practices under the QOF, this was due to lower scores in the organisational domain of the contract rather than to lower scores for clinical care. Single-handed practices, in common

  2. Jet inclusive cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Del Duca, V.

    1992-11-01

    Minijet production in jet inclusive cross sections at hadron colliders, with large rapidity intervals between the tagged jets, is evaluated by using the BFKL pomeron. We describe the jet inclusive cross section for an arbitrary number of tagged jets, and show that it behaves like a system of coupled pomerons.

  3. Patient-reported areas for quality improvement in general practice: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Amy; Carey, Mariko; Mazza, Danielle; Yoong, Serene; Grady, Alice; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Background GPs are often a patient’s first point of contact with the health system. The increasing demands imposed on GPs may have an impact on the quality of care delivered. Patients are well placed to make judgements about aspects of care that need to be improved. Aim To determine whether general practice patients perceive that the care they receive is ‘patient-centred’ across eight domains of care, and to determine the association between sociodemographic, GP and practice characteristics, detection of preventive health risks, and receipt of patient-centred care. Design and setting Cross-sectional survey of patients attending Australian general practice clinics. Method Patients completed a touchscreen survey in the waiting room to rate the care received from their GP across eight domains of patient-centred care. Patients also completed the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) and self-reported health risk factors. GPs completed a checklist for each patient asking about the presence of health risk factors. Results In total 1486 patients and 51 GPs participated. Overall, 83% of patients perceived that the care they received was patient-centred across all eight domains. Patients most frequently perceived the ‘access to health care when needed’ domain as requiring improvement (8.3%). Not having private health insurance and attending a practice located in a disadvantaged area were significantly associated with perceived need for improvements in care (P<0.05). Conclusion Patients in general practice report that accessibility is an aspect of care that could be improved. Further investigation of how indicators of lower socioeconomic status interact with the provision of patient-centred care and health outcomes is required. PMID:25918336

  4. Quality of life evaluation in Japanese pregnant women with striae gravidarum: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Striae gravidarum is a physiological skin change that many pregnant women experience during pregnancy. The striae are often accompanied by a reddish purple color during pregnancy, and then lose pigmentation and become atrophic in the long term after pregnancy. Striae gravidarum seems to be undesirable to many pregnant women. However, the impact of striae gravidarum on pregnant women who experience it has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of striae gravidarum on the generic and dermatology-specific quality of life (QOL) of pregnant women. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at three private clinics in a typical urban area in Japan. We recruited 447 pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation; One hundred and ninety-nine pregnant women at 36 weeks of gestation participated in the study and 179, consisting of 94 primiparae and 85 multiparae, were analyzed. We used and assessed Davey’s score for striae gravidarum, World Health Organization Quality of Life assessment questionnaire for generic QOL, and Skindex-29 for dermatology-specific QOL. Results The prevalence of striae gravidarum was 39.1% (27.7% in primiparae, and 51.8% in multiparae). Although there were no differences in generic QOL scores between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum and with their severity, the whole group of pregnant women and the multiparae group showed significant differences in scores on emotion of Skindex-29 between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011). Pregnant women with severe striae gravidarum showed significantly higher scores on emotion of Skindex-29 compared with those with absent or mild striae gravidarum (p < 0.001 and p = 0.005). Conclusions There was no difference in generic QOL of pregnant women between the presence and absence of striae gravidarum, although the occurrence and severity of striae gravidarum influenced their dermatology-specific QOL. Multiparae women

  5. Quality of life among immigrants in Swedish immigration detention centres: a cross-sectional questionnaire study

    PubMed Central

    Puthoopparambil, Soorej J.; Bjerneld, Magdalena; Källestål, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Background Detention of immigrants negatively affects their health and well-being. Quality of life (QOL) is a broad concept incorporating the self-evaluation of one's own health and well-being that can provide an understanding of the health and well-being of immigrant detainees. The aim of this study was to estimate QOL among immigrant detainees in Sweden and to assess its relationship with the services provided in detention centres and with the duration of detention. Design All immigrants in all five existing Swedish detention centres (N=193) were invited to participate in the study (n=127). In this cross-sectional study, QOL was measured using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire, which was administered by the first author. The questionnaire contained four additional questions measuring participants’ satisfaction with the services provided in detention. Associations between QOL domain scores and service satisfaction scores were assessed using regression analysis. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated to measure the degree of association between the duration of detention and QOL scores. Results The mean QOL domain scores (out of 100) were 47.0, 57.5, 41.9, and 60.5 for the environmental, physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively. The level of support detainees received from detention staff was significantly positively associated with detainees’ physical (βadjusted 3.93, confidence interval [CI] 0.06–7.80) and psychological (βadjusted 5.72, CI 1.77–9.66) domain scores. There was also significant positive association between detainees’ satisfaction with the care they received from detention staff and the domain scores. The general health score in the WHOQOL-BREF was significantly associated with the detainees’ ability to understand the Swedish or English languages. Although not statistically significant, a longer duration of detention was negatively correlated with QOL scores. Conclusion Immigrant detainees report low QOL

  6. Quality of life associated to chronic pelvic pain is independent of endometriosis diagnosis-a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Pain is strongly related to poor quality of life. We performed a cross-sectional study in a universitary hospital to investigate quality of life in women suffering from chronic pelvic pain (CPP) due to endometriosis and others conditions. Methods Fifty-seven patients aged between 25 and 48 years-old submitted to laparoscopy because of CPP were evaluated for quality of life and depressive symptoms. Quality of life was accessed by a quality of life instrument [World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-Bref (WHOQOL-bref)]. Causes of pelvic pain were determined and severity of CPP was measured with a visual analogue scale. According to the intensity of pelvic pain score, patients were classified in two groups (group Low CPP < 25th percentile visual analogue scale and group High CPP > 25th percentile). Four dimensions on quality of life were measured (physical, psychological, social and environmental). We stratified the analysis of quality of life according CPP causes (presence or not of endometriosis in laparoscopy). Results Patients with higher pain scores presented lower quality of life status in psychological and environmental dimensions. We found a negative correlation between pain scores and psychological dimension of quality of life (r = -0.310, P = .02). Quality of life scores were similar between groups with and without endometriosis (physical 54.2 ± 12.8 and 51.1 ± 13.8, P = 0.504; psychological 56.2 ± 14.4 and 62.8 ± 12.4, P = 0.182; social 55.6 ± 18.2 and 62.1 ± 19.1, P = 0.325; environmental 59.2 ± 11.7 61.2 ± 10.8, P = 0.608; respectively) Conclusions Higher pain scores are correlated to lower quality of life; however the fact of having endometriosis in addition to CPP does not have an additional impact upon the quality of life. PMID:21663624

  7. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  8. Association between quality management and performance indicators in Dutch diabetes care groups: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Campmans-Kuijpers, Marjo J E; Baan, Caroline A; Lemmens, Lidwien C; Klomp, Maarten L H; Romeijnders, Arnold C M; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To enhance the quality of diabetes care in the Netherlands, so-called care groups with three to 250 general practitioners emerged to organise and coordinate diabetes care. This introduced a new quality management level in addition to the quality management of separate general practices. We hypothesised that this new level of quality management might be associated with the aggregate performance indicators on the patient level. Therefore, we aimed to explore the association between quality management at the care group level and its aggregate performance indicators. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting All Dutch care groups (n=97). Participants 23 care groups provided aggregate register-based performance indicators of all their practices as well as data on quality management measured with a questionnaire filled out by 1 or 2 of their quality managers. Primary outcomes The association between quality management, overall and in 6 domains (‘organisation of care’, ‘multidisciplinary teamwork’, ‘patient centredness’, ‘performance management’, ‘quality improvement policy’ and ‘management strategies’) on the one hand and 3 process indicators (the percentages of patients with at least 1 measurement of glycated haemoglobin, lipid profile and systolic blood pressure), and 3 intermediate outcome indicators (the percentages of patients with glycated haemoglobin below 53 mmol/mol (7%); low-density lipoprotein cholesterol below 2.5 mmol/L; and systolic blood pressure below 140 mm Hg) by weighted univariable linear regression. Results The domain ‘management strategies’ was significantly associated with the percentage of patients with a glycated haemoglobin <53 mmol/mol (β 0.28 (0.09; 0.46) p=0.01) after correction for multiple testing. The other domains as well as overall quality management were not associated with aggregate process or outcome indicators. Conclusions This first exploratory study on quality management showed weak

  9. Quality of online information on type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Weymann, Nina; Härter, Martin; Dirmaier, Jörg

    2015-12-01

    Evidence-based health information is a prerequisite for patients with type 2 diabetes to engage in self-management and to make informed medical decisions. The Internet is an important source of health information. In the present study, we systematically assessed formal quality, quality of decision support and usability of German and English language websites on type 2 diabetes. The search term 'type 2 diabetes' was entered in the two most popular search engines. Descriptive data on website quality are presented. Additionally, associations between website quality and affiliation (commercial vs. non-commercial), presence of the HON code quality seal and website traffic were explored. Forty-six websites were included. Most websites provided basic information necessary for decision-making, while only one website also provided decision support. Websites with a HON code had significantly better formal quality than websites without HON code. We found a highly significant correlation between usability and website traffic and a significant correlation between formal quality and website traffic. Most websites do not provide sufficient information to support patients in medical decision-making. Our finding that usability and website traffic are tightly associated is consistent with previous research indicating that design is the most important cue for users assessing website credibility. PMID:24688114

  10. Quality of life in colon cancer patients with skin side effects: preliminary results from a monocentric cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors are widely prescribed anticancer drugs. Patients treated commonly develop dermatologic adverse drugs reactions, but rarely they are involved in systematic evaluation of their quality of life. This monocentric cross sectional study is carried out to assess quality of life in colon cancer patients experienced skin side effects due to anti epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors therapy. Methods Consecutive patients with skin side effects to therapy treated at Fondazione Poliambulanza were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated with the Italian validated version of Skindex-29 questionnaire, exploring three dimensions: symptoms, emotional, and physical functioning. Skindex-29 was administered one time between the eighth and the twelfth week of the treatment. Results Forty-five consecutive patients, mainly with metastatic colon cancer (29 female, 16 male), with an average age of 59.31 years (ranging from 34-78) were included in the study and analyzed. Patients showed a great impact of skin side effects on symptoms (mean 43), followed by emotional (mean 30), and functioning (mean 26) scales. In general women, the 55-65 age class, and patients with partial remission reported the worst quality of life. Conclusions Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors' skin side effects have an important impact on quality of life in advanced colon cancer patients; symptoms scale is the most effect respect to emotional and functioning scales. PMID:20398332

  11. Coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern psychiatric view of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their treatment has led to an increasing focus on coping strategies and the quality of life of these patients. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between demographic data, the severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and the quality of life in psychotic patients. It is important to study the inner experience and striving of these individuals as it has been linked to their well-being and treatment adherence. Methods Psychiatric outpatients who met International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria for a psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder) were recruited in the study. Questionnaires measuring the coping strategies (The Stress Coping Style Questionnaire [SVF-78]), the quality of life (Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q]), and symptom severity (objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression – objCGI; subjCGI) were assessed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Mann–Whitney U test, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 109 psychotic patients were included in the study. The quality of life was significantly related to both the positive and negative coping strategies. The severity of disorder was highly negatively correlated with the quality of life score. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis using the quality of life as a dependent variable showed that symptom severity (subjCGI, difference between subjCGI, and objCGI), negative coping strategies, positive coping strategies, and the difference between positive and negative coping strategies explain more than half variance. Conclusion Our study suggests the importance of utilizing the positive coping strategies in improving the quality of life in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:26677331

  12. Gender Difference in Associations between Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders and General Quality of Life in Koreans: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Yoon; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Ahn, Yong-jun; Park, Ki Byung; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic temporomandibular disorder (TMD) is known to have strong correlations with psychological factors and to display gender disparity. However, while chronic TMD is known to affect quality of life, large-scale studies investigating the influence on quality of life by gender are scarce. Methods This cross-sectional study assessed the data of 17,198 participants aged ≥19 years who completed chronic TMD and EuroQol-5 Dimension sections in the 4th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2009). We adjusted for covariates (health behavior, sociodemographic factors) in regression analysis for complex sampling design to calculate regression coefficients and 95% CIs for gender difference in the association between chronic TMD and quality of life. We also evaluated which covariates of somatic health, mental health, health behavior, and sociodemographic factors weakened the relationship between TMD and EQ-5D. Results Prevalence of chronic TMD was 1.6% (men 1.3%, women 1.8%), and chronic TMD persisted to negatively impact quality of life even after adjusting for confounding variables. Low sociodemographic factors and health behavior had a negative effect on quality of life. Somatic health and mental health were most affected by chronic TMD. As for quality of life, women were affected to a greater extent than men by TMD. Women were more affected by osteoarthritis and general mental health (stress, depressive symptoms, and thoughts of suicide), and men by employment. Conclusions These results imply that chronic diseases and psychological factors are important in chronic TMD, and that there may be physiological and pathological gender differences in TMD. PMID:26673219

  13. Quality of life and psychosocial aspects in Greek patients with psoriasis: a cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Kouris, Anargyros; Christodoulou, Christos; Stefanaki, Christina; Livaditis, Miltiadis; Tsatovidou, Revekka; Kouskoukis, Constantinos; Petridis, Athanasios; Kontochristopoulos, George

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Psoriasis is a common, long-term skin disease associated with high levels of psychological distress and a considerable adverse impact on life. The effects of psoriasis, beyond skin affliction, are seldom recognized and often undertreated. OBJECTIVE The aim of the study is to evaluate the quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem and loneliness in patients with psoriasis. METHODS Eighty-four patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. The quality of life, depression and anxiety, loneliness and self-esteem of the patient were assessed using the Dermatology Life Quality Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the UCLA loneliness Scale (UCLA-Version 3) and Rosenberg's Self-esteem Scale, respectively. RESULTS The Dermatology Quality of Life Index score among psoriasis patients was 12.61 ± 4.88. They had statistically significantly higher scores according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale -anxiety subscale (p=0.032)-compared with healthy volunteers. Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the UCLA-scale (p=0.033) and RSES-scale (p<0.0001). Female patients presented with lower self-esteem than male patients. CONCLUSION Psoriasis is a distressing, recurrent disorder that significantly impairs quality of life. Therefore, the recognition and future management of psoriasis may require the involvement of multi-disciplinary teams to manage the physical, psychological and social aspects of the condition, as is the case for systemic, long-term conditions. PMID:26734865

  14. A Method of Assembling Cross-Sectional Indicators into a Community Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epley, Donald R.; Menon, Mohan

    2008-01-01

    This study develops a new method of measuring quality of life at the local and state level. Further, it presents a methodology that combines heterogeneous indicators from different fields, such as economics, social, and health, into one total measurement. The technique shown can be used to compare one region with another, or compare one metro area…

  15. A cross-sectional study to identify organisational processes associated with nurse-reported quality and patient safety

    PubMed Central

    Tvedt, Christine; Sjetne, Ingeborg Strømseng; Helgeland, Jon; Bukholm, Geir

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify organisational processes and structures that are associated with nurse-reported patient safety and quality of nursing. Design This is an observational cross-sectional study using survey methods. Setting Respondents from 31 Norwegian hospitals with more than 85 beds were included in the survey. Participants All registered nurses working in direct patient care in a position of 20% or more were invited to answer the survey. In this study, 3618 nurses from surgical and medical wards responded (response rate 58.9). Nurses' practice environment was defined as organisational processes and measured by the Nursing Work Index Revised and items from Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. Outcome measures Nurses' assessments of patient safety, quality of nursing, confidence in how their patients manage after discharge and frequency of adverse events were used as outcome measures. Results Quality system, nurse–physician relation, patient safety management and staff adequacy were process measures associated with nurse-reported work-related and patient-related outcomes, but we found no associations with nurse participation, education and career and ward leadership. Most organisational structures were non-significant in the multilevel model except for nurses’ affiliations to medical department and hospital type. Conclusions Organisational structures may have minor impact on how nurses perceive work-related and patient-related outcomes, but the findings in this study indicate that there is a considerable potential to address organisational design in improvement of patient safety and quality of care. PMID:23263021

  16. Semen quality and sex hormones among mild steel and stainless steel welders: a cross sectional study.

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, J P

    1990-01-01

    Welding may be detrimental to the male reproductive system. To test this hypothesis, semen quality was examined in 35 stainless steel welders, 46 mild steel welders, and 54 non-welding metal workers and electricians. These figures represent a participation rate of 37.1% in welders and 36.7% in non-welding subjects. The mean exposure to welding fume particulates was 1.3 mg/m3 (SD 0.8) in stainless steel welders using tungsten inert gas, 3.2 mg/m3 (SD 1.0) in low exposed mild steel welders using manual metal arc or metal active gas (n = 31), and 4.7 mg/m3 (SD 2.1) in high exposed mild steel welders (n = 15). The semen quality of each participant was defined in terms of the mean values of the particular semen parameters in three semen samples delivered at monthly intervals in a period with occupational exposure in a steady state. The sperm concentration was not reduced in either mild steel or stainless steel welders. The sperm count per ejaculate, the proportion of normal sperm forms, the degree of sperm motility, and the linear penetration rate of the sperm were significantly decreased and the sperm concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was non-significantly increased in mild steel welders. A dose response relation between exposure to welding fumes and these semen parameters (sperm count excepted) was found. Semen quality decreased and FSH concentrations increased with increasing exposure. Significant deteriorations in some semen parameters were also observed in stainless steel welders. An analysis of information from questionnaires obtained from the whole population including subjects who declined to participate indicated an underestimation of effects due to selection bias. Potential confounding was treated by restriction and statistical analysis. The results support the hypothesis that mild steel welding and to a lesser extent stainless steel welding with tungsten inert gas is associated with reduced semen quality at exposure in the range of the

  17. Perceived Quality of Informed Refusal Process: A Cross-Sectional Study from Iranian Patients' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Farzandipour, Mehrdad; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas; Sadeqi Jabali, Monireh

    2015-12-01

    Patients have the right to refuse their treatment; however, this refusal should be informed. We evaluated the quality of the informed refusal process in Iranian hospitals from patients' viewpoints. To this end, we developed a questionnaire that covered four key aspects of the informed refusal process including; information disclosure, voluntariness, comprehension, and provider-patient relationship. A total of 284 patients who refused their treatment from 12 teaching hospitals in the Isfahan Province, Iran, were recruited and surveyed to produce a convenience sample. Patients' perceptions about the informed refusal process were scored and the mean scores of the four components were calculated. The findings showed that the practice of information disclosure (9.6 ± 6.4 out of 22 points) was perceived to be moderate, however, comprehension (2.3 ± 1.4 out of 4 points), voluntariness (8.7 ± 1.5 out of 12 points) and provider-patient relationship (10.2 ± 5.2 out of 16 points) were perceived to be relatively good. We found that patients, who refused their care before any treatment had commenced, reported a lower quality of information disclosure and voluntariness. Patients informed by nurses and those who had not had a previous related admission, reported lower scores for comprehension and relationship. In conclusion, the process of obtaining informed refusal was relatively satisfactory except for levels of information disclosure. To improve current practices, Iranian patients need to be better informed about; different treatment options, consequences of treatment refusal, costs of not continuing treatment and follow-ups after refusal. Developing more informative refusal forms is needed. PMID:24720479

  18. Religiosity and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Study on Filipino Christian Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jonas Preposi; Colet, Paolo C; Qubeilat, Hikmet; Al-Otaibi, Jazi; Coronel, Erwin I; Suminta, Roderick C

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to measure the religiosity and health-related quality of life of Filipino Christian HD patients. A cross-sectional study of 100 HD patients was conducted. The Duke University Religion Index and the Ferrans and Powers QLI Dialysis Version-III were used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson r correlation. Attendance to organizational religious activities and NORA were found to be correlated with some of the dimensions of HRQoL. Intrinsic religiosity showed a strong, positive correlation with HRQoL. It is essential to attend to and nourish their religious needs. Holistic approach in providing care to HD patients, with emphasis on spiritual care, is encouraged to improve their total health. PMID:26289995

  19. Quality and accuracy of publicly accessible cancer-related physical activity information on the Internet: a cross-sectional assessment.

    PubMed

    Buote, R D; Malone, S D; Bélanger, L J; McGowan, E L

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we assessed the quality of publicly available cancer-related physical activity (PA) information appearing on reputable sites from Canada and other English-speaking countries. A cross-sectional Internet search was conducted on select countries (Canada, USA, Australia, New Zealand, UK) using Google to generate top 50 results per country for the keywords "'physical activity' AND 'cancer'". Top results were assessed for quality of PA information based on a coding frame. Additional searches were performed for Canadian-based sites to produce an exhaustive list. Results found that many sites offered cancer-related PA information (94.5%), but rarely defined PA (25.2%). Top 50 results from each country did not differ on any indicator examined. The exhaustive list of Canadian sites found that many sites gave information about PA for survivorship (78.3%) and prevention (70.0%), but rarely defined (6.7%) or referenced PA guidelines (28.3%). Cancer-related PA information is plentiful on the Internet but the quality needs improvement. Sites should do more than mention PA; they should provide definitions, examples and guidelines. With improvements, these websites would enable healthcare providers to effectively educate their patients about PA, and serve as a valuable resource to the general public who may be seeking cancer-related PA information. PMID:27283004

  20. Semen quality and reproductive hormones in Faroese men: a cross-sectional population-based study of 481 men

    PubMed Central

    Halling, Jónrit; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Jørgensen, Niels; Jensen, Tina Kold; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine semen quality and reproductive hormone levels in young Faroese men. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study of Faroese men compared with Danish men. Setting Faroese one-centre study. Participants 481 men born from 1981 to 1987 and investigated from 2007 to 2010. Outcome measures Sperm concentration, semen volume, total sperm count, sperm motility, sperm morphology and reproductive hormone levels. Results Sperm concentrations for the Faroese men were lower than for the Danish men (crude median 40 vs 48 mill/ml, p<0.0005). Semen volume was higher, and thus the total sperm counts did not differ (159 vs 151 mill, p=0.2). Motility and morphology did not differ between the Faroese and Danes. The inhibin B/follicle-stimulating hormone ratios for the Faroese men were lower than for the Danes (64 vs 76, p=0.001). Similarly, lower total testosterone/luteinising hormone (LH) ratio (4.6 vs 6.0, p<0.0005) and lower calculated free-testosterone/LH ratio (94 vs 134, p<0.0005) were detected for the Faroese men. Conclusions Semen quality among the Faroese men is at the same low level as reported for Danish men, and the reproductive hormone levels furthermore indicated a lower Leydig cell capacity for testosterone production. The influence of environmental exposure and genetic factors on semen quality has to be studied further. PMID:23457323

  1. Quality of life associated with treatment adherence in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Yolanda V; Prado-Aguilar, Carlos A; Rascón-Pacheco, Ramón A; Valdivia-Martínez, José J

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite certain contradictions, an association has been identified between adherence to drug treatment and the quality of life in patients with type 2 diabetes. The contradictions observed emphasize the importance of using different methods to measure treatment adherence, or the association of psychological precursors of adherence with quality of life. For this reason, we have used an indirect method to measure adherence (pill count), as well as two adherence behaviour precursors (attitude and knowledge), to assess the association between adherence and the quality of life in type 2 diabetes patients. Methods A cross-sectional comparative study on a random sample of 238 type 2 diabetic patients was carried out over one year in four family medicine units of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Aguascalientes, Mexico. Treatment adherence was measured using the indirect method of pill count to assess adherence behaviour, obtaining information at two home visits. In the first we recorded the medicine prescribed and in the second, we counted the medicine remaining to determine the proportion of the medicine taken. We also assessed two adherence behaviour precursors: the patients' knowledge regarding their medical prescription measured through a structured questionnaire; and attitudes to treatment adherence using a Likert scale. Quality of life was measured through the WHOQOL-100 (the WHO Quality of Life questionnaire). Information concerning both knowledge and attitude was obtained through interviews with the patients. A multiple linear regression model was constructed to establish the relationship between each quality of life domain and the variables related to adherence, controlling for covariates. Results There was no association between quality of life and treatment adherence behaviour. However, the combination of strong knowledge and a positive attitude was associated with five of the six quality of life domains. Conclusion The results

  2. TUR-PSO: A cross-sectional, study investigating quality of life and treatment status of psoriasis patients in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Atakan, Nilgün; Yazici, Ayça Cordan; Özarmağan, Güzin; İnalÖz, Hüseyin Serhat; Gürer, Mehmet Ali; Sabuncu, İlham; Kİremİtçİ, Ümmühan; Alper, Sibel; Aytekİn, Sema; Arican, Özer; Polat, Mualla; Doğan, Sibel; Aldİnç, Emre

    2016-03-01

    Psoriasis is a common inflammatory disease that has a severe impact on quality of life. There is lack of data regarding epidemiological and clinical features of psoriasis patients in Turkey, a country with a population of 76 million. The aim of this study was to define the demographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life and treatment patterns of psoriasis patients in Turkey. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted at 40 centers, chosen from geographically diverse locations in Turkey. Patients diagnosed with psoriasis were assessed by investigators who were specialists of dermatology using standardized study questionnaire forms. Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and EuroQol-5 dimension (EQ-5D) forms were also filled out by each patient. 3971 psoriasis patients were included in this study. 24.2% of plaque psoriasis patients had moderate to severe psoriasis (Psoriasis Area and Severity Index, ≥10). Mean DLQI was 7.03 ± 6.02; quality of life was moderately, severely or very severely affected in 49.2% of patients. The most severely affected component of EQ-5D was anxiety/depression. Among all patients, 22.9% were not receiving any treatment, 39.8% were receiving only topical treatment, 11.5% were on phototherapy, 26.1%, were taking conventional systemic agents and 4.1% were on a biologic treatment. 31.3% of psoriasis patients with moderate to severe disease were treated with only topical agents and only 30.5% of moderate to severe psoriasis patients were receiving systemic therapy. Moderate to severe psoriasis has a considerable impact on quality of life. Treatment in Turkey of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is insufficient. PMID:26365805

  3. Health-Related Quality of Life and its Determinants Among Women With Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Didarloo, Alireza; Alizadeh, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a chronic and threatening condition. However, there are controversies on the factors affecting the health related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with diabetes. Objectives The current study aimed to evaluate HRQOL and its determinants among females with type II diabetes referred to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy city, Northwest of Iran. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 352 eligible females with diabetes referring to Diabetes Clinic of Khoy. The study data were collected using a three-part instrument including a socio-demographic questionnaire, a questionnaire to assess patients’ knowledge on diabetes and the world health organization’s quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaire. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, analyses were conducted using frequency, independent samples t–test, correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results The total mean score of QOL was 58.02 ± 17.63. The lowest and the highest mean scores were observed in physical health and social relationship domains (53.84 ± 17.09) and (65.08 ± 14.87), respectively. The regression models revealed that age, education, duration of disease, and family income were significantly associated with all areas of quality of life (P < 0.05). The results also revealed that co-morbidity was significantly correlated with the overall quality of life and the physical health domain (P < 0.01). Conclusions The mean score of quality of life (QOL) in females with diabetes was far from desirable condition. These findings can help physicians and healthcare providers to design suitable interventions to improve the patients QOL. PMID:27331054

  4. A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Perceived Quality of Primary Care by Hypertensive Patients in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haitao; Wei, Xiaolin; Wong, Martin Chi-Sang; Wong, Samuel Yeung-Shan; Yang, Nan; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension should be best managed under primary care settings. This study aimed to compare, between Shanghai and Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care in terms of accessibility, continuity, co-ordination, and comprehensiveness among hypertensive patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Shanghai and Shenzhen, China. Multistage random sampling method was used to select 8 community health centers. Data from primary care users were collected through on-site face-to-face interviews using the primary care assessment tool. Good quality standard was set as a value of 3 for each attribute and a value of 18 for total score. We included 568 patients in Shanghai and 128 patients in Shenzhen. Compared with those in Shenzhen, hypertensive patients in Shanghai reported a higher score in co-ordination of information (3.37 vs 3.66; P < 0.001), but lower scores in continuity of care (3.36 vs 3.27; P < 0.001), and comprehensiveness-service provision (3.26 vs 2.79; P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in total scores between the 2 cities (18.19 vs 18.15). Over 3-quarters of hypertensive patients in both cities reported accessibility (97.2% vs 91.4%) and co-ordination of services (76.1% vs 80.5%) under good quality standard, while <1-quarter of them rated continuity of care (23.6% vs 22.7%), co-ordination of information (4.8% vs 21.1%), and comprehensiveness-service availability (15.1% vs 25.0%) under that standard. Compared with Shenzhen, the perceived quality of primary care for hypertensive patients in Shanghai was better in terms of co-ordination of information, but poorer on continuity of care and comprehensiveness-service provision. Our study suggests that there is room for quality improvement in both cities. PMID:26313780

  5. Quality of life is associated with chronic inflammation in schizophrenia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    M., Faugere; J.A., Micoulaud-Franchi; M., Alessandrini; R., Richieri; C., Faget-Agius; P., Auquier; C., Lançon; L., Boyer

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. However, the association between chronic inflammation and health outcomes in schizophrenia remains unclear, particularly for patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between quality of life (QoL) and chronic inflammation assessed using C -Reactive Protein (CRP) in patients with schizophrenia. Two hundred and fifty six patients with schizophrenia were enrolled in this study. After adjusting for key socio-demographic and clinical confounding factors, patients with high levels of CRP (>3.0 mg/l) had a lower QoL than patients with normal CRP levels (OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94–0.99). An investigation of the dimensions of QoL revealed that psychological well-being, physical well-being and sentimental life were the most salient features of QoL associated with CRP. Significant associations were found between lower educational level (OR = 4.15, 95% CI = 1.55–11.07), higher body mass index (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.06–1.28), higher Fagerström score (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.01–1.47) and high levels of CRP. After replications with longitudinal approaches, the association between QoL and chronic inflammation may offer interesting interventional prospects to act both on inflammation and QoL in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26041435

  6. Perceived quality of HIV treatment and care services in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Yakob, Bereket; Ncama, Busisiwe Purity

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the levels and factors affecting the perceived quality of HIV/AIDS treatment and care services. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting The study was conducted in Wolaita Zone of southern Ethiopia in one hospital and five health centres providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) and pre-ART. Participants 481 persons infected with HIV on outpatient care, 408 (83.8%) on ART and 73 (16.2%) on pre-ART care. Results 324 (71.4%) of the participants perceived the quality of HIV care as ‘good’, while 130 (28.6%) stated that it was ‘not good’; 219 (46.2%) and 255 (53.8%) were satisfied and not satisfied with the services, respectively. In the multivariate analysis, a unit increase in the doctors subscale of multidimensional health locus of control-form c score resulted in a 1.27 (1.04 to 1.55) increase in the odds of perceived good quality of care (p<0.05). Similarly, a unit increase in the responsiveness, perceived financial fairness, and perceived transportation convenience scores was associated with a 1.03 (1.01 to 1.05) (p<0.05), 1.08 (1.05 to 1.15) (p<0.01), and 1.07 (1.05 to 1.18) (p<0.05) increase in the odds of perceived good quality of HIV care, respectively. In terms of client satisfaction with services, a 1 km increase in the distance from health facilities, and unemployment were associated with a 4.64 (2.61 to 8.25) (p<0.001), 1.02 (1.01 to 1.04) (p<0.05) and 2.23 (1.30 to 4.54) (p<0.01) times, respectively, increase in the perceived quality of HIV treatment and care services. Conclusions The majority of the participants reported perceptions of good quality HIV care and satisfaction with the services. Satisfaction with services; responsiveness; health locus of control; perceived financial fairness; perceived transportation convenience; employment status; and distance from the health facility were predictors of the perceived quality of HIV care. Thus, improving quality of HIV treatment services may require addressing the above

  7. Quality of surgical care in hospitals providing internship training in Kenya: a cross sectional survey.

    PubMed Central

    Mwinga, Stephen; Kulohoma, Colette; Mwaniki, Paul; Idowu, Rachel; Masasabi, John; English, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate services in hospitals providing internship training to graduate doctors in Kenya. Methods A survey of 22 internship training hospitals was conducted. Availability of key resources spanning infrastructure, personnel, equipment and drugs was assessed by observation. Outcomes and process of care for pre-specified priority conditions (head injury, chest injury, fractures, burns and acute abdomen) were evaluated by auditing case records. Results Each hospital had at least one consultant surgeon. Scheduled surgical outpatient clinics, major ward rounds and elective (half day) theatre lists were provided once per week in 91%, 55% and 9%, respectively. In all other hospitals, these were conducted twice weekly. Basic drugs were not always available (e.g. gentamicin, morphine and pethidine in 50%, injectable antistaphylococcal penicillins in 5% hospitals). Fewer than half of hospitals had all resources needed to provide oxygen. One hundred and forty-five of 956 cases evaluated underwent operations under general or spinal anaesthesia. We found operation notes for 99% and anaesthetic records for 72%. Pre-operatively measured vital signs were recorded in 80% of cases, and evidence of consent to operation was found in 78%. Blood loss was documented in only one case and sponge and instrument counts in 7%. Conclusions Evaluation of surgical services would be improved by development and dissemination of clear standards of care. This survey suggests that internship hospitals may be poorly equipped and documented care suggests inadequacies in quality and training. Objectif Evaluer les services dans les hôpitaux offrant des stages de formation à des médecins diplômés au Kenya. Méthodes Enquête auprès de 22 hôpitaux offrant des stages de formation. La disponibilité des ressources clés incluant infrastructure, personnel, matériel et médicaments a été évaluée par observation. Les résultats et processus de soins pour des affections prioritaires pr

  8. A cross-sectional study of shift work, sleep quality and cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees

    PubMed Central

    Aronson, K J; Day, A; Tranmer, J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Investigating the potential pathways linking shift work and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), this study aimed to identify whether sleep disturbances mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of CVD risk factors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A tertiary-level, acute care teaching hospital in Southeastern Ontario, Canada. Participants Female hospital employees working a shift schedule of two 12 h days, two 12 h nights, followed by 5 days off (n=121) were compared with female day-only workers (n=150). Primary and secondary outcome measures Each of the seven components of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was measured. Of these, PSQI global score, sleep latency and sleep efficiency were examined as potential mediators in the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Results Shift work status was associated with poor (>5) PSQI global score (OR=2.10, 95% CI 1.20 to 3.65), poor (≥2) sleep latency (OR=2.18, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.87) and poor (≥2) sleep efficiency (OR=2.11, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.84). Although shift work was associated with the metabolic syndrome (OR=2.29, 95% CI 1.12 to 4.70), the measured components of sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Women working in a rapid forward rotating shift pattern have poorer sleep quality according to self-reported indicators of the validated PSQI and they have a higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome compared with women who work during the day only. However, sleep quality did not mediate the relationship between shift work and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that there are other psychophysiological pathways linking shift work to increased risk for CVD. PMID:25757950

  9. Menopausal symptoms and its effect on quality of life in urban versus rural women: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhaa; Mahajan, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To analyze the menopause-related symptoms and its impact on quality of life in post-menopausal women from urban and rural area. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional 1-year study was carried among women of urban (n = 490) and rural (n = 380) areas, attending the outpatient department in the urban area and a house-to-house survey in rural areas, by interviews with the help of a pretested semi-structured standard questionnaire. For assessment of the menopausal symptoms menopause rating scale (MRS) and for quality of life, World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale (WHO QOL-BREF) questionnaire was used. Results: There was a significant difference between the MRS total scores of the urban (14.67 ± 6.64) and rural (16.08 ± 7.65) group. The somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms were high in rural women than in urban women. The results were not significant for urogenital subscale. The mean raw scores of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The mean transformed scores (4-20) of physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The mean transformed scores (0-100) including the physical health, psychological, social relationships, and environmental domains was more in urban than in rural women. The result was not significant for physical health. Conclusion: The high proportions and the scores of MRS were observed in both rural and the urban women. The severity of symptoms was found more distressing for rural women. The quality of life in urban society was average and better than in rural women. PMID:25861203

  10. Human semen quality in the new millennium: a prospective cross-sectional population-based study of 4867 men

    PubMed Central

    Joensen, Ulla Nordström; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jensen, Martin Blomberg; Almstrup, Kristian; Olesen, Inge Ahlmann; Juul, Anders; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Petersen, Jørgen Holm; Toppari, Jorma; Skakkebæk, Niels E

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Considerable interest and controversy over a possible decline in semen quality during the 20th century raised concern that semen quality could have reached a critically low level where it might affect human reproduction. The authors therefore initiated a study to assess reproductive health in men from the general population and to monitor changes in semen quality over time. Design Cross-sectional study of men from the general Danish population. Inclusion criteria were place of residence in the Copenhagen area, and both the man and his mother being born and raised in Denmark. Men with severe or chronic diseases were not included. Setting Danish one-centre study. Participants 4867 men, median age 19 years, included from 1996 to 2010. Outcome measures Semen volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, sperm motility and sperm morphology. Results Only 23% of participants had optimal sperm concentration and sperm morphology. Comparing with historic data of men attending a Copenhagen infertility clinic in the 1940s and men who recently became fathers, these two groups had significantly better semen quality than our study group from the general population. Over the 15 years, median sperm concentration increased from 43 to 48 million/ml (p=0.02) and total sperm count from 132 to 151 million (p=0.001). The median percentage of motile spermatozoa and abnormal spermatozoa were 68% and 93%, and did not change during the study period. Conclusions This large prospective study of semen quality among young men of the general population showed an increasing trend in sperm concentration and total sperm count. However, only one in four men had optimal semen quality. In addition, one in four will most likely face a prolonged waiting time to pregnancy if they in the future want to father a child and another 15% are at risk of the need of fertility treatment. Thus, reduced semen quality seems so frequent that it may impair the fertility rates and further increase the

  11. Effect of Spinal Cord Injury on Quality of Life of Affected Soldiers in India: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Bhawna

    2016-01-01

    Study Design A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling approach was done to assess quality of life (QoL) in 100 soldiers and veterans affected by spinal cord injury (SCI). Purpose SCI affects almost every aspect of the life of an affected individual. This study was done to measure the impact of SCI on QoL of affected soldiers and veterans using the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Overview of Literature The devastating effect of SCI on QoL is well known. However, this study is unique in that it includes soldiers and veterans, who constitute a large, but excluded, cohort in most demographic studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was done at two SCI rehabilitation centres of the Indian armed forces. Data was collected by face-to-face interviews from 100 patients, which included both sociodemographic data as well as all the questions included in WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Age and marital status did not have any influence on QoL. Level of injury (paraplegic or quadriplegic), level of education and presence of other medical co-morbidities had the most significant influence on QoL. Presence of other medical co-morbidities had a negative influence on QoL. Conclusions Identification of factors having a positive and negative influence on QoL help in formulating measures and policies that positively influence the QoL following SCI in soldiers. Future longitudinal studies with larger sample sizes and assessment of additional variables in addition to WHOQOL-BREF, like presence/absence of secondary complications, are required to bring about policy changes to provide SCI patients with additional support and increased access to equipment or lifestyle interventions. PMID:27114767

  12. Radar cross section of insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, J. R.

    1985-02-01

    X-band measurements of radar cross section as a function of the angle between insect body axis and the plane of polarization are presented. A finding of particular interest is that in larger insects, maximum cross section occurs when the E-vector is perpendicular to the body axis. A new range of measurements on small insects (aphids, and planthoppers) is also described, and a comprehensive summary of insect cross-section data at X-band is given.

  13. A cross-sectional study on vision-related quality of life in patients with ocular GvHD.

    PubMed

    Pezzotta, S; Rossi, G C; Scudeller, L; Antoniazzi, E; Bianchi, P E; Perotti, C; Del Fante, C

    2015-09-01

    Ocular GvHD affects about 40-60% of patients receiving bone marrow transplantation. Ocular complaints worsen quality of life (QoL), which, besides survival time, is a primary end point in a patient's follow-up. The aim of our study was to assess the ocular surface status and vision-related QoL (VRQoL) and explore the potential determinants in VRQoL in patients with chronic GvHD with ocular involvement. In this cross-sectional study, we investigated 40 patients with ocular GvHD after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation assessing ocular symptoms and signs, VRQoL and ophthalmologic parameters. The median age was 52.1 years; 32.5% were females. Most of them presented a multiple organ involvement. Ophthalmological parameter examinations were on average abnormal. Corneal staining was severe/very severe in 25%; conjunctival staining in 10% of subjects. The worse QoL scores were on 'general vision', 'ocular pain', 'vision-specific mental health' and 'vision-specific role difficulties'. Both symptoms and sign scores indicate poor VRQoL. A lower VRQoL was related to schooling level, job position, underlying disease and extracorporeal photopheresis. Corneal staining, Schirmer and tear film breakup time were negatively associated to visual function-related subscales. An accurate ophthalmological and VRQoL assessment should be mandatory for a long time to promptly recognize early signs of ocular suffering, and to prevent irreversible ocular complications. PMID:26052912

  14. Quality of life in borderline patients comorbid with anxiety spectrum disorders – a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Grambal, Ales; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Latalova, Klara; Holubova, Michaela; Sedláčková, Zuzana; Hruby, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Borderline personality disorder (BPD) significantly reduces the quality of life (QoL) in mental, social, and work domains. Patients with BPD often suffer from depressive anxiety symptoms. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to compare the QoL and demographic and clinical factors of inpatients diagnosed with BPD and comorbid anxiety spectrum disorders, and healthy controls. Methods Ninety-two hospitalized patients treated in the psychotherapeutic department and 40 healthy controls were included. Subjects were assessed by the Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire (Q-LES-Q), Dissociative Experiences Scale, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)-II, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Clinical Global Impression, demographic questionnaire, Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), and Sheehan Anxiety Scale. Results BPD patients suffered from comorbid anxiety disorders, panic disorder (18.5%), social phobia (20.7%), generalized anxiety disorder/mixed anxiety depression disorder (17.4%), adjustment disorder (22.8%), and posttraumatic stress disorder (8.7%); 19.6% patients had two or more anxiety disorder comorbidities. Patients score in Q-LES-Q (general) was 36.24±9.21, which was significantly lower in comparison to controls (57.83±10.21) and similar in all domains (physical health, feelings, work, household, school/study, leisure, social activities). The subjective level of depression measured by BDI and SDS (social life and family subscales) negatively correlated with all Q-LES-Q domains. Conclusion Patients suffering from BPD and comorbid anxiety disorders have a lower level of QoL compared to healthy controls in all measured domains. Negative correlations of the Q-LES-Q domains with clinical scales (Dissociative Experiences Scale, BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Sheehan Anxiety Scale, Clinical Global Impression, and SDS) are noticeable. PMID:27536074

  15. Fatigue and quality of life in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Vika, Margrethe Elin

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives To examine the prevalence of cancer-related fatigue in women treated for various types of gynaecological cancers and, for these cancers, to assess fatigue in relation to distress, health-related quality of life, demography and treatment characteristics. Background Advances in treatment of cancer have improved the likelihood of survival. Consequently, there are a growing number of patients who become survivors after cancer and who face side effects even years after treatment. One of the most frequently reported side effects across all types and stages of the disease is cancer-related fatigue. Design A descriptive cross-sectional study. Methods One hundred and twenty women treated for gynaecological cancers who were participants in an intervention study were included. Fatigue, psychological distress, health-related QoL and demographics were assessed by questionnaires. Disease and treatment characteristics were extracted from medical records. Results Cancer-related fatigue was reported in 53% of the women treated for gynaecological cancers, with a higher proportion in the group of cervical cancer, followed by ovarian cancer. Younger participants reported fatigue more frequently than older participants. When adjusting for age, the type of cancer a woman experiences was shown to have little impact on her risk of experiencing fatigue. The participants with fatigue reported higher levels of anxiety and depression than participants without fatigue. There was a relationship between fatigue and quality of life as measured by SF-36 domains. Conclusion The findings underscore the importance of screening for fatigue, patient education and symptom management. This should be included in a standard procedure during treatment and follow-up. Both somatic and psychological aspects of fatigue should be emphasised. Relevance to clinical practice The findings imply the need for health personnel to have focus on fatigue during the entire cancer trajectory of women

  16. Dioxin-like compounds and bone quality in Cree women of Eastern James Bay (Canada): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aboriginal populations living in Canada’s northern regions are exposed to a number of persistent organic pollutants through their traditional diet which includes substantial amounts of predator fish species. Exposure to dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) can cause a variety of toxic effects including adverse effects on bone tissue. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the relationship between plasma concentrations of DLCs and bone quality parameters in Cree women of Eastern James Bay (Canada). Methods Two hundred and forty-nine Cree women from seven communities in Eastern James Bay (Canada), aged 35 to 74 years old, participated in the study. In order to determine the total DLC concentration in plasma samples of participants, we measured the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcriptional activity elicited by plasma sample extracts using a luciferase reporter gene assay. Plasma concentrations of mono-ortho-substituted dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) 105, 118 and 156 were measured by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Bone quality parameters (speed of sound, m/s; broadband ultrasound attenuation, dB/MHz; stiffness index, %) were assessed by quantitative ultrasound at the right calcaneus with the Achilles InSight system. Several factors known to be associated with osteoporosis were documented by questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were constructed for the three ultrasound parameters. Results DL-PCBs 105 and 118 concentrations, but not the global DLC concentration, were inversely associated with the stiffness index, even after adjusting for several confounding factors. The stiffness index (log) decreased by −0.22% (p=0.0414) and −0.04% (p=0.0483) with an increase of one μg/L in plasma concentrations of DL-PCB 105 and DL-PCB 118, respectively. Other factors, including age, height, smoking status, menopausal status and the percentage of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in

  17. Professional medical writing support and the quality of randomised controlled trial reporting: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gattrell, William T; Hopewell, Sally; Young, Kate; Farrow, Paul; White, Richard; Winchester, Christopher C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Authors may choose to work with professional medical writers when writing up their research for publication. We examined the relationship between medical writing support and the quality and timeliness of reporting of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Design Cross-sectional study. Study sample Primary reports of RCTs published in BioMed Central journals from 2000 to 16 July 2014, subdivided into those with medical writing support (n=110) and those without medical writing support (n=123). Main outcome measures Proportion of items that were completely reported from a predefined subset of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) checklist (12 items known to be commonly poorly reported), overall acceptance time (from manuscript submission to editorial acceptance) and quality of written English as assessed by peer reviewers. The effect of funding source and publication year was examined. Results The number of articles that completely reported at least 50% of the CONSORT items assessed was higher for those with declared medical writing support (39.1% (43/110 articles); 95% CI 29.9% to 48.9%) than for those without (21.1% (26/123 articles); 95% CI 14.3% to 29.4%). Articles with declared medical writing support were more likely than articles without such support to have acceptable written English (81.1% (43/53 articles); 95% CI 67.6% to 90.1% vs 47.9% (23/48 articles); 95% CI 33.5% to 62.7%). The median time of overall acceptance was longer for articles with declared medical writing support than for those without (167 days (IQR 114.5–231 days) vs 136 days (IQR 77–193 days)). Conclusions In this sample of open-access journals, declared professional medical writing support was associated with more complete reporting of clinical trial results and higher quality of written English. Medical writing support may play an important role in raising the quality of clinical trial reporting. PMID:26899254

  18. The Quality of Pre-Hospital Oxygen Therapy in Patients With Multiple Trauma: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Maghaminejad, Farzaneh; Paravar, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Trauma is a major healthcare challenge worldwide. In developing countries, most road deaths happen during the pre-hospital phase; consequently, pre-hospital trauma care has received considerable attention during the past decades. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the quality of pre-hospital oxygen therapy in patients with multiple trauma. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the year 2013. The study population consisted of all patients with multiple trauma who had been transferred by emergency medical services to the central trauma department in Shahid Beheshti Medical Center, Kashan, Iran. The data collection instrument had three parts including demographic, a trauma assessment, and an oxygen therapy quality assessment questionnaires that were designed by the researchers. In total, 350 patients with multiple trauma were recruited from March through July 2013. Data were described by using frequency tables, central tendency measures, and variability indices. Moreover, we analyzed data by using the Chi-square test, Mann-Whitney U test, and the logistic regression analysis. Results: The study sample consisted of 263 (75.1%) male and 87 (24.9%) female patients. Overall, 211 patients needed oxygen therapy during the pre-hospital phase; however, only 35 (16.60%) patients had received oxygen. The quality of oxygen therapy was undesirable in 92.42% of cases. In addition, 83.4% of patients, whose pre-hospital records indicated the administration of oxygen, reported that they had not received oxygen therapy. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the place of accident and the level of patients' education were significant predictors for administration of oxygen during the pre-hospital phase (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The quality of pre-hospital oxygen therapy had been provided for the patients with multiple trauma was poor while these patients, particularly patients with chest traumas and head injuries, were in

  19. The total charm cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2007-09-14

    We assess the theoretical uncertainties on the total charm cross section. We discuss the importance of the quark mass, the scale choice and the parton densities on the estimate of the uncertainty. We conclude that the uncertainty on the total charm cross section is difficult to quantify.

  20. XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 8 XCOM: Photon Cross Sections Database (Web, free access)   A web database is provided which can be used to calculate photon cross sections for scattering, photoelectric absorption and pair production, as well as total attenuation coefficients, for any element, compound or mixture (Z <= 100) at energies from 1 keV to 100 GeV.

  1. A cross sectional assessment of health related quality of life among patients with Hepatitis-B in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan. Methods A cross sectional study by adopting European Quality of Life scale (EQ-5D) for the assessment of HRQoL was conducted. All registered HB patients attending two public hospitals in Quetta, Pakistan were approached for study. Descriptive statistics were used to describe demographic and disease related characteristics of the patients. HRQoL was scored using values adapted from the United Kingdom general population survey. EQ-5D scale scores were compared with Mann–Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis test. Standard multiple regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of HRQoL. All analyses were performed using SPSS v 16.0. Results Three hundred and ninety HB patients were enrolled in the study. Majority of the participants (n = 126, 32.3%) were categorized in the age group of 18-27 years (36.07 ± 9.23). HRQoL was measured as poor in the current study patients (0.3498 ± 0.31785). The multivariate analysis revealed a significant model (F10, 380 = 40.04, P < 0.001, adjusted r2 = 0.401). Educational level (β = 0.399, p = 0.025) emerged as a positive predictor of HRQoL. Age, gender, occupation, income and locality were not predictive of better quality of life in HB patients. Conclusions Hepatitis B has an adverse affect on patients’ well-being and over all HRQoL. The study findings implicate the need of health promotion among HB patients. Improving the educational status and imparting disease related information for the local population can results in better control and management of HB. PMID:22866752

  2. Quality of Life of People Living with HIV/AIDS: A Cross-Sectional Study in Zhejiang Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Liping, Ma; Peng, Xu; Haijiang, Lin; Lahong, Ju; Fan, Lv

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) has become a concept commonly used in the related research. Using the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire for Brief Version (WHOQOL-BREF), this study evaluated the Quality of Life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Zhejiang province, China, and assessed the influences of demographic, laboratory and disease-related variables on QOL. This cross-sectional study was conducted among PLWHA aged ≥ 18 years in Taizhou municipality, Zhejiang province, China, between August 1 and October 31, 2014. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the influential factors. Of 403 subjects, 72.48% were male, 72.46% had received a high- school or above education, 94.79% were of Han ethnicity, and 65.51% were non farmers. The total score of QOL was 15.99±1.99. The scores of QOL in physiological, psychological, social relation, and environmental domains were 14.99 ±2.25, 14.25 ±2.12, 13.22 ±2.37, and 13.31 ±1.99 respectively. Except the total score of QOL and the score of environmental domain (p<0.05), the scores in other domains had no significant difference with the results of the national norm level. The multiple linear regression model identified the physical domain related factors to be age (β = -0.045), CD4 count (β = 0.002), and ART adherence(β = 1.231). And it also showed that psychological domain related factors included CD4 count (β = 0.002) and WHO clinical stage (β = -0.437); social domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.704) and ART adherence (β = 1.177); while environmental domain related factors included WHO clinical stage (β = -0.538), educational status(β = 0.549) and ART adherence(β = 1.078).Those who are young, with higher level of education, higher CD4 count and good access and adherence of ART, are likely to have better QOL among PLWHA in Zhejiang province. This suggests that in addition to ART, many other factors should be taken into consideration

  3. Disability, psychiatric symptoms, and quality of life in infertile women: a cross-sectional study in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    SEZGIN, Hacer; HOCAOGLU, Cicek; GUVENDAG-GUVEN, Emine Seda

    2016-01-01

    Background Infertility is a major life crisis which can lead to the development of psychiatric symptoms and negative effects on the quality of life of affected couples, but the magnitude of the effects may vary depending on cultural expectations. Aim We compare the level of psychiatric symptoms, disability, and quality of life in fertile and infertile women in urban Turkey. Methods This cross-sectional study enrolled 100 married women being treated for infertility at the outpatient department of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of the Rize Education and Research Hospital and a control group of 100 fertile married women. All study participants were evaluated with a socio-demographic data screening form, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), the Brief Disability Questionnaire (BDQ), and the Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Results The mean anxiety subscale score and depression subscale score of HADS were slightly higher in the infertile group than in controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. The proportion of subjects with clinically significant anxiety (i.e., anxiety subscale score of HADS ≥11) was significantly higher in infertile women than in fertile women (31% v. 17%, χ2=5.37, p=0.020), but the proportion with clinically significant depressive symptoms (i.e., depression subscale score of HADS >8) was not significantly different (43% v. 33%, χ2=2.12, p=0.145). Self-reported disability over the prior month was significantly worse in the infertile group than in the controls, and 4 of the 8 subscales of the SF-36 - general health, vitality, social functioning, and mental health - were significantly worse in the infertile group. Compared to infertile women who were currently working, infertile women who were not currently working reported less severe depression and anxiety and better general health, vitality, and mental health. Conclusions Married women from urban Turkey seeking treatment for infertility do not have

  4. Application of Analytical Hierarchy Process Approach for Service Quality Evaluation in Radiology Departments: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Hassani, Fariba

    2016-01-01

    Background: Radiology department as a service provider organization requires realization of quality concept concerning service provisioning knowledge, satisfaction and all issues relating to the customer as well as quality assurance and improvement issues. At present, radiology departments in hospitals are regarded as income generating units and they should continuously seek performance improvement so that they can survive in the changing and competitive environment of the health care sector. Objectives: The aim of this study was to propose a method for ranking of radiology departments in selected hospitals of Tehran city using analytical hierarchical process (AHP) and quality evaluation of their service in 2015. Materials and Methods: This study was an applied and cross-sectional study, carried out in radiology departments of 6 Tehran educational hospitals in 2015. The hospitals were selected using non-probability and purposeful method. Data gathering was performed using customized joint commission international (JCI) standards. Expert Choice 10.0 software was used for data analysis. AHP method was used for prioritization. Results: “Management and empowerment of human resources’’ (weight = 0.465) and “requirements and facilities” (weight = 0.139) were of highest and lowest significance respectively in the overall ranking of the hospitals. MS (weight = 0.316), MD (weight = 0.259), AT (weight = 0.14), TS (weight = 0.108), MO (weight = 0.095), and LH (0.082) achieved the first to sixth rankings respectively. Conclusion: The use of AHP method can be promising for fostering the evaluation method and subsequently promotion of the efficiency and effectiveness of the radiology departments. The present model can fill in the gap in the accreditation system of the country’s hospitals in respect with ranking and comparing them considering the significance and value of each individual criteria and standard. Accordingly, it can predict an integration of qualitative

  5. Drinking-Water Disinfection By-products and Semen Quality: A Cross-Sectional Study in China

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Qiang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Xie, Shao-Hua; Xu, Liang; Chen, Yong-Zhe; Li, Min; Yue, Jing; Li, Yu-Feng; Liu, Ai-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) has been demonstrated to impair male reproductive health in animals, but human evidence is limited and inconsistent. Objective: We examined the association between exposure to drinking-water DBPs and semen quality in a Chinese population. Methods: We recruited 2,009 men seeking semen analysis from the Reproductive Center of Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China, between April 2011 and May 2012. Each man provided a semen sample and a urine sample. Semen samples were analyzed for sperm concentration, sperm motility, and sperm count. As a biomarker of exposure to drinking-water DBPs, trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was measured in the urine samples. Results: The mean (median) urinary TCAA concentration was 9.58 (7.97) μg/L (interquartile range, 6.01–10.96 μg/L). Compared with men with urine TCAA in the lowest quartile, increased adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for below-reference sperm concentration in men with TCAA in the second and fourth quartiles (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.69 and OR = 1.51; 95% CI: 0.98, 2.31, respectively), for below-reference sperm motility in men with TCAA in the second and third quartiles (OR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.90 and OR = 1.30; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.70, respectively), and for below-reference sperm count in men with TCAA in the second quartile (OR 1.62; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.55). Nonmonotonic associations with TCAA quartiles were also estimated for semen parameters modeled as continuous outcomes, although significant negative associations were estimated for all quartiles above the reference level for sperm motility. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that exposure to drinking-water DBPs may contribute to decreased semen quality in humans. Citation: Zeng Q, Wang YX, Xie SH, Xu L, Chen YZ, Li M, Yue J, Li YF, Liu AL, Lu WQ. 2014. Drinking-water disinfection by-products and semen quality: a cross-sectional study in China. Environ Health Perspect 122:741–746; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp

  6. Urinary trichloroacetic acid levels and semen quality: A hospital-based cross-sectional study in Wuhan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Li, Yu-Feng; Tan, Yin-Feng; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Ai-Lin; Xie, Hong; and others

    2011-02-15

    Toxicological studies indicate an association between exposure to disinfection by-products (DBPs) and impaired male reproductive health in animals. However, epidemiological evidence in humans is still limited. We conducted a hospital-based cross-sectional study to investigate the effect of exposure to DBPs on semen quality in humans. Between May 2008 and July 2008, we recruited 418 male partners in sub-fertile couples seeking infertility medical instruction or assisted reproduction services from the Tongji Hospital in Wuhan, China. Major semen parameters analyzed included sperm concentration, motility, and morphology. Exposure to DBPs was estimated by their urinary creatinine-adjusted trichloroacetic (TCAA) concentrations that were measured with the gas chromatography/electron capture detection method. We used linear regression to assess the relationship between exposure to DBPs and semen quality. According to the World Health Organization criteria (<20 million/mL for sperm concentration and <50% motile for sperm motility) and threshold value recommended by Guzick (<9% for sperm morphology), there were 265 men with all parameters at or above the reference values, 33 men below the reference sperm concentration, 151 men below the reference sperm motility, and 6 men below the reference sperm morphology. The mean (median) urinary creatinine-adjusted TCAA concentration was 9.2 (5.1) {mu}g/g creatinine. Linear regression analyses indicated no significant association of sperm concentration, sperm count, and sperm morphology with urinary TCAA levels. Compared with those in the lowest quartile of creatinine-adjusted urinary TCAA concentrations, subjects in the second and third quartiles had a decrease of 5.1% (95% CI: 0.6%, 9.7%) and 4.7% (95% CI: 0.2%, 9.2%) in percent motility, respectively. However, these associations were not significant after adjustment for age, abstinence time, and smoking status. The present study provides suggestive but inconclusive evidence of the

  7. Assessing the Quality of Care for Pneumonia in Integrated Community Case Management: A Cross-Sectional Mixed Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Sinyangwe, Chomba; Graham, Kirstie; Nicholas, Sarala; King, Rebecca; Mukupa, Samuel; Källander, Karin; Counihan, Helen; Montague, Mark; Tibenderana, James; Hamade, Prudence

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia is the leading infectious cause of mortality in children under five worldwide. Community-level interventions, such as integrated community case management, have great potential to reduce the burden of pneumonia, as well as other diseases, especially in remote populations. However, there are still questions as to whether community health workers (CHW) are able to accurately assess symptoms of pneumonia and prescribe appropriate treatment. This research addresses limitations of previous studies using innovative methodology to assess the accuracy of respiratory rate measurement by CHWs and provides new evidence on the quality of care given for children with symptoms of pneumonia. It is one of few that assesses CHW performance in their usual setting, with independent re-examination by experts, following a considerable period of time post-training of CHWs. Methods In this cross-sectional mixed methods study, 1,497 CHW consultations, conducted by 90 CHWs in two districts of Luapula province, Zambia, were directly observed, with measurement of respiratory rate for children with suspected pneumonia recorded by video. Using the video footage, a retrospective reference standard assessment of respiratory rate was conducted by experts. Counts taken by CHWs were compared against the reference standard and appropriateness of the treatment prescribed by CHWs was assessed. To supplement observational findings, three focus group discussions and nine in depth interviews with CHWs were conducted. Results and Conclusion The findings support existing literature that CHWs are capable of measuring respiratory rates and providing appropriate treatment, with 81% and 78% agreement, respectively, between CHWs and experts. Accuracy in diagnosis could be strengthened through further training and the development of improved diagnostic tools appropriate for resource-poor settings. PMID:27011331

  8. Determinants of Quality of Life in Ageing Populations: Results from a Cross-Sectional Study in Finland, Poland and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Corso, Barbara; Minicuci, Nadia; Quintas, Rui; Sattin, Davide; De Torres, Laura; Chatterji, Somnath; Frisoni, Giovanni Battista; Haro, Josep Maria; Koskinen, Seppo; Martinuzzi, Andrea; Miret, Marta; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Leonardi, Matilde

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To comprehensively identify the determinants of quality of life (QoL) in a population study sample of persons aged 18–50 and 50+. Methods In this observational, cross-sectional study, QoL was measured with the WHOQOL-AGE, a brief instrument designed to measure QoL in older adults. Eight hierarchical regression models were performed to identify determinants of QoL. Variables were entered in the following order: Sociodemographic; Health Habits; Chronic Conditions; Health State description; Vision and Hearing; Social Networks; Built Environment. In the final model, significant variables were retained. The final model was re-run using data from the three countries separately. Results Complete data were available for 5639 participants, mean age 46.3 (SD 18.4). The final model accounted for 45% of QoL variation and the most relevant contribution was given by sociodemographic data (particularly age, education level and living in Finland: 17.9% explained QoL variation), chronic conditions (particularly depression: 4.6%) and a wide and rich social network (4.6%). Other determinants were presence of disabling pain, learning difficulties and visual problems, and living in usable house that is perceived as non-risky. Some variables were specifically associated to QoL in single countries: age in Poland, alcohol consumption in Spain, angina in Finland, depression in Spain, and self-reported sadness both in Finland and Poland, but not in Spain. Other were commonly associated to QoL: smoking status, bodily aches, being emotionally affected by health problems, good social network and home characteristics. Conclusions Our results highlight the importance of modifiable determinants of QoL, and provide public health indications that could support concrete actions at country level. In particular, smoking cessation, increasing the level of physical activity, improving social network ties and applying universal design approach to houses and environmental infrastructures could

  9. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetic patients in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Saeed ur Rashid; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saleem, Fahad; Bashir, Sajid; Hashmi, Furqan; Aljadhey, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) profile of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) population attending outpatient clinics in Sargodha City, Pakistan. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive survey. T2DM patients attending a tertiary care institute in Sargodha, Pakistan were targeted for the study. The EuroQol EQ-5D was used for the assessment of HRQoL and was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Descriptive statistics were used for the elaboration of sociodemographic characteristics. The Chi-square test was used to depict the possible association between study variables and HRQoL. Where significant associations were noted, Phi/Cramer's V was used for data interpretation accordingly. SPSS version 21 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) was used for data analysis and P < 0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Three hundred and ninety-two patients were approached for the study. The cohort was dominated by males (n = 222, 56.60%) with 5.58 ± 4.09 years of history of T2DM. The study highlighted poor HRQoL among the study participants (0.471 ± 0.336). Gender, marital status, education, monthly income, occupation, location and duration of the disease were reported to be significantly associated with HRQoL (P < 0.001). Conclusion: T2DM imposes a negative effect on HRQoL of the patients. Attention is needed to highlight determinants of HRQoL and to implement policies for better management of T2DM, particularly in early treatment phases where improving HRQoL is still possible. PMID:26957872

  10. Impact of demographic and comorbid conditions on quality of life of hemodialysis patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mandoorah, Qusay Mohammed; Shaheen, Faisal Abdulraheem; Mandoorah, Sohaib Mohammed; Bawazir, Salem Ali; Alshohaib, Saad Saleh

    2014-03-01

    To assess the quality of life (QOL) of Saudi Arabian patients undergoing hemo-dialysis (HD) and to determine the impact of gender, age, education and comorbidities on the QOL of these patients, we conducted a cross-sectional study and used the short form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, a generic instrument for measuring QOL. This questionnaire is composed of eight scales that summarize the physical component scale (PCS) and mental component scale (MCS) of health status. We calculated the PCS and MCS scores for each patient. We studied 205 HD patients (123 men; ages 18-75 years) from the King Fahd General Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The mean SF-36 score was 59.4 ± 21.7 in men and 41.9 ± 20.9 in women (P <0.0001). Patients older than 60 years had the worst score (41.5 ± 21.2), followed by patients aged 40-59 years (53.6 ± 22.8); patients aged 18-39 years had the best SF-36 score (57.5 ± 22.5; P <0.0001). Education had a positive impact on QOL (P <0.0001), whereas comorbid conditions had a negative impact. Peripheral vascular disease was associated with the worst outcome (SF-36 score, 40.4 ± 23.0; P <0.0001), followed by dyslipidemia (42.9 ± 22.4; P = 0.001) and diabetes mellitus (45.0 ± 22.0; P = 0.012). Among the comorbid conditions, hypertension was associated with the best SF-36 score (50.6 ± 22.7; P = 0.034). We conclude that old age, female gender, poor education and comorbid conditions have a negative impact on the QOL of HD patients in Saudi Arabia. These findings indicate a general need for social support for female patients on HD and early diagnosis and management of comorbid conditions. PMID:24626022

  11. Quality of Life and Its Related Factors in Chinese Unemployed People: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Yao, Lutian; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    With the global economic crisis and industrial restructuring, the unemployed are suffering from job loss-related stress and loss of income, which is believed to impair their mental and physical health, while coping and self-efficacy could combat the adverse effects of unemployment on health. Thus, this study aims to describe quality of life (QOL) among unemployed Chinese people and explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted by convenience sampling, composed of 1825 unemployed people, from January 2011 to September 2011. Questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the abbreviated version of the Cope Inventory (Brief COPE) and self-efficacy scales were used to collect information from unemployed people in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors of QOL. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations among coping, self-efficacy, and QOL. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL in Chinese unemployed people. Coping had significant effects on both physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), while self-efficacy played the mediating role in the association between Coping and QOL. Unemployed Chinese people's mental QOL was disrupted more seriously than their physical QOL. An increase in coping could improve QOL by promoting better management of issues brought about by unemployment. In addition, self-efficacy has the ability to reduce the impact of unemployment on QOL, through the mediating path of coping on QOL. This study highlights the need of coping skills training and self-efficacy enhancement for better management of unemployment in order to improve QOL and well-being. PMID:27509514

  12. Quality of Life and Its Related Factors in Chinese Unemployed People: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaoshi; Yao, Lutian; Wu, Hui; Wang, Yang; Liu, Li; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie

    2016-01-01

    With the global economic crisis and industrial restructuring, the unemployed are suffering from job loss-related stress and loss of income, which is believed to impair their mental and physical health, while coping and self-efficacy could combat the adverse effects of unemployment on health. Thus, this study aims to describe quality of life (QOL) among unemployed Chinese people and explore the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted by convenience sampling, composed of 1825 unemployed people, from January 2011 to September 2011. Questionnaires pertaining to demographic characteristics, the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), the abbreviated version of the Cope Inventory (Brief COPE) and self-efficacy scales were used to collect information from unemployed people in the eastern, central, and western regions of China. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to explore the related factors of QOL. A structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations among coping, self-efficacy, and QOL. Mental QOL was significantly lower than physical QOL in Chinese unemployed people. Coping had significant effects on both physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS), while self-efficacy played the mediating role in the association between Coping and QOL. Unemployed Chinese people’s mental QOL was disrupted more seriously than their physical QOL. An increase in coping could improve QOL by promoting better management of issues brought about by unemployment. In addition, self-efficacy has the ability to reduce the impact of unemployment on QOL, through the mediating path of coping on QOL. This study highlights the need of coping skills training and self-efficacy enhancement for better management of unemployment in order to improve QOL and well-being. PMID:27509514

  13. Postmastectomy Pain: A Cross-sectional Study of Prevalence, Pain Characteristics, and Effects on Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Ergönenç, Jalan Şerbetçigil; Ergönenç, Tolga; Sönmez, Özlem Uysal; Erkorkmaz, Ünal; Altintoprak, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Background: Postmastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS) is defined as a chronic (continuing for 3 or more months) neuropathic pain affecting the axilla, medial arm, breast, and chest wall after breast cancer surgery. The prevalence of PMPS has been reported to range from 20% to 68%. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of PMPS among mastectomy patients, the severity of neuropathic pain in these patients, risk factors that contribute to pain becoming chronic, and the effect of PMPS on life quality. Methods: This cross-sectional study was approved by the Sakarya University, Medical Faculty Ethical Council and included 146 patients ranging in age from 18 to 85 years who visited the pain clinic, general surgery clinic, and oncology clinic and had breast surgery between 2012 and 2014. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether they met PMPS criteria: pain at axilla, arm, shoulder, chest wall, scar tissue, or breast at least 3 months after breast surgery. All patients gave informed consent prior to entry into the study. Patient medical records were collected, and pain and quality of life were evaluated by the visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, a short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ), douleur neuropathique-4 (DN-4), and SF-36. Results: Patient mean age was 55.2 ± 11.8 years (33.0–83.0 years). PMPS prevalence was 36%. Mean scores on the VAS, SF-MPQ, and DN-4 in PMPS patients were 1.76 ± 2.38 (0–10), 1.73 ± 1.54 (0–5), and 1.64 ± 2.31 (0–8), respectively. Of these patients, 31 (23.7%) had neuropathic pain characteristics, and 12 (9.2%) had phantom pain according to the DN-4 survey. Patients who had modified radical mastectomy were significantly more likely to develop PMPS than patients who had breast-protective surgery (P = 0.028). Only 2 (2.4%) of PMPS patients had received proper treatment (anticonvulsants or opioids). Conclusions: PMPS seriously impacts patients’ emotional situation, daily activities, and social

  14. Exploring health-related quality of life in eating disorders by a cross-sectional study and a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with eating disorders (ED) often report poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is explicitly correlated to illness’ severity and its effects on cognitive performance. We aimed to analyze health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in subgroups of eating disorder (ED) patients by using the brief version of WHOQoL questionnaire (WHOQoL-BREF) before treatment administration. Moreover, in order to compare our findings with other published data, we carried out a comprehensive review of the literature on HRQoL in ED patients. Methods Our review was carried out by means of an accurate data mining of PsychInfo and Medline databases and other available sources. In our cross-sectional study, eighty female ED patients (26 with bulimia nervosa, 33 with anorexia nervosa, 7 with binge eating disorder and 14 with ED not otherwise specified) completed the WHOQoL-BREF. HRQoL scores were compared among ED subgroups and clinical information (presence of previous contacts, length of illness, psychiatric comorbidity) was considered in the analysis. Results Our review shows that with few exceptions ED patients have a poorer HRQoL than the healthy population of control and sometimes the mental component of HRQoL is the most involved dimension. Moreover, there are no differences in the HRQoL among ED groups, even if AN patients in some studies have a lower HRQoL scores. Furthermore, BED patients have a poorer HRQoL than obese patients who do not have binge episodes. Finally, all treatments were positively correlated with an improvement on general and specific QoL dimensions. In our sample, ED subgroups differed only for Psychological Health HRQoL scores (F = 4.072, df = 3; p = 0.01). No differences were found between inpatients and outpatients, treatment naïve and previously treated patients and patients with or without psychiatric comorbidity. Moreover, HRQoL scores were not correlated to length of illness within each ED subgroup. Conclusions The

  15. Quality of work life among primary health care nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of work life (QWL) is defined as the extent to which an employee is satisfied with personal and working needs through participating in the workplace while achieving the goals of the organization. QWL has been found to influence the commitment and productivity of employees in health care organizations, as well as in other industries. However, reliable information on the QWL of primary health care (PHC) nurses is limited. The purpose of this study was to assess the QWL among PHC nurses in the Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Methods A descriptive research design, namely a cross-sectional survey, was used in this study. Data were collected using Brooks’ survey of quality of nursing work life and demographic questions. A convenience sample was recruited from 134 PHC centres in Jazan, Saudi Arabia. The Jazan region is located in the southern part of Saudi Arabia. A response rate of 91% (n = 532/585) was achieved (effective response rate = 87%, n = 508). Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics, t-test and one way-analysis of variance. Total scores and subscores for QWL items and item summary statistics were computed and reported using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Findings suggested that the respondents were dissatisfied with their work life. The major influencing factors were unsuitable working hours, lack of facilities for nurses, inability to balance work with family needs, inadequacy of vacations time for nurses and their families, poor staffing, management and supervision practices, lack of professional development opportunities, and an inappropriate working environment in terms of the level of security, patient care supplies and equipment, and recreation facilities (break-area). Other essential factors include the community’s view of nursing and an inadequate salary. More positively, the majority of nurses were satisfied with their co-workers, satisfied to be nurses and had a sense of belonging in their workplaces

  16. Cross sections at hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Paige, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted cross sections are given for new Z'/sup 0/ bosons, for the Drell-Yan continuum of ..mu../sup +/..mu../sup -/ pairs, for high p/sub T/ hadron jets, for high p/sub T/ single photons, and for the associated production of heavy quarks. These processes have been selected not to cover the most interesting physics, but to provide a representative selection of cross sections for which to compare various energies and luminosities.

  17. The association between prevalent neck pain and health-related quality of life: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Côté, Pierre; Cassidy, J. David; Carroll, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between grades of neck pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), using a population-based, cross-sectional mailed survey. The literature suggests that physical and mental HRQoL is worse for individuals with neck pain compared to those without neck pain. However, the strength of the association varies across studies. Discrepancies in study results may be attributed to the use of different definitions and measures of neck pain and differences in the selection of covariates used as control variables in the analyses. The Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey was mailed to 2,184 randomly selected Saskatchewan adults of whom 1,131 returned the questionnaire. Neck pain was measured with the Chronic Pain Questionnaire and categorized into four increasing grades of severity. We measured HRQoL with the SF-36 Health Survey and computed the physical and mental component summary scores. We built separate multiple linear regression models to examine the association between grades of neck pain and physical and mental summary scores while controlling for sociodemographic, general health and comorbidity covariates. Our crude analysis suggests that a gradient exists between the severity of neck pain and HRQoL. Compared to individuals without neck pain, those with Grades III–IV neck pain have significantly lower physical (mean difference = −13.9/100; 95% CI = −16.4, −11.3) and mental (mean difference = −10.8/100; 95% CI = −13.6, −8.1) HRQoL. Controlling for covariates greatly reduced the strength of association between neck pain and physical HRQoL and accounted for the observed association between neck pain and mental HRQoL. In the comorbidity model, the strength of association between Grades III–IV neck pain and PCS decreased by more than 50% (mean difference = −4.5/100; 95% CI = −6.9, −2.0). In the final PCS model, Grades III–IV neck pain coefficients changed only slightly

  18. 242Amm fission cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browne, J. C.; White, R. M.; Howe, R. E.; Landrum, J. H.; Dougan, R. J.; Dupzyk, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 242Amm has been measured over the energy region from 10-3 eV to ~20 MeV in a series of experiments utilizing a linac-produced "white" neutron source and a monoenergetic source of 14.1 MeV neutrons. The cross section was measured relative to that of 235U in the thermal (0.001 to ~3 eV) and high energy (1 keV to ~20 MeV) regions and normalized to the ENDF/B-V 235U(n,f) evaluated cross section. In the resonance energy region (0.5 eV to 10 keV) the neutron flux was measured using thin lithium glass scintillators and the relative cross section thus obtained was normalized to the thermal energy measurement. This procedure allowed a consistency check between the thermal and high energy data. The cross section data have a statistical accuracy of ~0.5% at thermal energies and in the 1-MeV energy region, and a systematic uncertainty of ~5%. We confirmed that 242Amm has the largest thermal fission cross section known with a 2200 m/sec value of 6328 b. Results of a Breit-Wigner sum-of-single-levels analysis of 48 fission resonances up to 20 eV are presented and the connection of these resonance properties to the large thermal cross section is discussed. Our measurements are compared with previously reported results.

  19. Accurate Cross Sections for Microanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Rez, Peter

    2002-01-01

    To calculate the intensity of x-ray emission in electron beam microanalysis requires a knowledge of the energy distribution of the electrons in the solid, the energy variation of the ionization cross section of the relevant subshell, the fraction of ionizations events producing x rays of interest and the absorption coefficient of the x rays on the path to the detector. The theoretical predictions and experimental data available for ionization cross sections are limited mainly to K shells of a few elements. Results of systematic plane wave Born approximation calculations with exchange for K, L, and M shell ionization cross sections over the range of electron energies used in microanalysis are presented. Comparisons are made with experimental measurement for selected K shells and it is shown that the plane wave theory is not appropriate for overvoltages less than 2.5 V. PMID:27446747

  20. Neutrino cross-sections: Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez, F.

    2015-07-15

    Neutrino-nucleus cross-sections are as of today the main source of systematic errors for oscillation experiments together with neutrino flux uncertainties. Despite recent experimental and theoretical developments, future experiments require even higher precisions in their search of CP violation. We will review the experimental status and explore possible future developments required by next generation of experiments.

  1. Path forward for dosimetry cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Peters, C.D.

    2011-07-01

    In the 1980's the dosimetry community embraced the need for a high fidelity quantification of uncertainty in nuclear data used for dosimetry applications. This led to the adoption of energy-dependent covariance matrices as the accepted manner of quantifying the uncertainty data. The trend for the dosimetry community to require high fidelity treatment of uncertainty estimates has continued to the current time where requirements on nuclear data are codified in standards such as ASTM E 1018. This paper surveys the current state of the dosimetry cross sections and investigates the quality of the current dosimetry cross section evaluations by examining calculated-to-experimental ratios in neutron benchmark fields. In recent years more nuclear-related technical areas are placing an emphasis on uncertainty quantification. With the availability of model-based cross sections and covariance matrices produced by nuclear data codes, some nuclear-related communities are considering the role these covariance matrices should play. While funding within the dosimetry community for cross section evaluations has been very meager, other areas, such as the solar-related astrophysics community and the US Nuclear Criticality Safety Program, have been supporting research in the area of neutron cross sections. The Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the ENDF/B library which has been the mainstay for the reactor dosimetry community. Given the new trends in cross section evaluations, this paper explores the path forward for the US nuclear reactor dosimetry community and its use of the ENDF/B cross-sections. The major concern is maintenance of the sufficiency and accuracy of the uncertainty estimate when used for dosimetry applications. The two major areas of deficiency in the proposed ENDF/B approach are: 1) the use of unrelated covariance matrices in ENDF/B evaluations and 2) the lack of 'due consideration' of experimental data

  2. Absolute np and pp cross section determinations aimed at improving the standard for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, Alexander B; Haight, Robert C; Tovesson, Fredrik; Arndt, Richard A; Briscoe, William J; Paris, Mark W; Strakovsky, Igor I; Workman, Ron L

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1000 MeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PW As) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-V11.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  3. Absolute np and pp Cross Section Determinations Aimed At Improving The Standard For Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laptev, A. B.; Haight, R. C.; Tovesson, F.; Arndt, R. A.; Briscoe, W. J.; Paris, M. W.; Strakovsky, I. I.; Workman, R. L.

    2011-06-01

    Purpose of present research is a keeping improvement of the standard for cross section measurements of neutron-induced reactions. The cross sections for np and pp scattering below 1 GeV are determined based on partial-wave analyses (PWAs) of nucleon-nucleon scattering data. These cross sections are compared with the most recent ENDF/B-VII.0 and JENDL-4.0 data files, and the Nijmegen PWA. Also a comparison of evaluated data with recent experimental data was made to check a quality of evaluation. Excellent agreement was found between the new experimental data and our PWA predictions.

  4. Recommended Dosimetry Cross Section Compendium.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1994-07-11

    Version 00 The data is recommended for spectrum determination applications and for the prediction of neutron activation of typical radiation sensor materials. The library has been tested for consistency of the cross sections in a wide variety of neutron environments. The results and cautions from this testing have been documented. The data has been interfaced with radiation transport codes, such as TWODANT-SYS (CCC-547) and MCNP (CCC-200), in order to compare calculated and measured activities formore » benchmark reactor experiments.« less

  5. (Fast neutron cross section measurements)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    In the 14 MeV Neutron Laboratory, we have continued the development of a facility that is now the only one of its kind in operation in the United States. We have refined the klystron bunching system described in last year's report to the point that 1.2 nanosecond pulses have been directly measured. We have tested the pulse shape discrimination capability of our primary NE 213 neutron detector. We have converted the RF sweeper section of the beamline to a frequency of 1 MHz to replace the function of the high voltage pulser described in last year's report which proved to be difficult to maintain and unreliable in its operation. We have also overcome several other significant experimental difficulties, including a major problem with a vacuum leak in the main accelerator column. We have completed additional testing to prove the remainder of the generation and measurement systems, but overcoming some of these experimental difficulties has delayed the start of actual data taking. We are now in a position to begin our first series of ring geometry elastic scattering measurements, and these will be underway before the end of the current contract year. As part of our longer term planning, we are continuing the conceptual analysis of several schemes to improve the intensity of our current pulsed beam. These include the provision of a duoplasmatron ion source and/or the provision of preacceleration bunching. Additional details are given later in this report. A series of measurements were carried out at the Tandem Dynamatron Facility involving the irradiation of a series of yttrium foils and the determination of activation cross sections using absolute counting techniques. The experimental work has been completed, and final analysis of the cross section data will be completed within several months.

  6. Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 107 Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database (Web, free access)   This is a database primarily of total ionization cross sections of molecules by electron impact. The database also includes cross sections for a small number of atoms and energy distributions of ejected electrons for H, He, and H2. The cross sections were calculated using the Binary-Encounter-Bethe (BEB) model, which combines the Mott cross section with the high-incident energy behavior of the Bethe cross section. Selected experimental data are included.

  7. A multi-center, cross-sectional study on quality of life in cutaneous lupus erythematosus patients

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, R.; Wang, D.; Tran, Q.P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Chren, M.-M.; Costner, M.I.; Cohen, J.B.; Werth, V.P.; Chong, B.F.

    2012-01-01

    Background A study at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn) Medical Center demonstrated that quality of life in cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) patients is negatively impacted. Whether CLE patients in other geographic locations have similar quality of life is unknown. Objective We sought to compare quality of life indicators between CLE patients at the University of Texas Southwestern (UTSW) Medical Center at Dallas and UPenn. Methods 248 CLE patients at UTSW (N=91) and UPenn (N=157) completed the Skindex-29+3 and Short Form-36 (SF-36) surveys related to quality of life. Additional information including demographics, presence of SLE, and disease severity were collected from UTSW CLE patients. Results Most Skindex-29+3 and SF-36 sub-domain scores between UTSW and UPenn CLE patients were similar. However, UTSW CLE patients were significantly more affected in the functioning and lupus-specific Skindex-29+3 domains, and physical functioning, role-physical, and general health SF-36 subscales than UPenn CLE patients (p<0.05). Factors related to poor quality of life in UTSW CLE patients include gender, income, education, presence of SLE, and skin disease activity. Conclusions Most quality of life indicators were similar between the two CLE populations. Differences in psychosocial behavior, and a larger proportion of SLE patients and females in the UTSW group likely attributed to differences in a minority of Skindex-29+3 and SF-36 sub-domains. Capturing data from CLE populations in different locations provides a more thorough picture of the quality of life that CLE patients experience on a daily basis with special attention to quality of life issues in select CLE patients. PMID:22708924

  8. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  9. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  10. Environmental exposure to arsenic may reduce human semen quality: associations derived from a Chinese cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent observations in in vitro and in vivo models suggest that arsenic (As) is an endocrine disruptor at environmentally-relevant levels. When exposed to As, male rats and mice show steroidogenic dysfunction that can lead to infertility. However, the possible effects of As on human male semen quality remain obscure. Methods We monitored the profile of As species in the urine of a reproductive-age human cohort and assessed its association with semen quality. Men (n = 96) were recruited in an infertility clinic from July 2009 to August 2010 in the Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Institute for Population and Family Planning. Five urinary As species were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Clinical information on the semen volume, sperm concentration and motility was employed to catalogue and evaluate semen quality according to WHO guidelines. As species concentrations in addition to other continuous variables were dichotomized by the medians and modelled as categorical variables in order to explore using the binary logistic regression possible associations between As exposure and semen quality. Results Urinary concentrations (geometric mean ± SD, μg g-1 creatinine) of different As species were 7.49 (±24.8) for AsB, 20.9 (±13.7) for DMA, 2.77 (±3.33) for MMA, and 4.03 (±3.67) for Asi (AsiIII and AsiV). DMA concentrations above the median were significantly associated with below-reference sperm concentrations (P =0.02) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), abstinence, smoking and drinking habits. In addition, smoking was positively associated with MMA. Conclusion Reduced parameters in human semen quality are positively associated with As exposure in a reproductive-age Chinese cohort. PMID:22776062

  11. Photoproduction total cross section and shower development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornet, F.; García Canal, C. A.; Grau, A.; Pancheri, G.; Sciutto, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The total photoproduction cross section at ultrahigh energies is obtained using a model based on QCD minijets and soft-gluon resummation and the ansatz that infrared gluons limit the rise of total cross sections. This cross section is introduced into the Monte Carlo system AIRES to simulate extended air showers initiated by cosmic ray photons. The impact of the new photoproduction cross section on common shower observables, especially those related to muon production, is compared with previous results.

  12. Joint effects of trihalomethanes and trichloroacetic acid on semen quality: A population-based cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Zhou, Bin; He, Dong-Liang; Wang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Mu; Yang, Pan; Huang, Zhen; Li, Jin; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) has been individually associated with adverse male reproductive effects; however, their joint male reproductive toxicity is largely unknown. This study aimed to explore the joint effects of THMs and trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) on semen quality in a Chinese population. A total of 337 men presenting to the Reproductive Center of Tongjing Hospital, in Wuhan, China to seek semen analysis were included this study. Baseline blood THMs [chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)] and urinary TCAA were analyzed and dichotomized at their median levels. The joint effects of THMs and TCAA on below-reference semen quality parameters were evaluated by calculating the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI). After adjusting for potential confounders, we found a suggestive synergistic effect between Br-THMs (sum of BDCM, DBCM, and TBM) and TCAA for below-reference sperm count (RERI = 2.14, 95% CI: -0.37, 4.91) (P = 0.076); men with high Br-THMs and TCAA levels (above the median) had 3.31 times (95% CI: 1.21, 9.07) elevated risk of having below-reference sperm count than men with low Br-THMs and TCAA levels (below the median). No apparent joint effects were observed between THMs and TCAA for other semen quality parameters. Our results suggest that co-exposure to Br-THMs and TCAA is associated with additive effects on decreased semen quality. However, further studies in a larger sample size and mechanistic studies are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:26975004

  13. A cross-sectional analysis of quality of life in Japanese acne patients using the Japanese version of Skindex-16.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Nobukazu; Higaki, Yuko; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Shimizu, Satoru; Kawashima, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    We measured the quality of life of Japanese patients with acne using the Japanese version of Skindex-16, a semantically equivalent and validated translation of the original version produced by Chren et al. A total of 210 acne patients were enrolled in this study. The results showed that patients with acne experienced more severe emotional effects from their skin disease than functional or symptomatic effects. The scores for emotional aspects were related to the severity of the patients' acne following a prescribed scale, but the scores were high even when the patients only had a few comedones. Akaike's information criterion showed that the scores for symptoms were related to the severity of the patients' acne, and the patients' emotions were related to the interval between clinic visits. To improve patients' quality of life, treatment of comedones should be fully respected. In addition, dermatologists should encourage patients to visit clinics regularly to help them improve the emotional aspects of their quality of life. PMID:15801260

  14. Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No. 1 Hold section at Fr 24 Looking Fwd, No 1 Hold Section at Fr 28 Looking Aft, No 2 Hold Section at Fr 48 Looking Aft, No 3 Hold Section at Fr 70 Looking Aft, No 4 Hold Section at Fr 90 Looking Aft - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  15. Anxiety is associated with diminished exercise performance and quality of life in severe emphysema: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Anxiety in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with self-reported disability. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there is an association between anxiety and functional measures, quality of life and dyspnea. Methods Data from 1828 patients with moderate to severe emphysema enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT), collected prior to rehabilitation and randomization, were used in linear regression models to test the association between anxiety symptoms, measured by the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and: (a) six-minute walk distance test (6 MWD), (b) cycle ergometry peak workload, (c) St. Georges Respiratory Questionnaire (SRGQ), and (d) UCSD Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (SOBQ), after controlling for potential confounders including age, gender, FEV1 (% predicted), DLCO (% predicted), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Anxiety was significantly associated with worse functional capacity [6 MWD (B = -0.944, p < .001), ergometry peak workload (B = -.087, p = .04)], quality of life (B = .172, p < .001) and shortness of breath (B = .180, p < .001). Regression coefficients show that a 10 point increase in anxiety score is associated with a mean decrease in 6 MWD of 9 meters, a 1 Watt decrease in peak exercise workload, and an increase of almost 2 points on both the SGRQ and SOBQ. Conclusion In clinically stable patients with moderate to severe emphysema, anxiety is associated with worse exercise performance, quality of life and shortness of breath, after accounting for the influence of demographic and physiologic factors known to affect these outcomes. Trail Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000606 PMID:20214820

  16. Assessment of Oral Conditions and Quality of Life in Morbid Obese and Normal Weight Individuals: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    de Freitas, Adriana Rodrigues; Sales-Peres, Arsênio; Ceneviva, Reginaldo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the impact of oral disease on the quality of life of morbid obese and normal weight individuals. Cohort was composed of 100 morbid-obese and 50 normal-weight subjects. Dental caries, community periodontal index, gingival bleeding on probing (BOP), calculus, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, dental wear, stimulated salivary flow, and salivary pH were used to evaluate oral diseases. Socioeconomic and the oral impacts on daily performances (OIDP) questionnaires showed the quality of life in both groups. Unpaired Student, Fisher’s Exact, Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, and Multiple Regression tests were used (p<0.05). Obese showed lower socio-economic level than control group, but no differences were found considering OIDP. No significant differences were observed between groups considering the number of absent teeth, bruxism, difficult mastication, calculus, initial caries lesion, and caries. However, saliva flow was low, and the salivary pH was changed in the obese group. Enamel wear was lower and dentine wear was higher in obese. More BOP, insertion loss, and periodontal pocket, especially the deeper ones, were found in obese subjects. The regression model showed gender, smoking, salivary pH, socio-economic level, periodontal pocket, and periodontal insertion loss significantly associated to obesity. However, both OIDP and BOP did not show significant contribution to the model. The quality of life of morbid obese was more negatively influenced by oral disease and socio-economic factors than in normal weight subjects. PMID:26177268

  17. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D. E.

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text format that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).

  18. Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-11-01

    Version 00 The Electron Photon Interaction Cross Sections, EPICS, provides the atomic data needed to perform coupled Electron-Photon transport calculations, to produce accurate macroscopic results, such as energy deposit and dose. Atomic data is provided for elements, Z = 1 to 100, over the energy range 10 eV to 100 GeV; note that nuclear data, such as photo-nuclear, and data for compounds, are not included. All data is in a simple computer independent text formatmore » that is standard and presented to a high precision that can be easily read by computer codes written in any computer language, e.g., C, C++, and FORTRAN. EPICS includes four separate data bases that are designed to be used in combination, these include, • The Evaluated Electron Data Library (EEDL), to describe the interaction of electrons with matter. • The Evaluated Photon Data Library (EPDL), to describe the interaction of photons with matter. • The Evaluated Atomic Data Library (EADL), to describe the emission of electrons and photons back to neutrality following an ionizing event, caused by either electron or photon interactions. • The Evaluated Excitation Data Library (EXDL), to describe the excitation of atoms due to photon interaction. All of these are available in the Extended ENDL format (ENDLX) in which the evaluations were originally performed. The first three are also available in the ENDF format; as yet ENDF does not include formats to handle excitation data (EXDL).« less

  19. [Fast neutron cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are clean'' and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its data production'' phase.

  20. Perceived and objective diet quality in US adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Miller, Paige E; Agyemang, Priscilla; Agurs-Collins, Tanya; Reedy, Jill

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) dietary pattern has been shown to reduce cardiometabolic risk. Little is understood about the relationship between objective diet quality and perceived diet quality (PDQ), a potential psychosocial barrier to appropriate dietary intake. We compared PDQ and diet quality measured by a nutrient-based DASH index score in the USA. Design Cross-sectional study. Participants in the 2005–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) rated diet quality on a 5-point Likert scale and PDQ scores were generated (low, medium, high). A single 24 h dietary recall was used to estimate DASH index scores (range 0–9 points) by assigning 0, 0·5 or 1 point (optimal) for nine target nutrients: total fat, saturated fat, protein, cholesterol, fibre, Ca, Mg, K and Na. Setting Nationally representative sample of the US population. Subjects Adults aged ≥19 years in 2005–2006 NHANES (n 4419). Results Participants with high PDQ (33%) had higher DASH index scores (mean 3·0 (sd 0·07)) than those with low PDQ (mean 2·5 (sd 0·06), P < 0·001), but average scores did not align with targets for intermediate or optimal DASH accordance. Adults with high PDQ reported higher total fat, saturated fat and Na intakes compared with optimal DASH nutrient goals. Differences between those with high υ. low PDQ were similar for Whites and Blacks, but there was no difference between PDQ groups for Mexican Americans. Conclusions Among Whites and Blacks, but not Mexican Americans, high PDQ may be associated with higher diet quality, but not necessarily a diet meeting DASH nutrient goals. This disconnect between PDQ and actual diet quality may serve as a target in obesity prevention. PMID:24636343

  1. Effort-reward imbalance and quality of life of healthcare workers in military hospitals: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Taiwan’s National Defense Bureau has been merging its hospitals and adjusting hospital accreditation levels since the beginning of 2006. These changes have introduced many stressors to the healthcare workers in these hospitals. This study investigates the association between job stress, psychological morbidity and quality of life in healthcare workers in three military hospitals. Methods We posted surveys to 1269 healthcare workers in three military hospitals located in southern Taiwan. The surveys included the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), the World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF), and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire. High effort-reward (ER) ratio and overcommitment were defined when scores fell into the upper tertile of the total distribution. Results The survey was completed by 791 healthcare workers. On average, women reported a higher ERI than men. High ERI was associated with younger age, higher psychological morbidity, and poor physical and psychological QOL domains in this population. High ER ratio and high overcommitment were associated with psychological morbidity and poor QOL in both sexes. However, high ER ratio was not significantly associated with the social QOL domain in either sexes or the physical QOL domain in males. Conclusions There was a clear association between ERI and QOL in the healthcare workers in the military hospitals under reorganization and accreditation in this study. We found ER ratio and overcommitment to be suitable indicators of job stress. PMID:22958365

  2. Recent fission cross section standards measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wasson, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    The /sup 235/U(n,f) reaction is the standard by which most neutron induced fission cross sections are determined. Most of these cross sections are derived from relatively easy ratio measurements to /sup 235/U. However, the more difficult /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section measurements require the use of advanced neutron detectors for the determination of the incident neutron fluence. Examples of recent standard cross section measurements are discussed, various neutron detectors are described, and the status of the /sup 235/U(n,f) cross section standard is assessed. 23 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. SNL RML recommended dosimetry cross section compendium

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, P.J.; Kelly, J.G.; Luera, T.F.; VanDenburg, J.

    1993-11-01

    A compendium of dosimetry cross sections is presented for use in the characterization of fission reactor spectrum and fluence. The contents of this cross section library are based upon the ENDF/B-VI and IRDF-90 cross section libraries and are recommended as a replacement for the DOSCROS84 multigroup library that is widely used by the dosimetry community. Documentation is provided on the rationale for the choice of the cross sections selected for inclusion in this library and on the uncertainty and variation in cross sections presented by state-of-the-art evaluations.

  4. Nutritional status and body composition in patients with peripheral arterial disease: A cross-sectional examination of disease severity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Brostow, Diana P; Hirsch, Alan T; Pereira, Mark A; Bliss, Robin L; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional and body weight recommendations for cardiovascular diseases are well established, yet there are no equivalent guidelines for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This cross-sectional study measured the prevalence of cardiovascular-related nutritional and body composition risk factors in sixty PAD patients and their association with PAD severity. A diet that exceeds daily recommended intake of fat and that falls short of recommended intakes of fiber, folate, and vitamin D was associated with increased leg pain and walking difficulty. Increased body fat and waist circumference were associated with diminished walking ability and poorer psychosocial quality of life. Future prospective investigations are merited to inform both PAD clinical care and disease management guidelines. PMID:26654593

  5. Takeaway food consumption and its associations with diet quality and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kylie J; McNaughton, Sarah A; Gall, Seana L; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2009-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the associations of takeaway food consumption with overall diet quality and abdominal obesity. Young adults are high consumers of takeaway food so we aimed to examine these associations in a national study of young Australian adults. Methods A national sample of 1,277 men and 1,585 women aged 26–36 completed a self-administered questionnaire on demographic and lifestyle factors, a 127 item food frequency questionnaire, usual daily frequency of fruit and vegetable consumption and usual weekly frequency of takeaway food consumption. Dietary intake was compared with the dietary recommendations from the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating. Waist circumference was measured for 1,065 men and 1,129 women. Moderate abdominal obesity was defined as ≥ 94 cm for men and ≥ 80 cm for women. Prevalence ratios (PR) were calculated using log binomial regression. Takeaway food consumption was dichotomised, with once a week or less as the reference group. Results Consumption of takeaway food twice a week or more was reported by more men (37.9%) than women (17.7%, P < 0.001). Compared with those eating takeaway once a week or less, men eating takeaway twice a week or more were significantly more likely to be single, younger, current smokers and spend more time watching TV and sitting, whereas women were more likely to be in the workforce and spend more time watching TV and sitting. Participants eating takeaway food at least twice a week were less likely (P < 0.05) to meet the dietary recommendation for vegetables, fruit, dairy, extra foods, breads and cereals (men only), lean meat and alternatives (women only) and overall met significantly fewer dietary recommendations (P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounding variables (age, leisure time physical activity, TV viewing and employment status), consuming takeaway food twice a week or more was associated with a 31% higher prevalence of moderate abdominal obesity in men (PR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1

  6. Hypertension Impact on Health-Related Quality of Life: A Cross-Sectional Survey among Middle-Aged Adults in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingli

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor of cardiovascular disease in China, and yet little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its associations with demographic and social-economic characteristics in middle-aged patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Chongqing, China, using a multistage stratified random sampling methodology. Data was collected on 1,224 eligible adults, aged between 45 and 53 years, including the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 to measure HRQOL. Hypertension was associated with poor state of physical functioning, role-physical, bodily pain, general health, vitality, and social function (p < 0.05 for all). In multivariable analyses, education level, job conditions, average monthly income, smoking status, sleep quality, perception of relationship with family, childhood breastfeeding history, and body mass index were associated with domains of SF36 among those with hypertension (p < 0.05 for all). Hypertensive respondents with high education, marital status, breastfeeding, higher incomes, good quality of sleep, positive relationship with family, and higher body mass index have better HRQOL in middle-aged people with hypertension. Those unemployed had a better state of general health and had a poorer state of social function. Nonsmokers had a poorer state of bodily pain than smokers. This study provides detailed information of the implications for health care providers to gain a more complete picture of their hypertension patients' health.

  7. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total). No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42). Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women. PMID:26446326

  8. How do women with chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis rate quality and coordination of healthcare services? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Anne Helen; Lian, Olaug S

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the association between self-rated health and self-rated degree of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), and CFS/ME patients' assessment of quality of primary care, specialist care and coordination of care. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Self-reported questionnaire data from women members of The Norwegian ME Association obtained in 2013. Participants 431 women with CFS/ME aged 16–73 years. Main outcome measure The participants' assessment of quality in primary care, specialist care and in coordination of care (good/very good or poor/very poor). Main explanatory variables: self-rated health and self-rated degree of CFS/ME. Results Quality of care was rated poor by 60.6% in primary care, by 47.7% in specialist care, and by 71.2% regarding coordination of care. Poorer self-rated health increased the probability of rating quality in primary care poor, particularly among women 40 years and over (OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.63 to 3.49), women with university education (OR 2.57, CI 1.68 to 3.94), and owing to less frequent general practitioner (GP) visits (OR 2.46, CI 1.60 to 3.78). Poorer self-rated health increased the probability of rating quality poor in specialist care (OR 1.38, CI 1.05 to 1.82), but not in coordination of care. A more severe CFS/ME was associated with a higher probability of rating quality in primary care poor (OR 0.61, CI 0.38 to 0.93). Frequent visitors and those with a long GP relationship were less likely to report primary care quality as poor. Conclusions A large proportion of women with CFS/ME rated quality of care poor/very poor in primary care, specialist care and in coordination of care. The dissatisfaction was higher for primary care than for specialist care. Overall, poorer self-rated health and a more severe CFS/ME were associated with lower quality scores in primary and specialist care, but not in coordination of care. Healthcare services, as assessed by women with CFS/ME, do have a large

  9. Stress and health related quality of life of Nepalese students studying in South Korea: A cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing trend among students to travel for educational purposes to other countries where there is the possibility of experiencing considerable amounts of stress affecting their physical and mental functioning. The aims of the current study were to investigate the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of Nepalese students studying in South Korea to explore the relationship between HRQOL and perceived and acculturative stress, and to identify the determinants of HRQOL. Methods One hundred and thirty students were enrolled in this study. HRQOL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Forms (SF-12) questionnaire. Perceived stress and acculturative stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale and Acculturative Stress Scale for international students, respectively. Pearson's correlation test and multiple regression analysis were performed. Results Perceived stress and acculturative stress were negatively correlated with HRQOL. The highest value in the HRQOL was reported for the vitality subscale and the lowest value was reported for the role-emotional. In the regression model, perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status accounted for a significant (p < .001) portion of the variance (49%) in the mental component summary of the HRQOL. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that Nepalese students studying in South Korea experience a considerable amount of perceived and acculturative stress, which is negatively related with their HRQOL. Provision of culture specific counseling and orientation programs may benefit the students. The determinants of HRQOL identified in this study were perceived stress, acculturative stress, relationship with advisor, and marital status. PMID:22410138

  10. Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cross Sections: No 6 Hold Section at Fr 178 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at No 154 Looking Fwd, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 195 Looking Fwd Showing Trans 194, No 7 Hold Section at Fr 198 Looking Fwd - General John Pope, Suisun Bay Reserve Fleet, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  11. Measurement of the impact of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life: a cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire study using the Japanese version of Skindex-16.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Yuko; Kawamoto, Kyoko; Kamo, Toshiko; Ueda, Shu; Arikawa, Junko; Kawashima, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    The impact of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life was measured using the Japanese version of Skindex-16 in a cross-sectional and longitudinal questionnaire study. One hundred sixty-two adult patients completed Skindex-16 and were followed-up with a standard medical therapy. Three to six months after the initial testing, 135 (83.3%) of the patients again completed Skindex-16 and also answered a general question about whether their skin condition had improved, remained the same, or become worse. The scores of Skindex-16 of 162 patients with atopic dermatitis were significantly higher than those of patients with isolated lesions, particularly in the Symptoms and Emotions scales. Patients with severe atopic dermatitis showed significantly higher scores in the three scales (Symptoms, Emotions, and Functioning), and there was a significant positive correlation between the severity and the 3-scale scores. After the follow-up period, 78 of 135 patients (57.8%) reported that their skin condition had improved. Forty-six patients (34.1%) reported that their skin condition had remained the same, and 11 (8.1%) became worse. Among the patients who said their dermatitis had improved, the scores of Skindex-16 significantly decreased. On the other hand, patients who reported their dermatitis worse showed an increase in the scores. These findings suggest that Skindex-16 responsively measures the disease severity and clinical change in the estimation of the effects of atopic dermatitis on patients' quality of life. This practical and sensitive, skin-disease specific, quality-of-life instrument is valuable for assessing patients' outcomes, especially their response to therapy, and is useful to understanding and improving the quality of life of patients suffering with atopic dermatitis. PMID:15801261

  12. Depression influences the quality of diabetes-related self-management activities in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Mut-Vitcu, Gabriela; Timar, Bogdan; Timar, Romulus; Oancea, Cristian; Citu, Ioan Cosmin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of depression and its impact on the quality of diabetes-related self-care activities in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes. Patients and methods In this cross-sectional study, 184 patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled. Depression was evaluated using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 while the quality of diabetes-related self-care activities was assessed using the Summary of Diabetes-Related Self Care Activities Questionnaire. Results In our study group, 53.3% of the patients had moderate depression, 17.9% had severe depression, and 28.8% had no depression symptoms. Patient’s age (P=0.024), presence of diabetic neuropathy (P<0.001), and body mass index (P=0.037) proved to be independent and significant predictors for developing depression in patients with type 2 diabetes. The severity of depression was reverse correlated with the quality of self-care activities for all the studied components: global score (r=−0.305), diet intervention score (r=−0.297), exercise score (r=−0.388), glycemic monitoring score (r=−0.055), and feet care score (r=−0.180). The presence of severe depression was associated with an increased prevalence of diabetes complications such as diabetic neuropathy and chronic kidney disease. Conclusion The prevalence of depression is higher in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to general population. Depression has a major negative impact on the quality of diabetes-related self-care activities and, being a treatable condition, proactive screening followed in case of a positive diagnosis by adequate treatment should be performed in all patients with diabetes. PMID:27217731

  13. Vertically stabilized elongated cross-section tokamak

    DOEpatents

    Sheffield, George V.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a vertically stabilized, non-circular (minor) cross-section, toroidal plasma column characterized by an external separatrix. To this end, a specific poloidal coil means is added outside a toroidal plasma column containing an endless plasma current in a tokamak to produce a rectangular cross-section plasma column along the equilibrium axis of the plasma column. By elongating the spacing between the poloidal coil means the plasma cross-section is vertically elongated, while maintaining vertical stability, efficiently to increase the poloidal flux in linear proportion to the plasma cross-section height to achieve a much greater plasma volume than could be achieved with the heretofore known round cross-section plasma columns. Also, vertical stability is enhanced over an elliptical cross-section plasma column, and poloidal magnetic divertors are achieved.

  14. Health-related quality of life of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients: Results from a community based cross-sectional study in Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Malik Shanawaz; Neyaz, Arslan; Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. It is an incurable disease with improvement in quality of life (QOL) as a major focus area for management. This study assesses the QOL of COPD patients and the factors affecting it. Materials and Methods: All 124 patients diagnosed with COPD in a larger cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of COPD were assessed for their QOL using St. George's respiratory questionnaire for COPD patients (SGRQ-C). Spirometry was performed to assess lung function and diagnose COPD. Chronic lung disease (CLD) severity index was used to assess the severity of symptoms and the Medical Research Council questionnaire was used to assess the severity of dyspnea. Sociodemographic data regarding the patients were also recorded. Results: Patients with COPD showed significantly reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL). CLD estimate for severity of lung disease and the Medical Research Council assessment for dyspnea and the duration of illness showed a highly significant positive correlation with HRQOL. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between lung function and SGRQ-C score. Increasing age, increased quantum of smoking, and lower socioeconomic status were correlated with poorer HRQOL. No association between QOL and education, body mass index (BMI), and gender was observed. Conclusion: This study showed that Indian patients with COPD had reduced HRQOL. Poor lung function, increased disease duration and smoking, and worsening symptoms impacted HRQOL negatively. PMID:27051101

  15. Which tinnitus-related characteristics affect current health-related quality of life and depression? A cross-sectional cohort study.

    PubMed

    Weidt, Steffi; Delsignore, Aba; Meyer, Martin; Rufer, Michael; Peter, Nicole; Drabe, Natalie; Kleinjung, Tobias

    2016-03-30

    Tinnitus is sometimes associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depressive symptoms. However, only limited evidence exists identifying which tinnitus characteristics are responsible for these associations. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess associations between tinnitus, HRQoL, depressive symptoms, subjective tinnitus loudness and audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics (e.g., hearing threshold). Two hundred and eight outpatients reporting tinnitus completed questionnaires on tinnitus (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, THI), HRQoL (World-Health-Organisation Quality of Life Short Form Survey, WHOQOL-BREF), and depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, BDI), and underwent audiometry. Patients with higher THI scores exhibited significantly lower HRQoL, and higher depression scores. THI total-score, THI subscales, and subjective tinnitus loudness explained significant variance of WHOQOL-BREF and BDI. Audiometrically measured features were not associated with WHOQOL-BREF or BDI. Overall, we confirmed findings that different features of tinnitus are associated with HRQoL and depressive symptoms but not with audiometrically assessed tinnitus characteristics. Consequently, physicians should evaluate THI total score, its sub-scores, and subjective tinnitus loudness to reliably and quickly identify patients who potentially suffer from depressive symptoms or significantly lower HRQoL. Supporting these patients early might help to prevent the development of reactive depressive symptoms and impairment of HRQoL. PMID:26850646

  16. Associations between disease severity, coping and dimensions of health-related quality of life in patients admitted for elective coronary angiography – a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ulvik, Bjørg; Nygård, Ottar; Hanestad, Berit R; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Wahl, Astrid K

    2008-01-01

    Background In patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD), the overall aim was to analyse the relationships between disease severity and both mental and physical dimensions of health related quality of life (HRQOL) using a modified version of the Wilson and Cleary model. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, 753 patients (74% men), mean age 62 years, referred for elective cardiac catheterisation were included. The measures included 1) physiological factors 2) symptoms (disease severity, self-reported symptoms, anxiety and depression 3) self-reported functional status, 4) coping, 5) perceived disease burden, 6) general health perception and 7) overall quality of life. To analyse relationships, we performed linear and ordinal logistic regressions. Results CAD and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were significantly associated with symptoms of angina pectoris and dyspnea. CAD was not related to symptoms of anxiety and depression, but less depression was found in patients with low LVEF. Angina pectoris and dyspnea were both associated with impaired physical function, and dyspnea was also negatively related to social function. Overall, less perceived burden and better overall QOL were observed in patients using more confronting coping strategy. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that data from cardiac patients to a large extent support the suggested model by Wilson and Cleary. PMID:18510727

  17. Associations between factors affecting access to care and health-related quality of life: results of a statewide HIV/AIDS cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Krause, Denise D; Butler, Kenneth R; May, Warren L

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between access to care and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Mississippi by administering a statewide survey. A random probability sample of PLWHA was derived from the Mississippi State Department of Health's communicable disease tracking system. Interviews were conducted with 220 PLWHA to collect data on access to care, demographic and social characteristics, and HRQOL. Overall, most participants had access to care and reasonable HRQOL. Multivariate and univariate analyses were performed to measure associations between access to care and HRQOL. Univariate analyses showed that age, income, social networks, severity of disease, having been prescribed medications, and having experienced problems accessing care to be significantly associated with HRQOL scales. Multivariate analysis of variance models further demonstrated low-income level, having experienced problems accessing care, and having been prescribed antiretroviral medications to be significantly associated with HRQOL. Reducing barriers is a major factor in improving quality of life. This study provides needed insight into the relationship between access to care and HRQOL among PLWHA in Mississippi, which could be valuable to public health planners to help them better understand how to make the greatest impact on HRQOL. PMID:22612404

  18. Annular-Cross-Section CFE Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharnez, Rizwan; Sammons, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Proposed continuous-flow-electrophoresis (CFE) chamber of annular cross section offers advantages over conventional CFE chamber, and wedge-cross-section chamber described in "Increasing Sensitivity in Continuous-Flow Electrophoresis" (MFS-26176). In comparison with wedge-shaped chamber, chamber of annular cross section virtually eliminates such wall effects as electro-osmosis and transverse gradients of velocity. Sensitivity enhanced by incorporating gradient maker and radial (collateral) flow.

  19. Cross Sections for Electron Collisions with Methane

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Mi-Young Yoon, Jung-Sik; Cho, Hyuck; Itikawa, Yukikazu; Karwasz, Grzegorz P.; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-06-15

    Cross section data are compiled from the literature for electron collisions with methane (CH{sub 4}) molecules. Cross sections are collected and reviewed for total scattering, elastic scattering, momentum transfer, excitations of rotational and vibrational states, dissociation, ionization, and dissociative attachment. The data derived from swarm experiments are also considered. For each of these processes, the recommended values of the cross sections are presented. The literature has been surveyed through early 2014.

  20. Theoretical antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buck, W. W.; Norbury, J. W.; Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Antideuteron-nucleus absorptive cross sections for intermediate to high energies are calculated using an ion-ion optical model. Good agreement with experiment (within 15 percent) is obtained in this same model for (bar p)-nucleus cross sections at laboratory energies up to 15 GeV. We describe a technique for estimating antinucleus-nucleus cross sections from NN data and suggest that further cosmic ray studies to search for antideuterons and other antinuclei be undertaken.

  1. A cross-sectional assessment of health-related quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    AL-Aboudi, Ibrahim Suliman; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Shafie, Asrul Akmal; Hassan, Asim; Alrasheedy, Alian A

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to describe the health-related quality of life profile among type 2 diabetes patients in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Method: A cross-sectional study was undertaken using a cohort of 75 patients attending the University Diabetic Centre at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. EuroQoL-5 dimension (EQ-5D) scale was used for the assessment of health-related quality of life. EQ-5D was scored using values derived from the UK general population survey. Inferential statistics were applied to evaluate associations between study variables. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 was used for data analysis; p <0.05 was set as the level of statistical significance. Results: Fifty-eight (77.35%) respondents were male with a mean 12.6 ± 8.4 years of history of diabetes. Thirty-four (45.3%) were categorised into the age group of 45–55 years with a mean age of 54 ± 9.2 years. Forty-four (58.7%) were using oral hypoglycaemic agents and 40 (53.3%) had a university level of education. A moderate level of health-related quality of life (0.70 ± 0.22) was measured in the study cohort. Gender was significantly associated with health-related quality of life scores (p = 0.001). The mean EQ-5D score was lower in females compared to male patients (0.58 ± 0.23 vs 0.74 ± 0.20). There were no statistically significant associations between health-related quality of life scores and age groups, duration of diabetes, marital status, educational level and type of treatment. Conclusion: This study has highlighted that Saudi diabetes patients have low levels of health-related quality of life. Healthcare professionals need to consider this when planning holistic patient treatment approaches. PMID:26770806

  2. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India.

    PubMed

    Shad, Rohan; Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman's rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p < 0.001). Of the sampled women, 65.8% were poor sleepers, as compared to 62.1% of the sampled men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average scores of the burnout dimensions were 2.43 ± 0.57 for exhaustion and 2.32 ± 0.53 for disengagement. Both exhaustion and disengagement correlated with PSQI sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p < 0.001). The PSQI scores showed a weak but significant correlation with

  3. Burnout and Sleep Quality: A Cross-Sectional Questionnaire-Based Study of Medical and Non-Medical Students in India

    PubMed Central

    Thawani, Rajat; Goel, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Introduction It is well documented that on entering college, students experience a multitude of changes in sleep habits. Very few studies have been conducted that explore sleep quality in Indian undergraduate students; fewer still study the effects of burnout in the same population. Medical students, in particular, are believed to be more stressed, sleep deprived, and burnt out than their non-medical peers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to study sleep disturbances and burnout in a sample of 214 Indian undergraduate students (112 medical, 102 non-medical). The instruments used to measure the sleep quality and burnout were the PSQI (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and OLBI (Oldenburg Burnout Inventory), respectively. Differences between continuous variables were analysed using Wilcox Mann Whitney U-tests. Bivariate Spearman’s rho correlations were done to identify correlations between the individual burnout components and the PSQI sleep quality components. Results Of the students surveyed, 62.6% were found to be poor sleepers with an average score of 6.45 ± 2.85. It was seen that 20% of the students (n = 43) slept less than five hours a day. Medical students, in particular, were found to have more poor sleep (72.9%) than their non-medical peers (51.9%; p < 0.001). Of the sampled women, 65.8% were poor sleepers, as compared to 62.1% of the sampled men, but the difference was not statistically significant. The average scores of the burnout dimensions were 2.43 ± 0.57 for exhaustion and 2.32 ± 0.53 for disengagement. Both exhaustion and disengagement correlated with PSQI sleep scores (Rho 0.21, p 0.001) and (Rho = 0.18, p = 0.008), respectively. The exhaustion dimension of burnout was higher in medical students (2.46 ± 0.55) than in non-medical students (2.38 ± 0.59), but was seen to correlate more with the PSQI sleep score in the non-medical group (Rho = 0.62, p < 0.001). The PSQI scores showed a weak but significant correlation with

  4. Oral health-related quality of life of children seeking orthodontic treatment based on child oral health impact profile: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G.; Asokan, Sharath; John, J. Baby; Geetha Priya, P. R.; Prathiba, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to assess oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) using short form (SF) of child oral health impact profile (COHIP) in children aged 11–15 years who sought orthodontic treatment. A comparison was done between these children and age-matched peers who never had or sought orthodontic treatment. Methodology: This cross-sectional study included 227 children aged 11–15 years. A total of 110 participants had sought orthodontic treatment at KSR Institute of Dental Science and Research (orthodontic group) and 117 participants from a nearby school who had never undergone or sought orthodontic treatment (comparison group). OHRQoL was assessed with the SF of the COHIP, and malocclusion severity was assessed with the index of orthodontic treatment needs. Data presentation and statistical analysis were performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Software (Version 19, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA). The Chi-square test and Fischer exact tests were used to analyze the qualitative data. Results: Children with little to borderline treatment needs have a better quality of life when compared to children with definitive treatment needs (P = 0.049). No statistically significant difference in COHIP-SF scores was found between boys and girls (P > 1.000). In the orthodontic group, children with little to borderline treatment needs were 4.8 times (P = 0.037) more likely to report better OHRQoL when compared to children with definitive treatment needs. Conclusion: Children who sought orthodontic treatment had lower quality of life scores than those who never had or never sought treatment. PMID:26321842

  5. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa Malveira; Doro, Márcio Roberto; Suzuki, Frank Shiguemitsu; Rica, Roberta Luksevicius; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Evangelista, Alexandre Lopes; Figueira Junior, Aylton José; Baker, Julien Steven; Bocalini, Danilo Sales

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional fitness was evaluated by specific tests, and the time spent in physical activity and quality of life was evaluated by the IPAQ and WHOQOL (distributed in four domains: physical: P, psychological: PS, social: S, and environmental: E) domain questionnaires. Results. No differences were found between ages of groups (C: 66 ± 7; OA: 67 ± 9; years). The values of the chair stand test (rep) in the OA (13 ± 5) group were different when compared to C group (22 ± 5). For the 6-minute walk test (meters), the values obtained for the C (635 ± 142) were higher (P < 0.01) than the OA (297 ± 143) group. The time spent in physical activity (min) was greater (P < 0.001) in the control (220 ± 12) group compared to OA (100 ± 10) group. Higher values (P < 0.001) in all domains were found in the C (P: 69 ± 16, PS: 72 ± 17, S: 67 ± 15, E: 70 ± 15) group compared to OA (P: 48 ± 7, PS: 43 ± 8, S: 53 ± 13, E: 47 ± 14) group. Conclusion. Our data suggests that knee O, in older women, can promote a decline in time spent performing physical activity and functional fitness with decline in quality of life with an increase in sitting time. PMID:26346896

  6. Neutrino flux predictions for cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Hartz, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Experiments that measure neutrino interaction cross sections using accelerator neutrino sources require a prediction of the neutrino flux to extract the interaction cross section from the measured neutrino interaction rate. This article summarizes methods of estimating the neutrino flux using in-situ and ex-situ measurements. The application of these methods by current and recent experiments is discussed.

  7. Absolute partial photoionization cross sections of ozone.

    SciTech Connect

    Berkowitz, J.; Chemistry

    2008-04-01

    Despite the current concerns about ozone, absolute partial photoionization cross sections for this molecule in the vacuum ultraviolet (valence) region have been unavailable. By eclectic re-evaluation of old/new data and plausible assumptions, such cross sections have been assembled to fill this void.

  8. Epidemiology of Diabetic Foot Ulcers and Amputations in Romania: Results of a Cross-Sectional Quality of Life Questionnaire Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Bondor, Cosmina I.; Veresiu, Ioan A.; Florea, Bogdan; Vinik, Etta J.; Vinik, Aaron I.; Gavan, Norina A.

    2016-01-01

    This is a post hoc analysis of quality of life in diabetic neuropathy patients in a cross-sectional survey performed in 2012 in Romania, using the Norfolk QOL-DN in which 21,756 patients with self-reported diabetes were enrolled. This current analysis aims to expand research on the diabetic foot and to provide an update on the number of foot ulcers found in Romania. Of the 21,174 patients included in this analysis, 14.85% reported a history of foot ulcers and 3.60% reported an amputation. The percentage of neuropathy patients with foot ulcers increased with age; the lowest percentage was observed in the 20–29-year age group (6.62%) and the highest in the 80–89-year age group (17.68%). The highest number of amputations was reported in the 70–79-year age group (largest group). Compared to patients without foot ulcers, those with foot ulcers had significantly higher scores for total DN and all its subdomains translating to worse QOL (p < 0.001). This analysis showed a high rate of foot ulcers and amputations in Romanian diabetic patients. It underscores the need for implementation of effective screening and educational programs. PMID:27019852

  9. Regeneration, health status and quality of life after rhG-CSF-stimulated stem cell collection in healthy donors: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Leitner, G C; Baumgartner, K; Kalhs, P; Biener, D; Greinix, H T; Hoecker, P; Worel, N

    2009-03-01

    Mobilized allogeneic PBPC are increasingly used instead of BM for allogeneic stem cell grafting. Although the short-term safety profile of recombinant human (rh)G-CSF seems acceptable, only minimal data on long-term safety are available. We therefore reviewed data on 171 sibling donors (M/F: 98/73) with respect to side effects of rhG-CSF and PBPC collection and impact on quality of life (QoL) and health status. In a cross-sectional study, we investigated the actual QoL and health status of the donors as well as the need for medical treatment since PBPC donation by a questionnaire that was sent to 151 donors. Ninety-five (64%) of the addressed donors responded to the questionnaire, but only 69 (46%) of them reported on their actual health status and QoL, which was good to very good in the majority of them. Two donors developed malignancies in the post-donation course. In general, PBPC collection after rhG-CSF mobilization was well tolerated by the responding donors. Although the reported events in medical history after PBPC donation do not seem to be associated with rhG-CSF administration or the collection procedure, a lifelong follow-up of donors should be obligatory. PMID:18936736

  10. Quality of life of cerebral palsy patients and their caregivers: A cross sectional study in a rehabilitation center Khartoum-Sudan (2014 – 2015)

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Fadwa M. S.; Ali, Suad M.; Mustafa, Mutaz A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is group of disorders characterized by long-term disabilities that affect the quality of life (QoL) of both patients and those caring for them. Objective: The objective of this study was to measure the QoL of CP patients and their caregivers and determine the factors affecting both of them. Methods: This was a cross-sectional facility-based study. 65 caregivers of children with CP aged 4–18 years completed a self-structured questionnaire. Descriptives of the samples were displayed, and logistic regression was used in the analysis. Results: The scores of overall QoL of both children and caregivers were low, however, variations were observed among different domains. Both health-related and sociodemographic factors were found to affect the QoL of children and caregivers. The increase in the degree of disability and presence of complications decreased the children QoL while the availability of health insurance improved it. Whereas the QoL of the caregiver was affected by his/her occupation, the degree of child disability did not affect it. Conclusions: This study showed that many feasible changes can be adopted to improve the QoL of CP patients and their caregivers. PMID:27365951

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use and Its Association with Quality of Life among Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy in Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Today, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use is being routinely practiced by cancer patients worldwide. This study aimed at examining the prevalence of CAM use in patients with cancer and comparing the quality of life (QoL) in CAM users and nonusers. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed on 195 cancer patients receiving chemotherapy at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH) chemotherapy center. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used and the collected data were analyzed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 21.0 for Windows. Results. 154 (79%) patients were found to be users of CAM. Educational status, average monthly income, disease stage, and comorbidity were strong predictors of use of CAM. The most commonly utilized types of CAM were traditional herbal based medicine (72.1%) and only 20.8% of patients discuss with their doctors CAM use. No significant difference was found in QoL between CAM users and nonusers except in financial difficulties (p = 0.020). Conclusions. This study revealed a high rate of CAM use with very low disclosure rate to their health care providers. Health care providers should be open to discuss the use of CAM with their patients as it will lead to better health outcome. PMID:27433182

  12. Translation and Validation of Bahasa Malaysia Version of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life Questionnaires (IIQ-7), a Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nusee, Zalina; Rusly, Azizah; Jamalludin, AR; Abdulwahab, Dalia F; Ismail, Rozihan

    2016-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) demonstrates major prevalence in women of different population groups. Reduced quality of life (QOL) is observed due to incontinence problems. Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Quality of Life (IIQ-7) are useful disease-specific questionnaires evaluating the impact of urinary incontinence on the QOL of women which is accepted internationally. Objective This study aims to translate and validate UDI-6 and IIQ-7 in Malay language. Methods A cross sectional study, which recruited 100 participants from two urogynecology clinics. Both questionnaires were initially translated from English to Bahasa Malaysia followed by back translation and final correction done by the professional translators. The participants were requested to maintain a urinary record of the upcoming week for three days that assisted in quantifying the severity of symptoms. None of the subjects were assigned any treatment during the study period. Validity and reliability of the translated questionnaires were determined by checking the internal consistency and also by doing test-retest. Results The internal consistency levels of the UDI-6 and IIQ-7 Bahasa Malaysia questionnaires were 0.73 and 0.90 respectively with good test-retest (0.86 and 0.95). Incontinence episodes were strongly associated with obstructive, irritative, and stress symptoms. The factor of day time voiding had strong correlation with obstructive and irritative symptoms. Conclusion UDI-6 and IIQ-7 did not measure similar outcomes; however, both questionnaires have their strengths in clinical settings. Analysis has also revealed that the Malaysian versions of both questionnaires had appropriate test-retest validity and reliability. Thus, it can be said that both of the questionnaires had great importance for screening patients with urinary incontinence in Malaysia. PMID:27418870

  13. Cross-sectional study of availability and pharmaceutical quality of antibiotics requested with or without prescription (Over The Counter) in Surabaya, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is an increasing problem in developing countries and antibiotic use is widespread. Our previous surveys in Java, Indonesia, revealed that most antibiotic use was probably unnecessary or ineffective. The aim of this study was to explore a potential connection between resistance and substandard antibiotics sold in the area. Methods A cross-sectional field study using the simulated client method was conducted in Surabaya. Five first-line antibiotics were requested with or without prescription (OTC). A certified laboratory analysed the drug content using validated methods. Possible determinants of substandard quality were explored. Results In total, 104 samples from 75 pharmacies, ten drug stores and 39 roadside stalls (kiosks) were obtained. Pharmacy employees filled all OTC requests. Three quarters of kiosks sold antibiotics. Antibiotics were dispensed as single blister strips or repackaged (16%) without label. Ninety five percent of samples carried the label of 14 Indonesian manufacturers. The pharmaceutical quality did not meet BP standards for 18% of samples. Deviations (less active ingredient) were small. There was no association between low content and type of outlet, sold with or without prescription, registration type, price or packaging. Median retail prices of products carrying the same label varied up to 20 fold. Conclusions Antibiotics were available OTC in all visited pharmacies and sold in the streets of an Indonesian city. Most samples contained an active ingredient. We urge to increase enforcement of existing regulations, including legislation that categorizes antibiotics as prescription-only drugs for all types of medicine outlets, to limit further selection of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:20618975

  14. Association Between Awareness of Hypertension and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Cross-Sectional Population-Based Study in Rural Area of Northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Mi, Baibing; Dang, Shaonong; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Yaling; Yang, Ruihai; Wang, Duolao; Yan, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Hypertensive patients have more complex health care needs and are more likely to have poorer health-related quality of life than normotensive people. The awareness of hypertension could be related to reduce health-related quality of life. We propose the use of quantile regression to explore more detailed relationships between awareness of hypertension and health-related quality of life. In a cross-sectional, population-based study, 2737 participants (including 1035 hypertensive patients and 1702 normotensive participants) completed the Short-Form Health Survey. A quantile regression model was employed to investigate the association of physical component summary scores and mental component summary scores with awareness of hypertension and to evaluate the associated factors. Patients who were aware of hypertension (N = 554) had lower scores than patients who were unaware of hypertension (N = 481). The median (IQR) of physical component summary scores: 48.20 (13.88) versus 53.27 (10.79), P < 0.01; the mental component summary scores: 50.68 (15.09) versus 51.70 (10.65), P = 0.03. adjusting for covariates, the quantile regression results suggest awareness of hypertension was associated with most physical component summary scores quantiles (P < 0.05 except 10th and 20th quantiles) in which the β-estimates from −2.14 (95% CI: −3.80 to −0.48) to −1.45 (95% CI: −2.42 to −0.47), as the same significant trend with some poorer mental component summary scores quantiles in which the β-estimates from −3.47 (95% CI: −6.65 to −0.39) to −2.18 (95% CI: −4.30 to −0.06). The awareness of hypertension has a greater effect on those with intermediate physical component summary status: the β-estimates were equal to −2.04 (95% CI: −3.51 to −0.57, P < 0.05) at the 40th and decreased further to −1.45 (95% CI: −2.42 to −0.47, P < 0.01) at the 90th quantile. Awareness of hypertension was negatively related to health

  15. Factors Associated with Self and Informant Ratings of the Quality of Life of People with Dementia Living in Care Facilities: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Beer, Christopher; Flicker, Leon; Horner, Barbara; Bretland, Nick; Scherer, Samuel; Lautenschlager, Nicola T.; Schaper, Frank; Almeida, Osvaldo P.

    2010-01-01

    Background There is no consensus regarding the optimal approach to assessment of the quality of life of people with dementia. We undertook the present study to describe and determine the factors associated with ratings of the quality of life of a cohort of people with dementia living in a residential care facility. Methodology/Principal Findings 351 people with dementia living in residential care facilities, and their staff and family informants participated in this cross sectional observational study. Quality of life was measured using self (Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease [QoL-AD] scale), and informant (QoL-AD and Alzheimer's Disease Related QoL Scale) reports. 226 people (64%) with dementia (median MMSE 17; 12–21) were able to self rate the QoL-AD scale and these subjects' ratings were compared to ratings by staff and family. Both staff and family informant ratings of the QoL-AD underestimated self ratings (mean difference −7.8, 95% CI −8.8, −6.7 for staff rated QoL-AD; and mean difference −7.2, 95% CI −8.5, −6.0 for family rated QoL-AD). Self ratings of QoL were lower among people who were restrained, had fallen or had pain. Informant ratings of the QoL of the participants with dementia were consistently and significantly lower for people with severe cognitive impairment, who had fallen, had presence of neuropsychiatric symptoms, or where care giver distress was present. Documented restraint, reported pain and neuropsychiatric symptoms were independently associated with lower self rating of the QoL-AD in multivariate models. Cognitive impairment, case conferencing, hospitalizations and neuropsychiatric symptoms were found to be independently associated with staff rated ADRQL. Conclusions The majority of people with dementia living in residential care facilities can rate their own QoL. Informant ratings underestimate self ratings of QoL of people with dementia, and appear to be associated with factors which are not associated with self

  16. International Evaluation of Neutron Cross Section Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, A. D.; Pronyaev, V. G.; Smith, D. L.; Larson, N. M.; Chen, Zhenpeng; Hale, G. M.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Gai, E. V.; Oh, Soo-Youl; Badikov, S. A.; Kawano, T.; Hofmann, H. M.; Vonach, H.; Tagesen, S.

    2009-12-01

    Neutron cross section standards are the basis for the determination of most neutron cross sections. They are used for both measurements and evaluations of neutron cross sections. Not many cross sections can be obtained absolutely - most cross sections are measured relative to the cross section standards and converted using evaluations of the standards. The previous complete evaluation of the neutron cross section standards was finished in 1987 and disseminated as the NEANDC/INDC and ENDF/B-VI standards. R-matrix model fits for the light elements and non-model least-squares fits for all the cross sections in the evaluation were the basis of the combined fits for all of the data. Some important reactions and constants are not standards, but they assist greatly in the determination of the standard cross sections and reduce their uncertainties - these data were also included in the combined fits. The largest experimental database used in the evaluation was prepared by Poenitz and included about 400 sets of experimental data with covariance matrices of uncertainties that account for all cross-energy, cross-reaction and cross-material correlations. For the evaluation GMA, a least-squares code developed by Poenitz, was used to fit all types of cross sections (absolute and shape), their ratios, spectrum-averaged cross sections and thermal constants in one full analysis. But, the uncertainties derived in this manner, and especially those obtained in the R-matrix model fits, have been judged to be too low and unrealistic. These uncertainties were substantially increased prior to their release in the recommended data files of 1987. Modified percentage uncertainties were reassigned by the United States Cross Section Evaluation Working Group's Standards Subcommittee for a wide range of energies, and no covariance (or correlation) matrices were supplied at that time. The need to re-evaluate the cross section standards is based on the appearance of a significant amount of precise

  17. Sources of social support associated with health and quality of life: a cross-sectional study among Canadian and Latin American older adults

    PubMed Central

    Bélanger, Emmanuelle; Ahmed, Tamer; Vafaei, Afshin; Curcio, Carmen Lucia; Phillips, Susan P; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether the association between emotional support and indicators of health and quality of life differs between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Design Cross-sectional analysis of the International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS). Social support from friends, family members, children and partner was measured with a previously validated social network and support scale (IMIAS-SNSS). Low social support was defined as ranking in the lowest site-specific quartile. Prevalence ratios (PR) of good health, depression and good quality of life were estimated with Poisson regression models, adjusting for age, gender, education, income and disability in activities of daily living. Setting Kingston and Saint-Hyacinthe in Canada, Manizales in Colombia and Natal in Brazil. Participants 1600 community-dwelling adults aged 65–74 years, n=400 at each site. Outcome measures Likert scale question on self-rated health, Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and 10-point analogical quality-of-life (QoL) scale. Results Relationships between social support and study outcomes differed between Canadian and Latin American older adults. Among Canadians, those without a partner had a lower prevalence of good health (PR=0.90; 95% CI 0.82 to 0.98), and those with high support from friends had a higher prevalence of good health (PR=1.09; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.18). Among Latin Americans, depression was lower among those with high levels of support from family (PR=0.63; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.83), children (PR=0.60; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.80) and partner (PR=0.57; 95% CI 0.31 to 0.77); good QoL was associated with high levels of support from children (PR=1.54; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.99) and partner (PR=1.31; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.67). Conclusions Among older adults, different sources of support were relevant to health across societies. Support from friends and having a partner were related to good health in Canada, whereas in Latin America, support from family, children and

  18. Nucleon-Nucleon Total Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.

    2008-01-01

    The total proton-proton and neutron-proton cross sections currently used in the transport code HZETRN show significant disagreement with experiment in the GeV and EeV energy ranges. The GeV range is near the region of maximum cosmic ray intensity. It is therefore important to correct these cross sections, so that predictions of space radiation environments will be accurate. Parameterizations of nucleon-nucleon total cross sections are developed which are accurate over the entire energy range of the cosmic ray spectrum.

  19. Cross Section Evaluations for Arsenic Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Pruet, J; McNabb, D P; Ormand, W E

    2005-03-10

    The authors present an evaluation of cross sections describing reactions with neutrons incident on the arsenic isotopes with mass numbers 75 and 74. Particular attention is paid to (n,2n) reactions. The evaluation for {sup 75}As, the only stable As isotope, is guided largely by experimental data. Evaluation for {sup 74}As is made through calculations with the EMPIRE statistical-model reaction code. Cross sections describing the production and destruction of the 26.8 ns isomer in {sup 74}As are explicitly considered. Uncertainties and covariances in some evaluated cross sections are also estimated.

  20. A nuclear cross section data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, H.O.M.

    1989-12-01

    Isotopic information, reaction data, data availability, heating numbers, and evaluation information are given for 129 neutron cross-section evaluations, which are the source of the default cross sections for the Monte Carlo code MCNP. Additionally, pie diagrams for each nuclide displaying the percent contribution of a given reaction to the total cross section are given at 14 MeV, 1 MeV, and thermal energy. Other information about the evaluations and their availability in continuous-energy, discrete-reaction, and multigroup forms is provided. The evaluations come from ENDF/B-V, ENDL85, and the Los Alamos Applied Nuclear Science Group T-2. Graphs of all neutron and photon production cross-section reactions for these nuclides have been categorized and plotted. 21 refs., 5 tabs.

  1. The radar cross section of dielectric disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1982-01-01

    A solution is presented for the backscatter (nonstatic) radar cross section of dielectric disks of arbitrary shape, thickness and dielectric constant. The result is obtained by employing a Kirchhoff type approximation to obtain the fields inside the disk. The internal fields induce polarization and conduction currents from which the scattered fields and the radar cross section can be computed. The solution for the radar cross section obtained in this manner is shown to agree with known results in the special cases of normal incidence, thin disks and perfect conductivity. The solution can also be written as a product of the reflection coefficient of an identically oriented slab times the physical optics solution for the backscatter cross section of a perfectly conducting disk of the same shape. This result follows directly from the Kirchhoff type approximation without additional assumptions.

  2. Bibliography of photoabsorption cross-section data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, R. D.; Kieffer, L. J.

    1970-01-01

    This bibliography contains only references which report a measured or calculated photoabsorption cross section (relative or normalized) in regions of continuous absorption. The bibliography is current as of January 1, 1970.

  3. Absorption cross section of canonical acoustic holes

    SciTech Connect

    Crispino, Luis C. B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Matsas, George E. A.

    2007-11-15

    We compute numerically the absorption cross section of a canonical acoustic hole for sound waves with arbitrary frequencies. Our outputs are in full agreement with the expected low- and high-frequency limits.

  4. MODELING AND FISSION CROSS SECTIONS FOR AMERICIUM.

    SciTech Connect

    ROCHMAN, D.; HERMAN, M.; OBLOZINSKY, P.

    2005-05-01

    This is the final report of the work performed under the LANL contract on the modeling and fission cross section for americium isotopes (May 2004-June 2005). The purpose of the contract was to provide fission cross sections for americium isotopes with the nuclear reaction model code EMPIRE 2.19. The following work was performed: (1) Fission calculations capability suitable for americium was implemented to the EMPIRE-2.19 code. (2) Calculations of neutron-induced fission cross sections for {sup 239}Am to {sup 244g}Am were performed with EMPIRE-2.19 for energies up to 20 MeV. For the neutron-induced reaction of {sup 240}Am, fission cross sections were predicted and uncertainties were assessed. (3) Set of fission barrier heights for each americium isotopes was chosen so that the new calculations fit the experimental data and follow the systematics found in the literature.

  5. A Cross-sectional, Descriptive, Quality Improvement Project to Assess Undergraduate Nursing Students' Clinical Exposure to Patients With Wounds in an Introductory Nursing Course.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Barbara; Keves-Foster, Mary Kathryn; Ashare, JoAnn; Zugcic, Mary; Albdour, Maha; Albdour, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    Because nurses frequently participate in decisions related to wound care, learning about wounds and their care during undergraduate education is critical. A cross-sectional, descriptive, quality improvement project was conducted in an introductory baccalaureate nursing course to identify: 1) the types of patients with wounds assigned to beginning students, 2) patient wound care procedures and dressings, and 3) student level of participation in wound care. Data were collected from the weekly notes recorded about students' (N = 49) patient care experiences in 3 acute care hospitals for 9 clinical days during 1 semester. Data were recorded on a paper-and-pencil form by instructors at the end of the clinical day and included type of wound, wound irrigation, dressing, technique of care, and student's participation. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the frequency and distribution of the wound characteristics and care assessed. Of the 284 patients assigned to students, 75 (26.4%) had a wound. The most common wound was a surgical incision (49, 65%) and was closed (36, 73.5%). Twenty-six (26) patients had a pressure ulcer, most commonly Stage II. The most common dressing was dry gauze (29). Damp gauze was used on 18 wounds. Wound irrigation was recorded for 24 wound protocols and performed with a bulb syringe or by pouring the solution from a container. Generally, nonsterile wound care was performed. Twenty-five (25) students performed wound care with the instructor, 16 watched the care performed by another clinician, and 10 participated with another nurse in the wound care. For 22 patients, the wound care was neither observed nor performed because either it was not time for the dressing to be changed or it was only to be changed by a medical team. From these data, it was concluded beginning nursing students had some, but limited, clinical experience with patients with wounds. Students' wound care experiences need further examination, especially across multiple

  6. Are self-stigma, quality of life, and clinical data interrelated in schizophrenia spectrum patients? A cross-sectional outpatient study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Ociskova, Marie; Grambal, Aleš; Kamaradova, Dana; Vrbova, Kristyna; Hruby, Radovan

    2016-01-01

    Background Current research attention has been moving toward the needs of patients and their consequences for the quality of life (QoL). Self-stigma is a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon disturbing the QoL in a substantial number of psychiatric patients. In our study, we examined the relationship between demographic data, the severity of symptoms, self-stigma, and QoL in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Methods Probands who met International Classification of Diseases-10 criteria for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder) were recruited in the study. We studied the correlations between the QoL measured by the QoL Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire, self-stigma assessed by the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness, and severity of the disorder measured by the objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression severity scales in this cross-sectional study. Results A total of 109 psychotic patients and 91 healthy controls participated in the study. Compared with the control group, there was a lower QoL and a higher score of self-stigmatization in psychotic patients. We found the correlation between an overall rating of self-stigmatization, duration of disorder, and QoL. The level of self-stigmatization correlated positively with total symptom severity score and negatively with the QoL. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the overall rating of objective symptom severity and the score of self-stigma were significantly associated with the QoL. Conclusion Our study suggests a negative impact of self-stigma level on the QoL in patients suffering from schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:27019596

  7. Modified versus standard intention-to-treat reporting: Are there differences in methodological quality, sponsorship, and findings in randomized trials? A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that use the modified intention-to-treat (mITT) approach are increasingly being published. Such trials have a preponderance of post-randomization exclusions, industry sponsorship, and favourable findings, and little is known whether in terms of these items mITT trials are different with respect to trials that report a standard intention-to-treat. Methods To determine differences in the methodological quality, sponsorship, authors' conflicts of interest, and findings among trials with different "types" of intention-to-treat, we undertook a cross-sectional study of RCTs published in 2006 in three general medical journals (the Journal of the American Medical Association, the New England Journal of Medicine and the Lancet) and three specialty journals (Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, the American Heart Journal and the Journal of Clinical Oncology). Trials were categorized based on the "type" of intention-to-treat reporting as follows: ITT, trials reporting the use of standard ITT approach; mITT, trials reporting the use of a "modified intention-to-treat" approach; and "no ITT", trials not reporting the use of any intention-to-treat approach. Two pairs of reviewers independently extracted the data in duplicate. The strength of the associations between the "type" of intention-to-treat reporting and the quality of reporting (sample size calculation, flow-chart, lost to follow-up), the methodological quality of the trials (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and blinding), the funding source, and the findings was determined. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Of the 367 RCTs included, 197 were classified as ITT, 56 as mITT, and 114 as "no ITT" trials. The quality of reporting and the methodological quality of the mITT trials were similar to those of the ITT trials; however, the mITT trials were more likely to report post-randomization exclusions (adjusted OR 3.43 [95%CI

  8. Reaction cross sections of unstable nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, Akira

    2006-11-02

    Experimental studies on reaction cross sections are reviewed. The recent developments of radioactive nuclear beams have enabled us to measure reaction cross-sections for unstable nuclei. Using Glauber-model analysis, effective nuclear matter density distributions of unstable nuclei can be studied. Recent measurements in RIBLL at IMP and RIPS at RIKEN are introduced. The effective matter density distributions for 14-18C are also mentioned.

  9. Shuttle orbiter radar cross-sectional analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; James, R.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and model simulation studies on signal to noise levels and shuttle radar cross section are described. Pre-mission system calibrations, system configuration, and postmission system calibration of the tracking radars are described. Conversion of target range, azimuth, and elevation into radar centered east north vertical position coordinates are evaluated. The location of the impinging rf energy with respect to the target vehicles body axis triad is calculated. Cross section correlation between the two radars is presented.

  10. Ultraviolet absorption cross sections of hydrogen peroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. L.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Absorption cross-sections of hydrogen peroxide vapor and of neutral aqueous solutions of hydrogen peroxide were measured in the wavelength range from 195 to 350 nm at 296 K. The spectrophotometric procedure is described, and the reported cross-sections are compared with values obtained by other researchers. Photodissociation coefficients of atmospheric H2O2 were calculated for direct absorption of unscattered solar radiation, and the vertical distributions of these coefficients are shown for various solar zenith angles.

  11. QuickSite Cross Section Processing

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2003-05-27

    This AGEM-developed system produces cross sections by inputting data in both standard and custom file formats and outputting a graphic file that can be printed or further modified in a commercial graphic program. The system has evolved over several years in order to combine and visualize a changing set of field data more rapidly than was possible with commercially available cross section software packages. It uses some commercial packages to produce the input and tomore » modify the output files. Flexibility is provided by a dynamic set of programs that are customized to accept varying input and accomodate varying output requirements. There are two basic types of routines: conversion routines and cross section generation routines. The conversion routines convery various data files to logger file format which is compatible with a standard file format for LogPlot 98, a commonly used commercial log plotting program. The cross section routines generate cross sections and apply topography to these cross sections. All of the generation routines produce a standard graphic DXF file, which is the format used in AutoCAD and can then be modified in a number of available graphics programs.« less

  12. Predicting the Total Charm Cross Section

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R

    2008-05-29

    We discuss the energy dependence of the total charm cross section and some of its theoretical uncertainties including the quark mass, scale choice and the parton densities. Extracting the total charm cross section from data is a non-trivial task. To go from a finite number of measured D mesons in a particular decay channel to the total c{bar c} cross section one must: divide by the branching ratio for that channel; correct for the luminosity, {sigma}{sub D} = N{sub D}/Lt; extrapolate to full phase space from the finite detector acceptance; divide by two to get the pair cross section from the single Ds; and multiply by a correction factor to account for unmeasured charm hadrons. Early fixed-target data were at rather low p{sub T}, making the charm quark mass the most relevant scale. At proton and ion colliders, although the RHIC experiments can access the full pT range and thus the total cross section, the data reach rather high p{sub T}, p{sub T} >> m, making p{sub T} (m{sub T}) the most relevant scale. Here we focus on the total cross section calculation where the quark mass is the only relevant scale.

  13. Health-related quality of life in girls and boys with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: self- and parental reports in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) affects children and adolescents with both short-term and long-term disability. These children also report lower health-related quality of life (HRQOL) compared to their healthy peers. However, there seems to be some discrepancies between self- and parent-reports, and gender differences need to be further studied. This study aims to describe HRQOL in girls and boys with JIA, and to explore gender differences in self-reports compared to parent-reports of HRQOL in children with JIA. Methods Fifty-three children and adolescents with JIA (70% girls and 30% boys) with a median age of 14 years (8–18 years), and their parents, participated in this cross-sectional study in Sweden. Data was systematically collected prior to ordinary visits at a Pediatric outpatient clinic, during a period of 16 months (2009–2010). Disability was assessed with the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ), and disease activity by physicians’ assessments and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). The Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0 Generic Core Scales (PedsQL) was used to assess self- and parent-reports of HRQOL in the child. Results In this sample of children with generally low disease activity and mild to moderate disability, more than half of the children experienced suboptimal HRQOL, equally in girls and boys. Significant differences between self- and parent-reports of child HRQOL were most evident among girls, with lower parent-reports regarding the girl’s physical- and psychosocial health as well as in the total HRQOL score. Except for the social functioning subscale, where parents’ reports were higher compared to their sons, there were no significant differences between boys- and parent-reports. Conclusions More than half of the girls and boys experienced suboptimal HRQOL in this sample, with no gender differences. However, there were differences between self- and parent-reports of child HRQOL, with most significant

  14. Patients with unexplained physical symptoms have poorer quality of life and higher costs than other patient groups: a cross-sectional study on burden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine whether healthcare resources are allocated fairly, it is helpful to have information on the quality of life (QoL) of patients with Unexplained Physical Symptoms (UPS) and on the costs associated with them, and on how these relate to corresponding data in other patient groups. As studies to date have been limited to specific patient populations with UPS, the objective of this study was to assess QoL and costs in a general sample of patients with UPS using generic measures. Methods In a cross-sectional study, 162 patients with UPS reported on their QoL, use of healthcare resources and lost productivity in paid and unpaid work. To assess QoL, the generic SF-36 questionnaire was used, from which multidimensional quality-of-life scores and a one-dimensional score (utility) using the SF-6D scorings algorithm were derived. To assess costs, the TiC-P questionnaire was used. Results Patients with UPS reported a poor QoL. Their QoL was mostly decreased by limitations in functioning due to physical health, and the least by limitations in functioning due to emotional problems. The median of utilities was 0.57, and the mean was 0.58 (SD = .09). The cost for the use of healthcare services was estimated to be €3,123 (SD = €2,952) per patient per year. This cost was enlarged by work-related costs: absence from work (absenteeism), lower on-the-job productivity (presenteeism), and paid substitution of domestic tasks. The resulting mean total cost was estimated to be €6,815 per patient per year. Conclusions These findings suggest that patients with UPS have a high burden of disease and use a considerable amount of healthcare resources. In comparison with other patient groups, the QoL values of patients with UPS were among the poorest and their costs were among the highest of all patient groups. The burden for both patients and society helps to justify the allocation of sufficient resources to effective treatment for patients with UPS. Trial

  15. Influence of oral mucosal lesions and oral symptoms on oral health related quality of life in dermatological patients: a cross sectional study in Sudan

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are only few studies considering the impact of oral mucosal lesions (OML) on the oral quality of life of patients with different dermatological conditions. This study aimed to assess the relationship between oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) and OML and reported oral symptoms, perceived general and oral health condition and caries experience in adult skin diseased patients attending an outpatient dermatologic clinic in Sudan. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 544 diagnosed skin diseased patients (mean age 37.1 years, 50 % females), during the period October 2008 to January 2009. The patients were orally examined and OML and caries experience was recorded. The patients were interviewed using the Sudanese Arabic version of the OIDP. OHRQoL was evaluated by socio-demographic and clinical correlates according to number of types of OML diagnosed (no OML, one type of OML, > one type of OML) and number and types of oral symptoms. Results An oral impact (OIDP > 0) was reported by 190 patients (35.6 %) (mean OIDP total score 11.6, sd = 6.7). The prevalence of any oral impact was 30.5 %, 36.7 % and 44.1 %, in patients with no OML, one type of OML and more than one type of OML, respectively. Number of types of OML and number and types of oral symptoms were consistently associated with the OIDP scores. Patients who reported bad oral health, patients with ≥ 1 dental attendance, patients with > 1 type of OML, and patients with ≥ 1 type of oral symptoms were more likely than their counterparts in the opposite groups to report any OIDP. The odds ratios (OR) were respectively; 2.9 (95 % CI 1.9-4.5), 2.3 (95 % CI 1.5-3.5), 1.8 (95 % CI 1.1-3.2) and 6.7 (95 % CI 2.6-17.5). Vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions of OML disease groups associated statistically significantly with OIDP. Conclusion OIDP was more frequently affected among skin diseased patients with than without OML. The frequency of

  16. Occupational stress and health-related quality of life among public sector bank employees: A cross-sectional study in Mysore, Karnataka, India

    PubMed Central

    Malamardi, Sowmya N.; Kamath, Ramachandra; Tiwari, Rajnarayan; Nair, Binu Valsalakumari Sreekumaran; Chandrasekaran, Varalakshmi; Phadnis, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Occupational morbidities have been estimated to cause an economic loss up to 10–20% of the gross national product of a country. It is an important cause of occupational morbidity and decreased quality of life (QOL) for the workers. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the level of occupational stress and its association with the QOL among the public sector bank employees. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted among employees of public sector banks in Mysore district, Karnataka, India. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study. Job stress was measured by using occupational stress index (OSI) scale questionnaire and health-related QOL was measured using the short form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. The sample size estimated for the study was 526 and cluster random sampling technique was used. Chi-square test was used to find the association between the study variables and level of stress. Multiple linear regression model was used to find the determinants of health-related QOL among the study subjects. Results: The total number of the study subjects was 546 out of which 57% were males and 43% were females. The proportion of study subjects reporting to be current smokers was 4.2% and almost all study subjects reported occasional alcohol consumption. The mean physical component summary (PCS) score and mental component summary (MCS) using the original United States standardization were 47.90 and 48.30, respectively. The individuals with mild stress scored higher in both PCS and MCS than the individuals who had moderate to severe stress levels. There was significant association of health related quality of life with the age of the respondent,presence of at least one morbidity and level of stress with health-related QOL. Conclusion: This study has shown an association of occupational stress with the QOL. There is a need for interventions aimed at mitigating the occupational stress among employees of the banking sector. PMID

  17. Building resiliency: a cross-sectional study examining relationships among health-related quality of life, well-being, and disaster preparedness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, disaster exposure and consequences are rising. Disaster risk in New Zealand is amplified by island geography, isolation, and ubiquitous natural hazards. Wellington, the capital city, has vital needs for evacuation preparedness and resilience to the devastating impacts and increasing uncertainties of earthquake and tsunami disasters. While poor quality of life (QoL) is widely-associated with low levels of engagement in many health-protective behaviors, the relationships among health-related quality of life (HrQoL), well-being, and preparedness are virtually unknown. Methods We hypothesized that QoL and well-being affect household evacuation preparedness. We performed a quantitative epidemiologic survey (cross-sectional design) of Wellington adults. Our investigation assessed health-promoting attributes that build resiliency, conceptualized as health-protective attitudes and behaviors. Multidimensional QoL variables were measured using validated psychometric scales and analyzed for associations with evacuation preparedness, and we determined whether age and gender affected these relationships. Results We received 695 survey responses (28.5% response rate; margin of error ±3.8%; 80% statistical power to detect true correlations of 0.11 or greater). Correlational analyses showed statistically significant positive associations with evacuation preparedness for spiritual well-being, emotional well-being, and life satisfaction. No associations were found for mental health, social well-being, or gender; physical health was weakly negatively associated. Evacuation preparedness increased with age. Regression analyses showed that overall health and well-being explained 4.6-6.8% of the variance in evacuation preparedness. Spiritual well-being was the only QoL variable that significantly and uniquely explained variance in preparedness. Conclusions How well-being influences preparedness is complex and deeply personal. The data indicate that multidimensional

  18. Quality of life in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients requiring insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Pichon-Riviere, Andres; Irazola, Vilma; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Alcaraz, Andrea; Carrara, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Decision-makers have begun to recognize Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) as an important and measurable outcome of healthcare interventions; and HRQoL data is increasingly being used by policy-makers to prioritize health resources. Our objective was to measure HRQoL in a group of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients receiving insulin treatment in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of patients with T2DM over 21 years of age, treated with either Neutral Protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin or Insulin Glargine (IG), who had not changed their baseline schedule in the last 6 months. The recruitment was during 2006–7 in nine private diabetes specialists’ offices in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A standardized diabetes-specific HRQoL questionnaire, the Audit of Diabetes Dependent Quality of Life (ADDQoL), was used. Results: A total of 183 patients were included (93 receiving NPH and 90 receiving IG). The mean QoL score was: 0.98 (SD: 0.89) and the diabetes specific QoL was: -1.49 (SD: 0.90). T2DM had a negative impact on HRQoL with a mean Average Weighted Impact (AWI) score on QoL of -1.77 (SD: 1.58). The greatest negative impact was observed for domains: ‘worries about the future’, ‘freedom to eat’, ‘living conditions’, ‘sex life’, and ‘family life’. The mean AWI score was -1.71 (SD: 1.48) in patients treated with IG and -1.85 (SD: 1.68) in patients receiving NPH, this difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The ADDQoL questionnaire is a tool that can be used in Argentina to measure the QoL of patients with diabetes when evaluating diabetes care programs. The scores of QoL in our selected population did not differ from those reported in high-income countries. We expect that the results of this study will increase healthcare providers’ awareness of patients’ perceived QoL and help to overcome the barriers that delay insulin treatment; mainly clinical inertia and patient

  19. abo-cross: Hydrogen broadening cross-section calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklem, P. S.; Anstee, S. D.; O'Mara, B. J.

    2015-07-01

    Line broadening cross sections for the broadening of spectral lines by collisions with neutral hydrogen atoms have been tabulated by Anstee & O'Mara (1995), Barklem & O'Mara (1997) and Barklem, O'Mara & Ross (1998) for s-p, p-s, p-d, d-p, d-f and f-d transitions. abo-cross, written in Fortran, interpolates in these tabulations to make these data more accessible to the end user. This code can be incorporated into existing spectrum synthesis programs or used it in a stand-alone mode to compute line broadening cross sections for specific transitions.

  20. Revised cross section for RHIC dipole magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Using the experience gained in designing and building Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) dipole prototype magnets an improved cross section has been developed. Significant features of this design include the use of only three wedges for field shaping and wedge cross sections which are sectors of an annulus. To aid in the understanding of the actual magnets, one has been sectioned, and detailed mechanical and photographic measurements made of the wire positions. The comparison of these measurements with the magnetic field measurements will is presented. 2 refs, 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Actinide cross section program at ORELA

    SciTech Connect

    Dabbs, J.W.T.

    1980-01-01

    The actinide cross section program at ORELA, the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator, is aimed at obtaining accurate neutron cross sections (primarily fission, capture, and total) for actinide nuclides which occur in fission reactors. Such cross sections, measured as a function of neutron energy over as wide a range of energies as feasible, comprise a data base that permits calculated predictions of the formation and removal of these nuclides in reactors. The present program is funded by the Division of Basic Energy Sciences of DOE, and has components in several divisions at ORNL. For intensively ..cap alpha..-active nuclides, many of the existing fission cross section data have been provided by underground explosions. New measurement techniques, developed at ORELA, now permit linac measurements on fissionable nuclides with alpha half-lives as short as 28 years. Capture and capture-plus-fission measurements utilize scintillation detectors (of capture ..gamma.. rays and fission neutrons) in which pulse shape discrimination plays an important role. Total cross sections can be measured at ORELA on samples of only a few milligrams. A simultaneous program of chemical and isotopic analyses of samples irradiated in EBR-II is in progress to provide benchmarks for the existing differential measurements. These analyses are being studied with updated versions of ORIGEN and with sensitivity determinations. Calculations of the sensitivity to cross section changes of various aspects of the nuclear fuel cycle are also being made. Even in this relatively mature field, many cross sections still require improvements to provide an adequate data base. Examples of recent techniques and measurements are presented. 12 figures, 3 tables.

  2. Reduction Methods for Total Reaction Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, P. R. S.; Mendes Junior, D. R.; Canto, L. F.; Lubian, J.; de Faria, P. N.

    2016-03-01

    The most frequently used methods to reduce fusion and total reaction excitation functions were investigated in a very recent paper Canto et al. (Phys Rev C 92:014626, 2015). These methods are widely used to eliminate the influence of masses and charges in comparisons of cross sections for weakly bound and tightly bound systems. This study reached two main conclusions. The first is that the fusion function method is the most successful procedure to reduce fusion cross sections. Applying this method to theoretical cross sections of single channel calculations, one obtains a system independent curve (the fusion function), that can be used as a benchmark to fusion data. The second conclusion was that none of the reduction methods available in the literature is able to provide a universal curve for total reaction cross sections. The reduced single channel cross sections keep a strong dependence of the atomic and mass numbers of the collision partners, except for systems in the same mass range. In the present work we pursue this problem further, applying the reduction methods to systems within a limited mass range. We show that, under these circumstances, the reduction of reaction data may be very useful.

  3. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  4. Undergraduate Measurements of Neutron Cross Sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Vanhoy, J. R.; French, A. J.; Santonil, Z. C.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Ross, T. J.; Yates, S. W.

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas have investigated basic properties of nuclei through γ-ray and neutron spectroscopy following neutron scattering. The former has been used primarily for nuclear structure investigations, while the latter has been used to measure neutron scattering cross sections important for fission reactor applications. A series of (n,n') and (n,n'γ) measurements have been made on 54Fe and 56Fe to determine neutron cross sections for scattering to excited levels in these nuclei. The former provides the cross sections directly and the latter are used to deduce inelastic neutron scattering cross sections by measuring the γ-ray production cross sections to states not easily resolved in neutron spectroscopy. All measurements have been completed at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory using a 7-MV Model CN Van de Graaff accelerator, along with the neutron production and neutron and γ-ray detection systems located there. Students participate in accelerator operation, experimental setup, data acquisition, and data analyses. An overview of the research program and student contributions is presented.

  5. Assessment of quality of life of the children and parents affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet: preliminary results of a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The development in therapeutic strategies has increased survival of children affected by inborn errors of metabolism with restricted diet (IEMRD). These diseases have mild- and long-term consequences on the health. Little is known about the impact on the quality of life (QoL) of children and their families. The aims of this study were: to compare the QoL of the children and parents affected by IEMRD with the QoL of the general population and one pathology associated with long-term consequences. Patients and methods This cross-sectional study was performed at the French Reference Center for inborn metabolic disorders (Marseille, France). Inclusion criteria were: a child with a diagnosis of organic aciduria, urea cycle defect, or maple syrups urine disease (MSUD). Socio-demographics, clinical data, and QoL were recorded. Results Twenty-one of 32 eligible families were included during a planned routine visit. Ten (47%, 95% CI 27-69%) children were affected by organic aciduria, six (29%, 95% CI 10-48%) by urea cycle defects, and five (24%, 95% CI 6-42%) by MSUD. Among the younger children, the general well-being was significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (58 ± 16 versus 76 ± 15, p = 0.012), and among the older children, the leisure activities were significantly lower in the children with IEMRD than in the leukemia children (29 ± 18 versus 62 ± 22, p < 10-3), while the relationships with teachers were better (76 ± 23 versus 60 ± 23, p = 0.01). The physical QoL score was lower in the parents than in the French norms (66 ± 21 versus 75 ± 1, p = 0.05). Factors modulating QoL were: eating and neurologic disorders, enteral nutrition, and feeding modalities. Conclusion The children and the parents of children affected presented altered ‘physical’ and ‘social’ QoL scores compared with the norms and patients with leukemia and their families. Future studies based on larger cohort

  6. Health-Related Quality of Life among School Children with Parasitic Infections: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Survey in Côte d'Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Yapi, Richard B.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Fürst, Thomas; Utzinger, Jürg; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Raso, Giovanna

    2014-01-01

    Background Parasitic infections are still of considerable public health relevance, notably among children in low- and middle-income countries. Measures to assess the magnitude of ill-health in infected individuals, however, are debated and patient-based proxies through generic health-related quality of life (HrQoL) instruments are among the proposed strategies. Disability estimates based on HrQoL are still scarce and conflicting, and hence, there is a need to strengthen the current evidence-base. Methodology Between November 2011 and February 2012, a national school-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Côte d'Ivoire. Children underwent parasitological and clinical examination to assess infection status with Plasmodium and helminth species and clinical parameters, and responded to a questionnaire interview incorporating sociodemographic characteristics, self-reported morbidity, and HrQoL. Validity analysis of the HrQoL instrument was performed, assessing floor and ceiling effects, internal consistency, and correlation with morbidity scores. Multivariate regression models were applied to identify significant associations between HrQoL and children's parasitic infection and clinical status. Principal Findings Parasitological examination of 4,848 children aged 5–16 years revealed Plasmodium spp., hookworm, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Trichuris trichiura prevalences of 75.0%, 17.2%, 5.7%, 3.7%, 1.8%, and 1.3%, respectively. Anemic children showed a significant 1-point reduction in self-rated HrQoL on a scale from 0 to 100, whereas no significant negative association between HrQoL and parasite infection was observed. The 12-item HrQoL questionnaire proofed useful, as floor and ceiling effects were negligible, internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.71), and valid, as revealed by significant negative correlations and associations with children's self-reported and clinically assessed morbidity. Conclusions

  7. Depression and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Cross-Sectional Study in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Sharma, Abhishek; Bhandari, Parash Mani; Bhochhibhoya, Shristi; Thapa, Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is accompanied by a marked reduction in patient’s quality of life (QOL) and leads to higher disability-adjusted life years than most diseases. Depression further deteriorates QOL and is associated with poor treatment outcomes and lowered glycemic control in diabetes. We analysed the QOL and depression among the people living with diabetes in Nepal. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a random sample of 157 diabetic patients visiting diabetes clinic at a major teaching hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. We administered the Nepali version of WHO-BREF for face to face interviews to obtain data on QOL scores. The Nepali version of Patient Health Questionnaire-9was also used to record responses on depression items. Results More than half of the respondents (54.1%) experienced depression with mean PHQ-9 score of 6.15 ± 5.01 on a scale of 0–27. On a scale of 0 to 100, highest QOL mean score was reported in social relationship domain (57.32 ± 11.83), followed by environment domain (54.71 ± 7.74), psychological health (53.25 ± 10.32) and physical health (50.74 ± 11.83). After adjusting for other covariates, urban residence decreased the physical health score by 4.74 (β = -4.74, 95% CI: -8.664,-0.821), social relationship domain score by 3.420 (β = -3.420, 95% CI: -6.433,-0.406) and the overall QOL by 2.773 (β = -2.773, 95% CI: -5.295,-0.252). Having diagnosed with diabetes since more than 10 years increased physical health by 5.184 score points (β = 5.184; 95% CI: 0.753, 9.615).Similarly, having severe depression decreased social relation domain score by 6.053 (β = -6.053, 95% CI:-11.169,-.936). Conclusion Having urban residence significantly decreased the physical health and social relation domain scores as well as the overall QOL scores. Similarly, having diagnosed since more than 10 years increased physical health domain score. Severe depression decreased social relationship domain score. Since depression affects QOL, we

  8. Health-related quality of life and treatment satisfaction in patients with gout: results from a cross-sectional study in a managed care setting

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Puja P; Shiozawa, Aki; Walker, Valery; Bancroft, Tim; Essoi, Breanna; Akhras, Kasem S; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient satisfaction with treatment directly impacts adherence to medication. Objective The objective was to assess and compare treatment satisfaction with the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM), gout-specific health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with the Gout Impact Scale (GIS), and generic HRQoL with the SF-12v2® Health Survey (SF-12) in patients with gout in a real-world practice setting. Methods This cross-sectional mail survey included gout patients enrolled in a large commercial health plan in the US. Patients were ≥18 years with self-reported gout diagnosis, who filled ≥1 prescription for febuxostat during April 26, 2012 to July 26, 2012 and were not taking any other urate-lowering therapies. The survey included the TSQM version II (TSQM vII, score 0–100, higher scores indicate better satisfaction), GIS (score 0–100, higher scores indicate worse condition), and SF-12 (physical component summary and mental component summary). Patients were stratified by self-report of currently experiencing a gout attack or not to assess the discriminant ability of the questionnaires. Results A total of 257 patients were included in the analysis (mean age, 54.9 years; 87% male). Patients with current gout attack (n=29, 11%) had worse scores than those without gout attack on most instrument scales. Mean differences between current attack and no current attack for the TSQM domains were: −20.6, effectiveness; −10.6, side effects; −12.1, global satisfaction (all P<0.05); and −6.1, convenience (NS). For the GIS, mean differences were: 30.5, gout overall concern; 14.6, gout medication side effects; 22.7, unmet gout treatment needs; 11.5, gout concern during attack (all P<0.05); and 7.9, well-being during attack (NS). Mean difference in SF-12 was −6.6 for physical component summary (P<0.05) and −2.9 for mental component summary (NS). Correlations between several TSQM and GIS scales were moderate. Conclusion The TSQM and GIS

  9. Health related quality of life in patients with bladder cancer: a cross-sectional survey and validation study of the Hungarian version of the Bladder Cancer Index.

    PubMed

    Hevér, Noémi V; Péntek, Márta; Balló, András; Gulácsi, László; Baji, Petra; Brodszky, Valentin; Damásdi, Miklós; Bognár, Zita; Tóth, György; Buzogány, István; Szántó, Árpád

    2015-07-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome in oncology care although an underexplored area in bladder cancer (BC). Our aims were to assess HRQoL of patients with BC, analyse relationships between diverse HRQoL measures and validate the Hungarian version of the Bladder Cancer Index (BCI) questionnaire. A cross-sectional survey was performed among patients with BC (N = 151). Validated Hungarian versions of the FACT-Bl, SF-36 and EQ-5D were applied and SF-6D was derived. Psychometric analysis of the Hungarian BCI was performed. Pearson correlations between the five measures were analysed. Deterioration in SF-36 Physical Functioning was detected among patients aged 45-64 years. The EQ-5D score did not differ significantly from the age-matched population norm. Correlations between the FACT-Bl, EQ-5D and SF-6D utility measures were strong (r > 0.6). Cronbach alpha coefficients of the Hungarian BCI ranged from 0.75 to 0.97 and factor analysis confirmed that data fit to the six predefined subdomains. Test-retest correlations (reliability, N = 50) ranged from 0.67 to 0.87 and interscale correlations between urinary, bowel and sexual BCI domains were weak or moderate (r = 0.29 to 0.49). Convergent validity revealed a stronger correlation with FACT-Bl (r = 0.126 to 0.719) than with generic health state scores (r = 0.096 to 0.584). Results of divergent validity of the Hungarian BCI by treatment groups by Kruskal Wallis test were promising although limited by low sample sizes in cystectomy subgroups. Generic health state measures have limited capacity to capture HRQoL impact of BC. Validity tests yielded favourable results for the Hungarian BCI. Mapping studies to estimate utility scores from FACT-Bl are encouraged but less recommendable with the BCI. PMID:25434791

  10. Health-Related Quality of Life in HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex with Men in China: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bo; Yan, Cunling; Lin, Yuanlong; Wang, Fuxiang; Wang, Limei

    2016-01-01

    Background China is undergoing a rapid growth in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic involving men who have sex with men (MSM). Reports about their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) are scarce. This study aimed to assess the HRQOL and factors influencing HIV-positive MSM in a city in the northeast of China. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Harbin city (Heilongjiang, China). HIV-positive MSM (n=125) were interviewed using the WHOQOL-HIV-BRIEF scale, the Berger HIV Stigma Scale, and other HIV-related questionnaires from June to August 2013. Results Among the 6 dimensions of the HRQOL, HIV-related stigma was negatively associated with psychological (r=−0.316, P=0.0003) and spirituality domains (r=−0.324, P=0.0002). Physician support was positively associated with independence domain (r=0.393, P<0.0001). Hostile mentality was associated with psychological (r=0.479, P<0.0001) and spirituality domains (r=0.431, P<0.0001). Adverse effects of HAART were significantly correlated with physical (r=−0.542, P<0.0001) and psychological (r=−0.554, P<0.0001) domains. Multiple logistic regression showed that stigma (odds ratio (OR)=1.251, 95% confidence interval (95%CI): 1.088–1.439, P=0.002) and adverse effects of HAART (OR=1.117, 95%CI: 1.069–1.167, P<0.0001) were independent risk factors for low HRQOL. Physician support (OR=0.961, 95%CI: 0.941–0.982, P=0.0002) and CD4+ counts >350 (OR=0.033, 95%CI: 0.005–0.208, P=0.001) were independent protective factors in MSM receiving HAART. Hostile mentality (OR=0.936, 95%CI: 0.906–0.967, P<0.0001) was an independent protective factor of HRQOL in MSM not receiving HAART. Conclusions Psychological factors such as HIV-related stigma, hostile mentality, and physician support have a significant effect on HRQOL in MSM. These findings suggest specific psychological interventions to improve HRQOL in HIV-positive MSM in China. PMID:27522466

  11. Patient perspectives on the promptness and quality of care of road traffic incident victims in Peru: a cross-sectional, active surveillance study

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, J Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Background: Road injuries are the second-leading cause of disease and injury in the Andean region of South America. Adequate management of road traffic crash victims is important to prevent and reduce deaths and serious long-term injuries. Objective: To evaluate the promptness of health care services provided to those injured in road traffic incidents (RTIs) and the satisfaction with those services during the pre-hospital and hospital periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study with active surveillance to recruit participants in emergency departments at eight health care facilities in three Peruvian cities: a large metropolitan city (Lima) and two provincial cities (an urban center in the southern Andes and an urban center in the rainforest region), between August and September 2009. The main outcomes of interest were promptness of care, measured by time between injury and each service offered, as well as patient satisfaction measured by the Service Quality (SERVQUAL) survey. We explored the association between outcomes and city, type of health care facility (HCF), and type of provider. Results: We recruited 644 adults seeking care for RTIs. This active surveillance strategy yielded 34% more events than anticipated, suggesting under-reporting in traditional registries. Median response time between a RTI and any care at a HCF was 33 minutes overall and only 62% of participants received professional care during the initial “golden” hour after the RTI. After adjustment for various factors, there was strong evidence of higher global dissatisfaction levels among those receiving care at public HCFs compared to private ones (odds ratio (OR) 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-13.54). This difference was not observed when provincial sites were compared to Lima (OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.42-4.70). Conclusions: Response time to RTIs was adequate overall, though a large proportion of RTI victims could have received more prompt care. Overall, dissatisfaction was

  12. Top differential cross section measurements (Tevatron)

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Andreas W.

    2012-01-01

    Differential cross sections in the top quark sector measured at the Fermilab Tevatron collider are presented. CDF used 2.7 fb{sup -1} of data and measured the differential cross section as a function of the invariant mass of the t{bar t} system. The measurement shows good agreement with the standard model and furthermore is used to derive limits on the ratio {kappa}/M{sub Pl} for gravitons which decay to top quarks in the Randall-Sundrum model. D0 used 1.0 fb{sup -1} of data to measure the differential cross section as a function of the transverse momentum of the top-quark. The measurement shows a good agreement to the next-to-leading order perturbative QCD prediction and various other standard model predictions.

  13. The cross section for double Compton scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Employing elementary methods in nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics, the cross section for gamma sub 0 + e yields e + gamma + gamma is computed for arbitrary energy in the spectrum of the outgoing photons. The final result is given, differential in the energy of one of these photons, for the case where the incident photon is unpolarized and has energy E sub 0 much less than mc-squared, a polarization sum and angular integration being performed for the final-state photons. The cross section has a simple algebraic form resulting from contributions from the sum of squared direct and exchange amplitudes; interference terms from these amplitudes do not contribute to the angular-integrated cross section.

  14. Algorithmic analysis of quantum radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco; Venegas-Andraca, Salvador

    2015-05-01

    Sidelobe structures on classical radar cross section graphs are a consequence of discontinuities in the surface currents. In contrast, quantum radar theory states that sidelobe structures on quantum radar cross section graphs are due to quantum interference. Moreover, it is conjectured that quantum sidelobe structures may be used to detect targets oriented off the specular direction. Because of the high data bandwidth expected from quantum radar, it may be necessary to use sophisticated quantum signal analysis algorithms to determine the presence of stealth targets through the sidelobe structures. In this paper we introduce three potential quantum algorithmic techniques to compute classical and quantum radar cross sections. It is our purpose to develop a computer science-oriented tool for further physical analysis of quantum radar models as well as applications of quantum radar technology in various fields.

  15. Infrared absorption cross sections of alternative CFCs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clerbaux, Cathy; Colin, Reginald; Simon, Paul C.

    1994-01-01

    Absorption cross sections have obtained in the infrared atmospheric window, between 600 and 1500 cm(exp -1), for 10 alternative hydrohalocarbons: HCFC-22, HCFC-123, HCFC-124, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, HCFC-225ca, HCFC-225cb, HFC-125, HFC-134a, and HFC-152a. The measurements were made at three temperatures (287K, 270K and 253K) with a Fourier transform spectrometer operating at 0.03 cm(exp -1) apodized resolution. Integrated cross sections are also derived for use in radiative models to calculate the global warming potentials.

  16. Improved cross section calculations for astrophysical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Modifications are proposed for the semiempirical equations and parameters of Silberberg and Tsao (1973) for partial cross section calculations of proton-nucleus reactions in cosmic rays. These modifications include: adjustment of general parameters; modification of energy dependence; effects of nuclear alpha-particle structure, deuteron emission, and even-charged products; peripheral reactions; fission reactions; averaging cross sections near boundaries of different parameters; elimination of certain special cases; and treatment of the Pt to Pb group that cannot yet be generalized to Z(t) less than 76.

  17. Covariance Evaluation Methodology for Neutron Cross Sections

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Arcilla, R.; Mattoon, C.M.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Oblozinsky, P.; Pigni, M.; Pritychenko, b.; Songzoni, A.A.

    2008-09-01

    We present the NNDC-BNL methodology for estimating neutron cross section covariances in thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The three key elements of the methodology are Atlas of Neutron Resonances, nuclear reaction code EMPIRE, and the Bayesian code implementing Kalman filter concept. The covariance data processing, visualization and distribution capabilities are integral components of the NNDC methodology. We illustrate its application on examples including relatively detailed evaluation of covariances for two individual nuclei and massive production of simple covariance estimates for 307 materials. Certain peculiarities regarding evaluation of covariances for resolved resonances and the consistency between resonance parameter uncertainties and thermal cross section uncertainties are also discussed.

  18. New Parameterization of Neutron Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Wilson, John W.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1997-01-01

    Recent parameterization of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ion collisions, including proton-nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approx. 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pairs (charged or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, optical potential at the surface is important, and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  19. Precise neutron inelastic cross section measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Negret, Alexandru

    2012-11-20

    The design of a new generation of nuclear reactors requires the development of a very precise neutron cross section database. Ongoing experiments performed at dedicated facilities aim to the measurement of such cross sections with an unprecedented uncertainty of the order of 5% or even smaller. We give an overview of such a facility: the Gamma Array for Inelastic Neutron Scattering (GAINS) installed at the GELINA neutron source of IRMM, Belgium. Some of the most challenging difficulties of the experimental approach are emphasized and recent results are shown.

  20. Cross sections of neutron-induced reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Tapan; Lahiri, Joydev; Basu, D. N.

    2010-10-15

    We study the properties of the neutron-nucleus total and reaction cross sections for several nuclei. We have applied an analytical model, the nuclear Ramsauer model, justified it from the nuclear reaction theory approach, and extracted the values of 12 parameters used in the model. The given parametrization has an advantage as phenomenological optical model potentials are limited up to 150-200 MeV. The present model provides good estimates of the total cross sections for several nuclei particularly at high energies.

  1. Neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Sean; Albert, Joshua; Johnson, Tessa; O'Conner, Thomasina; Kaufman, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    136 Xe is an important 0 νββ candidate, studied in experiments such as EXO-200 and, in the future, nEXO. These experiments require a precise study of neutron capture for their background models. The neutron capture cross section of 136 Xe has been measured at the Detector for Advanced Capture Experiments (DANCE) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. A neutron beam ranging from thermal energy to 100 keV was incident on a gas cell filled with isotopically pure 136 Xe . We will discuss the measurement of partial neutron capture cross sections at thermal and first neutron resonance energies along with corresponding capture gamma cascades.

  2. Neutron Capture Cross Section of 239Pu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, S.; Arnold, C.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Jandel, M.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Rusev, G.; Ullmann, J. L.; Chyzh, A.; Henderson, R.; Kwan, E.; Wu, C. Y.

    2014-09-01

    The 239Pu(n,γ) cross section has been measured over the energy range 10 eV - 10 keV using the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) as part of a campaign to produce precision (n,γ) measurements on 239Pu in the keV region. Fission coincidences were measured with a PPAC and used to characterize the prompt fission γ-ray spectrum in this region. The resulting spectra will be used to better characterize the fission component of another experiment with a thicker target to extend the (n,γ) cross section measurement well into the keV region.

  3. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  4. Cross sections relevant to gamma ray astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, P.; Bodansky, D.; Maxson, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma-ray production cross sections were measured for protons and alpha particles incident on targets consisting of nuclei of high cosmic abundance: C-12, N-14, O-16, Ne-20, Mg-24, Si-28 and Fe-56. Solid or gaseous targets were bombarded by monoenergetic beams of protons and alpha particles, and gamma rays were detected by two Ge(Li) detectors. The proton energy for each target was varied from threshold to about 24 MeV (lab); for alphas the range was from threshold to about 27 MeV. For most transitions, it was possible to measure the total cross section by placing the detectors at 30.5 deg and 109.9 deg where the fourth-order Legendre polynomial is zero. For the case of the 16O (E sub gamma = 6.13 MeV, multipolarity E3) cross sections, yields were measured at four angles. Absolute cross sections were obtained by integrating the beam current and by measuring target thicknesses and detector efficiencies. The Ge(Li) detector resolution was a few keV (although the peak widths were greater, due to Doppler broadening).

  5. Photoelectric absorption cross sections with variable abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balucinska-Church, Monika; Mccammon, Dan

    1992-01-01

    Polynomial fit coefficients have been obtained for the energy dependences of the photoelectric absorption cross sections of 17 astrophysically important elements. These results allow the calculation of X-ray absorption in the energy range 0.03-10 keV in material with noncosmic abundances.

  6. Cross Sections From Scalar Field Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John W.; Dick, Frank; Norman, Ryan B.; Nasto, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    A one pion exchange scalar model is used to calculate differential and total cross sections for pion production through nucleon- nucleon collisions. The collisions involve intermediate delta particle production and decay to nucleons and a pion. The model provides the basic theoretical framework for scalar field theory and can be applied to particle production processes where the effects of spin can be neglected.

  7. Testing (Validating?) Cross Sections with ICSBEP Benchmarks

    SciTech Connect

    Kahler, Albert C. III

    2012-06-28

    We discuss how to use critical benchmarks from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments to determine the applicability of specific cross sections to the end-user's problem of interest. Particular attention is paid to making sure the selected suite of benchmarks includes the user's range of applicability (ROA).

  8. Cross-sectional structural parameters from densitometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cleek, Tammy M.; Whalen, Robert T.

    2002-01-01

    Bone densitometry has previously been used to obtain cross-sectional properties of bone from a single X-ray projection across the bone width. Using three unique projections, we have extended the method to obtain the principal area moments of inertia and orientations of the principal axes at each scan cross-section along the length of the scan. Various aluminum phantoms were used to examine scanner characteristics to develop the highest accuracy possible for in vitro non-invasive analysis of cross-sectional properties. Factors considered included X-ray photon energy, initial scan orientation, the angle spanned by the three scans (included angle), and I(min)/I(max) ratios. Principal moments of inertia were accurate to within +/-3.1% and principal angles were within +/-1 degrees of the expected value for phantoms scanned with included angles of 60 degrees and 90 degrees at the higher X-ray photon energy (140 kVp). Low standard deviations in the error (0.68-1.84%) also indicate high precision of calculated measurements with these included angles. Accuracy and precision decreased slightly when the included angle was reduced to 30 degrees. The method was then successfully applied to a pair of excised cadaveric tibiae. The accuracy and insensitivity of the algorithms to cross-sectional shape and changing isotropy (I(min)/I(max)) values when various included angles are used make this technique viable for future in vivo studies.

  9. Neutron Capture Cross Sections for Radioactive Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonchev, Anton; Bedrossian, Peter; Escher, Jutta; Scielzo, Nicholas

    2015-10-01

    Accurate neutron-capture cross sections for radioactive nuclei near or far away from the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements. However, neutron-capture cross sections for short-lived radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering, transfer reactions, and beta-delayed neutron emission. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes far from stability will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of US DOE by LLNL under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Funding was provided via the LDRD-ERD-069 project.

  10. Electron impact excitation cross sections for carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganas, P. S.

    1981-04-01

    A realistic analytic atomic independent particle model is used to generate wave functions for the valence and excited states of carbon. Using these wave functions in conjunction with the Born approximation and the Russell-Saunders LS-coupling scheme, we calculate generalized oscillator strengths and integrated cross sections for various excitations from the 2p 2( 3P O) valence state.

  11. Health-related quality-of-life of coal-based sponge iron plant workers in Barjora, India: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Kaushik; Chattopadhyay, Chaitali; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Objectives During the last decade, coal-based sponge iron plants, a highly polluted industry, have grown rapidly in Barjora, India. Understanding their workers’ perception of health is essential in people-centered healthcare. The aim of the study was to assess their health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL), and to determine factors that independently predict their HRQoL. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Coal-based sponge iron plants in Barjora, India. Participants 258 coal-based sponge iron plant workers. Primary outcome measure HRQoL was measured using the EuroQol-5D-5L. Results The response rate was 100%. Participants with problems in mobility, self-care, usual activities, pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were 23.3%, 5.1%, 10.9%, 39.5% and 45.5%, respectively. 36.8% of participants reported health state 11111 (no problem in any EQ-5D dimension). The mean visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) was 69.8 (18.5 SD). The odds of mobility problems decreased with age (OR 0.95, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.99, p=0.016), were lower in participants with presence/history of any respiratory disease (0.27, 0.13 to 0.55, p<0.001), scheduled caste/scheduled tribe/other backward class workers (0.44, 0.22 to 0.89, p=0.021), manual workers (0.40, 0.16 to 0.99, p=0.047) and non-smokers (2.63, 1.27 to 5.46, p=0.009). The odds of pain/discomfort and anxiety/depression were lower in participants with any respiratory disease (0.44, 0.24 to 0.79, p=0.006; and 0.52, 0.29 to 0.92, p=0.026, respectively). The EQ-VAS was worse in manual participants (coefficient −6.91, 95% CI −12.40 to −1.41, p=0.014), with any respiratory disease (−8.13, −13.12 to −3.13, p=0.002), alcohol drinkers (−4.81, −9.47 to −0.15, p=0.043), literates (7.70, 0.97 to 14.43, p=0.025) and Hindus (13.41, 2.62 to 24.20, p=0.015). Conclusions Many coal-based sponge iron plant workers in Barjora have problems in their HRQoL, and the predictors of different aspects of HRQoL were identified. The study findings could

  12. Tables of nuclear cross sections for galactic cosmic rays: Absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    A simple but comprehensive theory of nuclear reactions is presented. Extensive tables of nucleon, deuteron, and heavy-ion absorption cross sections over a broad range of energies are generated for use in cosmic ray shielding studies. Numerous comparisons of the calculated values with available experimental data show agreement to within 3 percent for energies above 80 MeV/nucleon and within approximately 10 percent for energies as low as 30 MeV/nucleon. These tables represent the culmination of the development of the absorption cross section formalism and supersede the preliminary absorption cross sections published previously in NASA TN D-8107, NASA TP-2138, and NASA TM-84636.

  13. Universal Parameterization of Absorption Cross Sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple universal parameterization of total reaction cross sections for any system of colliding nuclei that is valid for the entire energy range from a few AMeV to a few AGeV. The universal picture presented here treats proton-nucleus collision as a special case of nucleus-nucleus collision, where the projectile has charge and mass number of one. The parameters are associated with the physics of the collision system. In general terms, Coulomb interaction modifies cross sections at lower energies, and the effects of Pauli blocking are important at higher energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than all earlier published results.

  14. Calculation of improved spallation cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C. H.; Silberberg, R.; Letaw, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several research groups have recently carried out highly precise measurements (to about 10 percent) of high-energy nuclear spallation cross sections. These measurements, above 5 GeV, cover a broad range of elements: V, Fe, Cu, Ag, Ta and Au. Even the small cross sections far off the peak of the isotopic distribution curves have been measured. The semiempirical calculations are compared with the measured values. Preliminary comparisons indicate that the parameters of our spallation relations (Silberberg and Tsao, 1973) for atomic numbers 20 to 83 need modifications, e.g. a reduced slope of the mass yield distribution, broader isotopic distributions, and a shift of the isotopic distribution toward the neutron-deficient side. The required modifications are negligible near Fe and Cu, but increase with increasing target mass.

  15. Cross sections required for FMIT dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.; Lippincott, E.P.; Mann, F.M.; Oberg, D.L.; Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1980-05-02

    The Fusion Materials Irradiation Test (FMIT) facility, currently under construction, is designed to produce a high flux of high energy neutrons for irradiation effects experiments on fusion reactor materials. Characterization of the flux-fluence-spectrum in this rapidly varying neutron field requires adaptation and extension of currently available dosimetry techniques. This characterization will be carried out by a combination of active, passive, and calculational dosimetry. The goal is to provide the experimenter with accurate neutron flux-fluence-spectra at all positions in the test cell. Plans have been completed for a number of experimental dosimetry stations and provision for these facilities has been incorporated into the FMIT design. Overall needs of the FMIT irradiation damage program delineate goal accuracies for dosimetry that, in turn, create new requirements for high energy neutron cross section data. Recommendations based on these needs have been derived for required cross section data and accuracies.

  16. Inclusive jet cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliarone, C.

    1996-08-01

    The CDF Collaboration has measured the inclusive jet cross section using 1992-93 collider data at 1.8 TeV. The CDF measurement is in very good agreement with NLO QCD predictions for transverse energies (E{sub T}) below 200 GeV. However, it is systematically higher than NLO QCD predictions for E{sub T} above 200 GeV.

  17. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  18. Neutron cross section standards and instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-09-01

    This report from the National Institute of Standards and Technology contains a summary of the accomplishments of the Neutron Cross Section Standards and Instrumentation Project during the second year of a three-year interagency agreement. This program includes a broad range of data measurements and evaluations. An emphasis has been focused on the (sup 10)B cross sections where serious discrepancies in the nuclear data base remain. In particular, there are important problems with the interpretation of the helium gas production associated with diagnostic measurements of interest in nuclear technology. The enhanced use of this isotope for medical treatment is also of significance. New measurements of neutron reaction cross sections for (sup 10)B are in progress in collaboration with scientists at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. New experiments are in progress on the important dosimetry standards (sup 237)Np(n,f) and (sup 239)Pu(n,f) below 1 MeV neutron energy. In addition, new measurements of charged-particle production in basic biological elements for medical applications are underway. Further measurements are planned or in progress in collaborations which include fission fragment energy and angular distributions, and neutron energy spectra and angular distributions from neutron-induced fission. Also measurements of angular distributions of neutrons from scattering on protons, and determinations of capture cross section of gold are planned for a later time. Data evaluation will shift to include a unified international effort to motivate new measurements and evaluations. In response to the requests of the measurement community, NIST is beginning the formation of a national depository for fissionable isotope mass standards. This action will preserve for future measurements the valuable and irreplaceable critical samples whose masses and composition have been carefully determined and documented over the past 30 years of the nuclear program.

  19. Inclusive jet cross section at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharjee, M.

    1996-09-01

    Preliminary measurement of the central ({vert_bar}{eta}{vert_bar} {<=} 0.5) inclusive jet cross sections for jet cone sizes of 1.0, 0.7, and 0.5 at D{null} based on the 1992-1993 (13.7 {ital pb}{sup -1}) and 1994-1995 (90 {ital pb}{sup -1}) data samples are presented. Comparisons to Next-to-Leading Order (NLO) Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations are made.

  20. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1985-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  1. Absolute photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.; Pareek, P. N.

    1982-01-01

    The absolute values of photoionization cross sections of atomic oxygen were measured from the ionization threshold to 120 A. An auto-ionizing resonance belonging to the 2S2P4(4P)3P(3Do, 3So) transition was observed at 479.43 A and another line at 389.97 A. The experimental data is in excellent agreement with rigorous close-coupling calculations that include electron correlations in both the initial and final states.

  2. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  3. How to Calculate Colourful Cross Sections Efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Gleisberg, Tanju; Hoeche, Stefan; Krauss, Frank

    2008-09-03

    Different methods for the calculation of cross sections with many QCD particles are compared. To this end, CSW vertex rules, Berends-Giele recursion and Feynman-diagram based techniques are implemented as well as various methods for the treatment of colours and phase space integration. We find that typically there is only a small window of jet multiplicities, where the CSW technique has efficiencies comparable or better than both of the other two methods.

  4. The role of quality of care and attitude towards disability in the relationship between severity of disability and quality of life: findings from a cross-sectional survey among people with physical disability in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background People with physical disability (PWPD) is the largest subgroup of people with disability (PWD) in China, but few studies have been conducted among this vulnerable population. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of quality of life (QoL), self-perceived quality of care and support (QOCS), severity of disability and personal attitude towards disability among people with physical disability in China, as well as to identify how QoL can be affected by severity of disability through QOCS and personal attitude towards disability among PWPD. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,853 PWPD in Guangzhou, China. Data were collected on participants’ QoL, QOCS, personal attitude towards disability and severity of disability. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of the other variables on QoL. Results Even with a mild disability (mean score:1.72), relatively low levels of QoL (mean score: 2.65- 3.22) and QOCS (mean score: 2.95 to 3.28), as well as unfavorable personal attitude towards disability (mean score: 2.75 to 3.36) were identified among PWPD. According to SEM, we found that the influence of severity of physical disability on QoL is not only exerted directly, but is also indirectly through QOCS and their personal attitudes towards disability, with QOCS playing a more important mediating role than PWPD’s attitudes towards their own disability. Conclusions Unfavorable health status was identified among PWPD in China. Focusing on improvement of assistance and care services has the potential to substantially improve PWPD’s QoL. Further research should focus on understanding the needs and their current state of health care of PWPD in China thus being able to develop better interventions for them. PMID:24559096

  5. Preliminary cross section of Englebright Lake sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, Noah P.; Hampton, Margaret A.

    2003-01-01

    Overview -- The Upper Yuba River Studies Program is a CALFED-funded, multidisciplinary investigation of the feasibility of introducing anadromous fish species to the Yuba River system upstream of Englebright Dam. Englebright Lake (Figure 1 on poster) is a narrow, 14-km-long reservoir located in the northern Sierra Nevada, northeast of Marysville, CA. The dam was completed in 1941 for the primary purpose of trapping sediment derived from mining operations in the Yuba River watershed. Possible management scenarios include lowering or removing Englebright Dam, which could cause the release of stored sediments and associated contaminants, such as mercury used extensively in 19th-century hydraulic gold mining. Transport of released sediment to downstream areas could increase existing problems including flooding and mercury bioaccumulation in sport fish. To characterize the extent, grain size, and chemistry of this sediment, a coring campaign was done in Englebright Lake in May and June 2002. More than twenty holes were drilled at 7 different locations along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir (Figure 4 on poster), recovering 6 complete sequences of post-reservoir deposition and progradation. Here, a longitudinal cross section of Englebright Lake is presented (Figure 5 on poster), including pre-dam and present-day topographic profiles, and sedimentologic sections for each coring site. This figure shows the deltaic form of the reservoir deposit, with a thick upper section consisting of sand and gravel overlying silt, a steep front, and a thinner lower section dominated by silt. The methodologies used to create the reservoir cross section are discussed in the lower part of this poster.

  6. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.

    2014-10-23

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  7. The calculation of radar cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pizer, R.

    1980-04-01

    The FORTRAN program CHAOS, used for calculating cross sections is described including the physical approximations used to simplify Maxwell's equations. The scattering bodies are extended to both open and closed surfaces. The numerical methods used are supplied. The problems of wire junctions, of finite conductivity and the attaching of lumped loads to the structure are considered. Techniques for dealing with bodies having rotational or left-right symmetries are examined as well as the sparse matrix approximation and the complex frequency version of CHAOS. The formula used to calculate the impedance matrix elements, and the conventions adopted concerning coordinate systems and polarization are included.

  8. Correlation cross sections along the international border

    SciTech Connect

    Martiniuk, C.D. ); Le Fever, J.A.; Anderson, S.B. )

    1991-06-01

    The Manitoba-North Dakota (Canada-US) stratigraphic correlation project is a joint study between the Petroleum Branch of Manitoba Energy and Mines and the North Dakota Geological Survey. It is an attempt to correlate the differing stratigraphic terminologies established in the two jurisdictions by providing a reference cross section across the international boundary. The study involves the subsurface correlation of logs of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences in the Manitoba and North Dakota portions of the Williston basin. The Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences are subdivided for presentation into the following stratigraphic intervals: (a) Cambrian-Ordovician-Silurian, (b) Devonian, (c) Mississippian, (d) Jurassic, and (e) Cretaceous. Wireline logs show the actual stratigraphic correlations. A nomenclature chart is also presented from each sequence. In addition, the sections include a generalized description of lithologies, thicknesses, environments of deposition, and petroleum potential for each geographic area.

  9. Windowed multipole for cross section Doppler broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josey, C.; Ducru, P.; Forget, B.; Smith, K.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents an in-depth analysis on the accuracy and performance of the windowed multipole Doppler broadening method. The basic theory behind cross section data is described, along with the basic multipole formalism followed by the approximations leading to windowed multipole method and the algorithm used to efficiently evaluate Doppler broadened cross sections. The method is tested by simulating the BEAVRS benchmark with a windowed multipole library composed of 70 nuclides. Accuracy of the method is demonstrated on a single assembly case where total neutron production rates and 238U capture rates compare within 0.1% to ACE format files at the same temperature. With regards to performance, clock cycle counts and cache misses were measured for single temperature ACE table lookup and for windowed multipole. The windowed multipole method was found to require 39.6% more clock cycles to evaluate, translating to a 7.9% performance loss overall. However, the algorithm has significantly better last-level cache performance, with 3 fewer misses per evaluation, or a 65% reduction in last-level misses. This is due to the small memory footprint of the windowed multipole method and better memory access pattern of the algorithm.

  10. Neutronic Cross Section Calculations on Fluorine Nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, A.; Tel, E.

    2013-06-01

    Certain light nuclei such as Lithium (Li), Beryllium (Be), Fluorine (F) (which are known as FLİBE) and its molten salt compounds (LiF, BeF2 and NaF) can serve as a coolant which can be used at high temperatures without reaching a high vapor pressure. These molten salt compounds are also a good neutron moderator. In this study, cross sections of neutron induced reactions have been calculated for fluorine target nucleus. The new calculations on the excitation functions of 19F( n, 2n), 19F( n, p), 19F( n, xn), 19F( n, xp) have been made. In these calculations, the pre-equilibrium and equilibrium effects have been investigated. The pre-equilibrium calculations involve the full exciton model and the cascade exciton model. The equilibrium effects are calculated according to the Weisskopf-Ewing model. Also in the present work, the ( n, 2n) and ( n, p) reaction cross sections have calculated by using evaluated empirical formulas developed by Tel et al. at 14-15 MeV energy. The multiple pre-equilibrium mean free path constant from internal transition have been investigated for 19F nucleus. The obtained results have been discussed and compared with the available experimental data.

  11. Actinide Targets for Neutron Cross Section Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    John D. Baker; Christopher A. McGrath

    2006-10-01

    The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) and the Generation IV Reactor Initiative have demonstrated a lack of detailed neutron cross-sections for certain "minor" actinides, those other than the most common (235U, 238U, and 239Pu). For some closed-fuel-cycle reactor designs more than 50% of reactivity will, at some point, be derived from "minor" actinides that currently have poorly known or in some cases not measured (n,?) and (n,f) cross sections. A program of measurements under AFCI has begun to correct this. One of the initial hurdles has been to produce well-characterized, highly isotopically enriched, and chemically pure actinide targets on thin backings. Using a combination of resurrected techniques and new developments, we have made a series of targets including highly enriched 239Pu, 240Pu, and 242Pu. Thus far, we have electrodeposited these actinide targets. In the future, we plan to study reductive distillation to achieve homogeneous, adherent targets on thin metal foils and polymer backings. As we move forward, separated isotopes become scarcer, and safety concerns become greater. The chemical purification and electodeposition techniques will be described.

  12. Does Future Diabetes Risk Impair Current Quality of Life? A Cross-Sectional Study of Health-Related Quality of Life in Relation to the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC)

    PubMed Central

    Väätäinen, Saku; Cederberg, Henna; Roine, Risto; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Saramies, Jouko; Uusitalo, Hannu; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Martikainen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Present study examines the relationship between the estimated risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We quantify the association between Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) and HRQoL, and examine the potential use of FINDRISC as tool to evaluate HRQoL indirectly. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study comprising 707 Finnish people without a diagnosis of T2D between the ages of 51 and 75 years. The risk of developing T2D was assessed using the validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0–26 points), and quality of life was measured using two preference-based HRQoL instruments (15D and SF-6D) and one health profile instrument (SF-36). Effects of the individual FINDRISC items and demographic and clinical characteristics, such as co-morbidities, on HRQoL were studied using multivariable Tobit regression models. Results Low HRQoL was significantly and directly associated with the estimated risk of developing T2D. An approximate 4–5 point change in FINDRISC score was observed to be associated with clinically noticeable changes in the preference-based instrument HRQoL index scores. The association between HRQoL and the risk of developing T2D was also observed for most dimensions of HRQoL in all applied HRQoL instruments. Overall, old age, lack of physical activity, obesity, and history of high blood glucose were the FINDRISC factors most prominently associated with lower HRQoL. Conclusions The findings may help the health care professionals to substantiate the possible improvement in glucose metabolism and HRQoL potentially achieved by lifestyle changes, and better convince people at high risk of T2D to take action towards healthier lifestyle habits. FINDRISC may also provide an accurate proxy for HRQoL, and thus by estimating the risk of T2D with the FINDRISC, information about patients’ HRQoL may also be obtained indirectly, when it is not feasible to use HRQoL instruments. PMID:26840374

  13. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the tin isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Theis, C.; Kaeppeler, F.; Guber, K.; Kazakov, L.; Kornilov, N.; Reffo, G.

    1996-09-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 114}Sn, {sup 115}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 117}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, and {sup 120}Sn were measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li({ital p},{ital n}){sup 7}Be reaction using a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} barium fluoride detector. The experiment was complicated by the small ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections of the proton magic tin isotopes and by the comparably low enrichment of the rare isotopes {sup 114}Sn and {sup 115}Sn. Despite significant corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities, the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector allowed the determination of the cross-section ratios with overall uncertainties of 1{endash}2{percent}, five times smaller compared to existing data. Based on these results, Maxwellian averaged ({ital n},{gamma}) cross sections were calculated for thermal energies between {ital kT}=10 and 100 keV. These data are used for a discussion of the solar tin abundance and for an improved determination of the isotopic {ital s}- and {ital r}-process components. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Accurate universal parameterization of absorption cross sections II--neutron absorption cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    1997-01-01

    A recent parameterization (here after referred as paper I, Ref. [4]) of absorption cross sections for any system of charged ions collisions including proton -nucleus collisions, is extended for neutron-nucleus collisions valid from approximately 1 MeV to a few GeV, thus providing a comprehensive picture of absorption cross sections for any system of collision pair (charged and/or uncharged). The parameters are associated with the physics of the problem. At lower energies, the optical potential at the surface is important and the Pauli operator plays an increasingly important role at intermediate energies. The agreement between the calculated and experimental data is better than earlier published results.

  15. Lunar Radar Cross Section at Low Frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, P.; Kennedy, E. J.; Kossey, P.; McCarrick, M.; Kaiser, M. L.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Tokarev, Y. V.

    2002-01-01

    Recent bistatic measurements of the lunar radar cross-section have extended the spectrum to long radio wavelength. We have utilized the HF Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) radar facility near Gakona, Alaska to transmit high power pulses at 8.075 MHz to the Moon; the echo pulses were received onboard the NASA/WIND spacecraft by the WAVES HF receiver. This lunar radar experiment follows our previous use of earth-based HF radar with satellites to conduct space experiments. The spacecraft was approaching the Moon for a scheduled orbit perturbation when our experiment of 13 September 2001 was conducted. During the two-hour experiment, the radial distance of the satellite from the Moon varied from 28 to 24 Rm, where Rm is in lunar radii.

  16. Photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.X.; Yeh, T.R.; Lancman, H.

    1986-10-01

    The photofission cross section of /sup 232/Th was measured in the 5.8-12 MeV energy range with an average photon energy resolution of 600 eV. Intermediate structure was observed at 5.91, 5.97, and 6.31 MeV. The experimental fission probability and various properties of the intermediate structure were compared with calculated values based on a double-humped fission barrier as well as a triple-humped one. The results favor, though not decisively, the presence of a shallow third well in the barrier. Certain features of both barriers, a rather high first hump and a deep secondary well, are quite different from those predicted by current theoretical barrier calculations.

  17. Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) Cross Section

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This drawing shows a cross-section view of the test cell at the heart of the Geophysical Fluid Flow Cell (GFFC) that flew on two Spacelab missions. The middle and lower drawings depict the volume of the silicone oil layer that served as the atmosphere as the steel ball rotated and an electrostatic field pulled the oil inward to mimic gravity's effects during the experiments. The GFFC thus produced flow patterns that simulated conditions inside the atmospheres of Jupiter and the Sun and other stars. The principal investigator was John Hart of the University of Colorado at Boulder. It was managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). An Acrobat PDF copy of this drawing is available at http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery. (Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center)

  18. Absolute photoneutron cross sections of Sm isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Utsunomiya, H.; Filipescu, D.; Nyhus, H.-T.; Renstrom, T.; Tesileanu, O.; Shima, T.; Takahisa, K.; Miyamoto, S.

    2015-02-24

    Photoneutron cross sections for seven samarium isotopes, {sup 144}Sm, {sup 147}Sm, {sup 148}Sm, {sup 149}Sm, {sup 150}Sm, {sup 152}Sm and {sup 154}Sm, have been investigated near neutron emission threshold using quasimonochromatic laser-Compton scattering γ-rays produced at the synchrotron radiation facility NewSUBARU. The results are important for nuclear astrophysics calculations and also for probing γ-ray strength functions in the vicinity of neutron threshold. Here we describe the neutron detection system and we discuss the related data analysis and the necessary method improvements for adapting the current experimental method to the working parameters of the future Gamma Beam System of Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics facility.

  19. Top cross section measurement at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Compostella, Gabriele; /INFN, CNAF /Padua U.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the latest measurements of the t{bar t} pair production cross section performed by the CDF Collaboration analyzing p{bar p} collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 1.96 TeV from Fermilab Tevatron, as presented at the XVIII International Workshop on Deep-Inelastic Scattering and Related Subjects. In order to test Standard Model predictions, several analysis methods are explored and all the top decay channels are considered, to better constrain the properties of the top quark and to search for possible sources of new physics affecting the pair production mechanism. Experimental results using an integrated luminosity up to 5.1 fb{sup -1} are presented.

  20. Collision cross sections for structural proteomics.

    PubMed

    Marklund, Erik G; Degiacomi, Matteo T; Robinson, Carol V; Baldwin, Andrew J; Benesch, Justin L P

    2015-04-01

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) allows the structural interrogation of biomolecules by reporting their collision cross sections (CCSs). The major bottleneck for exploiting IM-MS in structural proteomics lies in the lack of speed at which structures and models can be related to experimental data. Here we present IMPACT (Ion Mobility Projection Approximation Calculation Tool), which overcomes these twin challenges, providing accurate CCSs up to 10(6) times faster than alternative methods. This allows us to assess the CCS space presented by the entire structural proteome, interrogate ensembles of protein conformers, and monitor molecular dynamics trajectories. Our data demonstrate that the CCS is a highly informative parameter and that IM-MS is of considerable practical value to structural biologists. PMID:25800554

  1. In cross-sectional observations, dietary quality is not associated with CVD risk in women; in men the positive association is accounted for by BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role that BMI plays in the association between dietary quality and CVD risk is not known. We aimed to better understand this relationship using statistical methods which correct for sex-specific underreporting of dietary intake. Overall, dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Inde...

  2. Do South Asian women with PCOS have poorer health-related quality of life than Caucasian women with PCOS? A comparative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common chronic endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the HRQoL of South Asian and white Caucasian women with PCOS, given that it is particularly common among women of South Asian origin and they have been shown to have more severe symptoms. Methods The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Questionnaire (PCOSQ) and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) were administered in a cross-sectional survey to 42 South Asian and 129 Caucasian women diagnosed with PCOS recruited from the gynaecology outpatient clinics of two university teaching hospitals in Sheffield and Leeds. Additional clinical data was abstracted from medical notes. Normative data, collected as part of the Oxford Health and Lifestyles II survey, was obtained to compare SF-36 results with ethnically matched women from the general UK population. Using the SF-36, normative HRQoL scores for women of South Asian origin were lower than for Caucasian women. Given this lower baseline we tested whether the same relationship holds true among those with PCOS. Results Although HRQoL scores for women with PCOS were lower than normative data for both groups, South Asian women with PCOS did not have poorer HRQoL than their Caucasian counterparts. For both the SF-36 and PCOSQ, mean scores were broadly the same for both Asian and Caucasian women. For both groups, the worst two HRQoL domains as measured on the PCOSQ were 'infertility' and 'weight', with respective scores of 35.3 and 42.3 for Asian women with PCOS compared to 38.6 and 35.4 for Caucasian women with PCOS. The highest scoring domain for South Asian women with PCOS was 'menstrual problems' (55.3), indicating best health, and was the only statistically significant difference from Caucasian women (p = 0.01). On the SF-36, the lowest scoring domain was 'Energy & Vitality' for Caucasian women with PCOS, but this was significantly higher for Asian women with PCOS (p = 0.01). The best

  3. Stellar neutron capture cross sections of the Nd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wisshak, K.; Voss, F.; Kaeppeler, F.; Kazakov, L.; Reffo, G.

    1998-01-01

    The neutron capture cross sections of {sup 142}Nd, {sup 143}Nd, {sup 144}Nd, {sup 145}Nd, {sup 146}Nd, and {sup 148}Nd have been measured in the energy range from 3 to 225 keV at the Karlsruhe 3.75 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Neutrons were produced via the {sup 7}Li(p,n){sup 7}Be reaction by bombarding metallic Li targets with a pulsed proton beam. Capture events were registered with the Karlsruhe 4{pi} Barium Fluoride Detector. The cross sections were determined relative to the gold standard. The experiment was difficult due to the small cross sections of the even isotopes at or near the magic neutron number N=82, and also since the isotopic enrichment of some samples was comparably low. The necessary corrections for capture of scattered neutrons and for isotopic impurities could be determined reliably thanks to the high efficiency and the spectroscopic quality of the BaF{sub 2} detector, resulting in a consistent set of (n,{gamma}) cross sections for the six stable neodymium isotopes involved in the s process with typical uncertainties of 1.5{endash}2{percent}. From these data, Maxwellian averaged cross sections were calculated between kT=10 and 100 keV. The astrophysical implications of these results were investigated in an s-process analysis, which deals with the role of the s-only isotope {sup 142}Nd for the N{sub s}{l_angle}{sigma}{r_angle} systematics near the magic neutron number N=82, the decomposition of the Nd abundances into the respective r-, s-, and p-process components, and the interpretation of isotopic anomalies in meteoritic material. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Experiments on Antiprotons: Antiproton-Nucleon Cross Sections

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Chamberlain, Owen; Keller, Donald V.; Mermond, Ronald; Segre, Emilio; Steiner, Herbert M.; Ypsilantis, Tom

    1957-07-22

    In this paper experiments are reported on annihilation and scattering of antiprotons in H{sub 2}O , D{sub 2}O, and O{sub 2}. From the data measured it is possible to obtain an antiproton-proton and an antiproton-deuteron cross section at 457 Mev (lab). Further analysis gives the p-p and p-n cross sections as 104 mb for the p-p reaction cross section and 113 mb for the p-n reaction cross section. The respective annihilation cross sections are 89 and 74 mb. The Glauber correction necessary in order to pass from the p-d to the p-n cross section by subtraction of the p-p cross section is unfortunately large and somewhat uncertain. The data are compared with the p-p and p-n cross sections and with other results on p-p collisions.

  5. Single-level resonance parameters fit nuclear cross-sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drawbaugh, D. W.; Gibson, G.; Miller, M.; Page, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Least squares analyses of experimental differential cross-section data for the U-235 nucleus have yielded single level Breit-Wigner resonance parameters that fit, simultaneously, three nuclear cross sections of capture, fission, and total.

  6. Evaluation of Neutron Resonance Cross Section Data at GELINA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillebeeckx, P.; Becker, B.; Capote, R.; Emiliani, F.; Guber, K.; Heyse, J.; Kauwenberghs, K.; Kopecky, S.; Lampoudis, C.; Massimi, C.; Mondelaers, W.; Moxon, M.; Noguere, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Pronyaev, V.; Siegler, P.; Sirakov, I.; Trkov, A.; Volev, K.; Zerovnik, G.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last decade, the EC-JRC-IRMM, in collaboration with other institutes such as INRNE Sofia (BG), INFN Bologna (IT), ORNL (USA), CEA Cadarache (FR) and CEA Saclay (FR), has made an intense effort to improve the quality of neutron-induced cross section data in the resonance region. These improvements relate to both the infrastructure of the facility and the measurement setup, and the data reduction and analysis procedures. As a result total and reaction cross section data in the resonance region with uncertainties better than 0.5 % and 2 %, respectively, can be produced together with evaluated data files for both the resolved and unresolved resonance region. The methodology to produce full ENDF compatible files, including covariances, is illustrated by the production of resolved resonance parameter files for 241Am, Cd and W and an evaluation for 197Au in the unresolved resonance region.

  7. The effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime function in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Shao, I-Hung; Wu, Chia-Chen; Hsu, Hueih-Shing; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Wang, Hsu-Hsiang; Chuang, Heng-Chang; Tam, Yuan-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background Nocturia has been proven to have a negative impact on the quality of life and sleep quality in general elderly population. However, there are limited studies on the quantitative effect of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction, specifically in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms. Patients and methods During March 1, 2015 to December 31, 2015, a total of 728 patients who visited our urology department due to voiding dysfunction and experienced nocturia at least once per night were enrolled. Three questionnaires were administered to them after obtaining their written consents. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) questionnaire, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire were applied to evaluate their sleep quality, daytime dysfunction, and voiding problems, respectively. Statistical analysis of the impact of nocturia on sleep quality and daytime dysfunction was performed. Results The mean age of patients was 61 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.7. The mean nocturia number was 3.03. The IPSS, PSQI, and ESS scores were 17.56, 8.35, and 8.22, respectively. The nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated to ESS score (daytime dysfunction) and PSQI total score (sleep quality) in overall group. Among subgroups divided by age and sex, there was a significant correlation between nocturia number and daytime dysfunction in male patients or patients younger than 65 years. Conclusion In patients with lower urinary tract symptoms, nocturia number increased with age and was significantly correlated with poor sleep quality. Nocturia plays an important role in patients younger than 65 years in daytime dysfunction. PMID:27418814

  8. Efficacy of Quality Criteria to Identify Potentially Harmful Information: A Cross-sectional Survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Web Sites

    PubMed Central

    Walji, Muhammad; Sagaram, Smitha; Sagaram, Deepak; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Johnson, Craig; Mirza, Nadeem Q

    2004-01-01

    Background Many users search the Internet for answers to health questions. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a particularly common search topic. Because many CAM therapies do not require a clinician's prescription, false or misleading CAM information may be more dangerous than information about traditional therapies. Many quality criteria have been suggested to filter out potentially harmful online health information. However, assessing the accuracy of CAM information is uniquely challenging since CAM is generally not supported by conventional literature. Objective The purpose of this study is to determine whether domain-independent technical quality criteria can identify potentially harmful online CAM content. Methods We analyzed 150 Web sites retrieved from a search for the three most popular herbs: ginseng, ginkgo and St. John's wort and their purported uses on the ten most commonly used search engines. The presence of technical quality criteria as well as potentially harmful statements (commissions) and vital information that should have been mentioned (omissions) was recorded. Results Thirty-eight sites (25%) contained statements that could lead to direct physical harm if acted upon. One hundred forty five sites (97%) had omitted information. We found no relationship between technical quality criteria and potentially harmful information. Conclusions Current technical quality criteria do not identify potentially harmful CAM information online. Consumers should be warned to use other means of validation or to trust only known sites. Quality criteria that consider the uniqueness of CAM must be developed and validated. PMID:15249270

  9. Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 64 NIST Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross-Section Database (PC database, no charge)   This database provides values of differential elastic-scattering cross sections, corresponding total elastic-scattering cross sections, phase shifts, and transport cross sections for elements with atomic numbers from 1 to 96 and for electron energies between 50 eV and 20,000 eV (in steps of 1 eV).

  10. Electron cross section set for CHF{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, W. Lowell; Winstead, Carl; McKoy, Vincent

    2001-08-15

    We describe the development of a consistent set of low-energy electron collision cross sections for trifluoromethane, CHF{sub 3}. First-principles calculations are used to obtain key elastic and inelastic cross sections. These are combined with literature values of the ionization cross section and with vibrational excitation cross sections obtained from the Born approximation to form a preliminary set, which is then adjusted to achieve consistency with measured swarm parameters. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Quality of care in sickle cell disease: Cross-sectional study and development of a measure for adults reporting on ambulatory and emergency department care.

    PubMed

    Evensen, Christian T; Treadwell, Marsha J; Keller, San; Levine, Roger; Hassell, Kathryn L; Werner, Ellen M; Smith, Wally R

    2016-08-01

    Documented deficiencies in adult sickle cell disease (SCD) care include poor access to knowledgeable providers and inadequate treatment in emergency departments (EDs).The aim of this study was to create patient-reported outcome measures of the quality of ambulatory and ED care for adults with SCD.We developed and pilot tested SCD quality of care questions consistent with Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems surveys. We applied psychometric methods to develop scores and evaluate reliability and validity.The participants of this study were adults with SCD (n = 556)-63% aged 18 to 34 years; 64% female; 64% SCD-SS-at 7 US sites.The measure used was Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement information system Quality of Care survey.Most participants (90%) reported at least 1 severe pain episode (pain intensity 7.8 ± 2.3, 0-10 scale) in the past year. Most (81%) chose to manage pain at home rather than the ED, citing negative ED experiences (83%). Using factor analysis, we identified Access, Provider Interaction, and ED Care composites with reliable scores (Cronbach α 0.70-0.83) and construct validity (r = 0.32-0.83 correlations with global care ratings). Compared to general adult Consumer Assessments of Healthcare Providers and Systems scores, adults with SCD had worse care, adjusted for age, education, and general health.Results were consistent with other research reflecting deficiencies in ED care for adults with SCD. The Adult Sickle Cell Quality of Life Measurement Quality of Care measure is a useful self-report measure for documenting and tracking disparities in quality of SCD care. PMID:27583862

  12. A simple approach to SEU cross section evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshkin, V.V.; Tverskoy, M.G.

    1998-12-01

    The simplified method for determination of proton induced SEU cross section is presented. The method is based on results of the analysis of experimental SEU cross sections initiated by fast nucleons. The possibility of SEU cross section measurement at single proton energy for SEU rate prediction is shown.

  13. Viscous Flow through Pipes of Various Cross-Sections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekner, John

    2007-01-01

    An interesting variety of pipe cross-sectional shapes can be generated, for which the Navier-Stokes equations can be solved exactly. The simplest cases include the known solutions for elliptical and equilateral triangle cross-sections. Students can find pipe cross-sections from solutions of Laplace's equation in two dimensions, and then plot the…

  14. Mental Visualization of Objects from Cross-Sectional Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Bing; Klatzky, Roberta L.; Stetten, George D.

    2012-01-01

    We extended the classic anorthoscopic viewing procedure to test a model of visualization of 3D structures from 2D cross-sections. Four experiments were conducted to examine key processes described in the model, localizing cross-sections within a common frame of reference and spatiotemporal integration of cross sections into a hierarchical object…

  15. The effect of parity on pelvic floor muscle strength and quality of life in women with urinary incontinence: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Özdemır, Özlem Çınar; Bakar, Yesim; Özengın, Nuriye; Duran, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the pelvic floor muscle (PFM) activity after vaginal birth, and the effect of parity on PFM strength and quality of life (QoL) in women with urinary incontinence. [Subjects and Methods] Patients (n=241) who gave birth vaginally and experienced urinary incontinence were divided into three groups: group 1 consisted of women having 1–3 children, group 2 consisted of women having 4–6 children, and group 3 consisted of women having more than 6 children. All patients underwent detailed examination of the PFM. The Turkish version of the self-administered Incontinence Quality of Life Instrument (I-QoL) questionnaire was used to evaluate the effects of stress urinary incontinence on participants’ QoL. [Results] Comparison of PFM strengths showed a significant intergroup difference. Group 1 showed significantly higher PFM strength scores than those of groups 2 and 3. I-QoL scores related to stress incontinence showed a significant intergroup difference. As number of deliveries increased, quality of life decreased. Comparison of PFM strengths and I-QoL scores related to stress incontinence showed a significant intergroup difference. [Conclusion] Increasing the awareness of PFM training in women will reduce potential postpartum incontinence due to a weak PFM strength; and will increase quality of life. PMID:26311939

  16. Decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity: a cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Livingstone, M Barbara E

    2016-01-28

    Evidence of associations between meal frequency (MF) and snack frequency (SF) and diet and obesity in young populations is limited. This cross-sectional study examined MF and SF in relation to dietary intake and adiposity measures in British children aged 4-10 years (n 818) and adolescents aged 11-18 years (n 818). Based on data from a 7-d weighed dietary record, all eating occasions were divided into meals or snacks on the basis of contribution to energy intake (≥15 or <15 %) or time (06.00-10.00, 12.00-15.00 and 18.00-21.00 hours or others). All measures of MF and SF showed positive associations with energy intake, except for MF based on energy contribution in children. Irrespective of the definition of snacks, SF was associated with higher intakes of soft drinks, confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of cereals, fish, meat, protein, PUFA, starch and dietary fibre, and a lower diet quality (assessed by the Mediterranean diet score, except for SF based on energy contribution in adolescents). MF based on time, but not based on energy contribution, was associated with higher intakes of confectionery and total sugar, lower intakes of fish, protein, PUFA and starch, and, only in children, a lower diet quality. All measures of MF and SF showed no association with adiposity measures. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study in British children and adolescents suggests that decreasing the number of small eating occasions (<15 % of total energy intake) regardless of the time of day may be important to improve diet quality but not adiposity. PMID:26568443

  17. Cross sections for actinide burner reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the feasibility of burning higher actinides (i.e., transuranium (TRU) elements excluding plutonium) in ad hoc designed reactors (Actinide Burner Reactors: ABR) which, because of their hard neutron spectra, enhance the fission of TRU. The transmutation of long-lived radionuclides into stable or short-lived isotopes reduces considerably the burden of handling high-level waste from either LWR or Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) fuels. Because of the large concentrations of higher actinides in these novel reactor designs the Doppler effect due to TRU materials is the most important temperature coefficient from the point of view of reactor safety. Here we report calculations of energy group-averaged capture and fission cross sections as function of temperature and dilution for higher actinides in the resolved and unresolved resonance regions. The calculations were done with the codes SAMMY in the resolved region and URR in the unresolved regions and compared with an independent calculation. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. APPARATUS FOR MEASURING TOTAL NEUTRON CROSS SECTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Cranberg, L.

    1959-10-13

    An apparatus is described for measuring high-resolution total neutron cross sections at high counting rate in the range above 50-kev neutron energy. The pulsed-beam time-of-flight technique is used to identify the neutrons of interest which are produced in the target of an electrostatic accelerator. Energy modulation of the accelerator . makes it possible to make observations at 100 energy points simultaneously. 761O An apparatus is described for monitoring the proton resonance of a liquid which is particulariy useful in the continuous purity analysis of heavy water. A hollow shell with parallel sides defines a meander chamber positioned within a uniform magnetic fieid. The liquid passes through an inlet at the outer edge of the chamber and through a spiral channel to the central region of the chamber where an outlet tube extends into the chamber perpendicular to the magnetic field. The radiofrequency energy for the monitor is coupled to a coil positioned coaxially with the outlet tube at its entrance point within the chamber. The improvement lies in the compact mechanical arrangement of the monitor unit whereby the liquid under analysis is subjected to the same magnetic field in the storage and sensing areas, and the entire unit is shielded from external electrostatic influences.

  19. Normalization of experimental electron cross sections.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avdonina, N.; Felfli, Z.; Msezane, A. Z.

    1997-10-01

    Absolute experimental electron-impact differential cross sections (DCSs) can be obtained through an extrapolation of the relative generalized oscillator strength (GOS) values at some given impact energy E to zero momentum transfer squared K^2, the optical oscillator strength (OOS) [1]. We propose to normalize the relative experimental DCS data to the corresponding OOS value by extrapolating the GOS to K^2 = 0 without involving the nonphysical region. This is possible only by simultaneously increasing E and decreasing K^2 so that K^2 = 0 corresponds to E = ∞. Thus is avoided a divergence of fracd(GOS)d(K^2) at K^2 = 0 [2]. Another advantage of our method is that, over a wide range of small K^2 values the contribution of higher order terms of the Born series to the GOS function is negligible, contrary to the constant E case in which even order K^2 terms are non-Born [2]. Thus first Born approximation can be used to normalize relative experimental DCSs to the OOS. This method is applicable to both the excitation and ionization of atomic and molecular targets by electron impact. The latter case generalizes the method of ref. [3]. ^*Supported by AFOSR, NSF and DoE Div. of Chemical Sciences, OBES. ^1 E. N. Lassettre et al., J. Chem. Phys \\underline50, (1829) ^2 W. M. Huo, J. Chem. Phys \\underline71, 1593 (1979) ^3 A. Saenz, W Weyrich and P. Froelich, J. Phys. B \\underline29, 97 (1996)

  20. [Fast neutron cross section measurements]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, G.F.

    1992-10-26

    From its inception, the Nuclear Data Project at the University of Michigan has concentrated on two major objectives: (1) to carry out carefully controlled nuclear measurements of the highest possible reliability in support of the national nuclear data program, and (2) to provide an educational opportunity for students with interests in experimental nuclear science. The project has undergone a successful transition from a primary dependence on our photoneutron laboratory to one in which our current research is entirely based on a unique pulsed 14 MeV fast neutron facility. The new experimental facility is unique in its ability to provide nanosecond bursts of 14 MeV neutrons under conditions that are ``clean`` and as scatter-free as possible, and is the only one of its type currently in operation in the United States. It has been designed and put into operation primarily by graduate students, and has met or exceeded all of its important initial performance goals. We have reached the point of its routine operation, and most of the data are now in hand that will serve as the basis for the first two doctoral dissertations to be written by participating graduate students. Our initial results on double differential neutron cross sections will be presented at the May 1993 Fusion Reactor Technology Workshop. We are pleased to report that, after investing several years in equipment assembly and optimization, the project has now entered its ``data production`` phase.

  1. Patient satisfaction and perceived quality of care: evidence from a cross-sectional national exit survey of HIV and non-HIV service users in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Dansereau, Emily; Masiye, Felix; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Masters, Samuel H; Burstein, Roy; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between perceived quality of care and patient satisfaction among HIV and non-HIV patients in Zambia. Setting Patient exit survey conducted at 104 primary, secondary and tertiary health clinics across 16 Zambian districts. Participants 2789 exiting patients. Primary independent variables Five dimensions of perceived quality of care (health personnel practice and conduct, adequacy of resources and services, healthcare delivery, accessibility of care, and cost of care). Secondary independent variables Respondent, visit-related, and facility characteristics. Primary outcome measure Patient satisfaction measured on a 1–10 scale. Methods Indices of perceived quality of care were modelled using principal component analysis. Statistical associations between perceived quality of care and patient satisfaction were examined using random-effect ordered logistic regression models, adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic, visit and facility characteristics. Results Average satisfaction was 6.9 on a 10-point scale for non-HIV services and 7.3 for HIV services. Favourable perceptions of health personnel conduct were associated with higher odds of overall satisfaction for non-HIV (OR=3.53, 95% CI 2.34 to 5.33) and HIV (OR=11.00, 95% CI 3.97 to 30.51) visits. Better perceptions of resources and services were also associated with higher odds of satisfaction for both non-HIV (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.55) and HIV (OR=4.68, 95% CI 1.81 to 12.10) visits. Two additional dimensions of perceived quality of care—healthcare delivery and accessibility of care—were positively associated with higher satisfaction for non-HIV patients. The odds of overall satisfaction were lower in rural facilities for non-HIV patients (OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.48 to 0.99) and HIV patients (OR=0.26, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.41). For non-HIV patients, the odds of satisfaction were greater in hospitals compared with health centres/posts (OR 1.78; 95% CI 1.27 to 2.48) and lower at

  2. Different Multimorbidity Measures Result in Varying Estimated Levels of Physical Quality of Life in Individuals with Multimorbidity: A Cross-Sectional Study in the General Population

    PubMed Central

    Haggerty, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Multimorbidity adversely affects health-related quality of life. Methodological factors may impact the magnitude of this relationship. Objective. To evaluate how physical health-related quality of life varies in individuals with multimorbidity depending on the length of the list of candidate conditions considered. Methods. Secondary analysis from PRECISE, a cohort study of the general adult population of Quebec, Canada. Multimorbidity was measured using the 21-chronic condition list from the Disease Burden Morbidity Assessment, and physical health-related quality of life was measured using the physical component summary (PCS) of SF-12v2. The PCS was calculated, (a) using 2 or more conditions from the 21-condition list (MM2+, 21) and then from a reduced 6-condition list (MM2+, 6) and (b) using three or more conditions from each list (MM3+, 21, and MM3+, 6). Results. The analysis included 1,710 individuals (mean age 51.3, 40.5% men). Multimorbidity prevalence ranged from 63.8% (MM2+, 21 conditions) to 3.8% (MM3+, 6 conditions). The mean [95% CI] PCS dropped from 45.7 [CI: 45.0–46.3] (MM2+, 21) to 40.2 [CI: 38.7–41.8] (MM2+, 6) and from 44.2 [CI: 43.4–44.9] (MM3+, 21) to 34.8 [CI: 31.9–37.6] (MM3+, 6). Conclusion. The length of the list of candidate conditions considered has a great impact on the estimations of physical health-related quality of life. PMID:27069925

  3. Electron-impact-ionization cross section for the hydrogen atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, W.; Fang, D.; Wang, Y.; Yang, F.

    1994-02-01

    A distorted-wave Born exchange approximation was used to calculate the cross section for electron-impact ionization of the hydrogen atoms. Both the integral and energy-differential cross section were calculated. The results were compared with the latest experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Comparison shows that the calculations agree with differential cross-section measurements in general. For integral cross sections the calculation shows a better agreement with an earlier measurement [M.B. Shah, D. S. Elliott, and H. B. Gilbody, J. Phys. B 20, 3501 (1987)] in which the cross sections are normalized to the first Born approximation.

  4. What contributes to a good quality of life in early dementia? awareness and the QoL-AD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Self-report quality of life (QoL) measures for people with dementia are widely used as outcome measures in trials of dementia care interventions. Depressed mood, relationship quality and neuropsychiatric symptoms predict scores on these measures, whereas cognitive impairment and functional abilities typically do not. This study examines whether these self-reports are influenced by personality and by the person’s awareness of his/her impairments. A strong negative association between QoL and awareness of deficits would have implications for the validity of self-report in this context and for therapeutic interventions aiming to increase adjustment and coping. Methods Participants were 101 individuals with early‒stage dementia and their family carers participating in the Memory Impairment and Dementia Awareness (MIDAS) Study. QoL was assessed using the QoL-AD scale, and awareness was assessed in relation to memory, activities of daily living and social functioning. Self-concept, conscientiousness, quality of relationship and mood were assessed and a brief neuropsychological battery administered. Carers rated their own stress and well-being and reported on neuropsychiatric symptoms. A series of regression analyses predicting QoL-AD were carried out, identifying key variables in each domain of assessment to take forward to an overall model. Results Cognitive impairment was not related to QoL. The final model accounted for 57% of the variance in QoL-AD scores, with significant contributions from depressed mood, severity of irritability shown by the person with dementia, self-concept, quality of relationship (rated by the person with dementia) and male gender. The bivariate relationships of QoL-AD with awareness of memory function, awareness of functional abilities and conscientiousness were mediated by both depressed mood and self-concept. Conclusions This study reports the most comprehensive approach to evaluation of awareness to date. Most of the indices

  5. Comparison of the effects of PMDD and pre-menstrual syndrome on mood disorders and quality of life: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Balık, Gülşah; Hocaoğlu, Çiçek; Kağıtcı, Mehmet; Güvenda Güven, Emine Seda

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared psychiatric symptoms, quality of life and disability in patients with pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and pre-menstrual syndrome (PMS). Forty-nine women with PMDD were compared with 43 women with PMS. All participants were asked to complete a socio-demographic data collection form, a Brief Disability Questionnaire, a medical study short form-36 (SF-36) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) forms. The patients with PMDD had higher HAD-A and HAD-D scores than the patients in PMS group (p < 0.01). No statistically significant differences were found on brief disability between two groups (p > 0.05), but both groups had medium level of brief disability. The PMDD group had a lower SF-36 scoring than the PMS group in every compared parameters (p < 0.01). PMS and PMDD may lead to brief disability, and PMDD may cause loss of quality of life and psychological problems. The evaluation of patients with PMS and PMDD pre-menstrual disorders should be more detailed. PMID:25528894

  6. An online expert network for high quality information on occupational safety and health: cross-sectional study of user satisfaction and impact

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many people have difficulties finding information on health questions, including occupational safety and health (OSH) issues. One solution to alleviate these difficulties could be to offer questioners free-of-charge, online access to a network of OSH experts who provide tailored, high-quality information. The aim of this study was to assess whether network quality, respectively information quality, as perceived by the questioners, is associated with questioners' overall satisfaction and to explore the impact of the information received on questioners' knowledge, work and work functioning. Methods We evaluated the experiences of OSH questioners with the online network ArboAntwoord.com over a two-year period. In this network, approximately 80 qualified experts are available to answer OSH questions. By means of a questionnaire, we assessed questioners' overall satisfaction with the network, whether the network was user-friendly, easily accessible and easy to handle and whether the information provided was complete, applicable and received in a timely manner. The impact of the information on questioners' knowledge, work or work functioning was explored with seven questions. In the study period, 460 unique OSH questioners asked 851 OSH questions. In total, 205 of the 460 questioners completed the questionnaire (response rate 45%). Results Of the responders, 71% were satisfied with the ArboAntwoord network. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the applicability of the information had a positive influence on the questioners' overall satisfaction (OR = 16.0, 95% CI: 7.0-36.4). Also, user friendliness of the network (OR = 3.3, 95% CI: 1.3-8.6) and completeness of the information provided (OR = 3.0, 95% CI: 1.3-6.8) were positively related to the questioners' satisfaction. For 74% of the questioners, the information helped to increase their knowledge and understanding. Overall, 25% of the questioners indicated that the received information improved

  7. Symptoms induced by environmental irritants and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic cough - A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Chronic cough is a common condition, but some patients have no evident medical explanation for their symptoms. A group of patients has been identified, characterized by upper and lower airway symptoms triggered by chemicals and scents, and heightened cough sensitivity to inhaled capsaicin. Chronic cough is usually a prominent symptom in these patients, and it has been suggested that they suffer from sensory hyperreactivity. Our main aim was to analyse, in a group of patients with chronic cough, the presence of symptoms induced by environmental factors such as chemicals, scents, and cold air, and to measure the social and emotional influences of these symptoms in relation to quality of life. A second aim was to pilot-test a Swedish translation of a cough-specific questionnaire. Methods A total of 119 patients with chronic cough were asked to answer three different questionnaires: a local symptom questionnaire, the Chemical Sensitivity Scale for Sensory Hyperreactivity (CSS-SHR), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). In addition, a Swedish version of the Hull Airway Reflux Questionnaire (HARQ) was developed and answered by a subgroup of patients and healthy controls. Results Sixty-two patients (52%) with mean cough duration of 10.6 years answered the local symptom questionnaire, the CSS-SHR, and the NHP. Of these, 39 (63%) claimed to have cough and other symptoms induced by chemicals and scents. Compared to population-based findings, the patients scored higher on the CSS-SHR, and the CSS-SHR score was significantly higher among chemical-sensitive individuals (p < 0.001). The NHP showed that the patients had a significantly reduced quality of life, which was most pronounced among chemical-sensitive individuals. The 31 patients who answered the HARQ had significantly higher scores (p < 0.0001) than 59 healthy controls. Conclusions Among patients with chronic cough, a majority claimed that environmental factors induced coughing. Both the CSS-SHR and the

  8. A cross-sectional evaluation of the correlation between disease severity and quality of life in chronic rhinosinusitis patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olowosusi, O Z; Asoegwu, C N; Olagunju, A T; Nwawolo, C C

    2015-09-01

    Quality of Life (QoL) studies are increasingly being used as the primary outcome measure in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) globally. However, little is known about QoL and the interplay of identifiable factors on QoL in CRS in sub-Saharan Africa. This study investigated the correlation between disease severity and QoL in chronic rhinosinusitis patients. A total of 147 adults with subjective severity rating of CRS were studied. Participants were assessed using designed questionnaire, Individual Rhinosinusitis Symptom Severity Score Assessment (IRSSSA) and Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) questionnaires to elicit socio-demographic/clinical profile, CRS symptom severity and QoL, respectively. The mean age of the participants was 36.86 ± 11.91 years. The mean severity score of all 147 CRS cases was 3.8 ± 1.13. The majority of participants (N = 80; 54.4 %) had moderate disease. The RSDI mean scores for the participants for overall HRQoL were 40.6 ± 19.8. (Median = 40; Range = 77), for physical domain 15.2 ± 7.7, functional domain 12.1 ± 6.4 and emotional domain 13.2 ± 8.2. The trend of association between the disease severity scores and the overall HRQoL on Pearson linear correlation indicates a positive linear association of worsening overall HRQoL with increasing disease severity (R = 0.83; P < 0.0001). The severity of CRS impacted negatively on the HRQoL. All domains were significantly affected by the disease severity particularly the physical domain. Patients adjudged severity of their disease and its' impact on their quality of life should be considered in the determination of the line of their management which could include psychosocial intervention. PMID:25344868

  9. Evaluating housing quality, health and safety using an Internet-based data collection and response system: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Typically housing and health surveys are not integrated together and therefore are not representative of population health or national housing stocks. In addition, the existing channels for distributing information about housing and health issues to the general public are limited. The aim of this study was to develop a data collection and response system that would allow us to assess the Finnish housing stock from the points of view of quality, health and safety, and also to provide a tool to distribute information about important housing health and safety issues. Methods The data collection and response system was tested with a sample of 3000 adults (one per household), who were randomly selected from the Finnish Population Register Centre. Spatial information about the exact location of the residences (i.e. coordinates) was included in the database inquiry. People could participate either by completing and returning a paper questionnaire or by completing the same questionnaire via the Internet. The respondents did not receive any compensation for their time in completing the questionnaire. Results This article describes the data collection and response system and presents the main results of the population-based testing of the system. A total of 1312 people (response rate 44%) answered the questionnaire, though only 80 answered via the Internet. A third of the respondents had indicated they wanted feedback. Albeit a majority (>90%) of the respondents reported being satisfied or quite satisfied with their residence, there were a number of prevalent housing issues identified that can be related to health and safety. Conclusions The collected database can be used to evaluate the quality of the housing stock in terms of occupant health and safety, and to model its association with occupant health and well-being. However, it must be noted that all the health outcomes gathered in this study are self-reported. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate whether

  10. Effects of parental gender and level of education on the quality of life and general health of pediatric patients with epilepsy: An outpatient cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Meisam; Amirsalari, Susan; Radfar, Shokofeh; Haidari, Mohsen Reza

    2016-07-01

    The quality of life (QOL) of children with epilepsy has been widely studied, and several problems related to cognition, behavior, social lives, and physical activity among these children have been reported. Family life and parental care are important aspects of the lives of these patients. The impact of parental education on the QOL of pediatric patients with epilepsy is an understudied topic, especially in developing countries. In this study, we investigated the QOL and general health (GH) of patients with epilepsy presenting at the pediatric neurology clinic at Baqiyatallah Hospital and a private clinic. The Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire, which is a 92-item epilepsy-specific questionnaire covering physical activity, well-being, cognition, behavior, social activity, overall QOL, and GH, was used for interviewing parents. A total of 106 patients (m=61, 57.5% and f=45, 42.5%) aged 5-17years (mean: 10.31±2.91) participated in the study. Overall, there was no significant difference between the QOL and GH results of male and female patients. However, the maternal education level had a significant impact on the overall QOL (high school: 3.02±0.85 vs. B.Sc.: 3.67±0.61, p<0.05) and GH (high school: 2.81±0.79 vs. B.Sc.: 3.8±0.94, p<0.05) of male patients, while paternal education had no significant effect. A multiple linear regression showed that the maternal education level had an independently significant association with the physical activity of the patients (p=0.02, CI: 1.4-6.25), and the paternal education level had an independently significant association with the well-being of the patients (p=0.02, CI: 0.43-5.36). In addition, the maternal education level (high school vs. B.Sc.) had a significant effect on physical activity, well-being, cognition, and behavior for all of the patients (p<0.05), while the paternal education level (high school vs. B.Sc.) had no significant impact. However, in a comparison of high school vs. higher