Science.gov

Sample records for cross-country mtb marathon

  1. Cross-Country Skiing Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, John

    This book presents changes in cross country skiing which have taken place in the last several years and is directed toward both beginning and seasoned tour skiers. Discussed are the following topics: (1) the cross-country revolution (new fiberglass skis); (2) equipment (how to choose from the new waxless touring skis); (3) care of equipment; (4)…

  2. The Dissertation Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    We all think of a marathon as a long-distance running event with an official distance of 42.195 kilometers (26 miles and 385 yards). Throughout time marathon runners have pursued their longest goals by allowing their body to adapt to the new stresses through training. Training for a marathon takes intense preparation, dedication and skill. It is…

  3. Half-marathoners are younger and slower than marathoners.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    Age and performance trends of elite and recreational marathoners are well investigated, but not for half-marathoners. We analysed age and performance trends in 508,108 age group runners (125,894 female and 328,430 male half-marathoners and 10,205 female and 43,489 male marathoners) competing between 1999 and 2014 in all flat half-marathons and marathons held in Switzerland using single linear regression analyses, mixed-effects regression analyses and analyses of variance. The number of women and men increased across years in both half-marathons and marathons. There were 12.3 times more female half-marathoners than female marathoners and 7.5 times more male half-marathoners than male marathoners. For both half-marathons and marathons, most of the female and male finishers were recorded in age group 40-44 years. In half-marathons, women (10.29 ± 3.03 km/h) were running 0.07 ± 0.06 km/h faster (p < 0.001) than men (10.22 ± 3.06 km/h). Also in marathon, women (14.77 ± 4.13 km/h) were running 0.28 ± 0.16 km/h faster (p < 0.001) than men (14.48 ± 4.07 km/h). In marathon, women (42.18 ± 10.63 years) were at the same age than men (42.06 ± 10.45 years) (p > 0.05). Also in half-marathon, women (41.40 ± 10.63 years) were at the same age than men (41.31 ± 10.30 years) (p > 0.05). However, women and men marathon runners were older than their counterpart half-marathon runners (p < 0.001). In summary, (1) more athletes competed in half-marathons than in marathons, (2) women were running faster than men, (3) half-marathoners were running slower than marathoners, and (4) half-marathoners were younger than marathoners. PMID:26844023

  4. Autonomous system for cross-country navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stentz, Anthony; Brumitt, Barry L.; Coulter, R. C.; Kelly, Alonzo

    1993-05-01

    Autonomous cross-country navigation is essential for outdoor robots moving about in unstructured environments. Most existing systems use range sensors to determine the shape of the terrain, plan a trajectory that avoids obstacles, and then drive the trajectory. Performance has been limited by the range and accuracy of sensors, insufficient vehicle-terrain interaction models, and the availability of high-speed computers. As these elements improve, higher- speed navigation on rougher terrain becomes possible. We have developed a software system for autonomous navigation that provides for greater capability. The perception system supports a large braking distance by fusing multiple range images to build a map of the terrain in front of the vehicle. The system identifies range shadows and interpolates undersamples regions to account for rough terrain effects. The motion planner reduces computational complexity by investigating a minimum number of trajectories. Speeds along the trajectory are set to provide for dynamic stability. The entire system was tested in simulation, and a subset of the capability was demonstrated on a real vehicle. Results to date include a continuous 5.1 kilometer run across moderate terrain with obstacles. This paper begins with the applications, prior work, limitations, and current paradigms for autonomous cross-country navigation, and then describes our contribution to the area.

  5. Using Xpert MTB/RIF

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Mark P.; Whitelaw, Andrew; Wendy, Stevens

    2013-01-01

    Xpert MTB/RIF is an automated real-time polymerase chain reaction test for simultaneous detection of tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF has demonstrated excellent accuracy in clinical evaluation studies, but has reduced sensitivity for detection of smear-negative tuberculosis. Since sample processing and detection are largely automated, Xpert MTB/RIF is potentially suitable for implementation in resource-limited settings. There are, however, a number of practical constraints to the use of Xpert at the point-of-care. Xpert remains a relatively costly test, and clear demonstration of cost-effectiveness will be needed to support efforts to scale up testing in high burden countries. PMID:24089608

  6. Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart Association Cardiology Patient Page Venous Thromboembolism and Marathon Athletes Claire M. Hull and Julia A. Harris ... general adult population are indisputable. However, for the marathon athlete who trains intensively and for long periods ...

  7. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part I)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-country skiing is a great activity for taking a physical education class outside during the cold winter months. It is also a diverse activity that appeals to students of all ages, and is an excellent cardio-respiratory activity to keep students active. This article has provided the first steps in preparing a cross-country skiing lesson in…

  8. Fitness Levels of University Cross-Country Skiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhling, Robert O.; Storer, Thomas W.

    Dry-land training in preparation for competitive cross-country skiing proved to be effective in increasing athletes' aerobic capacity and physical fitness. Such training included bicycle racing, roller skiing, fartlek running, cross-country running, simulated ski walking on inclines, and interval training over hills. (JD)

  9. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  10. Body composition and performance in cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Larsson, P; Henriksson-Larsén, K

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between body composition and performance in cross-country skiing. Ten male college-aged elite cross-country skiers (17.9 yrs; S 1.0 yrs) participated in a 5.6-km cross-country skiing time trial and in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, Lunar DPX-L, Madison, WI, USA) body composition measurements. A differential global positioning system (dGPS, GPS 12 CX, Garmin Int. Inc., Olathe, KS, USA; RXMAR 2, Aztec SA, Strasbourg, France) was used to compute speed in different sections of the course. Spearman correlation analyses were applied. Total body weight and absolute lean body mass were significantly related to final time (r = - 0.721; p < 0.05 and - 0.830; p < 0.01, respectively). Absolute lean arm mass (kg) was negatively correlated to final time (r = - 0.648; p < 0.05) and the relative lean arm mass was significantly related to speed mainly in uphill sections (r = 0.636 to 0.867; p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). We suggest that large amounts of lean body mass, especially in the arms, seem to be of great importance for cross-country skiing performance. PMID:18600606

  11. Maximum Power Training and Plyometrics for Cross-Country Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebben, William P.

    2001-01-01

    Provides a rationale for maximum power training and plyometrics as conditioning strategies for cross-country runners, examining: an evaluation of training methods (strength training and maximum power training and plyometrics); biomechanic and velocity specificity (role in preventing injury); and practical application of maximum power training and…

  12. Physiological Profiles of High School Female Cross Country Runners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butts, Nancy Kay

    1982-01-01

    Percentage of body fat, ratings of perceived exertion, and maximal oxygen consumption were obtained during a continuous running treadmill test on 127 high school female cross country runners. The relatively low relationships between the variables tested and running performance indicated that other factors may be more important determinants of…

  13. Cross Country Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The last of five booklets on specific sports instruction in Special Olympics presents information on teaching cross country skiing to mentally retarded persons. The approach uses goals, short term objectives, task analyzed activities, assessments and teaching suggestions for individualizing and integrating the sports skills instruction with other…

  14. The Human Capital Convergence Fallacy: A Cross Country Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamatakis, D.; Petrakis, P. E.

    2006-01-01

    This article adapts a modification of Tamura's theoretical proposition and conducts a cross-country empirical investigation in an attempt to evaluate convergence on two different human capital proxies; namely enrollment rates and per capita researchers. The analysis considers three country groups at significantly different development levels:…

  15. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement micro data, this paper estimates…

  16. High prevalence of asthma in cross country skiers.

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, K; Ohlsén, P; Larsson, L; Malmberg, P; Rydström, P O; Ulriksen, H

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To study the prevalence of asthma (asthma symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness) in Swedish cross country skiers compared with non-skiers and monitor changes in symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness during the year. DESIGN--Cross sectional study during the winter ski season and in the summer. SETTING--Six ski clubs for élite skiers (total 47) in two different areas of Sweden. SUBJECTS--42 élite cross country skiers and 29 non-skiing referents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Bronchial responsiveness, asthma symptoms, and lung function. RESULTS--Bronchial responsiveness was significantly greater and asthma symptoms more prevalent in the skiers than in the referents. There was no difference in bronchial responsiveness within either group between winter and summer. 15 of the 42 skiers used antiasthmatic drugs regularly and 23 had a combination of asthma symptoms and hyperresponsive airways or physician diagnosed asthma, or both. Altogether 33 skiers had symptoms of asthma or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. One of the referents had symptoms of asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and none used antiasthmatic drugs regularly. CONCLUSIONS--Asthma, asthma-like symptoms, and bronchial hyperresponsiveness are much more common in cross country skiers than in the general population and non-skiers. Strenuous exercise at low temperatures entailing breathing large volumes of cold air is the most probable explanation of persistent asthma in skiers. PMID:8257888

  17. Scaling properties of marathon races

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2006-06-01

    Some regularities in popular marathon races are identified in this paper. It is found for high-performance participants (i.e., racing times in the range [2:15,3:15] h), the average velocity as a function of the marathoner's ranking behaves as a power-law, which may be suggesting the presence of critical phenomena. Elite marathoners with racing times below 2:15 h can be considered as outliers with respect to this behavior. For the main marathon pack (i.e., racing times in the range [3:00,6:00] h), the average velocity as a function of the marathoner's ranking behaves linearly. For this racing times, the interpersonal velocity, defined as the difference of velocities between consecutive runners, displays a continuum of scaling behavior ranging from uncorrelated noise for small scales to correlated 1/f-noise for large scales. It is a matter of fact that 1/f-noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of scales, a clear indication of some sort of cooperative effect.

  18. Transference of 3D accelerations during cross country mountain biking.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul W; Fink, Philip W; Stannard, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Investigations into the work demands of Olympic format cross country mountain biking suggest an incongruent relationship between work done and physiological strain experienced by participants. A likely but unsubstantiated cause is the extra work demand of muscle damping of terrain/surface induced vibrations. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between vibration mechanics and their interaction with terrain, bicycle and rider during a race pace effort on a cross country mountain bike track, on both 26″ and 29″ wheels. Participants completed one lap of a cross country track using 26″ and 29″ wheels, at race pace. Power, cadence, speed, heart rate and geographical position were sampled and logged every second for control purposes. Tri-axial accelerometers located on the bicycle and rider, recorded accelerations (128Hz) and were used to quantify vibrations experienced during the whole lap and over terrain sections (uphill and downhill). While there were no differences in power output (p=0.3062) and heart rate (p=0.8423), time to complete the lap was significantly (p=0.0061) faster on the 29″ wheels despite increased vibrations in the larger wheels (p=0.0020). Overall accelerometer data (RMS) showed location differences (p<0.0001), specifically between the point of interface of bike-body compared to those experienced at the lower back and head. The reduction in accelerations at both the lower back and head are imperative for injury prevention and demonstrates an additional non-propulsive, muscular, challenge to riding. Stress was greatest during downhill sections as acceleration differences between locations were greater when compared to uphill sections, and thus possibly prevent the recovery processes that may occur during non-propulsive load. PMID:24735505

  19. Explaining cross-country variation in cigarette consumption

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Kolluru; Rao, Bhanoji

    2009-01-01

    This short paper uses cross-country data on per capita cigarette consumption and selected socio-economic variables to explain inter-country differentials in consumption. It is found that the proportion of the aged in the total population and higher literacy among women have relatively greater and positive impact on cigarette consumption. Even after controlling for the effect of the two variables, a country's industrialized status has a positive impact on consumption. It would thus seem that aging and economic, and social developments are pro-cigarette consumption. PMID:19133163

  20. Marathon training and immune function.

    PubMed

    Nieman, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many components of the immune system exhibit adverse change after marathon-type exertion. These immune changes occur in several compartments of the immune system and body (e.g. the skin, upper respiratory tract mucosal tissue, lung, peritoneal cavity, blood and muscle). Of all immune cells, natural killer (NK) cells, neutrophils and macrophages (of the innate immune system) exhibit the greatest changes in response to marathon competition, both in terms of numbers and function. Many mechanisms appear to be involved, including exercise-induced changes in stress hormone and cytokine concentrations, body temperature changes, increases in blood flow and dehydration. During this 'open window' of immune dysfunction (which may last between 3 and 72 hours, depending on the immune measure), viruses and bacteria may gain a foothold, increasing the risk of subclinical and clinical infection. Of the various nutritional and pharmacological countermeasures to marathon-induced immune perturbations that have been evaluated thus far, ingestion of carbohydrate beverages during intense and prolonged exercise has emerged as the most effective. However, carbohydrate ingestion during a marathon attenuates increases in plasma cytokines and stress hormones, but is largely ineffective against changes in other immune components including suppression of NK and T-cell function, and salivary IgA output. Other countermeasures, such as glutamine, antioxidant supplements and ibuprofen, have had disappointing results and thus the search for companion agents to carbohydrate continues. PMID:17465622

  1. Characterization of Electrocardiogram Changes Throughout a Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Callaway, Clifton; Salcido, David; McEntire, Serina; Roth, Ronald; Hostler, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose There are few data examining cardiovascular physiology throughout a marathon. This study was devised to characterize electrocardiographic activity continuously throughout a marathon. Methods Cardiac activity was recorded from 19 subjects wearing a Holter monitor during a marathon. The 19 subjects (14 men and 5 women) were aged 39 ± 16 years (mean ± SD) and completed a marathon in 4:32:16 ± 1:23:35. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), T-wave amplitude, T-wave amplitude variability, and T-wave alternans (TWA) were evaluated continuously throughout the marathon. Results Averaged across all subjects, HRV, T-wave amplitude variability, and TWA increased throughout the marathon. Increased variability in T-wave amplitude occurred in 86% of subjects, characterized by complex oscillatory patterns and TWA. Three minutes after the marathon, HR was elevated and HRV was suppressed relative to the pre-marathon state. Conclusion HRV and T-wave amplitude variability, especially in the form of TWA, increase throughout a marathon. Increasing TWA as a marathon progresses likely represents a physiologic process as no arrhythmias or cardiac events were observed. PMID:24832192

  2. Myths and Concerns Re: The Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betz, Robert, L.

    The marathon is a specific form of the psycho-process cluster which has its own identifiable characteristics, the basic one being intensity. The primary objective in structuring the marathon is to intensify physical and emotional contact in order to precipitate, encourage, and accelerate the process of behavior change. Myths which have evolved…

  3. Effects of a Marathon Group Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treppa, Jerry A.; Fricke, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of a weekend marathon group experience on values of self-actualization and on the interpersonal dimnension of personality. Both experimental and control subjects showed significanly positive changes on posttest and follow-up scores. It was premature to believe that the positive effects of a marathon group…

  4. Marathon Writing--A Letter to Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Linda Jones

    Based on a year's work with 16 second grade students, this two-part paper reports the successful use of the Marathon Writing (continuous writing for short periods on a regular basis) strategy in encouraging beginning writers to write independently. The first part of the paper explains the technique of marathon writing, and notes that even though…

  5. What band rocks the MTB? (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kind, J.; García-Rubio, I.; Gehring, A. U.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a polyphyletic group of bacteria that have been found in marine and lacustrine environments and soils [e.g. 1]. The hallmark of MTB is their intracellular formation of magnetosomes, single-domain ferrimagnetic particles that are aligned in chains. The chain configuration generates a strong magnetic dipole, which is used as magnetic compass to move the MTB into their favorable habit. The term band corresponds to a frequency window of microwaves in the gigahertz (GHz) range. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy uses the microwave absorption in a magnetic field to analyze the anisotropy properties and the domain state of magnetic materials. Specific microwave frequency causes absorption in a characteristic magnetic field range. For the investigation of MTB we use S-band (4.02 GHz), X-band (9.47 GHz), and Q-band (34.16 GHz). Experiments on cultured MTB and on sediment samples of Holocene age showed that absorption in X- and Q-band occurs when the sample is in a saturated or nearly saturated state [2, 3]. By contrast, absorption in the S-band appears in lower magnetic fields, where the sample is far from saturation. All FMR spectra show two distinct low-field features that can be assigned to magnetite particles in chains, aligned parallel and perpendicular to the external magnetic field. The detailed separation of the parallel and perpendicular components in the bulk samples is hampered, because of the random orientation of the chains in the sample. The comparison of S-, X-, and Q-band shows that the lower the frequency the better the separation of the components. In the S-band FMR spectroscopy, the separation of chains parallel to the external magnetic field is supported by the internal field of the sample. This field is caused by the remanence that contributes to the external magnetic field to fulfill the resonance condition [3,4]. Considering the different FMR responses, it can be postulated that a lower microwave frequency

  6. 14 CFR 61.111 - Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands. 61.111 Section 61.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.111 Cross-country...

  7. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Solo cross-country flight requirements. 61.93 Section 61.93 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Student Pilots § 61.93 Solo cross-country flight requirements....

  8. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... aircraft to be flown. (b) Authorization to perform certain solo flights and cross-country flights. A... the specific category of aircraft to be flown. (2) Logbook endorsement. (i) A student pilot must have... logbook for the specific make and model of aircraft to be flown. (ii) For each cross-country flight,...

  9. Marathon Group: A Six Month Followup

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    The results of this study suggest that marathon groups may be an effective method for fostering the process of personal growth and self actualization in relatively healthy, growth seeking college students. (Author)

  10. Leptin and endocrine parameters in marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Bobbert, T; Mai, K; Brechtel, L; Schulte, H M; Weger, B; Pfeiffer, A F H; Spranger, J; Diederich, S

    2012-03-01

    Endurance training may lead to different hormonal alterations e. g., exercised induced hypothalamic ovarian/testicular dysfunction. The aim of this study was to reveal new connections between physical exercise, leptin and hormonal responses. 36 male participants of the Berlin-Marathon had their blood samples taken 2 days before the marathon. Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and leptin were correlated with the training status and the achieved marathon time. Leptin correlated with the achieved marathon time after being adjusted for age and BMI (r=0.607, p<0.001) and was lowest in the best trained runners. Additionally, when the group was divided into quartiles of their achieved marathon time, significantly increased cortisol, fT4, cortisol/DHEAS ratio and decreased IGF-1 levels were observed in the slowest group. In the better trained group, a decrease of testosterone/DHT ratio and an increase of testosterone/cortisol ratio were observed. Our study supports the thesis of a linear relationship between physical fitness and leptin variations in the physiological range. We found an increased anabolic hormonal response in well trained marathon runners and hormonal reactions of increased stress in less trained runners. As the stress-induced neuroendocrine adaptations in our study group are associated with more higher leptin values, the pathophysiological role of decreased leptin values seems to be limited to overtrained athletes. PMID:22261828

  11. Predicting Marathon Time Using Exhaustive Graded Exercise Test in Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Till, Eloise S; Armstrong, Stuart A; Harris, Greg; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the correlation between time on a treadmill test and exhaustion 2 weeks before a road marathon and the subsequent road marathon performance time (MPT). The study recruited 59 runners entered in the Melbourne 2012 marathon, Canberra 2013 marathon, and Gold Coast 2013 marathon. Forty runners completed both the graded exercise treadmill test to exhaustion and the 42.2 km marathon. Nineteen participants dropped out of the study due to illness, injury, or did not begin the treadmill test. A statistically significant correlation was found between treadmill time and MPT (adjusted R(2) = 0.447). Sex, weekly running duration (t = -1.58, p = 0.12), years of running (t = 1.10, p = 0.28), and age (t = 0.94, p = 0.36) did not statistically correlate with MPT. The relationship between the graded exercise test and MPT can be used to predict MPT using y = -3.85x + 351.57, where y is MPT and x is treadmill time. This is a simple, accessible, and cost-effective method to aid athletes in predicting their race time over 42.2 km. Prediction of marathon time in a simple and accessible manner was believed to be useful to the growing population of marathon runners around the world. PMID:26815178

  12. Marathon Maternity Oral History Project

    PubMed Central

    Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Design Oral history research. Setting The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. Participants A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Methods Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Main findings Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project’s findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women’s voices. The project’s narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Conclusion Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon’s stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing

  13. Empirical Study of Training and Performance in the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slovic, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Similar systematic relationships exist between personal characteristics, training, and performance on the marathon, regardless of whether they derive from differences among individuals participating in the same run or from differences within the same person in two separate marathons. (Author)

  14. Hematological Changes Following a Marathon Race in Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Christine L.; Mushabac, Lillian H.

    This study investigated the question of hemoconcentration-hemodilution and subsequent vascular fluid shifts evidenced by marathon runners. Blood samples were taken from runners before and after the New York City Marathon of 1978 and the Fiesta Bowl Marathon of the same year. Participants were of both sexes. Tables accompanying this report present…

  15. Marathon run: cardiovascular adaptation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Predel, Hans-Georg

    2014-11-21

    The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of

  16. Metabolic Factors Limiting Performance in Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Rapoport, Benjamin I.

    2010-01-01

    Each year in the past three decades has seen hundreds of thousands of runners register to run a major marathon. Of those who attempt to race over the marathon distance of 26 miles and 385 yards (42.195 kilometers), more than two-fifths experience severe and performance-limiting depletion of physiologic carbohydrate reserves (a phenomenon known as ‘hitting the wall’), and thousands drop out before reaching the finish lines (approximately 1–2% of those who start). Analyses of endurance physiology have often either used coarse approximations to suggest that human glycogen reserves are insufficient to fuel a marathon (making ‘hitting the wall’ seem inevitable), or implied that maximal glycogen loading is required in order to complete a marathon without ‘hitting the wall.’ The present computational study demonstrates that the energetic constraints on endurance runners are more subtle, and depend on several physiologic variables including the muscle mass distribution, liver and muscle glycogen densities, and running speed (exercise intensity as a fraction of aerobic capacity) of individual runners, in personalized but nevertheless quantifiable and predictable ways. The analytic approach presented here is used to estimate the distance at which runners will exhaust their glycogen stores as a function of running intensity. In so doing it also provides a basis for guidelines ensuring the safety and optimizing the performance of endurance runners, both by setting personally appropriate paces and by prescribing midrace fueling requirements for avoiding ‘the wall.’ The present analysis also sheds physiologically principled light on important standards in marathon running that until now have remained empirically defined: The qualifying times for the Boston Marathon. PMID:20975938

  17. Case Report: Hyponatremia in a Marathoner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Paul B; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first reported case of hyponatremia from participation in endurance running of marathon distance is discussed. Nine earlier cases occurring in subjects who endured greater distances are summarized. Symptoms and treatment of the 21-year-old subject of this case report are presented and preventive measures recommended for endurance-event…

  18. The Marathon Group Hypothesis: An Unanswered Question

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Stephen E.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The authors of this article contend that the Guinan and Foulds study was inadequately designed and executed, and the results indicate little of the "usefulness" of the test, much less illuminate the important hypothesis central to the investigation. Specific suggestions for further research in marathon group evaluation are made. (Author)

  19. Marathon Group Therapy with Female Narcotic Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    This study evaluated the impact of structured and unstructured marathon therapy on institutionalized female narcotic addicts. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups: two structured therapy groups, two unstructured therapy groups, and a no-treatment control group. The Personal Orientation Inventory, the Adjective Check List, and a…

  20. Marathon Group Therapy with Former Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Mannion, John

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the effects of marathon group therapy on attitudes of former drug users in a residential drug treatment center. Experimental group members responded higher on the group counseling evaluative subscale and lower on the guilt evaluative subscale than control members. (Author)

  1. Behavior Change Outcomes of Marathon Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlemann, Max R.; Weigel, Richard G.

    1977-01-01

    This study evaluated behavior change occurring after a marathon group experience, with a focus on individualized rather than shared behavioral change criteria. The individualization of behavior change criteria is based on the assertion that few, if any, single change criteria are appropriate or realistic for assessing change in all individuals.…

  2. Marathon Group: Facilitator of Personal Growth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guinan, James F.; Foulds, Melvin L.

    1970-01-01

    This is a report of changes on scales of the Personal Orientation Inventory following a marathon experience. Pretest and posttest results indicated changes in scores of an experimental group on those scales: Inner Direction, Existentiality, Feeling Reactivity, Spontaneity, Self Acceptance, Acceptance of Aggression, Capacity for Intimate Contact.…

  3. Convection-diffusion effects in marathon race dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, E.; Espinosa-Paredes, G.; Alvarez-Ramirez, J.

    2014-01-01

    In the face of the recent terrorist attack event on the 2013 Boston Marathon, the increasing participation of recreational runners in large marathon races has imposed important logistical and safety issues for organizers and city authorities. An accurate understanding of the dynamics of the marathon pack along the race course can provide important insights for improving safety and performance of these events. On the other hand, marathon races can be seen as a model of pedestrian movement under confined conditions. This work used data of the 2011 Chicago Marathon event for modeling the dynamics of the marathon pack from the corral zone to the finish line. By considering the marathon pack as a set of particles moving along the race course, the dynamics are modeled as a convection-diffusion partial differential equation with position-dependent mean velocity and diffusion coefficient. A least-squares problem is posed and solved with optimization techniques for fitting field data from the 2011 Chicago Marathon. It was obtained that the mean pack velocity decreases while the diffusion coefficient increases with distance. This means that the dispersion rate of the initially compact marathon pack increases as the marathon race evolves along the race course.

  4. Drug Resistance Pattern of MTB Isolates from PTB Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Rajani; Kumar, Vijay G. S.; Ranganath, Ravi; Goud, Gangadhar; Javali, Veerabhadra

    2013-01-01

    Background. TB is a global pandemic disease. All TB control programs were not successful due to the emergence of multidrug resistance in M. tuberculosis strains. Objective of the present study was to detect the rate of MDR-MTB in this part of India. Methods. One hundred and thirty clinical MTB strains isolated from patients on treatment and confirmed as MTB by MPT64 antigen detection were tested for drug susceptibility against Streptomycin, INH, Rifampicin, and Ethambutol by MBBact automated system. Result. Thirty-two were MDRs (25.61%). 31.2%, 28%, 17.6%, and 21.6% were resistant to INH, RIF, Ethambutol, and Streptomycin, respectively. Resistance to either INH or Rifampicin was 20.8% and 13.88%, respectively. Combined INH and Rifampicin resistance was seen in 18.05% isolates. Conclusion. Drug resistance rate is high in patients treated previously and who have been irregular on treatment. PMID:24282636

  5. Measuring Statistics Anxiety: Cross-Country Validity of the Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiesi, Francesca; Primi, Caterina; Carmona, Jose

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research was to test the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Vigil-Colet et al.'s Statistical Anxiety Scale (SAS), taking into account evidences based on (a) internal structure (factorial structure and cross-country invariance) and (b) relationships to other variables (the statistics anxiety's nomological network).…

  6. Measuring Youth Development: A Nonparametric Cross-Country "Youth Welfare Index"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaaban, Jad M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical methodology for the construction of a synthetic multi-dimensional cross-country comparison of the performance of governments around the world in improving the livelihood of their younger population. The devised "Youth Welfare Index" is based on the nonparametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) methodology and…

  7. Cross-Country Conversations: Techniques for Facilitating Web-Based Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhart, Julie; Slowinski, Joe; Anderson, Tiffany

    This paper describes an online collaborative process among three university classes in a cross-country project. Two of the classes were undergraduate courses at the Indiana University Bloomington and Northwest campuses, and the third was a graduate course at North Carolina A & T State University. Each course was a traditional campus-based course…

  8. Characteristics of the Female Athlete Triad in Collegiate Cross-Country Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    The Female Athlete Triad is a life-threatening syndrome defined by disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis. Objective and Participants: The author's purpose in this study was to examine female cross-country runners' (N = 300) calcium consumption, along with the prevalence of 2 components of the triad: disordered eating and menstrual…

  9. Cross-Country Differentials in Work Disability Reporting among Older Europeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelini, Viola; Cavapozzi, Danilo; Paccagnella, Omar

    2012-01-01

    Descriptive evidence shows that there is large cross-country variation in self-reported work disability rates of the elderly in Europe. In this paper we analyse whether these differences are genuine or they just reflect heterogeneity in reporting styles. To shed light on the determinants of work-disability differentials across countries, we…

  10. 14 CFR 61.111 - Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... small islands. 61.111 Section 61.111 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... INSTRUCTORS Private Pilots § 61.111 Cross-country flights: Pilots based on small islands. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an applicant located on an island from which the...

  11. Comparing Efficiency in a Cross-Country Perspective: The Case of Italian and Spanish State Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agasisti, Tommaso; Perez-Esparrells, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    The growing internationalization of European Higher Education requires more emphasis on cross-country comparisons. In this paper, an efficiency analysis of Italian and Spanish universities is conducted; as well as from a comparative perspective. The efficiency scores are obtained using data envelopment analysis. The results demonstrate a good…

  12. Fast and reliable obstacle detection and segmentation for cross-country navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talukder, A.; Manduchi, R.; Rankin, A.; Matthies, L.

    2002-01-01

    Obstacle detection is one of the main components of the control system of autonomous vehicles. In the case of indoor/urban navigation, obstacles are typically defined as surface points that are higher than the ground plane. This characterization, however, cannot be used in cross-country and unstructured environments, where the notion of ground plane is often not meaningful.

  13. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country flight; (3... navigation using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft... using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft...

  14. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country flight; (3... navigation using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft... using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft...

  15. 14 CFR 61.93 - Solo cross-country flight requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country flight; (3... navigation using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft... using pilotage and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass; (2) Use of aircraft...

  16. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  17. Identifying Social Trust in Cross-Country Analysis: Do We Really Measure the Same?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torpe, Lars; Lolle, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Many see trust as an important social resource for the welfare of individuals as well as nations. It is therefore important to be able to identify trust and explain its sources. Cross-country survey analysis has been an important tool in this respect, and often one single variable is used to identify social trust understood as trust in strangers,…

  18. Diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis with the Xpert MTB/RIF test.

    PubMed

    Bodmer, Thomas; Ströhle, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a major public health issue: the infection affects up to one third of the world population(1), and almost two million people are killed by TB each year. Universal access to high-quality, patient-centered treatment for all TB patients is emphasized by WHO's Stop TB Strategy. The rapid detection of MTB in respiratory specimens and drug therapy based on reliable drug resistance testing results are a prerequisite for the successful implementation of this strategy. However, in many areas of the world, TB diagnosis still relies on insensitive, poorly standardized sputum microscopy methods. Ineffective TB detection and the emergence and transmission of drug-resistant MTB strains increasingly jeopardize global TB control activities. Effective diagnosis of pulmonary TB requires the availability - on a global scale - of standardized, easy-to-use, and robust diagnostic tools that would allow the direct detection of both the MTB complex and resistance to key antibiotics, such as rifampicin (RIF). The latter result can serve as marker for multidrug-resistant MTB (MDR TB) and has been reported in > 95% of the MDR-TB isolates. The rapid availability of reliable test results is likely to directly translate into sound patient management decisions that, ultimately, will cure the individual patient and break the chain of TB transmission in the community. Cepheid's (Sunnyvale, CA, U.S.A.) Xpert MTB/RIF assay meets the demands outlined above in a remarkable manner. It is a nucleic-acids amplification test for 1) the detection of MTB complex DNA in sputum or concentrated sputum sediments; and 2) the detection of RIF resistance-associated mutations of the rpoB gene. It is designed for use with Cepheid's GeneXpert Dx System that integrates and automates sample processing, nucleic acid amplification, and detection of the target sequences using real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR. The system consists of an instrument

  19. Marathon Group Therapy: Potential for University Counseling Centers and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanger, Thomas; Harris, Rafael S., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A descriptive analysis of marathon group therapy was conducted, specifying issues of set-up, screening, preparation, start-up, introduction to group process, facilitating therapeutic moments throughout the weekend, termination, and follow-up. Factors and dynamics unique to this modality are outlined for marathon groups in university counseling…

  20. An Age and Body Mass Handicap for the Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderburgh, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    An age and body mass handicap has been previously developed and validated for the 5-kilometer (5K) run. The purpose of this study was to develop a similar handicap for the marathon but with a different age adjustment based on deviations from age group world best marathon times within each sex. The resulting handicap allowed finish time comparisons…

  1. Self-Actualization Effects Of A Marathon Growth Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dorothy S.; Medvene, Arnold M.

    1975-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a marathon group experience on university student's level of self-actualization two days and six weeks after the experience. Gains in self-actualization as a result of marathon group participation depended upon an individual's level of ego strength upon entering the group. (Author)

  2. Quadrupedal Locomotion-Respiration Entrainment and Metabolic Economy in Cross-Country Skiers.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Kevin; Killick, Anthony; Herzog, Walter

    2016-02-01

    A 1:1 locomotion-respiration entrainment is observed in galloping quadrupeds, and is thought to improve running economy. However, this has not been tested directly in animals, as animals cannot voluntarily disrupt this entrainment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate metabolic economy in a human gait involving all four limbs, cross-country skiing, in natural entrainment and forced nonentrainment. Nine elite cross-country skiers roller skied at constant speed using the 2-skate technique. In the first and last conditions, athletes used the natural entrained breathing pattern: inhaling with arm recovery and exhaling with arm propulsion, and in the second condition, the athletes disentrained their breathing pattern. The rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and metabolic rate (MR) were measured via expired gas analysis. Propulsive forces were measured with instrumented skis and poles. VO2 and MR increased by 4% and 5% respectively when skiers used the disentrained compared with the entrained breathing pattern. There were no differences in ski or pole forces or in timing of the gait cycle between conditions. We conclude that breathing entrainment reduces metabolic cost of cross-country skiing by approximately 4%. Further, this reduction is likely a result of the entrainment rather than alterations in gait mechanics. PMID:26252735

  3. Diffusion of pharmaceuticals: cross-country evidence of anti-TNF drugs.

    PubMed

    Brekke, Kurt Richard; Dalen, Dag Morten; Holmås, Tor Helge

    2014-12-01

    This article studies the diffusion of biopharmaceuticals across European countries, focusing on anti-TNF drugs, which are used to treat autoimmune diseases (e.g., rheumatism, psoriasis). We use detailed sales information on the three brands Remicade, Enbrel and Humira for nine European countries covering the period from the first launch in 2000 until becoming blockbusters in 2009. Descriptive statistics reveal large variations across countries in per-capita consumption and price levels both overall and at the brand level. We explore potential sources for the cross-country consumption differences by estimating several multivariate regression models. Our results show that large parts of the cross-country variation are explained by time-invariant country-specific factors (e.g., disease prevalence, demographics, health care system). We also find that differences in income [gross domestic product (GDP) per capita] and health spending (share of GDP) explain the cross-country variation in consumption, while relative price differences seem to have limited impact. PMID:24146261

  4. Relative vs. absolute physiological measures as predictors of mountain bike cross-country race performance.

    PubMed

    Gregory, John; Johns, David P; Walls, Justin T

    2007-02-01

    The aims of this study were to document the effect terrain has on the physiological responses and work demands (power output) of riding a typical mountain bike cross-country course under race conditions. We were particularly interested in determining whether physiological measures relative to mass were better predictors of race performance than absolute measures. Eleven A-grade male cross-country mountain bike riders (VO2max 67.1 +/- 3.6 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) performed 2 tests: a laboratory-based maximum progressive exercise test, and a 15.5-km (six 2.58-km laps) mountain bike cross-country time trial. There were significant differences among the speed, cadence, and power output measured in each of 8 different terrain types found in the cross-country time trial course. The highest average speed was measured during the 10-15% downhill section (22.7 +/- 2.6 km x h(-1)), whereas the cadence was highest in the posttechnical flat sections (74.3 +/- 5.6 rpm) and lowest on the 15-20% downhill sections (6.4 +/- 12.1 rpm). The highest mean heart rate (HR) was obtained during the steepest (15-20% incline) section of the course (179 +/- 8 b x min(-1)), when the power output was greatest (419.8 +/- 39.7 W). However, HR remained elevated relative to power output in the downhill sections of the course. Physiological measures relative to total rider mass correlated more strongly to average course speed than did absolute measures (peak power relative to mass r = 0.93, p < 0.01, vs. peak power r = 0.64, p < 0.05; relative VO2max r = 0.80, p < 0.05, vs. VO2max r = 0.66, p < 0.05; power at anaerobic threshold relative to mass r = 0.78, p < 0.05, vs. power at anaerobic threshold r = 0.5, p < 0.05). This suggests that mountain bike cross-country training programs should focus upon improving relative physiological values rather than focusing upon maximizing absolute values to improve performance. PMID:17313256

  5. Physiological Demands of Competitive Sprint and Distance Performance in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiing.

    PubMed

    Carlsson, Magnus; Carlsson, Tomas; Wedholm, Lars; Nilsson, Mattias; Malm, Christer; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2016-08-01

    Carlsson, M, Carlsson, T, Wedholm, L, Nilsson, M, Malm, C, and Tonkonogi, M. Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2138-2144, 2016-The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (p = 0.048), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (p = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.046), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (ml·min·kg) (p = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races

  6. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in Fecal Specimens From Adults Diagnosed With Pulmonary Tuberculosis Using the Xpert MTB/Rifampicin Test

    PubMed Central

    Kokuto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Yuka; Yoshimatsu, Shoji; Mizuno, Kazue; Yi, Lina; Mitarai, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Background. The Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/rifampicin (RIF) is a fully automated diagnostic test that allows for the detection of MTB including its RIF resistance. Although the test is used for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in sputum samples worldwide, studies using fecal specimens are scarce. We therefore evaluated the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test for detection of MTB in fecal specimens obtained from adult pulmonary TB patients, confirmed by culture and/or molecular diagnostic methods. Methods. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to provide proof-of-concept regarding the efficacy of the Xpert MTB/RIF test using fecal samples for diagnosing pulmonary TB via detection of MTB in adult patients (≥20 years) at the Fukujuji Hospital in Tokyo, Japan. Results. Fecal specimens were obtained from 56 active pulmonary TB patients (including 48 sputum smear-positive and 8 sputum smear-negative patients), 10 non-TB patients (including 4 Myocobacterium avium complex infections), and 27 healthy individuals who were exposed to active pulmonary TB patients. The sensitivity of the fecal Xpert MTB/RIF was 100% (81.7%–100%) for detection of MTB in specimens from sputum smear-positive (1+ to 3+) patients, 81.0% (58.1%–94.6%) in specimens from sputum smear scanty positive patients, and 50.0% (15.7%–84.3%) in specimens from sputum smear-negative patients. Meanwhile, each of the fecal specimens from the non-TB group was negative for MTB (specificity 100%; 95% confidence interval, 86.2–100). Conclusions. The fecal Xpert MTB/RIF test could detect MTB in a large proportion of smear-positive pulmonary TB patients, without frequent false-positive results at a TB referral hospital in Japan. PMID:26125035

  7. Cross-country disparity in agricultural productivity: quantifying the role of modern seed adoption.

    PubMed

    O'Gorman, Melanie; Pandey, Manish

    2010-01-01

    Inequality of agricultural labour productivity across the developing world has increased substantially over the past 40 years. This article asks: to what extent did the diffusion of Green Revolution seed varieties contribute to increasing agricultural labour productivity disparity across the developing countries? We find that 22 per cent of cross-country variation in agricultural labour productivity can be attributed to the diffusion of high-yielding seed varieties across countries, and that the impact of such diffusion differed significantly across regions. We discuss the implications of these findings for policy directed at increasing agricultural labour productivity in the developing world. PMID:21280414

  8. Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure of South African Marathon Runners During Competition Marathon Runs and Training Sessions: A Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Victoria; Wright, Caradee Y; Allen, Martin; McKenzie, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    Marathon runners spend considerable time in outdoor training for and participating in marathons. Outdoor runners may experience high solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure. South Africa, where running is popular, experiences high ambient solar UVR levels that may be associated with adverse health effects. This feasibility study explores the use of personal dosimeters to determine solar UVR exposure patterns and possible related acute health risks of four marathon runners during marathons and training sessions in Cape Town and Pretoria. Runners running marathons that started early in the day, and that did not exceed 4 hours, yielded low total solar UVR exposure doses (mean 0.093 SED per exposure period run, median 0.088 SED, range 0.062-0.136 SED; average of 16.54% of ambient solar UVR). Training sessions run during early morning and late afternoon presented similar results. Several challenges hindered analysis including accounting for anatomical position of personal dosimeter and natural shade. To assess health risks, hazard quotients (HQs) were calculated using a hypothetical runner's schedule. Cumulative, annual solar UVR exposure-calculated acute health risks were low (HQ = 0.024) for training sessions and moderate (HQ = 4.922) for marathon runs. While these data and calculations are based on 18 person-days, one can measure marathon runners' personal solar UVR exposure although several challenges must be overcome. PMID:25918823

  9. Spatial query for decision support of cross-country movement. [in image-based geographic information system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hepner, George F.; Logan, Thomas L.; Bryant, Nevin A.

    1988-01-01

    The use of a query language processor for decision support of cross-country movement in an image-based geographic information system is evaluated. It is found that query processing yields results which are comparable to those obtained using conventional cross-country movement techniques and analysis. Query processing also provides a flexibility of information extraction, rapid display, and flexible decision support in time-critical, limited data situations.

  10. Downhill turn techniques and associated physical characteristics in cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, S Bucher; Supej, M; Sandbakk, Ø; Holmberg, H-C

    2014-08-01

    Three dominant techniques are used for downhill turning in cross-country skiing. In this study, kinematic, kinetic, and temporal characteristics of these techniques are described and related to skier strength and power. Twelve elite female cross-country skiers performed six consecutive turns of standardized geometry while being monitored by a Global Navigation Satellite System. Overall time was used as an indicator of performance. Skiing and turning parameters were determined from skier trajectories; the proportional use of each technique was determined from video analysis. Leg strength and power were determined by isometric squats and countermovement jumps on a force plate. Snow plowing, parallel skidding, and step turning were utilized for all turns. Faster skiers employed less snow plowing and more step turning, more rapid deceleration and earlier initiation of step turning at higher speed (r = 0.80-0.93; all P < 0.01). Better performance was significantly correlated to higher mean speed and shorter trajectory (r = 0.99/0.65; both P < 0.05) and to countermovement jump characteristics of peak force, time to peak force, and rate of force development (r = -0.71/0.78/-0.83; all P < 0.05). In conclusion, faster skiers used step turning to a greater extent and exhibited higher maximal leg power, which enabled them to combine high speeds with shorter trajectories during turns. PMID:23517089

  11. The distribution of pace adopted by cyclists during a cross-country mountain bike World Championships.

    PubMed

    Abbiss, Chris R; Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Ross, Neil; Pottgiesser, Torben; Gregory, John; Martin, David T

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of pace self-selected by cyclists of varying ability, biological age and sex performing in a mountain bike World Championship event. Data were collected on cyclists performing in the Elite Male (ELITEmale; n = 75), Elite Female (ELITEfemale; n = 50), Under 23 Male (U23male; n = 62), Under 23 Female (U23female; n = 34), Junior Male (JNRmale; n = 71) and Junior Female (JNRfemale; n = 30) categories of the 2009 UCI Cross-Country Mountain Bike World Championships. Split times were recorded for the top, middle and bottom 20% of all finishers of each category. Timing splits were positioned to separate the course into technical and non-technical, uphill, downhill and rolling/flat sections. Compared with bottom performers, top performers in all male categories (ELITEmale, U23male, JNRmale) maintained a more even pace over the event as evidenced by a significantly lower standard deviation and range in average lap speed. Top performers, males, and ELITEmale athletes spent a lower percentage of overall race time on technical uphill sections of the course, compared with middle and bottom placed finishers, females, and JNRmale athletes, respectively. Better male performers adopt a more even distribution of pace throughout cross-country mountain events. Performance of lower placed finishers, females and JNRmale athletes may be improved by enhancing technical uphill cycling ability. PMID:23521618

  12. Bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage findings in cross-country skiers with and without "ski asthma".

    PubMed

    Sue-Chu, M; Larsson, L; Moen, T; Rennard, S I; Bjermer, L

    1999-03-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine with asthma-like symptoms ("ski asthma") is frequent in elite cross-country skiers. To further the understanding of "ski asthma", 10 nonasthmatic, nonatopic controls and 30 adolescent elite skiers were investigated by bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Nine skiers were atopic without allergy symptoms. Compared with controls, the macroscopic inflammatory index in the proximal airways in skiers was three-fold greater (median (interquartile range) 3.0 (2.0-5.0) versus 1.0 (0.8-2.3), p=0.008). In the BAL fluid, skiers had significantly greater total cell (p<0.05) and percentage lymphocyte (p<0.01) and mast cell counts (p<0.05). Neutrophil and eosinophil counts were not significantly different and eosinophil cationic protein was not detected. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase were detected in 12 (40%) and six (20%) skiers, respectively. In skiers with ski asthma, the inflammatory index was greater than in nonasthmatic skiers. Lymphocyte subtypes and activation markers, and concentration of albumin, fibronectin and hyaluronan were not different from those in controls. Cross-country skiers have a minor to moderate degree of macroscopic inflammation in the proximal airways at bronchoscopy and a bronchoalveolar lavage fluid profile which differs in several respects from healthy controls. Skiers with ski asthma tend to show even higher degrees of bronchial inflammation. PMID:10232438

  13. Correlations between physiological variables and performance in high level cross country off road cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Impellizzeri, F; Marcora, S; Rampinini, E; Mognoni, P; Sassi, A

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relations between maximal and submaximal indices of aerobic fitness and off road cycling performance in a homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers. Methods: 12 internationally competitive mountain bikers completed the study. Maximum oxygen uptake (V·O2max), peak power output (PPO), power output (PO), and oxygen uptake (V·O2) at first (VT) and second (RCT) ventilatory thresholds were measured in the laboratory, and correlated with race time during a cross country circuit race. Results: The only physiological indices of aerobic fitness correlated with off road cycling performance were PO and V·O2 at RCT when normalised to body mass (r = –0.63 and r = –0.66, respectively; p<0.05). VT, V·O2max, and PPO were not correlated to performance in this homogeneous group of high level mountain bikers. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that submaximal indices of aerobic fitness such as PO and V·O2 at RCT are more important determinants of off road cycling performance than maximal indices such as PPO and V·O2max. This study confirms the importance of body mass for mountain biking performance. As aerobic fitness explained only 40% of the variance, other physiological and technical factors should be investigated, as they may be important determinants of cross country performance among elite mountain bikers. PMID:16183772

  14. 9. View of bridge looking west. A fundraising marathon is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of bridge looking west. A fund-raising marathon is in prgress. The traffic levels outside the main arch were added in 1965 when the bridge underwent extensive rehabilitation. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  15. Marathon Training in the University Physical Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dernbach, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A course at Northern Illinois University trains college students for running marathons. The course offers information about conditioning, injury prevention, and diet requirements, as well as instruction in long-distance running. Techniques for motivating students are discussed. (PP)

  16. Sudden cardiac death in marathons: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Waite, Oliver; Smith, Andy; Madge, Luke; Spring, Hannah; Noret, Nathalie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this systematic review is to summarise the results of cohort studies that examined the incidence of SCD in marathons and to assess the quality of the methods used. A search of the PROSPERO international database revealed no prospective or published systematic reviews investigating SCD in marathons. The review was conducted using studies that reported and characterised the incidence of SCD in people participating in marathons. Studies were identified via electronic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus and Google Scholar) from January 1, 1966 to October 1, 2014 and through manual literature searches. 7 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. 6 of the studies were conducted in the USA and 1 in the UK. These studies covered a 34-year period involving between 215,413 and 3,949,000 runners. The SCD of between 4 and 28 people are recorded in the papers and the reported estimates of the incidence of SCD in marathons ranged widely from 0.6 to 1.9 per 100,000 runners. The proportion of those suffering SCD who were male ranged from 57.1% to 100% and the mean age reported in the papers, ranged from 37 to 48. This review raises 4 methodological concerns over i) collating reports of SCD in marathons; ii) time of death in relation to the marathon; iii) the use of registrants rather than runners in the estimates of sample size and iv) limited detail on runners exercise history. These four concerns all threaten the reliability and interpretation of any estimate of SCD incidence rates in marathons.  This review recommends that the methods used to collect data on SCD in marathons be improved and that a central reporting system be established. PMID:26765272

  17. Risk factors for lower extremity injuries among half marathon and marathon runners of the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012: A prospective cohort study in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, D; de Koning, J; Verhagen, A P; Scholten-Peeters, G G M

    2016-02-01

    To determine risk factors for running injuries during the Lage Landen Marathon Eindhoven 2012. Prospective cohort study. Population-based study. This study included 943 runners. Running injuries after the Lage Landen Marathon. Sociodemographic and training-related factors as well as lifestyle factors were considered as potential risk factors and assessed in a questionnaire 1 month before the running event. The association between potential risk factors and injuries was determined, per running distance separately, using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. In total, 154 respondents sustained a running injury. Among the marathon runners, in the univariate model, body mass index ≥ 26 kg/m(2), ≤ 5 years of running experience, and often performing interval training, were significantly associated with running injuries, whereas in the multivariate model only ≤ 5 years of running experience and not performing interval training on a regular basis were significantly associated with running injuries. Among marathon runners, no multivariate model could be created because of the low number of injuries and participants. This study indicates that interval training on a regular basis may be recommended to marathon runners to reduce the risk of injury. PMID:25727692

  18. Mechanical work and physiological responses to simulated cross country mountain bike racing.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Stannard, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to assess the mechanical work and physiological responses to cross country mountain bike racing. Participants (n = 7) cycled on a cross country track at race speed whilst VO2, power, cadence, speed, and geographical position were recorded. Mean power during the designated start section (68.5 ± 5.5 s) was 481 ± 122 W, incurring an O2 deficit of 1.58 ± 0.67 L - min(-1) highlighting a significant initial anaerobic (32.4 ± 10.2%) contribution. Complete lap data produced mean (243 ± 12 W) and normalised (279 ± 15 W) power outputs with 13.3 ± 6.1 and 20.7 ± 8.3% of time spent in high force-high velocity and high force-low velocity, respectively. This equated to, physiological measures for %VO(2max) (77 ± 5%) and % HR(max) (93 ± 2%). Terrain (uphill vs downhill) significantly (P < 0.05) influenced power output (70.9 ± 7.5 vs. 41.0 ± 9.2% W(max)),the distribution of low velocity force production, VO2 (80 ± 1.7 vs. 72 ± 3.7%) and cadence (76 + 2 vs. 55 ± 4 rpm) but not heart rate (93.8 ± 2.3 vs. 91.3 ± 0.6% HR(max)) and led to a significant difference between anaerobic contribution and terrain (uphill, 6.4 ± 3.0 vs. downhill, 3.2 ± 1.8%, respectively) but not aerobic energy contribution. Both power and cadence were highly variable through all sections resulting in one power surge every 32 s and a supra-maximal effort every 106 s. The results show that cross country mountain bike racing consists of predominantly low velocity pedalling with a large high force component and when combined with a high oscillating work rate, necessitates high aerobic energy provision, with intermittent anaerobic contribution. Additional physical stress during downhill sections affords less recovery emphasised by physiological variables remaining high throughout. PMID:22876780

  19. [Physiological effects of ultra-marathon run].

    PubMed

    Akimov, E B; Son'kin, V D

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the performance of vegetative systems of the body, and gas exchange in the implementation of one athlete (master of skiing, 27 years, MaxVO2 = 67 ml/min/kg) during 6 hours ultra-marathon race in a closed stadium at an average speed of 2.7 m/s. Continuous monitoring of heart rate was carried out using the heart rate monitor Polar RS 800. During the first hour and then for 20-30 minutes each hour gas analysis was performed with Metamaxdevice (Germany), mounted on the test subject during all the time of the race. Before and after the passages of the measured interval distance blood lactate content was measured. These data demonstrate a number of features that accompany fatigue in the final stretches a distance: reduction of body economy, which is to increase heart rate and oxygen cost of work; activation of anaerobic-glycolitic energy production mechanism, the intensification of respiratory function. Along with this, the methods of correlation and regression analysis revealed changes (increase or decrease) the relationship between the functions depending on whether the body is in the initial stage of the physical load, sustainable high performance or in either a state of extreme fatigue. These results suggest the interference effects of the central and tissue mechanisms of fatigue in the organization of the oxygen transport function of the body. Apparently, in the case of ultra-marathon run, that is, long-term work of moderate power, the main limiting factor is not the energy of the body, and the autonomic software. PMID:23393784

  20. A Comparison of Frontal Theta Activity During Shooting among Biathletes and Cross-Country Skiers before and after Vigorous Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, Harri; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Schubert, Michael; Ettema, Gertjan; Baumeister, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies using electroencephalography (EEG) to monitor brain activity have linked higher frontal theta activity to more focused attention and superior performance in goal-directed precision tasks. In biathlon, shooting performance requires focused attention after high-intensity cross-country skiing. Purpose To compare biathletes (serving as experts) and cross-country skiers (novices) and examine the effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity during shooting. Methods EEG frontal theta (4–7 Hz) activity was compared between nine biathletes and eight cross-country skiers at comparable skiing performance levels who fired 100 shots on a 5-m indoor shooting range in quiescent condition followed by 20 shots after each of five 6-min high-intensity roller skiing sessions in the skating technique on a treadmill. Results Biathletes hit 80±14% and 81±10% before and after the roller skiing sessions, respectively. For the cross-country skiers these values were significantly lower than for the biathletes and amounted to 39±13% and 44±11% (p<0.01). Biathletes had on average 6% higher frontal theta activity during shooting as compared to cross-country skiers (F1,15 = 4.82, p = 0.044), but no significant effect of vigorous exercise on frontal theta activity in either of the two groups were found (F1,15 = 0.14, p = 0.72). Conclusions Biathletes had significantly higher frontal theta activity than cross-country skiers during shooting, indicating higher focused attention in biathletes. Vigorous exercise did not decrease shooting performance or frontal theta activity during shooting in biathletes and cross-country skiers. PMID:26981639

  1. Corruption costs lives: a cross-country study using an IV approach.

    PubMed

    Lio, Mon-Chi; Lee, Ming-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    This study quantitatively estimates the effects of corruption on five major health indicators by using recent cross-country panel data covering 119 countries for the period of 2005-2011. The corruption indicators provided by the World Bank and Transparency International are used, and both the two-way fixed effect and the two-stage least squares approaches are employed for our estimation. The estimation results show that, in general, corruption is negatively associated with a country's health outcomes. A lower level of corruption or a better control of corruption in a country can lead to longer life expectancy, a lower infant mortality rate and a lower under-five mortality rate for citizens. However, our estimation finds no significant association between corruption and individual diseases including human immunodeficiency virus prevalence and tuberculosis incidence. The findings suggest that corruption reduction itself is an effective method to promote health. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26122874

  2. Effects of carbohydrate dose and frequency on metabolism, gastrointestinal discomfort, and cross-country skiing performance.

    PubMed

    Stocks, B; Betts, J A; McGawley, K

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated carbohydrate ingestion of varied doses and frequencies during a simulated cross-country skiing time trial. Ten men and three women (age: 30 ± 7 years; V ˙ O 2 m a x : 59.6 ± 5.7 mL/kg/min) completed four, 30-km classic technique roller skiing time trials on a treadmill. A 1:1 maltodextrin-fructose carbohydrate solution was provided at high (2.4 g/min; HC) and moderate (1.2 g/min; MC) ingestion rates, each at high (six feeds; HF) and low (two feeds; LF) frequencies. In the LF trials, blood glucose was elevated following carbohydrate ingestion (at 4 and 19 km) but was reduced at 14 and 29 km compared with HF strategies (P ≤ 0.05). Gastrointestinal discomfort was higher in HC-LF compared with all other trials (P ≤ 0.05). Whole-body lipid oxidation was lower and carbohydrate oxidation was higher in LF compared with HF trials (P ≤ 0.05). While performance time was not significantly different between trials (140:11 ± 15:31, 140:43 ± 17:40, 139:12 ± 15:32 and 140:33 ± 17:46 min:s in HC-HF, HC-LF, MC-HF, and MC-LF, respectively; P > 0.05), it was improved with trial order (P < 0.001). There was no effect of order on any other variable (P > 0.05). Altering carbohydrate dose or frequency does not affect cross-country ski performance. However, low-frequency carbohydrate ingestion resulted in poorer maintenance of euglycemia, reduced lipid oxidation, and increased gastrointestinal discomfort. PMID:26316418

  3. Motility of magnetotactic bacteria/MTB to Geomagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidajatullah-Maksoed, Fatahillah

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria with motility directed by a local geomagnetic fields have been observed in marine sediments'' discussed by R. Blakemore, 1975. Magnetotactic bacteria/MTB discovered in 1963 by Salvatore Bellini. For ``off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope was used to correlates the physical & magnetic microstructure of magnetite nanocrystals in magnetotactic bacteria'' sought ``single-domain magnetite in hemopelagic sediments'' from JF Stolz. Otherwise, for potential source of bioproducts- product meant from result to multiplier -of magnetotactic bacteria[ACV Araujo, et.al, 2014 ] of marine drugs retrieved the `measurement of cellular chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis, from KM Pietrosimone, 2012, whereas after ``earth magnetic field role on small living models'' are other interpretation of ``taxis'' as a movement of a cell instead usual ``tax'' for yew's taxus cuspidate, hired car & taxes in financial realms. Acknowledgements to HE. Mr. H. TUK SETYOHADI, Jl. Sriwijaya Raya 3, South-Jakarta, INDONESIA.

  4. 75 FR 27641 - Safety Zone; Marathon Oil Refinery Construction, Rouge River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Marathon Oil Refinery Construction, Rouge... vessels from a portion of the Rouge River during the Marathon Oil Refinery Construction project. This... offloading of equipment in conjunction with the Marathon Oil Refinery Construction project. The offloading...

  5. Improved Race Times in Marathoners Older than 75 Years in the Last 25 Years in the World's Largest Marathons.

    PubMed

    Ahmadyar, Baschir; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-06-30

    Performance trends of elite marathoners are well investigated. However, performance of elderly marathoners (> 75 years) competing in the world's largest city marathons is not well-known. We examined marathon race data of 1,691 marathon finishes (i.e. 218 women and 1,473 men) competing between 1990 and 2014 in 5-year age groups 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 95-99 years in four races (Berlin, New York, Chicago and Boston) of the 'World Marathon Majors'. The number of female (r² = 0.50, P < 0.0001) and male (r² = 0.88, P < 0.0001) finishers increased significantly across years. The number of women (r² = 0.36, P = 0.0019) and men (r² = 0.88, P < 0.0001) in age group 75-79 years increased. In age group 80-84 years, the number of women (r² = 0.36, P = 0.0111) and men (r² = 0.54, P < 0.0001) also increased. In age groups 85-89 to 95-99 years, however, the number of female and male finishers remained unchanged. Across years, women (r² = 0.26, P = 0.0090) and men (r² = 0.31, P = 0.0035) reduced their race times. Women and men in age group 75-79 years improved race times. In age groups 80-84 to 90-94 years, women and men were not able to reduce race times. In summary, participation increased and performance improved in female and male marathoners competing in age groups 75-79 to 95-99 years where the largest increases in participation and the largest improvements in performance were found in women and men in age group 75-79 years. PMID:27188466

  6. Public spending for illegal drug and alcohol treatment in hospitals: an EU cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Results Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Conclusions Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per

  7. Effect of training intensity on muscle lactate transporters and lactate threshold of cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Evertsen, F; Medbø, J I; Bonen, A

    2001-10-01

    The training intensity may affect the monocarboxylate transporters MCT1 and MCT4 in skeletal muscle. Therefore, 20 elite cross-country skiers (11 men and nine women) trained hard for 5 months at either moderate (MIG, 60-70% of VO2max) or high intensity (HIG, 80-90%). The lactate threshold, several performance parameters, and the blood lactate concentration (cLa) after exhausting treadmill running were also determined. Muscle biopsies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after the training period were analysed for the two MCTs and for muscle fibre types and six enzymes. The concentration of MCT1 did not change for HIG (P=0.3) but fell for MIG (-12 +/- 3%, P=0.01); the training response differed between the two groups (P=0.05). The concentration of MCT4 did not change during the training period (P > 0.10). The concentration of the two MCTs did not differ between the two sexes (P=0.9). The running speed at the lactate threshold rose for HIG (+3.2 +/- 0.9%, P=0.003), while no change was seen for MIG (P=0.54); the training response differed between the two groups (P=0.04). The cLa after long-lasting exhausting treadmill running correlated with the concentration of MCT1 (rs=0.69, P=0.002), but not with that of MCT4 (rs=0.2, P=0.2). There were no other significant correlations between the concentrations of the two MCTs and the performance parameters, muscle fibre types, or enzymes (r < or = 0.36, P > 0.10). Thus, the training response differed between MIG and HIG both in terms of performance and of the effect on MCT1. Training at high intensity may be more effective for cross-country skiers. Finally, MCT1 may be important for releasing lactate to the blood during long-lasting exercise. PMID:11683677

  8. Energy cost of different skating techniques in cross-country skiing.

    PubMed

    Millet, Gregoire P; Boissiere, Denis; Candau, Robin

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the aerobic energy cost of four 'on-snow' skating techniques in cross-country skiing and to examine the relationships between performance and aerobic energy cost. Twelve male skiers from recreational to national standard performed four level skating trials of 6 min duration in random order, each at the same submaximal velocity but with a different skating technique: (1) 'offset' (V1), using a double asymmetrical and asynchronous pole plant as weight is transferred to one ski; (2) 'two-skate' (V2A), where the pole plant is symmetrical; (3) 'one-skate' (V2), where there is a pole plant as weight is transferred to each ski; and (4) 'conventional', without poles. Oxygen uptake (VO2), pulmonary ventilation, the respiratory exchange ratio and heart rate were measured using a K4(b2) portable gas analyser. The aerobic energy cost (VO2/mean speed) and heart rate were higher (P < 0.05) in the one-skate than in the offset condition. This may be explained by the greater and more efficient use of the upper body and the lower variation in centre of gravity velocity in the offset condition. The aerobic energy cost was 5-9% higher (P < 0.01) in the conventional than in the other techniques, probably because of the shorter duration of propulsive forces within a cycle in the conventional skating condition. Moreover, in ski skating, the mechanical efficiency (propulsive forces/total forces) was shown to be higher in the upper than in the lower limbs. The correlation coefficient between performance and aerobic energy cost was significant in the two-skate (r = 0.68, P = 0.02), one-skate (r = 0.72, P = 0.01) and conventional (r = 0.62, P = 0.04) conditions, but not in the offset condition (r = 0.50, P = 0.10). Our results stress the importance of the upper body component in cross-country skiing and that the aerobic energy cost discriminates between skiers of different standards. PMID:12587886

  9. Reduced performance difference between sexes in master mountain and city marathon running

    PubMed Central

    Zingg, Matthias A; Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    Background The performance in master marathoners has been investigated in flat city marathons but not in mountain marathons. This study examined changes in the sex differences in performance across time in female and male master runners competing in a mountain marathon compared to a flat city marathon. Methods The association between age and performance of finishers in the Jungfrau Marathon, Switzerland, with 1830 meter changes in altitude and a flat city marathon (Lausanne Marathon), Switzerland, were analyzed from 2000 to 2011. Results In both events, athletes in the 35–44 years age group showed the highest number of finishers. In the mountain marathon, the number of female master runners aged > 35 years increased in contrast to female finishers aged < 35 years, while the number of male finishers was unchanged in all age groups. In the city marathon, the number of female finishers was unchanged while the number of male finishers in the age groups for 25–34-year-olds and 35–44-year-olds decreased. In female marathoners, performance improved in athletes aged 35–44 and 55–64 years in the city marathon. Male marathoners improved race time in age group 45–54 years in both the city marathon and the mountain marathon. Female master runners reduced the sex difference in performance in the 45–54-year age group in both competitions and in the 35–44-year age group in the mountain marathon. The sex difference in performance decreased in the 35–44-year age group from 19.1% ± 4.7% to 16.6% ± 1.9% in the mountain marathon (r2 = 0.39, P = 0.03). In age groups 45–54 years, the sex difference decreased from 23.4% ± 1.9% to 15.9% ± 6.1% in the mountain marathon (r2 = 0.39, P < 0.01) and from 34.7% ± 4.6% to 11.8% ± 6.2% in the city marathon (r2 = 0.39, P < 0.01). Conclusion These findings suggest that female master runners aged 35–54 years reduced sex differences in their performance in both mountain and city marathon running. PMID:23637550

  10. 5-week block periodization increases aerobic power in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, B R; Hansen, J; Thyli, V; Bakken, T A; Sandbakk, Ø

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of two different methods of organizing endurance training in elite cross-country skiers approaching the competition period. During the 5-week intervention period, one group performed block periodization (BP; n = 10) with 5 and 3 high-intensity sessions (HIT) during the first and third training week. One HIT was performed during the remaining weeks in BP, while the group performing traditional training organization (TRAD, n = 9) performed two weekly HIT except during the third week where they performed three HIT. HIT were interspersed with low-intensity training (LIT) and both groups performed similar total amount of both HIT and LIT during the intervention. BP achieved a larger relative increase in peak power output and power output at a blood lactate concentration of 4 mmol/L than TRAD (4 ± 4 vs -3 ± 6% and 11 ± 10 vs 2 ± 4%, respectively, both P < 0.01). BP also increased maximal oxygen uptake by 2 ± 2% (P < 0.05), while no changes occurred in TRAD. The effect sizes of the relative improvement in these measurements revealed moderate effects of BP vs TRAD training. The present study suggests that block periodization of endurance training have superior effects on several endurance and performance indices compared with traditional organization. PMID:25648345

  11. Comparison of manually produced and automated cross country movement maps using digital image processing techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynn, L. K.

    1985-01-01

    The Image-Based Information System (IBIS) was used to automate the cross country movement (CCM) mapping model developed by the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). Existing terrain factor overlays and a CCM map, produced by DMA for the Fort Lewis, Washington area, were digitized and reformatted into geometrically registered images. Terrain factor data from Slope, Soils, and Vegetation overlays were entered into IBIS, and were then combined utilizing IBIS-programmed equations to implement the DMA CCM model. The resulting IBIS-generated CCM map was then compared with the digitized manually produced map to test similarity. The numbers of pixels comprising each CCM region were compared between the two map images, and percent agreement between each two regional counts was computed. The mean percent agreement equalled 86.21%, with an areally weighted standard deviation of 11.11%. Calculation of Pearson's correlation coefficient yielded +9.997. In some cases, the IBIS-calculated map code differed from the DMA codes: analysis revealed that IBIS had calculated the codes correctly. These highly positive results demonstrate the power and accuracy of IBIS in automating models which synthesize a variety of thematic geographic data.

  12. Trait and state anxiety in male and female cross-country runners.

    PubMed Central

    Sanderson, F. H.; Reilly, T.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between state/trait anxiety and competitive cross-country performance for males and females. A-trait and A-state pre- and post-competition were monitored in 38 females and 26 males at major meetings. The females' A-trait was correlated with pre-race A-state (p less than .05) which was itself correlated significantly with race performance (p less than .05). A significant post-race A-state reduction occurred only with the better runners. The correlation between A-trait and pre-race A-state was also found in the male athletes (p less than .05) while A-trait significantly correlated with race performance (p less than .05). A-state was significantly reduced post-race, the greatest decrease being observed in the top performers. It is concluded that trait as well as transient dispositions are relevant when psychological determinants of performance are considered. Images p24-a p24-b PMID:6850201

  13. Preparing for the surge: perspectives on marathon medical preparedness.

    PubMed

    Chiampas, George; Jaworski, Carrie A

    2009-01-01

    In preparing for medical coverage of a mass participation event such as a marathon, race directors and their medical staff members need to account for the unexpected. Extremes in weather as well as the potential for outside threats need to be given consideration before race day in order to adequately prepare. Through the recruitment of local expertise from various agencies in one's community during both the planning stages, and on race day, the added stressors of such extremes will be minimized, if not eliminated. This article will provide concrete examples of how the Chicago Marathon has used its own experiences with such extremes. Readers will be given useful tools to implement in their own marathons or other mass participation events-planning to equip them better for the unexpected surge. PMID:19436168

  14. Cross-Country Variation in Adult Skills Inequality: Why Are Skill Levels and Opportunities so Unequal in Anglophone Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Andy; Green, Francis; Pensiero, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This article examines cross-country variations in adult skills inequality and asks why skills in Anglophone countries are so unequal. Drawing on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's recent Survey of Adult Skills and other surveys, it investigates the differences across countries and country groups in inequality in both…

  15. Eye injuries in the extreme environment ultra-marathon runner.

    PubMed

    Cope, Thomas Adam; Kropelnicki, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of an ultra-marathon runner who developed a painful irritated eye due to prolonged exposure to high wind speed and sub-zero temperatures causing transient freezing and subsequent abrasion of the cornea. We recommend that all ultra-marathon runners racing in windy or exposed conditions should wear wrap-around eye protection or goggles. If runners present to checkpoints or after the race to primary care or the emergency department with ocular pain, corneal freezing and abrasions should be considered. Management should include ocular examination and withdrawing the runner from harmful conditions. PMID:26038387

  16. Anti-VEGF in a Marathon Runner's Retinopathy Case.

    PubMed

    Soon, Alexander Kahjun; de Oliveira, Paulo Ricardo Chaves; Chow, David Robert

    2016-01-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is one of the most common retinal vascular disorders. Intense exercise associated CRVO have been described in otherwise healthy young patients. We describe a case of a young male ultramarathoner who presented with a CRVO, presumably associated with dehydration, making part of a marathon runner's retinopathy. Resolution of macular edema and subretinal fluid, with visual acuity improvement, was observed after 3 monthly injections of ranibizumab. Our case suggests that dehydration could be involved in the mechanism of CRVO in healthy young patients and ranibizumab may be an effective treatment option for marathon runner's retinopathy. PMID:27418990

  17. Anti-VEGF in a Marathon Runner's Retinopathy Case

    PubMed Central

    Soon, Alexander Kahjun

    2016-01-01

    Central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) is one of the most common retinal vascular disorders. Intense exercise associated CRVO have been described in otherwise healthy young patients. We describe a case of a young male ultramarathoner who presented with a CRVO, presumably associated with dehydration, making part of a marathon runner's retinopathy. Resolution of macular edema and subretinal fluid, with visual acuity improvement, was observed after 3 monthly injections of ranibizumab. Our case suggests that dehydration could be involved in the mechanism of CRVO in healthy young patients and ranibizumab may be an effective treatment option for marathon runner's retinopathy. PMID:27418990

  18. Seatbelt wearing rates in middle income countries: a cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bishai, David; Chandran, Aruna; Bhalla, Kavi; Bachani, Abdulgafoor M; Gupta, Shivam; Slyunkina, Ekaterina; Hyder, Adnan A

    2014-10-01

    In settings with low seatbelt use prevalence, self-reported seatbelt use estimates often lack validity, and routine observational studies are scarce. In this paper, we aim to describe the prevalence of seatbelt use and associated factors in drivers and front-seat passengers across eight sites in four countries (Egypt, Mexico, Russia, Turkey) using observational studies as well as to produce estimates of country-level and site-level variance. As part of the Bloomberg Philanthropies Global Road Safety Program, data on driver and passenger seatbelt use across four middle-income countries was collected between October 2010 and May 2011 (n=122,931 vehicles). Logistic regression and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient analyses for sites- and country-level clustering were performed. We found high variability of seatbelt wearing rates ranging from 4 to 72% in drivers and 3-50% in front-seat passengers. Overall, average seatbelt wearing rates were low (under 60% in most sites). At the individual level, older and female drivers were more likely to wear seatbelts, as well as drivers of vehicles transiting at times of increased vehicle flow. We also found that 26-32% and 37-41% of the variance in seatbelt use among drivers and front-seat passengers respectively was explained by differences across sites and countries. Our results demonstrate that there is room for improvement on seatbelt use in middle-income countries and that standardized cross-country studies on road safety risk factors are feasible, providing valuable information for prevention and monitoring activities. PMID:24906165

  19. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  20. Gait models and mechanical energy in three cross-country skiing techniques.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Barbara; Zoppirolli, Chiara; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Zamparo, Paola; Schena, Federico

    2014-11-01

    Fluctuations in mechanical energy of the body center of mass (COM) have been widely analyzed when investigating different gaits in human and animal locomotion. We applied this approach to estimate the mechanical work in cross-country skiing and to identify the fundamental mechanisms of this particular form of locomotion. We acquired movements of body segments, skis, poles and plantar pressures for eight skiers while they roller skied on a treadmill at 14 km h(-1) and a 2 deg slope using three different techniques (diagonal stride, DS; double poling, DP; double poling with kick, DK). The work associated with kinetic energy (KE) changes of COM was not different between techniques; the work against gravity associated with potential energy (PE) changes was higher for DP than for DK and was lowest for DS. Mechanical work against the external environment was 0.87 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DS, 0.70 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DP and 0.79 J m(-1) kg(-1) for DK. The work done to overcome frictional forces, which is negligible in walking and running, was 17.8%, 32.3% and 24.8% of external mechanical work for DS, DP and DK, respectively. The pendulum-like recovery (R%) between PE and KE was ~45%, ~26% and ~9% for DP, DK and DS, respectively, but energy losses by friction are not accounted for in this computation. The pattern of fluctuations of PE and KE indicates that DS can be described as a 'grounded running', where aerial phases are substituted by ski gliding phases, DP can be described as a pendular gait, whereas DK is a combination of both. PMID:25355851

  1. Repeated Stress Fractures in an Amenorrheic Marathoner: A Case Conference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, John R.; Nilson, Karen L.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a case conference by 2 experts on the relationship between a 26-year-old marathoner's amenorrhea and her sustained unusual stress fractures in 4 ribs (plus previous similar fractures of the calcaneal, navicular, metatarsal, and tibial bones). The experts conclude that she suffers many manifestations of overtraining. (SM)

  2. Cognitive orientations in marathon running and "hitting the wall"

    PubMed Central

    Stevinson, C. D.; Biddle, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether runners' cognitions during a marathon are related to "hitting the wall". To test a new and more comprehensive system for classifying cognition of marathon runners. METHODS: Non-elite runners (n = 66) completed a questionnaire after finishing the 1996 London marathon. The runners were recruited through the charity SPARKS for whom they were raising money by running in the race. RESULTS: Most runners reported that during the race their thoughts were internally associative, with internally dissociative thoughts being the least prevalent. Runners who "hit the wall" used more internal dissociation than other runners, indicating that it is a hazardous strategy, probably because sensory feedback is blocked. However, internal association was related to an earlier onset of "the wall", suggesting that too much attention on physical symptoms may magnify them, thereby exaggerating any discomfort. External dissociation was related to a later onset, probably because it may provide a degree of distraction but keeps attention on the race. CONCLUSIONS: "Hitting the wall" for recreational non-elite marathon runners is associated with their thought patterns during the race. In particular, "the wall" is associated with internal dissociation. 




 PMID:9773172

  3. Deadly Serious: The Boston Marathon Tragedy and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2013-01-01

    Two bombs exploded at the Boston Marathon on Monday, April 15, killing three and injuring more than 260. The pressure-cooker bombs sent shrapnel at leg-level, leading to amputations for 15 victims. An immediate concern was how to deal with the feelings of school children whose sense of safety was shattered by the blasts. As the city healed, Boston…

  4. Aspirin Risks in Perspective: A Comparison against Marathon Running

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Aspirin has public health potential to reduce the risk of ischaemic vascular events and sporadic cancer. One objection to the wider use of aspirin for primary prevention, however, is the undesirable effects of the medicine, which include increasing risk of bleeding and haemorrhagic stroke. Marathons also carry risks of serious events such as…

  5. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    EPA Science Inventory

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  6. Structural style of the Marathon thrust belt, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, Robert G.; Varga, Robert J.; Altany, Robert M.

    2009-09-01

    The Marathon portion of the Ouachita thrust belt consists of a highly deformed allochthonous wedge of Cambrian-Pennsylvanian slope strata (Marathon facies) that was transported to the northwest and emplaced over Pennsylvanian foredeep sediments. The foredeep strata in turn overlie early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments which are deformed by late Paleozoic basement-involved reverse faults. The Dugout Creek thrust is the basal thrust of the allochthon. Shortening in this sheet and overlying sheets is ˜80%. Steep imbricate faults link the Dugout Creek thrust to upper level detachments forming complex duplex zones. Progressive thrusting and shortening within the allochthon folded the upper level detachments and associated thrust sheets. The Caballos Novaculite is the most competent unit within the Marathon facies and controlled development of prominent detachment folds. Deeper imbricate sheets composed of the Late Pennsylvanian foredeep strata, and possibly early-middle Paleozoic shelfal sediments developed concurrently with emplacement of the Marathon allochthon and folded the overlying allochthon. Following termination of thrusting in the earliest Permian, subsidence and deposition shifted northward to the Delaware, Midland and Val Verde foreland basins.

  7. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  8. Marathon Group: Changes in Scores on the California Psychological Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Eighteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive changes at the .05 level on 11 of 18 scales on this inventory. (Author)

  9. Effects of Marathon Group Therapy on Trait and State Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Auerbach, Stephen M.

    1974-01-01

    Results were interpreted as supporting Spielberger's notion that trait anxiety reflects a dispositional tendency to respond with anxiety in ego-threat situations and as suggesting that personality trait measures may be more relevant outcome indicators than measures of transitory mood states in marathon therapy research. (Author)

  10. Predicting Benefit from a Gestalt Therapy Marathon Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, James; Dowd, E. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Tested the utility of the Personal Orientation Inventory (POI), the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and the Girona Affect Scale in predicting the outcomes of a marathon Gestalt therapy workshop. Signigicant predictive equations were generated that use the POI to predict gains on the Girona Affect Scale. (Author/RC)

  11. Transitions: Preparing Families of Preschoolers for "Marathon Skills".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Sally J.; Warkala, Catherine Sonen

    1993-01-01

    Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)

  12. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Users: Analysis of Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Wills, Judy

    1983-01-01

    Summarized a 16-hour marathon group for illicit drug users (N=12) in residential treatment. Content analysis showed the group spent more time on interpersonal relationships and relatively little time on group process. Drug users were able to successfully participate in therapeutic group discussions involving self-investment. (JAC)

  13. Similarities and Differences of Marathon and Ongoing Strength Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrick, Marilyn C.; Creveling, Patricia

    Marathon groups offer individuals an opportunity to engage in intensified, authentic personal encounter with each other in a small group setting, usually with 10-15 persons in a group. This is a report of tentative findings at the Student Life Center, University of Colorado. There were three matched groups, each with nine sophomores. The first…

  14. A Gestalt Marathon Workshop: Effects on Extraversion and Neuroticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; Hannigan, Patricia S.

    1976-01-01

    College students (N=18) participated in a 24-hour marathon gestalt workshop and responded to the Eysenck Personality Inventory before and after the event. Results revealed a significant positive change at the .01 level on a measure of neuroticism-stability and no change on a measure of extroversion-introversion. (Author)

  15. Cost-benefit analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis suspects in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Diel, Roland; Nienhaus, Albert; Hillemann, Doris; Richter, Elvira

    2016-02-01

    Our objective was to assess the cost-benefit of enhancing or replacing the conventional sputum smear with the real-time PCR Xpert MTB/RIF method in the inpatient diagnostic schema for tuberculosis (TB).Recent data from published per-case cost studies for TB/multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB and from comparative analyses of sputum microscopy, mycobacterial culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and drug susceptibility testing, performed at the German National Reference Center for Mycobacteria, were used. Potential cost savings of Xpert MTB/RIF, based on test accuracy and multiple cost drivers, were calculated for diagnosing TB/MDR-TB suspects from the hospital perspective.Implementing Xpert MTB/RIF as an add-on in smear-positive and smear-negative TB suspects saves on average €48.72 and €503, respectively, per admitted patient as compared with the conventional approach. In smear-positive and smear-negative MDR-TB suspects, cost savings amount to €189.56 and €515.25 per person, respectively. Full replacement of microscopy by Xpert MTB/RIF saves €449.98. In probabilistic Monte-Carlo simulation, adding Xpert MTB/RIF is less costly in 46.4% and 76.2% of smear-positive TB and MDR-TB suspects, respectively, but 100% less expensive in all smear-negative suspects. Full replacement by Xpert MTB/RIF is also consistently cost-saving.Using Xpert MTB/RIF as an add-on to and even as a replacement for sputum smear examination may significantly reduce expenditures in TB suspects. PMID:26647440

  16. DIAGNOSTIC TEST OF SPUTUM GENEXPERT MTB/RIF FOR SMEAR NEGATIVE PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS.

    PubMed

    Reechaipichitkul, Wipa; Phetsuriyawong, Attawoot; Chaimanee, Prajuab; Ananta, Pimjai

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Gene-Xpert MTB/RIF sputum test for diagnosing pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) among patients sputum acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear negative results in Thailand, a country with a high prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis. We studied 151 patients who presented to Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen, Thailand with a 2 week or more history of fever and/or cough and an abnormal chest radiograph between 2010 and 2014; these patients had at least 2 negative sputum AFB smear results. Of these, 76 were diagnosed as having either confirmed or probable pulmonary TB: the 32 confirmed cases were those with a positive sputum culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the 44 probable case were those with clinical and radiographic findings consistent with TB and who had a response to anti-TB therapy. Seventy-five cases were diagnosed as not having pulmonary TB. Of the 32 patients with a positive sputum culture for MTB, 26 had a positive GeneXpert MTB/RIF sputum test. Compared to sputum culture for MTB the GeneXpert MTB/ RIF test gave a sensitivity of 83.9% (95% CI: 66.3-94.5) and a specificity of 92.1% (95% CI: 83.6-97), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 81.3% (95% CI: 63.6-92.8) and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 93.3% (95% CI: 85.1-97.8). The GeneXpert MTB/RIF test had a fair sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing smear negative pulmonary TB. It may be useful for diagnosing pulmonary TB in patients with a negative sputum AFB smear. The assay is faster than culture and can detect rifampicin resistant strains of MTB. PMID:27405129

  17. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p < 0.05). Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p < 0.001). Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66-0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p < 0.05). Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power. PMID:27536245

  18. Analysis of Classical Time-Trial Performance and Technique-Specific Physiological Determinants in Elite Female Cross-Country Skiers

    PubMed Central

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Losnegard, Thomas; Skattebo, Øyvind; Hegge, Ann M.; Tønnessen, Espen; Kocbach, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA) techniques. Ten elite female cross-country skiers were continuously measured by a global positioning system device during an international 10-km cross-country skiing time-trial in the classical technique. One month prior to the race, all skiers performed a 5-min submaximal and 3-min self-paced performance test while roller skiing on a treadmill, both in the DP and DIA techniques. The time spent on uphill (r = 0.98) and flat (r = 0.91) sections of the race correlated most strongly with the overall 10-km performance (both p < 0.05). Approximately 56% of the racing time was spent uphill, and stepwise multiple regression revealed that uphill time explained 95.5% of the variance in overall performance (p < 0.001). Distance covered during the 3-min roller-skiing test and body-mass normalized peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in both techniques showed the strongest correlations with overall time-trial performance (r = 0.66–0.78), with DP capacity tending to have greatest impact on the flat and DIA capacity on uphill terrain (all p < 0.05). Our present findings reveal that the time spent uphill most strongly determine classical time-trial performance, and that the major portion of the performance differences among elite female cross-country skiers can be explained by variations in technique-specific aerobic power. PMID:27536245

  19. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay has garnered significant interest as a sensitive and rapid diagnostic tool to improve detection of sensitive and drug resistant tuberculosis. However, most existing literature has described the performance of MTB/RIF testing only in study conditions; little information is available on its use in routine case finding. TB REACH is a multi-country initiative focusing on innovative ways to improve case notification. Methods We selected a convenience sample of nine TB REACH projects for inclusion to cover a range of implementers, regions and approaches. Standard quarterly reports and machine data from the first 12 months of MTB/RIF implementation in each project were utilized to analyze patient yields, rifampicin resistance, and failed tests. Data was collected from September 2011 to March 2013. A questionnaire was implemented and semi-structured interviews with project staff were conducted to gather information on user experiences and challenges. Results All projects used MTB/RIF testing for people with suspected TB, as opposed to testing for drug resistance among already diagnosed patients. The projects placed 65 machines (196 modules) in a variety of facilities and employed numerous case-finding strategies and testing algorithms. The projects consumed 47,973 MTB/RIF tests. Of valid tests, 7,195 (16.8%) were positive for MTB. A total of 982 rifampicin resistant results were found (13.6% of positive tests). Of all tests conducted, 10.6% failed. The need for continuous power supply was noted by all projects and most used locally procured solutions. There was considerable heterogeneity in how results were reported and recorded, reflecting the lack of standardized guidance in some countries. Conclusions The findings of this study begin to fill the gaps among guidelines, research findings, and real-world implementation of MTB/RIF testing. Testing with Xpert MTB/RIF detected a large number of people with TB that routine services failed to

  20. The velocity and energy profiles of elite cross-country skiers executing downhill turns with different radii.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Oyvind; Bucher Sandbakk, Silvana; Supej, Matej; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of turn radius on velocity and energy profiles when skidding and step turning during more and less effective downhill turns while cross-country skiing. Thirteen elite female cross-country skiers performed single turns with a 9- or 12-m radius using the skidding technique and a 12- or 15-m radius with step turning. Mechanical parameters were monitored using a real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System and video analysis. Step turning was more effective during all phases of a turn, leading to higher velocities than skidding (P < .05). With both techniques, a greater radius was associated with higher velocity (P < .05), but the quality of turning, as assessed on the basis of energy characteristics, was the same. More effective skidding turns involved more pronounced deceleration early in the turn and maintenance of higher velocity thereafter, while more effective step turning involved lower energy dissipation during the latter half of the turn. In conclusion, the single-turn analysis employed here reveals differences in the various techniques chosen by elite cross-country skiers when executing downhill turns of varying radii and can be used to assess the quality of such turns. PMID:24408350

  1. A simulation of cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a mathematical power balance model

    PubMed Central

    Moxnes, John F; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Hausken, Kjell

    2013-01-01

    The current study simulated cross-country skiing on varying terrain by using a power balance model. By applying the hypothetical inductive deductive method, we compared the simulated position along the track with actual skiing on snow, and calculated the theoretical effect of friction and air drag on skiing performance. As input values in the model, air drag and friction were estimated from the literature, whereas the model included relationships between heart rate, metabolic rate, and work rate based on the treadmill roller-ski testing of an elite cross-country skier. We verified this procedure by testing four models of metabolic rate against experimental data on the treadmill. The experimental data corresponded well with the simulations, with the best fit when work rate was increased on uphill and decreased on downhill terrain. The simulations predicted that skiing time increases by 3%–4% when either friction or air drag increases by 10%. In conclusion, the power balance model was found to be a useful tool for predicting how various factors influence racing performance in cross-country skiing. PMID:24379718

  2. Comparison of ankle kinematics and ground reaction forces between prospectively injured and uninjured collegiate cross country runners.

    PubMed

    Kuhman, Daniel J; Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Melcher, Daniel A

    2016-06-01

    Biomechanical comparative studies on running-related injuries have included either currently or retrospectively injured runners. The purpose of this study was to prospectively compare ankle joint and ground reaction force variables between collegiate runners who developed injuries during the cross country season and those who did not. Running gait analyses using a motion capture system and force platform were conducted on 19 collegiate runners prior to the start of their cross country season. Ten runners sustained running-related injuries and 9 remained healthy during the course of the season. Strike index, peak loading rate of the vertical ground reaction force, dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), eversion ROM, peak eversion angle, peak eversion velocity, and eversion duration from the start of the season were compared between injury groups. Ankle eversion ROM and peak eversion velocity were greater in uninjured runners while peak eversion angle was greater in injured runners. Greater ankle eversion ROM and eversion velocity with lower peak eversion angle may be beneficial in reducing injury risk in collegiate runners. The current data may only be applicable to collegiate cross country runners with similar training and racing schedules and threshold magnitudes of ankle kinematic variables to predict injury risk are still unknown. PMID:26827155

  3. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response.

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-03-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key pointsDuring cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiingApproximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling.Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit.By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing.Male, fit and young

  4. A Comparison between Alpine Skiing, Cross-Country Skiing and Indoor Cycling on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Response

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas; Schwarzl, Christoph; Müller, Edith E.; Nagasaki, Masaru; Stöggl, Julia; Scheiber, Peter; Schönfelder, Martin; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-01-01

    Since physical inactivity especially prevails during winter months, we set out to identify outdoor alternatives to indoor cycling (IC) by comparing the metabolic and cardiorespiratory responses during alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS) and IC and analyse the effects of sex, age and fitness level in this comparison. Twenty one healthy subjects performed alpine skiing (AS), cross-country skiing (XCS), and IC. Oxygen uptake (VO2), total energy expenditure (EE), heart rate (HR), lactate, blood glucose and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined during three 4-min stages of low, moderate and high intensity. During XCS and IC VO2max and EE were higher than during AS. At least 2½ hours of AS are necessary to reach the same EE as during one hour of XCS or IC. HR, VO2, lactate, and RPEarms were highest during XCS, whereas RPEwhole-body was similar and RPElegs lower than during AS and IC, respectively. Weight adjusted VO2 and EE were higher in men than in women while fitness level had no effect. Male, fit and young participants were able to increase their EE and VO2 values more pronounced. Both AS and XCS can be individually tailored to serve as alternatives to IC and may thus help to overcome the winter activity deficit. XCS was found to be the most effective activity for generating a high EE and VO2 while AS was the most demanding activity for the legs. Key points During cross-country skiing and indoor cycling VO2max and energy expenditure were higher than during alpine skiing Approximately 2½ hours of alpine skiing are necessary to reach the same energy expenditure of one hour of cross-country skiing or indoor cycling. Alpine skiing and cross-country skiing can be individually tailored to serve as sports alternatives in winter to activity deficit. By applying different skiing modes as parallel ski steering, carving long radii and short turn skiing, metabolic and cardiorespiratory response can be increased during alpine skiing. Male, fit and young

  5. Improved marathon performance by in-race nutritional strategy intervention.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ernst Albin; Emanuelsen, Anders; Gertsen, Robert Mørkegaard; Sørensen S, S R

    2014-12-01

    It was tested whether a marathon was completed faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, gastrointestinal symptoms were evaluated. Nonelite runners performed a 10 km time trial 7 weeks before Copenhagen Marathon 2013 for estimation of running ability. Based on the time, runners were divided into two similar groups that eventually should perform the marathon by applying the two nutritional strategies. Matched pairs design was applied. Before the marathon, runners were paired based on their prerace running ability. Runners applying the freely chosen nutritional strategy (n = 14; 33.6 ± 9.6 years; 1.83 ± 0.09 m; 77.4 ± 10.6 kg; 45:40 ± 4:32 min for 10 km) could freely choose their in-race intake. Runners applying the scientifically based nutritional strategy (n = 14; 41.9 ± 7.6 years; 1.79 ± 0.11 m; 74.6 ± 14.5 kg; 45:44 ± 4:37 min) were targeting a combined in-race intake of energy gels and water, where the total intake amounted to approximately 0.750 L water, 60 g maltodextrin and glucose, 0.06 g sodium, and 0.09 g caffeine per hr. Gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed by a self-administered postrace questionnaire. Marathon time was 3:49:26 ± 0:25:05 and 3:38:31 ± 0:24:54 hr for runners applying the freely chosen and the scientifically based strategy, respectively (p = .010, effect size=-0.43). Certain runners experienced diverse serious gastrointestinal symptoms, but overall, symptoms were low and not different between groups (p > .05). In conclusion, nonelite runners completed a marathon on average 10:55 min, corresponding to 4.7%, faster by applying a scientifically based rather than a freely chosen nutritional strategy. Furthermore, average values of gastrointestinal symptoms were low and not different between groups. PMID:24901444

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF in Tuberculous Pleural Effusion: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Inderpaul Singh; Dhooria, Sahajal; Aggarwal, Ashutosh Nath; Behera, Digambar; Agarwal, Ritesh

    2016-04-01

    A systematic review investigating the role of Xpert MTB/RIF in the diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) was conducted. The pooled sensitivities and specificities of Xpert MTB/RIF were 51.4% and 98.6%, respectively, with culture used as a reference standard and 22.7% and 99.8%, respectively, with a composite reference standard (CRS) used as the benchmark. Xpert MTB/RIF has low sensitivity but excellent specificity in the diagnosis of TPE. PMID:26818675

  7. ShopGirls Shine in Eco-Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowell, Shante

    2011-01-01

    The ShopGirls of Granite Falls (WA) High School are the first-ever all-female team to successfully design, build, and race a prototype diesel car in the Shell Eco-marathon. The team took first place in the diesel fuel-efficiency category with a vehicle that achieved 470 miles per gallon! The idea for the ShopGirls came when Vervia Gabriel, career…

  8. Terrorist bombings: foreign bodies from the Boston Marathon bombing.

    PubMed

    Brunner, John; Singh, Ajay K; Rocha, Tatiana; Havens, Joaquim; Goralnick, Eric; Sodickson, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    On April 15, 2013, 2 improvised explosive devices detonated at the 117th Boston Marathon, killing 3 people and injuring 264 others. In this article, the foreign bodies and injuries that presented at 2 of the responding level 1 trauma hospitals in Boston-Brigham and Women׳s Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital--are reviewed with a broader discussion of blast injuries and imaging strategies. PMID:25639179

  9. Did recent world record marathon runners employ optimal pacing strategies?

    PubMed

    Angus, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    We apply statistical analysis of high frequency (1 km) split data for the most recent two world-record marathon runs: Run 1 (2:03:59, 28 September 2008) and Run 2 (2:03:38, 25 September 2011). Based on studies in the endurance cycling literature, we develop two principles to approximate 'optimal' pacing in the field marathon. By utilising GPS and weather data, we test, and then de-trend, for each athlete's field response to gradient and headwind on course, recovering standardised proxies for power-based pacing traces. The resultant traces were analysed to ascertain if either runner followed optimal pacing principles; and characterise any deviations from optimality. Whereas gradient was insignificant, headwind was a significant factor in running speed variability for both runners, with Runner 2 targeting the (optimal) parallel variation principle, whilst Runner 1 did not. After adjusting for these responses, neither runner followed the (optimal) 'even' power pacing principle, with Runner 2's macro-pacing strategy fitting a sinusoidal oscillator with exponentially expanding envelope whilst Runner 1 followed a U-shaped, quadratic form. The study suggests that: (a) better pacing strategy could provide elite marathon runners with an economical pathway to significant performance improvements at world-record level; and (b) the data and analysis herein is consistent with a complex-adaptive model of power regulation. PMID:23879745

  10. Comparison of Amplicor and GeneXpert MTB/RIF Tests for Diagnosis of Tuberculous Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vinod B.; Connolly, Cathy; Singh, Ravesh; Lenders, Laura; Matinyenya, Brian; Theron, Grant; Ndung'u, Thumbi

    2014-01-01

    There are no data about the comparative accuracy of commercially available nucleic acid amplification tests (GeneXpert MTB/RIF and Roche Amplicor) for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM). A total of 148 patients with suspected TBM were evaluated, and cultures served as the reference standard. The sensitivities and specificities (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the Amplicor and Xpert MTB/RIF tests were similar: 46 (31–60) versus 50 (33–67) and 99 (93–100) and 94 (84–99), respectively. PMID:25056328

  11. Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion on Ratings of Perceived Exertion during a Marathon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utter, Alan C.; Kang, Jie; Robertson, Robert J.; Nieman, David C.; Chaloupka, Edward C.; Suminski, Richard R.; Piccinni, Cristiana R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and hormonal regulation during a competitive marathon. Data on marathon runners randomly assigned to receive carbohydrate or placebo indicated that those who ingested carbohydrate rather than placebo beverages were able to run at a higher…

  12. Direct and Nondirect Marathon Group Therapy and Internal---External Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigates whether direct and nondirect therapist techniques within a 23-hour marathon format would differentially induce client shifts in locus of control. The no-treatment control group experienced a significant shift toward externality, while the marathon subjects did not fluctuate significantly from pretherapy to posttherapy. (Author)

  13. Marathon Groups. Facilitating the Personal Growth of Imprisoned, Black Female Heroin Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Kubiak, Larry

    1978-01-01

    Apparent success of the marathon groups in altering the perceptions of Black female heroin addicts toward the future, counseling, and themselves offers preliminary evidence that marathons may have potential as a counseling strategy with these clients. Future research needs to be performed to substantiate or reject these findings. (Author/PD)

  14. 76 FR 12222 - Wisconsin Central, Ltd.-Abandonment Exemption-in Marathon County, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Wisconsin Central, Ltd.--Abandonment Exemption--in Marathon County, WI... ] Abandonments to abandon 1.14 miles of rail line between mileposts 17.50 and 18.64, in Weston, Marathon...

  15. Effect of a Marathon Run on Serum Lipoproteins, Creatine Kinase, and Lactate Dehydrogenase in Recreational Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Takeuchi, Toshiko; Hosoi, Teruo; Yoshizaki, Hidekiyo; Loeppky, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a marathon run on serum lipid and lipoprotein concentrations and serum muscle enzyme activities and follow their recovery after the run. These blood concentrations were measured before, immediately after, and serially after a marathon run in 15 male recreational runners. The triglyceride…

  16. Interpersonal Relationship Styles in Marathon Group Therapy: A Study with Illicit Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Bridges, Ned

    1983-01-01

    Assessed how illegal drug users (N=12) related to one another during a 16-hour unstructured group marathon. Interaction analysis supported the effectiveness of the marathon group. Members and facilitators were able to relate to each other by confronting significant behaviors and receiving feedback about ways to cope with personal problems. (JAC)

  17. Marathon Group Counseling with Illicit Drug Abusers: Effects on Self-Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Compared effects, for illicit drug abusers, of five 16-hour unstructured marathon groups, and five matched, randomly selected control groups. Used semantic differential consisting of the specific adjective pairs and the evaluative scale of the concept My Real Self. Marathon group members rated some adjective pairs differently and rated the…

  18. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students one and four weeks following their group experience. It also studied the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization during a marathon. Generally, the group experience did increase self-actualization and the…

  19. The Social Determinants of Infant Mortality and Birth Outcomes in Western Developed Nations: A Cross-Country Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Daniel; Saada, Adrianna

    2013-01-01

    Infant mortality (IM) and birth outcomes, key population health indicators, have lifelong implications for individuals, and are unequally distributed globally. Even among western industrialized nations, striking cross-country and within-country patterns are evident. We sought to better understand these variations across and within the United States of America (USA) and Western Europe (WE), by conceptualizing a social determinants of IM/birth outcomes framework, and systematically reviewing the empirical literature on hypothesized social determinants (e.g., social policies, neighbourhood deprivation, individual socioeconomic status (SES)) and intermediary determinants (e.g., health behaviours). To date, the evidence suggests that income inequality and social policies (e.g., maternal leave policies) may help to explain cross-country variations in IM/birth outcomes. Within countries, the evidence also supports neighbourhood SES (USA, WE) and income inequality (USA) as social determinants. By contrast, within-country social cohesion/social capital has been underexplored. At the individual level, mixed associations have been found between individual SES, race/ethnicity, and selected intermediary factors (e.g., psychosocial factors) with IM/birth outcomes. Meanwhile, this review identifies several methodological gaps, including the underuse of prospective designs and the presence of residual confounding in a number of studies. Ultimately, addressing such gaps including through novel approaches to strengthen causal inference and implementing both health and non-health policies may reduce inequities in IM/birth outcomes across the western developed world. PMID:23739649

  20. Biomechanical characteristics and speed adaptation during kick double poling on roller skis in elite cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Göpfert, Caroline; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Stöggl, Thomas; Müller, Erich; Lindinger, Stefan Josef

    2013-06-01

    Recent developments in cross-country ski racing should promote the use of kick double poling. This technique, however, has not been the focus in athletes' training and has barely been investigated. The aims of the present study were to develop a function-based phase definition and to analyse speed adaptation mechanisms for kick double poling in elite cross-country skiers. Joint kinematics and pole/plantar forces were recorded in 10 athletes while performing kick double poling at three submaximal roller skiing speeds. A speed increase was associated with increases in cycle length and rate, while absolute poling and leg push-off durations shortened. Despite maintained impulses of force, the peak and average pole/leg forces increased. During double poling and leg push-off, ranges of motion of elbow flexion and extension increased (p < 0.05) and were maintained for hip/knee flexion and extension. Cycle length increase was correlated to increases in average poling force (r = 0.71) and arm swing time (r = 0.88; both p < 0.05). The main speed adaptation was achieved by changes in double poling technique; however, leg push-off showed high variability among elite skiers, thus illustrating important aspects for technique training. PMID:23898688

  1. Airway inflammation, cough and athlete quality of life in elite female cross-country skiers: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M D; Davidson, W J; Wong, L E; Traves, S L; Leigh, R; Eves, N D

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a season of cross-country training and racing on airway inflammation, cough symptoms, and athlete quality of life in female skiers. Eighteen elite female skiers performed sputum induction and completed the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) and the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire (REST-Q) at three time points (T1 - May/Jun, T2 - Oct/Nov, T3 - Jan-Mar) during the year. No changes were observed between T1 and T2. However, an increase in sputum eosinophils and lymphocytes (P < 0.05) and a significant change in all three domains of the LCQ were observed between T1 and T3 (P < 0.05). A significant association was found between the total yearly hours of training and the change in the total cell count (r(2)  = 0.74; P = 0.006), and a number of other sputum cell counts between T1 and T3. No changes were observed for any domain of the REST-Q. The results of this study demonstrate that airway inflammation and cough symptoms are significantly increased in elite female cross-country skiers across a year of training and racing. The increase in airway inflammation is related to the total amount of training and is worse during the winter months when athletes are training and racing in cold, dry air. PMID:26283581

  2. Completing the results of the 2013 Boston marathon.

    PubMed

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches. PMID:24727904

  3. Completing the Results of the 2013 Boston Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Hammerling, Dorit; Cefalu, Matthew; Cisewski, Jessi; Dominici, Francesca; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Paulson, Charles; Smith, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    The 2013 Boston marathon was disrupted by two bombs placed near the finish line. The bombs resulted in three deaths and several hundred injuries. Of lesser concern, in the immediate aftermath, was the fact that nearly 6,000 runners failed to finish the race. We were approached by the marathon's organizers, the Boston Athletic Association (BAA), and asked to recommend a procedure for projecting finish times for the runners who could not complete the race. With assistance from the BAA, we created a dataset consisting of all the runners in the 2013 race who reached the halfway point but failed to finish, as well as all runners from the 2010 and 2011 Boston marathons. The data consist of split times from each of the 5 km sections of the course, as well as the final 2.2 km (from 40 km to the finish). The statistical objective is to predict the missing split times for the runners who failed to finish in 2013. We set this problem in the context of the matrix completion problem, examples of which include imputing missing data in DNA microarray experiments, and the Netflix prize problem. We propose five prediction methods and create a validation dataset to measure their performance by mean squared error and other measures. The best method used local regression based on a K-nearest-neighbors algorithm (KNN method), though several other methods produced results of similar quality. We show how the results were used to create projected times for the 2013 runners and discuss potential for future application of the same methodology. We present the whole project as an example of reproducible research, in that we are able to make the full data and all the algorithms we have used publicly available, which may facilitate future research extending the methods or proposing completely different approaches. PMID:24727904

  4. Acute renal failure in the "Comrades Marathon" runners.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Y K; Aboo, N; Naicker, S; Parsoo, I

    This study investigated the clinical and biochemical features of acute renal failure in marathon runners. Over a period of 18 years (1969-1986), 19 patients were admitted to the renal unit. The histories and biochemical data of 4 patients seen in 1986 are described. The pathophysiology of acute renal failure is multifactorial and is the combined effect of rhabdomyolysis, dehydration, hypotension, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and hyperuricaemia. Efforts to correct dehydration have resulted in a decrease in the incidence of acute renal failure. The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is to be deprecated and efforts should be made to publicize this harmful effect. PMID:2485484

  5. Application of an off-road mobility model to autonomous cross-country routing of unmanned ground vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, Christopher L.; Jones, Randolph A.; Gates, Burhman Q., Jr.

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the application of an Army-standard legacy off-road mobility model to cross-country route planning and negotiation by unmanned ground vehicles. A planned route is created from a movement map generated from existing terrain data. An unmanned ground vehicle negotiates the planned route and makes local routing adjustments based on a trafficability assessment of terrain features which are observed from the platform. This research leverages results from other work investigating the scalability of the existing legacy off-road mobility model to small vehicles (<500 kg). The legacy mobility model is the NATO Reference Mobility Model II (NRMM II), a standard for combat mobility modeling and procurement since the mid-90's.

  6. Cardiac Output and Performance during a Marathon Race in Middle-Aged Recreational Runners

    PubMed Central

    Billat, Véronique L.; Petot, Hélène; Landrain, Morgan; Meilland, Renaud; Koralsztein, Jean Pierre; Mille-Hamard, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Despite the increasing popularity of marathon running, there are no data on the responses of stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) to exercise in this context. We sought to establish whether marathon performance is associated with the ability to sustain high fractional use of maximal SV and CO (i.e, cardiac endurance) and/or CO, per meter (i.e., cardiac cost). Methods. We measured the SV, heart rate (HR), CO, and running speed of 14 recreational runners in an incremental, maximal laboratory test and then during a real marathon race (mean performance: 3 hr 30 min ± 45 min). Results. Our data revealed that HR, SV and CO were all in a high but submaximal steady state during the marathon (87.0 ± 1.6%, 77.2 ± 2.6%, and 68.7 ± 2.8% of maximal values, respectively). Marathon performance was inversely correlated with an upward drift in the CO/speed ratio (mL of CO × m−1) (r = −0.65, P < 0.01) and positively correlated with the runner's ability to complete the race at a high percentage of the speed at maximal SV (r = 0.83, P < 0.0002). Conclusion. Our results showed that marathon performance is inversely correlated with cardiac cost and positively correlated with cardiac endurance. The CO response could be a benchmark for race performance in recreational marathon runners. PMID:22645458

  7. Male and female Ethiopian and Kenyan runners are the fastest and the youngest in both half and full marathon.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Onywera, Vincent O; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    In major marathon races such as the 'World Marathon Majors', female and male East African runners particularly from Ethiopia and Kenya are the fastest. However, whether this trend appears for female and male Ethiopians and Kenyans at recreational level runners (i.e. races at national level) and in shorter road races (e.g. in half-marathon races) has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine differences in the performance and the age of female and male runners from East Africa (i.e. Ethiopians and Kenyans) between half- and full marathons. Data from 508,108 athletes (125,894 female and 328,430 male half-marathoners and 10,205 female and 43,489 male marathoners) originating from 126 countries and competing between 1999 and 2014 in all road-based half-marathons and marathons held in one country (Switzerland) were analysed using Chi square (χ(2)) tests, mixed-effects regression analyses and one-way analyses of variance. In half-marathons, 48 women (0.038 %) and 63 men (0.019 %) were from Ethiopia and 80 women (0.063 %) and 134 men (0.040 %) from Kenya. In marathons, three women (0.029 %) and 15 men (0.034 %) were from Ethiopia and two women (0.019 %) and 33 men (0.075 %) from Kenya. There was no statistically significant association between the nationality of East Africans and the format of a race. In both women and men, the fastest race times in half-marathons and marathons were achieved by East African runners (p < 0.001). Ethiopian and Kenyan runners were the youngest in both sexes and formats of race (p < 0.001). In summary, women and men from Ethiopia and Kenya, despite they accounted for <0.1 % in half-marathons and marathons, achieved the fastest race times and were the youngest in both half-marathons and marathons. These findings confirmed in the case of half-marathon the trend previously observed in marathon races for a better performance and a younger age in East African runners from Ethiopia and Kenya. PMID

  8. Impact of Environmental Parameters on Marathon Running Performance

    PubMed Central

    El Helou, Nour; Tafflet, Muriel; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Tolaini, Julien; Marc, Andy; Guillaume, Marion; Hausswirth, Christophe; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to describe the distribution of all runners' performances in the largest marathons worldwide and to determine which environmental parameters have the maximal impact. Methods We analysed the results of six European (Paris, London, Berlin) and American (Boston, Chicago, New York) marathon races from 2001 to 2010 through 1,791,972 participants' performances (all finishers per year and race). Four environmental factors were gathered for each of the 60 races: temperature (°C), humidity (%), dew point (°C), and the atmospheric pressure at sea level (hPA); as well as the concentrations of four atmospheric pollutants: NO2 – SO2 – O3 and PM10 (μg.m−3). Results All performances per year and race are normally distributed with distribution parameters (mean and standard deviation) that differ according to environmental factors. Air temperature and performance are significantly correlated through a quadratic model. The optimal temperatures for maximal mean speed of all runners vary depending on the performance level. When temperature increases above these optima, running speed decreases and withdrawal rates increase. Ozone also impacts performance but its effect might be linked to temperature. The other environmental parameters do not have any significant impact. Conclusions The large amount of data analyzed and the model developed in this study highlight the major influence of air temperature above all other climatic parameter on human running capacity and adaptation to race conditions. PMID:22649525

  9. Running a Marathon Induces Changes in Adipokine Levels and in Markers of Cartilage Degradation – Novel Role for Resistin

    PubMed Central

    Vuolteenaho, Katriina; Leppänen, Tiina; Kekkonen, Riina; Korpela, Riitta; Moilanen, Eeva

    2014-01-01

    Running a marathon causes strenuous joint loading and increased energy expenditure. Adipokines regulate energy metabolism, but recent studies have indicated that they also exert a role in cartilage degradation in arthritis. Our aim was to investigate the effects of running a marathon on the levels of adipokines and indices of cartilage metabolism. Blood samples were obtained from 46 male marathoners before and after a marathon run. We measured levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), cartilage oligomeric protein (COMP) and chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40) as biomarkers of cartilage turnover and/or damage and plasma concentrations of adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin. Mean marathon time was 3∶30∶46±0∶02∶46 (h:min:sec). The exertion more than doubled MMP-3 levels and this change correlated negatively with the marathon time (r = –0.448, p = 0.002). YKL-40 levels increased by 56% and the effect on COMP release was variable. Running a marathon increased the levels of resistin and adiponectin, while leptin levels remained unchanged. The marathon-induced changes in resistin levels were positively associated with the changes in MMP-3 (r = 0.382, p = 0.009) and YKL-40 (r = 0.588, p<0.001) and the pre-marathon resistin levels correlated positively with the marathon induced change in YKL-40 (r = 0.386, p = 0.008). The present results show the impact of running a marathon, and possible load frequency, on cartilage metabolism: the faster the marathon was run, the greater was the increase in MMP-3 levels. Further, the results introduce pro-inflammatory adipocytokine resistin as a novel factor, which enhances during marathon race and associates with markers of cartilage degradation. PMID:25333960

  10. Rapid molecular TB diagnosis: evidence, policy making and global implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF.

    PubMed

    Weyer, Karin; Mirzayev, Fuad; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Zignol, Matteo; Floyd, Katherine; Centis, Rosella; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tortoli, Enrico; Gilpin, Chris; de Dieu Iragena, Jean; Falzon, Dennis; Raviglione, Mario

    2013-07-01

    If tuberculosis (TB) is to be eliminated as a global health problem in the foreseeable future, improved detection of patients, earlier diagnosis and timely identification of rifampicin resistance will be critical. New diagnostics released in recent years have improved this perspective but they require investments in laboratory infrastructure, biosafety and staff specialisation beyond the means of many resource-constrained settings where most patients live. Xpert MTB/RIF, a new assay employing automated nucleic acid amplification to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as mutations that confer rifampicin resistance, holds the promise to largely overcome these operational challenges. In this article we position Xpert MTB/RIF in today's TB diagnostic landscape and describe its additional potential as an adjunct to surveillance and surveys, taking into account considerations of pricing and ethics. In what could serve as a model for the future formulation of new policy on diagnostics, we trace the unique process by which the World Health Organization consulted international expertise and systematically assessed published evidence and freshly emerging experience from the field ahead of its endorsement of the Xpert MTB/RIF technology in 2010, summarise subsequent research findings and guidance on who to test and how, and provide perspectives on scaling up the new technology. PMID:23180585

  11. Reduction in Post-Marathon Peak Oxygen Consumption: Sign of Cardiac Fatigue in Amateur Runners?

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, Ana Paula Rennó; da Silveira, Anderson Donelli; Francisco, Ricardo Contesini; Barretto, Rodrigo Bellios de Mattos; Sierra, Carlos Anibal; Meneghelo, Romeu Sergio; Kiss, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal Molin; Ghorayeb, Nabil; Stein, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolonged aerobic exercise, such as running a marathon, produces supraphysiological stress that can affect the athlete's homeostasis. Some degree of transient myocardial dysfunction ("cardiac fatigue") can be observed for several days after the race. Objective To verify if there are changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity, and cardiac inotropy and lusitropy in amateur marathoners after running a marathon. Methods The sample comprised 6 male amateur runners. All of them underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) one week before the São Paulo Marathon, and 3 to 4 days after that race. They underwent echocardiography 24 hours prior to and immediately after the marathon. All subjects were instructed not to exercise, to maintain their regular diet, ingest the same usual amount of liquids, and rest at least 8 hours a day in the period preceding the CPET. Results The athletes completed the marathon in 221.5 (207; 250) minutes. In the post-marathon CPET, there was a significant reduction in peak oxygen consumption and peak oxygen pulse compared to the results obtained before the race (50.75 and 46.35 mL.kg-1 .min-1; 19.4 and 18.1 mL.btm, respectively). The echocardiography showed a significant reduction in the s' wave (inotropic marker), but no significant change in the E/e' ratio (lusitropic marker). Conclusions In amateur runners, the marathon seems to promote changes in the cardiopulmonary capacity identified within 4 days after the race, with a reduction in the cardiac contractility. Such changes suggest that some degree of "cardiac fatigue" can occur. PMID:26760783

  12. Neuromuscular Consequences of an Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Guillaume Y.; Tomazin, Katja; Verges, Samuel; Vincent, Christopher; Bonnefoy, Régis; Boisson, Renée-Claude; Gergelé, Laurent; Féasson, Léonard; Martin, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the physiological consequences of one of the most extreme exercises realized by humans in race conditions: a 166-km mountain ultra-marathon (MUM) with 9500 m of positive and negative elevation change. For this purpose, (i) the fatigue induced by the MUM and (ii) the recovery processes over two weeks were assessed. Evaluation of neuromuscular function (NMF) and blood markers of muscle damage and inflammation were performed before and immediately following (n = 22), and 2, 5, 9 and 16 days after the MUM (n = 11) in experienced ultra-marathon runners. Large maximal voluntary contraction decreases occurred after MUM (−35% [95% CI: −28 to −42%] and −39% [95% CI: −32 to −46%] for KE and PF, respectively), with alteration of maximal voluntary activation, mainly for KE (−19% [95% CI: −7 to −32%]). Significant modifications in markers of muscle damage and inflammation were observed after the MUM as suggested by the large changes in creatine kinase (from 144±94 to 13,633±12,626 UI L−1), myoglobin (from 32±22 to 1,432±1,209 µg L−1), and C-Reactive Protein (from <2.0 to 37.7±26.5 mg L−1). Moderate to large reductions in maximal compound muscle action potential amplitude, high-frequency doublet force, and low frequency fatigue (index of excitation-contraction coupling alteration) were also observed for both muscle groups. Sixteen days after MUM, NMF had returned to initial values, with most of the recovery process occurring within 9 days of the race. These findings suggest that the large alterations in NMF after an ultra-marathon race are multi-factorial, including failure of excitation-contraction coupling, which has never been described after prolonged running. It is also concluded that as early as two weeks after such an extreme running exercise, maximal force capacities have returned to baseline. PMID:21364944

  13. A multiplexed nucleic acid microsystem for point-of-care detection of HIV co-infection with MTB and PCP.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lingjia; Kong, Jilie

    2013-12-15

    Many individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), especially children in African countries, die of co-infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) (coinfection rate: 50%) or Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) (coinfection rate: 81%). The present proposal describes a rapid, portable, low-cost, multiplexed point-of-care diagnostic technique for simultaneously detecting HIV, MTB, and PCP. This technique incorporates a creative micro-device (hardware) and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification strategy (software). PMID:24209377

  14. Alumina+Silica+/-Germanium Alteration in Smectite-Bearing Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater Rim, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Gellert, R.; Van Bommel, S.; Arvidson, R. E.; Clark, B. C.; Ming, D. W.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Fox, V. K.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.

    2016-01-01

    Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring Mars for 12+ years, and is presently investigating the geology of a western rim segment of 22 kilometers diameter, Noachian- aged Endeavour crater. The Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer has determined the compositions of a pre-impact lithology, the Matijevic fm., and polymict impact breccias ejected from the crater, the Shoemaker fm. Opportunity is now investigating a region named Marathon Valley that cuts southwest-northeast through the central portion of the rim segment and provides a window into the lower stratigraphic record. (Geographic names used here are informal.) At the head of Marathon Valley, referred to here as Upper Marathon Valley, is a shallow, ovoid depression approximately 25×35 millimeters in size, named Spirit of Saint Louis. Layering inside Spirit of Saint Louis appears continuous with the Upper Marathon Valley rocks outside, indicating they are coeval. Spirit of Saint Louis is partly bounded by approximately 10-20 centimeters wide zone containing reddish altered rocks (red zone). Red zones also form prominent curvilinear features in Marathon Valley. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) spectra provide evidence for a really extensive Fe-Mg smectite in the Marathon Valley region, indicating distinct styles of aqueous alteration. The CRISM detections of smectites are based on metal-OH absorptions at approximately 2.3 and 2.4 micron that are at least two times the background noise level.

  15. Changes of Hematological Markers during a Multi-stage Ultra-marathon Competition in the Heat.

    PubMed

    Rama, L M; Minuzzi, L G; Carvalho, H M; Costa, R J S; Teixeira, A M

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the changes in resting hematological variables in ultra-endurance runners throughout a multi-stage ultra-marathon competition, and compared athletes that completed all stages with those that failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time of competition. 19 ultra-endurance runners competing in a 230 km multi-stage ultra-marathon, conducted over 5 consecutive days in hot ambient conditions (32-40°C T(max)), volunteered to participate in the study. Each day, whole blood samples were collected prior to stage commencement and analyzed for full cell counts by Coulter counter. Linear increases were observed for leukocytes, monocytes and lymphocytes; with increases until Stage 3 and a decrease thereafter. Granulocytes showed a cubic growth exponent, indicating decrements to baseline after the significant increments until Stage 3. Hemoglobin and hematocrit showed linear decrements throughout the multi-stage ultra-marathon. No changes in erythrocytes and platelets were observed throughout the multi-stage ultra-marathon. Granulocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin and hematocrit changes along the multi-stage ultra-marathon differed in runners that completed all stages compared to those who failed to complete at least one stage within the cut-off time. Multi-stage ultra-marathon in the heat has a large impact on hematological responses of ultra-endurance runners associated with altered performance. PMID:26509375

  16. [Cross-country and downhill skiing in patients with myocardial infarct. Can silent ischemia be prevented by drug therapy?].

    PubMed

    Völker, K; Hoppe, B; Krestin, M; Rost, R

    1990-05-10

    The appearance of ST segment depression in the exercise ECG serves as a threshold criterion when it comes to determining the "loadability" of myocardial infarction patients carrying out sports activities. In 27 MI patients, the question was investigated as to the extent to which abnormalities taking the form of silent ischemic episodes could be found during cross-country skiing on plains or during downhill skiing at an altitude of 800 to 2,000 meters. Such silent ischemic attacks were found in 20 out of the 27 patients. Both the duration and incidence were higher during sports activities than during normal day-to-day activities. The heart rate at the time of the appearance of the ischemic episodes was lower in the 12-hour ECG than during ergometry. During sports activities, however, the heart rates were frequently higher than the given training pulse rates. Treatment with nitrates (Isoket retard 120 mg) reduced the incidence and duration of silent ischemias. On account of the spontaneous variability of the parameter, it needs to be interpreted with caution. The incidence of silent ischemic episodes during sports activities in patients with clinical anomalies should prompt a rigorous treatment with drugs, and careful supervision of training. PMID:2373455

  17. Cross-country comparisons of health-care costs: the case of cancer treatment in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Kalseth, Jorid; Halvorsen, Thomas; Kalseth, Birgitte; Sarheim Anthun, Kjartan; Peltola, Mikko; Kautiainen, Kirsi; Häkkinen, Unto; Medin, Emma; Lundgren, Jonatan; Rehnberg, Clas; Másdóttir, Birna Björg; Heimisdottir, Maria; Bjarnadóttir, Helga Hrefna; Køtlum, Jóanis Erik; Kilsmark, Janni; Halsteinli, Vidar

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a cross-country comparison of cancer treatment costs in the Nordic countries, and to demonstrate the added value of decomposing documented costs in interpreting national differences. The study is based on individual-level data from national patient and prescription drug registers, and data on cancer prevalence from the NORDCAN database. Hospital costs were estimated on the basis of information on diagnosis-related groups (DRG) cost weights and national unit costs. Differences in per capita costs were decomposed into two stages: stage one separated the price and volume components, and stage two decomposed the volume component, relating the level of activity to service needs and availability. Differences in the per capita costs of cancer treatment between the Nordic countries may be as much as 30 per cent. National differences in the costs of treatment mirror observed differences in total health care costs. Differences in health care costs between countries may relate to different sources of variation with different policy implications. Comparisons of per capita spending alone can be misleading if the purpose is to evaluate, for example, differences in service provision and utilisation. The decomposition analysis helps to identify the relative influence of differences in the prevalence of cancer, service utilisation and productivity. PMID:24462342

  18. Possible asphyxiation from carbon dioxide of a cross-country skier in eastern California: a deadly volcanic hazard.

    PubMed

    Hill, P M

    2000-01-01

    This report describes an incident in which exceedingly high levels of carbon dioxide may have contributed to the death of a skier in eastern California. A cross-country skier was found dead inside a large, mostly covered snow cave, 1 day after he was reported missing. The autopsy report suggests that the skier died of acute pulmonary edema consistent with asphyxiation; carbon dioxide measurements inside the hole in which he was found reached 70%. This area is known for having a high carbon dioxide flux attributed to degassing of a large body of magma (molten rock) 10 to 20 km beneath the ski area. The literature describes many incidents of fatal carbon dioxide exposures associated with volcanic systems in other parts of the world. We believe this case represents the first reported death associated with volcanically produced carbon dioxide in the United States. Disaster and wilderness medicine specialists should be aware of and plan for this potential health hazard associated with active volcanoes. PMID:11055566

  19. [The application of the emulsified turpentine baths for the correction of the functional state of the cross-country skiers].

    PubMed

    Garnov, I O; Kuchin, A V; Loginova, T P; Varlamova, N G; Boiko, E R

    2016-01-01

    The baths with emulsified turpentine find the wide application in balneotherapy. They produce especially pronounced beneficial prophylactic effects in the patients presenting with microtrombosis and microvascular stasis. Moreover, these baths may be prescribed to improve microcirculation, increase the functional reserves and physical capacity in the athletes. At the same time, the current literature appears to contain no scientific publications on the application of emulsified turpentine baths for the restoration of the physical capacity of the professional ski runners. The lack of relevant information motivated the study reported in the present article. The main objective of the study involving 10 subjects was to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified emulsified turpentine baths as a method by which to restore and enhance the physical capacity of the professional cross-country skiers. The physical capacity of the athletes was evaluated from the results of the bicycle ergometer exercise test with the use of the «Oxycon Pro» system. The data obtained suggest that a course of the emulsified turpentine baths increases the activity of the cardiorespiratory system, improves the physical capacity, and enhances the functional reserves of the body in the anaerobic zone. PMID:27213946

  20. Performance differences when using 26- and 29-inch-wheel bikes in Swiss National Team cross-country mountain bikers.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Thomas; Müller, Beat; Maier, Thomas; Wehrlin, Jon Peter

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of bike type - the 26-inch-wheel bike (26" bike) and the 29-inch-wheel bike (29" bike) - on performance in elite mountain bikers. Ten Swiss National Team athletes (seven males, three females) completed six trials with individual start on a simulated cross-country course with 35 min of active recovery between trials (three trials on a 26" bike and three trials on a 29" bike, alternate order, randomised start-bike). The course consisted of two separate sections expected to favour either the 29" bike (section A) or the 26" bike (section B). For each trial performance, power output, cadence and heart rate were recorded and athletes' experiences were documented. Mean overall performance (time: 304 ± 27 s vs. 311 ± 29 s; P < 0.01) and performance in sections A (P < 0.001) and B (P < 0.05) were better when using the 29" bike. No significant differences were observed for power output, cadence or heart rate. Athletes rated the 29" bike as better for performance in general, passing obstacles and traction. The 29" bike supports superior performance for elite mountain bikers, even on sections supposed to favour the 26" bike. PMID:26635310

  1. [Sudden cardiac death during a city marathon run].

    PubMed

    Beutler, J; Schmid, E; Fischer, S; Hürlimann, S; Konrad, C

    2015-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) in young athletes during physical stress is a rare event with an incidence of 1-3 deaths per 100,000 athletes per year. A coronary anomaly is the second most common cause of death following hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Symptomatic prodromes occur in 20% of cases prior to the SCD event. This case report describes a 35-year-old male who collapsed near the finishing line of a half marathon run. Despite immediate resuscitation attempts and initial return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), a pulseless electrical activity (PEA) followed and the patient died 1 h after arrival in the resuscitation unit. The autopsy revealed an anomalous left coronary artery (ALCA), which can lead to ischemia of the respective heart muscles under severe stress. PMID:26031561

  2. Exercise and neuromodulators: choline and acetylcholine in marathon runners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlay, L. A.; Sabounjian, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    Certain neurotransmitters (i.e., acetylcholine, catecholamines, and serotonin) are formed from dietary constituents (i.e., choline, tyrosine and tryptophan). Changing the consumption of these precursors alters release of their respective neurotransmitter products. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released from the neuromuscular junction and from brain. It is formed from choline, a common constituent in fish, liver, and eggs. Choline is also incorporated into cell membranes; membranes may likewise serve as an alternative choline source for acetylcholine synthesis. In trained athletes, running a 26 km marathon reduced plasma choline by approximately 40%, from 14.1 to 8.4 uM. Changes of similar magnitude have been shown to reduce acetylcholine release from the neuromuscular junction in vivo. Thus, the reductions in plasma choline associated with strenuous exercise may reduce acetylcholine release, and could thereby affect endurance or performance.

  3. MicroRNAs as Biomarkers for Acute Atrial Remodeling in Marathon Runners (The miRathon Study – A Sub-Study of the Munich Marathon Study)

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrand, Bianca; Kääb, Stefan; Hoster, Eva; Klier, Ina; Martens, Eimo; Hanley, Alan; Hanssen, Henner; Halle, Martin; Nickel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity is beneficial for individual health, but endurance sport is associated with the development of arrhythmias like atrial fibrillation. The underlying mechanisms leading to this increased risk are still not fully understood. MicroRNAs are important mediators of proarrhythmogenic remodeling and have potential value as biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, the objective of our study was to determine the value of circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers for atrial remodeling in marathon runners (miRathon study). Methods 30 marathon runners were recruited into our study and were divided into two age-matched groups depending on the training status: elite (ER, ≥55 km/week, n = 15) and non-elite runners (NER, ≤40 km/week, n = 15). All runners participated in a 10 week training program before the marathon. MiRNA plasma levels were measured at 4 time points: at baseline (V1), after a 10 week training period (V2), immediately after the marathon (V3) and 24h later (V4). Additionally, we obtained clinical data including serum chemistry and echocardiography at each time point. Results MiRNA plasma levels were similar in both groups over time with more pronounced changes in ER. After the marathon miR-30a plasma levels increased significantly in both groups. MiR-1 and miR-133a plasma levels also increased but showed significant changes in ER only. 24h after the marathon plasma levels returned to baseline. MiR-26a decreased significantly after the marathon in elite runners only and miR-29b showed a non-significant decrease over time in both groups. In ER miRNA plasma levels showed a significant correlation with LA diameter, in NER miRNA plasma levels did not correlate with echocardiographic parameters. Conclusion MiRNAs were differentially expressed in the plasma of marathon runners with more pronounced changes in ER. Plasma levels in ER correlate with left atrial diameter suggesting that circulating miRNAs could potentially serve

  4. Foot-strike pattern and performance in a marathon

    PubMed Central

    Kasmer, Mark E.; Liu, Xue-cheng; Roberts, Kyle G.; Valadao, Jason M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To: 1) determine prevalence of heel-strike in a mid-size city marathon, 2) determine if there is an association between foot-strike classification and race performance, and 3) determine if there is an association between foot-strike classification and gender. Methods Foot-strike classification (fore-foot strike, mid-foot strike, heel strike, or split-strike), gender, and rank (position in race) were recorded at the 8.1 kilometer (km) mark for 2,112 runners at the 2011 Milwaukee Lakefront Marathon. Results 1,991 runners were classified by foot-strike pattern, revealing a heel-strike prevalence of 93.67% (n=1,865). A significant difference between foot-strike classification and performance was found using a Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.0001), with more elite performers being less likely to heel-strike. No significant difference between foot-strike classification and gender was found using a Fisher’s exact test. Additionally, subgroup analysis of the 126 non-heel strikers found no significant difference between shoe wear and performance using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Conclusions The high prevalence of heel-striking observed in this study reflects the foot-strike pattern of the majority of mid- to long-distance runners and more importantly, may predict their injury profile based on the biomechanics of a heel strike running pattern. This knowledge can aid the clinician in the appropriate diagnosis, management, and training modifications of the injured runner. PMID:23006790

  5. Influence of chronic exercise on carotid atherosclerosis in marathon runners

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Beth A; Zaleski, Amanda L; Capizzi, Jeffrey A; Ballard, Kevin D; Troyanos, Christopher; Baggish, Aaron L; D'Hemecourt, Pierre A; Dada, Marcin R; Thompson, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The effect of habitual, high-intensity exercise training on the progression of atherosclerosis is unclear. We assessed indices of vascular health (central systolic blood pressure (SBP) and arterial stiffness as well as carotid intima-medial thickness (cIMT)) in addition to cardiovascular risk factors of trained runners versus their untrained spouses or partners to evaluate the impact of exercise on the development of carotid atherosclerosis. Setting field study at Boston Marathon. Participants 42 qualifiers (mean age±SD: 46±13 years, 21 women) for the 2012 Boston Marathon and their sedentary domestic controls (46±12 years, n=21 women). Outcomes We measured medical and running history, vital signs, anthropometrics, blood lipids, C reactive protein (CRP), 10 years Framingham risk, central arterial stiffness and SBP and cIMT. Results Multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including CRP, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, heart rate, body weight and body mass index (all p<0.05), were reduced in the runners. The left and right cIMT, as well as central SBP, were not different between the two groups (all p>0.31) and were associated with age (all r≥0.41; p<0.01) and Framingham risk score (all r≥0.44; p<0.01) independent of exercise group (all p>0.08 for interactions). The amplification of the central pressure waveform (augmentation pressure at heart rate 75 bpm) was also not different between the two groups (p=0.07) but was related to age (p<0.01) and group (p=0.02) in a multiple linear regression model. Conclusions Habitual endurance exercise improves the cardiovascular risk profile, but does not reduce the magnitude of carotid atherosclerosis associated with age and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:24531453

  6. Reliability, factor structure, and measurement invariance of the Dominic Interactive across European countries: Cross-country utility of a child mental health self-report.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Rowella C W M; Otten, Roy; Vermulst, Ad A; Pez, Ondine; Bitfoi, Adina; Carta, Mauro; Goelitz, Dietmar; Keyes, Katherine; Koç, Ceren; Lesinskiene, Sigita; Mihova, Zlatka; Engels, Rutger C M E; Kovess, Viviane

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale international surveys are important to globally evaluate, monitor, and promote children's mental health. However, use of young children's self-reports in these studies is still controversial. The Dominic Interactive, a computerized DSM-IV-based child mental health self-report questionnaire, has unique characteristics that may make it preeminently appropriate for usage in cross-country comparisons. This study aimed to determine scale score reliabilities (omega) of the Dominic Interactive in a sample of 8,135 primary school children, ages 6-11 years old, in 7 European countries, to confirm the proposed 7-scale factor structure, and to test for measurement invariance of scale and item scores across countries. Omega reliability values for scale scores were good to high in every country, and the factor structure was confirmed for all countries. A thorough examination of measurement invariance provided evidence for cross-country test score comparability of 5 of the 7 scales and partial scale score invariance of 2 anxiety scales. Possible explanations for this partial invariance include cross-country differences in conceptualizing items and defining what is socially and culturally acceptable anxiety. The convincing evidence for validity of score interpretation makes the Dominic Interactive an indispensable tool for cross-country screening purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26237209

  7. Track and Field Guide including Cross Country, Pentathlon Scoring Tables and Rules for Intercollegiate Meets and Championships with Official Rules. Janauary 1974-January 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Donnis H., Ed.

    This guide includes information on cross country running, pentathlon scoring tables, and rules for intercollegiate meets and championships, following an introductory portion on the organization's credo and standards. The first section covers track activities for children, coaching techniques, the benefits of weight training, and some practical…

  8. Spinal alignment, mobility of the hip and thoracic spine and prevalence of low back pain in young elite cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Alricsson, Marie; Björklund, Glenn; Cronholm, Martin; Olsson, Oscar; Viklund, Peter; Svantesson, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between spinal alignment, mobility of the hips and the thoracic spine and low back pain in adolescent cross-country skiers. Cohort of 51 elite cross-country skiers from a cross-country skiing high school in Sweden participated in the study. Sagittal spinal alignment, active range of motion in flexion, extension and rotation of the thoracic spine as well as passive and active extension of the hips were measured. The participants also completed a questionnaire regarding training, competition, skiing technique and occurrence of low back pain. A simple linear regression was calculated to predict pain score based on thoraco-lumbar relation, with a significant (P<0.05) regression equation of y=−0.069x+2.280 (standard error of estimate, 0.034). Participants with greater lordosis than kyphosis were more likely to suffer from low back pain than subjects without this offset. Thoracic mobility and passive or active hip extension showed no correlation with low back pain. Sagittal spinal alignment seems to be related with low back pain among young elite cross-country skiers. This study shows that range of motion of the thoracic spine and hips do not have an effect on the prevalence of low back pain in this population. PMID:26933656

  9. Cross-Country Evidence on Teacher Performance Pay. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Papers Series. PEPG 10-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woessmann, Ludger

    2010-01-01

    The general-equilibrium effects of performance-related teacher pay include long-term incentive and teacher-sorting mechanisms that usually elude experimental studies but are captured in cross-country comparisons. Combining country-level performance-pay measures with rich PISA-2003 international achievement microdata, this paper estimates…

  10. Influence of crank length on cycle ergometry performance of well-trained female cross-country mountain bike athletes.

    PubMed

    Macdermid, Paul William; Edwards, Andrew M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the differential effects of three commonly used crank lengths (170, 172.5 and 175 mm) on performance measures relevant to female cross-country mountain bike athletes (n = 7) of similar stature. All trials were performed in a single blind and balanced order with a 5- to 7-day period between trials. Both saddle height and fore-aft position to pedal axle distance at a crank angle of 90 degrees was controlled across all trials. The laboratory tests comprised a supra-maximal (peak power-cadence); an isokinetic (50 rpm) test; and a maximal test of aerobic capacity. The time to reach supra-maximal peak power was significantly (P < 0.05) shorter in the 170 mm (2.57 +/- 0.79 s) condition compared to 175 mm (3.29 +/- 0.76 s). This effect represented a mean performance advantage of 27.8% for 170 mm compared to 175 mm. There was no further inter-condition differences between performance outcome measurements derived for the isokinetic (50 rpm) maximum power output, isokinetic (50 rpm) mean power output or indices of endurance performance. The decreased time to peak power with the greater rate of power development in the 170 mm condition suggests a race advantage may be achieved using a shorter crank length than commonly observed. Additionally, there was no impediment to either power output produced at low cadences or indices of endurance performance using the shorter crank length and the advantage of being able to respond quickly to a change in terrain could be of strategic importance to elite athletes. PMID:19771448

  11. Assessment of Heart Rate Variability Thresholds from Incremental Treadmill Tests in Five Cross-Country Skiing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Mendia-Iztueta, Ibai; Monahan, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of heart rate variability (HRV) thresholds (HRVTs) as an alternative of Ventilatory thresholds (VTs) is a relatively new approach with increasing popularity which has not been conducted in cross-country (XC) skiing yet. The main purpose of the present study was to assess HRVTs in the five main XC skiing-related techniques, double poling (DP), diagonal striding (DS), Nordic walking (NW), V1 skating (V1), and V2 skating (V2).Ten competitive skiers completed these incremental treadmill tests until exhaustion with a minimum of one to two recovery days in between each test. Ventilatory gases, HRV and poling frequencies were measured. The first HRV threshold (HRVT1) was assessed using two time-domain analysis methods, and the second HRV threshold (HRVT2) was assessed using two non-time varying frequency-domain analysis methods. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting the mean successive difference (MSD) and standard deviation (SD) of normalized R-R intervals to workload. HRVT1 was assessed by plotting high frequency power (HFP) and the HFP relative to respiratory sinus arrhythmia (HFPRSA) with workload. HRVTs were named after their methods (HRVT1-SD; HRVT1-MSD; HRVT2-HFP; HRVT2-HFP-RSA). The results showed that the only cases where the proposed HRVTs were good assessors of VTs were the HRVT1-SD of the DS test, the HRVT1-MSD of the DS and V2 tests, and the HRVT2-HFP-RSA of the NW test. The lack of a wider success of the assessment of HRVTs was reasoned to be mostly due to the high entrainment between the breathing and poling frequencies. As secondary finding, a novel Cardiolocomotor coupling mode was observed in the NW test. This new Cardiolocoomtor coupling mode corresponded to the whole bilateral poling cycle instead of corresponding to each poling action as it was reported to the date by the existing literature. PMID:26727112

  12. Risk Factors for Self-Reported Exercise-Related Leg Pain in High School Cross-Country Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Austin, Tricia M.; Hayes, Ann M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Prevention of exercise-related leg pain (ERLP) has not been successful because ERLP risk factors are not well known. Objective: To determine the percentage of high school cross-country (XC) athletes who reported a history of ERLP in their running careers, to identify the percentage of athletes who reported an occurrence of ERLP during 1 XC season, and to investigate the association of selected factors (age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, ERLP history, body mass index [BMI], foot type, and training distance) and the occurrence of ERLP. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Six local high schools. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred twenty-five high school XC athletes (62 females, 63 males). Main Outcome Measure(s): All athletes completed an initial ERLP questionnaire, and foot type was visually assessed. After the season, athletes were asked to complete a Web-based questionnaire regarding the seasonal occurrence of ERLP. Statistical analyses of differences (t tests) and associations (χ2, relative risk) were conducted. Results: A total of 103 of the 125 athletes (82.4%) reported a history of ERLP, with 81 athletes reporting ERLP occurrence within the month preceding completion of the initial questionnaire. Bilateral medial leg pain was the most common ERLP presentation. More than half of the athletes (58.4%) with an ERLP history reported that the pain had interfered with XC participation. Ninety-three athletes responded to the postseason questionnaire, and 45 (48.0%) reported ERLP seasonal occurrence. Most athletes (97.8%) who experienced the seasonal occurrence of ERLP had a history of ERLP. No associations were noted between ERLP history or seasonal occurrence and age, high school year, years of high school running, sex, BMI, foot type, or training distance. Conclusions: Both a history of ERLP and the seasonal occurrence of ERLP were common among these XC athletes. The only risk factor identified for ERLP season

  13. Clinical and Laboratory Responses of Cross-Country Skiing for a 24-H World Record: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Niemelä, Markus; Juvonen, Jukka; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Niemelä, Onni; Juvonen, Tatu

    2015-01-01

    The physiological consequences of ultra-endurance cross-country skiing in cold conditions are poorly known. We report here clinical, echocardiographic and laboratory findings from a 41-y old male elite skier in a world record trial for 24-h skiing. The athlete completed a total of 406.8 km outdoors with the temperature ranging between -24°C and –5°C during the 24-h period. Post exercise, notable increases from baseline values were observed in myoglobin (50-fold), creatinine kinase (30-fold) and proBNP (6-fold), whereas troponin T or troponin I levels remained unchanged. At baseline, echocardiographic findings showed cardiac hypertrophy and after skiing, a 5% reduction of left-ventricular end-diastolic dimension. Increases in markers of kidney (creatinine) and liver function (alanine aminotransferase), serum uric acid, C-reactive protein and white blood cell counts were also noted. In addition, electrolyte disturbances including hyponatremia, hypophosphatemia and hypocalcaemia were noted during the follow-up. The data indicates that a prolonged period of high-intensity skiing leads to muscle, heart and kidney affection and activation of inflammation even in an experienced elite skier. The observed health effects underscore the need for strict medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. Key points An elite athlete was able to ski over 400 km during 24 hours with an outdoor temperature ranging between –5 °C and –24 °C. Several postrace abnormalities occurred in biomarkers of muscle, heart, kidney, liver and inflammation status. Serum troponins, specific markers of myocardial cell damage, remained stable. The report supports careful medical surveillance of participants in extreme sports with long duration. PMID:26664265

  14. Effects of Sprint versus High-Intensity Aerobic Interval Training on Cross-Country Mountain Biking Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Allan; Impellizzeri, Franco M.; Pires, Flávio O.; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.; Deslandes, Andrea C.; Santos, Tony M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The current study compared the effects of high-intensity aerobic training (HIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) on mountain biking (MTB) race simulation performance and physiological variables, including peak power output (PPO), lactate threshold (LT) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA). Methods Sixteen mountain bikers (mean ± SD: age 32.1 ± 6.4 yr, body mass 69.2 ± 5.3 kg and VO2max 63.4 ± 4.5 mL∙kg-1∙min-1) completed graded exercise and MTB performance tests before and after six weeks of training. The HIT (7–10 x [4–6 min—highest sustainable intensity / 4–6 min—CR100 10–15]) and SIT (8–12 x [30 s—all-out intensity / 4 min—CR100 10–15]) protocols were included in the participants’ regular training programs three times per week. Results Post-training analysis showed no significant differences between training modalities (HIT vs. SIT) in body mass, PPO, LT or OBLA (p = 0.30 to 0.94). The Cohen’s d effect size (ES) showed trivial to small effects on group factor (p = 0.00 to 0.56). The interaction between MTB race time and training modality was almost significant (p = 0.08), with a smaller ES in HIT vs. SIT training (ES = -0.43). A time main effect (pre- vs. post-phases) was observed in MTB race performance and in several physiological variables (p = 0.001 to 0.046). Co-variance analysis revealed that the HIT (p = 0.043) group had significantly better MTB race performance measures than the SIT group. Furthermore, magnitude-based inferences showed HIT to be of likely greater benefit (83.5%) with a lower probability of harmful effects (0.8%) compared to SIT. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that six weeks of either HIT or SIT may be effective at increasing MTB race performance; however, HIT may be a preferable strategy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01944865 PMID:26789124

  15. Compression socks and functional recovery following marathon running: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen R; Harris, Gregory A

    2015-02-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running. Athletes (n = 33, age, 38.5 ± 7.2 years) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra, or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomized into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks before and 2 weeks after each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant. Thirty-three participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group, average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks after the marathon increased by 2.6% (52 ± 103 seconds). In the placebo group, run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62 ± 130 seconds), P = 0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared with placebo. The wearing of below-knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks after the event. PMID:25627452

  16. COMPRESSION SOCKS AND FUNCTIONAL RECOVERY FOLLOWING MARATHON RUNNING: A RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Stuart A; Till, Eloise S; Maloney, Stephen; Harris, Gregory

    2014-09-01

    Compression socks have become a popular recovery aid for distance running athletes. Although some physiological markers have been shown to be influenced by wearing these garments, scant evidence exists on their effects on functional recovery. This research aims to shed light onto whether the wearing of compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running can improve functional recovery, as measured by a timed treadmill test to exhaustion 14 days following marathon running.Athletes (n=33, age = 38.5 ±7.2yrs) participating in the 2012 Melbourne, 2013 Canberra or 2013 Gold Coast marathons were recruited and randomised into the compression sock or placebo group. A graded treadmill test to exhaustion was performed 2 weeks prior and 2 weeks following each marathon. Time to exhaustion, average and maximum heart rates were recorded. Participants were asked to wear their socks for 48 hours immediately after completion of the marathon. The change in treadmill times (seconds) was recorded for each participant.33 participants completed the treadmill protocols. In the compression group average treadmill run to exhaustion time 2 weeks following the marathon increased by 2.6% (52s ±103s). In the placebo group run to exhaustion time decreased by 3.4% (-62s ±130s). P=0.009. This shows a significant beneficial effect of compression socks on recovery compared to placebo.The wearing of below knee compression socks for 48 hours after marathon running has been shown to improve functional recovery as measured by a graduated treadmill test to exhaustion 2 weeks following the event. PMID:25187242

  17. Sex differences in elite swimming with advanced age are less than marathon running.

    PubMed

    Senefeld, J; Joyner, M J; Stevens, A; Hunter, S K

    2016-01-01

    The sex difference in marathon performance increases with finishing place and age of the runner but whether this occurs among swimmers is unknown. The purpose was to compare sex differences in swimming velocity across world record place (1st-10th), age group (25-89 years), and event distance. We also compared sex differences between freestyle swimming and marathon running. The world's top 10 swimming times of both sexes for World Championship freestyle stroke, backstroke, breaststroke, and butterfly events and the world's top 10 marathon times in 5-year age groups were obtained. Men were faster than women for freestyle (12.4 ± 4.2%), backstroke (12.8 ± 3.0%), and breaststroke (14.5 ± 3.2%), with the greatest sex differences for butterfly (16.7 ± 5.5%). The sex difference in swimming velocity increased across world record place for freestyle (P < 0.001), breaststroke, and butterfly for all age groups and distances (P < 0.001) because of a greater relative drop-off between first and 10th place for women. The sex difference in marathon running increased with the world record place and the sex difference for marathon running was greater than for swimming (P < 0.001). The sex difference in swimming increased with world record place and age, but was less than for marathon running. Collectively, these results suggest more depth in women's swimming than marathon running. PMID:25648250

  18. The effect of HIV coinfection, HAART and TB treatment on cytokine/chemokine responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) antigens in active TB patients and latently Mtb infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Kassa, Desta; de Jager, Wilco; Gebremichael, Gebremedhin; Alemayehu, Yodit; Ran, Leonie; Fransen, Justin; Wolday, Dawit; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Tegbaru, Belete; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; van Baarle, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    Identification of Mtb specific induced cytokine/chemokine host biomarkers could assist in developing novel diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic tools for TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, IL-10, IP-10 and MIP-1α were measured in supernatants of whole blood stimulated with Mtb specific fusion protein ESAT-6/CFP-10 using xMAP technology. The study groups were HIV positive TB patients (HIV(+)TB(+)), HIV negative TB patients (HIV(-)TB(+)), HIV positive tuberculin skin test positive (TST+) (HIV(+)TST(+)), HIV negative TST+ (HIV(-)TST(+)), and HIV(-)TST(-) individuals. Compared to HIV(-)TST(-), latent TB infection led to increased levels of IP-10, IFN-γ and IL-17, while levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were increased with active TB. Levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 were increased in HIV(-)TST(+) individuals compared to HIV(-)TB(+) patients. HIV coinfection decreased the level of IFN-γ, IL-17, IP-10 and IL-2. After six months (M6) of anti-TB treatment (ATT) in HIV(-)TB(+) patients, IFN-γ, IL-10, and MIP-1α levels normalized. After M6 and M18 of ATT plus HAART in HIV(+)TB(+) patients, levels of MIP-1α and IL-10 normalized, while this was not the case for IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-17, and IP-10 levels. In HIV(+)TST(+) patients on HAART, levels of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-10 and MIP-1α normalized, while no change in the levels of IL-2 and IP-10 were observed. In conclusion, the simultaneous measurement of IFN-γ, IL-17 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing LTBI; IL-2 and IP-10 may assist in diagnosing active TB; while IFN-γ, IL-17, MIP-1α, and IL-10 levels could help to discriminate LTBI and active TB. In addition, IL-10 and MIP-1α levels could help to monitor responses to TB treatment and HAART. PMID:26631832

  19. The Use of a Modified Marathon in Conjunction with Group Counseling in Short-term Treatment of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, G. M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Two conclusions drawn from the application of the modified marathon to a short term treatment center were that the modified marathon had the advantages of holding" alcoholics for treatment once they were sober and it enhanced the quality of typical group counseling and therapy treatment. (Author)

  20. 78 FR 10128 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon Petroleum Company LP; Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Marathon Petroleum Company LP refinery in Detroit, Michigan. (B-42-2012, docketed 6/1/2012); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (77 FR 33716-33717) and the... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Subzone 70T; Marathon...

  1. The Effects of 16 Hour Long Marathon Groups on the Ways that Female Drug Users Perceive Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the effectiveness of three 16-hour-long unstructured marathon groups composed of female illicit drug users in a woman's prison (N=78), using evaluative adjective pairs of the semantic differential concept Women. Marathon groups rated women as more successful and more pleasurable than did controls. (JAC)

  2. 76 FR 54764 - Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Marathon Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Marathon Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. Integrating the Xpert MTB/RIF Assay into a Diagnostic Workflow for Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a Low-Prevalence Area

    PubMed Central

    Deggim, Vanessa; Somoskovi, Akos; Voit, Antje; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF assay is a rapid and fully automated real-time PCR assay. The performance of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay as a primary screening test for urgent clinical specimens was evaluated during a 2-year period. The results showed that replacing smear microscopy with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay facilitates laboratory handling and improves the sensitivity and specificity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection. PMID:23616455

  4. Effects of training and anthropometric factors on marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance

    PubMed Central

    Tanda, Giovanni; Knechtle, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Background Marathon (42 km) and 100 km ultramarathon races are increasing in popularity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential associations of anthropometric and training variables with performance in these long-distance running competitions. Methods Training and anthropometric data from a large cohort of marathoners and 100 km ultramarathoners provided the basis of this work. Correlations between training and anthropometric indices of subjects and race performance were assessed using bivariate and multiple regression analyses. Results A combination of volume and intensity in training was found to be suitable for prediction of marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race pace. The relative role played by these two variables was different, in that training volume was more important than training pace for the prediction of 100 km ultramarathon performance, while the opposite was found for marathon performance. Anthropometric characteristics in terms of body fat percentage negatively affected 42 km and 100 km race performance. However, when this factor was relatively low (ie, less than 15% body fat), the performance of 42 km and 100 km races could be predicted solely on the basis of training indices. Conclusion Mean weekly training distance run and mean training pace were key predictor variables for both marathon and 100 km ultramarathon race performance. Predictive correlations for race performance are provided for runners with a relatively low body fat percentage. PMID:25995653

  5. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key pointsFatigue does not increase foot pressuresEvery runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favoursFoot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run. PMID:27274662

  6. Plantar Pressures During Long Distance Running: An Investigation of 10 Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Hohmann, Erik; Reaburn, Peter; Tetsworth, Kevin; Imhoff, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to record plantar pressures using an in-shoe measuring system before, during, and after a marathon run in ten experienced long-distance runners with a mean age of 37.7 ± 11.5 years. Peak and mean plantar pressures were recorded before, after, and every three km during a marathon race. There were no significant changes over time in peak and mean plantar pressures for either the dominant or non-dominant foot. There were significant between foot peak and mean plantar pressure differences for the total foot (p = 0.0001), forefoot (p = 0.0001), midfoot (p = 0.02 resp. p = 0.006), hindfoot (p = 0.0001), first ray (p = 0.01 resp. p = 0.0001) and MTP (p = 0.05 resp. p = 0.0001). Long-distance runners do not demonstrate significant changes in mean or peak plantar foot pressures over the distance of a marathon race. However, athletes consistently favoured their dominant extremity, applying significantly higher plantar pressures through their dominant foot over the entire marathon distance. Key points Fatigue does not increase foot pressures Every runner has a dominant foot where pressures are higher and that he/she favours Foot pressures do not increase over the distance of a marathon run PMID:27274662

  7. Thermal Responses in Football and Cross-Country Athletes During Their Respective Practices in a Hot Environment

    PubMed Central

    Godek, Joseph J.; Bartolozzi, Arthur R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To determine if football (FB) players and cross-country (CC) runners had different thermal responses to their respective training sessions. Design and Setting: On days 4 and 8 of preseason training, we assessed core (Tc) and skin (Tsk) temperatures. Subjects: Fifteen collegiate athletes volunteered: 10 FB players (age = 21.2 ± 1.14 years, height = 193.5 ± 4.8 cm, mass = 116.6 ± 16.3 kg, and V2max = 44.7 ± 9.4 mL·kg−1·min−1) and 5 CC runners (age = 22.8 ± 2.77 years, height = 176.3 ± 8.9 cm, mass = 71.16 ± 8.9 kg, and V2max = 71.3 ± 6.18 mL·kg−1·min−1). Measurements: We measured Tc using ingestible sensors before, during, and immediately after exercise. The Tsk was measured at the calf, forearm, back, chest, and forehead sites. Level of dehydration was assessed by urine specific gravity. Results: Mean wet-bulb temperature was 74°F (23.33°C). Resting Tc in shorts and T-shirts was higher in the FB group. The Tc midway through practices and runs was higher in the CC and FB subjects when active, compared with the FB subjects when inactive. Postexercise Tc was higher in the CC group than the FB group with pads, and postconditioning Tc was higher in the FB subjects with pads versus no pads. Forehead, chest, back, and mean weighted Tsk were higher in the FB group. The Tc and urine specific gravity were not correlated. Conclusions: The Tc fluctuated in the FB subjects during practice depending on exercise intensity, whereas Tc increased steadily in the CC subjects during continuous running. Thus, CC athletes may have to decrease intensity to maintain thermoregulation. Our FB players seemed to dissipate heat adequately during rest periods. PMID:15496992

  8. A systematic assessment of the current capacity to act in nutrition in West Africa: cross-country similarities and differences

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Bosu, William K.; Fanou, Nadia; Déart, Lucie; Kupka, Roland; Tchibindat, Félicité; Baker, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    Background Although it is widely accepted that lack of capacity is one of the barriers to scaling up nutrition in West Africa, there is a paucity of information about what capacities exist and the capacities that need to be developed to accelerate progress toward improved nutrition outcomes in the region. Objective To systematically assess the current capacity to act in nutrition in the West Africa region and explore cross-country similarities and differences. Design Data were collected from 13 West African countries through interviews with government officials, key development partners, tertiary-level training institutions, and health professional schools. The assessment was based on a conceptual framework of four interdependent levels (tools; skills; staff and infrastructure; and structures, systems and roles). In each of the surveyed countries, we assessed capacity assets and gaps at individual, organizational, and systemic levels. Results Important similarities and differences in capacity assets and gaps emerged across all the surveyed countries. There was strong momentum to improve nutrition in nearly all the surveyed countries. Most of the countries had a set of policies on nutrition in place and had set up multisectoral, multi-stakeholder platforms to coordinate nutrition activities, although much remained to be done to improve the effectiveness of these platforms. Many initiatives aimed to reduce undernutrition were ongoing in the region, but there did not seem to be clear coordination between them. Insufficient financial resources to implement nutrition activities were a major problem in all countries. The bulk of financial allocations for nutrition was provided by development partners, even though some countries, such as Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal, had a national budget line for nutrition. Sporadic stock-outs of nutrition supplies were reported in most of the countries as a result of a weak logistic and supply chain system. They also had a critical

  9. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture.

    PubMed

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy

    2016-08-01

    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims. PMID:26289501

  10. Marathon without a colon: salt and water balance in endurance running ileostomates.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, P.

    1984-01-01

    Five trained ileostomates completed a marathon in a cool environment without ill effect. During the race, the ileostomy losses of sodium (1.0-2.7 mmol.h-1) and of water (9.2-19 ml.h-1) were small, but urinary excretion of sodium was very low (0.2-0.75 mmol.h-1) despite drinking a combination of water and glucose-electrolyte solution. The concentration of potassium in the ileostomy discharge tended to increase, also suggesting a sodium retaining state. Healthy ileostomates after suitable training are successful marathon runners, but the prevalence of mild salt depletion in ileostomates generally suggests that it may be advisable for them to take only glucose-electrolyte solutions when competing at any ambient temperature or when preparing for a marathon which is to take place in a warm environment. Images p295-a PMID:6525499

  11. Recognition and treatment of exertional heat illness at a marathon race.

    PubMed

    Hostler, David; Franco, Vanessa; Martin-Gill, Chris; Roth, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Exertional heat illness is rarely encountered by individual EMS providers but can be common in certain settings and events. The notion that significantly altered mental status must accompany elevated core temperature in heat illness may delay recognition and treatment. We report on a series of marathon and half-marathon runners who suffered exertional heat illness during a marathon race in relatively mild conditions. Altered mental status was not uniformly present. All patients were treated in the finish line medical tent and responded well to cooling. More than half were discharged from the medical tent without being transported to the hospital. This case series demonstrates that many runners respond to early identification and treatment of exertional heat illness. Significant preparation is required by the medical providers to handle the rapid influx of patients at the conclusion of the event. PMID:24460521

  12. THE ROLE OF THE SPORTS PHYSICAL THERAPIST-MARATHON EVENTS

    PubMed Central

    Schuemann, Teresa; Hoogenboom, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The role of the Sports physical therapist (PT) as a part of the sports medical team at marathon-type events varies widely. The PT can assume the role of an emergency medical responder (EMR) whose primary role is the management of the athlete in emergency type situations. The role of the EMR extends beyond the care of the athlete to the care and safety of the spectators. In this role, the PT must be prepared to handle any type of emergency situation, which may occur from medical conditions to acute orthopedic/sports injuries, to medical conditions which may be found in the participants of the race or the spectators. Additional roles of the PT can be in pre-race education, pre-participation screening/physicals, and other concerns by the participant related to injury prevention. Regardless of the role assumed by the PT, prior planning is essential for the safety, security, and maximal performance of the participant and to make the race enjoyable and safe for everyone. Level of Evidence: 5 PMID:24175136

  13. Fluoride concentrations in a crystalline bedrock aquifer Marathon County, Wisconsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozsvath, David L.

    2006-05-01

    Water samples from 2,789 private water-supply wells in Marathon County, Wisconsin reveal that fluoride concentrations in the crystalline bedrock range from <0.01 to 7.60 mg/L, with 0.6% of the values exceeding the Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) maximum contaminant level of 4 mg/L, and 8.6% exceeding the EPA’s secondary maximum contaminant level of 2.0 mg/L. Roughly a quarter of the wells contain dissolve fluoride within the range considered optimal for human health (between 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L), whereas 63.3% fall below 0.5 mg/L. Consistent with studies conducted in other regions, felsic rocks have significantly higher fluoride concentrations than mafic and metasedimentary rocks. Syenites yield the most fluoriferous groundwaters, but the highest median concentration occurs in a sodium-plagioclase granite. A relationship between plagioclase composition and fluoride concentrations suggests that dissolved fluoride levels are controlled by fluorite solubility and that higher fluoride concentrations are found in soft, sodium-rich groundwater.

  14. Imaging of lower extremity trauma from Boston Marathon bombing.

    PubMed

    Konwinski, Ryan R; Singh, Ajay; Soto, Jorge

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study is to describe the imaging features of lower extremity blast injuries in patients encountered in the radiology departments from the Boston Marathon bombings. A total of 115 patients presented to four acute care hospitals on April 15, 2013, 43 of whom presented with lower extremity injuries and were included in this study. The imaging findings of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries were evaluated. Forty-one of 43 patients sustained secondary blast injuries to the lower extremities with 31 patients (70 %) having retained shrapnel, seven patients (16 %) having soft tissue lacerations without retained shrapnel, and ten patients (23 %) having lower extremity amputation (7 % double amputees). Eight of these patients (20 %) had lower extremity fractures, and five patients (12 %) had vascular injuries. Two of the 43 patients (5 %) had only tertiary injuries, and five of 43 patients (12 %) were noted to have lower extremity burns, consistent with quaternary blast injury. No primary blast injury occurred in the lower extremities. A vast majority of lower extremity injuries were from secondary blast injury, most commonly from retained shrapnel in 70 % of patients and 23 % of patients sustaining lower extremity amputation. Retained shrapnel in the lower extremity was most commonly ball bearings and pressure cooker fragments, and most injuries affected the leg, followed by the thigh and foot. PMID:27272899

  15. Systematic review: Comparison of Xpert MTB/RIF, LAMP and SAT methods for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liping; Xiao, Heping; Zhang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Technological advances in nucleic acid amplification have led to breakthroughs in the early detection of PTB compared to traditional sputum smear tests. The sensitivity and specificity of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), simultaneous amplification testing (SAT), and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis were evaluated. A critical review of previous studies of LAMP, SAT, and Xpert MTB/RIF for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis that used laboratory culturing as the reference method was carried out together with a meta-analysis. In 25 previous studies, the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of tuberculosis were 93% and 94% for LAMP, 96% and 88% for SAT, and 89% and 98% for Xpert MTB/RIF. The I(2) values for the pooled data were >80%, indicating significant heterogeneity. In the smear-positive subgroup analysis of LAMP, the sensitivity increased from 93% to 98% (I(2) = 2.6%), and specificity was 68% (I(2) = 38.4%). In the HIV-infected subgroup analysis of Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 79% (I(2) = 72.9%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.4%). In the HIV-negative subgroup analysis for Xpert MTB/RIF, the pooled sensitivity and specificity were 72% (I(2) = 49.6%) and 99% (I(2) = 64.5%). LAMP, SAT and Xpert MTB/RIF had comparably high levels of sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of three methods were similar, with LAMP being highly sensitive for the diagnosis of smear-positive PTB. The cost effectiveness of LAMP and SAT make them particularly suitable tests for diagnosing PTB in developing countries. PMID:26786658

  16. A comparison between the efficiency of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and nested PCR in identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis during routine clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Hong; Woo, Heungjeong; Kim, Changhwan; Choi, Jeong-Hee; Jang, Seung-Hun; Park, Sang Myeon; Lee, Myung Goo; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hyun, Jeongwon; Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is more sensitive, specific, and rapid than the conventional methods of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear and culture. The aim of this study was to determine if the Xpert MTB/rifampicin (RIF) assay had additional advantages over nested PCR for the detection of MTB in a geographical area with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) incidence. Methods Between February and December 2013, the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR, as well as AFB smear and culture, were simultaneously performed on 198 clinical samples (160 pulmonary and 38 non-pulmonary specimens) collected from 171 patients hospitalized at Hallym University Medical Center for possible TB. The accuracy of the diagnosis of MTB culture-positive TB and the turnaround time of reporting laboratory results were calculated and compared. Rifampin resistance by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay was reviewed with that of conventional drug susceptibility testing (DST). Results The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR for diagnosis of MTB culture-positive pulmonary TB were 86.1% vs. 69.4% (P=0.1563), 97.8% vs. 94.1% (P=0.2173), 91.2% vs. 75.8% (P=0.1695), and 96.4% vs. 92.0% (P=0.2032), respectively. The median turnaround times of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay and MTB nested PCR were 0 [0-4] days and 4 [1-11] days, respectively (P<0.001). Two cases of rifampin resistance, as determined by the Xpert MTB/RIF assay, were found to be multi-drug resistant (MDR) pulmonary TB by DST. Conclusions The Xpert MTB/RIF assay seemed to be sensitive, specific, and comparable to nested PCR for identifying MTB among clinically suspected TB patients, and the assay can be valuable in giving a timely identification of resistance to rifampin. PMID:24976983

  17. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    PubMed

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  18. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon

    PubMed Central

    Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts. PMID:27483374

  19. False-positive rifampin resistant results with Xpert MTB/RIF version 4 assay in clinical samples with a low bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Ocheretina, Oksana; Byrt, Erin; Mabou, Marie-Marcelle; Royal-Mardi, Gertrude; Merveille, Yves-Mary; Rouzier, Vanessa; Fitzgerald, Daniel W; Pape, Jean W

    2016-05-01

    We report investigation of 22 TB cases with positive Xpert MTB/RIF result for resistance to Rifampin and "Very Low" MTB detection level. Twelve cases were false positive without rpoB mutations, 2 were false-positives with a silent mutation in rpoB codon T508, and only 10 were true positives. PMID:26915638

  20. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lebina, Limakatso; Fuller, Nigel; Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Abraham, Pattamukkil; Variava, Ebrahim; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62-3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52-2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  1. The Use of Xpert MTB/Rif for Active Case Finding among TB Contacts in North West Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Osoba, Tolu; Scott, Lesley; Motlhaoleng, Katlego; Rakgokong, Modiehi; Martinson, Neil Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality especially in high HIV burden settings. Active case finding is one strategy to potentially reduce TB disease burden. Xpert MTB/Rif has recently been recommended for diagnosis of TB. Methods. Pragmatic randomized trial to compare diagnosis rate and turnaround time for laboratory testing for Xpert MTB/Rif with TB microscopy and culture in household contacts of patients recently diagnosed with TB. Results. 2464 household contacts enrolled into the study from 768 active TB index cases. 1068 (44%) were unable to give sputum, but 24 of these were already on TB treatment. 863 (53%) participants sputum samples were tested with smear and culture and 2.7% (23/863; CI: 1.62–3.78) were diagnosed with active TB. Xpert MTB/Rif was used in 515 (21%) participants; active TB was diagnosed in 1.6% (8/515; CI: 0.52–2.68). Discussion and Conclusions. Additional 31 cases were diagnosed with contact tracing of household members. When Xpert MTB/Rif is compared with culture, there is no significant difference in diagnostic yield. PMID:27493800

  2. Evaluation of the eukaryotic expression of mtb32C-hbha fusion gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Hepatocarcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Teimourpour, Roghayeh; Zare, Hosna; Rajabnia, Ramazan; Yahyapour, Yousef; Meshkat, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: HBHA and Mtb32C have been isolated from culture supernatants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) and Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) and their immunogenicity previously studies have been confirmed. In this study, capability of constructed vector containing two mycobacterial immunodaminant antigens (Mtb32C-HBHA), in producing new chimeric protein under the in-vitro condition was examined. Materials and Methods: In present study Huh7.5 cells was transfected with Mtb32C-HBHA −pCDNA3.1+ recombinant vector using the calcium phosphate method and expression of chimeric protein was assessed by RT-PCR and Western blot methods. Results: Results of RT-PCR and Western blot showed expression of 35.5 KD recombinant protein (Mtb32C-HBHA) in this cell line. Conclusion: The constructed vector can produce two highly immunogenic antigens that fusion of them to gather makes chimeric antigen with new traits. Other attempts are needed to evaluate specific properties of this new antigen such as molecular conformation modeling and immunologic characteristics in future studies. PMID:27307979

  3. Marathon Running Fails to Influence RBC Survival Rates in Iron-Replete Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steenkamp, Irene; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This study used radiolabeling to measure red blood cell (RBC) survival rates in six iron-replete female marathon runners, and urinary tests were conducted to search for secondary evidence of RBC damage. The hypothesized RBC fragmentation was not disclosed. (Author/MT)

  4. The Boston Marathon Medical Care Team: A Ten-Year Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adner, Marvin M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The composition, ojbectives, and perceptions of the medical care team which has evolved over the last 10 years to provide acute care for injured persons at the finish line of the Boston Marathon are described, as well as as an ancillary group which maintains medical records and defines injury patterns. (Author/CB)

  5. Self-Actualization in a Marathon Growth Group: Do the Strong Get Stronger?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ronald; Gelso, Charles J.

    1974-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a weekend marathon on the level of self-actualization of college students and the relationship between ego strength and extent of change in self-actualization. The group experience did increase self-actualization, but participants' initial level of ego strength was unrelated to changes in self-actualization.…

  6. Attracting Primary School Children to Mathematics: The Case of a City Mathematical Marathon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Applebaum, Mark; Freiman, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on the first year of an online competition in which 480 students took part. After a brief presentation of the organizational structure of the marathon and general data about students' participation, we discuss findings from questionnaires about participants' attitudes towards mathematics, technology, and their perception of…

  7. The University of California Institute of Environmental Stress Marathon Field Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maron, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    In 1973, the Institute of Environmental Stress of the University of California-Santa Barbara, under the direction of Steven M. Horvath, began a series of field and laboratory studies of marathon runners during competition. As one of Horvath's graduate students, many of these studies became part of my doctoral dissertation. The rationale for…

  8. Writing Marathons Help Build Middle School Students' College Aspirations and Strengthen Their Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radcliffe, Rich A.; Stephens, Liz C.

    2010-01-01

    Young adolescents' low scores on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) force the question of whether these students will be ready for college in four years. Our efforts to build a college-going culture emphasize strengthening students' writing skills by using preservice teachers to lead writing marathons for at-risk middle school…

  9. Gait Characteristics over the Course of a Race in Recreational Marathon Competitors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertram, John E. A.; Prebeau-Menezes, Leif; Szarko, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed gait and function of the supporting limb in participants of a marathon race at three stages: prerace, midrace (18 km), and near the end of the race (36 km). We confirmed that the most successful runners were able to maintain running speed for the duration of the race with little change in speed or gait. Speed slowed progressively…

  10. A brief review: the implications of iron supplementation for marathon runners on health and performance.

    PubMed

    Zourdos, Michael C; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Mahoney, Sara E

    2015-02-01

    The marathon is considered one of the most demanding endurance events, imposing an enormous amount of physiological stress on bodily structures, the metabolic machinery, and organ systems. Scientific evidence has conclusively shown that marathoners are in need of special nutritional strategies to maintain performance and health. Indeed, among competitive athletes, marathoners are at greater risk to develop anemia, bone mineral density loss, immunosuppression, and other clinical syndromes that may affect performance. Inadequate dietary intake of the micronutrient iron has been identified as one key factor in the development of the above mentioned anomalies. In fact, iron is one of the few nutrients recommended as a supplement by the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND), and Dietitians of Canada. Therefore, the aim of this review article is to discuss the role of iron on the marathoner's health and performance. Special emphasis will be given to the physiological mechanisms accounting for the additional iron need in this group of athletes and the nutritional strategies intended to counteract iron deficiency. PMID:25072667

  11. Marathons versus Spaced Groups: Skin Conductance and the Effects of Time Distribution on Encounter Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loomis, Thomas P.

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 41 students to 2 twice-weekly groups, which met for 3 hours eight times; 2 marathons, which met continuously for 24 hours; and nontreatment control group. Treatment groups had significant positive changes on 14 of 15 measured personality variables between pre- and post-test, and positive change on all dependent measures between…

  12. Effects of Structure of Marathon Group Therapy and Locus of Control on Therapeutic Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.; Howell, Robert J.

    1974-01-01

    This study compared the outcome of external and internal scorers on the locus of control scale and considered the association between internal-external orientation and direct and nondirect marathon group therapy. The findings suggest that internals are better therapeutic risks than externals, regardless of a direct or nondirect therapist…

  13. Self-Perception and Interpersonal Behavior Changes in Marathon and Time-Extended Encounter Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Michael W.; Vestre, Norris D.

    1974-01-01

    College students (N=27) were assigned to a time-extended or a marathon group or a control condition to evaluate the effects of encounter experiences on self-perception and interpersonal behavior. Both experimental groups showed significantly greater changes in self-perceptions from pretest to posttest than the control group. (Author)

  14. The effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling in upper-limb extensor muscles during elite cross-country skiing with the double-poling technique.

    PubMed

    Zoppirolli, Chiara; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Pellegrini, Barbara; Quaglia, Diego; Bortolan, Lorenzo; Schena, Federico

    2013-12-01

    This investigation was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of stretch-shortening cycling (SSC(EFF)) in upper-limb extensor muscles while cross-country skiing using the double-poling technique (DP). To this end, SSC(EFF) was analyzed in relation to DP velocity and performance. Eleven elite cross-country skiers performed an incremental test to determine maximal DP velocity (V(max)). Thereafter, cycle characteristics, elbow joint kinematics and poling forces were monitored on a treadmill while skiing at two sub-maximal and racing velocity (85% of V(max)). The average EMG activities of the triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were determined during the flexion and extension sub-phases of the poling cycle (EMG(FLEX), EMG(EXT)), as well as prior to pole plant (EMG(PRE)). SSC(EFF) was defined as the ratio of aEMG(FLEX) to aEMG(EXT). EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) increased with velocity for both muscles (P < 0.01), as did SSC(EFF) (from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.5 for the triceps brachii and from 0.9 ± 0.4 to 1.5 ± 0.5 for the latissimus dorsi) and poling force (from 253 ± 33 to 290 ± 36N; P < 0.05). Furthermore, SSC(EFF) was positively correlated to Vmax, to EMG(PRE) and EMG(FLEX) (P < 0.05). The neuromuscular adaptations made at higher velocities, when more poling force must be applied to the ground, exert a major influence on the DP performance of elite cross-country skiers. PMID:24064180

  15. 'How to know what you need to do': a cross-country comparison of maternal health guidelines in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Initiatives to raise the quality of care provided to mothers need to be given priority in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). The promotion of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) is a common strategy, but their implementation is often challenging, limiting their potential impact. Through a cross-country perspective, this study explored CPGs for maternal health in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Tanzania. The objectives were to compare factors related to CPG use including their content compared with World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, their format, and their development processes. Perceptions of their availability and use in practice were also explored. The overall purpose was to further the understanding of how to increase CPGs' potential to improve quality of care for mothers in SSA. Methods The study was a multiple case study design consisting of cross-country comparisons using document review and key informant interviews. A conceptual framework to aid analysis and discussion of results was developed, including selected domains related to guidelines' implementability and use by health workers in practice in terms of usability, applicability, and adaptability. Results The study revealed few significant differences in content between the national guidelines for maternal health and WHO recommendations. There were, however, marked variations in the format of CPGs between the three countries. Apart from the Ghanaian and one of the Tanzanian CPGs, the levels of both usability and applicability were assessed as low or medium. In all three countries, the use of CPGs by health workers in practice was perceived to be limited. Conclusion Our cross-country study suggests that it is not poor quality of content or lack of evidence base that constitute the major barrier for CPGs to positively impact on quality improvement in maternal care in SSA. It rather emphasises the need to prioritise the format of guidelines to increase their usability and applicability and to consider

  16. Xpert MTB/RIF detection of rifampin resistance and time to treatment initiation in Harare, Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, John Z.; Makumbirofa, Salome; Makamure, Beauty; Sandy, Charles; Bara, Wilbert; Mason, Peter; Hopewell, Philip C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients at elevated risk of drug-resistant tuberculosis are prioritized for testing with Xpert MTB/RIF® (“Xpert”), though clinical utility in this population is understudied. Design From November 2011 to June 2014, consecutive outpatients with history of prior tuberculosis in high-density suburbs of Harare, Zimbabwe were tested with Xpert, solid and liquid culture, and the microscopically-observed drug susceptibility assay. Diagnostic accuracy for rifampin-resistance and time to second-line regimens were ascertained. The rpoB gene was sequenced in cases of culture-confirmed rifampin resistance and genotypic sensitivity. Results Among 352 retreatment patients, 71 (20%) had rifampin-resistant, 98 (28%) rifampin-susceptible, 64 (18%) culture-negative/Xpert-positive, and 119 (34%) culture-negative/Xpert-negative TB. Xpert was 86% (95% CI 75-93%) sensitive and 98% (95% CI 92-100%) specific for rifampin-resistant TB. The positive predictive value of Xpert-determined rifampin resistance for MDR-TB was 82% (95% CI 70-91%). Fifty-nine of 71 (83%) participants initiated SLDs, with a median time to regimen initiation of 18 days (IQR, 10-44 days). Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for rifampin-resistance is high, though predictive value for MDR-TB is lower than anticipated. Xpert allows for faster SLD initiation under programmatic conditions, relative to culture-based drug susceptibility testing. PMID:27287639

  17. Mixed impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF on tuberculosis diagnosis in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, B. K.; Kyle, R. P.; Eng, B.; Nong, K.; Pevzner, E. S.; Eam, K. K.; Eang, M. T.; Killam, W. P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: National Tuberculosis (TB) Program sites in northwest Cambodia. Objective: To evaluate the impact of Xpert® MTB/RIF at point of care (POC) as compared to non-POC sites on the diagnostic evaluation of people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) with TB symptoms and patients with possible multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB. Design: Observational cohort of patients undergoing routine diagnostic evaluation for TB following the rollout of Xpert. Results: Between October 2011 and June 2013, 431 of 822 (52%) PLHIV with TB symptoms and 240/493 (49%) patients with possible MDR-TB underwent Xpert. Xpert was more likely to be performed when available as POC. A smaller proportion of PLHIV at POC sites were diagnosed with TB than at non-POC sites; however, at POC sites, a higher proportion of those diagnosed with TB were bacteriologically positive. There was poor agreement between Xpert and other tests such as smear microscopy and culture. Overall, the evaluation of patients with possible MDR-TB increased following Xpert rollout, yet for patients confirmed as having drug resistance on drug susceptibility testing, only 46% had rifampin resistance that would be identified with Xpert. Conclusion: Although utilization of Xpert was low, it may have contributed to an increase in evaluations for possible MDR-TB and a decline in empiric treatment for PLHIV when available as POC. PMID:27358807

  18. Polyclonal antibody against conserved sequences of mce1A protein blocks MTB infection in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Sasikala; Namasivayam, Nalini; Chellam, Rajamanickam

    2012-03-01

    The pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is largely due to its ability to enter and survive within human macrophages. It is suggested that a specific protein namely mammalian cell entry protein is involved in the pathogenesis and the specific gene for this protein mce1A has been identified in several pathogenic organisms such as Rickettsia, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Helicobacter, Streptomyces, Klebsiella, Vibrio, Neisseria, Rhodococcus, Nocardioides, Saccharopolyspora erthyrae, and Pseudomonas. Analysis of mce1 operons in the above mentioned organisms through bioinformatics tools has revealed the presence of unique sequences (conserved regions) suggesting that these sequences may be involved in the process of infection. Presently, the mce1A full-length (1,365 bp) region from Mycobacterium bovis and its conserved regions (303 bp) were cloned in to an expression vector and the purified expressed proteins of molecular weight ~47 and ~11 kDa, respectively, were injected to rabbits to raise the polyclonal antibodies. The purified polyclonal antibodies were checked for their ability to inhibit the Mycobacterium infection in cultured human macrophages. In macrophage invasion assay, when antibody added at high concentration, decrease in viable counts was observed in all cell cultures within the first 5 days after infection, where the intracellular bacterial CFU obtained from the infected MTB increased by the 3rd day at low concentration of antibody. The macrophage invasion assay has indicated that the purified antibodies of mce1A conserved region can inhibit the infection of Mycobacterium. PMID:22159737

  19. Human CD8+ T-cells recognizing peptides from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) presented by HLA-E have an unorthodox Th2-like, multifunctional, Mtb inhibitory phenotype and represent a novel human T-cell subset.

    PubMed

    van Meijgaarden, Krista E; Haks, Mariëlle C; Caccamo, Nadia; Dieli, Francesco; Ottenhoff, Tom H M; Joosten, Simone A

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterial antigens are not exclusively presented to T-cells by classical HLA-class Ia and HLA-class II molecules, but also through alternative antigen presentation molecules such as CD1a/b/c, MR1 and HLA-E. We recently described mycobacterial peptides that are presented in HLA-E and recognized by CD8+ T-cells. Using T-cell cloning, phenotyping, microbiological, functional and RNA-expression analyses, we report here that these T-cells can exert cytolytic or suppressive functions, inhibit mycobacterial growth, yet express GATA3, produce Th2 cytokines (IL-4,-5,-10,-13) and activate B-cells via IL-4. In TB patients, Mtb specific cells were detectable by peptide-HLA-E tetramers, and IL-4 and IL-13 were produced following peptide stimulation. These results identify a novel human T-cell subset with an unorthodox, multifunctional Th2 like phenotype and cytolytic or regulatory capacities, which is involved in the human immune response to mycobacteria and demonstrable in active TB patients' blood. The results challenge the current dogma that only Th1 cells are able to inhibit Mtb growth and clearly show that Th2 like cells can strongly inhibit outgrowth of Mtb from human macrophages. These insights significantly expand our understanding of the immune response in infectious disease. PMID:25803478

  20. Human CD8+ T-cells Recognizing Peptides from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) Presented by HLA-E Have an Unorthodox Th2-like, Multifunctional, Mtb Inhibitory Phenotype and Represent a Novel Human T-cell Subset

    PubMed Central

    van Meijgaarden, Krista E.; Haks, Mariëlle C.; Caccamo, Nadia; Dieli, Francesco; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Joosten, Simone A.

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterial antigens are not exclusively presented to T-cells by classical HLA-class Ia and HLA-class II molecules, but also through alternative antigen presentation molecules such as CD1a/b/c, MR1 and HLA-E. We recently described mycobacterial peptides that are presented in HLA-E and recognized by CD8+ T-cells. Using T-cell cloning, phenotyping, microbiological, functional and RNA-expression analyses, we report here that these T-cells can exert cytolytic or suppressive functions, inhibit mycobacterial growth, yet express GATA3, produce Th2 cytokines (IL-4,-5,-10,-13) and activate B-cells via IL-4. In TB patients, Mtb specific cells were detectable by peptide-HLA-E tetramers, and IL-4 and IL-13 were produced following peptide stimulation. These results identify a novel human T-cell subset with an unorthodox, multifunctional Th2 like phenotype and cytolytic or regulatory capacities, which is involved in the human immune response to mycobacteria and demonstrable in active TB patients’ blood. The results challenge the current dogma that only Th1 cells are able to inhibit Mtb growth and clearly show that Th2 like cells can strongly inhibit outgrowth of Mtb from human macrophages. These insights significantly expand our understanding of the immune response in infectious disease. PMID:25803478

  1. Multicenter feasibility study to assess external quality assessment panels for Xpert MTB/RIF assay in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Scott, Lesley; Albert, Heidi; Gilpin, Chris; Alexander, Heather; DeGruy, Kyle; Stevens, Wendy

    2014-07-01

    External quality assessment (EQA) for the Xpert MTB/RIF assay is part of the quality system required for clinical and laboratory practice. Five newly developed EQA panels that use different matrices, including a lyophilized sample (Vircell, Granada, Spain), a dried tube specimen (CDC), liquid (Maine Molecular Quality Control, Inc. [MMQCI], Scarborough, ME), artificial sputum (Global Laboratory Initiative [GLI]), and a dried culture spot (National Health Laboratory Services [NHLS]), were evaluated at 11 GeneXpert testing sites in South Africa. The panels comprised Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC)-negative, MTBC-positive (including rifampin [RIF] susceptible and RIF resistant), and nontuberculosis mycobacterial material that was inactivated and safe for transportation. Twelve qualitative and quantitative variables were scored as acceptable (1) or unacceptable (0); the overall panel performance score for the Vircell, CDC, GLI, and NHLS panels was 9 of 12, while the MMQCI panel scored 6 of 12 (owing to the need for cold chain maintenance). All panels showed good compatibility with Xpert MTB/RIF testing, and none showed PCR inhibition. The use of a liquid or dry matrix did not appear to be a distinguishing criterion, as both matrices had reduced scores on insufficient volumes, a need for extra consumables, and the ability to transfer to the Xpert MTB/RIF cartridge. EQA is an important component of the quality system required for diagnostic testing programs, but it must be complemented by routine monitoring of performance indicators and instrument verification. This study aims to introduce EQA concepts for Xpert MTB/RIF testing and evaluates five potential EQA panels. PMID:24789182

  2. Evaluation of GenoFlow DR-MTB Array Test for Detection of Rifampin and Isoniazid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Molina-Moya, B; Kazdaglis, G; Lacoma, A; Prat, C; Gómez, A; Villar-Hernández, R; García-García, E; Haba, L; Maldonado, J; Samper, S; Ruiz-Manzano, J; Ausina, V; Domínguez, J

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the GenoFlow DR-MTB array test (DiagCor Bioscience, Hong Kong) on 70 cultured isolates and 50 sputum specimens. The GenoFlow array test showed good sensitivity and specificity compared to the phenotypic Bactec 460TB. This array accurately detected mutations inrpoB,katG, andinhAassociated with resistance to rifampin and isoniazid. PMID:26865688

  3. The sea urchin metallothionein system: Comparative evaluation of the SpMTA and SpMTB metal-binding preferences☆

    PubMed Central

    Tomas, Mireia; Domènech, Jordi; Capdevila, Mercè; Bofill, Roger; Atrian, Sílvia

    2013-01-01

    Metallothioneins (MTs) constitute a superfamily of ubiquitous metal-binding proteins of low molecular weight and high Cys content. They are involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification, amongst other proposed biological functions. Two MT isoforms (SpMTA and SpMTB) have been reported in the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (sea urchin), both containing 20 Cys residues and presenting extremely similar sequences, although showing distinct tissular and ontogenic expression patterns. Although exhaustive information is available for the Cd(II)-SpMTA complex, this including the full resolution of its 3D structure, no data has been reported concerning either SpMTA Zn(II) and Cu(I) binding properties, or the characterization of SpMTB at protein level. In this work, both the SpMTA and SpMTB isoforms, as well as their separate α and β domains, have been recombinantly synthesized in the presence of Zn(II), Cd(II) or Cu(II), and the corresponding metal complexes have been analyzed using electrospray mass spectrometry, and CD, ICP-AES and UV–vis spectroscopies. The results clearly show a better performance of isoform A when binding Zn(II) and Cd(II), and of isoform B when coordinating Cu(I). Thus, our results confirm the differential metal binding preference of SpMTA and SpMTB, which, together with the reported induction pattern of the respective genes, highlights how also in Echinodermata the MT polymorphism may be linked to the evolution of different physiological roles. PMID:23847757

  4. Improved rapid molecular diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis using a new reverse hybridization assay, REBA MTB-MDR

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Hyeeun; Park, Sangjung; Hwang, Joohwan; Jin, Hyunwoo; Cho, Eunjin; Kim, Dae Yoon; Song, Taeksun; Shamputa, Isdore Chola; Via, Laura E.; Barry, Clifton E.; Cho, Sang-Nae

    2011-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is essential for the prompt initiation of effective second-line therapy to improve treatment outcome and limit transmission of this obstinate disease. A variety of molecular methods that enable the rapid detection of mutations implicated in MDR-TB have been developed. The sensitivity of the methods is dependent, in principle, on the repertoire of mutations being detected, which is typically limited to mutations in the genes rpoB, katG and the promoter region of inhA. In this study, a new reverse hybridization assay, REBA MTB-MDR (M&D), that probes mutations in the oxyR–ahpC intergenic region, in addition to those in rpoB, katG and the inhA promoter region, was evaluated. A set of 240 Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from patients receiving retreatment regimens was subjected to conventional phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing (DST) and the REBA MTB-MDR assay. The nucleotide sequences of the loci known to be involved in drug resistance were determined for comparison. In brief, the results showed that the REBA MTB-MDR assay efficiently recognized nucleotide changes in the oxyR–ahpC intergenic region as well as those in rpoB, katG and the inhA promoter region with higher sensitivity, resulting in an 81.0 % detection rate for isoniazid resistance. Inclusion of the oxyR–ahpC intergenic region in the REBA MTB-MDR assay improved the overall sensitivity of molecular DST for MDR-TB from 73.1 to 79.9 %. PMID:21596910

  5. Decreased Time to Treatment Initiation for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients after Use of Xpert MTB/RIF Test, Latvia.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Helen R; White, Peter J; Riekstiņa, Vija; Cīrule, Andra; Šķenders, Ģirts; Leimane, Vaira; Kuksa, Liga; Dravniece, Gunta; Brown, James; Jackson, Charlotte

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined whether the Xpert MTB/RIF test improves time to treatment initiation for persons with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). We determined the impact of this test in Latvia, where it was introduced in 2010. After descriptive analyses of pulmonary MDR TB patients in Latvia during 2009-2012, time to treatment initiation was calculated, and univariate and multivariable accelerated failure time models were constructed. Univariate results showed strong evidence of an association between having rifampin-resistant TB detected by Xpert MTB/RIF and reduced time to treatment initiation versus the test not being used. A multivariable model stratifying by previous TB showed similar results. Our finding that in Latvia, time to treatment initiation was decreased for MDR TB cases that were rifampin-resistant TB by XpertMTB/RIF has implications for the use of this test in other settings with a high burden of MDR TB in which rifampin resistance is highly predictive of MDR TB. PMID:26889608

  6. Decreased Time to Treatment Initiation for Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients after Use of Xpert MTB/RIF Test, Latvia

    PubMed Central

    White, Peter J.; Riekstiņa, Vija; Cīrule, Andra; Šķenders, Ģirts; Leimane, Vaira; Kuksa, Liga; Dravniece, Gunta; Brown, James; Jackson, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether the Xpert MTB/RIF test improves time to treatment initiation for persons with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). We determined the impact of this test in Latvia, where it was introduced in 2010. After descriptive analyses of pulmonary MDR TB patients in Latvia during 2009–2012, time to treatment initiation was calculated, and univariate and multivariable accelerated failure time models were constructed. Univariate results showed strong evidence of an association between having rifampin-resistant TB detected by Xpert MTB/RIF and reduced time to treatment initiation versus the test not being used. A multivariable model stratifying by previous TB showed similar results. Our finding that in Latvia, time to treatment initiation was decreased for MDR TB cases that were rifampin-resistant TB by XpertMTB/RIF has implications for the use of this test in other settings with a high burden of MDR TB in which rifampin resistance is highly predictive of MDR TB. PMID:26889608

  7. The effect of chain length and unsaturation on Mtb Dxr inhibition and antitubercular killing activity of FR900098 analogs.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Emily R; San Jose, Géraldine; Brothers, Robert C; Edelstein, Emma K; Sheldon, Zachary; Haymond, Amanda; Johny, Chinchu; Boshoff, Helena I; Couch, Robin D; Dowd, Cynthia S

    2014-01-15

    Inhibition of the nonmevalonate pathway (NMP) of isoprene biosynthesis has been examined as a source of new antibiotics with novel mechanisms of action. Dxr is the best studied of the NMP enzymes and several reports have described potent Dxr inhibitors. Many of these compounds are structurally related to natural products fosmidomycin and FR900098, each bearing retrohydroxamate and phosphonate groups. We synthesized a series of compounds with two to five methylene units separating these groups to examine what linker length was optimal and tested for inhibition against Mtb Dxr. We synthesized ethyl and pivaloyl esters of these compounds to increase lipophilicity and improve inhibition of Mtb growth. Our results show that propyl or propenyl linker chains are optimal. Propenyl analog 22 has an IC50 of 1.07 μM against Mtb Dxr. The pivaloyl ester of 22, compound 26, has an MIC of 9.4 μg/mL, representing a significant improvement in antitubercular potency in this class of compounds. PMID:24360562

  8. Smectite deposits in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars, identified using CRISM hyperspectral reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, V. K.; Arvidson, R. E.; Guinness, E. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Catalano, J. G.; Murchie, S. L.; Powell, K. E.

    2016-05-01

    The ~100 m wide Marathon Valley crosscuts the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the 22 km diameter, Noachian-age Endeavour impact crater on Mars. Single-scattering albedo spectra retrieved from three Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) Full-Resolution Targeted (FRT, regularized to 18 m/pixel) and two Along Track Oversampled (ATO, regularized to 12 m/pixel) observations indicate the presence of Fe3+-Mg2+ smectite exposures located in Marathon Valley with combination vibration metal-OH absorption strength comparable to smectite spectral signatures in Mawrth Vallis. The Opportunity rover was directed to the exposures and documented the presence of Shoemaker formation impact breccias that have been isochemically altered, likely by fracture-controlled aqueous fluids.

  9. Runners as sport tourists: the experience and travel behaviors of Ljubljana Marathon participants.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Samo; Doupona Topić, Mojca

    2014-09-01

    The study analysed the experiences of participants on mass sport events, and explained the influence of such sport events on the lifestyle of runners. The study sample consisted of 664 participants of the 15th Ljubljana Marathon. The TRPS questionnaire was adjusted to establish the tourist roles. The role of sport tourists was assumed by 29.8% of all participants. Sport tourists who take various trips mainly for sport purposes (66.7%) participate more often in mass sport events at home and abroad and are more physically active in their leisure time. Moreover, 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected marathon participants. It was established that different travel behaviour and experiences from earlier sport events have influenced on their lifestyles. PMID:25507357

  10. Runners as sport tourists: the experience and travel behaviors of Ljubljana Marathon participants.

    PubMed

    Rauter, Samo; Doupona Topić, Mojca

    2014-09-01

    The study analysed the experiences of participants on mass sport events, and explained the influence of such sport events on the lifestyle of runners. The study sample consisted of 664 participants of the 15th Ljubljana Marathon. The TRPS questionnaire was adjusted to establish the tourist roles. The role of sport tourists was assumed by 29.8% of all participants. Sport tourists who take various trips mainly for sport purposes (66.7%) participate more often in mass sport events at home and abroad and are more physically active in their leisure time. Moreover, 13 in-depth interviews were conducted with selected marathon participants. It was established that different travel behaviour and experiences from earlier sport events have influenced on their lifestyles. PMID:25420373

  11. Devonian Novaculites as source of oil in Marathon-Ouachita thrust system

    SciTech Connect

    Zemmels, I.; Grizzle, P.L.; Walters, C.C.; Haney, F.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Arkansas Novaculite of southern Oklahoma and the Caballos Novaculite of west Texas (both Devonian) form fractured reservoirs in the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system. These formations were examined to ascertain their petroleum potential. Findings include the following. (1) The thermal maturity of the thrust system conforms to the maturity of the sequence that it has overthrust, suggesting that this allochthonous facies is not anomalously mature. (2) Shale units within the novaculites contain oil-prone organic matter in sufficient concentrations to constitute source rocks. (3) The composition of oils from Isom Springs field in southern Oklahoma and from McKay Creek field in west Texas is virtually identical and generally resembles Devonian oils in Oklahoma and west Texas. The authors concluded that the Devonian novaculites of the Marathon-Ouachita thrust system are self sourcing and do not require a fortuitous juxtaposition of source rocks of a different age to produce a commercial deposit.

  12. Will the age of peak ultra-marathon performance increase with increasing race duration?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent studies found that the athlete’s age of the best ultra-marathon performance was higher than the athlete’s age of the best marathon performance and it seemed that the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance increased in distance-limited races with rising distance. Methods We investigated the athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance in the fastest finishers in time-limited ultra-marathons from 6 hrs to 10 d. Running performance and athlete’s age of the fastest women and men competing in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 144 hrs (6 d) and 240 hrs (10 d) were analysed for races held between 1975 and 2012 using analysis of variance and multi-level regression analysis. Results The athlete’s ages of the ten fastest women ever in 6 hrs, 12 hrs, 24 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d were 41 ± 9, 41 ± 6, 42 ± 5, 46 ± 5, 44 ± 6, 42 ± 4, and 37 ± 4 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest women was different between 48 hrs and 10 d. For men, the athlete’s ages were 35 ± 6, 37 ± 9, 39 ± 8, 44 ± 7, 48 ± 3, 48 ± 8 and 48 ± 6 yrs, respectively. The athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 6 hrs and 12 hrs was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest men in 72 hrs, 6 d and 10 d, respectively. Conclusion The athlete’s age of peak ultra-marathon performance did not increase with rising race duration in the best ultra-marathoners. For the fastest women ever in time-limited races, the athlete’s age was lowest in 10 d (~37 yrs) and highest in 48 hrs (~46 yrs). For men, the athlete’s age of the fastest ever in 6 hrs (~35 yrs) and 12 hrs (~37 yrs) was lower than the athlete’s age of the ten fastest in 72 hrs (~48 yrs), 6 d (~48 yrs) and 10 d (~48 yrs). The differences in the athlete’s age of peak performance between female and male ultra-marathoners for the different race durations need further

  13. Marathon: An Open Source Software Library for the Analysis of Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Rechner, Steffen; Berger, Annabell

    2016-01-01

    We present the software library marathon, which is designed to support the analysis of sampling algorithms that are based on the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo principle. The main application of this library is the computation of properties of so-called state graphs, which represent the structure of Markov chains. We demonstrate applications and the usefulness of marathon by investigating the quality of several bounding methods on four well-known Markov chains for sampling perfect matchings and bipartite graphs. In a set of experiments, we compute the total mixing time and several of its bounds for a large number of input instances. We find that the upper bound gained by the famous canonical path method is often several magnitudes larger than the total mixing time and deteriorates with growing input size. In contrast, the spectral bound is found to be a precise approximation of the total mixing time. PMID:26824442

  14. Marathon: An Open Source Software Library for the Analysis of Markov-Chain Monte Carlo Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Rechner, Steffen; Berger, Annabell

    2016-01-01

    We present the software library marathon, which is designed to support the analysis of sampling algorithms that are based on the Markov-Chain Monte Carlo principle. The main application of this library is the computation of properties of so-called state graphs, which represent the structure of Markov chains. We demonstrate applications and the usefulness of marathon by investigating the quality of several bounding methods on four well-known Markov chains for sampling perfect matchings and bipartite graphs. In a set of experiments, we compute the total mixing time and several of its bounds for a large number of input instances. We find that the upper bound gained by the famous canonical path method is often several magnitudes larger than the total mixing time and deteriorates with growing input size. In contrast, the spectral bound is found to be a precise approximation of the total mixing time. PMID:26824442

  15. Twitter as a Sentinel in Emergency Situations: Lessons from the Boston Marathon Explosions

    PubMed Central

    Cassa, Christopher A.; Chunara, Rumi; Mandl, Kenneth; Brownstein, John S

    2013-01-01

    Immediately following the Boston Marathon attacks, individuals near the scene posted a deluge of data to social media sites. Previous work has shown that these data can be leveraged to provide rapid insight during natural disasters, disease outbreaks and ongoing conflicts that can assist in the public health and medical response. Here, we examine and discuss the social media messages posted immediately after and around the Boston Marathon bombings, and find that specific keywords appear frequently prior to official public safety and news media reports. Individuals immediately adjacent to the explosions posted messages within minutes via Twitter which identify the location and specifics of events, demonstrating a role for social media in the early recognition and characterization of emergency events. *Christopher Cassa and Rumi Chunara contributed equally to this work. PMID:23852273

  16. In Silico Screening for Novel Inhibitors of DNA Polymerase III Alpha Subunit of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtbDnaE2, H37Rv)

    PubMed Central

    Jadaun, Alka; Sudhakar D, Raja; Subbarao, N.; Dixit, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis, a pandemic disease is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). DNA polymerase III encoded by DnaE2 of Mtb is specifically required for its survival in vivo, and hence can be considered to be a potential drug target. Amino acid sequence analysis of the MtbDnaE2 and its human counterpart does not show any significant similarity. Therefore, a 3D model of the MtbDnaE2 was generated using Modeller 9v10 with the template structure of E. Coli DNA polymerase III alpha subunit (2HNH_A). The generated models were validated using a number of programmes such as RAMPAGE/PROCHECK, VERIFY_3D, and ProSA. MtbDnaE2 has few conserved residues and four conserved domains similar to that present in DNA polymerase III of E. coli. In silico screening was performed with bioactive anti-tuberculosis compounds and 6-AU (a known inhibitor of DNA polymerase III of Bacillus subtilis) and its analogues against the modeled MtbDnaE2 structure. Docking was performed using GOLD v5.2 software which resulted in the identification of top ten compounds with high GOLD fitness scores and binding affinity (X-Score). To further evaluate the efficacy of these compounds, in silico ADMET analysis was performed using MedChem Designer v3. Given their high binding affinity to the targeted MtbDnaE2, which is essential for DNA replication in the Mtb and good ADMET properties, these compounds are promising candidates for further evaluation and development as anti-tubercular agents. PMID:25811866

  17. Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Stellingwerf, Trent

    2012-10-01

    Laboratory-based studies demonstrate that fueling (carbohydrate; CHO) and fluid strategies can enhance training adaptations and race-day performance in endurance athletes. Thus, the aim of this case study was to characterize several periodized training and nutrition approaches leading to individualized race-day fluid and fueling plans for 3 elite male marathoners. The athletes kept detailed training logs on training volume, pace, and subjective ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) for each training session over 16 wk before race day. Training impulse/load calculations (TRIMP; min × RPE = load [arbitrary units; AU]) and 2 central nutritional techniques were implemented: periodic low-CHO-availability training and individualized CHO- and fluid-intake assessments. Athletes averaged ~13 training sessions per week for a total average training volume of 182 km/wk and peak volume of 231 km/wk. Weekly TRIMP peaked at 4,437 AU (Wk 9), with a low of 1,887 AU (Wk 16) and an average of 3,082 ± 646 AU. Of the 606 total training sessions, ~74%, 11%, and 15% were completed at an intensity in Zone 1 (very easy to somewhat hard), Zone 2 (at lactate threshold) and Zone 3 (very hard to maximal), respectively. There were 2.5 ± 2.3 low-CHO-availability training bouts per week. On race day athletes consumed 61 ± 15 g CHO in 604 ± 156 ml/hr (10.1% ± 0.3% CHO solution) in the following format: ~15 g CHO in ~150 ml every ~15 min of racing. Their resultant marathon times were 2:11:23, 2:12:39 (both personal bests), and 2:16:17 (a marathon debut). Taken together, these periodized training and nutrition approaches were successfully applied to elite marathoners in training and competition. PMID:23011657

  18. Exercise-associated hyponatremia in marathon runners: a two-year experience.

    PubMed

    Davis, D P; Videen, J S; Marino, A; Vilke, G M; Dunford, J V; Van Camp, S P; Maharam, L G

    2001-07-01

    This study was conducted to better define the pathophysiology, risk factors, and therapeutic approach to exercise-associated hyponatremia. Medical records from all participants in the 1998 Suzuki Rock 'N' Roll Marathon who presented to 14 Emergency Departments (EDs) were retrospectively reviewed to identify risk factors for the development of hyponatremia. Hyponatremic patients were compared to other runners with regard to race time and to other marathon participants seen in the ED with regard to gender, clinical signs of dehydration, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). An original treatment algorithm incorporating the early use of hypertonic saline (HTS) was evaluated prospectively in our own ED for participants in the 1999 marathon to evaluate improvements in sodium correction rate and incidence of complications. A total of 26 patients from the 1998 and 1999 marathons were hyponatremic [serum sodium (SNa) < or =135 mEq/L] including 15 with severe hyponatremia (SNa < or = 125 mEq/L). Three developed seizures and required intubation and admission to an intensive care unit. Hyponatremic patients were more likely to be female, use NSAIDS, and have slower finishing times. Hyponatremic runners reported drinking "as much as possible" during and after the race and were less likely to have clinical signs of dehydration. An inverse relationship between initial SNa and time of presentation was observed, with late presentation predicting lower SNa values. The use of HTS in selected 1999 patients resulted in faster SNa correction times and fewer complications than observed for 1998 patients. It is concluded that the development of exercise-associated hyponatremia is associated with excessive fluid consumption during and after extreme athletic events. Additional risk factors include female gender, slower race times, and NSAID use. The use of HTS in selected patients seems to be safe and efficacious. PMID:11399389

  19. Analysis of performance and age of the fastest 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The performance and age of peak ultra-endurance performance have been investigated in single races and single race series but not using worldwide participation data. The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in running performance and the age of peak running performance of the best 100-mile ultra-marathoners worldwide. METHOD: The race times and ages of the annual ten fastest women and men were analyzed among a total of 35,956 finishes (6,862 for women and 29,094 for men) competing between 1998 and 2011 in 100-mile ultra-marathons. RESULTS: The annual top ten performances improved by 13.7% from 1,132±61.8 min in 1998 to 977.6±77.1 min in 2011 for women and by 14.5% from 959.2±36.4 min in 1998 to 820.6±25.7 min in 2011 for men. The mean ages of the annual top ten fastest runners were 39.2±6.2 years for women and 37.2±6.1 years for men. The age of peak running performance was not different between women and men (p>0.05) and showed no changes across the years. CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the fastest female and male 100-mile ultra-marathoners improved their race time by ∼14% across the 1998–2011 period at an age when they had to be classified as master athletes. Future studies should analyze longer running distances (>200 km) to investigate whether the age of peak performance increases with increased distance in ultra-marathon running. PMID:23778421

  20. Implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF in Uganda: Missed Opportunities to Improve Diagnosis of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Colleen F.; Haguma, Priscilla; Ochom, Emmanuel; Kinera, Irene; Cobelens, Frank; Cattamanchi, Adithya; Davis, Luke; Katamba, Achilles; Dowdy, David

    2016-01-01

    Background. The effect of Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) scale-up on patient outcomes in low-income settings with a high tuberculosis (TB) burden has not been established. We sought to characterize the effectiveness of Xpert as implemented across different levels of the healthcare system in Uganda. Methods. We reviewed laboratory records from 2012 to 2014 at 18 health facilities throughout Uganda. In 8 facilities, Xpert had been implemented onsite since 2012, and in 10 sites Xpert was available as an offsite referral test from another facility. We describe Xpert testing volumes by facility, Xpert and smear microscopy results, and downtime due to malfunction and cartridge stockouts. We compare TB treatment initiation as well as time to treatment between facilities implementing Xpert and those that did not. Results. The median number of Xpert assays run at implementing facilities was 25/month (interquartile range [IQR], 10–63), amounting to 8% of total capacity. Among 1251 assays run for a new TB diagnosis, 19% were positive. Among 1899 patients with smear-negative presumptive TB, the proportion starting TB treatment was similar between Xpert facilities (11%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9%–13%) and non-Xpert facilities (9%; 95% CI, 8%–11%; P = .325). In Xpert facilities, a positive Xpert preceded TB treatment initiation in only 12 of 70 (17%) smear-negative patients initiated on treatment. Conclusions. Xpert was underutilized in Uganda and did not significantly increase the number of patients starting treatment for TB. Greater attention must be paid to appropriate implementation of novel diagnostic tests for TB if these new tools are to impact patient important outcomes. PMID:27186589

  1. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ISOTONIC PLANTAR FLEXOR ENDURANCE, NAVICULAR DROP, AND EXERCISE-RELATED LEG PAIN IN A COHORT OF COLLEGIATE CROSS-COUNTRY RUNNERS

    PubMed Central

    Reinking, Mark F.; Rauh, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle plantar flexor endurance (PFE), foot pronation as measured by navicular drop, and exercise-related leg pain (ERLP). Background: Exercise-related leg pain is a common occurrence in competitive and recreational runners. The identification of factors contributing to the development of ERLP may help guide methods for the prevention and management of overuse injuries. Methods: Seventy-seven (44 males, 33 females) competitive runners from five collegiate cross-country (XC) teams consented to participate in the study. Isotonic ankle PFE and foot pronation were measured using the standing heel-rise and navicular drop (ND) tests, respectively. Demographic information, anthropometric measurements, and ERLP history were also recorded. Subjects were then prospectively tracked for occurrence of ERLP during the 2009 intercollegiate cross-country season. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between isotonic ankle joint PFE and ND and the occurrence of ERLP. Results: While no significant differences were identified for isotonic ankle PFE between groups of collegiate XC runners with and without ERLP, runners with a ND >10 mm were almost 7 times (OR=6.6, 95% CI=1.2–38.0) more likely to incur medial ERLP than runners with ND <10 mm. Runners with a history of ERLP in the month previous to the start of the XC season were 12 times (OR=12.3, 95% CI=3.1–48.9) more likely to develop an in-season occurrence of ERLP. Conclusion: While PFE did not appear to be a risk factor in the development of ERLP in this group of collegiate XC runners, those with a ND greater than 10 mm may be at greater odds of incurring medial ERLP. Level of Evidence: 2b. PMID:22666641

  2. Optimal V.O2max-to-mass ratio for predicting 15 km performance among elite male cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Hammarström, Daniel; Rønnestad, Bent R; Malm, Christer B; Tonkonogi, Michail

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake (V.O2max) as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for V.O2max among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their V.O2max. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for V.O2max to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be racespeed=8.83⋅(V˙O2maxm−0.53)0.66 and lapspeed=5.89⋅(V˙O2maxm−(0.49+0.0181lap))0.43e0.010age, which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that V.O2max divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min−1 · kg−0.5) should be used when elite male skiers’ performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for V.O2max was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers. PMID:26719730

  3. Petroleum geochemistry of Texas and Oklahoma oils from the Marathon/Ouachita fold belt

    SciTech Connect

    Curiale, J.A. )

    1991-03-01

    The Marathon uplift of west Texas and the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas comprise the surface expressions of a Paleozoic orogenic belt extending across the south-central United States. A century of petroleum exploration in the Marathon and Ouachita exposures has yielded several oil discoveries. In this study, detailed molecular, elemental, and isotopic data are presented for nine Texas oils, five Oklahoma oils, and four Oklahoma solid bitumens, all associated with thrust belt rocks of the Marathons and Ouachitas. Oil-oil and oil-solid bitumen correlations are proposed, and the character of the organic matter in the source rock(s) is deduced from the chemistry of the oils and solid bitumens. All 18 samples are sourced from the same (or very similar) organic matter. This indicates that they are probably cogenetic, despite geographic separations of hundreds of miles. Chemical differences in these samples derive from secondary effects, including biodegradation (e.g., solid bitumens) and differing levels of thermal maturity. The occurrence of unusual chemical compounds (certain bisnor- and trisnor-hopanes) in all samples probably indicates the presence of anaerobic bacteria in the depositional environment. Source deductions from oil chemistry suggest that an Ordovician unit is responsible for these oils and solid bitumens. This conclusion is consistent with previous literature suggesting an Upper Ordovician source for Oklahoma Ouachita oils and supports tectonic reconstructions of the region during Ordovician time.

  4. Strategies to enhance immune function for marathon runners : what can be done?

    PubMed

    Akerström, Thorbjörn C A; Pedersen, Bente K

    2007-01-01

    Marathoners are at an increased risk of developing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) following races and periods of hard training, which are associated with temporary changes in the immune system. The majority of the reported changes are decreases in function or concentration of certain immune cells. During this period of immune suppression, by some referred to as an 'open window' in immune function, it has been hypothesised that viruses and bacteria might gain a foothold, which would increase the risk of infections. In light of this, nutritional interventions that can enhance immune function and reduce the risk of URTIs have been sought. This paper focuses on the effect of glutamine, vitamin C, bovine colostrum and glucose. Although, some of these supplements can affect the physiological and immune changes associated with marathon racing, none of the supplements discussed have consistently been shown to reduce the risk of URTIs and therefore cannot be recommended for use as enhancers of immune function in marathon runners. PMID:17465623

  5. Prior Design for Dependent Dirichlet Processes: An Application to Marathon Modeling

    PubMed Central

    F. Pradier, Melanie; J. R. Ruiz, Francisco; Perez-Cruz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP) for marathon data modeling. We make use of two well-known BNP priors, the single-p dependent Dirichlet process and the hierarchical Dirichlet process, in order to address two different problems. First, we study the impact of age, gender and environment on the runners’ performance. We derive a fair grading method that allows direct comparison of runners regardless of their age and gender. Unlike current grading systems, our approach is based not only on top world records, but on the performances of all runners. The presented methodology for comparison of densities can be adopted in many other applications straightforwardly, providing an interesting perspective to build dependent Dirichlet processes. Second, we analyze the running patterns of the marathoners in time, obtaining information that can be valuable for training purposes. We also show that these running patterns can be used to predict finishing time given intermediate interval measurements. We apply our models to New York City, Boston and London marathons. PMID:26821155

  6. Head and neck injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at four hospitals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajay K; Buch, Karen; Sung, Edward; Abujudeh, Hani; Sakai, Osamu; Aaron, Sodickson; Lev, Michael

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of head and neck injuries in patients from the Boston Marathon bombing. A total of 115 patients from the Boston Marathon bombing presenting to four hospitals who underwent imaging to evaluate for head and neck injuries were included in the study. Twelve patients with positive findings on radiography or cross-sectional imaging were included in the final analysis. The radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of these patients were evaluated for the presence of shrapnel and morphological abnormality. Head and neck injuries were seen in 12 out of 115 patients presenting to the four hospitals. There were secondary blast injuries to the head and neck in eight patients, indicated by the presence of shrapnel on imaging. In the four patients without shrapnel, there were two with subgaleal hematomas, one with facial contusion and one with mastoid injury. There were two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with brain contusion, one with cerebral laceration, and one with globe rupture. There was frontal bone, nasal bone, and orbital wall fracture in one patient each. Imaging identified 26 shrapnel fragments, 21 of which were ball bearings. Injuries to the head and neck region identified on imaging from the Boston Marathon bombing were not common. The injuries seen were predominantly secondary blast injuries from shrapnel, and did not result in calvarial penetration of the shrapnel fragments. PMID:25962489

  7. Cardiorespiratory demands during an inline speed skating marathon race: a case report.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the intensity profile during an inline speed skating marathon road race. A highly-trained male athlete (20 y, 73.4 kg, 178 cm, V̇O2 peak: 60.8 mL·kg-1·min-1) participated in a marathon road race. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR) and speed were measured using a portable gas analysis system with a HR monitor and GPS-Sensor integrated. The athlete´s peak V̇O2, HR and speed at ventilatory thresholds were assessed during an incremental field test (22 km·h-1, increase 2 km·h-1 every 5 min) one week before the race. During the race, the absolute time spent in the "easy intensity zone" (V̇O2 below VT1) was 1 min, 49 min "moderate intensity zone" (V̇O2 between VT1 and VT2), and 26 min in the "hard intensity zone" (V̇O2 above VT2). The average HR was 171±6 bpm, corresponding to 95% of the maximum. This study shows that inline speed skating road races over a marathon are conducted at moderate to high V̇O2 and heart rate levels. The physiological racing pattern is very intermittent, requiring both a high level of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. PMID:26745782

  8. Do women reduce the gap to men in ultra-marathon running?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Valeri, Fabio; Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Zingg, Matthias A; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine sex differences across years in performance of runners in ultra-marathons lasting from 6 h to 10 days (i.e. 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 144, and 240 h). Data of 32,187 finishers competing between 1975 and 2013 with 93,109 finishes were analysed using multiple linear regression analyses. With increasing age, the sex gap for all race durations increased. Across calendar years, the gap between women and men decreased in 6, 72, 144 and 240 h, but increased in 24 and 48 h. The men-to-women ratio differed among age groups, where a higher ratio was observed in the older age groups, and this relationship varied by distance. In all durations of ultra-marathon, the participation of women and men varied by age (p < 0.001), indicating a relatively low participation of women in the older age groups. In summary, between 1975 and 2013, women were able to reduce the gap to men for most of timed ultra-marathons and for those age groups where they had relatively high participation. PMID:27350909

  9. Prior Design for Dependent Dirichlet Processes: An Application to Marathon Modeling.

    PubMed

    F Pradier, Melanie; J R Ruiz, Francisco; Perez-Cruz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel application of Bayesian nonparametrics (BNP) for marathon data modeling. We make use of two well-known BNP priors, the single-p dependent Dirichlet process and the hierarchical Dirichlet process, in order to address two different problems. First, we study the impact of age, gender and environment on the runners' performance. We derive a fair grading method that allows direct comparison of runners regardless of their age and gender. Unlike current grading systems, our approach is based not only on top world records, but on the performances of all runners. The presented methodology for comparison of densities can be adopted in many other applications straightforwardly, providing an interesting perspective to build dependent Dirichlet processes. Second, we analyze the running patterns of the marathoners in time, obtaining information that can be valuable for training purposes. We also show that these running patterns can be used to predict finishing time given intermediate interval measurements. We apply our models to New York City, Boston and London marathons. PMID:26821155

  10. Xpert®MTB/RIF for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in a Remote Arctic Setting: Impact on Cost and Time to Treatment Initiation

    PubMed Central

    Oxlade, Olivia; Sugarman, Jordan; Alvarez, Gonzalo G.; Pai, Madhukar; Schwartzman, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) remains a significant health problem in the Canadian Arctic. Substantial health system delays in TB diagnosis can occur, in part due to the lack of capacity for onsite microbiologic testing. A study recently evaluated the yield and impact of a rapid automated PCR test (Xpert®MTB/RIF) for the diagnosis of TB in Iqaluit (Nunavut). We conducted an economic analysis to evaluate the expected cost relative to the expected reduction in time to treatment initiation, with the addition of Xpert®MTB/RIF to the current diagnostic and treatment algorithms used in this setting. Methods A decision analysis model compared current microbiologic testing to a scenario where Xpert®MTB/RIF was added to the current diagnostic algorithm for active TB, and incorporated costs and clinical endpoints from the Iqaluit study. Several sensitivity analyses that considered alternative use were also considered. We estimated days to TB diagnosis and treatment initiation, health system costs, and the incremental cost per treatment day gained for each individual evaluated for possible TB. Results With the addition of Xpert®MTB/RIF, costs increased while days to TB treatment initiation were reduced. The incremental cost per treatment day gained (per individual investigated for TB) was $164 (95% uncertainty range $85, $452). In a sensitivity analysis that considered hospital discharge after a single negative Xpert®MTB/RIF, the Xpert®MTB/RIF scenario was cost saving. Interpretation Adding Xpert®MTB/RIF to the current diagnostic algorithm for TB in Nunavut appears to reduce time to diagnosis and treatment at reasonable cost. It may be especially well suited to overcome some of the other logistical barriers that are unique to this and other remote communities. PMID:26990299