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Sample records for cross-connected figure-eight null-flux

  1. Electrodynamic forces of the cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coil suspension system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, J. L.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1993-03-01

    This paper analyzes the cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coil suspension system for maglev vehicles on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. The equivalent circuits and general magnetic force expressions for the system are developed. Simple analytical formulas for the magnetic force partitions on the basis of harmonic approximation are presented, and numerical results are also included.

  2. Electrodynamic forces of the cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coil suspension system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1993-06-01

    This paper analyzes the cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coil suspension system for maglev vehicles on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. The equivalent circuits and general magnetic force expressions for the system are developed. Simple analytical formulas for the magnetic force partitions on the basis of harmonic approximation are presented, and numerical results are also included.

  3. Electrodynamic forces of the cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coil suspension system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the cross-connected figure-eight null-flux coil suspension system for maglev vehicles on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. The equivalent circuits and general magnetic force expressions for the system are developed. Simple analytical formulas for the magnetic force partitions on the basis of harmonic approximation are presented, and numerical results are also included.

  4. Computer modeling and experimental verification of figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Mulcahey, T.M.; Rote, D.M.; Kelly, T.

    1994-12-01

    This report discusses the computer modeling and experimental verification of the magnetic forces associated with a figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. A set of computer codes called COILGDWY, were developed on the basis of the dynamic circuit model and verified by means of a laboratory model. The experimental verification was conducted with a rotating PVC drum, the surface of which held various types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux coils that interacted with a stationary permanent magnet. The transient and dynamic magnetic forces between the stationary magnet and the rotating conducting coils were measured and compared with results obtained from the computer model. Good agreement between the experimental results and computer simulations was obtained. The computer model can also be used to calculate magnetic forces in a large-scale magnetic-levitation system.

  5. Magnetic damping forces in figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Coffey, H.

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses magnetic damping forces in figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension systems, focusing on the Holloman maglev rocket system. The paper also discusses simulating the damping plate, which is attached to the superconducting magnet by two short-circuited loop coils in the guideway. Closed-form formulas for the magnetic damping coefficient as functions of heave-and-sway displacements are derived by using a dynamic circuit model. These formulas are useful for dynamic stability studies.

  6. Study on figure-eight-shaped coil electrodynamic suspension magnetic levitation systems without cross-connection

    SciTech Connect

    Ribani, P.L.; Urbano, N.

    2000-01-01

    Two figure-eight-shaped coils for electrodynamic suspension (EDS) magnetic levitation (MAGLEV) systems without cross-connection are proposed and analyzed. The guideway coils are positioned under the MAGLEV vehicle; they are parallel to the horizontal plane. The interaction of a magnetic module on the vehicle, composed of three or four superconducting (SC) coils, with a guideway module, comprised of two figure-eight coils, is studied by means of the dynamic circuit theory. The currents in the SC coils are supposed to be constant in time while they move as a rigid body, with a constant velocity. Some results are presented and compared with those for a standard side-wall cross-connected system.

  7. 78 FR 25577 - Safety Zone, Figure Eight Causeway Channel; Figure Eight Island, NC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information The... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Figure Eight Causeway Channel; Figure Eight... establishing a safety zone on the navigable waters of Figure Eight Causeway Channel, Figure Eight Island, NC...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY OF RAT PUPS IN FIGURE-EIGHT MAZES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In a series of four experiments, social and experiential factors that influence the development of motor activity in rat pups were examined. Motor activity was monitored from postnatal days 13 to 21 as photocell interruptions in figure-eight mazes and comparisons were made betwee...

  9. Dynamic Figure Eight Chirality: Multifarious Inversions of a Helical Preference Induced by Complexation.

    PubMed

    Katoono, Ryo; Tanaka, Yuki; Kusaka, Keiichi; Fujiwara, Kenshu; Suzuki, Takanori

    2015-08-01

    We demonstrate two types of inversion of a helical preference upon the 1:1 complexation of a dynamic figure eight molecule with a guest molecule through the controlled transmission of point chirality. We designed a series of macrocycles that prefer a nonplanar conformation with figure eight chirality. These macrocycles are composed of a chirality-transferring unit (terephthalamide) and a structure-modifying unit (two o-phenylene rings spaced with a varying number of triple bonds). The former unit provides a binding site for capturing a guest molecule through the formation of hydrogen bonds. The attachment of chiral auxiliaries to the former unit induces a helical preference for a particular sense through the intramolecular transmission of point chirality. For relatively small-sized macrocycles, the preferred sense was reversed upon complexation with an achiral guest. Contrary preferences before and after complexation were both seen for chiral auxiliaries associated with a figure eight host through two-way intramolecular transmission of the single chiral source. Alternatively, the helical preference induced in relatively large-sized macrocycles was reversed only when a figure eight host formed a 1:1 complex with a particular enantiomeric guest through the supramolecular transmission of point chirality in the guest. This stereospecific inversion of a helical preference is rare. PMID:26182127

  10. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  11. Computer model simulation of null-flux magnetic suspension and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Rote, D.M.

    1992-06-01

    This paper discusses the magnetic force computations in a null-flux suspension system using dynamic circuit theory. A computer simulation model that can be used to compute magnetic forces and predict the system performance is developed on the basis of dynamic circuit theory. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the application of the model. The performance of the null-flux suspension system is simulated and discussed. 8 refs.

  12. Design approaches and parameters for magnetically levitated transport systems. [Null flux suspension (Maglev)

    SciTech Connect

    Danby, G.T.; Powell, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanically levitated transport system approaches are assessed with regard to thrust power needs, track cost, suspension stability, and safety. The null flux suspension appears as the favored approach, having the least thrust power requirements, highest stability, and lowest amount of track material. Various null flux configurations are described together with their operating parameters. The Linear Synchronous Motor (LSM) propulsion system is also described for propelling the suspended vehicles. Cryogenics and superconductivity aspects are discussed and the effect of high T/sub c/ superconductors evaluated. 13 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Electromagnetic characteristics of eccentric figure-eight coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation: A numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Takuya; Sekino, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Taiga; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Saitoh, Youichi; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki

    2012-04-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is effective for treatment of several neurological and psychiatric diseases. We proposed an eccentric figure-eight coil, which induces strong eddy currents in the target brain tissue. In this study, numerical analyses were carried out to obtain magnetic field distribution of the eccentric figure-eight coil and eddy current in the brain. The analyses were performed with various coil design parameters, such as the outer and inner diameters and number of turns, to investigate the influence of these parameters on the coil characteristics. Increases in the inner diameter, outer diameter, and number of turns caused increases in the maximum eddy current densities. Coil inductance, working voltage, and heat generation also became higher with the increases in these design parameters. In order to develop a compact stimulator system for use at home, we need to obtain strong eddy current density, keeping the working voltage as low as possible. Our results show that it is effective to enlarge the outer diameter.

  14. Dissipative soliton resonance in a passively mode-locked figure-eight fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-Ke; Ning, Qiu-Yi; Luo, Ai-Ping; Lin, Zhen-Bin; Luo, Zhi-Chao; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2013-01-28

    The generation of mode-locked rectangular pulses operating in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region is demonstrated in an erbium-doped figure-eight fiber laser with net anomalous dispersion. The duration of the wave-breaking-free rectangular pulse broadens with the increase of pump power. At a maximum pump power of 341 mW, the pulse energy can be up to 3.25 nJ with a repetition rate of 3.54 MHz. Particularly, the spectrum of rectangular pulse operating in DSR exhibits conventional soliton sidebands. The observed results show that the formation of pulse operating in DSR region is independent of mode-locking techniques, which may be helpful for further understanding the DSR phenomenon. PMID:23389220

  15. Eddy current probe for nondestructive testing using cross-coupled figure-eight coils

    SciTech Connect

    Sasada, I.; Watanabe, N.

    1995-11-01

    It is shown that the pickup head consisting of cross-coupled figure-eight coils originally developed for the magnetostrictive torque sensor is well suited for the eddy current probe detecting small defects in a nonmagnetic conductive material. The probe is easily extended to a one dimensional array form, which substantially reduces number of times of scanning the targeted materials. The response of a single unit of the probe to a trough hole defect in an aluminum plate are presented. A half-way hole at the back of an aluminum plate of 1.2 mm in thickness was successfully detected from the front using this probe. A five-channel array was developed in which the excitation coil is shared by all the channel. A small through hole defect in an aluminum plate was detected clearly by a single scan with the array probe.

  16. Multiple noise-like pulsing of a figure-eight fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottiez, O.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernández-García, J. C.; González-García, A.; Durán-Sánchez, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study multiple noise-like pulse generation in a 320 m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser in the normal net dispersion regime. The nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) that is used as a mode locker operates through polarization asymmetry, which allows us to control its switching power by birefringence adjustments at the NOLM input, using a half-wave retarder (HWR). Over some range of the HWR orientation, a single noise-like pulse is observed in the cavity. Its peak power is adjustable as it remains clamped to the variable switching power, and its duration varies inversely between ˜5 and ˜22 ps. Beyond the HWR position, corresponding to the longest duration, the pulse splits into several noise-like pulses. These multiple pulses usually present a walkoff, however they can be synchronized through slight birefringence adjustments, although they are not evenly spaced in time. Up to 12 simultaneous noise-like pulses were observed experimentally, with a duration of ˜2 ns. Multiple pulsing and synchronization of the pulses are interpreted in terms of mechanisms of interaction between pulses. Multiple pulsing appears to be indirectly related to the peak power limiting effect of the NOLM.

  17. Generation and characterization of erbium-Raman noise-like pulses from a figure-eight fibre laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago-Hernandez, H.; Pottiez, O.; Paez-Aguirre, R.; Ibarra-Villalon, H. E.; Tenorio-Torres, A.; Duran-Sanchez, M.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Kuzin, E. A.; Hernandez-Garcia, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    We report an experimental study of the noise-like pulses generated by a ~300?m long passively mode-locked erbium-doped figure-eight fibre laser. Non-self-starting mode locking yields the formation of ns scale bunches of sub-ps pulses. Depending on birefringence adjustments, noise-like pulses with a variety of temporal profiles and optical spectra are obtained. In particular, for some adjustments the Raman-enhanced spectrum reaches a 10?dB bandwidth of ~130?nm. For the first time to our knowledge, we extract information on the inner structure of the noise-like pulses, using a birefringent Sagnac interferometer as a spectral filter and a nonlinear optical loop mirror as an intensity filter. In particular we show that the different spectral components of the bunch are homogeneously distributed within the temporal envelope of the bunch, whereas the amplitude and/or the density of the sub-pulses present substantial variations along the envelope. In some cases, the analysis reveals the existence of an intermediate level of organization in the structure of the noise-like pulse, between the ns bunch and the sub-ps inner pulses, suggesting that these objects may be even more complex than previously recognized.

  18. Intelligent optical networking with photonic cross connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceuppens, L.; Jerphagnon, Olivier L.; Lang, Jonathan; Banerjee, Ayan; Blumenthal, Daniel J.

    2002-09-01

    Optical amplification and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) have fundamentally changed optical transport networks. Now that these technologies are widely adopted, the bottleneck has moved from the outside line plant to nodal central offices, where electrical switching equipment has not kept pace. While OEO technology was (and still is) necessary for grooming and traffic aggregation, the transport network has dramatically changed, requiring a dramatic rethinking of how networks need to be designed and operated. While todays transport networks carry remarkable amounts of bandwidth, their optical layer is fundamentally static and provides for only simple point-to-point transport. Efficiently managing the growing number of wavelengths can only be achieved through a new breed of networking element. Photonic switching systems (PSS) can efficiently execute these functions because they are bit rate, wavelength, and protocol transparent. With their all-optical switch cores and interfaces, PSS can switch optical signals at various levels of granularity wavelength, sub band, and composite DWDM fiber levels. Though cross-connect systems with electrical switch cores are available, they perform these functions at very high capital costs and operational inefficiencies. This paper examines enabling technologies for deployment of intelligent optical transport networks (OTN), and takes a practical perspective on survivability architecture migration and implementation issues.

  19. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cai, Y.

    1995-12-31

    A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.

  20. Study of Japanese electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the Japanese MLU magnetic-levitation (maglev) system. The development of the MLU system is reviewed, and the dynamic circuit model then is introduced and applied to the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system. Three different types of figure-eight-shaped null-flux suspension systems are discussed in detail: (1) the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil suspension system without cross-connection; (2) the combined suspension and guidance system; and (3) the combined propulsion, levitation, and guidance system. The electrodynamic-suspension maglev systems developed in Japan seem to be very promising and could result in a commercial application in the near future.

  1. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    SciTech Connect

    He, Jianliang; Wang, Zian; Rote, Donald M.; Coffey, Howard T.; Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.; Cal, Yigang

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.

  2. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    DOEpatents

    He, J.L.; Wang, Z.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.; Hull, J.R.; Mulcahy, T.M.; Cal, Y.

    1996-12-24

    A propulsion and stabilization system is disclosed with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle. 6 figs.

  3. Analytical investigation of a figure-eight single-pulse all-fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Salhi, M.; Amrani, F.; Leblond, H.; Sanchez, F.

    2010-10-15

    We establish analytically a master equation of a figure-eight all-fiber passively mode-locked laser. The nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) is used as an effective saturable absorber in order to generate short pulses. The master equation is of the cubic complex Ginzburg-Landau type, in which the coefficients explicitly depend on the characteristics of the cavity, in particular on the orientation of the polarizer, the coupling coefficient, and the length of the NALM. Single-pulse and continuous-wave (cw) solutions in both normal and anomalous dispersion are discussed analytically. In the anomalous dispersion situation, the equation governing the evolution of the system admits stable analytic pulse solutions. The pulse duration and energy are studied. The analysis provides domains in the space of the cavity parameters where energetic soliton and ultrashort pulses are obtained.

  4. Generation of dual-wavelength square pulse in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser with ultra-large net-anomalous dispersion.

    PubMed

    Shao, Zhihua; Qiao, Xueguang; Rong, Qiangzhou; Su, Dan

    2015-08-01

    A type of wave-breaking-free mode-locked dual-wavelength square pulse was experimentally observed in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser with ultra-large net-anomalous dispersion. A 2.7 km long single-mode fiber (SMF) was incorporated as a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) and provided largely nonlinear phase accumulation and anomalous dispersion, which enhanced the four-wave-mixing effect to improve the stability of the dual-wavelength operation. In the NOLM, the long SMF with small birefringence supported the Sagnac interference as a filter to manage the dual-wavelength lasing. The dual-wavelength operation was made switchable by adjusting the intra-cavity polarization loss and phase delay corresponding to two square pulses. When the pump power was increased, the duration of the square pulse increased continuously while the peak pulse power gradually decreased. This square-type pulse can potentially be utilized for signal transmission and sensing. PMID:26368084

  5. Cross-connection control of the potable water lines at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, R.M.

    1996-04-01

    A 1991 independent U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) audit of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identified the need for establishing a cross-connection control program for the potable and nonpotable water systems at the facility. An informal cross-connection policy had been in place for some time, but the formal implementation of a cross-connection program brought together individuals from the Quality Engineering and Inspection Section of the Office of Quality Programs and Inspection, Industrial Hygiene, Health Physics, Plant and Equipment Division, and the Atomic Trade and Labor Council. In January 1994 a Cross-Connection Control Committee was established at ORNL to identify potential and actual cross connections between potable and nonpotable water systems. Potable water is safe to drink, and nonpotable or process water (e.g., sewage, laboratory wastewater, cooling water, and tower water) is not intended for human consumption, washing of the body, or food preparation. The program is intended to conform with the Federal Safe Drinking Water Act Amendment of 1986 and with state and local regulations. Although the Occupational Safety and Health Administration addresses cross-connection functions, it does not define specific program requirements. The program at ORNL is designed to ensure that necessary recommendations are implemented to safeguard all internal and external potable water distribution lines. Program responsibilities include a thorough engineering assessment to (1) identify the potable water lines, (2) identify any existing or potential cross connections, and (3) inspect the integrity of the water lines. If any cross-connection deficiencies are found, corrective actions are initiated according to industry standards.

  6. Conformational change from a twisted figure-eight to an open-extended structure in doubly fused 36? core-modified octaphyrins triggered by protonation: implication on photodynamics and aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Ganesan; Lim, Jong Min; Srinivasan, A; Suresh, C H; Kim, Dongho; Chandrashekar, Tavarekere K

    2013-12-01

    Two examples of core-modified 36? doubly fused octaphyrins that undergo a conformational change from a twisted figure-eight to an open-extended structure induced by protonation are reported. Syntheses of the two octaphyrins (in which Ar=mesityl or tolyl) were achieved by a simple acid-catalyzed condensation of dipyrrane unit containing an electron-rich, rigid dithienothiophene (DTT) core with pentafluorobenzaldehyde followed by oxidation with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The single-crystal X-ray structure of the octaphyrin (in which Ar=mesityl) shows a figure-eight twisted conformation of the expanded porphyrin skeleton with two DTT moieties oriented in a staggered conformation with a ?-cloud distance of 3.7 Å. Spectroscopic and quantum mechanical calculations reveal that both octaphyrins conform to a [4n]? nonaromatic electronic structure. Protonation of the pyrrole nitrogen atoms of the octaphyrins results in dramatic structural change, which led to 1) a large redshift and sharpening of absorption bands in electronic absorption spectrum, 2) a large change in chemical shift of pyrrole ?-CH and -NH protons in the (1)H NMR spectrum, 3) a small increase in singlet lifetimes, and 4) a moderate increase in two-photon absorption cross-section values. Furthermore, nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) values calculated at various geometrical positions show positive values and anisotropy-induced current density (AICD) plots indicate paratropic ring-currents for the diprotonated form of the octaphyrin (in which Ar=tolyl); the single-crystal X-ray structure of the diprotonated form of the octaphyrin shows an extended structure in which one of the pyrrole ring of each dipyrrin subunit undergoes a 180° ring-flip. Four trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) molecules are bound above and below the molecular plane defined by meso-carbon atoms and are held by N-H···O, N-H···F, and C-H···F intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. The extended-open structure upon protonation allows ?-delocalization and the electronic structure conforms to a [4n]? Hückel antiaromatic in the diprotonated state. PMID:24307363

  7. Communication Models for a Free-Space Optical Cross-Connect Switch

    E-print Network

    Feitelson, Dror

    Communication Models for a Free-Space Optical Cross-Connect Switch David Er-El 1 Dror G. Feitelson of optical #12;bers and the option of free-space propagation; this may be important in systems with thousands optical switch based on the electroholographic e#11;ect [10]. This e#11;ect allows pre- recorded holograms

  8. Fiber-handling robot and optical connection mechanisms for automatic cross-connection of multiple optical connectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizukami, Masato; Makihara, Mitsuhiro

    2013-07-01

    Conventionally, in intelligent buildings in a metropolitan area network and in small-scale facilities in the optical access network, optical connectors are joined manually using an optical connection board and a patch panel. In this manual connection approach, mistakes occur due to discrepancies between the actual physical settings of the connections and their management because these processes are independent. Moreover, manual cross-connection is time-consuming and expensive because maintenance personnel must be dispatched to remote places to correct mistakes. We have developed a fiber-handling robot and optical connection mechanisms for automatic cross-connection of multiple optical connectors, which are the key elements of automatic optical fiber cross-connect equipment. We evaluate the performance of the equipment, such as its optical characteristics and environmental specifications. We also devise new optical connection mechanisms that enable the automated optical fiber cross-connect module to handle and connect angled physical contact (APC) optical connector plugs. We evaluate the performance of the equipment, such as its optical characteristics. The evaluation results confirm that the automated optical fiber cross-connect equipment can connect APC connectors with low loss and high return loss, indicating that the automated optical fiber cross-connect equipment is suitable for practical use in intelligent buildings and optical access networks.

  9. Parallel and simultaneous spatial mode conversion using photorefractive crystal for photonic cross-connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanfeng; Okamoto, Atsushi; Maeda, Tomohiro; Hirasaki, Yuki; Tomita, Akihisa; Bunsen, Masatoshi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel technology for photonic cross-connect (PXC) in spatial mode domain for the realization of advanced and flexible optical transmission of spatial modes. The PXC is a kind of all -optical devices to switch highspeed optical signals for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) network and it is able to perform signal labeling in the spatial mode domain similar to current photonic switching in the wavelength domain. In addition, parallel and simultaneous mode conversion can be realized using multiplex holograms in a photorefractive crystal (PRC). In our experiment, during the recording process, a rewritable hologram is recorded in the PRC (LiNbO3) through the interference between the signal beam with certain input mode and the reference beam with the phase distribution of the desired output mode. Signal beams are generated by computer generated hologram (CGH) using a spatial light modulator (SLM) instead of an optical fiber emergent beam, and reference beams are generated by phase only modulation using another SLM. Subsequently, during the converting process, the input signal beam is converted into the desired output mode through the holographic diffract ion in the crystal and free-space propagation by an optical lens. By using phase code multiplexing method, parallel mode conversions can be realized. We performed an experiment on parallel mode conversions of several different conversion pairs. Signal beams and reference beams intersected in the PRC with an angle of 18.43 degree. The intensity distributions of converted modes were observed by CCD camera set on the Fourier plane. We confirmed that the two modes inter-conversion of LP11 with LP21 was successfully implemented.

  10. Fluorescence monitoring at a recycled water treatment plant and associated dual distribution system--implications for cross-connection detection.

    PubMed

    Hambly, A C; Henderson, R K; Storey, M V; Baker, A; Stuetz, R M; Khan, S J

    2010-10-01

    Dual distribution systems are becoming increasingly common in greenfield housing developments in Australia for the redistribution of recycled water to households for non-potable use. Within such schemes there exists the potential for cross-connections between recycled and drinking water systems. Due to the high level of recycled water treatment, these events are unlikely to lead to outbreaks of illness in the community. Nonetheless, they do represent a breach of the recycled water risk management strategy and therefore an elevated level of risk to consumers. Furthermore, cross-connection events have the potential to undermine public confidence in these types of water recycling. A rapid, highly sensitive method of cross-connection detection may therefore provide an additional level of confidence in these schemes. The aim of this research was to determine the potential for using fluorescence spectroscopy as a monitoring tool in water treatment plants and dual distribution systems. Samples from both the water recycling plant and dual distribution system were collected on a weekly basis over 12 weeks. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectra and water quality parameters including dissolved organic carbon, UV(254), pH, conductivity, free chlorine and turbidity were obtained for each sample. The fluorescence EEM spectra of recycled and drinking water were distinctly different and exhibited low variability throughout the course of the sampling program, indicating a degree of stability of the fluorescent components within the organic matter. A ten-fold difference in mean fluorescence intensity was observed for recycled water compared to drinking water, which was greater than the difference observed for the other measured water quality parameters. Probabilistic analysis was used to determine the reliable detection limit of recycled water contamination of drinking water. Accounting for the inherent variability of both recycled water and drinking water, a 45% contamination of recycled water in drinking water could be detected with a signal-to-noise ratio greater than 3 for more than 95% of individual random sample pairs. Greater sensitivity can be assured by averaging numerous samples. In comparison, a 70% contamination of recycled water in drinking water was required for the same detection using conductivity. PMID:20655084

  11. Performance analysis of dedicated protection and shared protection for waveband switching based on multi-granularity optical cross-connect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Wang, Xingwei; Jiang, Dingde; Hou, Weigang; Ji, Wei

    2011-02-01

    In order to save the switching ports and the cost of Multi-Granularity Optical Cross-Connect (MG-OXC), the waveband switching technique was proposed to groom multiple wavelength-level traffic to a few waveband tunnels to be switched by a few switching ports in MG-OXC. At the same time, protection for fibers is very important to ensure the service continuity since each wavelength carries a lot of traffic. Although existing works have addressed the waveband switching protection, most of them separately considered only the dedicated protection or shared protection in static demand scenario and did not deeply analyze and compare the dedicated protection and shared protection in dynamic demand scenario. Therefore, in this paper, we deeply study the consumptions of wavelengths in fibers and ports in MG-OXCs for Waveband Shared Protection (WSP) and Waveband Dedicated Protection (WDP) in dynamic demand scenario, and propose the port-cost calculation and update methods based on a new waveband layered auxiliary graph that is developed based on MG-OXC structure. In simulations, we compare WSP, WDP, traditional end-to-end waveband shared protection and traditional end-to-end waveband dedicated protection. Simulation results show that the shared protection has smaller port-cost, better wavelength utilization efficiency and lower blocking probability than the dedicated protection with the same waveband switching policy, and the sub-path waveband switching has bigger port-cost, better wavelength utilization efficiency and lower blocking probability than the end-to-end waveband switching with the same backup wavelength assignment policy.

  12. Cross-Connections of Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Diana S.

    2002-02-01

    We are in desperate need of qualified chemistry teachers. Are the teachers who have biology, physics, or some psychology degrees qualified to teach chemistry? Have they taken enough chemistry to be prepared to teach outside their degree field? If remediation is necessary, what courses should be required? Attracting pre-service science teachers to the study of pure chemistry is not an easy task when more attractive course offerings are available. Maybe we should concentrate on cross-training in-service teachers by providing appropriate graduate courses to encourage them and bring them into the family. Many teachers with degrees outside the traditional discipline of chemistry have adequate backgrounds in the applications of chemistry. Requiring hours of undergraduate education before they enter the hallowed halls of the chemistry building as graduate students only serves to discourage a large segment of in-service teachers who wish to broaden their perspective. The National Science Education Standards make a compelling argument for connecting and integrating science courses for practicing teachers (3). We are at the crossroads. At a time when we so desperately need qualified chemistry teachers, shouldn't we be more open in our graduate teaching programs, inviting those with degrees in other disciplines to start on a graduate degree without insisting on undergraduate or survey coursework first? Many potential chemical education graduate students have a background in chemistry--it is just known by another name.

  13. Constructing thin subgroups commensurable with the figure-eight knot group

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Stephen

    index in , Hd, and a faithful, Zariski dense representation into a lattice: rd : Hd - SU(Jd, OLd , d) The power of this statement lies in the fact that rd is faithful and Zariksi dense; much of the work(Hd) has infinite index in the lattice SU(Jd, OLd , d), since deep results of Margulis (see Chapter 13

  14. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL); He, Jianliang (Woodridge, IL); Johnson, Larry R. (Naperville, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of FIG. 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the FIG. 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  15. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, J.; Johnson, L.R.

    1994-01-04

    A propulsion and stabilization system are described comprising a series of coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance, and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension. 8 figures.

  16. Integrated null-flux suspension and multiphase propulsion system for magnetically-levitated vehicles

    DOEpatents

    Rote, D.M.; He, Jianliang; Johnson, L.R.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses a propulsion and stabilization system comprising a series of figure 8 coils mounted vertically on the walls of the guideway to provide suspension, lateral guidance and propulsion of a magnetically levitated vehicle. This system further allows for altering the magnetic field effects by changing the relative position of the loops comprising the figure 8 coils either longitudinally and/or vertically with resulting changes in the propulsion, the vertical stability, and the suspension.

  17. CROSS-CONNECTIONS COLLEGE OF LAW

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    , an African American man from Louisiana whose 1964 murder remains unsolved to this day. Although the civil's Office have now pledged to look into the murder of Frank Morris--justice delayed but no longer denied

  18. Simulation Study to Improve Focalization of a Figure Eight Coil by Using a Conductive Shield Plate and a Ferromagnetic Block.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Shunqi; Liu, Zhipeng; Yin, Tao

    2015-07-01

    A new method to improve the focalization and efficiency of the Figure of Eight (FOE) coil in rTMS is discussed in this paper. In order to decrease the half width of the distribution curve (HWDC), as well to increase the ratio of positive peak value to negative peak value (RPN) of the induced electric field, a shield plate with a window and a ferromagnetic block are assumed to enhance the positive peak value of the induced electrical field. The shield is made of highly conductive copper, and the block is made of highly permeable soft magnetic ferrite. A computer simulation is conducted on ANSYS® software to conduct the finite element analysis (FEA). Two comparing coefficients were set up to optimize the sizes of the shield window and the block. Simulation results show that a shield with a 60 mm × 30 mm sized window, together with a block 40 mm thick, can decrease the focal area of a FOE coil by 46.7%, while increasing the RPN by 135.9%. The block enhances the peak value of the electrical field induced by a shield-FOE by 8.4%. A real human head model was occupied in this paper to further verify our method. PMID:25594972

  19. EVALUATION OF FIGURE-EIGHT MAZE ACTIVITY AND GENERAL BEHAVIORAL DEVELOPMENT FOLLOWING PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO FORTY CHEMICALS: EFFECTS OF CYTOSINE ARABINOSIDE, DINOCAP, NITROFEN, AND VITAMIN A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present report describes the effects of prenatal administration exposure of a large number of compounds on the locomotor activity levels of mice. The effects of these treatments on the postnatal growth, viability, morphology and reproductive function from the first experiment...

  20. CANR | Cooperative Extension | REC | UD Home | UD Directory | UD Daily | Find It (A-Z) | BUDDY | Room Schedules | Figure Eight Thu, Dec-06-07 Fall Faculty

    E-print Network

    Sparks, Donald L.

    and heating system with a state of the art automated climate control system. Many of the rooms were furnished to solving ecological problems Sussex kids learn about pumpkins the 4-H way Extension specialist honored

  1. Computation of magnetic suspension of maglev systems using dynamic circuit theory

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.L.; Rote, D.M.; Coffey, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic circuit theory is applied to several magnetic suspensions associated with maglev systems. These suspension systems are the loop-shaped coil guideway, the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil guideway, and the continuous sheet guideway. Mathematical models, which can be used for the development of computer codes, are provided for each of these suspension systems. The differences and similarities of the models in using dynamic circuit theory are discussed in the paper. The paper emphasizes the transient and dynamic analysis and computer simulation of maglev systems. In general, the method discussed here can be applied to many electrodynamic suspension system design concepts. It is also suited for the computation of the performance of maglev propulsion systems. Numerical examples are presented in the paper. 15 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Computation of magnetic suspension of maglev systems using dynamic circuit theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, J. L.; Rote, D. M.; Coffey, H. T.

    1992-01-01

    Dynamic circuit theory is applied to several magnetic suspensions associated with maglev systems. These suspension systems are the loop-shaped coil guideway, the figure-eight-shaped null-flux coil guideway, and the continuous sheet guideway. Mathematical models, which can be used for the development of computer codes, are provided for each of these suspension systems. The differences and similarities of the models in using dynamic circuit theory are discussed in the paper. The paper emphasizes the transient and dynamic analysis and computer simulation of maglev systems. In general, the method discussed here can be applied to many electrodynamic suspension system design concepts. It is also suited for the computation of the performance of maglev propulsion systems. Numerical examples are presented in the paper.

  3. 4x4 and 8x8 optical cross connect for optical fiber networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zickar, Michael; Noell, Wilfried; Marxer, Cornel; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.

    2004-08-01

    We report on a 4x4 optical matrix switch for telecom application. It consists of a 4x4 array of vertical mirrors that have the same pitch as the fibers of commercially available fiber ribbons (250 ?m). This compact design enables a parallel assembly to optical components, which simplifies the time consuming and costly process for switches with larger pitch. Additionally, a small pitch leads to a short optical coupling length, which facilitates the integration of a suitable collimation system. However there are physical limitations for optical MEMS in conjunction with assembled micro-optics. The optical beam exiting a collimator diverges, the divergence angle is indirectly proportional to the beam waist and the coupling length increases quadratically. Our calculations show that for a pitch of 250 ?m a mirror height of 100 ?m is optimal. The mirrors are monolithically etched onto a platform etched during a previous step. No assembly of the mirrors to the actuators is needed. Alignment structures for the optical components are etched during the same step as the mirrors, which lead to self aligned structures. The platform is supported by 150 ?m long torsion beams with sub-micron diameter. The electrostatic actuation voltage is given by a separate chip. The mirror moves out of the optical path when the platform is actuated and goes to the switching state if no voltage is applied. The first prototypes have been actuated at 200 V, which agrees with a CoventorWare simulation used for designing the device. Light was successfully switched with a 4x4 OXC. An 8x8 OXC is shown and electrostatically characterized.

  4. THE EFFECT OF LONG TERM WASTEWATER CROSS-CONNECTION'S EFFECT ON THE BIOFILM OF A SIMULATED WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the current regulations (CFR 503), Class B biosolids may be land applied with certain site restrictions. One method for achieving Class B status is to raise the pH of the sludge to >12 for a minimum of 2 hours with an alkaline material (normally lime). Alternately, a Clas...

  5. CROSS CONNECTIONS SChOOl Of INfORmaTION STudIES (iSChOOl)

    E-print Network

    McConnell, Terry

    for Natural Language Processing: advances the development of human-like language understanding software support interdisciplinary teaching and research initiatives through a gift to the School of Information

  6. The University of Texas at Austin August 13, 2014 Telecommunications Patch Cords, Station Cords, and Cross Connect Wire 27 16 19-1

    E-print Network

    Pillow, Jonathan

    codes, as required by law. 1. ANSI/NFPA-70, National Electrical Code® (NEC® ) C. The following standards 5e, category 6A, OM4, OS2). 1.2 RELATED DOCUMENTS A. The latest editions of the following codes or conditions differ from the requirements in codes, standards, guidelines or specifications. B. The following

  7. 77 FR 29618 - The Release of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and the Announcement of a Public Hearing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Announcement of a Public Hearing for the Figure Eight Island Inlet and Shoreline Management Project, on Figure Eight Island, New Hanover County, NC AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, DoD... feet of back barrier shoreline to protect residential homes and infrastructures along the central...

  8. Science 101: How Does the Motion of the Earth Affect Our View of the Sun?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Bill

    2014-01-01

    The question examined in this "Science 101" column was inspired by "Find Your School's Analemma" (in this issue). What causes the Sun's apparent position in the sky to trace a figure-eight pattern throughout one year? The analemma, or figure eight pattern that the Sun makes throughout the year, is due to two major…

  9. Design of NSLS-II High Order Multipole Correctors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak,M.; Danby, G.; Bengtsson, Jo; Jackson, J.; Skaritka, J.; Spataro, C.

    2009-05-04

    Feasibility studies for two families of corrector magnets for NSLS-II are presented. The first family of magnets are generalizations of figure eight quadrupoles using rotationally symmetric breaks in the return yoke to fit in available space. Properties specific to figure eight magnet are identified. The second type of magnet is a combined sextupole/dipole trim.

  10. 77 FR 29740 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Connect'' fees are per physical connection and vary by size from the smallest (T-1) to the largest (CAT 6... Connect per T-3 350 Cross Connect per CAT 5, 5E, 6 \\8\\ 500 Monthly Hosting 200 Cross Connect per T-1 100 Cross Connect per T-3 200 Cross Connect per CAT 5, 5E, 6 250 Additionally, Back Office Trade...

  11. On Periodic Perturbations of Asymmetric Duffing-Van-der-Pol Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Albert D.; Kostromina, Olga S.

    2014-05-01

    Time-periodic perturbations of an asymmetric Duffing-Van-der-Pol equation close to an integrable equation with a homoclinic "figure-eight" of a saddle are considered. The behavior of solutions outside the neighborhood of "figure-eight" is studied analytically. The problem of limit cycles for an autonomous equation is solved and resonance zones for a nonautonomous equation are analyzed. The behavior of the separatrices of a fixed saddle point of the Poincare map in the small neighborhood of the unperturbed "figure-eight" is ascertained. The results obtained are illustrated by numerical computations.

  12. 77 FR 31355 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ...404-865-5600. EIS No. 20120158, Draft EIS, USACE, NC, Figure Eight Island Inlet and Shoreline Management Project, Terminal Groin Installation and Supplemental Beach Nourishment, Implementation, New Hanover County, NC, Comment Period Ends:...

  13. TRIMETHYLTIN-INDUCED HYPERACTIVITY: TIME COURSE AND PATTERN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adult male Long-Evans rats were intubated with either 0,5,6, or 7 mg/kg trimethyltin chloride. Activity was measured for 1 hr in a figure-eight maze 2 hr after dosing (day 0) and again on days 4,8,16 and 32 after dosing. On days 49-51, activity was measured in a figure-eight maze...

  14. A new structure of torque sensors using thin pickup head—Use of mutual coupling modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasada, I.; Koga, F.

    1994-05-01

    A new structure is proposed for the magnetoelastic torque sensors using a pair of figure-eight coils as a pickup. Mutual coupling between two figure-eight coils is used as a measure of torque applied to a shaft. The mutual coupling is governed by torque-induced anisotropic permeability at the surface of the shaft. Basic characteristics of the torque sensor are examined using a tempered steel shaft of 25 mm in diameter and a pair of 25-turn figure-eight coils. Sensitivity was 16 ?V/N m and hysteresis was 1.3% at the coil excitation condition of 60 kHz, 0.8 A (RMS). Exciting power needed to reduce hysteresis is much smaller with this structure than with previous methods using self-inductance as a measure of torque.

  15. CHAPTER 16: HORSE SAFETY GUIDELINES Approaching a horse

    E-print Network

    New Hampshire, University of

    rubbing a hand on its shoulder or neck. Don't "dab" at the end of a horse's nose. · Always walk around it. · Use a long lead strap and fold the excess strap in a figure-eight style in your left hand when leading. It is customary to lead from the horse's left, or near side, by using the right hand to hold

  16. JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 31, NO. 11, JUNE 1, 2013 1809 Amplified 2-Thulium-Doped All-Fiber

    E-print Network

    Byer, Robert L.

    JOURNAL OF LIGHTWAVE TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 31, NO. 11, JUNE 1, 2013 1809 Amplified 2- Thulium-Doped All. Byer Abstract--We report the first mode-locked, thulium-doped fiber figure-eight laser. The mode. INTRODUCTION THULIUM-DOPED lasers have a wide gain spectrum ranging from 1.8 to 2.1 , depending on the host

  17. AUDITORY DEFICITS AND MOTOR DYSFUNCTION FOLLOWING IMINODIPROPIONITRILE ADMINISTRATION IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The behavioral effects of 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) were studied using reflex modification of the acoustic startle response and figure-eight maze activity. umber of experiments were conducted with separate groups of adult male Long Evans hooded rats exposed to saline, or 5...

  18. Knot Universes in Bianchi Type I Cosmology

    E-print Network

    Ratbay Myrzakulov

    2013-01-02

    We investigate the trefoil and figure-eight knot universes from Bianchi-type I cosmology. In particular, we construct several concrete models describing the knot universes related to the cyclic universe and examine those cosmological features and properties in detail. Finally some examples of unknotted closed curves solutions (spiky and Mobius strip universes) are presented.

  19. 77 FR 29618 - The Release of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement and the Announcement of a Public Hearing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ...800 linear feet of back barrier shoreline to protect...sections of Figure Eight Island. The terminal groin...the northern tip of the island along the shoulder of...Nixon Channel, a back barrier channel. In case the...nearby upland disposal islands will be used to...

  20. Immersed, VirtuallyEmbedded, Boundary Slopes. M. Baker and D. Cooper \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Immersed, Virtually­Embedded, Boundary Slopes. M. Baker and D. Cooper \\Lambda March 7, 1997 Abstract For the figure eight knot, we show that slopes with even numerator are slopes of immersed surfaces: An immersed boundary slope on T is a slope, ff; on T such that there is a proper immersion of a compact

  1. NEUROBEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF TRIADIMEFON, A TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDE, IN MALE AND FEMALE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Triadimefon is a widely used systemic fungicide, yet there is little published information on its effects in mammals. This study describes the effects of triadimefon in male and female rats using a functional observational battery (FOB), motor activity (measured in a figure-eight...

  2. Mechanical Assessment of Veterinary Orthopedic Implant Technologies: Comparative Studies of Canine Fracture Fixation and Equine Arthrodesis Devices and Techniques 

    E-print Network

    Baker, Sean Travis

    2013-04-30

    Plate (LCP) was compared to a 14-16 hole broad Dynamic Compression Plate (DCP). Both constructs used a two “figure-eight” 1.25mm stainless steel wire tension band. Fatigue tests and to failure tests were conducted. There were no significant differences...

  3. Hybrid Fractal Zerotree Wavelet Image Taekon Kim, Robert E. Van Dyck, and David J. Miller

    E-print Network

    1 Hybrid Fractal Zerotree Wavelet Image Coding Taekon Kim, Robert E. Van Dyck, and David J. Miller the scaling factor aR the encoding bit rate bR a rate slightly less than the encoding rate fR the fractal. of Tables Four tables No. of Figures Eight figures Keywords hybrid fractal coding, zerotree, image

  4. 77 FR 6520 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...misassembled such that two squib electrical connectors can be cross-connected. This proposed...modifying the wiring loom to certain squib connectors, and corrective actions if necessary...misassembled such that two squib electrical connectors can be cross-connected. This...

  5. 77 FR 37775 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ...misassembled such that two squib electrical connectors can be cross- connected. This AD requires...of the wiring loom to certain squib connectors, and corrective actions if necessary...misassembled such that two squib electrical connectors can be cross-connected. This...

  6. Dynamics of an electron driven by relativistically intense laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Galkin, A. L.; Korobkin, V. V.; Romanovsky, M. Yu.; Shiryaev, O. B.

    2008-02-15

    The dynamics of an electron driven by a relativistically intense laser pulse is analyzed on the basis of the equation of motion with the Lorentz force in the cases of linear and circular polarizations. Laser fields with nonplane phase fronts accelerate electrons in the longitudinal direction. An electron initially at rest is found not to move along figure-eight trajectories for the linear polarization, and not to move along circular trajectories for the circular polarization.

  7. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...have instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the protection sized and located to comply...OSV. (j) Each vessel with duplicate (parallel but cross-connected) power systems...

  8. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...have instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the protection sized and located to comply...OSV. (j) Each vessel with duplicate (parallel but cross-connected) power systems...

  9. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...have instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the protection sized and located to comply...OSV. (j) Each vessel with duplicate (parallel but cross-connected) power systems...

  10. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...have instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the protection sized and located to comply...OSV. (j) Each vessel with duplicate (parallel but cross-connected) power systems...

  11. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...have instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the protection sized and located to comply...OSV. (j) Each vessel with duplicate (parallel but cross-connected) power systems...

  12. 77 FR 17066 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ...such as water main breaks, cross-connections, back-flow, and pressure fluctuations can result in potential intrusion of microbes and other contaminants that can cause health effects, including acute gastrointestinal and respiratory illness....

  13. 77 FR 65894 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...such as water main breaks, cross-connections, back-flow, and pressure fluctuations can result in potential intrusion of microbes and other contaminants that can cause health effects, including acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) and acute...

  14. 76 FR 19362 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...such as water main breaks, cross-connections, back-flow, and pressure fluctuations can result in potential intrusion of microbes and other contaminants that can cause health effects, including acute gastrointestinal and respiratory illness....

  15. Project W-320 high vacuum 241-AY-102 annulus ventilation system operability test report

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.W.

    1998-03-12

    This report documents the test results of OTP-320-001, Tank 241-AY-102 Annulus Ventilation System Testing. Included in the appendices are: (1) Supporting documentation prepared to demonstrate the structural integrity of the tank at high annulus vacuum (<20 INWG), and (2) a report that identifies potential cross connections between the primary and annulus ventilation systems. These cross connections were verified to be eliminated prior to the start of testing.

  16. Design Optimization for a Maglev System Employing Flux Eliminating Coils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davey, Kent R.

    1996-01-01

    Flux eliminating coils have received no little attention over the past thirty years as an alternative for realizing lift in a MAGLEV system. When the magnets on board the vehicle are displaced from the equilibrium or null flux point of these coils, they induce current in those coils which act to restore the coil to its null flux or centerline position. The question being addressed in this paper is that of how to choose the best coil for a given system. What appears at first glance to be an innocent question is in fact one that is actually quite involved, encompassing both the global economics and physics of the system. The real key in analyzing that question is to derive an optimization index or functional which represents the cost of the system subject to constraints, the primary constraint being that the vehicle lift itself at a certain threshold speed. Outlined in this paper is one scenario for realizing a total system design which uses sequential quadratic programming techniques.

  17. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: component analysis of EMG signals

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana Maria; Dan, Bernard; Cheron, Guy; McIntyre, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    A central question in Neuroscience is that of how the nervous system generates the spatiotemporal commands needed to realize complex gestures, such as handwriting. A key postulate is that the central nervous system (CNS) builds up complex movements from a set of simpler motor primitives or control modules. In this study we examined the control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when performing different types of movement: discrete, point-to-point movements in eight different directions and continuous figure-eight movements in both the normal, upright orientation and rotated 90°. To test for the effects of biomechanical constraints, movements were performed in the frontal-parallel or sagittal planes, corresponding to two different nominal flexion/abduction postures of the shoulder. In all cases we measured limb kinematics and surface electromyographic activity (EMG) signals for seven different muscles acting around the shoulder. We first performed principal component analysis (PCA) of the EMG signals on a movement-by-movement basis. We found a surprisingly consistent pattern of muscle groupings across movement types and movement planes, although we could detect systematic differences between the PCs derived from movements performed in each shoulder posture and between the principal components associated with the different orientations of the figure. Unexpectedly we found no systematic differences between the figure eights and the point-to-point movements. The first three principal components could be associated with a general co-contraction of all seven muscles plus two patterns of reciprocal activation. From these results, we surmise that both “discrete-rhythmic movements” such as the figure eight, and discrete point-to-point movement may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the impedance of the limb over the time span of the movement and two others operating to generate movement, one aligned with the vertical and the other aligned with the horizontal. PMID:25620928

  18. The Stealth Biplane: a Proposal in Response to a Low Reynolds Number Station Keeping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Timothy E.; Flynn, Kevin T.; Donovan, Steven; Paul, Chris; Pangilinan, Harold; Padgett, John; Twomey, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    The Stealth Biplane is conceived and constructed to serve as a remotely piloted vehicle designed to navigate a low-level figure-eight course at a target Reynolds number of 100,000. This flight vehicle will combine the latest in lightweight radio controlled hardware in conjunction with current low Reynolds number aerodynamic research to demonstrate feasible operation in a variety of applications. These potential low Reynolds number applications include high altitude atmospheric sampling, search and rescue, and even law enforcement. Design specs and fabrication technique are discussed.

  19. [Anterior transolecranon fracture-dislocations of the elbow in children: A case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Tiemdjo, H; Kinkpe, C; Coulibaly, N F; Sane, A; Ndiaye, A; Seye, S I L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior transolecranon fracture-dislocations of the elbow are rare in children and the literature is poor in recommendations for the management of these lesions. We report a new case with a type of lesion that has not been described previously and discuss this pathology. Based on a literature review, we propose a classification into four types of anterior transolecranon fracture-dislocations of the elbow in children, thereby guiding surgical indications. We recommend reduction and synthesis using a figure-eight tension-band wire in avulsions and transverse type I and II fractures. The bone plate is the best indication in type III oblique fractures in older children. PMID:26047739

  20. Design and achievement of an efficient low-order pointer multiplexing and mapping scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yangyi; Su, Shaojing; Zuo, Zhen; Huang, Zhiping; Zhang, Yimeng

    2015-10-01

    With the improvement of people's living standard, the requirement of network is higher and higher. The rate and capacity of network communication are rising all the time, it 's outstanding on the backbone networks. The rate of backbone network had improved from 10G to 100G in recent years. This change also put forward new requirement for optical network equipment . The key technologies of lower order cross-connect equipment is discussing in this passage. This passage mainly discusses the following aspects: time division multiplexing of STM-1 lower-order pointer interpretation and lower -order pointer generation. By using the technologies discussed in this passage, the lower -order cross-connect devices has the higher cross-connect capacity under consuming the same logic resource, and the equipment will meet the requirement of the backbone network transmission capacity.

  1. Black hole formation from a null fluid in extended Palatini gravity

    E-print Network

    J. Martinez-Asencio; Gonzalo J. Olmo; D. Rubiera-Garcia

    2012-09-15

    We study the formation and perturbation of black holes by null fluxes of neutral matter in a quadratic extension of General Relativity formulated a la Palatini. Working in a spherically symmetric space-time, we obtain an exact analytical solution for the metric that extends the usual Vaidya-type solution to this type of theories. We find that the resulting space-time is formally that of a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole but with an effective charge term carrying the wrong sign in front of it. This effective charge is directly related to the luminosity function of the radiation stream. When the ingoing flux vanishes, the charge term disappears and the space-time relaxes to that of a Schwarzschild black hole. We provide two examples that illustrate the formation of a black hole from Minkowski space and the perturbation by a finite pulse of radiation of an existing Schwarzschild black hole.

  2. Characteristics of bowl-shaped coils for transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Keita; Suyama, Momoko; Takiyama, Yoshihiro; Kim, Dongmin; Saitoh, Youichi; Sekino, Masaki

    2015-05-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has recently been used as a method for the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Daily TMS sessions can provide continuous therapeutic effectiveness, and the installation of TMS systems at patients' homes has been proposed. A figure-eight coil, which is normally used for TMS therapy, induces a highly localized electric field; however, it is challenging to achieve accurate coil positioning above the targeted brain area using this coil. In this paper, a bowl-shaped coil for stimulating a localized but wider area of the brain is proposed. The coil's electromagnetic characteristics were analyzed using finite element methods, and the analysis showed that the bowl-shaped coil induced electric fields in a wider area of the brain model than a figure-eight coil. The expanded distribution of the electric field led to greater robustness of the coil to the coil-positioning error. To improve the efficiency of the coil, the relationship between individual coil design parameters and the resulting coil characteristics was numerically analyzed. It was concluded that lengthening the outer spherical radius and narrowing the width of the coil were effective methods for obtaining a more effective and more uniform distribution of the electric field.

  3. Numerical investigation on flow-induced vibration of a triangular cylinder at a low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huakun; Zhao, Dongliang; Yang, Wenyu; Yu, Guoliang

    2015-02-01

    Flow-induced vibration (FIV) of a triangular cylinder is numerically investigated at a Reynolds number of Re = 100. The four-step fractional finite element method is employed to solve the two-dimensional (2D) incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The cylinder is endowed with a two-degree-of-freedom motion with the reduced mass ratio of Mr = 2. Three typical flow incidence angles, ? = 0°, 30° and 60°, are examined to identify the effect of incidence angle on the vibration characteristics of the cylinder. For each ?, computations are conducted in a wide range of reduced velocities 2 Ur ? 18. The numerical results show that at ? = 0° and 30°, the responses of the cylinder are dominated by vortex-induced vibration which resembles that of a circular cylinder. At ? = 0°, the peak amplitude of transverse vibration is the smallest among the three investigated ?, and most of the cylinder motions exhibit a regular figure-eight trajectory. Some single-loop trajectories are observed at ? = 30°, where the vibration frequency in the in-line direction is always identical to that in the transverse direction. At ? = 60°, the triangular cylinder undergoes a typical transverse galloping with large amplitude and low frequency, and the vibration trajectories appear to be regular or irregular figure-eight patterns, which are strongly affected by the reduced velocity.

  4. A new variational method with SPBC and many stable choreographic solutions of the Newtonian 4-body problem

    E-print Network

    Tiancheng Ouyang; Zhifu Xie

    2013-07-31

    After the existence proof of the first remarkably stable simple choreographic motion-- the figure eight of the planar three-body problem by Chenciner and Montgomery in 2000, a great number of simple choreographic solutions have been discovered numerically but very few of them have rigorous existence proofs and none of them are stable. Most important to astronomy are stable periodic solutions which might actually be seen in some stellar system. A question for simple choreographic solutions on $n$-body problems naturally arises: Are there any other stable simple choreographic solutions except the figure eight? In this paper, we prove the existence of infinitely many simple choreographic solutions in the classical Newtonian 4-body problem by developing a new variational method with structural prescribed boundary conditions (SPBC). Surprisingly, a family of choreographic orbits of this type are all linearly stable. Among the many stable simple choreographic orbits, the most extraordinary one is the stable star pentagon choreographic solution. The star pentagon is assembled out of four pieces of curves which are obtained by minimizing the Lagrangian action functional over the SPBC. We also prove the existence of infinitely many double choreographic periodic solutions, infinitely many non-choreographic periodic solutions and uncountably many quasi-periodic solutions. Each type of periodic solutions have many stable solutions and possibly infinitely many stable solutions.

  5. LAND USE AND SEASONAL EFFECTS ON URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF MICROORGANISM CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater samples collected from storm sewers draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems shown to be free of cross connections within an urban watershed dominated by a single land use were analyzed for pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) and i...

  6. WATERBORNE PATHOGEN INVASIONS: A CASE FOR WATER QUALITY PROTECTION IN DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION IN DISTRIBUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    No degree of treatment will insure the delivery of a safe water supplyto the consumer's tap when the distribution system is subject to cross-connections water pressure losses, frequent line breaks, open reservoirs and infrastructure deterioration. n one recent U.S. outbreak, wate...

  7. Exploiting OTDM technology in WDM networks M. Mellia, E. Leonardi, M. Feletig, R. Gaudino, F. Neri

    E-print Network

    the average distance among nodes, i.e., the number of electro-optic and opto-electronic con- versions a positive feed- back, whose consequence is the need for continuous upgrades of the network infrastructure are (transparently) coupled to outgoing channels through an optical cross-connect that does not process in

  8. Design of WDM Networks Exploiting OTDM and LightSplitters

    E-print Network

    , thus reducing the average distance among nodes, i.e., the number of electro­optic and opto for continuous upgrades of the network infras­ tructure. Wavelength­Routed (WR) optical networks [1], based upon to outgoing channels through an op­ tical cross­connect that does not process in­transit infor­ mation

  9. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the... (parallel but cross-connected) power systems for the main steering gear by way of compliance with paragraph... subordinate parallel system is located at the steering-control station in the pilothouse; (2) Full power...

  10. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the... (parallel but cross-connected) power systems for the main steering gear by way of compliance with paragraph... subordinate parallel system is located at the steering-control station in the pilothouse; (2) Full power...

  11. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the... (parallel but cross-connected) power systems for the main steering gear by way of compliance with paragraph... subordinate parallel system is located at the steering-control station in the pilothouse; (2) Full power...

  12. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the... (parallel but cross-connected) power systems for the main steering gear by way of compliance with paragraph... subordinate parallel system is located at the steering-control station in the pilothouse; (2) Full power...

  13. 46 CFR 130.130 - Steering on OSVs of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... instantaneous protection against short circuit for electrical-power circuits and control circuits, the... (parallel but cross-connected) power systems for the main steering gear by way of compliance with paragraph... subordinate parallel system is located at the steering-control station in the pilothouse; (2) Full power...

  14. Waterworks Operator Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    Sixteen self-study waterworks operators training modules are provided. Module titles are the following: basic mathematics, basic chemistry, analysis procedures, microbiology, basic electricity, hydraulics, chlorination, plant operation, surface water, ground water, pumps, cross connections, distribution systems, safety, public relations, and…

  15. On the Geography of X-Connects Reza Motamedi

    E-print Network

    Rejaie, Reza

    for over fifteen years, past ef- forts have focused almost exclusively on the existence and type perform for generating empirical evi- dence of "hot-running" peering links between two ASes that the probes tar- get the correct cross connects. Operating hot-running peer- ing links is a commonly

  16. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... switched transport. 69.123 Section 69.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.123 Density pricing zones....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in §...

  17. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... switched transport. 69.123 Section 69.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.123 Density pricing zones....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in §...

  18. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... switched transport. 69.123 Section 69.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.123 Density pricing zones....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in §...

  19. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... switched transport. 69.123 Section 69.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.123 Density pricing zones....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in §...

  20. 47 CFR 69.123 - Density pricing zones for special access and switched transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... switched transport. 69.123 Section 69.123 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.123 Density pricing zones....3(e)(7), in study areas in which a telephone company offers a cross-connect, as described in §...

  1. Transmitters and receivers are directly compatible with popular

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    Area Networks · Computer to Peripheral Links · Computer Monitor Links · Digital Cross Connect Links trademark of the SpecTran Corporation. #12;2 HFBR-0400 Series Part Number Guide HFBR X4XXaa 1 = Transmitter offers a wide selection of evaluation kits for hands-on experience with fiber- optic products as well

  2. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...device for measuring depth of water, provision shall be made to...pipe carrying any nonpotable water or liquid shall be permitted...d) Tanks and piping shall bear clear marks of identification...cross connection between potable water systems and any other...

  3. 21 CFR 1250.82 - Potable water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...device for measuring depth of water, provision shall be made to...pipe carrying any nonpotable water or liquid shall be permitted...d) Tanks and piping shall bear clear marks of identification...cross connection between potable water systems and any other...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (a) This account shall include the original cost of station apparatus, including teletypewriter... this account, the cost of which when finally disposed of shall be credited to this account and charged to Account 3100, Accumulated Depreciation. (c) The cost of cross-connection boxes,...

  5. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assigned to the lowest priced density pricing zone (zone 1) under an approved density pricing zone plan as... cross-connects for the transmission of switched traffic per office assigned to the lowest priced density pricing zone (zone 1). (g) In study areas in which the telephone company has implemented density...

  6. 47 CFR 69.112 - Direct-trunked transport.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assigned to the lowest priced density pricing zone (zone 1) under an approved density pricing zone plan as... cross-connects for the transmission of switched traffic per office assigned to the lowest priced density pricing zone (zone 1). (g) In study areas in which the telephone company has implemented density...

  7. The Advent of WDM and the All-Optical Network: A Reality Check.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutkowitz, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Discussion of the telecommunications industry focuses on WDM (wavelength division multiplexing) as a solution for dealing with capacity constraints. Highlights include fiber optic technology; cross-connecting and switching wavelengths; SONET (Synchronous Optical Network) and wavelength networking; and optical TDM (Time Division Multiplexing). (LRW)

  8. MICROBIAL GROWTH IN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water is not sterile. Microbes are commonly found in delivered water. Some survive treatment, while others may be introduced due to cross connections, line breaks, or by other means. Biofilm forms in drinking water pipes when bacteria and other organisms adhere to pip...

  9. Lorentz force on an electron in a strong plane-wave laser field and the low-frequency limit for ionization

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Jaroslaw H.

    2010-01-15

    A motion of a classical free charge in an electromagnetic plane wave can be found exactly in a fully relativistic case. I have found an approximate non-parametric form of the suitable equations of motion. In a linearly polarized wave, in the simplest frame of reference, the charge moves along the well-known figure-eight path. I have numerically calculated the Lorentz force acting on the charge as a function of time. By virtue of this, for the low-frequency ionization (or detachment) rate, I discuss a manifestation of nondipole and relativistic effects. When intensity of the plane wave increases, these effects can first appear in angular distributions, then in spectra of outgoing electrons, but have quite little effect on total ionization rates. I try to give an explanation of the latter fact.

  10. Magnetic Stimulation of the Spinal Cord: Evaluating the Characteristics of an Appropriate Stimulator.

    PubMed

    Cretu, Mihaela; Darabant, Adrian; Ciupa, Radu V

    2015-10-01

    This article aims to determine the necessary characteristics of a magnetic stimulator, capable of stimulating neural tracts of the spinal cord in a healthy subject. Our previous preliminary tests had shown that the commercial clinical magnetic stimulator Magstim Rapid(2) was unable to reach excitable structures within the spinal cord, and only adjacent spinal nerves could be activated with the maximal deliverable field strength. In a subsequent modeling study, we were able to show that the "figure eight"-shaped commercial coil could be one reason for, in this particular application, insufficient reach of the magnetic field, and substantial improvements could be gained by alternative geometrical arrangement of the windings of the magnetic coils. A further outcome was that a substantially higher driving voltage for the coil would be necessary to achieve activation of neural tracts within the spinal cord. PMID:26471134

  11. A note on the relationship between solutions of Einstein, Ramanujan and Chazy equations

    E-print Network

    Kuralay Esmakhanova; Yerlan Myrzakulov; Gulgasyl Nugmanova; Ratbay Myrzakulov

    2012-07-30

    The Einstein equation for the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric plays a fundamental role in cosmology. The direct search of the exact solutions of the Einstein equation even in this simple metric case is sometime a hard job. Therefore, it is useful to construct solutions of the Einstein equation using a known solutions of some other equations which are equivalent or related to the Einstein equation. In this work, we establish the relationship the Einstein equation with two other famous equations namely the Ramanujan equation and the Chazy equation. Both these two equations play an imporatant role in the number theory. Using the known solutions of the Ramanujan and Chazy equations, we find the corresponding solutions of the Einstein equation. The relationship between the Friedmann equation and the equations of the trefoil knot and figure-eight knot is established.

  12. Nuclear-magnetic-resonance quantum calculations of the Jones polynomial

    SciTech Connect

    Marx, Raimund; Spoerl, Andreas; Pomplun, Nikolas; Schulte-Herbrueggen, Thomas; Glaser, Steffen J.; Fahmy, Amr; Kauffman, Louis; Lomonaco, Samuel; Myers, John M.

    2010-03-15

    The repertoire of problems theoretically solvable by a quantum computer recently expanded to include the approximate evaluation of knot invariants, specifically the Jones polynomial. The experimental implementation of this evaluation, however, involves many known experimental challenges. Here we present experimental results for a small-scale approximate evaluation of the Jones polynomial by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR); in addition, we show how to escape from the limitations of NMR approaches that employ pseudopure states. Specifically, we use two spin-1/2 nuclei of natural abundance chloroform and apply a sequence of unitary transforms representing the trefoil knot, the figure-eight knot, and the Borromean rings. After measuring the nuclear spin state of the molecule in each case, we are able to estimate the value of the Jones polynomial for each of the knots.

  13. Quasiparticle band gaps, excitonic effects, and anisotropic optical properties of the monolayer distorted 1 T diamond-chain structures ReS2 and ReSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Hong-Xia; Gao, Shiyuan; Shi, Jun-Jie; Yang, Li

    2015-09-01

    We report many-body perturbation theory calculations of excited-state properties of distorted 1 T diamond-chain monolayer rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2). Electronic self-energy substantially enhances their quasiparticle band gaps and, surprisingly, converts monolayer ReSe2 to a direct-gap semiconductor, which was, however, regarded to be an indirect one by density-functional-theory calculations. Their optical absorption spectra are dictated by strongly bound excitons. Unlike hexagonal structures, the lowest-energy bright exciton of distorted 1 T ReS2 exhibits a perfect figure-eight shape polarization dependence but those of ReSe2 only exhibit a partial polarization dependence, which results from two nearly degenerated bright excitons whose polarization preferences are not aligned. Our first-principles calculations are in excellent agreement with experiments and pave the way for optoelectronic applications.

  14. The Penguin: a Low Reynolds Number Powered Glider for Station Keeping Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Costello, J. K.; Greene, D. W.; Lee, T. T.; Matier, P. T.; Mccarthy, T. R.; Mcguire, R. J.; Schuette, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    The Penguin is a low Reynolds number (approx. 100,000) remotely piloted vehicle (RPV). It was designed to fly three laps indoors around two pylons in a figure-eight course while maximizing loiter time. The Penguin's low Reynolds number mission is an important one currently being studied for possible future flights in the atmospheres of other planets and for specialized military missions. Although the Penguin's mission seemed quite simple at first, the challenges of such low Reynolds number flight have proven to be quite unique. In addition to the constraint of low Reynolds number flight, the aircraft had to be robust in its control, highly durable, and it had to carry a small instrument package. The Penguin's flight plan, concept, performance, aerodynamic design, weight estimation, structural design, propulsion, stability and control, and cost estimate is detailed.

  15. Untying Knots by Nmr:. Experimental Implementation of AN Exponentially Fast Quantum Algorithm for Approximating the Jones Polynomial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Raimund

    2013-09-01

    The quantum algorithm for approximating the Jones polynomial is one of the few algorithms that show an exponential speedup in comparison to classical algorithms. The lecturer will present experimental results for a small-scale approximate evaluation of the Jones polynomial by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In addition, he will show how to escape from the limitations of NMR approaches that employ pseudopure states. Specifically, two spin-1/2 nuclei of natural abundance chloroform are used for those experiments. The quantum algorithm is implemented by a sequence of unitary transforms representing the trefoil knot, the figure-eight knot, and the Borromean rings. After measuring the nuclear spin state of the molecule in each case, the value of the Jones polynomial for each of the knots can be estimated.

  16. Dynamics of noise-like pulsing at sub-ns scale in a passively mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Hernandez, H; Pottiez, O; Duran-Sanchez, M; Alvarez-Tamayo, R I; Lauterio-Cruz, J P; Hernandez-Garcia, J C; Ibarra-Escamilla, B; Kuzin, E A

    2015-07-27

    We report an original noise-like pulse dynamics observed in a figure-eight fiber laser, in which fragments are continually released from a main waveform that circulates in the cavity. Particularly, we report two representative cases of the dynamics: in the first case the released fragments drift away from the main bunch and decay over a fraction of the round-trip time, and then vanish suddenly; in the second case, the sub-packets drift without decaying over the complete cavity round-trip time, until they eventually merge again with the main waveform. The most intriguing result is that these fragments, as well as the main waveform, are formed of units with sub-ns duration and roughly the same energy. PMID:26367548

  17. Complex investigations of structural and optical homogeneities of low-photorefractivity lithium niobate crystals by the conoscopy and photoinduced and Raman light scattering methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, N. V.; Pikoul, O. Yu.; Kruk, A. A.; Teplyakova, N. A.; Yanichev, A. A.; Palatnikov, M. N.

    2015-02-01

    Using photoinduced light scattering, conoscopy, and Raman spectroscopy methods, we have studied stoichiometric lithium niobate crystals and congruent crystals that were doped with Mg(0.078, 0.89 mas %), Zn(0.03, 0.52, 0.62), Cu(0.015), B(0.12), Gd(0.51), Y(0.46), Gd(0.23):Mg(0.75), Mg(0.86):Fe(0.0036), Ta(1.13):Mg(0.011), and Y(0.24):Mg(0.63) cations. It has been found that, depending on the kind of the pattern of photoinduced light scattering, investigated specimens can be divided into three groups. We have shown that the asymmetry of the indicatrix of photoinduced light scattering of LiNbO3 crystals is caused by birefringence of exciting laser radiation as it propagates perpendicularly to the polar axis of the crystal, whereas the asymmetry of the Raman spectrum arises due to the occurrence of spontaneous polarization, the vector of which is directed along the polar axis, and by birefringence. The pattern of the photoinduced light scattering depends on the difference of the refractive indices ? n = n o - n e of the ordinary ( n o ) and extraordinary ( n e ) rays and their energies E. If En o {ie259-1} En e , the proportion of the photoinduced light scattering has the shape of a three-layer round spot. For equal energies, the pattern has the shape of a symmetric figure-eight. At En o < En e , the figure-eight is asymmetric. In this case, its large "lobe" is directed in the positive direction of the polar axis of the crystal.

  18. FBG-based reconfigurable bidirectional OXC for 8×10 Gb/s DWDM transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liaw, Shien-Kuei; Tsai, Pei-Shih; Wang, Hsiang; Le Minh, Hoa; Ghassemlooy, Zabih

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a bidirectional high-speed, power-compensated, 3×3 reconfigurable and multiwavelength optical cross-connect (RMB-OXC) for all-optical networks. RMB-OXC characteristics and its performance are experimentally verified in a bidirectional 8-channel×10 Gb/s capacity system. The optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is achieved of 18.4 dB corresponds to a BER of 5×10-10. The channel cross-connect function was demonstrated by incorporating RMB-OXC in an 50 km lightwave system. We have observed only ~0.5 dB power penalty in the bidirectional transmission in comparison to the unidirectional transmission. The proposed RMB-OXC has vast potential and it can be utilized in many applications in high-speed wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks.

  19. A Novel Elementary Single Electron Transistor Negative Differential Resistance Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahapatra, Santanu; Ionescu, Adrian Mihai

    2004-02-01

    A novel elementary single electron transistor (SET) device architecture providing negative differential resistance (NDR) is proposed and verified with SET analytical models. The proposed architecture consists of two cross-connected SETs, biased with constant current source, and it exhibits negative differential resistance for a significant range of input voltage. The effects of bias current and SET asymmetry on the circuit characteristics are shown from a design perspective. Comparison of the proposed architecture with other NDR devices is also presented.

  20. Digital-data receiver synchronization

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Turner, Gary W.

    2005-08-02

    Digital-data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  1. Digital-data receiver synchronization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F. (Loudon, TN) [Loudon, TN; Turner, Gary W. (Clinton, TN) [Clinton, TN

    2009-09-08

    Digital data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  2. Digital-data receiver synchronization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Smith, Stephen F.; Turner, Gary W.

    2005-12-06

    Digital-data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock may be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  3. Comparative human health risk analysis of coastal community water and waste service options.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Mary E; Xue, Xiaobo; Hawkins, Troy R; Ashbolt, Nicholas J

    2014-08-19

    As a pilot approach to describe adverse human health effects from alternative decentralized community water systems compared to conventional centralized services (business-as-usual [BAU]), selected chemical and microbial hazards were assessed using disability adjusted life years (DALYs) as the common metric. The alternatives included: (1) composting toilets with septic system, (2) urine-diverting toilets with septic system, (3) low flush toilets with blackwater pressure sewer and on-site greywater collection and treatment for nonpotable reuse, and (4) alternative 3 with on-site rainwater treatment and use. Various pathogens (viral, bacterial, and protozoan) and chemicals (disinfection byproducts [DBPs]) were used as reference hazards. The exposure pathways for BAU included accidental ingestion of contaminated recreational water, ingestion of cross-connected sewage to drinking water, and shower exposures to DBPs. The alternative systems included ingestion of treated greywater from garden irrigation, toilet flushing, and crop consumption; and ingestion of treated rainwater while showering. The pathways with the highest health impact included the ingestion of cross-connected drinking water and ingestion of recreational water contaminated by septic seepage. These were also among the most uncertain when characterizing input parameters, particularly the scale of the cross-connection event, and the removal of pathogens during groundwater transport of septic seepage. A comparison of the health burdens indicated potential health benefits by switching from BAU to decentralized water and wastewater systems. PMID:24988142

  4. A preliminary harmonic spline model from Magsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, L.; Parker, R. L.; Langel, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary main field model for 1980 derived from a carefully selected subset of Magsat vector measurements, using the method of harmonic splines, is presented. This model (PHS /80/) for preliminary harmonic splines is the smoothest model (in the sense that the rms radial field at the core surface is minimum) consistent with the measurements (with an rms misfit of 10 nT to account for crustal and external fields as well as noise in the measurement procedure). Therefore PHS (80) is more suitable for studies of the core than models derived with the traditional least squares approach (e.g., GSFC /9/80/). A comparison is conducted of the characteristics of the harmonic spline spectrum, topology of the core field and especially the null-flux curves (loci where the radial field is zero) and the flux through patches bounded by such curves. PHS (80) is less complex than GSFC (9/80) and is therefore more representative of that part of the core field that the data constrain.

  5. Localization by indirect immunofluorescence of tetrin, actin, and centrin to the oral apparatus and buccal cavity of the macrostomal form of Tetrahymena vorax.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Neil B; Buhse, Howard E

    2004-01-01

    We have taken advantage of the size of the macrostomal oral apparatus of Tetrahymena vorax to investigate the immunofluorescent localization of three cytoskeletal proteins--tetrin, actin, and centrin. Tetrin and actin antibodies co-localize to cross-connectives that anchor the membranelles. These antibodies also recognize the coarse filamentous reticulum, a filament associated with the undulating membrane. Actin-specific localization extends beyond the coarse filamentous reticulum-undulating membrane complex into a region called the specialized cytoplasm. A centrin antibody localizes to the fine filamentous reticulum which, along with microtubules of the oral ribs, circumscribes the cytostomal opening. Models of phagocytic contraction based on these data are presented. PMID:15134263

  6. Spatial Light Modulators as Optical Crossbar Switches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of implementing cross connections in an optical communication network is based on the use of a spatial light modulator (SLM) to form controlled diffraction patterns that connect inputs (light sources) and outputs (light sinks). Sources would typically include optical fibers and/or light-emitting diodes; sinks would typically include optical fibers and/or photodetectors. The sources and/or sinks could be distributed in two dimensions; that is, on planes. Alternatively or in addition, sources and/or sinks could be distributed in three dimensions -- for example, on curved surfaces or in more complex (including random) three-dimensional patterns.

  7. In Search of the Audience - Forty Years of German Public Television and Its Audience Driven Commercialization

    E-print Network

    Goebel, Baerbel

    2011-04-11

    and child murder was a main part of the narrative created an explosive cross-connection. Tatort has a responsibility to its viewers, as the constant use of national, regional and local markers supply a high amount of realism to its viewers, and result in a...), the 23 production processes, and government pressures on the one hand, and the narrative unfolding on the screens in a video/audio interplay on the other. Dallas W. Smythe’s work on commodity audiences focuses on commercial television and the idea...

  8. Lamar repowering project's creative modeling of old and new wins Marmaduke award

    SciTech Connect

    Peltier, R.

    2008-08-15

    Lamar Light and Power is a municipal utility that has been generating the south eastern Colorado city's electricity since 1920. Rising natural gas and oil costs pushed LL & P to retire its steam plant five years ago and begin hunting for more economic power sources. The answer: repower the existing plant with a state-of-the-art coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed combustor and cross-connect old and new steam turbines. The 120 million dollar project will stabilize the region's electricity rates for many years to come. 10 figs. 1 tab.

  9. Integrated photonic systems redefine air vehicle management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francis, David L.; Fazi, Floyd A., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Future military aircraft will be taking advantage of advances in optical information networks. Fly by Light will encompass not only using commercially based databus networks between processors but also incorporating purely optical sensors and transducers. Several types of optical transducers are available and have been demonstrated for feedback and health monitoring. Integration techniques that include optical tunable filters, high-speed switches, cross- connect switches, multiplexers and demultiplexers operating in the 1550-nm band have been demonstrated. This integrated approach shows the potential to reduce weight, increase bandwidth and improve supportability for production air vehicles.

  10. The Lie-Poisson structure of the reduced n-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dullin, Holger R.

    2013-06-01

    The classical n-body problem in d-dimensional space is invariant under the Galilean symmetry group. We reduce by this symmetry group using the method of polynomial invariants. One novelty of our approach is that we do not fix the centre of mass but rather use a momentum shifting trick to change the kinetic part of the Hamiltonian to arrive at a new, dynamically equivalent Hamiltonian which is easier to reduce. As a result we obtain a reduced system with a Lie-Poisson structure which is isomorphic to \\mathfrak{sp}(2n-2) , independently of d. The reduction preserves the natural form of the Hamiltonian as a sum of kinetic energy that depends on velocities only and a potential that depends on positions only. This splitting allows us to construct a Poisson integrator for the reduced n-body problem which is efficient away from collisions for n = 3. In particular, we could integrate the figure eight orbit in 18 time steps.

  11. How Children Observe the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunlop, John

    2000-08-01

    Children who visited Auckland Observatory and Stardome Planetarium in 1998 were surveyed on their ideas about the Earth, the Moon and the Sun. Widespread misconceptions similar to those found in other studies were revealed, however the single teaching session had an impact on children's ideas comparable to that of much longer interventions. Several ideas not reported previously were expressed. For example, two children drew a figure eight orbit for the Earth; circling the Sun during the day, and the Moon at night. Only one child of the 67 surveyed proposed the notion of day and night being caused by the Sun orbiting the Earth. This is in contrast to many other studies. A drawing based pre-post survey proved to be a convenient and powerful tool for revealing changing patterns in children's thinking. The literature surveyed indicated levels of misconceptions about astronomy among teachers and other adults that were nearly as great as those of the children being taught. It would seem a strategic move to provide teachers with sufficient training if they are required to teach astronomy at every level, as has happened with the New Zealand science curriculum. A comparison between different question types suggests that multiple-choice questions may underestimate the knowledge of younger children by over 300% when compared with interview responses. A drawing based question in this study generated up to 41% more correct responses than a multiple-choice question on the same topic.

  12. Vortex-induced vibrations of a flexible cylinder at large inclination angle.

    PubMed

    Bourguet, Rémi; Triantafyllou, Michael S

    2015-01-28

    The free vibrations of a flexible circular cylinder inclined at 80° within a uniform current are investigated by means of direct numerical simulation, at Reynolds number 500 based on the body diameter and inflow velocity. In spite of the large inclination angle, the cylinder exhibits regular in-line and cross-flow vibrations excited by the flow through the lock-in mechanism, i.e. synchronization of body motion and vortex formation. A profound reconfiguration of the wake is observed compared with the stationary body case. The vortex-induced vibrations are found to occur under parallel, but also oblique vortex shedding where the spanwise wavenumbers of the wake and structural response coincide. The shedding angle and frequency increase with the spanwise wavenumber. The cylinder vibrations and fluid forces present a persistent spanwise asymmetry which relates to the asymmetry of the local current relative to the body axis, owing to its in-line bending. In particular, the asymmetrical trend of flow-body energy transfer results in a monotonic orientation of the structural waves. Clockwise and counter-clockwise figure eight orbits of the body alternate along the span, but the latter are found to be more favourable to structure excitation. Additional simulations at normal incidence highlight a dramatic deviation from the independence principle, which states that the system behaviour is essentially driven by the normal component of the inflow velocity. PMID:25512586

  13. Strength and ductility of asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, A.F.; Aminov, A.N.; Egorova, V.V.; Ovchinnikova, V.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article presents data on the ductility of asphalt as measured in an RMI-5 tensile tester, which is designed for tests on raw and vulcanized rubbers and rubber mixes. The asphalt test specimens were prepared in the form of ''figure eights'' and the tests were performed at 23-24/sup 0/C. Discrete load levels were determined at each 25-50% elongation. The true stress was calculated on the basis of the actual cross section of the specimen at the point of measurement, which was determined from motion picture photography of the elongation process. The addition of finely dispersed limestone to the asphalt leads to a sharp increase of its structural strength and a reduction of its total elongation. The particles of finely dispersed powders are implanted between the aggregates of asphaltenes and resins, binding them into a rigid, relatively immobile system, making it more difficult for these aggregates to straighten out and become oriented in the continuous malthene phase in the direction of the axis of elongation, as reflected in the presented stress/ elongation diagram. It is determined that the addition of 1% SKDP-N rubber to the BND 40/60 asphalt leads to an increase in ductility while strength is maintained. Includes a table.

  14. Comparison of current distributions in electroconvulsive therapy and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekino, Masaki; Ueno, Shoogo

    2002-05-01

    We compared current density distributions in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) by numerical calculations. The model consisted of an air region and three types of tissues with different conductivities representing the brain, the skull, and the scalp. In the ECT model, electric currents were applied through electrodes with a voltage of 100 V. In the TMS model, a figure-eight coil (6 cm diameter per coil) was placed on the vertex of the head model. An alternating current with a peak intensity of 3.0 kA and a frequency of 4.2 kHz was applied to the coil. The maximum current densities inside the brain in ECT (bilateral electrode position) and TMS were 234 and 322 A/m2, respectively. The results indicate that magnetic stimulators can generate comparable current densities to ECT. While the skull significantly affected current distributions in ECT, TMS efficiently induced eddy currents in the brain. In addition, TMS is more beneficial than ECT because the localized current distribution reduces the risk of adverse side effects.

  15. Compensation Techniques in Accelerator Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Hisham Kamal Sayed

    2011-05-31

    Accelerator physics is one of the most diverse multidisciplinary fields of physics, wherein the dynamics of particle beams is studied. It takes more than the understanding of basic electromagnetic interactions to be able to predict the beam dynamics, and to be able to develop new techniques to produce, maintain, and deliver high quality beams for different applications. In this work, some basic theory regarding particle beam dynamics in accelerators will be presented. This basic theory, along with applying state of the art techniques in beam dynamics will be used in this dissertation to study and solve accelerator physics problems. Two problems involving compensation are studied in the context of the MEIC (Medium Energy Electron Ion Collider) project at Jefferson Laboratory. Several chromaticity (the energy dependence of the particle tune) compensation methods are evaluated numerically and deployed in a figure eight ring designed for the electrons in the collider. Furthermore, transverse coupling optics have been developed to compensate the coupling introduced by the spin rotators in the MEIC electron ring design.

  16. Neural network training by integration of adjoint systems of equations forward in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, Nikzad (inventor); Barhen, Jacob (inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories exploits the concepts of adjoint operators to enable computation of the gradient of an objective functional with respect to the various parameters of the network architecture in a highly efficient manner. Specifically, it combines the advantage of dramatic reductions in computational complexity inherent in adjoint methods with the ability to solve two adjoint systems of equations together forward in time. Not only is a large amount of computation and storage saved, but the handling of real-time applications becomes also possible. The invention has been applied it to two examples of representative complexity which have recently been analyzed in the open literature and demonstrated that a circular trajectory can be learned in approximately 200 iterations compared to the 12000 reported in the literature. A figure eight trajectory was achieved in under 500 iterations compared to 20000 previously required. The trajectories computed using our new method are much closer to the target trajectories than was reported in previous studies.

  17. Differences in gaze anticipation for locomotion with and without vision

    PubMed Central

    Authié, Colas N.; Hilt, Pauline M.; N'Guyen, Steve; Berthoz, Alain; Bennequin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown a spontaneous anticipation of locomotor trajectory by the head and gaze direction during human locomotion. This anticipatory behavior could serve several functions: an optimal selection of visual information, for instance through landmarks and optic flow, as well as trajectory planning and motor control. This would imply that anticipation remains in darkness but with different characteristics. We asked 10 participants to walk along two predefined complex trajectories (limaçon and figure eight) without any cue on the trajectory to follow. Two visual conditions were used: (i) in light and (ii) in complete darkness with eyes open. The whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, along with the participant's right eye movements. We showed that in darkness and in light, horizontal gaze anticipates the orientation of the head which itself anticipates the trajectory direction. However, the horizontal angular anticipation decreases by a half in darkness for both gaze and head. In both visual conditions we observed an eye nystagmus with similar properties (frequency and amplitude). The main difference comes from the fact that in light, there is a shift of the orientations of the eye nystagmus and the head in the direction of the trajectory. These results suggest that a fundamental function of gaze is to represent self motion, stabilize the perception of space during locomotion, and to simulate the future trajectory, regardless of the vision condition. PMID:26106313

  18. Neural Network Training by Integration of Adjoint Systems of Equations Forward in Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toomarian, Nikzad (Inventor); Barhen, Jacob (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for supervised neural learning of time dependent trajectories exploits the concepts of adjoint operators to enable computation of the gradient of an objective functional with respect to the various parameters of the network architecture in a highly efficient manner. Specifically. it combines the advantage of dramatic reductions in computational complexity inherent in adjoint methods with the ability to solve two adjoint systems of equations together forward in time. Not only is a large amount of computation and storage saved. but the handling of real-time applications becomes also possible. The invention has been applied it to two examples of representative complexity which have recently been analyzed in the open literature and demonstrated that a circular trajectory can be learned in approximately 200 iterations compared to the 12000 reported in the literature. A figure eight trajectory was achieved in under 500 iterations compared to 20000 previously required. Tbc trajectories computed using our new method are much closer to the target trajectories than was reported in previous studies.

  19. Optimal propulsive flapping in Stokes flows.

    PubMed

    Was, Loïc; Lauga, Eric

    2014-03-01

    Swimming fish and flying insects use the flapping of fins and wings to generate thrust. In contrast, microscopic organisms typically deform their appendages in a wavelike fashion. Since a flapping motion with two degrees of freedom is able, in theory, to produce net forces from a time-periodic actuation at all Reynolds numbers, we compute in this paper the optimal flapping kinematics of a rigid spheroid in a Stokes flow. The hydrodynamics for the force generation and energetics of the flapping motion is solved exactly. We then compute analytically the gradient of a flapping efficiency in the space of all flapping gaits and employ it to derive numerically the optimal flapping kinematics as a function of the shape of the flapper and the amplitude of the motion. The kinematics of optimal flapping are observed to depend weakly on the flapper shape and are very similar to the figure-eight motion observed in the motion of insect wings. Our results suggest that flapping could be a exploited experimentally as a propulsion mechanism valid across the whole range of Reynolds numbers. PMID:24343130

  20. Three-body choreographies in given curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozaki, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Toshiaki

    2009-10-01

    As shown by Johannes Kepler in 1609, in the two-body problem, the shape of the orbit, a given ellipse, and a given non-vanishing constant angular momentum determine the motion of the planet completely. Even in the three-body problem, in some cases, the shape of the orbit, conservation of the center of mass and a constant of motion (the angular momentum or the total energy) determine the motion of the three bodies. We show, by a geometrical method, that choreographic motions, in which equal mass three bodies chase each other around the same curve, will be uniquely determined for the following two cases. (i) Convex curves that have point symmetry and non-vanishing angular momentum are given. (ii) Eight-shaped curves which are similar to the curve for the figure-eight solution and the energy constant are given. The reality of the motion should be tested whether the motion satisfies an equation of motion or not. Extensions of the method for generic curves are shown. The extended methods are applicable to generic curves which do not have point symmetry. Each body may have its own curve and its own non-vanishing masses.

  1. Differences in gaze anticipation for locomotion with and without vision.

    PubMed

    Authié, Colas N; Hilt, Pauline M; N'Guyen, Steve; Berthoz, Alain; Bennequin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Previous experimental studies have shown a spontaneous anticipation of locomotor trajectory by the head and gaze direction during human locomotion. This anticipatory behavior could serve several functions: an optimal selection of visual information, for instance through landmarks and optic flow, as well as trajectory planning and motor control. This would imply that anticipation remains in darkness but with different characteristics. We asked 10 participants to walk along two predefined complex trajectories (limaçon and figure eight) without any cue on the trajectory to follow. Two visual conditions were used: (i) in light and (ii) in complete darkness with eyes open. The whole body kinematics were recorded by motion capture, along with the participant's right eye movements. We showed that in darkness and in light, horizontal gaze anticipates the orientation of the head which itself anticipates the trajectory direction. However, the horizontal angular anticipation decreases by a half in darkness for both gaze and head. In both visual conditions we observed an eye nystagmus with similar properties (frequency and amplitude). The main difference comes from the fact that in light, there is a shift of the orientations of the eye nystagmus and the head in the direction of the trajectory. These results suggest that a fundamental function of gaze is to represent self motion, stabilize the perception of space during locomotion, and to simulate the future trajectory, regardless of the vision condition. PMID:26106313

  2. Crystal and molecular structure of didemnin B, an antiviral and cytotoxic depsipeptide.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M B; van der Helm, D; Antel, J; Sheldrick, G M; Sanduja, S K; Weinheimer, A J

    1988-06-01

    Didemnin B, a highly active depsipeptide isolated from a Caribbean tunicate, crystallizes from chloroform/benzene in the orthorhombic space group C2221, with cell parameters a = 14.990 +/- 0.003 A, b = 22.574 +/- 0.004 A, c = 41.112 +/- 0.009 A, V = 13911.7 A3 at 138 K and a calculated density of 1.143 g/cm3 based on C57H89N7O15, 1.5C6H6.H2O and eight formula units per cell. The overall agreement factor R = 0.052 for 7699 reflections, 20 theta max = 150 degrees, Cu K-alpha radiation. The structure determination revealed that didemnin B contains an isostatine residue instead of a statine residue. The conformation of the 23-membered depsipeptide ring is stabilized by one transannular hydrogen bond. The ring does not show the antiparallel beta-pleated-sheet structure but, instead, has a fold in the shape of a bent figure-eight. The linear peptide moiety, containing N-methylleucine and lactylproline, forms a beta (II)-bend and is folded back toward the cyclic backbone, giving the overall molecule a globular character. Comparison with the structure of cyclosporin A shows distinct stereochemical differences between the two molecules. It is suggested that didemnin B and cyclosporin A are unlikely to have a common receptor binding site. PMID:3380783

  3. Disturbance of visual search by stimulating to posterior parietal cortex in the brain using transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iramina, Keiji; Ge, Sheng; Hyodo, Akira; Hayami, Takehito; Ueno, Shoogo

    2009-04-01

    In this study, we applied a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate the temporal aspect for the functional processing of visual attention. Although it has been known that right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in the brain has a role in certain visual search tasks, there is little knowledge about the temporal aspect of this area. Three visual search tasks that have different difficulties of task execution individually were carried out. These three visual search tasks are the "easy feature task," the "hard feature task," and the "conjunction task." To investigate the temporal aspect of the PPC involved in the visual search, we applied various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and measured the reaction time of the visual search. The magnetic stimulation was applied on the right PPC or the left PPC by the figure-eight coil. The results show that the reaction times of the hard feature task are longer than those of the easy feature task. When SOA=150 ms, compared with no-TMS condition, there was a significant increase in target-present reaction time when TMS pulses were applied. We considered that the right PPC was involved in the visual search at about SOA=150 ms after visual stimulus presentation. The magnetic stimulation to the right PPC disturbed the processing of the visual search. However, the magnetic stimulation to the left PPC gives no effect on the processing of the visual search.

  4. Trajectories of Listeria-type motility in two dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Fu-Lai; Leung, Kwan-tai; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2012-12-01

    Force generated by actin polymerization is essential in cell motility and the locomotion of organelles or bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments on actin-based motility have observed geometrical trajectories including straight lines, circles, S-shaped curves, and translating figure eights. This paper reports a phenomenological model of an actin-propelled disk in two dimensions that generates geometrical trajectories. Our model shows that when the evolutions of actin density and force per filament on the disk are strongly coupled to the disk self-rotation, it is possible for a straight trajectory to lose its stability. When the instability is due to a pitchfork bifurcation, the resulting trajectory is a circle; a straight trajectory can also lose stability through a Hopf bifurcation, and the resulting trajectory is an S-shaped curve. We also show that a half-coated disk, which mimics the distribution of functionalized proteins in Listeria, also undergoes similar symmetry-breaking bifurcations when the straight trajectory loses stability. For both a fully coated disk and a half-coated disk, when the trajectory is an S-shaped curve, the angular frequency of the disk self-rotation is different from that of the disk trajectory. However, for circular trajectories, these angular frequencies are different for a fully coated disk but the same for a half-coated disk.

  5. The Ecogeomorphology of Salt Pools of the Webhannet Estuary, Wells, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, K. R.; Kelley, J. T.

    2005-12-01

    Salt pools are shallow, muddy depressions in salt marshes that remain flooded throughout the entire tidal cycle. They are common landforms of this ecosystem, but little is known for certain about their formation and persistence through time. Understanding the ontogeny of salt pools is critical, as it has been suggested that they may serve as important habitat for some birds and fish, and as indicators of ultimate marsh break-up and wetland loss. Hypotheses regarding pool initiation have suggested that pools are primary features of marshes, while others have suggested that pools form through secondary mechanisms such as isolated vegetative die-off or ice-plucking. Still others have suggested that pools may be associated with tidal creek abandonment. This study combines field observations, geologic coring, and analyses of a time-series of aerial photographs through geographic information systems (GIS), to quantify the recent history of pools of the Webhannet Estuary, Wells, ME, USA. Six transects sampled 119 pools during Summers 2004/2005. Adjacent percent vegetative cover (3, 1m2 plots/pool), bank classification (graded, mostly graded, mostly steep, steep), pool shape (circular, figure eight, irregular, sinuous) and a handheld GPS point were recorded. GPS data points were imported into a GIS platform to determine spatial trends. Examination of the spatial distribution suggests that pools are not randomly distributed across the marsh surface, but rather exhibit strong spatial patterns based on the pool characteristics described. Preliminary analyses of aerial photographs comparing the marsh surface in 1953 to 2003, suggest pools exhibit different developmental sequences over time (some grow, some shrink, some remain the same in area and shape). Dutch cores taken during Summer 2005 reveal a distinct pool signature and suggest that some pools may be of a more ephemeral nature than previously described and support the hypothesis that pools form through secondary mechanisms. New understanding of the development of salt pools may have practical management implications.

  6. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M.; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions. PMID:25278868

  7. Solar powered multipurpose remotely powered aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar-powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is, therefore, beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multipurpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of using solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year-long effort by a group of eight students, divided into four teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a lightweight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structural design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion were governed by weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is an MPRPV weighing 35 N that cruises at 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 12.5 percent-efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were researched and tested during the design process.

  8. Effects of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on event-related potential P300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Tetsuya; Sato, Aya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2012-04-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on brain activity. P300 latency of event-related potential (ERP) was used to evaluate the effects of low-frequency and short-term rTMS by stimulating the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), which is considered to be the related area of P300 origin. In addition, the prolonged stimulation effects on P300 latency were analyzed after applying rTMS. A figure-eight coil was used to stimulate left-right SMG, and intensity of magnetic stimulation was 80% of motor threshold. A total of 100 magnetic pulses were applied for rTMS. The effects of stimulus frequency at 0.5 or 1 Hz were determined. Following rTMS, an odd-ball task was performed and P300 latency of ERP was measured. The odd-ball task was performed at 5, 10, and 15 min post-rTMS. ERP was measured prior to magnetic stimulation as a control. Electroencephalograph (EEG) was measured at Fz, Cz, and Pz that were indicated by the international 10-20 electrode system. Results demonstrated that different effects on P300 latency occurred between 0.5-1 Hz rTMS. With 1 Hz low-frequency magnetic stimulation to the left SMG, P300 latency decreased. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 15 ms at Cz. This decrease continued for approximately 10 min post-rTMS. In contrast, 0.5 Hz rTMS resulted in delayed P300 latency. Compared to the control, the latency time difference was approximately 20 ms at Fz, and this delayed effect continued for approximately 15 min post-rTMS. Results demonstrated that P300 latency varied according to rTMS frequency. Furthermore, the duration of the effect was not similar for stimulus frequency of low-frequency rTMS.

  9. NASA advanced aeronautics design solar powered remotely piloted vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elario, David S.; Guillmette, Neal H.; Lind, Gregory S.; Webster, Jonathan D.; Ferreira, Michael J.; Konstantakis, George C.; Marshall, David L.; Windt, Cari L.

    1991-01-01

    Environmental problems such as the depletion of the ozone layer and air pollution demand a change in traditional means of propulsion that is sensitive to the ecology. Solar powered propulsion is a favorable alternative that is both ecologically harmless as well as cost effective. Integration of solar energy into designs ranging from futuristic vehicles to heating is beneficial to society. The design and construction of a Multi-Purpose Remotely Piloted Vehicle (MPRPV) seeks to verify the feasibility of utilizing solar propulsion as a primary fuel source. This task has been a year long effort by a group of ten students, divided into five teams, each dealing with different aspects of the design. The aircraft was designed to take-off, climb to the design altitude, fly in a sustained figure-eight flight path, and cruise for approximately one hour. This mission requires flight at Reynolds numbers between 150,000 and 200,000 and demands special considerations in the aerodynamic design in order to achieve flight in this regime. Optimal performance requires a light weight configuration with both structural integrity and maximum power availability. The structure design and choice of solar cells for the propulsion was governed by the weight, efficiency, and cost considerations. The final design is a MPRPV weighting 35 N which cruises 7 m/s at the design altitude of 50 m. The configuration includes a wing composed of balsa and foam NACA 6409 airfoil sections and carbon fiber spars, a tail of similar construction, and a truss structure fuselage. The propulsion system consists of 98 10 percent efficient solar cells donated by Mobil Solar, a NiCad battery for energy storage, and a folding propeller regulated by a lightweight and efficient control system. The airfoils and propeller chosen for the design were research and tested during the design process.

  10. Movement strategies for maintaining standing balance during arm tracking in people with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Matthew C.; Hyngstrom, Allison S.; Ng, Alexander V.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify hip and ankle movement strategies during a standing arm tracking task in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Full-body kinematics and kinetics were assessed with motion analysis cameras and force plates in nine MS and nine age-matched control subjects. While standing, participants used their dominant hand to track a target moving around a large horizontal or vertical figure eight on a screen in front of them. The target moved at constant speed, or linearly increasing speeds, with a frequency between 0.05 Hz and 0.35 Hz. Hip and ankle moments and angles during tracking were calculated from kinematic and kinetic measurements. Ratios of peak-to-peak (PP) hip/ankle moments (kinetics) and angles (kinematics) were calculated to determine the strategies of the hips and ankles used to maintain balance during arm movements. Center of mass (CoM) root mean square (RMS) acceleration was calculated as a measure of overall balance performance. The MS group produced larger PP hip/ankle moments at all speeds compared with the control group (P < 0.05). The CoM RMS acceleration increased with tracking speed for both groups but was not significantly different between groups. Additionally, the ratios of hip to ankle moments were highly correlated with the Berg Balance Scale during horizontal steady-speed tracking in MS. These results suggest that people with MS increase the use of the hip during standing arm tracking compared with age-matched control subjects. This adapted strategy might allow people with MS to achieve balance performance similar to control subjects, possibly increasing the importance of the hip in maintaining balance during voluntary movements. PMID:24966303

  11. Prefrontal cortex and hippocampus subserve different components of working memory in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Taejib; Okada, Jeffrey; Jung, Min W; Kim, Jeansok J

    2008-03-01

    Both the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus are implicated in working memory tasks in rodents. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that the mPFC is primarily engaged in the temporary storage and processing of information lasting from a subsecond to several seconds, while the hippocampal function becomes more critical as the working memory demand extends into longer temporal scales. Although these structures may be engaged in a temporally separable manner, the extent of their contributions in the "informational content" of working memory remains unclear. To investigate this issue, the mPFC and dorsal hippocampus (dHPC) were temporarily inactivated via targeted infusions of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol in rats prior to their performance on a delayed alternation task (DAT), employing an automated figure-eight maze that required the animals to make alternating arm choice responses after 3-, 30-, and 60-sec delays for water reward. We report that inactivation of either the mPFC or dHPC significantly reduced DAT at all delay intervals tested. However, there were key qualitative differences in the behavioral effects. Specifically, mPFC inactivation selectively impaired working memory (i.e., arm choice accuracy) without altering reference memory (i.e., the maze task rule) and arm choice response latencies. In contrast, dHPC inactivation increased both reference memory errors and arm choice response latencies. Moreover, dHPC, but not mPFC, inactivation increased the incidence of successive working memory errors. These results suggest that while both the mPFC and hippocampus are necessarily involved in DAT, they seem to process different informational components associated with the memory task. PMID:18285468

  12. Basic study on the influence of inhibition induced by the magnetic stimulation on the peripheral nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Iramina, Keiji

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the inhibition mechanism of magnetic stimulation on motor function. A magnetic stimulator with a flat figure-eight coil was used to stimulate the peripheral nerve of the antebrachium. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 0.8 T, and the stimulation frequency was 1 Hz. The amplitudes of the motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) at the abductor pollicis brevis muscle and first dorsal interosseous muscle were used to evaluate the effects of magnetic stimulation. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the MEP amplitude before and after magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex. The results showed that MEP amplitude after magnetic stimulation compared with before magnetic stimulation decreased. Because there were individual differences in MEP amplitude induced by magnetic stimulation, the MEP amplitude after stimulation was normalized by the amplitude of each participant before stimulation. The MEP amplitude after stimulation decreased by approximately 58% (p < 0.01) on average compared with before stimulation. Previous studies suggested that magnetic stimulation to the primary motor cortex induced an increase or a decrease in MEP amplitude. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that the alteration in MEP amplitude was induced by cortical excitability based on magnetic stimulation. The results of this study showed that MEP amplitude decreased following magnetic stimulation to the peripheral nerve. We suggest that the decrease in MEP amplitude found in this study was obtained via the feedback from a peripheral nerve through an afferent nerve to the brain. This study suggests that peripheral excitement by magnetic stimulation of the peripheral nerve may control the central nervous system via afferent feedback.

  13. Electrothermally actuated tip-tilt-piston micromirror with integrated varifocal capability.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jessica; Imboden, Matthias; Little, Thomas D C; Bishop, D J

    2015-04-01

    MEMS micromirrors have proven to be very important optical devices with applications ranging from steerable mirrors for switches and cross-connects to spatial light modulators for correcting optical distortions. Usually beam steering and focusing are done with different MEMS devices and tilt angles in excess of 10 degrees are seldom obtained. Here we describe a single MEMS device that combines tip/tilt, piston mode and varifocal capability into a single, low cost device with very large tilt angles. Our device consists of a 400 micron diameter mirror driven with thermal bimorphs. We have demonstrated deflection angles of ± 40 degrees along both axes, a tunable focal length which varies between -0.48 mm to + 20.5 mm and a piston mode range of 300 microns - four separately controllable degrees of freedom in a single device. Potential applications range from smart lighting to optical switches and devices for telecom systems. PMID:25968784

  14. Fbis report. Science and technology: China, October 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-18

    ;Partial Contents: Nanomaterials Fabrication, Applications Research Advances Noted; CAST Announces World`s First Space-Grown Large-Diameter GaAs Monocrystal; Assay of Antiviral Activity of Antisense Phosphorothioate Oligodeoxynucleotide Against Dengue Virus; Expression and Antigenicity of Chimeric Proteins of Cholera Toxin B Subunit With Hepatitis C Virus; CNCOFIEC Signs Agreement With IBM for New Intelligent Building; Latest Reports on Optical Computing, Memory; BIDC To Introduce S3 Company`s Multimedia Accelerator Chipset; Virtual Private PCN Ring Network Based on ATM VP Cross-Connection; Beijing Gets Nation`s First Frame Relay Network; Situation of Power Industry Development and International Cooperation; Diagrams of China`s Nuclear Waste Containment Vessels; Chinese-Developed Containment Vessel Material Reaches World Standards; Second Fuel Elements for Qinshan Plant Passes Inspection; and Geothermal Deep-Well Electric Pump Technology Developed.

  15. Investigation of improved designs for rotational micromirrors using multiuser MEMS processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Julianna E.; Michael, Feras S. J.; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2001-04-01

    In recent years, the design of rotational micromirrors for use in optical cross connects has received much attention. Although several companies have already produced and marketed a number of torsional mirror devices, more work is still needed to determine how these mirrors can be integrated into optical systems to form compact optical switches. However, recently several commercial MEMS foundry services have become available. Thus, due to the low cost of these prototyping services, new devices can be fabricated in short amounts of time and the designs adapted to meet the needs of different applications. The purpose of this work is to investigate the fabrication of new micromirror designs using the Multi-User MEMS Processes (MUMPs) foundry service available from Cronos Integrated Microsystems, located in North Carolina, USA). Several sets of mirror designs were submitted for fabrication and the resulting structures characterized using a phase-shifting Mirau interferometer. The results of these devices are presented.

  16. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Biennial Environmental Compliance Report

    SciTech Connect

    Westinghouse TRU Solutions

    2000-12-01

    This Biennial Environmental Compliance Report (BECR) documents environmental regulatory compliance at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a facility designed for the safe disposal of transuranic (TRU) radioactive waste, for the reporting period of April 1, 1998, to March 31, 2000. As required by the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act (LWA)(Public Law [Pub. L.] 102-579, and amended by Pub. L. 104-201), the BECR documents U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office's (hereinafter the ''CAO'') compliance with applicable environmental protection laws and regulations implemented by agencies of the federal government and the state of New Mexico. An issue was identified in the 1998 BECR relating to a potential cross-connection between the fire-water systems and the site domestic water system. While the CAO and its managing and operating contractor (hereinafter the ''MOC'') believe the site was always in compliance with cross-connection control requirements, hardware and procedural upgrades w ere implemented in March 1999 to strengthen its compliance posture. Further discussion of this issue is presented in section 30.2.2 herein. During this reporting period WIPP received two letters and a compliance order alleging violation of certain requirements outlined in section 9(a)(1) of the LWA. With the exception of one item, pending a final decision by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), all alleged violations have been resolved without the assessment of fines or penalties. Non-mixed TRU waste shipments began on March 26, 1999. Shipments continued through November 26, 1999, the effective date of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF). No shipments regulated under the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit were received at WIPP during this BECR reporting period.

  17. Quantification of Natural Gradient Flow Using Active Fiber Optic DTS in Sealed Boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, T. I.; Parker, B. L.; Munn, J. D.; Chalari, A.; Mondanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Temperature has been used for many years to characterize flow in fractured rock systems. Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS) was adopted by the oil/gas industry over two decades ago for monitoring processes in deep fractured rock environments. Improvements in DTS system resolutions, methodology advancements, and improved data processing techniques have caused recent popularity for shallow fractured rock hydrogeologic applications. A powerful advance in DTS methodology is the use of response data collected during active cable heating. When applied to borehole applications active heating creates a thermal disequilibrium in the aquifer system that enhances the detection of groundwater flow. Active DTS has been applied to open borehole environments; however, characterization methods based on open borehole measurements are limited in that only the effects of unnatural flow (i.e. vertical cross-connection and redistribution of flow creating local, induced flows) can be observed. To characterize natural gradient flow processes borehole effects need to be minimized.The literature shows borehole sealing using flexible impervious fabric liners creates a static water column in the well that eliminates the negative effects of cross-connection. Measurements in this sealed environment have been shown by others to be representative of natural gradient flow conditions, rather than the conditions created by the borehole short circuiting units or fractures with varying hydraulic head. A new method for flow system characterization using active DTS in sealed boreholes has been developed with excellent prospects for quantitation of natural gradient groundwater fluxes and related hydraulic properties. This project demonstrates the utility of using an analytical solution for calculating apparent thermal conductivities and natural gradient groundwater fluxes at depth-discrete intervals observed continuously along a borehole using active DTS. Groundwater flux data can then be used in conjunction with other site datasets (e.g. gradients) to estimate profiles of formation hydraulic properties including transmissivity.

  18. Testbed for ROADM and WXC Based Metro WDM Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, Lei; Ji, Philip; Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Matsuda, Osamu; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2005-11-01

    A testbed for metro wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network is realized and tested. The testbed contains a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer (ROADM) node, a 2x2 wavelength cross-connect (WXC) node, and two interconnected two-fiber bidirectional path protected switching ring networks (TF-BPSR). Both the ROADM and WXC node are bidirectional nodes, so they can select channels from the working and the protection ring networks simultaneously, and they support both protected and unprotected services. The ROADM node uses a flexible band tunable filter (FBTF) to drop a waveband from the input WDM signals and send the express channels directly to the output port. As a result, the physical impairment accumulated on the express channels can be minimized. It also has a modular structure, so additional modules can be cascaded to expand the capacity and functionality of the node without any interruption to current services. The WXC node is realized with interconnected ROADM modules that are comprised of wavelength selective switches (WSSes). Arbitrary wavelength or wavelength sets can be either dropped in the node or cross-connected in a non-blocking manner. Multiple services, such as OC-48 and OC-192 SONET signals, gigabit Ethernet streams carrying interactive movie signals, and live video broadcasting services, are carried in the network, dropped in the ROADM and WXC node, and switched between the two ring networks. The testbed is controlled by a websever based network management system that facilitates remote control and monitoring. Experiments demonstrate that the performance of the nodes and the testbed meets the requirement of the services.

  19. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  20. Adaptive Morphological Feature-Based Object Classifier for a Color Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDowell, Mark; Gray, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Utilizing a Compact Color Microscope Imaging System (CCMIS), a unique algorithm has been developed that combines human intelligence along with machine vision techniques to produce an autonomous microscope tool for biomedical, industrial, and space applications. This technique is based on an adaptive, morphological, feature-based mapping function comprising 24 mutually inclusive feature metrics that are used to determine the metrics for complex cell/objects derived from color image analysis. Some of the features include: Area (total numbers of non-background pixels inside and including the perimeter), Bounding Box (smallest rectangle that bounds and object), centerX (x-coordinate of intensity-weighted, center-of-mass of an entire object or multi-object blob), centerY (y-coordinate of intensity-weighted, center-of-mass, of an entire object or multi-object blob), Circumference (a measure of circumference that takes into account whether neighboring pixels are diagonal, which is a longer distance than horizontally or vertically joined pixels), . Elongation (measure of particle elongation given as a number between 0 and 1. If equal to 1, the particle bounding box is square. As the elongation decreases from 1, the particle becomes more elongated), . Ext_vector (extremal vector), . Major Axis (the length of a major axis of a smallest ellipse encompassing an object), . Minor Axis (the length of a minor axis of a smallest ellipse encompassing an object), . Partial (indicates if the particle extends beyond the field of view), . Perimeter Points (points that make up a particle perimeter), . Roundness [(4(pi) x area)/perimeter(squared)) the result is a measure of object roundness, or compactness, given as a value between 0 and 1. The greater the ratio, the rounder the object.], . Thin in center (determines if an object becomes thin in the center, (figure-eight-shaped), . Theta (orientation of the major axis), . Smoothness and color metrics for each component (red, green, blue) the minimum, maximum, average, and standard deviation within the particle are tracked. These metrics can be used for autonomous analysis of color images from a microscope, video camera, or digital, still image. It can also automatically identify tumor morphology of stained images and has been used to detect stained cell phenomena (see figure).

  1. Evaluation of steel shafts for magnetostrictive torque sensors (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sasada, I.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the magnetostrictive effect in steel, a robust, noncontacting shaft torque sensor can be obtained. A fundamental problem is compatibility between mechanical strength required for a shaft and a magnetic one needed for a torque sensor. To find shaft material accommodating these two requirements, we investigated basic characteristics, such as hysteresis, linearity, and zero-level fluctuation associated with shaft rotation, of the magnetostrictive torque sensor for various nickel chromium molybdenum steel shafts (SNCM in Japanese Industrial Standard) subjected to case hardening. We prepared three kinds of shafts of 25 mm in diameter: SNCM 420 (Ni=1.69{percent}, C=0.2{percent}), SNCM 616 (Ni=2.91{percent}, C=0.15{percent}), and SNCM 447 (Ni=1.67{percent}, C=0.49{percent}). Shafts of the first two materials were carburized, whereas those of the last one were quenched. We used a magnetic head-type torque sensor consisting of a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils (14 turn). The hysteresis in the input{endash}output relationship was measured for the excitation current from 0.1 to 1.0 A at 60 kHz. The hysteresis of the SNCM 420 shaft changes from negative to positive with the increase in excitation current and that of the SNCM 616 shaft decreases monotonically but never reaches zero, whereas that of the SNCM 447 shaft exhibits minimum. The smallest values obtained are nearly zero for the SNCM 420 shaft at 0.3 A, 1.5{percent}/(full scale (FS)=400 Nm) for the SNCM 616 shaft at 1.0 A and 0.7{percent}/FS for the SNCM 447 shaft at 0.8 A, respectively. The linearity measured for the SNCM 420 shaft, which has the smallest hysteresis of the three, at 0.3 A and 60 kHz was virtually straight for the applied torque range {minus}400{endash}400 Nm and 0.8{percent} of nonlinearity error for the range {minus}1000{endash}1000 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation was measured for the SNCM 420 shaft by rotating the shaft without applying torque. (Abstract Truncated)

  2. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of borehole profiling using a temperature probe for identifying hydraulically active fractures in rock has improved due to the combination of two advances: improved temperature sensors, with resolution on the order of 0.001 °C, and temperature profiling within water inflated flexible impermeable liners used to temporarily seal boreholes from hydraulic cross-connection. The open-hole cross-connection effects dissipate after inflation, so that both the groundwater flow regime and the temperature distribution return to the ambient (background) condition. This paper introduces a third advancement: the use of an electrical heating cable that quickly increases the temperature of the entire static water column within the lined hole and thus places the entire borehole and its immediate vicinity into thermal disequilibrium with the broader rock mass. After heating for 4-6 h, profiling is conducted several times over a 24 h period as the temperature returns to background conditions. This procedure, referred to as the Active Line Source (ALS) method, offers two key improvements over prior methods. First, there is no depth limit for detection of fractures with flow. Second, both identification and qualitative comparison of evidence for ambient groundwater flow in fractures is improved throughout the entire test interval. The benefits of the ALS method are demonstrated by comparing results from two boreholes tested to depths of 90 and 120 m in a dolostone aquifer used for municipal water supply and in which most groundwater flow occurs in fractures. Temperature logging in the lined holes shows many fractures in the heterothermic zone both with and without heating, but only the ALS method shows many hydraulically active fractures in the deeper homothermic portion of the hole. The identification of discrete groundwater flow at many depths is supported by additional evidence concerning fracture occurrence, including continuous core visual inspection, acoustic televiewer logs, and tests for hydraulic conductivity using straddle packers as well as rock core VOC data, where available, that show deep penetration and many migration pathways. Confidence in the use of temperature profiles and the conceptual model is provided by numerical simulation and the demonstrated reproducibility of the evolution of the temperature signal measured in the lined holes with and without heating. This approach for using temperature profiling in lined holes with heating is a practical advance in fractured rock hydrogeology because the liners are readily available, the equipment needed for heating is low cost and rugged, and the time needed to obtain the profiles is not excessive for most projects.

  3. Variation of microorganism concentrations in urban stormwater runoff with land use and seasons.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, Ariamalar; Borst, Michael

    2006-03-01

    Stormwater runoff samples were collected from outfalls draining small municipal separate storm sewer systems. The samples were collected from three different land use areas based on local designation (high-density residential, low-density residential and landscaped commercial). The concentrations of microorganisms in the stormwater runoff were found to be similar in magnitude to, but less variable than, those reported in the stormwater National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) database. Microorganism concentrations from high-density residential areas were higher than those associated with low-density residential and landscaped commercial areas. Since the outfalls were free of sanitary wastewater cross-connections, the major sources of microorganisms to the stormwater runoff were most likely from the feces of domestic animals and wildlife. Concentrations of microorganisms were significantly affected by the season during which the samples were collected. The lowest concentrations were observed during winter except for Staphylococcus aureus. The Pearson correlation coefficients among different indicators showed weak linear relationships and the relationships were statistically significant. However, the relationships between indicators and pathogens were poorly correlated and were not statistically significant, suggesting the use of indicators as evidence of the presence of pathogens is not appropriate. Further, the correlation between the concentration of the traditionally monitored indicators (total coliforms and fecal coliforms) and the suggested substitutes (enterococci and E. coli) is weak, but statistically significant, suggesting that historical time series will be only a qualitative indicator of impaired waters under the revised criteria for recreational water quality by the US EPA. PMID:16604843

  4. Managing risks from virus intrusion into water distribution systems due to pressure transients.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian; LeChevallier, Mark W; Teunis, Peter F M; Xu, Minhua

    2011-06-01

    Low or negative pressure transients in water distribution systems, caused by unexpected events (e.g. power outages) or routine operation/maintenance activities, are usually brief and thus are rarely monitored or alarmed. Previous studies have shown connections between negative pressure events in water distribution systems and potential public health consequences. Using a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model previously developed, various factors driving the risk of viral infection from intrusion were evaluated, including virus concentrations external to the distribution system, maintenance of a disinfectant residual, leak orifice sizes, the duration and the number of nodes drawing negative pressures. The most sensitive factors were the duration and the number of nodes drawing negative pressures, indicating that mitigation practices should be targeted to alleviate the severity of low/negative pressure transients. Maintaining a free chlorine residual of 0.2 mg/L or above is the last defense against the risk of viral infection due to negative pressure transients. Maintaining a chloramine residual did not appear to significantly reduce the risk. The effectiveness of ensuring separation distances from sewer mains to reduce the risk of infection may be system-specific. Leak detection/repair and cross-connection control should be prioritized in areas vulnerable to negative pressure transients. PMID:21942194

  5. Death and Transfiguration in Static Staphylococcus epidermidis Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Schaudinn, Christoph; Stoodley, Paul; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Gorur, Amita; Remis, Jonathan; Wu, Siva; Auer, Manfred; Hertwig, Stefan; Guerrero-Given, Debbie; Hu, Fen Ze; Ehrlich, Garth D.; Costerton, John William; Robinson, Douglas H.; Webster, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The overwhelming majority of bacteria live in slime embedded microbial communities termed biofilms, which are typically adherent to a surface. However, when several Staphylococcus epidermidis strains were cultivated in static liquid cultures, macroscopic aggregates were seen floating within the broth and also sedimented at the test tube bottom. Light- and electron microscopy revealed that early-stage aggregates consisted of bacteria and extracellular matrix, organized in sheet-like structures. Perpendicular under the sheets hung a network of periodically arranged, bacteria-associated strands. During the extended cultivation, the strands of a subpopulation of aggregates developed into cross-connected wall-like structures, in which aligned bacteria formed the walls. The resulting architecture had a compartmentalized appearance. In late-stage cultures, the wall-associated bacteria disintegrated so that, henceforth, the walls were made of the coalescing remnants of lysed bacteria, while the compartment-like organization remained intact. At the same time, the majority of strand-containing aggregates with associated culturable bacteria continued to exist. These observations indicate that some strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis are able to build highly sophisticated structures, in which a subpopulation undergoes cell lysis, presumably to provide continued access to nutrients in a nutrient-limited environment, whilst maintaining structural integrity. PMID:24964210

  6. Fast restoration of ATM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Jon; Doshi, Bharat T.; Dravida, Subrahmanyam; Harshavardhana, P.

    1994-01-01

    Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) is now well recognized as the fundamental switching and multiplexing technique for future broadband ISDN's. As these networks will be increasingly relied upon for providing a multitude of integrated voice, data, and video services, network reliability is a key concern. There are several intrinsic features of ATM networks that could potentially be exploited to provide improved restoration techniques beyond those established for synchronous transfer mode (STM) networks, such as digital cross-connect restoration or self-healing rings. These features include ATM cell level error detection, inherent rate adaptation and nonhierarchical multiplexing. In the following paper we explore the use of these features in developing fast restoration strategies for ATM networks. In particular, we address: (1) ATM error detection capabilities for enhanced failure detection; (2) network control architecture and related implementation aspects. Our findings suggest that fast network span failure detection and bandwidth-efficient rerouting capabilities can be combined to develop restoration strategies for ATM networks with significantly greater performance-cost ratio when compared to existing STM network restoration strategies.

  7. Branching probe beams by fractional vortex dipoles: guiding vs. anti-guiding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleshkov, G.; Hansinger, P.; Dimitrov, N.; Dreischuh, A.; Paulus, G. G.

    2013-03-01

    In this work we study the evolution and interaction of semi-infinite dark beams carrying edge-screw phase dislocations in self-focusing and self-defocusing local Kerr nonlinear media aiming to find appropriate conditions to control the process of fusion/crossing the dark beams in a way suitable for probe-beam cross-switching. We show that a quasi-infinite vortex dipole (dipole much longer than the background beam) evolves into a one-dimensional dark spatial soliton with vanishing transverse velocity. Single semi-infinite fractional dipole develops snake instability near the dark beam end. Depending on their phase profiles, four parallel semi-infinite fractional vortex dipoles aligned to initially form two dark stripes can evolve into two different `cross-connects' able to branch and route probe optical beams. Perpendicular probe beam propagation in the optically-induced guiding structures is modeled and analyzed with respect to the branching efficiency to respective virtual output channels for both self-focusing and self-defocusing conditions.

  8. Design and Implementation of a RF Powering Circuit for RFID Tags or Other Batteryless Embedded Devices

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongsheng; Wang, Rencai; Yao, Ke; Zou, Xuecheng; Guo, Liang

    2014-01-01

    A RF powering circuit used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and other batteryless embedded devices is presented in this paper. The RF powering circuit harvests energy from electromagnetic waves and converts the RF energy to a stable voltage source. Analysis of a NMOS gate-cross connected bridge rectifier is conducted to demonstrate relationship between device sizes and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier. A rectifier with 38.54% PCE under normal working conditions is designed. Moreover, a stable voltage regulator with a temperature and voltage optimizing strategy including adoption of a combination resistor is developed, which is able to accommodate a large input range of 4 V to 12 V and be immune to temperature variations. Latch-up prevention and noise isolation methods in layout design are also presented. Designed with the HJTC 0.25 ?m process, this regulator achieves 0.04 mV/°C temperature rejection ratio (TRR) and 2.5 mV/V voltage rejection ratio (VRR). The RF powering circuit is also fabricated in the HJTC 0.25 ?m process. The area of the RF powering circuit is 0.23 × 0.24 mm2. The RF powering circuit is successfully integrated with ISO/IEC 15693-compatible and ISO/IEC 14443-compatible RFID tag chips. PMID:25123466

  9. Design and implementation of a RF powering circuit for RFID tags or other batteryless embedded devices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongsheng; Wang, Rencai; Yao, Ke; Zou, Xuecheng; Guo, Liang

    2014-01-01

    A RF powering circuit used in radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags and other batteryless embedded devices is presented in this paper. The RF powering circuit harvests energy from electromagnetic waves and converts the RF energy to a stable voltage source. Analysis of a NMOS gate-cross connected bridge rectifier is conducted to demonstrate relationship between device sizes and power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the rectifier. A rectifier with 38.54% PCE under normal working conditions is designed. Moreover, a stable voltage regulator with a temperature and voltage optimizing strategy including adoption of a combination resistor is developed, which is able to accommodate a large input range of 4 V to 12 V and be immune to temperature variations. Latch-up prevention and noise isolation methods in layout design are also presented. Designed with the HJTC 0.25 ?m process, this regulator achieves 0.04 mV/°C temperature rejection ratio (TRR) and 2.5 mV/V voltage rejection ratio (VRR). The RF powering circuit is also fabricated in the HJTC 0.25 ?m process. The area of the RF powering circuit is 0.23 × 0.24 mm². The RF powering circuit is successfully integrated with ISO/IEC 15693-compatible and ISO/IEC 14443-compatible RFID tag chips. PMID:25123466

  10. Network performance and integrity enhancement with optical path layer technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Ken-Ichi; Okamoto, Satoru; Hadama, Hisaya

    1994-01-01

    Path layer technologies will play a key role in the development of a powerful and failure resilient B-ISDN. So far, they have been based on electrical technologies. This paper highlights WDM/FDM techniques and demonstrates that optical paths can greatly enhance the path layer capability and, therefore, the network performance. It is also shown that effective network failure restoration can be achieved with optical paths. The applicability of the Wavelength Path (WP) technique to global area networks is revealed by comparing different optical path realization techniques. WP's are applied to the national backbone network example to evaluate the require number of wavelength, and to identify optical path concept: the Virtual Wavelength Path (VWP). In the VWP scheme, wavelengths are assigned on a link-by-link basis. In other words, the wavelength assigned to a wavelength path has only local significance. Significant benefits of the VWP such as the simplified path accommodation design within a transmission facility network and the reduced number of wavelengths needed, are elucidated. An optical cross-connect node architecture that enables the VWP's is also proposed. The architecture allows the VWP concept to be realized with commercially available optical technologies. The optical path layer concept proposed in this paper exploits and consolidate the layered transport network architecture and optical technologies, and will open up new opportunities for creating a B-ISDN that is bandwidth abundant and has a high degree of integrity.

  11. Microbial health risks associated with exposure to stormwater in a water plaza.

    PubMed

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-05-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated. Microbial source tracking tools were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter was found in all samples, with higher concentrations in samples containing human Bacteroides than in samples with zoonotic contamination (15 vs 3.7 gc (genomic copies)/100 mL). In both cases, the estimated disease risk associated with Campylobacter and recreational exposure was higher than the Dutch national incidence. This indicates that the health risk associated with recreational exposure to the water plaza is significant. L. pneumophila was found only in two out of ten pond samples. Legionnaire's disease risks were lower than the Dutch national incidence. Presence of human Bacteroides indicates possible cross-connections with the CSS that should be identified and removed. PMID:25706222

  12. Optical switch based on thermocapillarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakata, Tomomi; Makihara, Mitsuhiro; Togo, Hiroyoshi; Shimokawa, Fusao; Kaneko, Kazumasa

    2001-11-01

    Space-division optical switches are essential for the protection, optical cross-connects (OXCs), and optical add/drop multiplexers (OADMs) needed in future fiber-optic communication networks. For applications in these areas, we proposed a thermocapillarity switch called oil-latching interfacial-tension variation effect (OLIVE) switch. An OLIVE switch is a micro-mechanical optical switch fabricated on planar lightwave circuits (PLC) using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. It consists of a crossing waveguide that has a groove at each crossing point and a pair of microheaters. The groove is partially filled with the refractive-index-matching liquid, and optical signals are switched according to the liquid's position in the groove, i.e., whether it is passing straight through the groove or reflecting at the sidewall of the groove. The liquid is driven by thermocapillarity and latched by capillarity. Using the total internal reflection to switch the optical path, the OLIVE switch exhibits excellent optical characteristics, such as high transparency (insertion loss: < 2 dB), high extinction ratio (> 50 dB), and low crosstalk (< -50 dB). Moreover, since this switch has a simple structure and bi-stability, it has wide variety of applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) networks.

  13. Engineering Building And Campus Networks For Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Thomas F.

    1990-01-01

    The FDDI standard provides a high speed optical channel for interconnection among mainframes and peripherals, and for use as a backbone network between lower speed local area networks (LANs). As FDDI networks move out of the data center environment, detailed engineering rules are required to construct and administer the dual ring architectures for building and campus applications. This paper examines generic building and campus layouts, and demonstrates the implementation of the logical rings within the star physical topology of the AT&T Premises Distribution System (PDS). A companion paper presents optical performance models to determine distance limitations of the cable plant for these networks, with or without optical bypass switches.' The networks addressed range from a single closet, to a single multi-floor building, to a campus involving multiple buildings. Standard interfaces to the distribution system are defined for each administrative location in the generic building layout. Uniform jumper configurations are specified for cross-connections among the interfaces, which form the network into a dual ring architecture. Using the design guidelines presented, networks of any size and configuration can be constructed which conform to the FDDI dual ring standard.

  14. Human enteric viruses in groundwater from a confined bedrock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borchardt, M. A.; Bradbury, K.R.; Gotkowitz, M.B.; Cherry, J.A.; Parker, B.L.

    2007-01-01

    Confined aquifers are overlain by low-permeability aquitards that are commonly assumed to protect underlying aquifers from microbial contaminants. However, empirical data on microbial contamination beneath aquitards is limited. This study determined the occurrence of human pathogenic viruses in well water from a deep sandstone aquifer confined by a regionally extensive shale aquitard. Three public water-supply wells were each sampled 10 times over 15 months. Samples were analyzed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for several virus groups and by cell culture for infectious enteroviruses. Seven of 30 samples were positive by RT-PCR for enteroviruses; one of these was positive for infectious echovirus 18. The virus-positive samples were collected from two wells cased through the aquitard, indicating the viruses were present in the confined aquifer. Samples from the same wells showed atmospheric tritium, indicating water recharged within the past few decades. Hydrogeologic conditions support rapid porous media transport of viruses through the upper sandstone aquifer to the top of the aquitard 61 m below ground surface. Natural fractures in the shale aquitard are one possible virus transport pathway through the aquitard; however, windows, cross-connecting well bores, or imperfect grout seals along well casings also may be involved. Deep confined aquifers can be more vulnerable to contamination by human viruses than commonly believed. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  15. Demonstration of 1×32 LCOS-based wavelength selective switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying; Chen, Xiao; Gao, Yunshu; Tian, Miao; Chen, Ran; Wang, Shan; Chen, Genxiang; Wang, Yiquan

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, reconfigurable optical add drop multiplexers (ROADM) and multiple-dimensions optical cross-connection (OXC), as the essential devices of next-generation dynamic optical networks, have been attracted great interests by research institutions and relevant industry. 1×N Wavelength selective switches (WSSs) are one of the key components in current and next generation ROADM. Currently, WSS primarily rely on micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulators (LCOS-SLM) switches. LCOS-based WSSs have several advantages, including flexible spectrum coverage, adaptive alignment, and robustness. Based on a novel 2-f optical structure, we therefore propose 1×32 WSS system including a 1×32 fiber-coupling lenslet arrays, a collimating lens, a transmission grating, a cylindrical lens and a LCOS-SLM. By uploading the optimized phased holograms on the LCOS, we have successfully switched input signal with arbitrary wavelength in C-band into any output port. The output channel spacing can be adjusted flexibly and each port switches independently. Experimental results demonstrate the insertion loss is around 5~10dB and the switch crosstalk at 1550nm is -35dB. The 3dB-bandwidth of signal@100G is 40G.The research has established the theory and experiment foundation for the development of M×N WSS in future.

  16. ProPepper: a curated database for identification and analysis of peptide and immune-responsive epitope composition of cereal grain protein families

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Angéla; Haraszi, Réka; Maulis, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    ProPepper is a database that contains prolamin proteins identified from true grasses (Poaceae), their peptides obtained with single- and multi-enzyme in silico digestions as well as linear T- and B-cell-specific epitopes that are responsible for wheat-related food disorders. The integrated database and analysis platform contains datasets that are collected from multiple public databases (UniprotKB, IEDB, NCBI GenBank), manually curated and annotated, and interpreted in three main data tables: Protein-, Peptide- and Epitope list views that are cross-connected by unique identifications. Altogether 21 genera and 80 different species are represented. Currently, the database contains 2146 unique and complete protein sequences related to 2618 GenBank entries and 35?657 unique peptide sequences that are a result of 575?110 unique digestion events obtained by in silico digestion methods involving six proteolytic enzymes and their combinations. The interface allows advanced global and parametric search functions along with a download option, with direct connections to the relevant public databases. Database URL: https://propepper.net PMID:26450949

  17. An Experiment of GMPLS-Based Dispersion Compensation Control over In-Field Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seno, Shoichiro; Horiuchi, Eiichi; Yoshida, Sota; Sugihara, Takashi; Onohara, Kiyoshi; Kamei, Misato; Baba, Yoshimasa; Kubo, Kazuo; Mizuochi, Takashi

    As ROADMs (Reconfigurable Optical Add/Drop Multiplexers) are becoming widely used in metro/core networks, distributed control of wavelength paths by extended GMPLS (Generalized MultiProtocol Label Switching) protocols has attracted much attention. For the automatic establishment of an arbitrary wavelength path satisfying dynamic traffic demands over a ROADM or WXC (Wavelength Cross Connect)-based network, precise determination of chromatic dispersion over the path and optimized assignment of dispersion compensation capabilities at related nodes are essential. This paper reports an experiment over in-field fibers where GMPLS-based control was applied for the automatic discovery of chromatic dispersion, path computation, and wavelength path establishment with dynamic adjustment of variable dispersion compensation. The GMPLS-based control scheme, which the authors called GMPLS-Plus, extended GMPLS's distributed control architecture with attributes for automatic discovery, advertisement, and signaling of chromatic dispersion. In this experiment, wavelength paths with distances of 24km and 360km were successfully established and error-free data transmission was verified. The experiment also confirmed path restoration with dynamic compensation adjustment upon fiber failure.

  18. Holding time aware differentiated protection method for survivable waveband switching optical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Weigang; Guo, Lei; Li, Yan; Wu, Tengfei

    2011-12-01

    Due to the number of wavelengths in fibers increasing, the transmission ports consumed in optical cross-connect (OXC) are greatly enhanced. To reduce the complexity and the cost of OXC, waveband switching technology is proposed. At the same time, since an optical channel carries a lot of traffic, its failure may lead to a huge data loss. Therefore, survivability in waveband switching (WBS) optical networks is important. Previous work for survivable WBS optical networks did not consider the holding time of connection request. However, in a practical network, the different connection requests generally have different holding times. This fact affects the network performances. In this paper, we propose a new method, holding time aware differentiated protection (HTADP), to provide the survivability for single-link failure in WBS optical networks. In HTADP, if the holding time of a connection request is smaller than the preset threshold, the protection path will not be assigned for saving network resources. In addition, we design a waveband integrated auxiliary graph for HTADP to well support the routing and waveband assignment. Simulation results demonstrate that HTADP not only saves more transmission ports but also is able to obtain lower blocking probability compared with previous method.

  19. “Stop Ne(c)king around”: How interactomics contributes to functionally characterize Nek family kinases

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles, Gabriela Vaz; Perez, Arina Marina; de Souza, Edmárcia Elisa; Basei, Fernanda Luisa; Papa, Priscila Ferreira; Melo Hanchuk, Talita Diniz; Cardoso, Vanessa Bomfim; Kobarg, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Aside from Polo and Aurora, a third but less studied kinase family involved in mitosis regulation is the never in mitosis-gene A (NIMA)-related kinases (Neks). The founding member of this family is the sole member NIMA of Aspergillus nidulans, which is crucial for the initiation of mitosis in that organism. All 11 human Neks have been functionally assigned to one of the three core functions established for this family in mammals: (1) centrioles/mitosis; (2) primary ciliary function/ciliopathies; and (3) DNA damage response (DDR). Recent findings, especially on Nek 1 and 8, showed however, that several Neks participate in parallel in at least two of these contexts: primary ciliary function and DDR. In the core section of this in-depth review, we report the current detailed functional knowledge on each of the 11 Neks. In the discussion, we return to the cross-connections among Neks and point out how our and other groups’ functional and interactomics studies revealed that most Neks interact with protein partners associated with two if not all three of the functional contexts. We then raise the hypothesis that Neks may be the connecting regulatory elements that allow the cell to fine tune and synchronize the cellular events associated with these three core functions. The new and exciting findings on the Nek family open new perspectives and should allow the Neks to finally claim the attention they deserve in the field of kinases and cell cycle biology. PMID:24921005

  20. Geochemical heterogeneity in a small, stratigraphically complex moraine aquifer system (Ontario, Canada): Interpretation of flow and recharge using multiple geochemical parameters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stotler, R.L.; Frape, S.K.; El Mugammar, H.T.; Johnston, C.; Judd-Henrey, I.; Harvey, F.E.; Drimmie, R.; Jones, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The Waterloo Moraine is a stratigraphically complex system and is the major water supply to the cities of Kitchener and Waterloo in Ontario, Canada. Despite over 30 years of investigation, no attempt has been made to unify existing geochemical data into a single database. A composite view of the moraine geochemistry has been created using the available geochemical information, and a framework created for geochemical data synthesis of other similar flow systems. Regionally, fluid chemistry is highly heterogeneous, with large variations in both water type and total dissolved solids content. Locally, upper aquifer units are affected by nitrate and chloride from fertilizer and road salt. Typical upper-aquifer fluid chemistry is dominated by calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate, a result of calcite and dolomite dissolution. Evidence also suggests that ion exchange and diffusion from tills and bedrock units accounts for some elevated sodium concentrations. Locally, hydraulic "windows" cross connect upper and lower aquifer units, which are typically separated by a clay till. Lower aquifer units are also affected by dedolomitization, mixing with bedrock water, and locally, upward diffusion of solutes from the bedrock aquifers. A map of areas where aquifer units are geochemically similar was constructed to highlight areas with potential hydraulic windows. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  1. Real-time monitoring of river water quality using in-line continuous acquisition of fluorescence excitation and emission matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstea, E.; Baker, A.; Johnson, R.; Reynolds, D. M.

    2009-12-01

    In-line fluorescence EEM monitoring has been performed over an eleven-day period for Bournbrook River, Birmingham, UK. River water was diverted to a portable laboratory via a continuous flow pump and filter system. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrices data was recorded every 3 minutes using a flow cell (1cm pathlength) coupled to a fiber optic probe. This real-time fluorescence EEM data (Excitation, 225-400 nm at 5 nm steps, emission, 280-500 nm at 2 nm steps) was collected 'in-line'and directly compared with the spectrophotometric properties and physical and chemical parameters of river water samples collected off-line at known time intervals. Over the monitoring period, minor pollution pulses from cross connections were detected and identified hourly along with a random diesel pollution event. This work addresses the practicalities of measuring and detecting fluorescence EEM in the field and discusses the potential of this technological approach for further understanding important hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Problems associated with fouling and system failure are also reported. Example of the data generated from the continuous fluorescence EEM monitoring.

  2. Telecommunications administration standard

    SciTech Connect

    Gustwiller, K.D.

    1996-05-01

    The administration of telecommunications is critical to proper maintenance and operation. The intent is to be able to properly support telecommunications for the distribution of all information within a building/campus. This standard will provide a uniform administration scheme that is independent of applications, and will establish guidelines for owners, installers, designers and contractors. This standard will accommodate existing building wiring, new building wiring and outside plant wiring. Existing buildings may not readily adapt to all applications of this standard, but the requirement for telecommunications administration is applicable to all buildings. Administration of the telecommunications infrastructure includes documentation (labels, records, drawings, reports, and work orders) of cables, termination hardware, patching and cross-connect facilities, telecommunications rooms, and other telecommunications spaces (conduits, grounding, and cable pathways are documented by Facilities Engineering). The investment in properly documenting telecommunications is a worthwhile effort. It is necessary to adhere to these standards to ensure quality and efficiency for the operation and maintenance of the telecommunications infrastructure for Sandia National Laboratories.

  3. Energy efficiency in WDM fiber-optical links considering OADM/OXC nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalcovs, Aleksejs; Bobrovs, Vjaceslavs

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, authors discuss the energy consumption for 1 bit transmission as a function of spectral efficiency (SE, bps/Hz), aggregated traffic amount (C, bps), and overall transmission distance (LP2P, km) in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems with optical add-drop multiplexer/ optical cross-connect (OADM/OXC) nodes. The choice of bitrate and modulation formats was limited to three options: 10G non-return-to-zero on-off keying (NRZ-OOK), 40G NRZ differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and 100 dual polarization quadrature phase-shift keying (DP-QPSK). The reasons for that is the legacy in transmission networks and high energy efficiency of 3R (re-amplification, re-timing, re-shaping) regenerators and transponders, respectively. In addition, these formats are commonly used for 10-40-100G mixed-line rate solutions in core networks. It is found out that 100G DP-QPSK is the best solutions among two other considered in terms of both energy consumption per bit and spectral efficiency. Finally and foremost, it is estimated that for the WDM channels added at the OADM/OXC node, energy consumption per 1 transmitted bit could growth more than two times as compared to wavelengths transmitted over point-to-point fiber-optical links and then dropped at the receiving node.

  4. ProPepper: a curated database for identification and analysis of peptide and immune-responsive epitope composition of cereal grain protein families.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Angéla; Haraszi, Réka; Maulis, Csaba

    2015-01-01

    ProPepper is a database that contains prolamin proteins identified from true grasses (Poaceae), their peptides obtained with single- and multi-enzyme in silico digestions as well as linear T- and B-cell-specific epitopes that are responsible for wheat-related food disorders. The integrated database and analysis platform contains datasets that are collected from multiple public databases (UniprotKB, IEDB, NCBI GenBank), manually curated and annotated, and interpreted in three main data tables: Protein-, Peptide- and Epitope list views that are cross-connected by unique identifications. Altogether 21 genera and 80 different species are represented. Currently, the database contains 2146 unique and complete protein sequences related to 2618 GenBank entries and 35?657 unique peptide sequences that are a result of 575?110 unique digestion events obtained by in silico digestion methods involving six proteolytic enzymes and their combinations. The interface allows advanced global and parametric search functions along with a download option, with direct connections to the relevant public databases. Database URL: https://propepper.net. PMID:26450949

  5. Vulnerability of water distribution systems to pathogen intrusion: how effective is a disinfectant residual?

    PubMed

    Propato, Marco; Uber, James G

    2004-07-01

    Can the spread of infectious disease through water distribution systems be halted by a disinfectant residual? This question is overdue for an answer. Regulatory agencies and water utilities have long been concerned about accidental intrusions of pathogens into distribution system pipelines (i.e., cross-connections) and are increasingly concerned about deliberate pathogen contamination. Here, a simulation framework is developed and used to assess the vulnerability of a water system to microbiological contamination. The risk of delivering contaminated water to consumers is quantified by a network water quality model that includes disinfectant decay and disinfection kinetics. The framework is applied to two example networks under a worst-case deliberate intrusion scenario. Results show that the risk of consumer exposure is affected by the residual maintenance strategy employed. The common regulation that demands a "detectable" disinfectant residual may not provide effective consumer protection against microbial contamination. A chloramine residual, instead of free chlorine, may significantly weaken this final barrier against pathogen intrusions. Moreover, the addition of a booster station at storage tanks may improve consumer protection without requiring excessive disinfectant. PMID:15296325

  6. Smart repeater system for communications interoperability during multi-agency law enforcement operations

    SciTech Connect

    Crutcher, R.I.; Jones, R.W.; Moore, M.R.; Smith, S.F.; Tolley, A.L.; Rochelle, R.W.

    1996-12-31

    A prototype smart repeater that provides interoperability capabilities for radio communication systems in multi-agency and multi-user scenarios is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The smart repeater functions as a deployable communications platform that can be dynamically reconfigured to cross-link the radios of participating federal, state, and local government agencies. This interconnection capability improves the coordination and execution of multi-agency operations, including coordinated law enforcement activities and general emergency or disaster response scenarios. The repeater provides multiple channels of operation in the 30--50, 118--136, 138--174, and 403--512 MHz land mobile communications and aircraft bands while providing the ability to cross-connect among multiple frequencies, bands, modulation types, and encryption formats. Additionally, two telephone interconnects provide links to the fixed and cellular telephone networks. The 800- and 900-MHz bands are not supported by the prototype, but the modular design of the system accommodates future retrofits to extend frequency capabilities with minimal impact to the system. Configuration of the repeater is through a portable personal computer with a Windows-based graphical interface control screen that provides dynamic reconfiguration of network interconnections and formats.

  7. Smart repeater system for communications interoperability during multiagency law enforcement operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crutcher, Richard I.; Jones, R. W.; Moore, Michael R.; Smith, S. F.; Tolley, Alan L.; Rochelle, Robert W.

    1997-02-01

    A prototype 'smart' repeater that provides interoperability capabilities for radio communication systems in multi-agency and multi-user scenarios is being developed by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The smart repeater functions as a deployable communications platform that can be dynamically reconfigured to cross-link the radios of participating federal, state, and local government agencies. This interconnection capability improves the coordination and execution of multi-agency operations, including coordinated law enforcement activities and general emergency or disaster response scenarios. The repeater provides multiple channels of operation in the 30-50, 118-136, 138-174, and 403-512 MHz land mobile communications and aircraft bands while providing the ability to cross-connect among multiple frequencies, bands, modulation types, and encryption formats. Additionally, two telephone interconnects provide links to the fixed and cellular telephone networks. The 800- and 900-MHz bands are not supported by the prototype, but the modular design of the system accommodates future retrofits to extend frequency capabilities with minimal impact to the system. Configuration of the repeater is through a portable personal computer with a Windows-based graphical interface control screen that provides dynamic reconfiguration of network interconnections and formats.

  8. Niche-specificity factors of a marine oil-degrading bacterium Alcanivorax borkumensis SK2.

    PubMed

    Sabirova, Julia S; Chernikova, Tatyana N; Timmis, Kenneth N; Golyshin, Peter N

    2008-08-01

    Alcanivorax borkumensis strain SK2 is a cosmopolitan hydrocarbonoclastic marine bacterium, with a specialized metabolism adapted to the degradation of petroleum oil hydrocarbons. Transposon mutagenesis was used for functional genome analysis of Alcanivorax SK2 to reveal the genetic basis of other environmentally relevant phenotypes, such as biofilm formation, adaptation to UV exposure, and to growth at either low temperature or high salinity. Forty-eight relevant transposon mutants deficient in any one of these environmentally responsive functions were isolated, and the corresponding genes interrupted by the mini-Tn5 element were sequenced using inverse PCR. Several cross connections between different phenotypes (e.g. biofilm and UV stress; biofilm and UV and osmoadaptation) on signal transduction level have been revealed, pointing at complex and tightly controlled cellular interactions involving oxygen as a primary messenger and cyclic-di-GMP as a secondary messenger required for Alcanivorax responses to environmental stresses. These results provide insights into bacterial function in a complex marine environment. PMID:18557784

  9. Silicon Photonics Research in Hong Kong: Microresonator Devices and Optical Nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Andrew W.; Zhou, Linjie; Xu, Fang; Li, Chao; Chen, Hui; Liang, Tak-Keung; Liu, Yang; Tsang, Hon K.

    In this review paper we showcase recent activities on silicon photonics science and technology research in Hong Kong regarding two important topical areas-microresonator devices and optical nonlinearities. Our work on silicon microresonator filters, switches and modulators have shown promise for the nascent development of on-chip optoelectronic signal processing systems, while our studies on optical nonlinearities have contributed to basic understanding of silicon-based optically-pumped light sources and helium-implanted detectors. Here, we review our various passive and electro-optic active microresonator devices including (i) cascaded microring resonator cross-connect filters, (ii) NRZ-to-PRZ data format converters using a microring resonator notch filter, (iii) GHz-speed carrier-injection-based microring resonator modulators and 0.5-GHz-speed carrier-injection-based microdisk resonator modulators, and (iv) electrically reconfigurable microring resonator add-drop filters and electro-optic logic switches using interferometric resonance control. On the nonlinear waveguide front, we review the main nonlinear optical effects in silicon, and show that even at fairly modest average powers two-photon absorption and the accompanied free-carrier linear absorption could lead to optical limiting and a dramatic reduction in the effective lengths of nonlinear devices.

  10. Improved resolution of ambient flow through fractured rock with temperature logs.

    PubMed

    Pehme, P E; Parker, B L; Cherry, J A; Greenhouse, J P

    2010-01-01

    In contaminant hydrogeology, investigations at fractured rock sites are typically undertaken to improve understanding of the fracture networks and associated groundwater flow that govern past and/or future contaminant transport. Conventional hydrogeologic, geophysical, and hydrophysical techniques used to develop a conceptual model are often implemented in open boreholes under conditions of cross-connected flow. A new approach using high-resolution temperature (+/-0.001 degrees C) profiles measured within static water columns of boreholes sealed using continuous, water-inflated, flexible liners (FLUTe) identifies hydraulically active fractures under ambient (natural) groundwater flow conditions. The value of this approach is assessed by comparisons of temperature profiles from holes (100 to 200 m deep) with and without liners at four contaminated sites with distinctly different hydrogeologic conditions. The results from the lined holes consistently show many more hydraulically active fractures than the open-hole profiles, in which the influence of vertical flow through the borehole between a few fractures masks important intermediary flow zones. Temperature measurements in temporarily sealed boreholes not only improve the sensitivity and accuracy of identifying hydraulically active fractures under ambient conditions but also offer new insights regarding previously unresolvable flow distributions in fractured rock systems, while leaving the borehole available for other forms of testing and monitoring device installation. PMID:19840124

  11. Evaluation of steel shafts for magnetostrictive torque sensors (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koga, F.; Yoshida, K.; Sasada, I.

    1997-04-01

    Based on the magnetostrictive effect in steel, a robust, noncontacting shaft torque sensor can be obtained. A fundamental problem in this scheme is compatibility between mechanical strength required for a shaft and a magnetic one needed for a torque sensor. In order to find shaft material accommodating these two requirements, we investigated basic characteristics, such as hysteresis, linearity, and zero-level fluctuation associated with shaft rotation, of the magnetostrictive torque sensor for various nickel chromium molybdenum steel shafts (SNCM in Japanese Industrial Standard) subjected to case hardening. We prepared three kinds of shafts of 25 mm in diameter: SNCM 420 (Ni=1.69%, C=0.2%), SNCM 616 (Ni=2.91%, C=0.15%), and SNCM 447 (Ni=1.67%, C=0.49%). Shafts of the first two materials were carburized, whereas those of the last one were quenched. We used a magnetic head-type torque sensor consisting of a pair of cross-coupled figure-eight coils (14 turn), which has been already proposed by us.1 The hysteresis in the input-output relationship was measured for the excitation current from 0.1 to 1.0 A at the excitation frequency of 60 kHz. The hysteresis of the SNCM 420 shaft changes sign from negative to positive with the increase in excitation current and that of the SNCM 616 shaft decreases monotonically but never reaches zero, whereas that of the SNCM 447 shaft exhibits minimum. The smallest values obtained are nearly zero for the SNCM 420 shaft at 0.3 A, 1.5%/(full scale (FS)=400 Nm) for the SNCM 616 shaft at 1.0 A and 0.7%/FS for the SNCM 447 shaft at 0.8 A, respectively. The linearity measured for the SNCM 420 shaft, which has the smallest hysteresis of the three, at 0.3 A and 60 kHz was virtually straight for the applied torque range -400-400 Nm and 0.8% of nonlinearity error for the range -1000-1000 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation was measured for the SNCM 420 shaft by rotating the shaft without applying torque. The level of the fluctuation was as small as ±1.8%/FS (FS=1000 Nm). It is interesting to consider the effect of carburization on the performance of the shaft seen from the torque sensor. The sensitivity of the as-ground SNCM 420 shaft is approximately ten times larger than that of carburized shafts, however, the input-output relationship measured for the as-ground shaft was saturated completely at the applied torque of 400 Nm. The zero-level fluctuation for the as-ground shaft was about the same in terms of %/FS as that of carburized shaft. Considering that the reduction of the sensitivity by carburization is a factor of 10, magnetic inhomogeneities at the surface are well improved by the carburizing process. We measured the two-dimensional pattern of magnetic anisotropy distribution by scanning the shaft surface using a 6.5 mm square eddy current probe that is sensitive to magnetic anisotropy.2 We found that the as-ground shaft has a peculiar magnetic anisotropy pattern, which is probably induced during manufacturing steel bars. The pattern was erased by the heat treatment at 920 °C for 4 h, which is a main course of carburization treatment.

  12. Localization of the spinal network associated with generation of hindlimb locomotion in the neonatal rat and organization of its transverse coupling system.

    PubMed

    Kremer, E; Lev-Tov, A

    1997-03-01

    The segmental organization of the hindlimb locomotor pattern generators and the coordination of rhythmic motor activity were studied in isolated spinal cords of the neonatal rat. All lumbar segments and many thoracic and sacral segments of the cord exhibited an alternating left-right rhythm in the presence of serotonin (5-HT) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NDMA). Other thoracic segments exhibited a synchronized left-right rhythm or an irregular bursting activity. Transection of the cord at the thoracolumbar or lumbosacral junction abolished the rhythmicity of nonlumbar segments and had no affect on the rhythmicity of lumbar segments. A fast alternating rhythm persisted in rostral lumbar segments after transection of the cord at mid-L3. A much slower alternating rhythm was found in the detached caudal lumbar segments after elevation of the NMDA concentration. These findings suggest that neurogenesis of hindlimb locomotion is not restricted to L1/L2, and that the lumbar pattern generators exhibited rostrocaudal specialization. An alternating left-right rhythm persisted in lumbar cords of midsagittally split preparations that were kept with either L1, L2, L3, or L4 as the only bilaterally intact segment. An alternating rhythm persisted also in preparations that were midsagittally split up to T13-T12, or down to L4. Extension of these lesions led to a bilaterally synchronous rhythm or to left-right independent rhythms in the lumbar cord. These results indicated that the transverse coupling system in the caudal-thoracic and lumbar segments in specialized and that left-right alternation in the lumbar cord can be carried out by the cross connectivity, which is relayed at least through the T12-L4 segments. Bath application of the glycine receptor antagonist strychnine, or the gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABAA) receptor blocker bicuculline, induced in the presence of NMDA and 5-HT a bilaterally synchronous rhythm in any intact or detached segment of the cord and in midsagittally split preparations with few bilaterally intact upper thoracic or lower sacral segments. A strychnine-resistant left-right alternating rhythm was found in the presence of 5-HT and NMDA in preparations that were treated with the non-NMDA receptor blocker 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline (CNQX) before and during the application of strychnine. Subsequent washout of CNQX immediately induced a bilateral synchronous rhythm. These results suggest that the phase relation between the hemicords during the rhythm is determined by a dynamic interplay between the excitatory and inhibitory cross connectivity, and that this interplay can be modulated experimentally. Local application of strychnine to L2 kept bilaterally intact in midsagittally split preparations perturbed but did not completely block the alternating pattern of the rhythm induced by 5-HT and NMDA. Local application of bicuculline under the same conditions prolonged the cycle time and had no effect on left-right alternation. These results, together with those described above, suggest that left-right alternation is mediated mainly by strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors with possible contribution of strychnine-resistant glycine receptors and/or GABAA receptors. PMID:9084588

  13. Detailed measurement of the magnitude and orientation of thermal gradients in lined boreholes for characterizing groundwater flow in fractured rock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, Peeter; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Blohm, Detlef

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments have led to revitalization of the use of temperature logging for characterizing flow through fractured rock. The sealing of boreholes using water-filled, flexible impermeable liners prevents vertical cross connection between fractures intersecting the hole and establishes a static water column with a temperature stratification that mimics that in the surrounding formation. Measurement of the temperature profile of the lined-hole, water column (using a high sensitivity single-point probe achieving resolution on the order of 0.001 °C) has identified fractures with active flow under ambient groundwater conditions (without cross connecting flow along the borehole). Detection of flow in fractures was further improved with the use of a heater to create thermal disequilibrium in the active line source (ALS) technique and eliminate normal depth limitations in the process. This paper presents another advancement; detailed measurement of the magnitude and direction of the thermal gradient to characterize flow through fractured rock. The temperature within the water column is measured along the length of the lined hole using a temperature vector probe (TVP): four high sensitivity sensors arranged in a tetrahedral pattern oriented using three directional magnetometers. Based on these data, the horizontal and vertical components of the thermal field, as well as the direction of temperature gradient are determined, typically at depth intervals of less than 0.01 m. This probe was assessed and refined by trials in over 30 lined boreholes; the results from two holes through a fractured dolostone aquifer in Guelph, Ontario are used as exampled. Since no other device exists for measuring flow magnitude and direction under the ambient flow condition created by lined holes, the performance of the TVP is assessed by examining the reproducibility of the temperature measurements through an ALS test, and by the consistency of the results relative to other types of larger-scale information from the study area. Temperature profiles were measured in lined holes under both ambient thermal conditions and subject to ALS heating of the entire length of the holes to demonstrate resolution and reproducibility. The hydraulic gradient in three-dimensional space, based on pressure measurements from three depth discrete, multilevel monitoring systems in nearby holes, was used to independently estimate variations in groundwater flow directions. The characteristics of the hydraulic and thermal regimes are compared to assess response to changes in flow in a fractured rock system. When used in the lined holes, the level of detail provided by this multi-sensor probe is much greater than that provided by a single-sensor probe and this detail strongly supports inferences concerning the relative magnitude and direction of the flow. The results of this study indicate that the details of the thermal gradient can be measured and provides superior results compared to a conventional one dimensional temperature profile, thereby substantially enhancing the characterization of groundwater flow in fractured rock.

  14. A review of outbreaks of waterborne disease associated with ships: evidence for risk management.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Roisin M.; Bartram, Jamie K.; Cramer, Elaine H.; Mantha, Stacey; Nichols, Gordon; Suraj, Rohini; Todd, Ewen C. D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The organization of water supply to and on ships differs considerably from that of water supply on land. Risks of contamination can arise from source water at the port or during loading, storage, or distribution on the ship. The purpose of this article is to review documented outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with passenger, cargo, fishing, and naval ships to identify contributing factors so that similar outbreaks can be prevented in the future. METHODS: The authors reviewed 21 reported outbreaks of waterborne diseases associated with ships. For each outbreak, data on pathogens/toxins, type of ship, factors contributing to outbreaks, mortality and morbidity, and remedial action are presented. RESULTS: The findings of this review show that the majority of reported outbreaks were associated with passenger ships and that more than 6,400 people were affected. Waterborne outbreaks due to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, noroviruses, Salmonella spp, Shigella sp, Cryptosporidium sp, and Giardia lamblia occurred on ships. Enterotoxigenic E. coli was the pathogen most frequently associated with outbreaks. One outbreak of chemical water poisoning also occurred on a ship. Risk factors included contaminated port water, inadequate treatment, improper loading techniques, poor design and maintenance of storage tanks, ingress of contamination during repair and maintenance, cross-connections, back siphonage, and insufficient residual disinfectant. CONCLUSIONS: Waterborne disease outbreaks on ships can be prevented. The factors contributing to outbreaks emphasize the need for hygienic handling of water along the supply chain from source to consumption. A comprehensive approach to water safety on ships is essential. This may be achieved by the adoption of Water Safety Plans that cover design, construction, operation, and routine inspection and maintenance. PMID:15219801

  15. Quantifying Urban Water Subsidies with Hydrological Tracers of Domestic Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, D. J.; Sikora, M. T.; Wozniak, E.; Fisher, K. R.; Carr, J.; Elliott, E. M.

    2011-12-01

    Connections between urban hydrological systems and human water infrastructure are well established. Interactions between these systems occur at a wide range of scales, from large inter-basin transfers to individual leaking pipes. However, much of the interest in these connections arises from practical considerations, for example, substantially altered in-stream flow or the presence/absence of sewage in surface water systems. Less recognized is that in smaller urban catchments, daily water flux through human water distribution systems is often much larger than low flow surface water flux from the catchment. As infrastructure ages and cross-connections grow, transfers from the substantial human fluxes to the catchment will increasingly subsidize urban water budgets. Tools for quantifying the contribution of this subsidy to urban hydrological systems can clarify both practical questions for urban managers and our understanding of flow generation in catchments. Stream water chemistry from a multi-year sampling campaign in Nine Mile Run (Pittsburgh, PA) is used to examine potential hydrological tracers of human domestic water. In particular, we examine the use of fluoride added in precise quantities as a dental health supplement as a tracer of human domestic water (e.g., drinking and waste water). While fluoride is not necessarily a conservative tracer, equilibrium reactions governing fluoride solubility generally require substantially higher cationic concentrations than those observed in surface water chemistry. Further, during periods where human subsidies dominate (e.g., water line breaks or hydrant flushes discharging to the stream) fluoride concentrations generally approach the concentration added to domestic water. We use multiple modeling approaches to demonstrate the appropriateness of fluoride as a tracer, infer contributions of human domestic water to the hydrologic budget, and explore fluoride dynamics in the Nine Mile Run basin. A fluoride tracer is particularly exciting due to applicability in a large number of urban systems fluoridating drinking waters and due to robust, high-frequency measurement capacity via off-the-shelf drinking water treatment technologies.

  16. Detection of fecal coliforms in water by using (/sup 14/C)mannitol

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.; Geldreich, E.E.

    1989-04-01

    Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of (U-14C)mannitol to detect fecal coliforms (FC). A simple method which used m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35 degrees C for 2 h followed by 44.5 degrees C for 2.5 h) was developed. (U-14C)mannitol was added to the medium, and the temperature was raised to 44.5 degrees C after 2 h at 35 degrees C. 14CO2 was collected as Ba14CO3 and assayed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Correlations were examined between FC cell numbers at the start of incubation (standard 24-h FC test) and Ba14CO3 counts per minute after 4.5 h. Results indicated that FC numbers ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 2.1 x 10(5) cells could be detected in 4.5 h. Within-sample reproducibility at all cell concentrations was good, but sample-to-sample reproducibility was variable. Comparisons between m-FC broth and m-FC broth modified by substituting D-mannitol for lactose indicated that the standard m-FC broth was the better test medium. Results from experiments in which dimethyl sulfoxide was used to increase permeability of FC to (U-14C)mannitol indicated no increase in 14CO2 production due to dimethyl sulfoxide. Detection of FC by this method may be useful for rapid estimation of FC levels in freshwater recreational areas, for estimating the quality of potable source water, and potentially for emergency testing of potable water, suspected of contamination due to distribution line breaks or cross-connections.

  17. Disruption of glucocorticoid receptors in the noradrenergic system leads to BDNF up-regulation and altered serotonergic transmission associated with a depressive-like phenotype in female GR(DBHCre) mice.

    PubMed

    Chmielarz, Piotr; Kreiner, Grzegorz; Kot, Marta; Zelek-Molik, Agnieszka; Kowalska, Marta; Bagi?ska, Monika; Daniel, W?adys?awa Anna; Nalepa, Irena

    2015-10-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that conditional inactivation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the noradrenergic system, may evoke depressive-like behavior in female but not male mutant mice (GR(DBHCre) mice). The aim of the current study was to dissect how selective ablation of glucocorticoid signaling in the noradrenergic system influences the previously reported depressive-like phenotype and whether it might be linked to neurotrophic alterations or secondary changes in the serotonergic system. We demonstrated that selective depletion of GRs enhances brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in female but not male GR(DBHCre) mice on both the mRNA and protein levels. The possible impact of the mutation on brain noradrenergic and serotonergic systems was addressed by investigating the tissue neurotransmitter levels under basal conditions and after acute restraint stress. The findings indicated a stress-provoked differential response in tissue noradrenaline content in the GR(DBHCre) female but not male mutant mice. An analogous gender-specific effect was identified in the diminished content of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, the main metabolite of serotonin, in the prefrontal cortex, which suggests down-regulation of this monoamine system in female GR(DBHCre) mice. The lack of GR also resulted in an up-regulation of alpha2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR) density in the female but not male mutants in the locus coeruleus. We have also confirmed the utility of the investigated model in pharmacological studies, which demonstrates that the depressive-like phenotype of GR(DBHCre) female mice can be reversed by antidepressant treatment with desipramine or fluoxetine, with the latter drug evoking more pronounced effects. Overall, our study validates the use of female GR(DBHCre) mice as an interesting and novel genetic tool for the investigation of the cross-connected mechanisms of depression that is not only based on behavioral phenotypes. PMID:26261018

  18. Collagen fibre arrangement and functional crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament in the rat knee.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Marco; Quaranta, Marilisa; Macciocca, Maria; Leonardi, Luisa; Ottani, Vittoria; Bianchini, Paolo; Diaspro, Alberto; Ruggeri, Alessandro

    2010-12-01

    Ligaments have been described as multifascicular structures with collagen fibres cross-connecting to each other or running straight and parallel also showing a waviness or crimping pattern playing as a shock absorber/recoiling system during joint motions. A particular collagen array and crimping pattern in different ligaments may reflect different biomechanical roles and properties. The aim of the study was to relate the 3D collagen arrangement in the crimping pattern of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) to its functional role. The MCL is one of the most injured ligaments during sports activities and an experimental model to understand the rate, quality and composition of ligaments healing. A deep knowledge of structure-function relationship of collagen fibres array will improve the development of rehabilitation protocols and more appropriate exercises for recovery of functional activity. The rat MCL was analysed by polarized light microscopy, confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Histomorphometric analysis demonstrated that MCL crimps have a smaller base length versus other tendons. SEM observations demonstrated that collagen fibres showing few crimps were composed of fibrils intertwining and crossing one another in the outer region. Confocal laser analyses excluded a helical array of collagen fibres. By contrast, in the core portion, densely packed straight collagen fibres ran parallel to the main axis of the ligament being interrupted both by planar crimps, similar to tendon crimps, and by newly described right-handed twisted crimps. It is concluded that planar crimps could oppose or respond exclusively to tensional forces parallel to the main ligament axis, whereas the right-handed twisted crimps could better resist/respond to a complex of tensional/rotational forces within the ligament thus opposing to an external rotation of tibia. PMID:20182866

  19. New method for continuous transmissivity profiling in fractured rock.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carl E; Cherry, John A; Parker, Beth L

    2014-01-01

    A new method is presented to search for hydraulically transmissive features in open boreholes in bedrock. A flexible borehole liner made of a watertight, nylon fabric is filled with water to create a constant driving head to evert (reverse of invert) the liner down the hole so that the liner pushes the borehole water out into transmissive fractures or other permeable features. The descent rate is governed by the bulk transmissivity of the remaining permeable features below the liner. Initially, the liner descent rate or velocity is a measure of transmissivity (T) of the entire hole. As the everting liner passes and seals each permeable feature, changes in the liner velocity indicate the position of each feature and an estimate of T using the Thiem equation for steady radial flow. This method has been performed in boreholes with diameters ranging from 96 to 330?mm. Profiling commonly takes a few hours in holes 200- to 300-m long. After arrival of the liner at the bottom of the hole, the liner acts as a seal preventing borehole cross connection between transmissive features at different depths. Liner removal allows the hole to be used for other purposes. The T values determined using this method in a dolostone aquifer were found to be similar to the values from injection tests using conventional straddle packers. This method is not a replacement for straddle-packer hydraulic testing of specific zones where greater accuracy is desired; however, it is effective and efficient for scanning entire holes for transmissive features. PMID:23692626

  20. A complete design flow for silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pond, James; Cone, Chris; Chrostowski, Lukas; Klein, Jackson; Flueckiger, Jonas; Liu, Amy; McGuire, Dylan; Wang, Xu

    2014-05-01

    Broad adoption of silicon photonics technology for photonic integrated circuits requires standardized design flows that are similar to what is available for analog and mixed signal electrical circuit design. We have developed a design flow that combines mature electronic design automation (EDA) software with optical simulation software. An essential component of any design flow, whether electrical or photonic, is the ability to accurately simulate largescale circuits. This is particularly important when the behavior of the circuit is not trivially related to the individual component performance. While this is clearly the case for electronic circuits consisting of hundreds to billions of transistors, it is already becoming important in photonic circuits such as WDM transmitters, where signal cross talk needs to be considered, as well as optical cross-connect switches. In addition, optical routing to connect different components requires the introduction of additional waveguide sections, waveguide bends, and waveguide crossings, which affect the overall circuit performance. Manufacturing variability can also have dramatic circuit-level consequences that need to be simulated. Circuit simulations must rely on compact models that can accurately represent the behavior of each component, and the compact model parameters must be extracted from physical level simulation and experimental results. We show how large scale circuits can be simulated in both the time and frequency domains, including the effects of bidirectional and, where appropriate, multimode and multichannel photonic waveguides. We also show how active, passive and nonlinear individual components such as grating couplers, waveguides, splitters, filters, electro-optical modulators and detectors can be simulated using a combination of electrical and optical algorithms, and good agreement with experimental results can be obtained. We then show how parameters, with inclusion of fabrication process variations, can be extracted for use in the circuit level simulations. Ultimately, we show how a multi-channel WDM transceiver can be created, from schematic design to tapeout, using key features of EDA design flows such as schematic driven layout, design rule checking and layout versus schematic.

  1. The structure of the cuticular plate, an in vivo actin gel.

    PubMed

    DeRosier, D J; Tilney, L G

    1989-12-01

    The cuticular plate is a network of actin filaments found in hair cells of the cochlea. In the alligator lizard, it consists of rootlets, emanating from the stereocilia, and of cross-connecting actin filaments that anchor these rootlets. In thin sections, this network displays striking patches of 650 +/- 110-A striae. By quantitative analyses of the images, the mystery of the striae can be explained. They are due in part to the rootlets which are sets of flat ribbons of actin filaments. The ribbons in each set are separated by approximately 650 A. Numerous whiskers 30 A in diameter extend from each ribbon's face, interconnecting adjacent ribbons. The nonrootlet filaments, except at the margins of the cell, occur primarily as single filaments. Like the ribbons, they are bristling with whiskers. The patches of striae are explained by ribbons and filaments held at a 650-A separation by the whiskers that project from them. A simple model for regions of bewhiskered filaments is a box crammed full of randomly oriented test-tube brushes. A thin slice through the box will show regions of dark lines or striae due to the wire backbones of the brushes separated from one another by the bristle length. Using the computer instead of test-tube brushes, we have been able to model quantitatively the filament distribution and pattern of striae seen in the cuticular plate of the lizard. The organization of actin filaments we have deduced from our simulations differs from that found in macrophages or in the terminal web of intestinal epithelial cells. PMID:2592408

  2. Effect of Emergency Argon on FCF Operational Incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Solbrig

    2011-12-01

    The following report presents analyses of operational incidents which are considered in the safety analysis of the FCF argon cell and the effect that the operability of the emergency argon system has on the course of these incidents. The purpose of this study is to determine if the emergency argon system makes a significant difference in ameliorating the course of these incidents. Six incidents were considered. The following three incidents were analyzed. These are: 1. Cooling failing on 2. Vacuum Pump Failing on 3. Argon Supplies Failing on. In the remaining three incidents, the emergency argon supply would have no effect on the course of these transients since it would not come on during these incidents. The transients are 1. Loss of Cooling 2. Loss of power (Differs from above by startup delay till the Diesel Generators come on.) 3. Cell rupture due to an earthquake or other cause. The analyses of the first three incidents are reported on in the next three sections. This report is issued realizing the control parameters used may not be optimum, and additional modeling must be done to model the inertia of refrigeration system, but the major conclusion concerning the need for the emergency argon system is still valid. The timing of some events may change with a more accurate model but the differences between the transients with and without emergency argon will remain the same. Some of the parameters assumed in the analyses are Makeup argon supply, 18 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -6 iwg., shuts off when pressure is = -3.1 iwg. 170,000 ft3 supply. Min 1/7th always available, can be cross connected to HFEF argon supply dewar. Emergency argon supply, 900 cfm, initiates when pressure is = -8 iwg. shuts off when pressure is =-4 iwg. reservoir 220 ft3, refilled when tank farm pressure reduces to 1050 psi which is about 110 ft3.

  3. Cross-Coupled Eye Movement Supports Neural Origin of Pattern Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Ghasia, Fatema F.; Shaikh, Aasef G.; Jacobs, Jonathan; Walker, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Pattern strabismus describes vertically incomitant horizontal strabismus. Conventional theories emphasized the role of orbital etiologies, such as abnormal fundus torsion and misaligned orbital pulleys as a cause of the pattern strabismus. Experiments in animal models, however, suggested the role of abnormal cross-connections between the neural circuits. We quantitatively assessed eye movements in patients with pattern strabismus with a goal to delineate the role of neural circuits versus orbital etiologies. Methods. We measured saccadic eye movements with high-precision video-oculography in 14 subjects with pattern strabismus, 5 with comitant strabismus, and 15 healthy controls. We assessed change in eye position in the direction orthogonal to that of the desired eye movement (cross-coupled responses). We used fundus photography to quantify the fundus torsion. Results. We found cross-coupling of saccades in all patients with pattern strabismus. The cross-coupled responses were in the same direction in both eyes, but larger in the nonviewing eye. All patients had clinically apparent inferior oblique overaction with abnormal excylotorsion. There was no correlation between the amount of the fundus torsion or the grade of oblique overaction and the severity of cross-coupling. The disconjugacy in the saccade direction and amplitude in pattern strabismics did not have characteristics predicted by clinically apparent inferior oblique overaction. Conclusions. Our results validated primate models of pattern strabismus in human patients. We found no correlation between ocular torsion or oblique overaction and cross-coupling. Therefore, we could not ascribe cross-coupling exclusively to the orbital etiology. Patients with pattern strabismus could have abnormalities in the saccade generators. PMID:26024072

  4. "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" - Open Source based tools for preserving and culturally exploring historical traffic routes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Massimiliano; Colombo, Massimo; Antonovic, Milan; Cardoso, Mirko; Delucchi, Andrea; Gianocca, Giancarlo; Brovelli, Maria Antonia

    2015-04-01

    "I CAMMINI DELLA REGINA" (The Via Regina Paths) is an Interreg project funded within the transnational cooperation program between Italy and Switzerland 2007-2013. The aim of this project is the preservation and valorization of the cultural heritage linked to the walking historically paths crossing, connecting and serving the local territories. With the approach of leveraging the already existing tools, which generally consist of technical descriptions of the paths, the project uses the open source geospatial technologies to deploy innovative solutions which can fill some of the gaps in historical-cultural tourism offers. The Swiss part, and particularly the IST-SUPSI team, has been focusing its activities in the realization of two innovative solutions: a mobile application for the survey of historical paths and a storytelling system for immersive cultural exploration of the historical paths. The former, based on Android, allows to apply in a revised manner a consolidated and already successfully used methodology of survey focused on the conservation of the historical paths (Inventory of historical traffic routes in Switzerland). Up to now operators could rely only on hand work based on a combination of notes, pictures and GPS devices synthesized in manually drawn maps; this procedure is error prone and shows many problems both in data updating and extracting for elaborations. Thus it has been created an easy to use interface which allows to map, according to a newly developed spatially enabled data model, paths, morphological elements, and multimedia notes. When connected to the internet the application can send the data to a web service which, after applying linear referencing and further elaborating the data, makes them available using open standards. The storytelling system has been designed to provide users with cultural insights embedded in a multimedial and immersive geospatial portal. Whether the tourist is exploring physically or virtually the desired historical path, the system will provide notifications and immersive multimedia information that foster a new sight of the territory: award of the culture and history of the place thanks to attractive description of the geological, land use, historical and ethnographic contexts. The technologies used for these developments are: mongoDB, tornado, Android SDK, geoserver, bootstrap, OpenLayers, HTML5, CSS3, JQuery. The approach, methodologies and technical implementations will be discussed and presented.

  5. Integrated conceptual modelling of faecal contamination in an urban estuary catchment.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, Dusan; Henry, Rebekah; Coleman, Rhys; Deletic, Ana; McCarthy, David

    2015-01-01

    Urban stormwater is regarded as a key input of faecal contamination in receiving water bodies and therefore, a major concern for health risks associated with aquatic recreation. Wastewater leakages, cross connections and overflows, together with faeces washed from surfaces during rainfall events, are possible origins of faecal contamination which enter these water bodies through stormwater drains. This paper applies conceptual models to a case study of the Yarra River estuary to understand the relative importance of fluxes derived from an urban creek and the 219 urban stormwater pipes which drain directly to the estuary as compared with other inputs, such as the Yarra River itself. Existing hydrologic-microorganism models were used for the estimation of the inputs from riverine and urban stormwater fluxes. These predictions were applied as boundary conditions for a new, highly simplified, model which accounts for the transport and survival of faecal microorganisms in the estuary. All models were calibrated using a rich dataset, containing over 2,000 measured Escherichia coli concentrations. Mass balances from the riverine and stormwater models indicate the limited influence of urban stormwater drains on the estuary during dry weather; less than 0.05% to 10% (5th and 95th percentile; median 0.5%) of the total daily E. coli load entering the estuary was derived from urban stormwater drains. While wet weather contributions from stormwater drains could be more significant (2% to 50%; 5th and 95th percentile), the average contribution remained marginal (median 10%). Sensitivity testing of the estuarine microorganism model by switching off stormwater boundary conditions resulted in minimal model efficiency reduction; this may reflect the low average daily contribution from urban stormwater drains. While these results confirm previous studies which show that E. coli loads derived from stormwater drains are dwarfed by other inputs, it is essential to note that these results also demonstrate that some conditions reveal the opposite; high proportions from stormwater are possible when combined with low riverine inputs and high urban rainfall. Furthermore, this study focuses on the overall impacts of direct urban stormwater inputs on the faecal contamination levels within the estuary, and localized impacts would certainly require further investigation. PMID:26524437

  6. IP over optical layer restoration: architecture, design, and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Angela L.; Strand, John

    2005-11-01

    Optical layer capacity and unit cost improvements are basic to the rapid growth of IP networks. However, the new rapid reconfiguration and restoration capabilities of the optical layer have been sparingly utilized by IP network operators. This is consistent with the economics: the widely deployed optical layer architecture based on a "discrete" optical crossconnect (DOXC - one not integrated into the WDM) incurs heavy interface costs. In addition, there are architectural and control issues which are roadblocks to IP exploitation of rapid optical layer agility. In the first part of the paper, we describe a next generation all-optical architecture based on OXCs integrated with the WDM ("IOXCs"), and one instantiation of this architecture using a class of reconfigurable degree-N optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM). A new shared mesh restoration mechanism based on hot standbys is designed to overcome slow convergence and transient behaviors that are typical in all-optical networks. A series of economic comparisons are made on both a 120-node hypothetical national network and a smaller express backbone network to demonstrate the cost effectiveness of the new IOXC-based restoration in comparison to the IP layer restoration after some optical layer failure that results in one or more IP link failures. In the IP over Optical architecture, the Optical Layer can provide its IP clients rapid and efficient restoration for IP link failures that are due to some optical layer failure; however its inability to protect against router and router interface failures erodes its attractiveness. In the second part of the paper, we propose a joint IP/Optical restoration mechanism to deal with this. It is suitable for IP offices with at least two backbone routers and an optical cross-connect. The OXC is used to re-terminate OC-48/OC-192 links from a failed backbone router to its mate. The entire interoffice portion of the re-terminated link is reused, thus minimizing the amount of additional inter-office capacity required to protect against router failures. The proposed scheme is also applicable to restoration for router interface failures as well as to cases with single backbone router office architecture.

  7. Analysis of elemental concentration using ICP-AES and pathogen indicator in drinking water of Qasim Abad, District Rawalpindi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Sehar, Shama; Naz, Iffat; Ali, Naeem; Ahmed, Safia

    2013-02-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate drinking water quality (groundwater) from water samples taken from Qasim Abad, a locality of approximately 5,000 population, situated between twin cities Rawalpindi and Islamabad in Pakistan. The main sources of drinking water in this area are water bores which are dug upto the depth of 250-280 ft in almost every house. The study consists of the determination of physico-chemical properties, trace metals, heavy metals, rare earth elements and microbiological quality of drinking water. The data showed the variation of the investigated parameters in samples as follows: pH 6.75 to 8.70, electrical conductivity 540 to 855 ?S/cm, total dissolved solids 325.46 to 515.23 ppm and dissolved oxygen 1.50 to 5.64 mg/L which are within the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. The water samples were analysed for 30 elements (aluminium, iron, magnesium, manganese, silicon, zinc, molybdenum, titanium, chromium, nickel, tungsten, silver, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, gallium, mercury, lanthanum, niobium, neodymium, lead, selenium, samarium, tin, vanadium and zirconium) by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The organic contamination was detected in terms of most probable number (MPN) of faecal coliforms. Overall, elemental levels were lower than the recommended values but three water bores (B-1, B-6, B-7) had higher values of iron (1.6, 2.206, 0.65 ppm), two water bores (B-1, B-6) had higher values of aluminium (0.95, 1.92 ppm), respectively, and molybdenum was higher by 0.01 ppm only in one water bore (B-11). The total number of coliforms present in water samples was found to be within the prescribed limit of the WHO except for 5 out of 11 bore water samples (B-2, B-3, B-4, B-8, B-11), which were found in the range 5-35 MPN/100 mL, a consequence of infiltration of contaminated water (sewage) through cross connection, leakage points and back siphoning. PMID:22544071

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Equations of Motion in General Relativity Equations of Motion in General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfer, Gerhard

    2012-03-01

    Devoted exclusively to the problem of motion in general relativity, this book by H. Asada, T. Futamase, and P. A. Hogan is highly welcome to close up a gap in the book sector presenting a concise account of theoretical developments and results on gravitational equations of motion achieved since the discovery of the binary neutron star system PSR 1913+16 in 1974. For the most part, the book is concerned with the development and application of the important post-Newtonian approximation (PNA) framework which allows for highly efficient approximate analytic solutions of the Einstein field equations for many-body systems in terms of a slow-motion and weak-field ordering parameter. That approximation scheme is shown to be applicable also to the external motion of strongly self-gravitating objects if their internal dynamics is frozen in (strong field point particle limit) and the external conditions fit. Relying on the expertise of the authors, the PNA framework is presented in a form which, at the 1PNA level, had become famous through the work by Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann in 1938; therein, surface integrals over gravitational field expressions in the outside-body regime play a crucial role. Other approaches which also succeeded with the highest achieved PNA level so far are mentioned too, if not fully exhaustively with respect to the highest, the 3.5PNA level which contains the inverse power of the speed of light to the seventh order. Regarding the 3PNA, the reader gains a clear understanding of how the equations of motion for binary systems with compact components come about. Remarkably, no deviation from four-dimensional space-time is needed. Various explicit analytic expressions are derived for binary systems: the periastron advance and the orbital period at the 2PNA, the orbital decay through gravitational radiation reaction at the 2.5PNA, and effects of the gravitational spin-orbit and spin-spin couplings on the orbital motion. Also the propagation of light-like signals in gravitational fields of binary systems is treated, which is important for a precise interpretation of pulsar observation measurements. Based on original research by the authors, a detailed presentation is given of a mathematical scheme which makes feasible the treatment of small black holes in background space-times. Using that approach, the equations of motion of small charged black holes are derived in vacuum Einstein-Maxwell space-times without encountering infinities, showing up electromagnetic radiation reaction, background field, and tail forces. At this stage, the book defines various issues to be tackled in future research within the given formalism, such as a physical understanding of the very structure of the tail contribution or a more detailed calculation of the motion of a small Schwarzschild black hole in an external vacuum gravitational field. A unique chapter is devoted to the choreographic three-body solution of the 1PNA dynamics, also mentioning the 2PNA dynamics, in the form of figure-eight configurations. The emitted gravitational waves are shown, and a discussion of their observability in future gravitational wave astronomy is given. Four appendices support and complement the main part of the book. Here, the far zone non-contribution to the equations of motion at 3PNA is carefully investigated, forces resulting from the extendedness of objects are presented in analytic form, null geodesic congruences with their optical scalars are discussed, and the perturbed vacuum Einstein-Maxwell field equations are given. The book delivers a very readable account of the problem of motion in general relativity. It covers the state of the art up to the years 2006/8 and presents a plethora of interesting and important topics and results. Whenever appropriate, connection with observation is made. A reader with good post-introductory knowledge of the theory of general relativity should find easy access to the book, and will surely benefit from the mathematical and conceptual issues elaborated on therein. Being of observational relevance too, the

  9. Microbial Health Risks Associated with Exposure to Stormwater in a Water Plaza

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sales-Ortells, Helena; Medema, Gertjan

    2015-04-01

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase of intense rainfall events in summer in Western Europe. Current urban drainage systems cannot cope with such intense precipitation events. Cities are constructing local stormwater storage facilities to prevent pluvial flooding. Combining storage with other functions, such as recreation, may lead to exposure to contaminants. This study assessed the microbial quality of rainwater collected in a water plaza in Rotterdam (The Netherlands) and the health risks associated with recreational exposure. The water plaza collects street run-off, diverges first flush to the sewer system and stores the rest of the run-off in the plaza as open water. A rain simulation experiment was conducted using drinking water from fire hydrants. The water flowed over the street pavement into the street gutters and into the square. Samples were collected from the first flush diverted water and from two different levels of the water plaza at different points in time. Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium, and Legionella pneumophila were the pathogens investigated, using quantitative PCR. Escherichia coli was quantified with culture methods to obtain information on faecal contamination. Microbial source tracking tools (human Bacteroides, avian Helicobacter and canine mitochondrial DNA, all analysed with quantitative PCR) were used to determine the origin (human, animal) of the intestinal pathogens. To estimate the health risks for children playing in the water plaza after a rain event, a quantitative microbial risk assessment model was built. The volume of water ingested was obtained from literature on similar locations (flooded streets). Published dose-response models were used to calculate the risk per event. Exposure frequency was estimated using weather data (precipitation events). E. coli concentrations were below the level for excellent bathing water in the EU Bathing Water Directive. Cryptosporidium was not found in any sample. Campylobacter spp. was found in all samples, with higher concentrations in samples that contained human Bacteroides than in samples with contamination from birds and dogs (15 vs 3.7 gc (genomic copies)/100mL). In both cases, the estimated disease risk associated with Campylobacter and recreational exposure to the water plaza were higher than the Dutch national incidence. This indicates that the health risk associated with recreational exposure to the water plaza is significant. L. pneumophila was found only in two out of ten pond samples. Legionnaire's disease risks were lower than the Dutch national incidence. However,higher health risks are expected in the future because of increased frequency of rain events. Presence of human Bacteroides indicates possible cross-connections with the combined sewer system that should be identified and removed to reduce the gastrointestinal disease risks. Other measures include cleaning/disinfection of the water plaza after extreme precipitation; increasing the capacity of the first flush pump; regular cleaning of the catchment area and gutters; informing the neighbours of the importance of keeping the streets clean of pets depositions; and informing the public about the health risks derived from recreational uses of the water plaza after rain events. Finally, monitoring the water quality during real rain events is recommended to better characterize the health risks.

  10. Detection of Human Sewage in Urban Stormwater Using DNA Based Methods and Stable Isotope Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLellan, S. L.; Malet, N.; Sauer, E.; Mueller-Spitz, S.; Borchardt, M.

    2008-12-01

    Urban stormwater is a major source of fecal indicator bacteria in the Milwaukee River Basin, a major watershed draining to Lake Michigan. Much of the watershed is in highly urbanized areas and Escherichia coli (E. coli) levels have been found to be 20,000 CFU per 100 ml in the estuary leading to Lake Michigan. Aging infrastructure and illicit cross connections may allow sewage to infiltrate the stormwater system and could contribute both fecal indicator bacteria and human pathogens to these waters. We conducted extensive sampling of stormwater outfalls in the lower reaches of three major tributaries. Three outfalls along the heavily urbanized Kinnickinnick (KK) were found to have geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,200 and 28,700 CFU/100 ml, respectively. Four outfalls along the Menomonee River, draining both suburban and urban areas, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 14,700 and 12,800 CFU/100 ml, respectively. These seven outfalls had more than 60% of the samples positive for human specific Bacteroides genetic marker (n=46), suggesting the presence of human sources. In addition, two outfalls on Lincoln Creek, a smaller tributary of the Milwaukee River, had geometric mean E. coli and enterococci levels of 16,700 and 14,900 CFU per 100 ml, respectively. The human specific Bacteroides marker was positive in nearly 90% of the samples (n=24). Subsequent virus testing at one of these outfalls confirmed human pathogens were present with adenovirus detected at 1.3 x 10E3 genomic equivalents (ge)/L, enterovirus at 1.9 x 10E4 ge/L and G1 norovirus at 1.5 x 10E3 ge/L; these values are similar to concentrations found in sewage. Stable isotope studies were conducted in the three tributaries to investigate the relationship between delta C and delta N isotopic composition and microbiological quality of this urban freshwater system. This work is based on the premise that the organic matter of the stormwater will have a stable isotopic signature related to the mixed organic matter sources in polluted stormwater runoff, and that this signal will distinct from untreated sanitary sewage. Stable isotope signatures of stormwater and untreated sewage were determined and compared with the rivers. Isotopic values of stormwater was delta 15N = 1.1 ± 2 %; delta 13C = -25.5 ± 3 % and sewage was delta 15N = -1.9 ± 0.2 %; delta 13C = -23.6 ± 0.3. Suspended particular organic matter (SPOM) of Milwaukee River showed depleted delta 13C (-28.6 ± 1.6 %) and enriched delta 15N (7.7 ± 1.9 %) values. SPOM of the KK River exhibited the most depleted delta 15N (0.2 ± 1.6 %) and enriched delta 13C (-24.8 ± 1.8 %) isotopic values. Menomonee River SPOM showed intermediate isotopic values. The delta 13C values of each river and the estuary enriched significantly throughout the summer storm periods. The isotope signals in the KK and Menomonee were indicative of stormwater runoff and sewage contamination. These results suggest that unrecognized sewage inputs are chronically present and may be delivered through urban stormwater systems. DNA based methods combined with isotope analysis may provide a useful tool for urban watershed assessments and to identify sewage inputs. Delineating the relative contribution of stormwater and sewage to overall degraded water quality might give the first indication of the impact of these sources on the Michigan Lake waters.

  11. A Study of Magnetic Reconnection: From 2D Energy Release to 3D Spreading and Localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepherd, Lucas S.

    Magnetic reconnection is a plasma process in which stored magnetic energy is converted into thermal and kinetic energies of the surrounding plasma. Oppositely directed magnetic field lines break and cross connect due to a dissipative mecha- nism. The now bent, reconnected field lines retreat from the X-line (the location of reconnection) at the Alfven speed due to the magnetic tension in the reconnected magnetic field, therefore generating outflows. This dissertation addresses three fundamental properties of magnetic reconnection. Solar flares are explosive events in the solar corona in which magnetic reconnection mediates the rapid release (on the order of minutes) of energy stored in magnetic fields into the surrounding plasma. The Sweet-Parker (collisional) model was the first self-consistent theory to explain magnetic reconnection, but is far too slow to explain observations. The formation of secondary islands make Sweet-Parker reconnection faster, but is it fast enough to explain energy release rates? Collisionless (Hall) reconnection leads to energy release rates fast enough to explain observations. Large-scale resistive Hall-Magnetohydrodynamics simulations of the transition from Sweet-Parker to Hall reconnection are presented; the first to separate secondary islands from collisionless effects. Three main results are described. There exists a regime with secondary islands but without collisionless effects entering, and the reconnection rate is faster than Sweet-Parker, but significantly slower than Hall reconnection. This implies that secondary islands do not cause the fastest reconnection rates. The onset of Hall reconnection ejects secondary islands from the vicinity of the X-line, implying that energy is released more rapidly during Hall reconnection. Early models of magnetic reconnection have treated reconnection as two- dimensional. However, naturally occurring magnetic reconnection often begins in a localized region and spreads in the direction perpendicular to the plane of reconnection. Theoretical arguments and large-scale two fluid simulations are used to study the spreading of reconnection X-lines localized in the direction of the current as a function of the strength of the out-of-plane (guide) magnetic field. It is found that the mechanism causing the spreading is different for weak and strong guide fields. In the weak guide field limit, spreading is due to the motion of the current carriers. However, spreading for strong guide fields is bidirectional and is due to the excitation of Alfven waves along the guide field. In general, we suggest that the X-line spreads bidirectionally with a speed governed by the faster of the two mechanisms for each direction. A prediction of the strength of the guide field at which the spreading mechanism changes is formulated and verified with three-dimensional simulations. In the solar wind, magnetic reconnection exhausts measuring 600 [Gosling et al. (2007)] and 390 [Phan et al. (2006)] Earth radii in length have been observed. The authors assumed that the extended exhaust was caused by an extended X-line. If this is the case, what mechanism is responsible for these large scale structures? It has been suggested these structures are formed by a small X-line forming near the sun and spreading as the X-line convects away from the sun. Another possibility is the X-line is localized in a small region and the exhaust expands into the out-of-plane direction. Theoretical arguments and large-scale simulations are used to study localized (not spreading) magnetic reconnection, and its three-dimensional structure. Localized reconnection may also be vital to the formation of supra-arcade downflows (SADs) in the corona. Both solar wind and coronal applications are discussed.

  12. A Multiple-Tracer Approach for Identifying Sewage Sources to an Urban Stream System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hyer, Kenneth Edward

    2007-01-01

    The presence of human-derived fecal coliform bacteria (sewage) in streams and rivers is recognized as a human health hazard. The source of these human-derived bacteria, however, is often difficult to identify and eliminate, because sewage can be delivered to streams through a variety of mechanisms, such as leaking sanitary sewers or private lateral lines, cross-connected pipes, straight pipes, sewer-line overflows, illicit dumping of septic waste, and vagrancy. A multiple-tracer study was conducted to identify site-specific sources of sewage in Accotink Creek, an urban stream in Fairfax County, Virginia, that is listed on the Commonwealth's priority list of impaired streams for violations of the fecal coliform bacteria standard. Beyond developing this multiple-tracer approach for locating sources of sewage inputs to Accotink Creek, the second objective of the study was to demonstrate how the multiple-tracer approach can be applied to other streams affected by sewage sources. The tracers used in this study were separated into indicator tracers, which are relatively simple and inexpensive to apply, and confirmatory tracers, which are relatively difficult and expensive to analyze. Indicator tracers include fecal coliform bacteria, surfactants, boron, chloride, chloride/bromide ratio, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, and water temperature. Confirmatory tracers include 13 organic compounds that are associated with human waste, including caffeine, cotinine, triclosan, a number of detergent metabolites, several fragrances, and several plasticizers. To identify sources of sewage to Accotink Creek, a detailed investigation of the Accotink Creek main channel, tributaries, and flowing storm drains was undertaken from 2001 to 2004. Sampling was conducted in a series of eight synoptic sampling events, each of which began at the most downstream site and extended upstream through the watershed and into the headwaters of each tributary. Using the synoptic sampling approach, 149 sites were sampled at least one time for indicator tracers; 52 of these sites also were sampled for confirmatory tracers at least one time. Through the analysis of multiple-tracer levels in the synoptic samples, three major sewage sources to the Accotink Creek stream network were identified, and several other minor sewage sources to the Accotink Creek system likely deserve additional investigation. Near the end of the synoptic sampling activities, three additional sampling methods were used to gain better understanding of the potential for sewage sources to the watershed. These additional sampling methods included optical brightener monitoring, intensive stream sampling using automated samplers, and additional sampling of several storm-drain networks. The samples obtained by these methods provided further understanding of possible sewage sources to the streams and a better understanding of the variability in the tracer concentrations at a given sampling site. Collectively, these additional sampling methods were a valuable complement to the synoptic sampling approach that was used for the bulk of this study. The study results provide an approach for local authorities to use in applying a relatively simple and inexpensive collection of tracers to locate sewage sources to streams. Although this multiple-tracer approach is effective in detecting sewage sources to streams, additional research is needed to better detect extremely low-volume sewage sources and better enable local authorities to identify the specific sources of the sewage once it is detected in a stream reach.

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and contaminant loads in the lower Charles River Watershed, Massachusetts, 1999-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Sorenson, Jason R.; Weiskel, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Streamflow data and dry-weather and stormwater water-quality samples were collected from the main stem of the Charles River upstream of the lower Charles River (or the Basin) and from four partially culverted urban streams that drain tributary subbasins in the lower Charles River Watershed. Samples were collected between June 1999 and September 2000 and analyzed for a number of potential contaminants including nitrate (plus nitrite), ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, phosphorus, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc; and water-quality properties including specific conductance, turbidity, biochemical oxygen demand, fecal coliform bacteria, Entero-coccus bacteria, total dissolved solids, and total suspended sediment. These data were used to identify the major pathways and to determine the magnitudes of contaminants loads that contribute to the poor water quality of the lower Charles River. Water-quality and streamflow data, for one small urban stream and two storm drains that drain subbasins with uniform (greater than 73 percent) land use (including single-family residential, multifamily residential, and commercial), also were collected. These data were used to elucidate relations among streamflow, water quality, and subbasin characteristics. Streamflow in the lower Charles River Watershed can be characterized as being unsettled and flashy. These characteristics result from the impervious character of the land and the complex infrastructure of pipes, pumps, diversionary canals, and detention ponds throughout the watershed. The water quality of the lower Charles River can be considered good?meeting water-quality standards and guidelines?during dry weather. After rainstorms, however, the water quality of the river becomes impaired, as in other urban areas. The poor quality of stormwater and its large quantity, delivered over short periods (hours and days), together with illicit sanitary cross connections, and combined sewer overflows, results in large contaminant loads that appear to exceed the river?s assimilative capacity. Annual contaminant loads from stormwater discharges directly to the lower Charles River are large, but most dry-weather and stormwater contaminant loads measured in this study originate from upstream of the Watertown Dam and are delivered to the lower Charles River in mainstem flows. An exception is fecal coliform bacteria. Stony Brook, a large tributary influenced by combined sewer overflow, contributed almost half of the annual fecal coliform load to the lower Charles River for Water Year 2000. Much of this fecal coliform bacteria load is discharged from Stony Brook to the lower Charles River during rain-storms. Estimated stormwater loads for future conditions suggest that sewer separation in the Stony Brook Subbasin might reduce loads of constituents associated with sewage but increase loads of constituents associated with street runoff. The unique environment offered by the lower Charles River must be considered when the environmental implications of large contaminant loads are interpreted. In particular, the lower Charles River has low hydraulic gradients, a lack of tidal flushing, a lack of natural uncontaminated sediment from erosion of upstream uncontaminated soils, and an anoxic, sulfide-rich bottom layer that forms a non-tidal salt wedge in the downstream part of the lower Charles River. Individually and in combination, these characteristics may increase the likelihood of adverse effects of some contaminants on the water, biota, and sediment of the lower Charles River.

  14. Simulation of external contamination into water distribution systems through defects in pipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, P. A.; Mora, J. J.; García, F. J.; López, G.

    2009-04-01

    Water quality can be defined as a set of properties (physical, biological and chemical) that determine its suitability for human use or for its role in the biosphere. In this contribution we focus on the possible impact on water distribution systems quality of external contaminant fluids entering through defects in pipes. The physical integrity of the distribution system is a primary barrier against the entry of external contaminants and the loss in quality of the treated drinking water, but this integrity can be broken. Deficiencies in physical and hydraulic integrity can lead into water losses, but also into the influx of contaminants through pipes walls, either through breaks coming from external subsoil waters, or via cross connections coming from sewerage or other facilities. These external contamination events (the so called pathogen intrusion phenomenon) can act as a source of income by introducing nutrients and sediments as well as decreasing disinfectant concentrations within the distribution system, thus resulting in a degradation of the distribution water quality. The objective of this contribution is to represent this pathogen intrusion phenomenon. The combination of presence of defects in the infrastructures (equipment failure), suppression and back-siphonage and lack of disinfection is the cause of propagation of contamination in the clean current of water. Intrusion of pathogenic microorganisms has been studied and registered even in well maintained services. Therefore, this situation can happen when negative pressure conditions are achieved in the systems combined with the presence of defects in pipes nearby the suppression. A simulation of the process by which the external fluids can come inside pipes across their defects in a steady-state situation will be considered, by using different techniques to get such a successful modeling, combining numerical and experimental simulations. The proposed modeling process is based on experimental and computational simulations. An analysis of the intrusion behavior considering hydrodynamic and transportation of pollutant phenomena has been developed, comparing the influence of the turbulence consideration and the agreement of both computational and experimental results. This paper is focused on the analysis of such external intrusion phenomenon, the relationship between the income flow and the pressure inside the pipe, depending on the characteristics of the defect and the pressure level, as well as the effect on the water quality of the income substances dispersion. Two different experiments have been developed. In order to represent the intrusion phenomenon in steady state, two suitable assemblies have been implemented in the laboratory. In a lower order of pressures a Venturi tube has been used for generating the depression. In a higher level of pressures, a pumping system has been used. The defect on the pipe has been simulated by a circular hole, and the dispersion of pollutant has been considered by means of salinity as a conservative contaminant. The simulated scenarios of different suppressions can vary from 0.001 to 0.7 bars. The prototypes are also simulated by numerical modeling in two and three dimensions using Computational Fluid Dynamics techniques. For this purpose Fluent 6.3™ has been used, which displays the fields of hydrodynamic components and salinity. After doing a proper calibration process, the contrast made between models will allows us to establish the foundation for further pathogen intrusion simulations in the distribution system. Different turbulent models based on turbulent viscosity and different boundary conditions will also be considered. The agreement between experimental and computational models will be analyzed, and the differences between series of results will be compared, validating thus the use of computational models for representing the pathogen intrusion problem. By both, mathematical and physical models, it is intended to have a better knowledge of quantities that can not be measured, such as velocity fields, aspects of t