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Sample records for cross-over bed net

  1. A cluster randomized controlled cross-over bed net acceptability and preference trial in Solomon Islands: community participation in shaping policy for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A key component of the malaria elimination strategy in Solomon Islands (SI) is widespread coverage of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). The success of this strategy is dependent on LLIN acceptability and compliance. There has been unresolved debate among policy makers and donors as to which type of LLIN would be most appropriate for large-scale distribution in SI, and anecdotal reports of a lack of acceptability of certain brands of LLINs. A cluster randomized controlled crossover bed net acceptability and preference trial was therefore carried out from July to September, 2008 to inform policy and to facilitate community engagement and participation in the selection of the most appropriate LLIN for use in SI. Method A three-stage sampling method was used to randomly select the study population from Malaita Province, SI. Three brands of LLINs were assessed in this study: Olyset®, PermaNet® and DuraNet®. Bed net acceptability and preference were evaluated through surveys at three defined time points after short and longer-term trial of each LLIN. Results The acceptability of PermaNet® after short-term use (96.5%) was significantly greater than Olyset® (67.3%, p < 0.001) and DuraNet® (69.8%, p < 0.001). The acceptability of DuraNet® and Olyset® after short-term use was not significantly different at the 5% level. LLINs that were perceived not to prevent mosquito bites were significantly less acceptable than LLINs that were perceived to prevent mosquito bites (OR 0.15; 95%CI 0.03 to 0.6). LLINs that allow a pleasant night's sleep (OR 6.3; 95%CI:3.3-12.3) and have a soft texture (OR 5.7; 95%CI:1.9-20.5) were considered more acceptable than those that did not. Olyset®'s acceptability decreased over time and this was due to net wrinkling/shrinkage after washing resulting in reduced efficiency in preventing mosquito bites. The increase in DuraNet® acceptability was a result of a reduction in minor adverse events following longer-term use

  2. The impact of bed-net use on malaria prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Agusto, Folashade B.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Blayneh, Kbenesh W.; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Goncalves, Maria J.; Li, Nianpeng; Zhao, Ruijun; Gong, Hongfei

    2013-01-01

    Malaria infection continues to be a major problem in many parts of the world including the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Insecticide-treated bed-nets have shown to reduce malaria cases by 50%; however, improper handling and human behavior can diminish their effectiveness. We formulate and analyze a mathematical model that considers the transmission dynamics of malaria infection in mosquito and human populations and investigate the impact of bed-nets on its control. The effective reproduction number is derived and existence of backward bifurcation is presented. The backward bifurcation implies that the reduction of R below unity alone is not enough to eradicate malaria, except when the initial cases of infection in both populations are small. Our analysis demonstrate that bed-net usage has a positive impact in reducing the reproduction number R. The results show that if 75% of the population were to use bed-nets, malaria could be eliminated. We conclude that more data on the impact of human and mosquito behavior on malaria spread is needed to develop more realistic models and better predictions. PMID:23246718

  3. Net Risk: A Risk Assessment of Long-Lasting Insecticide Bed Nets Used for Malaria Management

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Robert K. D.; Barber, Loren M.; Schleier, Jerome J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated ability of bed nets that have been factory-impregnated with long-lasting insecticides (LLINs) to protect people from malaria and despite the ambitious plans for their widespread use, the health risks from the LLINs themselves have not been adequately investigated and reported in the peer-reviewed science literature. Here, we use a probabilistic risk assessment approach to estimate the risks to Africans from inhalation, dermal, and oral exposures to the newer LLINs with permethrin, α-cypermethrin, or deltamethrin as the insecticide active ingredient. We estimated exposures to LLINs using 17 age groups to incorporate different body weights and sleeping behaviors. Risk quotients (exposure divided by toxic threshold) at the 50th and 90th percentiles for non-cancer risks were < 1.0 for lifetime adjusted risk and all youth and adult age groups. Risk quotients for infants and toddlers (0–3 years) and child groups from 3 to 10 years were ≥ 1.0 for specific bed nets. PMID:21633033

  4. Determinants of household demand for bed nets in a rural area of southern Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Chase, Claire; Sicuri, Elisa; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhalungo, Delino; Nhacolo, Ariel; Alonso, Pedro L; Menéndez, Clara

    2009-01-01

    Background A key to making insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) a long-term, sustainable solution to the spread of malaria is understanding what drives their purchase and use. Few studies have analysed the determinants of demand for bed nets for malaria prevention at the household level, and in particular, how demand for nets compares with demand for other mosquito prevention methods. Methods This study uses a household survey to assess the determinants of demand for bed nets in an area of endemic malaria transmission in rural, southern Mozambique. The study looks at willingness to pay (WTP) for bed nets, net ownership, usage, and past purchase behaviour, alongside expenditure and frequency of use of alternate methods for malaria prevention. Results While overall net ownership in the sample is low, the evidence fails to suggest that poorer households are less likely to own bed nets, when controlling for covariates, nor does the likelihood of receiving a free net depend on socioeconomic status (SES). Formal schooling and market knowledge seem to indicate higher average willingness to pay, while use of alternate methods for malaria prevention, and receipt of Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) are found to decrease demand for bed nets. Conclusion For long-term sustainability of ITNs to be realized, results suggest that either full or partial subsidies may be necessary in some contexts to encourage households to obtain and use nets. Given the possible substitution effects of combined malaria control interventions, and the danger of not taking into consideration household preferences for malaria prevention, successful malaria control campaigns should invest a portion of their funds towards educating recipients of IRS and users of other preventive methods on the importance of net use even in the absence of mosquitoes. PMID:19527505

  5. Strength of bed nets as function of denier, knitting pattern, texturizing and polymer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bursting strength is a standard method for evaluating mosquito net strength. This article suggests that tension strength with one grab and one hook better represent how holes are generated in bed nets in real life. Methods Measurements of bursting strength and tension strengths in the two directions are analysed for eight model nets created for the study. The nets were made in the most commonly used denier (75 and 100 D) and mesh (156 holes/inch2) for multifilament polyester yarns, texturized or not, and with 4 or 6 sided holes. All were made from one polyester quality. Data was arranged in a randomized, complete block design and analysed for significant variables and their interactions. Data was then subjected to regression analyses using net square metre weight as a weighting factor with stepwise removal of variables. This revealed how the four textile variables interacted and allowed for making predictions for the strength of commercial nets in polyester or polyethylene. Results For the model nets, higher denier provided higher bursting strength and tension strengths, texturizing weakened nets and four-sided holes were stronger than six-sided holes. Even when compensating for square metre weight, 100 D nets are stronger than 75 D nets. Results for the commercial polyester net nets are less clear, probably because of different qualities of polyester. Tensile strength: a 75 denier net knitted tightly to provide the same square metre weight as a standard 100 denier net therefore does not obtain the same strength. Polyethylene nets are made of mono-fibre yarns and, therefore, have higher tension strength in both directions than multifilament polyester nets. For bursting strength results overlap for 100 denier yarns of both yarn types. As a class, commercial polyethylene nets are stronger than commercial polyester net whatever method is used for evaluation. Conclusion Tension strength measured in the length and width directions of the net using one hook

  6. A qualitative study on caretakers' perceived need of bed-nets after reduced malaria transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The elimination of malaria in Zanzibar is highly dependent on sustained effective coverage of bed-nets to avoid malaria resurgence. The Health Belief Model (HBM) framework was used to explore the perceptions of malaria and bed-net use after a noticeable reduction in malaria incidence. Methods Nineteen in-depth interviews were conducted with female and male caretakers of children under five in North A district, Zanzibar. Deductive content analysis was used to identify meaning units that were condensed, coded and assigned to pre-determined elements of the HBM. Results Awareness of malaria among caretakers was high but the illness was now seen as easily curable and uncommon. In addition to the perceived advantage of providing protection against malaria, bed-nets were also thought to be useful for avoiding mosquito nuisance, especially during the rainy season when the malaria and mosquito burden is high. The discomfort of sleeping under a net during the hot season was the main barrier that interrupted consistent bed-net usage. The main cue to using a bed-net was high mosquito density, and children were prioritized when it came to bed-net usage. Caretakers had high perceived self-efficacy and did not find it difficult to use bed-nets. Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS), which was recognized as an additional means of mosquito prevention, was not identified as an alternative for bed-nets. A barrier to net ownership was the increasingly high cost of bed-nets. Conclusions Despite the reduction in malaria incidence and the resulting low malaria risk perceptions among caretakers, the benefit of bed-nets as the most proficient protection against mosquito bites upholds their use. This, in combination with the perceived high self-efficacy of caretakers, supports bed-net usage, while seasonality interrupts consistent use. High effective coverage of bed-nets could be further improved by reinforcing the benefits of bed-nets, addressing the seasonal heat barrier by using nets

  7. Quantifying the impact of decay in bed-net efficacy on malaria transmission.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Del Valle, Sara Y; Zhao, Ruijun; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal

    2014-12-21

    Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are at the forefront of malaria control programs and even though the percentage of households in sub-Saharan Africa that owned nets increased from 3% in 2000 to 53% in 2012, many children continue to die from malaria. The potential impact of ITNs on reducing malaria transmission is limited due to inconsistent or improper use, as well as physical decay in effectiveness. Most mathematical models for malaria transmission have assumed a fixed effectiveness rate for bed-nets, which can overestimate the impact of nets on malaria control. We develop a model for malaria spread that captures the decrease in ITN effectiveness due to physical and chemical decay, as well as human behavior as a function of time. We perform uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to identify and rank parameters that play a critical role in malaria transmission. These analyses show that the basic reproduction number R0, and the infectious human population are most sensitive to bed-net coverage and the biting rate of mosquitoes. Our results show the existence of a backward bifurcation for the case in which ITN efficacy is constant over time, which occurs for some range of parameters and is characterized by high malaria mortality in humans. This result implies that bringing R0 to less than one is not enough for malaria elimination but rather additional efforts will be necessary to control the disease. For the case in which ITN efficacy decays over time, we determine coverage levels required to control malaria for different ITN efficacies and demonstrate that ITNs with longer useful lifespans perform better in malaria control. We conclude that malaria control programs should focus on increasing bed-net coverage, which can be achieved by enhancing malaria education and increasing bed-net distribution in malaria endemic regions. PMID:25158163

  8. Bed Net Durability Assessments: Exploring a Composite Measure of Net Damage

    PubMed Central

    Vanden Eng, Jodi L.; Chan, Adeline; Abílio, Ana Paula; Wolkon, Adam; Ponce de Leon, Gabriel; Gimnig, John; Morgan, Juliette

    2015-01-01

    Background The durability of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) in field conditions is of great importance for malaria prevention and control efforts; however, the physical integrity of the net fabric is not well understood making it challenging to determine overall effectiveness of nets as they age. The 2011 World Health Organization Pesticide Evaluation Scheme (WHOPES) guidelines provide a simple, standardized method using a proportional hole index (PHI) for assessing net damage with the intent to provide national malaria control programs with guidelines to assess the useful life of LLINS and estimate the rate of replacement. Methods We evaluated the utility of the PHI measure using 409 LLINs collected over three years in Nampula Province, Mozambique following a mass distribution campaign in 2008. For each LLIN the diameter and distance from the bottom of the net were recorded for every hole. Holes were classified into four size categories and a PHI was calculated following WHOPES guidelines. We investigate how the size, shape, and location of holes influence the PHI. The areas of the WHOPES defined categories were compared to circular and elliptical areas based on approximate shape and actual measured axes of each hole and the PHI was compared to cumulative damaged surface area of the LLIN. Results The damaged area of small, medium, large, and extra-large holes was overestimated using the WHOPES categories compared to elliptical areas using the actual measured axes. Similar results were found when comparing to circular areas except for extra-large holes which were underestimated. (Wilcoxon signed rank test of differences p< 0.0001 for all sizes). Approximating holes as circular overestimated hole surface area by 1.5 to 2 times or more. There was a significant difference in the mean number of holes < 0.5 cm by brand and there were more holes of all sizes on the bottom of nets than the top. For a range of hypothetical PHI thresholds used to designate a

  9. Behavioural responses of females of two anopheline mosquito species to human-occupied, insecticide-treated and untreated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs), used extensively to reduce human exposure to malaria, work through physical and chemical means to block or deter host-seeking mosquitoes. Despite the importance of ITNs, very little is known about how host-seeking mosquitoes behave around occupied bed nets. As a result, evidence-based evaluations of the effects of physical damage on bed net effectiveness are not possible and there is a dearth of knowledge on which to base ITN design. Methods The dispersion of colony-raised female Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles albimanus was observed in 2-hr laboratory experiments in which up to 200 mosquitoes were released inside a mosquito-proof 3 m × 3 m tent housing a bed net arrayed with 18 30 cm × 30 cm sticky screen squares on the sides, ends and roof. Numbers of mosquitoes caught on the sticky squares were interpreted as the ‘mosquito pressure’ on that part of the net. Results Presence of a human subject in the bed net significantly increased total mosquito pressure on the net for both species and significantly re-oriented An. gambiae to the roof of the net. Anopheles albimanus pressure was greatest on the bed net roof in both host-present and no-host conditions. The effects of different human subjects in the bed net, of different ambient conditions (dry, cool conditions vs warm, humid conditions) and of bed net treatment (deltamethrin-treated or no insecticide) on mosquito pressure patterns were tested for both species. Species-specific pressure patterns did not vary greatly as a result of any of these factors though some differences were noted that may be due the size of the different human subjects. Conclusions As a result of the interaction between host-seeking responses and the convective plume from the net occupant, species-specific mosquito pressure patterns manifest more or less predictably on the bed net. This has implications for bed net design and suggests that current methods of assessing damaged

  10. Impact of a mass media campaign on bed net use in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2011, Cameroon and its health partners distributed over eight million free long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) in an effort to reduce the significant morbidity and mortality burden of malaria in the country. A national communications campaign was launched in July 2011 to ensure that as the nets were delivered, they would be used consistently to close a net use gap: only 51.6% of adults and 63.4% of their children in households with at least one net were sleeping under nets before the distribution. Even in households with at least one net for every two people, over 35% of adults were not sleeping under a net. Malaria No More (MNM) adapted its signature NightWatch communications programme to fit within the coordinated “KO Palu” (Knock Out Malaria) national campaign. This study evaluates the impact of KO Palu NightWatch activities (that is, the subset of KO Palu-branded communications that were funded by MNM’s NightWatch program) on bed net use. Methods Using national survey data collected at baseline (in March/April 2011, before the national LLIN distribution and KO Palu NightWatch launch) and post-intervention (March/April 2012), this study evaluates the impact of exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities on last-night net use by Cameroonian adults and their children under five. First, a plausible case for causality was established by comparing net use in 2011 and 2012 and measuring exposure to KO Palu NightWatch; next, a propensity score matching (PSM) model was used to estimate the impact of exposure on net use by simulating a randomized control trial; finally, the model was tested for sensitivity to unmeasured factors. Results The PSM model estimated that among Cameroonians with at least one net in their household, exposure to KO Palu NightWatch activities was associated with a 6.6 percentage point increase in last-night net use among respondents (65.7% vs 59.1%, p < 0.05) and a 12.0 percentage point increase in last-night net

  11. Infrared video tracking of Anopheles gambiae at insecticide-treated bed nets reveals rapid decisive impact after brief localised net contact

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Josephine E.A.; Angarita-Jaimes, Natalia; Abe, Mayumi; Towers, Catherine E.; Towers, David; McCall, Philip J.

    2015-01-01

    Long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) protect humans from malaria transmission and are fundamental to malaria control worldwide, but little is known of how mosquitoes interact with nets. Elucidating LLIN mode of action is essential to maintain or improve efficacy, an urgent need as emerging insecticide resistance threatens their future. Tracking multiple free-flying Anopheles gambiae responding to human-occupied bed nets in a novel large-scale system, we characterised key behaviours and events. Four behavioural modes with different levels of net contact were defined: swooping, visiting, bouncing and resting. Approximately 75% of all activity occurred at the bed net roof where multiple brief contacts were focussed above the occupant’s torso. Total flight and net contact times were lower at LLINs than untreated nets but the essential character of the response was unaltered. LLINs did not repel mosquitoes but impacted rapidly: LLIN contact of less than 1 minute per mosquito during the first ten minutes reduced subsequent activity; after thirty minutes, activity at LLINs was negligible. Velocity measurements showed that mosquitoes detected nets, including unbaited untreated nets, prior to contact. This is the most complete characterisation of mosquito-LLIN interactions to date, and reveals many aspects of LLIN mode of action, important for developing the next generation of LLINs. PMID:26323965

  12. An insecticide-treated bed-net campaign and childhood malaria in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Louis, Valérie R; Schoeps, Anja; Tiendrebéogo, Justin; Beiersmann, Claudia; Yé, Maurice; Damiba, Marie R; Lu, Guang Y; Mbayiha, André H; De Allegri, Manuela; Jahn, Albrecht; Sié, Ali; Becher, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate if the first national insecticide-treated bed-net campaign in Burkina Faso, done in 2010, was followed by a decrease in childhood malaria in a district with high baseline transmission of the disease. Methods We obtained data on the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in children aged 2 weeks to 36 months from malaria surveys in 2009 and 2011. We assessed morbidity in children younger than 5 years by comparing data from the Nouna health district’s health management information system before and after the campaign in 2010. We analysed mortality data from 2008 to 2012 from Nouna’s health and demographic surveillance system. Findings The bed-net campaign was associated with an increase in the reported use of insecticide-treated nets. In 2009, 73% (630/869) of children reportedly slept under nets. In 2011, 92% (449/487) did. The campaign had no effect on the proportion of young children with P. falciparum parasitaemia after the rainy season; 52% (442/858) in 2009 and 53% (263/499) in 2011. Cases of malaria increased markedly after the campaign, as did the number of children presenting with other diseases. The campaign was not associated with any changes in child mortality. Conclusion The 2010 insecticide-treated net campaign in Burkina Faso was not associated with a decrease in care-seeking for malaria or all-cause mortality in children younger than 5 years. The most likely explanation is the high coverage of nets in the study area before the campaign which could have had an effect on mosquito vectors, limiting the campaign’s impact. PMID:26549902

  13. Best practices for an insecticide-treated bed net distribution programme in sub-Saharan eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets are the preeminent malaria control means; though there is no consensus as to a best practice for large-scale insecticide-treated bed net distribution. In order to determine the paramount distribution method, this review assessed literature on recent insecticide treated bed net distribution programmes throughout sub-Saharan Eastern Africa. Inclusion criteria were that the study had taken place in sub-Saharan Eastern Africa, targeted malaria prevention and control, and occurred between 1996 and 2007. Forty-two studies were identified and reviewed. The results indicate that distribution frameworks varied greatly; and consequently so did outcomes of insecticide-treated bed net use. Studies revealed consistent inequities between urban and rural populations; which were most effectively alleviated through a free insecticide-treated bed net delivery and distribution framework. However, cost sharing through subsidies was shown to increase programme sustainability, which may lead to more long-term coverage. Thus, distribution should employ a catch up/keep up programme strategy. The catch-up programme rapidly scales up coverage, while the keep-up programme maintains coverage levels. Future directions for malaria should include progress toward distribution of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. PMID:21651815

  14. Increasing Coverage and Decreasing Inequity in Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Use among Rural Kenyan Children

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Abdisalan M; Amin, Abdinasir A; Akhwale, Willis S; Snow, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Background Inexpensive and efficacious interventions that avert childhood deaths in sub-Saharan Africa have failed to reach effective coverage, especially among the poorest rural sectors. One particular example is insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). In this study, we present repeat observations of ITN coverage among rural Kenyan homesteads exposed at different times to a range of delivery models, and assess changes in coverage across socioeconomic groups. Methods and Findings We undertook a study of annual changes in ITN coverage among a cohort of 3,700 children aged 0–4 y in four districts of Kenya (Bondo, Greater Kisii, Kwale, and Makueni) annually between 2004 and 2006. Cross-sectional surveys of ITN coverage were undertaken coincidentally with the incremental availability of commercial sector nets (2004), the introduction of heavily subsidized nets through clinics (2005), and the introduction of free mass distributed ITNs (2006). The changing prevalence of ITN coverage was examined with special reference to the degree of equity in each delivery approach. ITN coverage was only 7.1% in 2004 when the predominant source of nets was the commercial retail sector. By the end of 2005, following the expansion of heavily subsidized clinic distribution system, ITN coverage rose to 23.5%. In 2006 a large-scale mass distribution of ITNs was mounted providing nets free of charge to children, resulting in a dramatic increase in ITN coverage to 67.3%. With each subsequent survey socioeconomic inequity in net coverage sequentially decreased: 2004 (most poor [2.9%] versus least poor [15.6%]; concentration index 0.281); 2005 (most poor [17.5%] versus least poor [37.9%]; concentration index 0.131), and 2006 with near-perfect equality (most poor [66.3%] versus least poor [66.6%]; concentration index 0.000). The free mass distribution method achieved highest coverage among the poorest children, the highly subsidised clinic nets programme was marginally in favour of the least poor

  15. Evaluation of polyethylene-based long lasting treated bed net netprotect on anopheles mosquitoes, malaria incidence, and net longivity in Western kenya.

    PubMed

    Odhiambo, M T O; Skovmand, O; Vulule, J M; Kokwaro, E D

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect on malaria incidence, mosquito abundance, net efficacy, net use rate, chemical analysis, and holes of a long lasting insecticide treated bed net (Netprotect) in western Kenya, 2007-2010. Nets were hung in 150 households 6 months before they were hung in a second, 2 km away. Indoor resting densities were monitored by pyrethrum spray catch and malaria cases by passive detection using clinical manifestations and rapid diagnostic test. The probability of finding An. arabiensis in the control area was 2.6 times higher than that in intervention area during the first 6 months. Human blood feeding index of Anopheles funestus declined 17%. After bed nets were hung in the second area, malaria incidence declined 25% down to the level in the first area. Incidence remained at this low level for 2 years. 90% of collected nets were efficacious after 3-year use. Deltamethrin dosage declined from 1.9 to 0.5 g/kg over 3 years. Attrition rate after 3 years was 21%. WHO hole index changed from 333 to 114 to 381 over the three years. This index summarizes the numbers of holes in size categories and multiplies with the mean hole area per category. It is very sensitive to the impact of big holes in a few nets. PMID:24194770

  16. Cost and cost effectiveness of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets - a model-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends that national malaria programmes universally distribute long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs). LLINs provide effective insecticide protection for at least three years while conventional nets must be retreated every 6-12 months. LLINs may also promise longer physical durability (lifespan), but at a higher unit price. No prospective data currently available is sufficient to calculate the comparative cost effectiveness of different net types. We thus constructed a model to explore the cost effectiveness of LLINs, asking how a longer lifespan affects the relative cost effectiveness of nets, and if, when and why LLINs might be preferred to conventional insecticide-treated nets. An innovation of our model is that we also considered the replenishment need i.e. loss of nets over time. Methods We modelled the choice of net over a 10-year period to facilitate the comparison of nets with different lifespan (and/or price) and replenishment need over time. Our base case represents a large-scale programme which achieves high coverage and usage throughout the population by distributing either LLINs or conventional nets through existing health services, and retreats a large proportion of conventional nets regularly at low cost. We identified the determinants of bed net programme cost effectiveness and parameter values for usage rate, delivery and retreatment cost from the literature. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to explicitly compare the differential effect of changing parameters such as price, lifespan, usage and replenishment need. Results If conventional and long-lasting bed nets have the same physical lifespan (3 years), LLINs are more cost effective unless they are priced at more than USD 1.5 above the price of conventional nets. Because a longer lifespan brings delivery cost savings, each one year increase in lifespan can be accompanied by a USD 1 or more increase in price without the cheaper net

  17. A good night’s sleep and the habit of net use: perceptions of risk and reasons for bed net use in Bukoba and Zanzibar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intensive malaria control interventions in the United Republic of Tanzania have contributed to reductions in malaria prevalence. Given that malaria control remains reliant upon continued use of long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) even when the threat of malaria has been reduced, this qualitative study sought to understand how changes in perceived risk influence LLIN usage, and to explore in more detail the benefits of net use that are unrelated to malaria. Methods Eleven focus group discussions were conducted in Bukoba Rural district and in Zanzibar Urban West district in late 2011. Participants were males aged 18 and over, females between the ages of 18 and 49, and females at least 50 years old. Results The perceived risk of malaria had decreased among the respondents, and malaria control interventions were credited for the decline. Participants cited reductions in both the severity of malaria and in their perceived susceptibility to malaria. However, malaria was still considered a significant threat. Participants’ conceptualization of risk appeared to be an important consideration for net use. At the same time, comfort and aspects of comfort (getting a good night’s sleep, avoiding biting pests) appeared to play a large role in personal decisions to use nets consistently or not. Barriers to comfort (feeling uncomfortable or trapped; perceived difficulty breathing, or itching/rashes) were frequently cited as reasons not to use a net consistently. While it was apparent that participants acknowledged the malaria-prevention benefits of net use, the exploration of the risk and comfort determinants of net use provides a richer understanding of net use behaviours, particularly in a setting where transmission has fallen and yet consistent net use is still crucial to maintaining those gains. Conclusion Future behaviour change communication campaigns should capitalize on the non-malaria benefits of net use that provide a long-term rationale for

  18. Decision-making on intra-household allocation of bed nets in Uganda: do households prioritize the most vulnerable members?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Access to insecticide-treated bed nets has increased substantially in recent years, but ownership and use remain well below 100% in many malaria endemic areas. Understanding decision-making around net allocation in households with too few nets is essential to ensuring protection of the most vulnerable. This study explores household net allocation preferences and practices across four districts in Uganda. Methods Data collection consisted of eight focus group discussions, twelve in-depth interviews, and a structured questionnaire to inventory 107 sleeping spaces in 28 households. Results In focus group discussions and in-depth interviews, participants almost unanimously stated that pregnant women, infants, and young children should be prioritized when allocating nets. However, sleeping space surveys reveal that heads of household sometimes receive priority over children less than five years of age when households have too few nets to cover all members. Conclusions When asked directly, most net owners highlight the importance of allocating nets to the most biologically vulnerable household members. This is consistent with malaria behaviour change and health education messages. In actual allocation, however, factors other than biological vulnerability may influence who does and does not receive a net. PMID:24885653

  19. Challenges in universal coverage and utilization of insecticide-treated bed nets in migrant plantation workers in Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High coverage of the bed nets can reduce mortality and morbidity of mosquito-borne diseases including malaria. Although the migrant workers are at high risk of malaria, there are many hidden challenges in universal coverage and utilization of the insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) in this populations. Methods Cross sectional study was conducted in 170 migrant workers in palm oil plantation sites in Tanintharyi Region and 175 in rubber plantation sites in Mon State. A multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to select the participants. During household visit, face-to-face interviews using structured pre-coded, pre tested questionnaires and direct observation on installation of the bed nets was conducted. Two focus group discussions in each site were done by sample stratified purposive sampling method mainly focused on effective utilization of bed nets. Results Among them, 332 (96.2%) had a bed net and 284 (82.3%) had an ITN, while 204 (59.1%) had unused extranets. Among the ITNs users, 28.9% reported problems including insecticide smell (56.9%), dizziness (20.2%), headache (12.8%) and itchiness (9.2%). More than 75% received ITNs from health authorities and NGOs free-of-charge. More than 70% wanted to buy a net but they were unaffordable for 64% of them. On observation, only five families could show no bed net, but 80% showed 1–3 ITNs. Consistent utilization in all seasons was noted in 189 (53.1%), that was higher in palm oil plantation than rubber plantation workers (p = 0.0001) due to the nature of the work at night. Perceived malaria risk was also significantly higher ITNs consistent users than non-users (p = 0.0004) and better willingness to buy an ITN by themselves (p = 0.0005). They said that effectiveness of the ITNs was reduced after 6 months and 2–3 times washing. They wished to receive more durable smooth nets with small holes in lace. Misuses of the ITNs such as use the nets for animals and fishing, were also noted

  20. Determinants of Bed Net Use in Southeast Nigeria following Mass Distribution of LLINs: Implications for Social Behavior Change Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Cheryl L.; Sallau, Adamu; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M.; Noland, Gregory S.; Ngondi, Jeremiah M.; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Miri, Emmanuel; McFarland, Deborah A.; Richards, Frank O.; Patterson, Amy E.

    2015-01-01

    Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC) intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45–65.79) or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001). Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020), increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022), and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23–0.78). The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions. PMID:26430747

  1. Determinants of Bed Net Use in Southeast Nigeria following Mass Distribution of LLINs: Implications for Social Behavior Change Interventions.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cheryl L; Sallau, Adamu; Emukah, Emmanuel; Graves, Patricia M; Noland, Gregory S; Ngondi, Jeremiah M; Ozaki, Masayo; Nwankwo, Lawrence; Miri, Emmanuel; McFarland, Deborah A; Richards, Frank O; Patterson, Amy E

    2015-01-01

    Millions of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs) have been distributed as part of the global malaria control strategy. LLIN ownership, however, does not necessarily guarantee use. Thus, even in the ideal setting in which universal coverage with LLINs has been achieved, maximal malaria protection will only be achieved if LLINs are used both correctly and consistently. This study investigated the factors associated with net use, independent of net ownership. Data were collected during a household survey conducted in Ebonyi State in southeastern Nigeria in November 2011 following a statewide mass LLIN distribution campaign and, in select locations, a community-based social behavior change (SBC) intervention. Logistic regression analyses, controlling for household bed net ownership, were conducted to examine the association between individual net use and various demographic, environmental, behavioral and social factors. The odds of net use increased among individuals who were exposed to tailored SBC in the context of a home visit (OR = 17.11; 95% CI 4.45-65.79) or who received greater degrees of social support from friends and family (ptrend < 0.001). Factors associated with decreased odds of net use included: increasing education level (ptrend = 0.020), increasing malaria knowledge level (ptrend = 0.022), and reporting any disadvantage of bed nets (OR = 0.39; 95% CI 0.23-0.78). The findings suggest that LLIN use is significantly influenced by social support and exposure to a malaria-related SBC home visit. The malaria community should thus further consider the importance of community outreach, interpersonal communication and social support on adoption of net use behaviors when designing future research and interventions. PMID:26430747

  2. Cedarwood: cross-over pressure research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of experiments were conducted to determine the cross-over pressure for cedarwood oil in carbon dioxide. A closed stirrer reactor with an in-line loop connected to the injector of a GC was used to measure the concentration of cedarwood oil in the carbon dioxide. Both neat cedarwood oil as ...

  3. An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission.

    PubMed

    Birget, Philip L G; Koella, Jacob C

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protection effect of repellency decreases as mosquitoes are forced to perform multiple feeding attempts even on ITN users. On the other hand, the insecticidal property, which offers community-wide protection by killing mosquitoes, requires that mosquitoes contact the insecticide on the ITN and is thus counteracted by the repellency. Our model confirms that ITNs are an effective intervention method by reducing total malaria prevalence in the population, but that there is a conflict between personal protection, offered by repellency, and community-wide protection, which relies on the ITN's insecticidal properties. Crucially, the model suggests that weak repellency allows disease elimination at lower ITN coverage levels. PMID:26636568

  4. An Epidemiological Model of the Effects of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets on Malaria Transmission

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) have become a central tool for malaria control because they provide personal and community-wide protection through their repellent and insecticidal properties. Here we propose a model that allows to assess the relative importance of those two effects in different epidemiological contexts and we show that these two levels of protection may oppose each other. On the one hand, repellency offers personal protection to the users of ITNs. The repellent action, however, is a two-edged sword, for it diverts infectious mosquitoes to non-users, thereby increasing their risk. Furthermore, with increasing ITN coverage, the personal protection effect of repellency decreases as mosquitoes are forced to perform multiple feeding attempts even on ITN users. On the other hand, the insecticidal property, which offers community-wide protection by killing mosquitoes, requires that mosquitoes contact the insecticide on the ITN and is thus counteracted by the repellency. Our model confirms that ITNs are an effective intervention method by reducing total malaria prevalence in the population, but that there is a conflict between personal protection, offered by repellency, and community-wide protection, which relies on the ITN’s insecticidal properties. Crucially, the model suggests that weak repellency allows disease elimination at lower ITN coverage levels. PMID:26636568

  5. Entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in Western Myanmar

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) in Western Myanmar the malaria protective effect of ITN was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. A coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to ITN effectiveness. Methods Entomological surveys were carried out using different catching methods to identify potential malaria vector species and characterise their biting habits. The salivary glands were dissected from all female anophelines caught to identify sporozoites by microscopy. Findings Between 1995 and 2000 a total of 4,824 female anopheline mosquitoes were caught with various catching methods. A total of 916 person nights yielded 3,009 female anopheline mosquitoes between 6 pm and 6 am. Except for Anopheles annularis, which showed no apparent preference (51% outdoor biting), all major species showed a strong preference for outdoor biting; Anopheles epiroticus (79%), Anopheles subpictus (72%), Anopheles maculatus (92%), Anopheles aconitus (85%) and Anopheles vagus (72%). Most human biting occurred in the early evening with the peak biting time between 6 pm and 7 pm (35%). Overall 51% (1447/2837) of all bites recorded were between 6 pm and 8 pm. A large proportion of children were not sleeping under an ITN during peak biting times. Only one An. annularis mosquito (0.02%) had malaria sporozoites identified in the salivary glands. Conclusions Peak vector biting occurred early in the evening and mainly occurred outdoors. The limited efficacy of ITN in this area of Western Myanmar may be explained by the biting behaviour of the prevalent Anopheles mosquito vectors in this area. PMID:24119994

  6. The Effect of Mass Media Campaign on the Use of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ankomah, A.; Adebayo, S. B.; Arogundade, E. D.; Anyanti, J.; Nwokolo, E.; Inyang, U.; Ipadeola, Oladipupo B.; Meremiku, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Malaria during pregnancy is a major public health problem in Nigeria especially in malaria-endemic areas. It increases the risk of low birth weight and child/maternal morbidity/mortality. This paper addresses the impact of radio campaigns on the use of insecticide-treated bed nets among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. A total of 2,348 pregnant women were interviewed during the survey across 21 of Nigeria's 36 states. Respondents were selected through a multistage sampling technique. Analysis was based on multivariate logistic regression. Results. Respondents who knew that sleeping under ITN prevents malaria were 3.2 times more likely to sleep under net (OR: 3.15; 95% CI: 2.28 to 4.33; P < 0.0001). Those who listened to radio are also about 1.6 times more likely to use ITN (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.07 to 2.28; P = 0.020), while respondents who had heard of a specific sponsored radio campaign on ITN are 1.53 times more likely to use a bed net (P = 0.019). Conclusion. Pregnant women who listened to mass media campaigns were more likely to adopt strategies to protect themselves from malaria. Therefore, behavior change communication messages that are aimed at promoting net use and antenatal attendance are necessary in combating malaria. PMID:24778895

  7. NETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baffes, Paul T.

    1993-01-01

    NETS development tool provides environment for simulation and development of neural networks - computer programs that "learn" from experience. Written in ANSI standard C, program allows user to generate C code for implementation of neural network.

  8. DEET microencapsulation: a slow-release formulation enhancing the residual efficacy of bed nets against malaria vectors.

    PubMed

    N'guessan, Raphael; Knols, Bart G J; Pennetier, Cedric; Rowland, Mark

    2008-03-01

    Textile materials treated with synthetic repellents have the potential to provide protection against insect disease vectors but lack the residual activity necessary to achieve a prolonged effect or to be cost-effective. DEET MC is a formulation of DEET (N,N diethyl-m-toluamide) in which the repellent is gradually released from a capsule that binds the repellent. An experiment carried out on DEET-treated mosquito netting showed that the formulation repels, inhibits blood-feeding and kills mosquitoes for a period of at least 6 months under laboratory conditions. Such formulations may have the potential for use on nets against pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes or on clothing or bedding materials distributed in disasters, emergencies or refugee camp situations. PMID:18082862

  9. “Tazomoka Is Not a Problem”. Local Perspectives on Malaria, Fever Case Management and Bed Net Use in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Raboanary, Emma; Kesteman, Thomas; Piola, Patrice; Randrianarivelojosia, Milijaona; Rogier, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background Although its incidence has been decreasing during the last decade, malaria is still a major public health issue in Madagascar. The use of Long Lasting Insecticidal Nets (LLIN) remains a key malaria control intervention strategy in Madagascar, however, it encounters some obstacles. The present study aimed to explore the local terminology related to malaria, information channels about malaria, attitude towards bed nets, and health care seeking practices in case of fever. This article presents novel qualitative findings about malaria. Until now, no such data has been published for Madagascar. Methods A comparative qualitative study was carried out at four sites in Madagascar, each differing by malaria epidemiology and socio-cultural background of the populations. Seventy-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with biomedical and traditional caregivers, and members of the local population. In addition, observations of the living conditions and the uses of bed net were conducted. Results Due to the differences between local and biomedical perspectives on malaria, official messages did not have the expected impact on population in terms of prevention and care seeking behaviors. Rather, most information retained about malaria was spread through informal information circulation channels. Most interviewees perceived malaria as a disease that is simple to treat. Tazomoka (“mosquito fever”), the Malagasy biomedical word for malaria, was not used by populations. Tazo (“fever”) and tazomahery (“strong fever”) were the terms more commonly used by members of the local population to refer to malaria related symptoms. According to local perceptions in all areas, tazo and tazomahery were not caused by mosquitos. Each of these symptoms required specific health recourse. The usual fever management strategies consisted of self-medication or recourse to traditional and biomedical caregivers. Usage of bed nets was intermittent and was not directly linked to

  10. A mechanistic model linking insect (Hydropsychidae) silk nets to incipient sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albertson, Lindsey K.; Sklar, Leonard S.; Pontau, Patricia; Dow, Michelle; Cardinale, Bradley J.

    2014-09-01

    Plants and animals affect stream morphodynamics across a range of scales, yet including biological traits of organisms in geomorphic process models remains a fundamental challenge. For example, laboratory experiments have shown that silk nets built by caddisfly larvae (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) can increase the shear stress required to initiate bed motion by more than a factor of 2. The contributions of specific biological traits are not well understood, however. Here we develop a theoretical model for the effects of insect nets on the threshold of sediment motion, τ*crit, that accounts for the mechanical properties, geometry, and vertical distribution of insect silk, as well as interactions between insect species. To parameterize the model, we measure the tensile strength, diameter, and number of silk threads in nets built by two common species of caddisfly, Arctopsyche californica and Ceratopsyche oslari. We compare model predictions with new measurements of τ*crit in experiments where we varied grain size and caddisfly species composition. The model is consistent with experimental results for single species, which show that the increase in τ*crit above the abiotic control peaks at 40-70% for 10-22 mm sediments and declines with increasing grain size. For the polyculture experiments, however, the model underpredicts the measured increase in τ*crit when two caddisfly species are present in sediments of larger grain sizes. Overall, the model helps explain why the presence of caddisfly silk can substantially increase the forces needed to initiate sediment motion in gravel-bedded streams and also illustrates the challenge of parameterizing the behavior of multiple interacting species in a physical model.

  11. Geographical Factors Affecting Bed Net Ownership, a Tool for the Elimination of Anopheles-Transmitted Lymphatic Filariasis in Hard-to-Reach Communities

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Michelle C.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Kelly-Hope, Louise A.

    2013-01-01

    Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN)), and ITN density (ITNs per person) for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30%) and ITN (9%) coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01), and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = −0.28, −0.30 respectively, p<0.0001). Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures), distance to main rivers (any bed net only) and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only). Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67–7.70). This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF

  12. Geographical factors affecting bed net ownership, a tool for the elimination of Anopheles-transmitted lymphatic filariasis in hard-to-reach communities.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michelle C; Bockarie, Moses J; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2013-01-01

    Vector control, including the use of bed nets, is recommended as a possible strategy for eliminating lymphatic filariasis (LF) in post-conflict countries such as the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). This study examined the geographical factors that influence bed net ownership in DRC in order to identify hard-to-reach communities that need to be better targeted. In particular, urban/rural differences and the influence of population density, proximity to cities and health facilities, plus access to major transport networks were investigated. Demographic and Health Survey geo-referenced cluster level data were used to map bed net coverage (proportion of households with at least one of any type of bed net or at least one insecticide-treated net (ITN)), and ITN density (ITNs per person) for 260 clusters. Bivariate and multiple logistic or Poisson regression analyses were used to determine significant relationships. Overall, bed net (30%) and ITN (9%) coverage were very low with significant differences found between urban and rural clusters. In rural clusters, ITN coverage/density was positively correlated with population density (r = 0.25, 0.27 respectively, p<0.01), and negatively with the distance to the two largest cities, Kinshasa or Lubumbashi (r = -0.28, -0.30 respectively, p<0.0001). Further, ownership was significantly negatively correlated with distance to primary national roads and railways (all three measures), distance to main rivers (any bed net only) and distance to the nearest health facility (ITNs only). Logistic and Poisson regression models fitted to the rural cluster data indicated that, after controlling for measured covariates, ownership levels in the Bas-Congo province close to Kinshasa were much larger than that of other provinces. This was most noticeable when considering ITN coverage (odds ratio: 5.3, 95% CI: 3.67-7.70). This analysis provides key insights into the barriers of bed net ownership, which will help inform both LF and

  13. Managing insecticide resistance in malaria vectors by combining carbamate-treated plastic wall sheeting and pyrethroid-treated bed nets

    PubMed Central

    Djènontin, Armel; Chabi, Joseph; Baldet, Thierry; Irish, Seth; Pennetier, Cédric; Hougard, Jean-Marc; Corbel, Vincent; Akogbéto, Martin; Chandre, Fabrice

    2009-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid resistance is now widespread in Anopheles gambiae, the major vector for malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. This resistance may compromise malaria vector control strategies that are currently in use in endemic areas. In this context, a new tool for management of resistant mosquitoes based on the combination of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and carbamate-treated plastic sheeting was developed. Methods In the laboratory, the insecticidal activity and wash resistance of four carbamate-treated materials: a cotton/polyester blend, a polyvinyl chloride tarpaulin, a cotton/polyester blend covered on one side with polyurethane, and a mesh of polypropylene fibres was tested. These materials were treated with bendiocarb at 100 mg/m2 and 200 mg/m2 with and without a binding resin to find the best combination for field studies. Secondly, experimental hut trials were performed in southern Benin to test the efficacy of the combined use of a pyrethroid-treated bed net and the carbamate-treated material that was the most wash-resistant against wild populations of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus. Results Material made of polypropylene mesh (PPW) provided the best wash resistance (up to 10 washes), regardless of the insecticide dose, the type of washing, or the presence or absence of the binding resin. The experimental hut trial showed that the combination of carbamate-treated PPW and a pyrethroid-treated bed net was extremely effective in terms of mortality and inhibition of blood feeding of pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae. This efficacy was found to be proportional to the total surface of the walls. This combination showed a moderate effect against wild populations of Cx. quinquefasciatus, which were strongly resistant to pyrethroid. Conclusion These preliminary results should be confirmed, including evaluation of entomological, parasitological, and clinical parameters. Selective pressure on resistance mechanisms within the vector

  14. Efficacy of insecticide impregnated bed-nets to control malaria in a rural forested area in southern Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Le Goff, G; Robert, V; Fondjo, E; Carnevale, P

    1992-01-01

    Due to current spreading of chemoresistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum malaria control must incorporate vector control programmes. Due to well known constraints house sprayings cannot be performed as before. Personal protection can be developed and a large scale use of insecticide treated bed-nets appeared to be very useful to reduce man-vector contact in Asia, South America and West and East Africa. No trial has been done in forest Central Africa where transmission is permanent. We performed such a trial in the southern part of Cameroon (using deltamethrin, at 25 mg/m2) and obtained similar data to those observed in The Gambia, Burkina Faso and Tanzania with a noteworthy reduction of both transmission and high parasitaemia of P. falciparum (respectively 78% and 75%) meaning a drop of malaria morbidity. PMID:1343714

  15. A need for better housing to further reduce indoor malaria transmission in areas with high bed net coverage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The suppression of indoor malaria transmission requires additional interventions that complement the use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS). Previous studies have examined the impact of house structure on malaria transmission in areas of low transmission. This study was conducted in a high transmission setting and presents further evidence about the association between specific house characteristics and the abundance of endophilic malaria vectors. Methods Mosquitoes were sampled using CDC light traps from 72 randomly selected houses in two villages on a monthly basis from 2008 to 2011 in rural Southern Tanzania. Generalized linear models using Poisson distributions were used to analyze the association of house characteristics (eave gaps, wall types, roof types, number of windows, rooms and doors, window screens, house size), number of occupants and ITN usage with mean catches of malaria vectors (An.gambiae s.l. and An. funestus). Results A total of 36490 female An. gambiae s.l. were collected in Namwawala village and 21266 in Idete village. As for An. funestus females, 2268 were collected in Namwawala and 3398 in Idete. Individually, each house factor had a statistically significant impact (p < 0.05) on the mean catches for An. gambiae s.l. but not An. funestus. A multivariate analysis indicated that the combined absence or presence of eaves, treated or untreated bed-nets, the number of house occupants, house size, netting over windows, and roof type were significantly related (p < 0.05) to An.gambiae s.l. and An. funestus house entry in both villages. Conclusions Despite significant reductions in vector density and malaria transmission caused by high coverage of ITNs, high numbers of host-seeking malaria vectors are still found indoors due to house designs that favour mosquito entry. In addition to ITNs and IRS, significant efforts should focus on improving house design to prevent mosquito entry and eliminate

  16. A Small-Scale Field Trial of Pyriproxyfen-Impregnated Bed Nets against Pyrethroid-Resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. in Western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kawada, Hitoshi; Dida, Gabriel O.; Ohashi, Kazunori; Kawashima, Emiko; Sonye, George; Njenga, Sammy M.; Mwandawiro, Charles; Minakawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    Pyrethroid resistance is becoming a major problem for vector control programs, because at present, there are few suitable chemical substitutes for pyrethroids, as when used on bed nets the insecticide must have low mammalian toxicity as well as high activity to mosquitoes. Pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of the most active chemicals among the juvenile hormone mimic (JHM) group. Sterilizing mosquitoes by using PPF could be a potential control measure for pyrethroid-resistant malaria vectors. We investigated the sterilizing effects of two types of PPF-impregnated bed nets – a 1% PPF-impregnated net and a 1% PPF +2% permethrin-impregnated net (Olyset Duo) – to pyrethroid-resistant wild population of Anopheles gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. High mortality of blood-fed mosquitos was observed 3 days post-collection, in the houses where PPF-impregnated nets were used, indicating the effect of PPF on the longevity of mosquitos that came in contact with the net. Reduction in the number of ovipositing females, number of eggs, and number of progeny per female were also observed in the houses in which both Olyset Duo and PPF-impregnated nets were used. This is the first field study showing the high sterilizing efficacy of PPF against wild pyrethroid-resistant An. gambiae s.s. population. In addition, we recognized the necessity of combined use of permethrin with PPF, in order to reduce the risk of mosquito bites and provide a level of personal protection. Further studies on wild pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations such as An. arabiensis and An. funestus s.s. would provide more information on the practical use of the PPF-impregnated bed nets. PMID:25333785

  17. Standard model cross-over on the lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Onofrio, Michela; Rummukainen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    With the physical Higgs mass the standard model symmetry restoration phase transition is a smooth cross-over. We study the thermodynamics of the cross-over using numerical lattice Monte Carlo simulations of an effective SU (2 )×U (1 ) gauge+Higgs theory, significantly improving on previously published results. We measure the Higgs field expectation value, thermodynamic quantities like pressure, energy density, speed of sound and heat capacity, and screening masses associated with the Higgs and Z fields. While the cross-over is smooth, it is very well defined with a width of only ˜5 GeV . We measure the cross-over temperature from the maximum of the susceptibility of the Higgs condensate, with the result Tc=159.5 ±1.5 GeV . Outside of the narrow cross-over region the perturbative results agree well with nonperturbative ones.

  18. Interplay between insecticide-treated bed-nets and mosquito demography: implications for malaria control.

    PubMed

    Ngonghala, Calistus N; Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Zhao, Ruijun; Prosper, Olivia

    2016-05-21

    Although malaria prevalence has witnessed a significant reduction within the past decade, malaria still constitutes a major health and economic problem, especially to low-income countries. Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) remain one of the primary measures for preventing the malignant disease. Unfortunately, the success of ITN campaigns is hampered by improper use and natural decay in ITN-efficacy over time. Many models aimed at studying malaria transmission and control fail to account for this decay, as well as mosquito demography and feeding preferences exhibited by mosquitoes towards humans. Omitting these factors can misrepresent disease risk, while understanding their effects on malaria dynamics can inform control policy. We present a model for malaria dynamics that incorporates these factors, and a systematic analysis, including stability and sensitivity analyses of the model under different conditions. The model with constant ITN-efficacy exhibits a backward bifurcation emphasizing the need for sustained control measures until the basic reproduction number, R0, drops below a critical value at which control is feasible. The infectious and partially immune human populations and R0 are highly sensitive to the probability that a mosquito feeds successfully on a human, ITN coverage and the maximum biting rate of mosquitoes, irrespective of whether ITN-efficacy is constant or declines over time. This implies that ITNs play an important role in disease control. When ITN-efficacy wanes over time, we identify disease risks and corresponding ITN coverage, as well as feeding preference levels for which the disease can be controlled or eradicated. Our study leads to important insights that could assist in the design and implementation of better malaria control strategies. We conclude that ITNs that can retain their effectiveness for longer periods will be more appropriate in the fight against malaria and that making more ITNs available to highly endemic regions is

  19. A genetic model of the effects of insecticide-treated bed nets on the evolution of insecticide-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Birget, Philip L. G.; Koella, Jacob C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: The evolution of insecticide-resistance in malaria vectors is emerging as a serious challenge for the control of malaria. Modelling the spread of insecticide-resistance is an essential tool to understand the evolutionary pressures and dynamics caused by the application of insecticides. Methodology: We developed a population-genetic model of the spread of insecticide-resistance in a population of Anopheles vectors in response to insecticides used either as adulticides (focussing on insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs)) or as larvicides (either for the control of malaria or, as an inadvertent side-product, in agriculture). Results: We show that indoor use of insecticides leads to considerably less selection pressure than their use as larvicides, supporting the idea that most resistance of malaria vectors is due to the agricultural use of the insecticides that are also used for malaria control. The reasons for the relatively low selection pressure posed by adulticides are (i) that males are not affected by the ITNs and, in particular, (ii) that the insecticides are also repellents, keeping mosquitoes at bay from contacting the insecticide but also driving them to bite either people who do not use the insecticide or alternative hosts. Conclusion: We conclude by discussing the opposing public health benefits of high repellency at an epidemiological and an evolutionary timescale: whereas repellency is beneficial to delay the evolution of resistance, other models have shown that it decreases the population-level protection of the insecticide. PMID:26320183

  20. Heterogeneity and changes in inequality of malaria risk after introduction of insecticide-treated bed nets in Macha, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E

    2013-04-01

    In 2007, the first free mass distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) occurred in southern Zambia. To determine the effect of ITNs on heterogeneity in biting rates, human DNA from Anopheles arabiensis blood meals was genotyped to determine the number of hosts that had contributed to the blood meals. The multiple feeding rate decreased from 18.9% pre-ITN to 9.1% post-ITN, suggesting that mosquito biting had focused onto a smaller fraction of the population. Pre-ITN, 20% of persons in a household provided 40% of blood meals, which increased to 59% post-ITN. To measure heterogeneity over a larger scale, mosquitoes were collected in 90 households in two village areas. Of these households, 25% contributed 78.1% of An. arabiensis, and households with high frequencies of An. arabiensis were significantly spatially clustered. The results indicate that substantial heterogeneity in malaria risk exists at local and household levels, and household-level heterogeneity may be influenced by interventions, such as ITNs. PMID:23382169

  1. Heterogeneity and Changes in Inequality of Malaria Risk after Introduction of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets in Macha, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Laura C.; Norris, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the first free mass distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) occurred in southern Zambia. To determine the effect of ITNs on heterogeneity in biting rates, human DNA from Anopheles arabiensis blood meals was genotyped to determine the number of hosts that had contributed to the blood meals. The multiple feeding rate decreased from 18.9% pre-ITN to 9.1% post-ITN, suggesting that mosquito biting had focused onto a smaller fraction of the population. Pre-ITN, 20% of persons in a household provided 40% of blood meals, which increased to 59% post-ITN. To measure heterogeneity over a larger scale, mosquitoes were collected in 90 households in two village areas. Of these households, 25% contributed 78.1% of An. arabiensis, and households with high frequencies of An. arabiensis were significantly spatially clustered. The results indicate that substantial heterogeneity in malaria risk exists at local and household levels, and household-level heterogeneity may be influenced by interventions, such as ITNs. PMID:23382169

  2. How reliable are light traps in estimating biting rates of adult Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in the presence of treated bed nets?

    PubMed

    Magbity, E B; Magbity, E B; Lines, J D; Marbiah, M T; David, K; Peterson, E

    2002-02-01

    The sampling efficiency of light trap catches relative to human bait catches in estimating biting rates of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae Giles was investigated in two types of community in southern Sierra Leone: (i) where most of the inhabitants slept under treated bed nets; and (ii) where most of the inhabitants slept without bed nets. The number of female A. gambiae mosquitoes caught in these communities by light trap was strongly correlated (r > or = 0.72) with those from corresponding human biting catches performed either on the same or adjacent nights. It was found that the relative sampling efficiency of light traps varied slightly but significantly with mosquito abundance in villages with treated bed nets, but not in those without them. Nevertheless, the relationship between relative sampling efficiency and mosquito abundance did not differ significantly between the two types of village. Overall, there was insufficient evidence to show that the presence of treated nets altered the relative efficiency of light traps and any bias was only slight, and unlikely to be of any practical importance. Hence, it was concluded that light traps can be used as a surrogate for human bait catches in estimating biting rates of A. gambiae mosquitoes in the two communities. PMID:12020364

  3. Push by a net, pull by a cow: can zooprophylaxis enhance the impact of insecticide treated bed nets on malaria control?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass insecticide treated bed net (ITN) deployment, and its associated coverage of populations at risk, had “pushed” a decline in malaria transmission. However, it is unknown whether malaria control is being enhanced by zooprophylaxis, i.e., mosquitoes diverted to feed on hosts different from humans, a phenomenon that could further reduce malaria entomological transmission risk in areas where livestock herding is common. Methods Between May and July 2009, we collected mosquitoes in 104 houses from three neighboring villages with high ITN coverage (over 80%), along Lake Victoria. We also performed a census of livestock in the area and georeferenced tethering points for all herds, as well as, mosquito larval habitats. Bloodmeal contents from sampled mosquitoes were analyzed, and each mosquito was individually tested for malaria sporozoite infections. We then evaluated the association of human density, ITN use, livestock abundance and larval habitats with mosquito abundance, bloodfeeding on humans and malaria sporozoite rate using generalized linear mixed effects models. Results We collected a total of 8123 mosquitoes, of which 1664 were Anopheles spp. malaria vectors over 295 household spray catches. We found that vector household abundance was mainly driven by the number of householders (P < 0.05), goats/sheep tethered around the house (P < 0.05) and ITNs, which halved mosquito abundance (P < 0.05). In general, similar patterns were observed for Anopheles arabiensis, but not An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus s.s., whose density did not increase with the presence of livestock animals. Feeding on humans significantly increased in all species with the number of householders (P < 0.05), and only significantly decreased for An. arabiensis in the presence of cattle (P < 0.05). Only 26 Anopheles spp. vectors had malaria sporozoites with the sporozoite rate significantly decreasing as the proportion of cattle feeding mosquitoes increased

  4. View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #2 crossing over wash. Looking downstream, southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 2, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  5. View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Steel Flume Bridge #3 crossing over Sally May Wash. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 3, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  6. A qualitative study on the acceptability and preference of three types of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets in Solomon Islands: implications for malaria elimination

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Jo-An; Bobogare, Albino; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Boaz, Leonard; Appleyard, Bridget; Toaliu, Hilson; Vallely, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Background In March 2008, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu governments raised the goal of their National Malaria Programmes from control to elimination. Vector control measures, such as indoor residual spraying (IRS) and long-lasting insecticidal bed nets (LLINs) are key integral components of this programme. Compliance with these interventions is dependent on their acceptability and on the socio-cultural context of the local population. These factors need to be investigated locally prior to programme implementation. Method Twelve focus group discussions (FGDs) were carried out in Malaita and Temotu Provinces, Solomon Islands in 2008. These discussions explored user perceptions of acceptability and preference for three brands of long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLINs) and identified a number of barriers to their proper and consistent use. Results Mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria were the main determinants of bed net use. Knowledge of malaria and the means to prevent it were not sufficient to guarantee compliance with LLIN use. Factors such as climate, work and evening social activities impact on the use of bed nets, particularly in men. LLIN acceptability plays a varying role in compliance with their use in villages involved in this study. Participants in areas of reported high and year round mosquito nuisance and perceived threat of malaria reported LLIN use regardless of any reported unfavourable characteristics. Those in areas of low or seasonal mosquito nuisance were more likely to describe the unfavourable characteristics of LLINs as reasons for their intermittent or non-compliance. The main criterion for LLIN brand acceptability was effectiveness in preventing mosquito bites and malaria. Discussions highlighted considerable confusion around LLIN care and washing which may be impacting on their effectiveness and reducing their acceptability in Solomon Islands. Conclusion Providing LLINs that are acceptable will be more important for

  7. Effects of bed net use, female size, and plant abundance on the first meal choice (blood vs sugar) of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sugar-or-blood meal choice of Anopheles gambiae females one day after emergence is influenced by blood-host presence and accessibility, nectariferous plant abundance, and female size. This tested the hypothesis that the initial meal of female An. gambiae is sugar, even when a blood host is available throughout the night, and, if not, whether the use of a bed net diverts mosquitoes to sugar sources. Methods Females and males <1-day post-emergence were released in a mesocosm. Overnight they had access to either one or six Senna didymobotrya plants. Simultaneously they had access to a human blood host, either for 8 h or for only 30 min at dusk and dawn (the remainder of the night being excluded by an untreated bed net). In a third situation, the blood host was not present. All mosquitoes were collected in the morning. Their wing lengths, an indicator of pre-meal energetic state, were measured, and their meal choice was determined by the presence of midgut blood and of fructose. Results Female sugar feeding after emergence was facultative. When a blood host was accessible for 8 h per night, 92% contained blood, and only 3.7% contained sugar. Even with the use of a bed net, 78% managed to obtain a blood meal during the 30 min of accessibility at dusk or dawn, but 14% of females were now fructose-positive. In the absence of a blood host, and when either one or six plants were available, a total of 21.7% and 23.6% of females and 30.8% and 43.5% of males contained fructose, respectively. Feeding on both sugar and blood was more likely with bed net use and with greater plant abundance. Further, mosquitoes that fed on both resources were more often small and had taken a sugar meal earlier than the blood meal. The abundance of sugar hosts also affected the probability of sugar feeding by males and the amount of fructose obtained by both males and females. Conclusion Even in an abundance of potential sugar

  8. Absence of Close-Range Excitorepellent Effects in Malaria Mosquitoes Exposed to Deltamethrin-Treated Bed Nets

    PubMed Central

    Spitzen, Jeroen; Ponzio, Camille; Koenraadt, Constantianus J. M.; Pates Jamet, Helen V.; Takken, Willem

    2014-01-01

    Flight behavior of insecticide-resistant and susceptible malaria mosquitoes approaching deltamethrin-treated nets was examined using a wind tunnel. Behavior was linked to resulting health status (dead or alive) using comparisons between outcomes from free-flight assays and standard World Health Organization (WHO) bioassays. There was no difference in response time, latency time to reach the net, or spatial distribution in the wind tunnel between treatments. Unaffected resistant mosquitoes spent less time close to (< 30 cm) treated nets. Nettings that caused high knockdown or mortality in standard WHO assays evoked significantly less mortality in the wind tunnel; there was no excitorepellent effect in mosquitoes making contact with the nettings in free flight. This study shows a new approach to understanding mosquito behavior near insecticidal nets. The methodology links free-flight behavior to mosquito health status on exposure to nets. The results suggest that behavioral assays can provide important insights for evaluation of insecticidal effects on disease vectors. PMID:24752686

  9. Negative Cross Resistance Mediated by Co-Treated Bed Nets: A Potential Means of Restoring Pyrethroid-Susceptibility to Malaria Vectors

    PubMed Central

    White, Michael T.; Lwetoijera, Dickson; Marshall, John; Caron-Lormier, Geoffrey; Bohan, David A.; Denholm, Ian; Devine, Gregor J.

    2014-01-01

    Insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spray programs for malaria control are entirely dependent on pyrethroid insecticides. The ubiquitous exposure of Anopheles mosquitoes to this chemistry has selected for resistance in a number of populations. This threatens the sustainability of our most effective interventions but no operationally practicable way of resolving the problem currently exists. One innovative solution involves the co-application of a powerful chemosterilant (pyriproxyfen or PPF) to bed nets that are usually treated only with pyrethroids. Resistant mosquitoes that are unaffected by the pyrethroid component of a PPF/pyrethroid co-treatment remain vulnerable to PPF. There is a differential impact of PPF on pyrethroid-resistant and susceptible mosquitoes that is modulated by the mosquito’s behavioural response at co-treated surfaces. This imposes a specific fitness cost on pyrethroid-resistant phenotypes and can reverse selection. The concept is demonstrated using a mathematical model. PMID:24788951

  10. Exploring the contributions of bed nets, cattle, insecticides and excitorepellency to malaria control: a deterministic model of mosquito host-seeking behaviour and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Gerry F.; Smith, Thomas A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Domestic and personal protection measures against malaria exposure either divert host-seeking vectors to other hosts or kill those attempting to feed. Here, we explicitly model mosquito host-seeking processes in the context of local host availability and elucidate the impacts and mechanisms of pyrethroid-treated bed nets in Africa. It has been suggested that excitorepellent insecticides could increase exposure of unprotected humans by concentrating mosquito biting activity on this vulnerable group. This worst-case scenario is confirmed as a possibility where vector populations lack alternative hosts, but an approximate ‘break-even’ scenario, with users experiencing little overall change in exposure, is more likely because of increased mosquito mortality while foraging for resources. Insecticidal nets are predicted to have epidemiologically significant impacts on transmission experienced by users and non-users at levels of coverage that can be achieved by sustainable net distribution systems, regardless of excitorepellency or the ecological setting. The results are consistent with the outcome of several randomised controlled trials, predicting enormous reductions in transmission at individual and community levels. As financial support, technology and distribution systems for insecticide-treated nets improve, massive reductions in malaria transmission could be realised. PMID:17631372

  11. Mutagenesis and interchromosomal effect on crossing-over in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Chadov, B.F.; Chadova, E.V.

    1994-12-01

    The possibility of mutational consequences of interchromosomal effect on crossing-over was studied in Drosophila melanogaster females with four genotypes: (1) structurally normal (control); (2) heterozygous at In(1)Muller-5 inversion (X chromosome); (3) heterozygous at In(3LR)CxD inversion (chromosome 3); and (4) heterozygous at both inversions. The mutational effect was determined through the loss of autosome 2 and formation of arm compounds C(2L) and C(2R). In females with recombinations, the rate of mutational events did not exceed that of the control. It was concluded that interchromosomal effect on crossing-over is of a regulatory character and disturbs neither recombination itself nor chromosome pairing. Coorientation X-3 leading to the appearance of intersexes in the progeny occurred in meiosis in females with two inversions.

  12. “People will say that I am proud”: a qualitative study of barriers to bed net use away from home in four Ugandan districts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increased access and ownership, barriers to insecticide-treated bed net (ITN) use persist. While barriers within the home have been well documented, the challenges to net use when sleeping away from home remain relatively unexplored. This study examines common situations in which people sleep away from home and the barriers to ITN use in those situations. Methods To explore these issues, a group of researchers conducted 28 in-depth interviews and four focus groups amongst adults from net-owning households in four Ugandan districts. Results In addition to sleeping outside during hot season, participants identified social events, livelihood activities, and times of difficulty as circumstances in which large numbers of people sleep away from home. Associated challenges to ITN use included social barriers such as fear of appearing proud, logistical barriers such as not having a place to hang a net, and resource limitations such as not having an extra net with which to travel. Social disapproval emerged as an important barrier to ITN use in public settings. Conclusions Unique barriers to ITN use exist when people spend the night away from home. It is essential to identify and address these barriers in order to reduce malaria exposure in such situations. For events like funerals or religious “crusades” where large numbers of people sleep away from home, alternative approaches, such as spatial repellents may be more appropriate than ITNs. Additional research is required to identify the acceptability and feasibility of alternative prevention strategies in situations where ITNs are unlikely to be effective. PMID:24602371

  13. Possession and Usage of Insecticidal Bed Nets among the People of Uganda: Is BRAC Uganda Health Programme Pursuing a Pro-Poor Path?

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Zerihun, Abebual

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of insecticidal bed nets is found to be an effective public health tool for control of malaria, especially for under-five children and pregnant women. BRAC, an indigenous Bangladeshi non-governmental development organization, started working in the East African state of Uganda in June 2006. As part of its efforts to improve the health and well-being of its participants, BRAC Uganda has been distributing long lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLIN) at a subsidized price through health volunteers since February 2008. This study was conducted in March-April 2009 to examine how equitable the programme had been in consistence with BRAC Uganda's pro-poor policy. Methodology/Principal Findings Information on possession of LLINs and relevant knowledge on its proper use and maintenance was collected from households either with an under-five child and/or a pregnant woman. The sample included three villages from each of the 10 branch offices where BRAC Uganda's community-based health programme was operating. Data were collected by trained enumerators through face-to-face interviews using a hand-held personal digital assistant (PDA). Findings reveal that the study population had superficial knowledge on malaria and its transmission, including the use and maintenance of LLINs. The households' rate of possession of bed nets (41–59%), and the proportion of under-five children (17–19%) and pregnant women (25–27%) who reported sleeping under an LLIN were not encouraging. Inequity was observed in the number of LLINs possessed by the households, in the knowledge on its use and maintenance, and between the two programme areas. Conclusions/Significance The BRAC Uganda's LLINs distribution at a subsidized price appeared to be inadequate and inequitable, and BRAC's knowledge dissemination is insufficient for initiating preventive actions such as proper use of LLINs to interrupt malaria transmission. Findings contribute to the on-going debate on LLINs

  14. Ploidy, sex and crossing over in an evolutionary aging model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, Matheus P.; Onody, Roberto N.

    2006-02-01

    Nowadays, many forms of reproduction coexist in nature: Asexual, sexual, apomictic and meiotic parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism and parasex. The mechanisms of their evolution and what made them successful reproductive alternatives are very challenging and debated questions. Here, using a simple evolutionary aging model, we give a possible scenario. By studying the performance of populations where individuals may have diverse characteristics-different ploidies, sex with or without crossing over, as well as the absence of sex-we find an evolution sequence that may explain why there are actually two major or leading groups: Sexual and asexual. We also investigate the dependence of these characteristics on different conditions of fertility and deleterious mutations. Finally, if the primeval organisms on Earth were, in fact, asexual individuals we conjecture that the sexual form of reproduction could have more easily been set and found its niche during a period of low-intensity mutations.

  15. Use of a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube to study kinetics of naphthalene degradation by Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Jalilnejad, Elham; Vahabzadeh, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    Biodegradation of naphthalene by Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) in a packed-bed airlift reactor with net draft tube (PBALR-nd) was studied; the Kissiris pieces were the packing material. The reactor hydrodynamics has been characterized under abiotic conditions and the dependencies of the superficial gas velocity (U G) on the gas holdup (εG), liquid mixing time, and mass transfer coefficient were determined. The improving role of the net draft tube in this small column reactor (height 42 cm, ID 5 cm) was confirmed. The flow regime was described using the εG α U G (n) expression, and bubbly flow was observed in PBALR-nd at U G < 2.83 cm/s. In the second step of the present work, the kinetics of biodegradation was modeled using the Haldane and Aiba equations. The fitting of the experimental results to the models were done according to the nonlinear least square regression technique. The biokinetic constants (q m, K s, and K i) were estimated and q m as the specific biodegradation rate was equaled to 0.415 and 0.24 mgnaph./mgcell h for the Haldane and Aiba equations, respectively. The goodness of fit reported as R (2) and root-mean-square error (RMSE) showed the adequate fitness of the Haldane and Aiba models in predicting naphthalene biodegradation kinetics. On the basis of the HPLC results, a hypothetical pathway for the biodegradation was presented. PMID:24338109

  16. Biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol in a packed-bed biofilm reactor equipped with an internal net draft tube riser for aeration and liquid circulation.

    PubMed

    Jesús, A Gómez-De; Romano-Baez, F J; Leyva-Amezcua, L; Juárez-Ramírez, C; Ruiz-Ordaz, N; Galíndez-Mayer, J

    2009-01-30

    For the aerobic biodegradation of the fungicide and defoliant 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP), a bench-scale packed-bed bioreactor equipped with a net draft tube riser for liquid circulation and oxygenation (PB-ALR) was constructed. To obtain a high packed-bed volume relative to the whole bioreactor volume, a high A(D)/A(R) ratio was used. Reactor's downcomer was packed with a porous support of volcanic stone fragments. PB-ALR hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer behavior was evaluated and compared to the observed behavior of the unpacked reactor operating as an internal airlift reactor (ALR). Overall gas holdup values epsilon(G), and zonal oxygen mass transfer coefficients determined at various airflow rates in the PB-ALR, were higher than those obtained with the ALR. When comparing mixing time values obtained in both cases, a slight increment in mixing time was observed when reactor was operated as a PB-ALR. By using a mixed microbial community, the biofilm reactor was used to evaluate the aerobic biodegradation of 2,4,6-TCP. Three bacterial strains identified as Burkholderia sp., Burkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas sp. constituted the microbial consortium able to cometabolically degrade the 2,4,6-TCP, using phenol as primary substrate. This consortium removed 100% of phenol and near 99% of 2,4,6-TCP. Mineralization and dehalogenation of 2,4,6-TCP was evidenced by high COD removal efficiencies ( approximately 95%), and by the stoichiometric release of chloride ions from the halogenated compound ( approximately 80%). Finally, it was observed that the microbial consortium was also capable to metabolize 2,4,6-TCP without phenol as primary substrate, with high removal efficiencies (near 100% for 2,4,6-TCP, 92% for COD and 88% for chloride ions). PMID:18539387

  17. Impact of insecticide-treated bed nets implementation on the genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis in an area of irrigated rice fields in the Sahelian region of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wondji, C; Simard, F; Lehmann, T; Fondjo, E; Samè-Ekobo, A; Fontenille, D

    2005-10-01

    Variation at 12 microsatellite loci was investigated to assess the impact of the implementation of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) on the genetic structure of Anopheles arabiensis in Simatou, a village surrounded by irrigated rice fields in the Sahelian area of Cameroon. The An. arabiensis population of Simatou was sampled twice before ITN implementation, and twice after. Effective population size estimates (N(e)) were similar across each time point, except for the period closely following ITN introduction where a nonsignificant reduction was recorded. Hence, we believe that ITN implementation resulted in a temporary bottleneck, rapidly followed by a demographic expansion. The genetic diversity of the population was not significantly affected since different genetic parameters (allele number, observed and expected heterozygosities) remained stable. Low estimates of genetic differentiation between the populations from Simatou and Lagdo, separated by 300 km, suggested extensive gene flow among populations of An. arabiensis in the Sahelian region of Cameroon. A decrease in the susceptibility to deltamethrin was observed following ITN introduction, but no kdr mutation was detected and a metabolic resistance mechanism is probably involved. The temporary effect of ITNs on the genetic structure of An. arabiensis population suggests that, to optimize the success of any control programme of this species based on ITNs, the control area should be very large and the programme should be implemented for a long period of time. PMID:16202089

  18. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting.

    PubMed

    Doe, John E; Lander, Deborah R; Doerrer, Nancy G; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N; Lowit, Anna B; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R

    2016-01-01

    The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, "pseudomethrin," in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use. PMID:26517449

  19. Use of the RISK21 roadmap and matrix: human health risk assessment of the use of a pyrethroid in bed netting

    PubMed Central

    Doe, John E.; Lander, Deborah R.; Doerrer, Nancy G.; Heard, Nina; Hines, Ronald N.; Lowit, Anna B.; Pastoor, Timothy; Phillips, Richard D.; Sargent, Dana; Sherman, James H.; Young Tanir, Jennifer; Embry, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The HESI-coordinated RISK21 roadmap and matrix are tools that provide a transparent method to compare exposure and toxicity information and assess whether additional refinement is required to obtain the necessary precision level for a decision regarding safety. A case study of the use of a pyrethroid, “pseudomethrin,” in bed netting to control malaria is presented to demonstrate the application of the roadmap and matrix. The evaluation began with a problem formulation step. The first assessment utilized existing information pertaining to the use and the class of chemistry. At each stage of the step-wise approach, the precision of the toxicity and exposure estimates were refined as necessary by obtaining key data which enabled a decision on safety to be made efficiently and with confidence. The evaluation demonstrated the concept of using existing information within the RISK21 matrix to drive the generation of additional data using a value-of-information approach. The use of the matrix highlighted whether exposure or toxicity required further investigation and emphasized the need to address the default uncertainty factor of 100 at the highest tier of the evaluation. It also showed how new methodology such as the use of in vitro studies and assays could be used to answer the specific questions which arise through the use of the matrix. The matrix also serves as a useful means to communicate progress to stakeholders during an assessment of chemical use. PMID:26517449

  20. The Impact of Pyrethroid Resistance on the Efficacy of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets against African Anopheline Mosquitoes: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strode, Clare; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Enayati, Ahmad Ali; Hemingway, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Background Pyrethroid insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs) help contribute to reducing malaria deaths in Africa, but their efficacy is threatened by insecticide resistance in some malaria mosquito vectors. We therefore assessed the evidence that resistance is attenuating the effect of ITNs on entomological outcomes. Methods and Findings We included laboratory and field studies of African malaria vectors that measured resistance at the time of the study and used World Health Organization–recommended impregnation regimens. We reported mosquito mortality, blood feeding, induced exophily (premature exit of mosquitoes from the hut), deterrence, time to 50% or 95% knock-down, and percentage knock-down at 60 min. Publications were searched from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2013 using MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, African Index Medicus, and CAB Abstracts. We stratified studies into three levels of insecticide resistance, and ITNs were compared with untreated bed nets (UTNs) using the risk difference (RD). Heterogeneity was explored visually and statistically. Included were 36 laboratory and 24 field studies, reported in 25 records. Studies tested and reported resistance inconsistently. Based on the meta-analytic results, the difference in mosquito mortality risk for ITNs compared to UTNs was lower in higher resistance categories. However, mortality risk was significantly higher for ITNs compared to UTNs regardless of resistance. For cone tests: low resistance, risk difference (RD) 0.86 (95% CI 0.72 to 1.01); moderate resistance, RD 0.71 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.88); high resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.95). For tunnel tests: low resistance, RD 0.74 (95% CI 0.61 to 0.87); moderate resistance, RD 0.50 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.60); high resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.24 to 0.54). For hut studies: low resistance, RD 0.56 (95% CI 0.43 to 0.68); moderate resistance, RD 0.39 (95% CI 0.16 to 0

  1. Evaluation of indoor residual spray and insecticide treated bed nets in a malaria endemic area of Santhal Pargana, Dumka district (Jharkhand).

    PubMed

    Singh, R K; Das, M K; Dhiman, R C; Mittal, P K; Dua, V K; Sreehari, U; Prasad, Shankar

    2012-09-01

    The study was carried out for evaluation of various activities of malaria control programme in five different tribal and malaria endemic Primary Health Centres of Dumka district (Jharkhand) during 2007-08. A total of 321 houses of 18 villages were surveyed on use of indoor residual spray (IRS) and insecticide-treated bed nets (ITN) and other activities as tool for vector control and interrupting the transmission of malaria. Out of 690 living rooms and 343 verandahs examined, IRS with Dichlorodiphenyl-trichloro-ethane (DDT) was done only in 16.23% living rooms and 64.72% verandahs. Refusal rate of IRS in living rooms was 81.93% due to lack of knowledge regarding the importance of IRS, no prior information to villagers, houses locked, reluctance to remove domestic articles, dislike of smell of DDT spray. Compliance rate of ITN uses was 71.66% during the night, which might be a factor for decline in malaria cases in the study area. Various important components of the programme, viz. surveillance and compliance to treatment activities, use of rapid diagnostic test kits (RDKs), involvement of accredited social health activist (ASHA's) and fever treatment depots (FTDs), laboratory activities, adult mosquito collection, other activities like constitution of village health sanitation committee, information education and communication activities, capacity building, use of larvivorous fishes, supervision of IRS etc. require much strengthening. However, 100% community acceptance was recorded for ITN in the villages surveyed. In addition, an entomological study was carried out for information on prevalence of mosquito species in this area to find out effectiveness of IRS activities. Eleven anopheline species, including three malaria vectors i.e., An. culicifacies, An. stephensi, An. fluviatilis, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. nigerrimus, An. pallidus, An. aconitus, An. vagus, An. jamsii and An. splendidus were collected from cattle and human dwellings. PMID:25145065

  2. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS), and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8) of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4) of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0). Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7%) were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8%) of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6%) reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7). Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1). Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little maintenance by their owners

  3. Plant based insect repellent and insecticide treated bed nets to protect against malaria in areas of early evening biting vectors: double blind randomised placebo controlled clinical trial in the Bolivian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Lenglet, A; Arnéz, A M; Carneiro, I

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the effectiveness in reducing malaria of combining an insect repellent with insecticide treated bed nets compared with the nets alone in an area where vector mosquitoes feed in the early evening. Design A double blind, placebo controlled cluster-randomised clinical study. Setting Rural villages and peri-urban districts in the Bolivian Amazon. Participants 4008 individuals in 860 households. Interventions All individuals slept under treated nets; one group also used a plant based insect repellent each evening, a second group used placebo. Main outcome measure Episodes of Plasmodium falciparum or P vivax malaria confirmed by rapid diagnostic test or blood slide, respectively. Results We analysed 15 174 person months at risk and found a highly significant 80% reduction in episodes of P vivax in the group that used treated nets and repellent (incidence rate ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 0.38, P<0.001). Numbers of P falciparum cases during the study were small and, after adjustment for age, an 82% protective effect was observed, although this was not significant (0.18, 0.02 to 1.40, P=0.10). Reported episodes of fever with any cause were reduced by 58% in the group that used repellent (0.42, 0.31 to 0.56, P<0.001). Conclusions Insect repellents can provide protection against malaria. In areas where vectors feed in the early evening, effectiveness of treated nets can be significantly increased by using repellent between dusk and bedtime. This has important implications in malaria vector control programmes outside Africa and shows that the combined use of treated nets and insect repellents, as advocated for most tourists travelling to high risk areas, is fully justified. Registration NCT 00144716. PMID:17940319

  4. Crossing-over in rearranging chromosomes of Drosophila: The role of delayed pairing

    SciTech Connect

    Chadov, B.F.; Chadova, E.V.; Khotskina, E.A.

    1995-11-01

    A Df(2R)MS2-10 deletion of pericentromeric heterochromatin and an Is(Y;2L)419 insertion of Y material in the region 34A, as well as nondisjunction of chromosomes 2 in 2/F(2L); F(2R) females did not directly prevent chromosome arms in chromosome 2 of Drosophila from pairing. However, these events resulted in (1) two- to four-fold decrease in the rate of crossing-over in chromosome 2; (2) a decreased proportion of exchange tetrads two to three times greater for multiple-exchange tetrads than for single-exchange ones; and (3) a decreased rate of crossing-over throughout the entire chromosome arm enhanced in a proximal direction. An In(1)dl-49+B{sup M1}inversion in the X chromosome cancelled the suppression of crossing-over. Crossing-over increased due to an increasing proportion of single-exchange tretrads. The changes in crossing-over found cannot be explained by asynapsis in the chromosomes with rearrangements. According to the authors, these changes are probably accounted for by a delayed pairing of these chromosomes. The delayed pairing of individual chromosome regions or the whole chromosome is considered the most common type of pairing disturbance. It effects on meiosis are discussed. 39 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  6. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Chad M.; Robinson, Matthew C.; Aylor, David L.; Singh, Nadia D.

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype–environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype–age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate. PMID:26994290

  7. Shuttle Net, Tuna Net

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Rockwell International, NASA's prime contractor for the Space Shuttle, asked West Coast Netting (WCN) to develop a safety net for personnel working on the Shuttle Orbiter. This could not be an ordinary net, it had to be relatively small, yet have extraordinary tensile strength. It also had to be fire resistant and resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light. After six months, WCN found the requisite fiber, a polyester-like material called NOMEX. The company was forced to invent a more sophisticated twisting process since conventional methods did not approach specified breaking strength. The resulting product, the Hyperester net, sinks faster and fishes deeper, making it attractive to fishing fleets. A patented treatment for UV protection and greater abrasion resistance make Hyperester nets last longer, and the no-shrink feature is an economic bonus.

  8. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over occurs in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the...

  9. Design of MEMS based `cross over junction' for T-type switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maninder, K.; Bansal, Deepak; Rangra, K. J.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a novel design approach of T-type RF MEMS switch cross over junction, implemented using symmetric toggle switch (STS) as a basic building block. T-type switches are key elements for designing redundancy switch matrices. Proposed design is a dual type switch, i.e. under operation same bridge is used as an ohmic series switch as well as a capacitive shunt switch. This reconfigurable switch constitutes the cross over junction part for the T-type switch. Simulated results show an insertion loss of < 0.2 dB upto 10 Ghz and isolation is better than -20 dB over a band of 5 Ghz through capacitive path and is better than -80 dB up-to 10 Ghz through ohmic contact path. STS as a building block is used for designing cross over junction and is a technologically mature device. The designed actuation voltage of this cross over switch is 4.75 Volts and simulated resonant frequency is 3.253 KHz.

  10. SPECIFIC AND CROSS-OVER EFFECTS OF FOAM ROLLING ON ANKLE DORSIFLEXION RANGE OF MOTION

    PubMed Central

    Beardsley, Chris

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Flexibility is an important physical quality. Self-myofascial release (SMFR) methods such as foam rolling (FR) increase flexibility acutely but how long such increases in range of motion (ROM) last is unclear. Static stretching (SS) also increases flexibility acutely and produces a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs. FR may also produce a cross-over effect to contralateral limbs but this has not yet been identified. Purpose To explore the potential cross-over effect of SMFR by investigating the effects of a FR treatment on the ipsilateral limb of 3 bouts of 30 seconds on changes in ipsilateral and contralateral ankle DF ROM and to assess the time-course of those effects up to 20 minutes post-treatment. Methods A within- and between-subject design was carried out in a convenience sample of 26 subjects, allocated into FR (n=13) and control (CON, n=13) groups. Ankle DF ROM was recorded at baseline with the in-line weight-bearing lunge test for both ipsilateral and contralateral legs and at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes following either a two-minute seated rest (CON) or 3 3 30 seconds of FR of the plantar flexors of the dominant leg (FR). Repeated measures ANOVA was used to examine differences in ankle DF ROM. Results No significant between-group effect was seen following the intervention. However, a significant within-group effect (p<0.05) in the FR group was seen between baseline and all post-treatment time-points (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes). Significant within-group effects (p<0.05) were also seen in the ipsilateral leg between baseline and at all post-treatment time-points, and in the contralateral leg up to 10 minutes post-treatment, indicating the presence of a cross-over effect. Conclusions FR improves ankle DF ROM for at least 20 minutes in the ipsilateral limb and up to 10 minutes in the contralateral limb, indicating that FR produces a cross-over effect into the contralateral limb. The mechanism producing these cross-over effects is

  11. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. Laboratory evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.; Hammarstrom, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) containing elevated concentrations of dissolved iron and other metals can be neutralized to varying degrees by reactions with limestone in passive treatment systems. We evaluated the chemical and mineralogical characteristics and the effectiveness of calcitic and dolomitic limestone for the neutralization of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD from a flooded anthracite mine. The calcitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 99.8 and <0.1 wt%, respectively, and the dolomitic limestone, with CaCO3 and MgCO3 contents of 60.3 and 40.2 wt%, were used to construct a downflow treatment system in 2003 at the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. In the winter of 2002-2003, laboratory neutralization-rate experiments evaluated the evolution of effluent quality during 2 weeks of continuous contact between AMD from the Bell Mine and the crushed calcitic or dolomitic limestone in closed, collapsible containers (cubitainers). The cubitainer tests showed that: (1) net-alkaline effluent could be achieved with detention times greater than 3 h, (2) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates were equivalent for uncoated and Fe(OH)3-coated calcitic limestone, and (3) effluent alkalinities and associated dissolution rates for dolomitic limestone were about half those for calcitic limestone. The dissolution rate data for the cubitainer tests were used with data on the volume of effuent and surface area of limestone in the treatment system at the Bell Mine to evaluate the water-quality data for the first 1.5 years of operation of the treatment system. These rate models supported the interpretation of field results and indicated that treatment benefits were derived mainly from the dissolution of calcitic limestone, despite a greater quantity of dolomitic limestone within the treatment system. The dissolution-rate models were extrapolated on a

  12. Anomalous compressibility of ferropericlase throughout the iron spin cross-over

    PubMed Central

    Wentzcovitch, R. M.; Justo, J. F.; Wu, Z.; da Silva, C. R. S.; Yuen, D. A.; Kohlstedt, D.

    2009-01-01

    The thermoelastic properties of ferropericlase Mg1−xFexO (x = 0.1875) throughout the iron high-to-low spin cross-over have been investigated by first principles at Earth's lower mantle conditions. This cross-over has important consequences for elasticity such as an anomalous bulk modulus (KS) reduction. At room temperature the anomaly is somewhat sharp in pressure but broadens with increasing temperature. Along a typical geotherm it occurs across most of the lower mantle with a more significant KS reduction at ≈1,400–1,600 km depth. This anomaly might also cause a reduction in the effective activation energy for diffusion creep and lead to a viscosity minimum in the mid-lower mantle, in apparent agreement with results from inversion of data related with mantle convection and postglacial rebound. PMID:19439661

  13. Centers for Disease Control light traps for monitoring Anopheles arabiensis human biting rates in an area with low vector density and high insecticide-treated bed net use.

    PubMed

    Fornadel, Christen M; Norris, Laura C; Norris, Douglas E

    2010-10-01

    Human landing catches (HLCs) are currently the preferred method to determine vector human biting rates (HBRs), which are key determinants of entomologic inoculation rates and important measures for assessing the impact of vector control efforts. Although HLCs are the most direct means of establishing HBRs, they are labor-intensive, and their use is facing increasing ethical concerns. The relationship between Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps and HLC collections was evaluated in Macha, Zambia during the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 rainy seasons. A CDC light trap captured on average 1.91 (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.28) times as many An. arabiensis per night as an indoor HLC. Additionally, nets treated with deltamethrin did not affect the numbers of An. arabiensis collected. Our results suggest that in regions where use of vector control interventions is high and vector densities are low, CDC light traps can be used to monitor An. arabiensis HBRs. PMID:20889876

  14. Mutant Rec-1 Eliminates the Meiotic Pattern of Crossing over in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Zetka, M. C.; Rose, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Meiotic crossovers are not randomly distributed along the chromosome. In Caenorhabditis elegans the central portions of the autosomes have relatively few crossovers compared to the flanking regions. We have measured the frequency of crossing over for several intervals across chromosome I in strains mutant for rec-1. The chromosome is ~50 map units in both wild-type and rec-1 homozygotes, however, the distribution of exchanges is very different in rec-1. Map distances expand across the gene cluster and contract near the right end of the chromosome, resulting in a genetic map more consistent with the physical map. Mutations in two other genes, him-6 and him-14, also disrupted the distribution of exchanges. Unlike rec-1, individuals homozygous for him-6 and him-14 had an overall reduction in the amount of crossing over accompanied by a high frequency of nondisjunction and reduced egg hatching. In rec-1; him-6 and rec-1; him-14 homozygotes the frequency of crossing over was characteristic of the Him mutant phenotype, whereas the distribution of the reduced number of exchanges was characteristic of the Rec-1 pattern. It appears that these gene products play a role in establishing the meiotic pattern of exchange events. PMID:8601478

  15. The Use and Reporting of the Cross-Over Study Design in Clinical Trials and Systematic Reviews: A Systematic Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Ian; Dwan, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Background Systematic reviews of treatment interventions in stable or chronic conditions often require the synthesis of clinical trials with a cross-over design. Previous work has indicated that methodology for analysing cross-over data is inadequate in trial reports and in systematic reviews assessing trials with this design. Objective We assessed systematic review methodology for synthesising cross-over trials among Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group reviews published to July 2015, and assessed the quality of reporting among the cross-over trials included in these reviews. Methodology We performed data extraction of methodology and reporting in reviews, trials identified and trials included within reviews. Principal Findings We reviewed a total of 142 Cochrane systematic reviews including 53 reviews which synthesised evidence from 218 cross-over trials. Thirty-three (63%) Cochrane reviews described a clear and appropriate method for the inclusion of cross-over data, and of these 19 (56%) used the same method to analyse results. 145 cross-over trials were described narratively or treated as parallel trials in reviews but in 30 (21%) of these trials data existed in the trial reports to account for the cross-over design. At the trial level, the analysis and presentation of results were often inappropriate or unclear, with only 69 (32%) trials presenting results that could be included in meta-analysis. Conclusions Despite development of accessible, technical guidance and training for Cochrane systematic reviewers, statistical analysis and reporting of cross-over data is inadequate at both the systematic review and the trial level. Plain language and practical guidance for the inclusion of cross-over data in meta-analysis would benefit systematic reviewers, who come from a wide range of health specialties. Minimum reporting standards for cross-over trials are needed. PMID:27409076

  16. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-03-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15-0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18-0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  17. The Effect of Long Lasting Insecticide Bed Net Use on Malaria Prevalence in the Tombel Health District, South West Region-Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Dzi, Kevin T. J.; Ngimuh, Leonard; Enyong, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in Africa, and its prevalence in Cameroon stands at 29%. Long Lasting Insecticide Nets (LLINs) were distributed in 2011 to reduce malaria mortality and morbidity; however, assessment of this intervention is scanty. The present study in the Tombel health district (THD) investigated the impact of this distribution on malaria prevalence. A total of 31,657 hospital records from 3 health facilities in 3 health areas for 2010–2013 were examined. Records for 2010 and 2011 provided predistribution baseline data, while those of 2012 and 2013 represented postdistribution data. 8,679 (27.4%) patients were positive for malaria. Children below 5 years had the highest prevalence (40.7%). The number of confirmed cases was highest from June to August (peak rainy season). Malaria prevalence was higher in males (25.3%) than in females (23.2%). Malaria prevalence increased in THD from 26.7% in 2010 to 30.7% in 2011 but dropped to 22.7% in 2012 and then increased in 2013 to 29.5%. There was an overall drop in the total number of confirmed malaria cases in 2012; this decrease was significant in Ebonji (p < 0.001) and Nyasoso (p < 0.015) health areas. The distribution of LLINs led to a short lived reduction in malaria prevalence in THD. LLIN distribution and other control activities should be reinforced to keep malaria prevalence low especially among the 0–5-year group. PMID:27403371

  18. Effectiveness and Cost of Insecticide-Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Residual Spraying for the Control of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Cluster-Randomized Control Trial in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Faraj, Chafika; Yukich, Joshua; Adlaoui, El Bachir; Wahabi, Rachid; Mnzava, Abraham Peter; Kaddaf, Mustapha; El Idrissi, Abderrahmane Laamrani; Ameur, Btissam; Kleinschmidt, Immo

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) remains an important public health problem in Morocco. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with the following three study arms: 1) long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLINs) plus standard of care environmental management (SoC-EM), 2) indoor residual spraying (IRS) with α-cypermethrin plus SoC-EM, and 3) SoC-EM alone. Incidence of new CL cases by passive and active case detection, sandfly abundance, and cost and cost-effectiveness was compared between study arms over 5 years. Incidence of CL and sandfly abundance were significantly lower in the IRS arm compared with SoC-EM (CL incidence rate ratio = 0.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.15–0.69, P = 0.005 and sandfly abundance ratio = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.18–0.85, P = 0.022). Reductions in the LLIN arm of the study were not significant, possibly due to poor compliance. IRS was effective and more cost-effective for the prevention of CL in Morocco. PMID:26811431

  19. Increased frequency of mitotic crossing-over in heterochromatin during the first cleavage division in Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect

    Omel`yanchuk, L.V.; Volkova, E.I.

    1995-06-01

    It is shown that, although no compaction of paracentromeric heterochromatin occurs during the first cleavage division in Drosophila melanogaster, the frequency of mitotic crossing-over in corresponding chromosome regions is increased, as compared to that in euchromatin. Because a similar situation is observed at later stages of Drosophila development, at which compact chromatin regions become well-manifested, it is concluded that the effect of heterochromatin on the frequency of crossing-over does not depend on its packing. A positive correlation between crossing-over events in paracentromeric heterochromatin and euchromatin was observed. This effect is probably due to the formation of a continuous region of somatic synapsis, which facilitates the process of mitotic crossing-over. On this basis, it is proposed that the effect of heterochromatin on mitotic crossing-over is associated with preferential chromosome pairing in the corresponding regions. 10 refs., 1 fig.

  20. A Cis-Acting Locus That Promotes Crossing over between X Chromosomes in Caenorhabditis Elegans

    PubMed Central

    Villeneuve, A. M.

    1994-01-01

    This study reports the characterization of a cis-acting locus on the Caenorhabditis elegans X chromosome that is crucial for promoting normal levels of crossing over specifically between the X homologs and for ensuring their proper disjunction at meiosis I. The function of this locus is disrupted by the mutation me8, which maps to the extreme left end of the X chromosome within the region previously implicated by studies of X;A translocations and X duplications to contain a meiotic pairing site. Hermaphrodites homozygous for a deletion of the locus (Df/Df) or heterozygous for a deletion and the me8 mutation (me8/Df) exhibit extremely high levels of X chromosome nondisjunction at the reductional division; this is correlated with a sharp decrease in crossing over between the X homologs as evidenced both by reductions in genetic map distances and by the presence of achiasmate chromosomes in cytological preparations of oocyte nuclei. Duplications of the wild-type region that are unlinked to the X chromosome cannot complement the recombination and disjunction defects in trans, indicating that this region must be present in cis to the X chromosome to ensure normal levels of crossing over and proper homolog disjunction. me8 homozygotes exhibit an altered distribution of crossovers along the X chromosome that suggests a defect in processivity along the X chromosome of an event that initiates at the chromosome end. Models are discussed in which the cis-acting locus deleted by the Dfs functions as a meiotic pairing center that recruits trans-acting factors onto the chromosomes to nucleate assembly of a crossover-competent complex between the X homologs. This pairing center might function in the process of homolog recognition, or in the initiation of homologous synapsis. PMID:8005443

  1. Proton pump inhibitors and vascular function: A prospective cross-over pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ghebremariam, Yohannes T.; Cooke, John P.; Khan, Fouzia; Thakker, Rahul N.; Chang, Peter; Shah, Nigam H.; Nead, Kevin T.; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used drugs for the treatment of gastric reflux. Recent retrospective cohorts and large database studies have raised concern that the use of PPIs is associated with increased cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, there is no prospective clinical study evaluating whether the use of PPIs directly causes CV harm. Methods We conducted a controlled open-label cross-over pilot study among 21 adults aged 18 and older who are healthy (n = 11) or have established clinical cardiovascular disease (n = 10). Study subjects were assigned to receive a PPI (Prevacid; 30 mg) or a placebo pill once daily for 4 weeks. After a 2 week washout period, participants were crossed-over to receive the alternate treatment for the ensuing 4 weeks. Subjects underwent evaluation of vascular function (by the EndoPAT technique) and had plasma levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial function previously implicated in PPI-mediated risk) measured prior to and after each treatment interval. Results We observed a marginal inverse correlation between the EndoPAT score and plasma levels of ADMA (r = −0.364). Subjects experienced a greater worsening in plasma ADMA levels while on PPI than on placebo, and this trend was more pronounced amongst those subjects with a history of vascular disease. However, these trends did not reach statistical significance, and PPI use was also not associated with an impairment in flow mediated vasodilation during the course of this study. Conclusions In this open-label, cross-over pilot study conducted among healthy subjects and coronary disease patients, PPI use did not significantly influence vascular endothelial function. Larger, long-term and blinded trials are needed to mechanistically explain the correlation between PPI use and adverse clinical outcomes, which has recently been reported in retrospective cohort studies. PMID:25835348

  2. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, C.A., III; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  3. “Slalom”: Microsurgical Cross-Over Decompression for Multilevel Degenerative Lumbar Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Selective, bilateral multisegmental microsurgical decompression of lumbar spinal canal stenosis through separate, alternating cross-over approaches. Indications. Two-segmental and multisegmental degenerative central and lateral lumbar spinal stenosis. Contraindications. None. Surgical Technique. Minimally invasive, muscle, and facet joint-sparing bilateral decompression of the lumbar spinal canal through 2 or more alternating microsurgical cross-over approaches from one side. Results. From December 2010 until December 2015 we operated on 202 patients with 2 or multisegmental stenosis (115 f; 87 m; average age 69.3 yrs, range 51–91 yrs). All patients were suffering from symptoms typical of a degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. All patients complained about back pain; however the leg symptoms were dominant in all cases. Per decompressed segment, the average OR time was 36 min and the blood loss 45.7 cc. Patients were mobilized 6 hrs postop and hospitalization averaged 5.9 days. A total of 116/202 patients did not need submuscular drainage. 27/202 patients suffered from a complication (13.4%). Dural tears occurred in 3.5%, an epidural hematoma in 5.5%, a deep wound infection in 1.98%, and a temporary radiculopathy postop in 1.5%. Postop follow-up ranged from 12 to 24 months. There was a significant improvement of EQ 5 D, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), VAS for Back and Leg Pain, and preoperative standing times and walking distances. PMID:27504456

  4. SPECIFIC AND CROSS OVER EFFECTS OF MASSAGE FOR MUSCLE SORENESS: RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    PubMed Central

    Sundstrup, Emil; Søndergaard, Stine D.; Behm, David; Brandt, Mikkel; Særvoll, Charlotte A.; Jakobsen, Markus D.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Muscle soreness can negatively interfere with the activities of daily living as well as sports performance. In the working environment, a common problem is muscle tenderness, soreness and pain, especially for workers frequently exposed to unilateral high repetitive movements tasks. The aim of the study is therefore to investigate the acute effect of massage applied using a simple device Thera‐band roller Massager on laboratory induced hamstring muscle soreness, and the potential cross over effect to the non‐massaged limb. Methods: 22 healthy untrained men (Mean age 34 +/− 7 years; mean height 181.7 +/− 6.9 cm; mean weight 80.6 +/− 6.4 kg; BMI: 24.5 +/− 1.3) with no prior history of knee, low back or neck injury or other adverse health issues were recruited. Participants visited the researchers on two separate occasions, separated by 48 hours, each time providing a soreness rating (modified visual analog scale 0‐10), and being tested for pressure pain threshold (PPT) and active range of motion (ROM) of the hamstring muscles. During the first visit, delayed onset muscular soreness of the hamstring muscles was induced by 10 x 10 repetitions of the stiff‐legged dead‐lift. On the second visit participants received either 1) 10 minutes of roller massage on one leg, while the contralateral leg served as a cross over control, or 2) Resting for 10 minutes with no massage at all. Measurement of soreness, PPT and ROM were taken immediately before and at 0, 10, 30 and 60 min. after treatment. Results: There was a significant group by time interaction for soreness (p < 0.0001) and PPT (p = 0.0007), with the massage group experiencing reduced soreness and increasing PPT compared with the control group. There was no group by time interaction for ROM (p = 0.18). At 10 min. post massage there was a significant reduction in soreness of the non‐massaged limb in the cross over control group compared to controls but this effect was lost 30

  5. [Intraluminal Aspect of Femoro-femoral Cross-over Bypass Graft Mimics Bladder Stone].

    PubMed

    Sonak, I; Wiedemann, A; Heppner, H J

    2016-04-01

    Iatrogenic bladder perforation with delayed diagnosis and treatment in the context of the placement of a vascular prosthesis, e. g. a femoro-femoral cross-over bypass graft, is extremely rare. This is emphasised by the present publication, which is the second published case study worldwide. To identify such a situation is very important because there is a risk of inappropriate treatment if such a bypass complication remains undetected, and the potential complications of an improperly intended "treatment of a bladder stone" may be deleterious or even lethal. Therefore, the involved disciplines should be aware of this possibility in order to initiate relevant diagnostic measures, especially diagnostic cystoscopy, without any delay if symptoms such as voiding disorders or alguria coincide with vascular bypass grafting. PMID:26881873

  6. Flunarizine-pizotifen single-dose double-blind cross-over trial in migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Cerbo, R; Casacchia, M; Formisano, R; Feliciani, M; Cusimano, G; Buzzi, M G; Agnoli, A

    1986-03-01

    The results of a double-blind cross-over clinical trial involving 27 patients with classical or common migraine are described to compare the prophylactic effect of the calcium entry blocker flunarizine with that of pizotifen. Duration of the treatment was two months, with an evening single-dose administration of both drugs. For most parameters, there was no definite difference between flunarizine and pizotifen in migraine prophylaxis. It has been demonstrated previously that pizotifen is an effective drug in migraine prophylaxis, and these results suggest that flunarizine is effective, too. Weight gain as a side effect was less frequent and less severe with flunarizine than with pizotifen; other side effects showed the same incidence with both drugs. PMID:3516406

  7. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J.; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers.

  8. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  9. Molecular-scale dynamics of light-induced spin cross-over in a two-dimensional layer

    PubMed Central

    Bairagi, Kaushik; Iasco, Olga; Bellec, Amandine; Kartsev, Alexey; Li, Dongzhe; Lagoute, Jérôme; Chacon, Cyril; Girard, Yann; Rousset, Sylvie; Miserque, Frédéric; Dappe, Yannick J; Smogunov, Alexander; Barreteau, Cyrille; Boillot, Marie-Laure; Mallah, Talal; Repain, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Spin cross-over molecules show the unique ability to switch between two spin states when submitted to external stimuli such as temperature, light or voltage. If controlled at the molecular scale, such switches would be of great interest for the development of genuine molecular devices in spintronics, sensing and for nanomechanics. Unfortunately, up to now, little is known on the behaviour of spin cross-over molecules organized in two dimensions and their ability to show cooperative transformation. Here we demonstrate that a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements and ab initio calculations allows discriminating unambiguously between both states by local vibrational spectroscopy. We also show that a single layer of spin cross-over molecules in contact with a metallic surface displays light-induced collective processes between two ordered mixed spin-state phases with two distinct timescale dynamics. These results open a way to molecular scale control of two-dimensional spin cross-over layers. PMID:27425776

  10. Silk insect nets can reshape creek beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, Eric O.

    2014-12-01

    Plants and animals in streams alter the way sediments flow and channels form. Among these species are the miniscule caddisfly larvae, which measure less than a centimeter in length but populate many streams in large numbers.

  11. Bed bugs.

    PubMed

    Foulke, Galen T; Anderson, Bryan E

    2014-09-01

    The term bed bug is applied to 2 species of genus Cimex: lectularius describes the common or temperate bed bug, and hemipterus its tropical cousin. Cimex lectularius is aptly named; its genus and species derive from the Latin words for bug and bed, respectively. Though the tiny pest is receiving increased public attention and scrutiny, the bed bug is hardly a new problem. PMID:25577850

  12. Unequal Crossing over at the Rrna Tandon as a Source of Quantitative Genetic Variation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Frankham, R.; Briscoe, D. A.; Nurthen, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    Abdominal bristle selection lines (three high and three low) and controls were founded from a marked homozygous line to measure the contribution of sex-linked "mutations" to selection response. Two of the low lines exhibited a period of rapid response to selection in females, but not in males. There were corresponding changes in female variance, in heritabilities in females, in the sex ratio (a deficiency of females) and in fitness, as well as the appearance of a mutant phenotype in females of one line. All of these changes were due to bb alleles (partial deficiencies for the rRNA tandon) in the X chromosomes of these lines, while the Y chromosomes remained wild-type bb+. We argue that the bb alleles arose by unequal crossing over in the rRNA tandon.—A prediction of this hypothesis is that further changes can occur in the rRNA tandon as selection is continued. This has now been shown to occur.—Our minimum estimate of the rate of occurrence of changes at the rRNA tandon is 3 x 10-4. As this is substantially higher than conventional mutation rates, the questions of the mechanisms and rates of origin of new quantitative genetic variation require careful re-examination. PMID:7439683

  13. Formation of interference-sensitive meiotic cross-overs requires sufficient DNA leading-strand elongation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiyue; Cheng, Zhihao; Wang, Cong; Hong, Yue; Su, Hang; Wang, Jun; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Ma, Hong; Wang, Yingxiang

    2015-01-01

    Meiosis halves diploid genomes to haploid and is essential for sexual reproduction in eukaryotes. Meiotic recombination ensures physical association of homologs and their subsequent accurate segregation and results in the redistribution of genetic variations among progeny. Most organisms have two classes of cross-overs (COs): interference-sensitive (type I) and -insensitive (type II) COs. DNA synthesis is essential for meiotic recombination, but whether DNA synthesis has a role in differentiating meiotic CO pathways is unknown. Here, we show that Arabidopsis POL2A, the homolog of the yeast DNA polymerase-ε (a leading-strand DNA polymerase), is required for plant fertility and meiosis. Mutations in POL2A cause reduced fertility and meiotic defects, including abnormal chromosome association, improper chromosome segregation, and fragmentation. Observation of prophase I cell distribution suggests that pol2a mutants likely delay progression of meiotic recombination. In addition, the residual COs in pol2a have reduced CO interference, and the double mutant of pol2a with mus81, which affects type II COs, displayed more severe defects than either single mutant, indicating that POL2A functions in the type I pathway. We hypothesize that sufficient leading-strand DNA elongation promotes formation of some type I COs. Given that meiotic recombination and DNA synthesis are conserved in divergent eukaryotes, this study and our previous study suggest a novel role for DNA synthesis in the differentiation of meiotic recombination pathways. PMID:26392549

  14. Parametric representation of open quantum systems and cross-over from quantum to classical environment.

    PubMed

    Calvani, Dario; Cuccoli, Alessandro; Gidopoulos, Nikitas I; Verrucchi, Paola

    2013-04-23

    The behavior of most physical systems is affected by their natural surroundings. A quantum system with an environment is referred to as open, and its study varies according to the classical or quantum description adopted for the environment. We propose an approach to open quantum systems that allows us to follow the cross-over from quantum to classical environments; to achieve this, we devise an exact parametric representation of the principal system, based on generalized coherent states for the environment. The method is applied to the s = 1/2 Heisenberg star with frustration, where the quantum character of the environment varies with the couplings entering the Hamiltonian H. We find that when the star is in an eigenstate of H, the central spin behaves as if it were in an effective magnetic field, pointing in the direction set by the environmental coherent-state angle variables (θ, ϕ), and broadened according to their quantum probability distribution. Such distribution is independent of ϕ, whereas as a function of θ is seen to get narrower as the quantum character of the environment is reduced, collapsing into a Dirac-δ function in the classical limit. In such limit, because ϕ is left undetermined, the Von Neumann entropy of the central spin remains finite; in fact, it is equal to the entanglement of the original fully quantum model, a result that establishes a relation between this latter quantity and the Berry phase characterizing the dynamics of the central spin in the effective magnetic field. PMID:23572581

  15. Quantitative study of ruthenium cross-over in direct methanol fuel cells during early operation hours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoekel, A.; Melke, J.; Bruns, M.; Wippermann, K.; Kuppler, F.; Roth, C.

    2016-01-01

    In direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC), ruthenium cross-over is an important degradation phenomenon. The loss of ruthenium from the anode, its transport through the membrane and its deposition onto the cathode are detrimental to the fuel cell performance and limit the fuel cell's lifetime. Here we present a quantitative study on the fraction of ruthenium being transferred from the anode to the cathode during early operation hours (0-100 h) of a DMFC. Already during fabrication of the MEA ruthenium is transferred to the cathode. In our pristine MEAs about 0.024 wt% Ru could be found in the cathode catalyst. The cell potential during operation seems to have only a minor influence on the dissolution process. In contrast, the operation time appears to be much more important. Our data hint at two dissolution processes: a fast process dominating the first hours of operation and a slower process, which is responsible for the ongoing ruthenium transfer during the fuel cell lifetime. After 2 h held at open circuit conditions the Ru content of the cathode side was 10 times higher than in the pristine MEA. In contrast, the slower process increased that amount only by a factor of two over the course of another 100 h.

  16. Cross-over study of the efficacy of four beta 2-sympathomimetic bronchodilator aerosols.

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, B W; Tandon, M K; Paterson, J W

    1979-01-01

    1 Bronchodilator efficacy of four beta 2-sympathomimetic aerosols, fenoterol, orciprenaline, salbutamol and terbutaline has been compared in nine patients with chronic stable reversible airways obstruction using a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over design. Two puffs of each agent were given on two separate occasions to each of the patients and the forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and the vital capacity (VC) were measured before and 30, 90, 150 and 210 min after administration. 2 Multivariate analysis of the data at 30 min showed FEV1 and VC in these patients to be so highly correlated that they could be considered as a single variable. 3 When absolute change in VC at 30 min was used as the response criterion, efficacy of the four drugs was significantly better than placebo (P < 0.01). It was not possible to rank all four drugs in order of effectiveness; fenoterol and salbutamol were significantly better than terbutaline and orciprenaline (P < 0.01) but this was complicated by a significant interaction effect between drugs and patients (P < 0.01). 4 Similar results were obtained when absolute and relative changes in FEV1 and VC and area under the curve were used as response variables. 5 The study demonstrates that important individual differences in patient response may be concealed if only average drug effects are considered. PMID:45195

  17. Oral Solubilized Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Min, Ju-Hong; Hong, Yoon-Ho; Sung, Jung-Joon; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Jung Bok

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) with oral solubilized formula in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients, patients with probable or definite ALS were randomized to receive oral solubilized UDCA (3.5 g/140 mL/day) or placebo for 3 months after a run-in period of 1 month and switched to receive the other treatment for 3 months after a wash-out period of 1 month. The primary outcome was the rate of progression, assessed by the Appel ALS rating scale (AALSRS), and the secondary outcomes were the revised ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS-R) and forced vital capacity (FVC). Fifty-three patients completed either the first or second period of study with only 16 of 63 enrolled patients given both treatments sequentially. The slope of AALSRS was 1.17 points/month lower while the patients were treated with UDCA than with placebo (95% CI for difference 0.08-2.26, P = 0.037), whereas the slopes of ALSFRS-R and FVC did not show significant differences between treatments. Gastrointestinal adverse events were more common with UDCA (P < 0.05). Oral solubilized UDCA seems to be tolerable in ALS patients, but we could not make firm conclusion regarding its efficacy, particularly due to the high attrition rate in this cross-over trial. PMID:22323869

  18. Cross-over of hydrophobic effects observed in amphiphilic aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ningdong; Nordlund, Dennis; Huang, Congcong; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Acremann, Yves; Nilsson, Anders

    2010-03-01

    The hydrophobic effect is important in nature and responsible for phenomena in many fields. Changes in structure and dynamics of water induced by apolar groups are believed to play a key role in protein folding, ligand binding and formation of biological membranes. The length scale dependence of hydrophobic and associated crossover length has been discussed intensively, but has not been observed directly by experimental techniques sensitive to the microscopic structure. Here we report experimental evidences for the cross over behavior of hydrophobic effects in amphiphilic aqueous solutions based on x-ray adsorption and small angle x-ray scattering data. Tetraalkyl ammonium (CnH2n+1)4N^+ (TAA) cations show hydrophobic effects on the structure of water other than ionic effects. For cations with shorter side hydrocarbon chains, hydrophobic hydration enhances the hydrogen bonds (HBs) in liquid water and separates the solute with solvents; whereas for cations with longer chains (˜ 5 A) we find that the HBs are weakened and the solutes and solvent are attracted to each other. The temperature dependence of the crossover length is also investigated.

  19. First principles study of thermal conductivity cross-over in nanostructured zinc-chalcogenides

    SciTech Connect

    Katre, Ankita; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Togo, Atsushi; Tanaka, Isao

    2015-01-28

    Systematic first principles studies of zinc-chalcogenides have been performed to understand their thermal transport behaviour. We have applied the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation time approximation to calculate the thermal conductivity of ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe. We find a thermal conductivity cross-over between ZnS and ZnSe at nanostructure sizes around 0.1–0.2 μm and explain this in terms of the different contributions of phonon modes in these materials. We study the effect of nanostructuring using both the diffusive boundary scattering and confined mean free path limit and discuss the variations in the results. Furthermore, we show the strong influence of isotope scattering on the thermal conductivity. The calculated thermal conductivity is found to be strongly dependent on the volume and we explain the observed differences between local density and generalized gradient approximation calculations. We compare further calculated thermal properties, such as the thermal expansion coefficient, to experiment to validate our approach.

  20. Crossing-Over in a Hypervariable Species Preferentially Occurs in Regions of High Local Similarity

    PubMed Central

    Seplyarskiy, Vladimir B.; Logacheva, Maria D.; Penin, Aleksey A.; Baranova, Maria A.; Leushkin, Evgeny V.; Demidenko, Natalia V.; Klepikova, Anna V.; Kondrashov, Fyodor A.; Kondrashov, Alexey S.; James, Timothy Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recombination between double-stranded DNA molecules is a key genetic process which occurs in a wide variety of organisms. Usually, crossing-over (CO) occurs during meiosis between genotypes with 98.0–99.9% sequence identity, because within-population nucleotide diversity only rarely exceeds 2%. However, some species are hypervariable and it is unclear how CO can occur between genotypes with less than 90% sequence identity. Here, we study CO in Schizophyllum commune, a hypervariable cosmopolitan basidiomycete mushroom, a frequently encountered decayer of woody substrates. We crossed two haploid individuals, from the United States and from Russia, and obtained genome sequences for their 17 offspring. The average genetic distance between the parents was 14%, making it possible to study CO at very high resolution. We found reduced levels of linkage disequilibrium between loci flanking the CO sites indicating that they are mostly confined to hotspots of recombination. Furthermore, CO events preferentially occurred in regions under stronger negative selection, in particular within exons that showed reduced levels of nucleotide diversity. Apparently, in hypervariable species CO must avoid regions of higher divergence between the recombining genomes due to limitations imposed by the mismatch repair system, with regions under strong negative selection providing the opportunity for recombination. These patterns are opposite to those observed in a number of less variable species indicating that population genomics of hypervariable species may reveal novel biological phenomena. PMID:25135947

  1. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  2. [Unequal crossing over in Escherichia coli: genetic and physical mapping of duplications isolated in conjugational matings].

    PubMed

    Sukhodolets, V V; Dukhiĭ, D E

    1996-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that stable heterozygous duplications deoA deoB :: Tn5/deoC deoD can be isolated among Deo+ recombinants obtained in conjugational matings between Escherichia coli strains HfrH deoA deoB :: Tn5 and HfrH deoC deoD. In this work, 30 duplications were tested by transduction for the inclusion of a set of genetic markers adjoining the deo operon (99.5 min) at the genetic map of E. coli: cycA :: Tn10 (96 min), zji :: Tn10 (98.2 min), thr :: Tn9 (100/0 min), car :: Tn10 (1 min), leu :: Tn9 (2 min), and proAB :: Tn10 (6 min). The results obtained indicate that only three out of 30 duplications could have originated from unequal crossing over between the rrn operons. In eight strains, duplications were chosen for physical mapping by the use of Not I restriction, pulsed-field electrophoresis, and Southern blot hybridization with DNA of the deo operon. In all these strains, the presence of duplications (once a triplication) was confirmed by corresponding changes in the set of Not I digests, although some strains had additional genetic rearrangements. The order of operon copies in a tandem was determined, and the length of a duplicated chromosomal segment was calculated as equal to 25, 46, 80, 150.5, and 175 kb in duplication D49, D4, D5, D9, and D18, respectively. Thus, the use of the conjugational Hfr x Hfr system allows the generation of unique rearrangements of the E. coli genetic material. PMID:8647423

  3. Efficacy, Safety and Cost of Insecticide Treated Wall Lining, Insecticide Treated Bed Nets and Indoor Wall Wash with Lime for Visceral Leishmaniasis Vector Control in the Indian Sub-continent: A Multi-country Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Das, Pradeep; Ghosh, Debashis; Priyanka, Jyoti; Matlashewski, Greg; Kroeger, Axel; Upfill-Brown, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the efficacy, safety and cost of lime wash of household walls plus treatment of sand fly breeding places with bleach (i.e. environmental management or EM), insecticide impregnated durable wall lining (DWL), and bed net impregnation with slow release insecticide (ITN) for sand fly control in the Indian sub-continent. Methods This multi-country cluster randomized controlled trial had 24 clusters in each three sites with eight clusters per high, medium or low sand fly density stratum. Every cluster included 45–50 households. Five households from each cluster were randomly selected for entomological measurements including sand fly density and mortality at one, three, nine and twelve months post intervention. Household interviews were conducted for socioeconomic information and intervention acceptability assessment. Cost for each intervention was calculated. There was a control group without intervention. Findings Sand fly mortality [mean and 95%CI] ranged from 84% (81%-87%) at one month to 74% (71%-78%) at 12 months for DWL, 75% (71%-79%) at one month to 49% (43%-55%) at twelve months for ITN, and 44% (34%-53%) at one month to 22% (14%-29%) at twelve months for EM. Adjusted intervention effect on sand fly density measured by incidence rate ratio ranged from 0.28 (0.23–0.34) at one month to 0.62 (0.51–0.75) at 12 months for DWL; 0.72 (0.62–0.85) at one month to 1.02 (0.86–1.22) at 12 months for ITN; and 0.89 (0.76–1.03) at one months to 1.49 (1.26–1.74) at 12 months for EM. Household acceptance of EM was 74% compared to 94% for both DWL and ITN. Operational cost per household in USD was about 5, 8, and 2 for EM, DWL and ITN, respectively. Minimal adverse reactions were reported for EM and ITN while 36% of households with DWL reported transient itching. Interpretation DWL is the most effective, durable and acceptable control method followed by ITN. The Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) Elimination Program in the Indian sub

  4. Topical Nasal Anesthesia in Flexible Bronchoscopy – A Cross-Over Comparison between Two Devices

    PubMed Central

    Fuehner, Thomas; Fuge, Jan; Jungen, Meike; Buck, Anna; Suhling, Hendrik; Welte, Tobias; Gottlieb, Jens; Greer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Topical airway anesthesia is known to improve tolerance and patient satisfaction during flexible bronchoscopy (FB). Lidocaine is commonly used, delivered as an atomized spray. The current study assesses safety and patient satisfaction for nasal anesthesia of a new atomization device during outpatient bronchoscopy in lung transplant recipients. Methods Using a prospective, non-blinded, cross-over design, patients enrolled between 01-10-2014 and 24-11-2014 received 2% lidocaine using the standard reusable nasal atomizer (CRNA). Those enrolled between 25-11-2014 and 30-01-2015, received a disposable intranasal mucosal atomization device (DIMAD). After each procedure, the treating physician, their assistant and the patient independently rated side-effects and satisfaction, basing their responses on visual analogue scales (VAS). At their next scheduled bronchoscopy during the study period, patients then received the alternative atomizer. Written consent was obtained prior to the first bronchoscopy, and the study approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results Of the 252 patients enrolled between 01-10-2014 and 30-01-2015, 80 (32%) received both atomizers. Physicians reported better efficacy (p = 0.001) and fewer side effects (p< = 0.001) for DIMAD in patients exposed to both procedures. Among patients with one visit, physicians and their assistants reported improved efficacy (p = 0.018, p = 0.002) and fewer side effects (p< = 0.001, p = 0.029) for the disposable atomizer, whereas patients reported no difference in efficacy or side effects (p = 0.72 and p = 0.20). No severe adverse events were noted. The cost of the reusable device was 4.08€ per procedure, compared to 3.70€ for the disposable device. Discussion Topical nasal anesthesia via a disposable intranasal mucosal atomization device (DIMAD) offers comparable safety and patient comfort, compared to conventional reusable nasal atomizers (CRNA) in lung transplant recipients. Procedural costs

  5. Catamaran Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    West Coast Netting, Inc.'s net of Hyperester twine, is made of three strands of fiber twisted together by a company-invented sophisticated twisting machine and process that maintain precisely the same tension on each strand. The resulting twine offers higher strength and improved abrasion resistance. The technology that created the Hyperester supertwine has found spinoff applications, first as an extra-efficient seine for tuna fishing, then as a capture net for law enforcement agencies. The newest one is as a deck for racing catamarans. Hyperester twine net has been used on most of the high performance racing catamarans of recent years, including the America's Cup Challenge boats. They are tough and hold up well in the continual exposure to sunlight and saltwater.

  6. Rapid Scaling Up of Insecticide-Treated Bed Net Coverage in Africa and Its Relationship with Development Assistance for Health: A Systematic Synthesis of Supply, Distribution, and Household Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Flaxman, Abraham D.; Fullman, Nancy; Otten, Mac W.; Menon, Manoj; Cibulskis, Richard E.; Ng, Marie; Murray, Christopher J. L.; Lim, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Development assistance for health (DAH) targeted at malaria has risen exponentially over the last 10 years, with a large fraction of these resources directed toward the distribution of insecticide-treated bed nets (ITNs). Identifying countries that have been successful in scaling up ITN coverage and understanding the role of DAH is critical for making progress in countries where coverage remains low. Sparse and inconsistent sources of data have prevented robust estimates of the coverage of ITNs over time. Methods and Principal Findings We combined data from manufacturer reports of ITN deliveries to countries, National Malaria Control Program (NMCP) reports of ITNs distributed to health facilities and operational partners, and household survey data using Bayesian inference on a deterministic compartmental model of ITN distribution. For 44 countries in Africa, we calculated (1) ITN ownership coverage, defined as the proportion of households that own at least one ITN, and (2) ITN use in children under 5 coverage, defined as the proportion of children under the age of 5 years who slept under an ITN. Using regression, we examined the relationship between cumulative DAH targeted at malaria between 2000 and 2008 and the change in national-level ITN coverage over the same time period. In 1999, assuming that all ITNs are owned and used in populations at risk of malaria, mean coverage of ITN ownership and use in children under 5 among populations at risk of malaria were 2.2% and 1.5%, respectively, and were uniformly low across all 44 countries. In 2003, coverage of ITN ownership and use in children under 5 was 5.1% (95% uncertainty interval 4.6% to 5.7%) and 3.7% (2.9% to 4.9%); in 2006 it was 17.5% (16.4% to 18.8%) and 12.9% (10.8% to 15.4%); and by 2008 it was 32.8% (31.4% to 34.4%) and 26.6% (22.3% to 30.9%), respectively. In 2008, four countries had ITN ownership coverage of 80% or greater; six countries were between 60% and 80%; nine countries were between

  7. Feasibility demonstration of booster cross-over system for 3 1/2 inch SRB/MLP frangible nut system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Recent testing of the SRB/MLP Frangible Nut System (SOS Part Number 114850-9/Boosters P/N 114848-3) at NASA indicated a need to reduce the function time between boosters (2) within a single frangible nut. These boosters are initiated separately by electrical impulse(s). Coupling the output of each detonator with an explosive cross-over would reduce the function time between boosters (independent of electrical impulse) while providing additional redundancy to the system. The objectives of this program were to: provide an explosive cross-over between boosters, reduce function time between boosters to less than one (1) millisecond within a given nut, reduce cost of boosters, be compatible with the existing frangible nut system, and meet requirements of USBI Spec's (nut 10SPC-0030, booster 10SPC-0031).

  8. 78 FR 58382 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ...This notice announces actions taken by the FHWA and other Federal agencies that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C. 139(l)(1). The action relates to the U.S. 50 Crossing over Sinepauxent Bay Study from MD 611 to MD 378 and 5th Street to Somerset Street located in the Town of Ocean City, Worcester County, Maryland. This action grants approval for the...

  9. Field-induced superconducting phase of FeSe in the BCS-BEC cross-over.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Shigeru; Watashige, Tatsuya; Hanaguri, Tetsuo; Kohsaka, Yuhki; Yamashita, Takuya; Shimoyama, Yusuke; Mizukami, Yuta; Endo, Ryota; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Aoyama, Kazushi; Terashima, Taichi; Uji, Shinya; Wolf, Thomas; von Löhneysen, Hilbert; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji

    2014-11-18

    Fermi systems in the cross-over regime between weakly coupled Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) and strongly coupled Bose-Einstein-condensate (BEC) limits are among the most fascinating objects to study the behavior of an assembly of strongly interacting particles. The physics of this cross-over has been of considerable interest both in the fields of condensed matter and ultracold atoms. One of the most challenging issues in this regime is the effect of large spin imbalance on a Fermi system under magnetic fields. Although several exotic physical properties have been predicted theoretically, the experimental realization of such an unusual superconducting state has not been achieved so far. Here we show that pure single crystals of superconducting FeSe offer the possibility to enter the previously unexplored realm where the three energies, Fermi energy εF, superconducting gap Δ, and Zeeman energy, become comparable. Through the superfluid response, transport, thermoelectric response, and spectroscopic-imaging scanning tunneling microscopy, we demonstrate that εF of FeSe is extremely small, with the ratio Δ/εF ~ 1(~0.3) in the electron (hole) band. Moreover, thermal-conductivity measurements give evidence of a distinct phase line below the upper critical field, where the Zeeman energy becomes comparable to εF and Δ. The observation of this field-induced phase provides insights into previously poorly understood aspects of the highly spin-polarized Fermi liquid in the BCS-BEC cross-over regime. PMID:25378706

  10. NET Confusion.

    PubMed

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D; Quinn, Mark T; DeLeo, Frank R

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics - high numbers and toxicity - that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil "containment" processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  11. NET Confusion

    PubMed Central

    Malachowa, Natalia; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils are arguably the most important white blood cell for defense against bacterial and fungal infections. These leukocytes are produced in high numbers on a daily basis in humans and are recruited rapidly to injured/infected tissues. Phagocytosis and subsequent intraphagosomal killing and digestion of microbes have historically been the accepted means by which neutrophils carry out their role in innate host defense. Indeed, neutrophils contain and produce numerous cytotoxic molecules, including antimicrobial peptides, proteases, and reactive oxygen species, that are highly effective at killing the vast majority of ingested microbes. On the other hand, it is these characteristics – high numbers and toxicity – that endow neutrophils with the potential to injure and destroy host tissues. This potential is borne out by many inflammatory processes and diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that host mechanisms exist to control virtually all steps in the neutrophil activation process and to prevent unintended neutrophil activation and/or lysis during the resolution of inflammatory responses or during steady-state turnover. The notion that neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) form by cytolysis as a standard host defense mechanism seems inconsistent with these aforementioned neutrophil “containment” processes. It is with this caveat in mind that we provide perspective on the role of NETs in human host defense and disease. PMID:27446089

  12. Inherited differences in crossing over and gene conversion frequencies between wild strains of Sordaria fimicola from "Evolution Canyon".

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, M; Lamb, B C; Nevo, E

    2001-01-01

    Recombination generates new combinations of existing genetic variation and therefore may be important in adaptation and evolution. We investigated whether there was natural genetic variation for recombination frequencies and whether any such variation was environment related and possibly adaptive. Crossing over and gene conversion frequencies often differed significantly in a consistent direction between wild strains of the fungus Sordaria fimicola isolated from a harsher or a milder microscale environment in "Evolution Canyon," Israel. First- and second-generation descendants from selfing the original strains from the harsher, more variable, south-facing slope had higher frequencies of crossing over in locus-centromere intervals and of gene conversion than those from the lusher north-facing slopes. There were some significant differences between strains within slopes, but these were less marked than between slopes. Such inherited variation could provide a basis for natural selection for optimum recombination frequencies in each environment. There were no significant differences in meiotic hybrid DNA correction frequencies between strains from the different slopes. The conversion analysis was made using only conversions to wild type, because estimations of conversion to mutant were affected by a high frequency of spontaneous mutation. There was no polarized segregation of chromosomes at meiosis I or of chromatids at meiosis II. PMID:11779798

  13. Net order optimization in analog net bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jambor, Thomas; Schreiner, Lars; Olbrich, Markus; Barke, Erich

    2005-06-01

    This paper presents a new approach to optimize net order in analog busses. It is used for the PARasitic SYmmetric router (PARSY), which routes net bundles, e.g. busses or differential pairs, maintaining parasitic symmetry and limiting differential coupling. The router is mainly devoted to analog signal interconnect but can also be used for critical digital busses. Net bundles have a fixed order, because wire crossing is not allowed in net bundle segments to enforce symmetry. Wires inside net bundle segments are generated by module generators. Connecting cell terminals to the first or the last net bundle segment is complex, because the cell terminals can vary in geometry and placement. Therefore, an assignment between nets and wires (net order) in a segment is required. This assignment does not affect the order in which nets or net bundles are routed sequentially. The optimization objective for the connections from net bundle segments to terminals is to minimize the number of crossings and the length difference, while maintaining symmetry if possible. Therefore, a net order has to be calculated, which globally optimizes these criteria for all terminal connections. Different net orders can be computed from the placement of terminals, which have to be connected to a net bundle segment. An additional order is calculated from these net orders, which contains the most characteristic features of all net orders. For all net orders costs are evaluated, and the one with the lowest cost is chosen.

  14. Bed Bugs FAQs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tropical Diseases Laboratory Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Parasites Home Bed Bugs FAQs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... are bed bugs treated and prevented? What are bed bugs? Bed bugs ( Cimex lectularius ) are small, flat, parasitic ...

  15. Improvement of seminal parameters with Prelox: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Stanislavov, R; Nikolova, V; Rohdewald, P

    2009-03-01

    In a randomly allocated, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design, 50 infertile patients were treated for 1 month with placebo or a combination of l-arginine aspartate and Pycnogenol (Prelox). Semen samples were examined at 4 week intervals according to WHO criteria. Treatment with Prelox increased significantly the semen volume, concentration of spermatozoa, percentage of motile spermatozoa and percentage of spermatozoa with normal morphology compared with placebo. The placebo had no influence on the parameters of seminological analysis. Intake of Pycnogenol for 1 month improved the fertility index to normal values. After treatment, the fertility index decreased again to infertile status. No unwanted effects were reported. Prelox seems to be a promising alternative to treat patients with mild infertility. PMID:19142978

  16. The effect of music on discomfort experienced by intensive care unit patients during turning: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Marie; Chaboyer, Wendy; Schluter, Philip; Foster, Michelle; Harris, Denise; Teakle, Roz

    2010-04-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that intensive care unit (ICU) patients experience pain, discomfort and anxiety despite analgesic and sedative use. The most painful procedure reported by critically ill patients is being turned. Music diminishes anxiety and discomfort in some populations; however, its effect on critically ill patients remains unknown. This research aimed to identify the effect of music on discomfort experienced by ICU patients during turning using a single blind randomized cross-over design. Seventeen post-operative ICU patients were recruited and treatment order randomized. Discomfort and anxiety were measured 15 min before and immediately after two turning procedures. Findings indicated that listening to music 15 min before and during turning did not significantly reduce discomfort or anxiety. Pain management might effectively be addressing discomfort and anxiety experienced during turning. Given previous studies have identified turning as painful, current results are promising and it might be useful to determine if this is widespread. PMID:20487057

  17. Regional geomagnetic main field and secular variation modelling using ground, satellite and marine cross-over data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talarn, Àngela; Pavón-Carrasco, F. Javier; Miquel Torta, J.; Qamili, Enkelejda

    2014-05-01

    After the good results obtained from an attempt to generate a regional model for the secular variation of the total geomagnetic field for gaining a better knowledge of the field over oceanic regions, we now present a new regional model for the full vector main field and its secular variation from 1960.0 to 2000.0 over the North Atlantic Ocean. The distinct facts of our approach with respect to previous existing global models arise from the new information afforded by a collection and selection of marine cross-over data, along with the techniques that we propose for constructing the regional model, which include uncertainty estimates of the results. The marine data offer the possibility to gain better and robust knowledge of the field over large areas lacked of observatories over periods of time without satellite information. In addition to the marine data, we used observatory and repeat station data in the peripheral areas and satellite data from OERSTED, MAGSAT and the OGO series. All the data passed a rigorous selection in order to reject suspicious data and different random selections of satellite data were applied to reduce the effect of the satellite tracks. Due to the use of different altitude data, we obtained our model using the Revised Spherical Cap Harmonic Analysis (R-SCHA) in space and the penalized cubic B-splines in time. Taking advantage of the orthogonality of the basis functions, being particularly important in the inverse problem approach, we introduced two temporal and spatial regularization matrices with appropriate damping parameters, which are adjusted to assess the best compromise between the data fit and the model roughness. The obtained results show an improvement in terms of root mean square error when the regional model is compared with other global models for those epochs, such as the CM4, highlighting the importance of the use of the cross-over marine data in the oceanic regions.

  18. A randomised, double- blind, cross-over study investigating the prebiotic effect of agave fructans in healthy human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramnani, P; Costabile, A; Bustillo, A G R; Gibson, G R

    2015-01-01

    This placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind, cross-over human feeding study aimed to determine the prebiotic effect of agave fructans. A total of thirty-eight volunteers completed this trial. The treatment consisted of 3 weeks' supplementation with 5 g/d of prebiotic agave fructan (Predilife) or equivalent placebo (maltodextrin), followed by a 2-week washout period following which subjects were crossed over to alternate the treatment arm for 3 weeks followed by a 2-week washout. Faecal samples were collected at baseline, on the last day of treatment (days 22 and 58) and washout (days 36 and 72), respectively. Changes in faecal bacterial populations, SCFA and secretory IgA were assessed using fluorescent in situ hybridisation, GC and ELISA, respectively. Bowel movements, stool consistencies, abdominal comfort and mood changes were evaluated by a recorded daily questionnaire. In parallel, the effect of agave fructans on different regions of the colon using a three-stage continuous culture simulator was studied. Predilife significantly increased faecal bifidobacteria (log10 9·6 (sd 0·4)) and lactobacilli (log10 7·7 (sd 0·8)) compared with placebo (log10 9·2 (sd 0·4); P = 0·00) (log10 7·4 (sd 0·7); P = 0·000), respectively. No change was observed for other bacterial groups tested, SCFA, secretory IgA, and PGE2 concentrations between the treatment and placebo. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis indicated that bacterial communities were randomly dispersed and no significant differences were observed between Predilife and placebo treatments. The in vitro models showed similar increases in bifidobacterial and lactobacilli populations to that observed with the in vivo trial. To conclude, agave fructans are well tolerated in healthy human subjects and increased bifidobacteria and lactobacilli numbers in vitro and in vivo but did not influence other products of fermentation. PMID:26090092

  19. Hemostasis during low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a randomized cross-over trial comparing two hemofiltration rates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Renal insufficiency increases the half-life of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) removes LMWHs is unsettled. We studied hemostasis during nadroparin anticoagulation for CVVH, and explored the implication of the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Methods This cross-over study, performed in a 20-bed teaching hospital ICU, randomized non-surgical patients with acute kidney injury requiring nadroparin for CVVH to compare hemostasis between two doses of CVVH: filtrate flow was initiated at 4 L/h and converted to 2 L/h after 60 min in group 1, and vice versa in group 2. Patients received nadroparin 2850 IU i.v., followed by 380 IU/h continuously in the extracorporeal circuit. After baseline sampling, ultrafiltrate, arterial (art) and postfilter (PF) blood was taken for hemostatic markers after 1 h, and 15 min, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after converting filtrate flow. We compared randomized groups, and 'early circuit clotting' to 'normal circuit life' groups. Results Fourteen patients were randomized, seven to each group. Despite randomization, group 1 had higher SOFA scores (median 14 (IQR 11-15) versus 9 (IQR 5-9), p = 0.004). Anti-Xa art activity peaked upon nadroparin bolus and declined thereafter (p = 0.05). Anti-Xa PF did not change in time. Anti-Xa activity was not detected in ultrafiltrate. Medians of all anti-Xa samples were lower in group 1 (anti-Xa art 0.19 (0.12-0.37) vs. 0.31 (0.23-0.52), p = 0.02; anti-Xa PF 0.34 (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.51 (0.41-0.76), p = 0.005). After a steep decline, arterial ETPAUC tended to increase (p = 0.06), opposite to anti-Xa, while postfilter ETPAUC increased (p = 0.001). Median circuit life was 24.5 h (IQR 12-37 h). Patients with 'short circuit life' had longer baseline prothrombin time (PTT), activated thromboplastin time (aPTT), lower ETP, higher thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) and higher SOFA scores; during CVVH, anti-Xa, and platelets were lower; PTT, aPTT, TAT

  20. The VEPRO trial: A cross-over randomised controlled trial comparing 2 progressive lenses for patients with presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Boutron, Isabelle; Touizer, Caroline; Pitrou, Isabelle; Roy, Carine; Ravaud, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of this trial was to compare the effectiveness of two generations of progressive lenses for presbyopia. Methods A multicenter cross-over randomized controlled trial performed in a primary care setting (5 optical dispensaries) was planned. Two categories of progressive lenses were compared: 1) a new-generation lens (i.e., VARILUX PANAMIC ORMA CRIZAL), which is expensive but a supposed improvement in comfort, and 2) an older-generation lens (i.e., VARILUX CONFORT ORMA CRIZAL), which is less expensive and is considered the reference lens. Patients were randomized to wear one generation of progressive lens for 4 weeks, then cross over to wear the other lens for 4 weeks, without knowing the sequence of lenses. Inclusion criteria were 1) age 43–60 years; 2) outpatients already wearing progressive lenses and referred to an optician ophthalmologist for optical correction prescription within the last 6 months; 3) receiving a correction of ≤3 dioptres in cases of associated myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism; 4) understanding and speaking French and able to answer a questionnaire; and 5) giving written consent to participate in the study. The primary outcome was patient preference for one progressive lens at week 8. Secondary outcomes were subjective measures of bifocal visual performance, including a) near visual acuity, b) visual field, c) kinetic visual skills, d) visual adaptability, e) visual comfort, and f) rapidity of adaptation. Results 127 patients were randomized to one of the lens groups. Two patients withdrew prematurely; 98.4% and 97.6% patients who wore the new versus older lenses, respectively, wore their progressive lenses every day during the 4-week period 1 and period 2. The number of participants in each of 5 centres varied from 16 (12.6%) to 35 (27.6%). 57.9% patients preferred the new-generation lenses, 36.5% the older-generation lenses, and 5.6% had no preference (p = 0.01). The two groups did not differ in any of the measures of

  1. The pharmacodynamic equivalence of levothyroxine and liothyronine. A randomized, double blind, cross-over study in thyroidectomized patients

    PubMed Central

    Celi, Francesco S.; Zemskova, Marina; Linderman, Joyce D.; Babar, Nabeel I.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Csako, Gyorgy; Wesley, Robert; Costello, Rene; Penzak, Scott R.; Pucino, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Summary Context The substitution of liothyronine (l-T3) for levothyroxine (l-T4) is commonly employed during thyroid hormone (TH) withdrawal in preparation for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on thyroid cancer patients. Presently, only limited data are available on the l-T3 for l-T4 therapeutic substitution. Objective To characterize the pharmcodynamic equivalence of l-T3 and l-T4. Design Randomized, double-blind, cross-over intervention study. Setting NIH Clinical Center. Patients 10 thyroidectomized patients. Interventions Study participants were treated with l-T3 or l-T4 with a target TSH ≥0.5≤1.5 mU/l for at least 30 days before undergoing inpatient testing. Following testing, subjects crossed-over according to the same scheme. Main outcome measures Area under the serum concentration-time curve of TSH from 0 to 60 minutes (AUC 0-60) and peak TSH serum concentration (Cmax) following thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, total l-T4 and l-T3 dose (mcg/kg), and l-T4/l-T3 ratio. Results No difference was observed for time 0 TSH values between l-T3 and l-T4 replacement phases (1.48± 0.77 vs. 1.21± 0.62 mU/l, p=0.293) at average daily doses of 40.3±11.3 mcg lT-3 and 115.2±38.5 mcg lT-4, l-T3: l-T4 ratio 0.36±0.06. TRH stimulation test resulted in similar l-T3 vs.l-T4 TSH responses with AUC 0-60 of 326.1 (95% CI 232.6-457.1) and 247.1 (95% CI 153.8-397.1) mU*min /l (p=0.285); and Cmax of 6.83 (95% CI 4.88-9.55) and 5.23 (95% CI 3.31-8.3) mU/l (p=0.383). Conclusions This is the first study addressing the equivalency between l-T3 and l-T4 therapy measured by baseline and TRH-stimulated TSH. The therapeutic substitution of l-T3 for l-T4 was achieved at approximately 1:3 ratio. PMID:20447070

  2. Bilateral Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Auditory Hallucinations in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled, Cross-over Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Ji; Yeo, Seonguk; Hwang, Inho; Park, Jong-Il; Cui, Yin; Jin, Hong-Mei; Kim, Hyung Tae; Hwang, Tae-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective A randomized double-blind cross-over trial was conducted in patients with persistent auditory hallucinations (AHs) to investigate whether bilateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at the temporoparietal area or Broca's area is more effective at high- or low-frequencies compared to a sham condition. Methods Twenty three patients with persistent AHs who remained stable on the same medication for 2 months were enrolled. They were randomized to one of four conditions: low-frequency (1 Hz)-rTMS to the temporoparietal area (L-TP), high-frequency (20 Hz)-rTMS to the temporoparietal area (H-TP), high-frequency (20 Hz)-rTMS to Broca's area (H-B), or sham. Results All the four rTMS conditions resulted in significant decrease in the scores under the auditory hallucination rating scale and hallucination change scale over time. However, there were no significant treatment effects or interaction between time and treatment, suggesting no superior effects of the new paradigms over the sham condition. Conclusion Our findings suggest that bilateral rTMS at the temporoparietal area or Broca's area with high- or low-frequency does not produce superior effects in reducing AHs compared to sham stimulation. PMID:25598827

  3. The bioavailability of Tamoplex (tamoxifen). Part 2. A single dose cross-over study in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Guelen, P J; Stevenson, D; Briggs, R J; de Vos, D

    1987-10-01

    Tamoxifen and N-desmethyltamoxifen plasma concentrations were determined in a single dose cross-over study with Tamoplex and Nolvadex at the dose height of 40 mg in 18 healthy male volunteers with a wash-out period of at least 140 days. ANOVA, power analysis and novel bioequivalence tests on AUC, Cmax and tcmax, including a non-parametric one, demonstrated bioequivalence of Tamoplex and Nolvadex 10 mg tablets. The mean AUC ( +/- SD) values of tamoxifen after administration of Tamoplex or Nolvadex tablets were 1076 +/- 265 and 1131 +/- 301 h ng ml-1, respectively. ANOVA on the AUC values gave a p value of 0.450 with a power of 0.85 and a 95% confidence interval of 81.8-108.5% was obtained. The 0.8 power test showed a determined difference of 18.9%, whereas the actual difference was 4.9%. Interindividual and intraindividual variation was assessed. The pharmacokinetic data, well established for 34 hr, constitute a basis for further studies on tamoxifen distribution, elimination and metabolism. PMID:3441162

  4. Ticagrelor Does Not Inhibit Adenosine Transport at Relevant Concentrations: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rongen, G. A.; van den Broek, P. H. H.; Bilos, A.; Donders, A. R. T.; Gomes, M. E.; Riksen, N. P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose In patients with myocardial infarction, ticagrelor reduces cardiovascular and sepsis-related mortality, and can cause dyspnea. It is suggested that this is caused by adenosine receptor stimulation, because in preclinical studies, ticagrelor blocks the nucleoside transporter and increases cellular ATP release. We now investigated the effects of ticagrelor on the adenosine system in humans in vivo. Experimental Approach In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in 14 healthy subjects, we have tested whether ticagrelor (180 mg) affects adenosine- and dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation, as surrogates of nucleoside uptake inhibition and adenosine formation, respectively. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was measured. Primary endpoint was adenosine-induced vasodilation. Key Results Ticagrelor did not affect adenosine- or dipyridamole-induced forearm vasodilation. Also, ex vivo uptake of adenosine and uridine in isolated red blood cells was not affected by ticagrelor. In vitro, ticagrelor dose-dependently inhibited nucleoside uptake, but only at supra-physiological concentrations. Conclusion and Implications In conclusion, at relevant plasma concentration, ticagrelor does not affect adenosine transport, nor adenosine formation in healthy subjects. Therefore, it is unlikely that this mechanism is a relevant pleiotropic effect of ticagrelor. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01996735 PMID:26509673

  5. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S. R.; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H. M.

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration ‘wait-time’ prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  6. Microwave conductance in random waveguides in the cross-over to Anderson localization and single-parameter scaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Zhou; Wang, Jing; Genack, Azriel Z.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of transport of electrons and classical waves in disordered systems depends upon the proximity to the Anderson localization transition between freely diffusing and localized waves. The suppression of average transport and the enhancement of relative fluctuations in conductance in one-dimensional samples with lengths greatly exceeding the localization length, , are related in the single-parameter scaling (SPS) theory of localization. However, the difficulty of producing an ensemble of statistically equivalent samples in which the electron wave function is temporally coherent has so-far precluded the experimental demonstration of SPS. Here we demonstrate SPS in random multichannel systems for the transmittance T of microwave radiation, which is the analog of the dimensionless conductance. We show that for , a single eigenvalue of the transmission matrix (TM) dominates transmission, and the distribution of the is Gaussian with a variance equal to the average of , as conjectured by SPS. For samples in the cross-over to localization, , we find a one-sided distribution for . This anomalous distribution is explained in terms of a charge model for the eigenvalues of the TM τ in which the Coulomb interaction between charges mimics the repulsion between the eigenvalues of TM. We show in the localization limit that the joint distribution of T and the effective number of transmission eigenvalues determines the probability distributions of intensity and total transmission for a single-incident channel. PMID:24516156

  7. The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of ifosfamide during bolus and infusional administration: a randomized cross-over study.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, J. M.; Hartley, J. M.; Brennan, C.; Nicholson, P. W.; Souhami, R. L.

    1998-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over trial, 11 patients received ifosfamide (IFOS) in 21-day cycles, which alternated between 3 g m(-2) x (2 or 3) days given as a 1-h bolus doses, or the same total dose as a continuous infusion. Patients who received four or more cycles also alternated between two cycles on dexamethasone 4 mg 8 hourly for 3 days starting 8 h before IFOS, and two cycles off dexamethasone. A total of 34 patient cycles were studied and serum and urinary levels of IFOS, 2 dechloroethylifosfamide (2DC), 3 dechloroethylifosfamide (3DC), carboxyifosfamide (CX) and isophosphoramide mustard (IPM) were measured by thin-layer chromatography. No significant differences could be detected in the areas under the curve (AUCs) of serum concentration, nor in the proportion of IFOS or its metabolites found in the urine. There was no significant effect of dexamethasone on IFOS metabolism. These results indicate that there is no identifiable pharmacokinetic basis for insistence on either bolus or infusional methods of IFOS administration. PMID:9528844

  8. Salivary Oxytocin Concentrations in Males following Intranasal Administration of Oxytocin: A Double-Blind, Cross-Over Study.

    PubMed

    Daughters, Katie; Manstead, Antony S R; Hubble, Kelly; Rees, Aled; Thapar, Anita; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2015-01-01

    The use of intranasal oxytocin (OT) in research has become increasingly important over the past decade. Although researchers have acknowledged a need for further investigation of the physiological effects of intranasal administration, few studies have actually done so. In the present double-blind cross-over study we investigated the longevity of a single 24 IU dose of intranasal OT measured in saliva in 40 healthy adult males. Salivary OT concentrations were significantly higher in the OT condition, compared to placebo. This significant difference lasted until the end of testing, approximately 108 minutes after administration, and peaked at 30 minutes. Results showed significant individual differences in response to intranasal OT administration. To our knowledge this is the largest and first all-male within-subjects design study to demonstrate the impact of intranasal OT on salivary OT concentrations. The results are consistent with previous research in suggesting that salivary OT is a valid matrix for OT measurement. The results also suggest that the post-administration 'wait-time' prior to starting experimental tasks could be reduced to 30 minutes, from the 45 minutes typically used, thereby enabling testing during peak OT concentrations. Further research is needed to ascertain whether OT concentrations after intranasal administration follow similar patterns in females, and different age groups. PMID:26669935

  9. Maximal fat oxidation rate and cross-over point with respect to lactate thresholds do not have good agreement.

    PubMed

    González-Haro, C

    2011-05-01

    The present cross-sectional study was designed to assess the agreement between maximal fat oxidation rate (maxFAT (OXR)) VS. Lactate Threshold (LT), and CROSS-OVER point (CO (P)) VS. Individual Anaerobic Threshold (IAT) in well-trained athletes. 2 groups of male, well-trained endurance athletes (short-distance triathletes (ST) (n=11), and road cyclists (RC) (n=11)) performed a graded cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, with 4-min stages and 30-W increments. LT, IAT, maxFAT (OXR) and CO (P) were determined for each group. FAT (OXR) and CHO (OXR) were estimated by means of indirect calorimetry and stoichiometric equations. The agreement between maxFAT (OXR) VS. LT, and CO (P) VS. IAT were determined using the Bland-Altman methodology. In spite of the low systematic error (bias) (high accuracy) for CO (P) VS. IAT, the variable error (limits of agreement) was moderate (moderate precision). For maxFAT (OXR) VS. LT the systematic error was moderate (moderate accuracy), and the variable error was moderate to high (moderate to low precision). In conclusion, the data obtained from this study shows that maxFAT (OXR) and CO (P) do not exhibit good agreement with LT and IAT, in male endurance well-trained athletes. Consequently, it is not possible to assume that maxFAT (OXR) VS. LT and CO (P) VS. IAT occurs at the same exercise intensity. PMID:21380968

  10. The predictive distribution of the residual variability in the linear-fixed effects model for clinical cross-over trials.

    PubMed

    Bertsche, Anja; Nehmiz, Gerhard; Beyersmann, Jan; Grieve, Andrew P

    2016-07-01

    In the linear model for cross-over trials, with fixed subject effects and normal i.i.d. random errors, the residual variability corresponds to the intraindividual variability. While population variances are in general unknown, an estimate can be derived that follows a gamma distribution, where the scale parameter is based on the true unknown variability. This gamma distribution is often used for the sample size calculation for trial planning with the precision approach, where the aim is to achieve in the next trial a predefined precision with a given probability. But then the imprecision in the estimated residual variability or, from a Bayesian perspective, the uncertainty of the unknown variability is not taken into account. Here, we present the predictive distribution for the residual variability, and we investigate a link to the F distribution. The consequence is that in the precision approach more subjects will be necessary than with the conventional calculation. For values of the intraindividual variability that are typical of human pharmacokinetics, that is a gCV of 17-36%, we would need approximately a sixth more subjects. PMID:27003464

  11. Packed Bed Reactor Experiment

    NASA Video Gallery

    The purpose of the Packed Bed Reactor Experiment in low gravity is to determine how a mixture of gas and liquid flows through a packed bed in reduced gravity. A packed bed consists of a metal pipe ...

  12. Shape of snack foods does not predict snack intake in a sample of preschoolers: a cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the past decade, the proportion snacking has increased. Snack foods consumed are predominantly not nutritious foods. One potential venue to increase children’s diet quality is to offer healthy snack foods and we explored if shaped snack foods would lead to increased consumption. Methods We investigated the consumption of high-fiber snacks (banana bread, pancakes, and sandwiches) served either in normal (round, square) or shaped (heart, hands, animals) form to preschoolers 2–5 years old attending a local child care center (n = 21). The 9 weeks long, prospective, cross-over intervention study was designed to expose each child repeatedly to each snack in each shape (4 times per snack). Snacks were served as morning or afternoon snack and caretakers’ reports were used to account for the child’s consumption of a meal preceding the study snack (breakfast or lunch). Results There was no significant difference in snack consumption between the shaped and normal snacks. However, the mean energy intake from snacks was significantly greater for Caucasian children compared with Asian children. Further, Asian children consumed much less banana bread than the other two snacks. Overall, children who had not eaten breakfast or lunch prior to the morning or afternoon snack ate significantly more calories from the snacks (84.1 kcal, p-value < 0.0001). Conclusion Findings of this study confirm previous research that the shape of the foods does not affect snack consumption in children. However, we also report two unexpected findings: a) the strong interaction between ethnicity and snack consumption and b) that Asian children consumed much less banana bread than Caucasian children. The role of children’s ethnic background profoundly affects snack preference and must be considered in the study of children’s eating behaviors and in interventions to promote healthy eating habits. PMID:22866912

  13. Clomipramine vs desipramine vs placebo in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy symptoms. A double-blind cross-over study.

    PubMed Central

    Sindrup, S H; Gram, L F; Skjold, T; Grodum, E; Brøsen, K; Beck-Nielsen, H

    1990-01-01

    1. The effect of clomipramine and desipramine on diabetic neuropathy symptoms was examined in a double-blind, randomised, placebo controlled, cross-over study for 2 + 2 + 2 weeks. Drug doses were adjusted according to the sparteine phenotype, i.e. extensive metabolisers were treated with 75 mg clomipramine day-1 and 200 mg desipramine day-1 whereas poor metabolisers were treated with 50 mg day-1 of both drugs. Nineteen patients completed the study. 2. Plasma concentration of clomipramine plus desmethylclomipramine was 70-510 nM in extensive metabolisers, vs 590 and 750 nM in two poor metabolisers. Desipramine levels were 130-910 nM, vs 860 and 880 nM. 3. Both clomipramine and desipramine significantly reduced the symptoms of neuropathy as measured by observer- and self rating in comparison with placebo. Clomipramine tended to be more efficacious than desipramine. Patients with a weak or absent response on clomipramine had lower plasma concentrations (clomipramine plus desmethyl-clomipramine less than 200 nM) than patients with a better response. For desipramine a relationship between plasma concentration and effect was not established. 4. Side effect ratings did not differ for clomipramine and desipramine and on both drugs three patients withdrew due to side effects. 5. Compared with earlier results obtained with imipramine dosed on the basis of plasma level monitoring, clomipramine and desipramine on fixed doses appeared less efficacious whereas the side effect profiles were the same. At least for clomipramine, appropriate dose adjustment on the basis of plasma level monitoring may increase the efficacy. PMID:2271367

  14. A double-blind, randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, pilot trial with Sativex in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón Moreno, Jose Luis; García Caldentey, Juan; Trigo Cubillo, Patricia; Ruiz Romero, Carolina; García Ribas, Guillermo; Alonso Arias, M A Alonso; García de Yébenes, María Jesús; Tolón, Rosa María; Galve-Roperh, Ismael; Sagredo, Onintza; Valdeolivas, Sara; Resel, Eva; Ortega-Gutierrez, Silvia; García-Bermejo, María Laura; Fernández Ruiz, Javier; Guzmán, Manuel; García de Yébenes Prous, Justo

    2016-07-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease for which there is no curative treatment available. Given that the endocannabinoid system is involved in the pathogenesis of HD mouse models, stimulation of specific targets within this signaling system has been investigated as a promising therapeutic agent in HD. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot clinical trial with Sativex(®), a botanical extract with an equimolecular combination of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Both Sativex(®) and placebo were dispensed as an oral spray, to be administered up to 12 sprays/day for 12 weeks. The primary objective was safety, assessed by the absence of more severe adverse events (SAE) and no greater deterioration of motor, cognitive, behavioral and functional scales during the phase of active treatment. Secondary objectives were clinical improvement of Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale scores. Twenty-six patients were randomized and 24 completed the trial. After ruling-out period and sequence effects, safety and tolerability were confirmed. No differences on motor (p = 0.286), cognitive (p = 0.824), behavioral (p = 1.0) and functional (p = 0.581) scores were detected during treatment with Sativex(®) as compared to placebo. No significant molecular effects were detected on the biomarker analysis. Sativex(®) is safe and well tolerated in patients with HD, with no SAE or clinical worsening. No significant symptomatic effects were detected at the prescribed dosage and for a 12-week period. Also, no significant molecular changes were observed on the biomarkers. Future study designs should consider higher doses, longer treatment periods and/or alternative cannabinoid combinations.Clincaltrals.gov identifier: NCT01502046. PMID:27159993

  15. The Effect of Rosa Damascena Extract on Primary Dysmenorrhea: A Double-blind Cross-over Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Bani, Soheila; Hasanpour, Shirin; Mousavi, Zeinabalsadat; Mostafa Garehbaghi, Parvin; Gojazadeh, Morteza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dysmenorrhea is one of the most common types of cyclic pain that affects 50% of women and girls in their menstrual ages. Because of the side-effects and contraindications of chemical medicines, using herbs has been investigated in treating dysmenorrhea. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Rosa damascena extract on primary dysmenorrhea among the students of Kowsar dormitory in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in Iran on 92 single 18-24 year old students with BMI :19-25 and obtaining pain intensity score of 5-8 in Visual Analogue Scale that were randomly classified and included in two groups of 46 persons. The participants received two capsules of Mefenamic Acid and Rosa damascena with the similar physical properties in two consecutive cycles per 6 hours for 3 days in a cross-over form. The data were collected through the questionnaire of demographic characteristics and check-list of visual analogue scale. Descriptive statistics and repeated measurement test and independent samples t test by using SPSS (13/win) were used in order to determine and compare the effects of two drugs on dysmenorrheal pain intensity of the groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the average of pain intensity at different hours of measurement in each group after the end of first cycle and second cycle (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the average of pain intensity in two groups in the first cycle (P = 0.35) and second cycle (P = 0.22). Conclusions: In this study¸ Rosa damascena and Mefenamic acid had similar effects on pain intensity of primary dysmenorrhea . With further studies, Rosa damascena which has no chemical side effects¸ can be suggested for treating primary dysmenorrhea. PMID:24719710

  16. Recommended dairy product intake modulates circulating fatty acid profile in healthy adults: a multi-centre cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mohammad M H; Cyr, Audrey; Lépine, Marie-Claude; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Couture, Patrick; Jones, Peter J H; Lamarche, Benoît

    2015-02-14

    Dairy products are rich sources of an array of fatty acids (FA) that have been shown individually and in certain clusters to exert varying effects on cardiovascular health, for which the circulating lipid profile is a powerful biomarker. Whether the profile of these FA is reflected in blood upon short terms of intake, possibly contributing to the lipid-related health impacts of dairy products, remains to be fully established. The objectives of the present study were to assess a recommended dairy product consumption in relation to circulating FA and lipid profiles, and to evaluate certain FA in dairy fat as potential biomarkers of intake. In a free-living, multi-centre, cross-over design, 124 healthy individuals consumed 3 servings/d of commercial dairy (DAIRY; 1% fat milk, 1·5% fat yogurt and 34% fat cheese) or energy-equivalent control (CONTROL; fruit and vegetable juice, cashews and a cookie) products for 4 weeks each, separated by a 4-week washout period. Plasma FA and serum lipid profiles were assessed by standard methods at the end of each dietary phase. After 4 weeks of intake, plasma levels of FA pentadecanoic acid (15 : 0) and heptadecanoic acid (17 : 0) were higher (0·26 v. 0·22% and 0·42 v. 0·39% of the total identified FA, respectively) after the DAIRY phase than after the CONTROL phase (P< 0·0001). This was accompanied by a small but significant increase in serum LDL-cholesterol levels after the DAIRY phase compared with the CONTROL phase (+0·08 mmol/l; P= 0·04). In conclusion, intake of 3 servings/d of conventional dairy products may modify certain circulating FA and lipid profiles within 4 weeks, where 15 : 0 and 17 : 0 may be potential short-term biomarkers of intake. PMID:25609231

  17. A randomised cross-over cohort study of exposure to emissions from a road tunnel ventilation stack

    PubMed Central

    Cowie, Christine T; Ezz, Wafaa; Xuan, Wei; Lilley, William; Rose, Nectarios; Rae, Michael; Marks, Guy B

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective Road tunnels are increasingly important components of urban infrastructure. However, knowledge of their health impact on surrounding communities is limited. Our objective was to estimate the short-term respiratory health effects of exposure to emissions from a road tunnel ventilation stack. Methods We conducted a randomised cross-over cohort study in 36 volunteers who underwent three exposure scenarios in 2006 before the road tunnel opened, and in 2007 (n=27) and 2008 (n=20) after the tunnel opened. Exposure downwind of the stack was compared to upwind of the stack and to a distant heavily trafficked location adjacent to a main road. Spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and symptom scores were measured repeatedly during each 2 h exposure session. Results Downwind locations were associated with increased reports of ‘dry nose’ (score difference 0.36; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.63) compared with the control location (2006 vs 2007/2008), but not with impaired lung function, increased airway inflammation or other symptoms. The heavily trafficked location was associated with significantly increased eNO (ratio=1.09; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.14), eye (score difference 0.05; 95% CI 0.01 to 0.10) and chest (score difference 0.21; 95% CI 0.09 to 0.33) symptoms compared to the stack locations. Conclusions There was no consistent evidence of adverse respiratory effects from short-term exposures downwind of the tunnel ventilation stack, except for dry nose symptoms. However, the findings of increased airway inflammation and symptoms in subjects after only 2 h exposure at the heavily trafficked location, are suggestive of detrimental effects of short-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution. PMID:22904331

  18. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling. PMID:27563323

  19. Modulation of Protein Fermentation Does Not Affect Fecal Water Toxicity: A Randomized Cross-Over Study in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Windey, Karen; De Preter, Vicky; Louat, Thierry; Schuit, Frans; Herman, Jean; Vansant, Greet; Verbeke, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Objective Protein fermentation results in production of metabolites such as ammonia, amines and indolic, phenolic and sulfur-containing compounds. In vitro studies suggest that these metabolites might be toxic. However, human and animal studies do not consistently support these findings. We modified protein fermentation in healthy subjects to assess the effects on colonic metabolism and parameters of gut health, and to identify metabolites associated with toxicity. Design After a 2-week run-in period with normal protein intake (NP), 20 healthy subjects followed an isocaloric high protein (HP) and low protein (LP) diet for 2 weeks in a cross-over design. Protein fermentation was estimated from urinary p-cresol excretion. Fecal metabolite profiles were analyzed using GC-MS and compared using cluster analysis. DGGE was used to analyze microbiota composition. Fecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were determined using the Comet assay and the WST-1-assay, respectively, and were related to the metabolite profiles. Results Dietary protein intake was significantly higher during the HP diet compared to the NP and LP diet. Urinary p-cresol excretion correlated positively with protein intake. Fecal water cytotoxicity correlated negatively with protein fermentation, while fecal water genotoxicity was not correlated with protein fermentation. Heptanal, 3-methyl-2-butanone, dimethyl disulfide and 2-propenyl ester of acetic acid are associated with genotoxicity and indole, 1-octanol, heptanal, 2,4-dithiapentane, allyl-isothiocyanate, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-benzene, propionic acid, octanoic acid, nonanoic acid and decanoic acid with cytotoxicity. Conclusion This study does not support a role of protein fermentation in gut toxicity. The identified metabolites can provide new insight into colonic health. Trial Registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01280513 PMID:23285019

  20. A randomized controlled cross-over trial and cost analysis comparing endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration and fine needle biopsy*

    PubMed Central

    Aadam, A. Aziz; Wani, Sachin; Amick, Ashley; Shah, Janak N.; Bhat, Yasser M.; Hamerski, Christopher M.; Klapman, Jason B.; Muthusamy, V. Raman; Watson, Rabindra R.; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Keswani, Rajesh N.; Keefer, Laurie; Das, Ananya; Komanduri, Srinadh

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Techniques to optimize endoscopic ultrasound-guided tissue acquisition (EUS-TA) in a variety of lesion types have not yet been established. The primary aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic yield (DY) of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) to endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) for pancreatic and non-pancreatic masses. Patients and methods: Consecutive patients referred for EUS-TA underwent randomization to EUS-FNA or EUS-FNB at four tertiary-care medical centers. A maximum of three passes were allowed for the initial method of EUS-TA and patients were crossed over to the other arm based on on-site specimen adequacy. Results: A total of 140 patients were enrolled. The overall DY was significantly higher with specimens obtained by EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA (90.0 % vs. 67.1 %, P = 0.002). While there was no difference in the DY between the two groups for pancreatic masses (FNB: 91.7 % vs. FNA: 78.4 %, P = 0.19), the DY of EUS-FNB was higher than the EUS-FNA for non-pancreatic lesions (88.2 % vs. 54.5 %, P = 0.006). Specimen adequacy was higher for EUS-FNB compared to EUS-FNA for all lesions (P = 0.006). There was a significant rescue effect of crossover from failed FNA to FNB in 27 out of 28 cases (96.5 %, P = 0.0003). Decision analysis showed that the strategy of EUS-FNB was cost saving compared to EUS-FNA over a wide range of cost and outcome probabilities. Conclusions: Results of this RCT and decision analysis demonstrate superior DY and specimen adequacy for solid mass lesions sampled by EUS-FNB. PMID:27227104

  1. An open-label, randomized, cross-over bioequivalence study of lafutidine 10 mg under fasting condition

    PubMed Central

    Dewan, Bhupesh; Chimata, Raghuram

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of two formulations (test and reference) of Lafutidine 10 mg. METHODS: The study was performed as an open label, randomized, two-way, two-period, two-treatment, single dose cross-over bioequivalence study, under non-fed condition to compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of the lafutidine formulation manufactured by Emcure Pharmaceuticals Ltd., India using an indigenously developed active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and the commercially available Stogra® formulation, of UCB Japan Co., Ltd., Japan. The two treatments were separated by a wash-out period of 5 d. After an overnight fasting period of 10 h, the subjects were administered either the test or the reference medication as per the randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected at intervals up to 24 h, as per the approved protocol. Concentrations of lafutidine in plasma were analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method, and a non-compartmental model was used for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacokinetic parameters were subjected to a 4-way ANOVA accounting for sequence, subjects, period and treatment. Statistical significance was evaluated at 95% confidence level (P ≥ 0.05). RESULTS: The mean (± SD) values of the pharmacokinetic parameters (test vs reference) were Cmax (265.15 ± 49.84 ng/mL vs 246.79 ± 29.30 ng/mL, P < 0.05), Area under the curve (AUC)(0-t) (1033.13 ± 298.74 ng.h/mL vs 952.93 ± 244.07 ng.h/mL, P < 0.05), AUC(0-∞) (1047.61 ± 301.22 ng.h/mL vs 964.21 ± 246.45 ng.h/mL, P < 0.05), and t½(1.92 ± 0.94 h vs 2.05 ± 1.01 h, P < 0.05). The 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the test/reference ratio of mean Cmax, AUC(0-t), and AUC(0-∞) were within the acceptable range of 80.00 to 125.00. The mean times (± SD) to attain maximal plasma concentration (tmax) of lafutidine were 0.95 ± 0.24 h vs 1.01 ± 0.29 h (P < 0.05) for the test and the reference formulations

  2. A Randomized Cross-Over Trial of the Postprandial Effects of Three Different Diets in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bunjaku, Bekim; Rosenqvist, Ulf; Nystrom, Fredrik H.; Guldbrand, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Background In the clinic setting both fasting levels of glucose and the area under the curve (AUC) of glucose, by determination of HbA1c levels, are used for risk assessments, in type 2 diabetes (NIDDM). However little is known about postprandial levels, and hence AUC, regarding other traditional risk factors such as insulin and blood-lipids and how this is affected by different diets. Objective To study postprandial effects of three diets, during a single day, in NIDDM. Methods A low-fat diet (45–56 energy-% from carbohydrates), and a low-carbohydrate diet (16–24 energy-% from carbohydrates) was compared with a Mediterranean-style diet (black coffee for breakfast and the same total-caloric intake as the other two diets for lunch with red wine, 32–35 energy−% from carbohydrates) in a randomized cross-over design. Total-caloric intake/test-day at the clinic from food was 1025–1080 kCal in men and 905–984 kCal in women. The test meals were consumed at a diabetes ward under supervision. Results Twenty-one participants were recruited and 19 completed the studies. The low-carbohydrate diet induced lower insulin and glucose excursions compared with the low-fat diet (p<0.0005 for both AUC). The insulin-response following the single Mediterranean-style lunch-meal was more pronounced than during the low-fat diet lunch (insulin increase-ratio of the low-fat diet: 4.35±2.2, of Mediterranean-style diet: 8.12±5.2, p = 0.001) while postprandial glucose levels were similar. The increase-ratio of insulin correlated with the elevation of the incretin glucose-dependent insulinotropic-polypeptide following the Mediterranean-style diet lunch (Spearman, r = 0.64, p = 0.003). Conclusions The large Mediterranean-style lunch-meal induced similar postprandial glucose-elevations as the low-fat meal despite almost double amount of calories due to a pronounced insulin-increase. This suggests that accumulation of caloric intake from breakfast and lunch to a single

  3. Longitudinal Functional Analysis of Problem Behavior during an Atypical Neuroleptic Medication Cross-over Evaluation for an Adolescent with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Timothy R.; Tervo, Raymond C.; McComas, Jennifer J.; Rivard, Patrick F.; Symons, Frank J.

    2009-01-01

    This quasi-longitudinal descriptive case study evaluated problem behavior for an adolescent boy with developmental disabilities via repeated functional behavioral analysis (FBA) probes during a blinded cross-over from the atypical neuroleptic Risperdal (Risperidone) to Seroquel (Quetiapine). The repeated FBA probes showed no medication differences…

  4. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. |; Rosener, B.

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host ``na-net.ornl.gov`` at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message ``send index`` to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user`s perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  5. NA-NET numerical analysis net

    SciTech Connect

    Dongarra, J. . Dept. of Computer Science Oak Ridge National Lab., TN ); Rosener, B. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1991-12-01

    This report describes a facility called NA-NET created to allow numerical analysts (na) an easy method of communicating with one another. The main advantage of the NA-NET is uniformity of addressing. All mail is addressed to the Internet host na-net.ornl.gov'' at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hence, members of the NA-NET do not need to remember complicated addresses or even where a member is currently located. As long as moving members change their e-mail address in the NA-NET everything works smoothly. The NA-NET system is currently located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. It is running on the same machine that serves netlib. Netlib is a separate facility that distributes mathematical software via electronic mail. For more information on netlib consult, or send the one-line message send index'' to netlib{at}ornl.gov. The following report describes the current NA-NET system from both a user's perspective and from an implementation perspective. Currently, there are over 2100 members in the NA-NET. An average of 110 mail messages pass through this facility daily.

  6. Planning long lasting insecticide treated net campaigns: should households’ existing nets be taken into account?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass distribution of long-lasting insecticide treated bed nets (LLINs) has led to large increases in LLIN coverage in many African countries. As LLIN ownership levels increase, planners of future mass distributions face the challenge of deciding whether to ignore the nets already owned by households or to take these into account and attempt to target individuals or households without nets. Taking existing nets into account would reduce commodity costs but require more sophisticated, and potentially more costly, distribution procedures. The decision may also have implications for the average age of nets in use and therefore on the maintenance of universal LLIN coverage over time. Methods A stochastic simulation model based on the NetCALC algorithm was used to determine the scenarios under which it would be cost saving to take existing nets into account, and the potential effects of doing so on the age profile of LLINs owned. The model accounted for variability in timing of distributions, concomitant use of continuous distribution systems, population growth, sampling error in pre-campaign coverage surveys, variable net ‘decay’ parameters and other factors including the feasibility and accuracy of identifying existing nets in the field. Results Results indicate that (i) where pre-campaign coverage is around 40% (of households owning at least 1 LLIN), accounting for existing nets in the campaign will have little effect on the mean age of the net population and (ii) even at pre-campaign coverage levels above 40%, an approach that reduces LLIN distribution requirements by taking existing nets into account may have only a small chance of being cost-saving overall, depending largely on the feasibility of identifying nets in the field. Based on existing literature the epidemiological implications of such a strategy is likely to vary by transmission setting, and the risks of leaving older nets in the field when accounting for existing nets must be considered

  7. Vitamin D₂ impairs utilization of vitamin D₃ in high-yielding dairy cows in a cross-over supplementation regimen.

    PubMed

    Hymøller, L; Jensen, S K

    2011-07-01

    Vitamin D exists in 2 forms that are important regarding vitamin D status and supply in cattle: vitamin D(2) (D(2)) and vitamin D(3) (D(3)). To become physiologically active, both D(2) and D(3) must undergo 25-hydroxylation in the liver. The resulting 25-hydroxyvitamin D(2) [25(OH)D(2)] and 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) [25(OH)D(3)] are measured as indicators of the physiological vitamin D status of cattle. The study used 14 Danish Holstein cows housed without access to sunlight. The cows were orally administered 250 mg (1.0 × 10(7)IU) of D(2) and D(3) in a cross-over design with 2 treatment groups and 2 study periods, rendering 4 treatments when carryover effects were taken into account: D(2) given first, D(2) given last after D(3), D(3) given first, and D(3) given last after D(2). Two weeks elapsed between the treatment in the first study period and the treatment in the second study period. Blood samples were collected 0, 3, 6, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26, 40, 48, 70, 94, 166, and 214 h after providing the oral bolus of vitamin to the cows. Comparisons between plasma levels of the metabolites D(2), D(3), 25(OH)D(2), and 25(OH)D(3) over time were made by comparing areas under the plasma concentration curves. Oral administration of D(3) increased plasma D(3) (182.6±17.1 ng/mL; mean ± SEM) and 25(OH)D(3) (103.5±10.0 ng/mL) more efficiently than oral administration of D(2) increased plasma D(2) (49.1±32.6 ng/mL) and 25(OH)D(2) (27.9±2.1 ng/mL). The D(3) given after an oral dose of D(2) was less efficient for increasing plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D(3) (61.2±12.0 ng/mL) compared with D(3) given without previous D(2) administration (103.5±10.0 ng/mL), whereas the plasma concentrations of D(3) itself were the same when given first (182.6±17.1 ng/mL) as when given after D(2) (200.0±123.9 ng/mL). The same occurred for plasma concentrations of D(2) metabolites both if D(2) was given first (49.1±32.6 ng/mL) and after D(3) (54.7±7.7 ng/mL). In conclusion, D(3) given after D(2

  8. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  9. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  10. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  11. 7 CFR 2902.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 2902.15 Section 2902... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 2902.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  12. 7 CFR 3201.15 - Bedding, bed linens, and towels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bedding, bed linens, and towels. 3201.15 Section 3201... PROCUREMENT Designated Items § 3201.15 Bedding, bed linens, and towels. (a) Definition. (1) Bedding is that..., bedspreads, comforters, and quilts. (2) Bed linens are woven cloth sheets and pillowcases used in bedding....

  13. Net Making = Kuvrinialiq.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    Presented in English and Upper Kobuk Inupiaq Eskimo, the booklet describes and illustrates the skills necessary for the construction and the hanging of the fishing nets used by Eskimos. Description of net making includes gathering the bark; willow twine making; kinds of implements used in net construction (twine, shuttle, gauge, forked stick,…

  14. No Safety Net Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benigni, Mark D.; Moylan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses the Berlin (Connecticut) High School's NET (Non-Traditional Educational Training) program. NET is a self-contained program that is composed of three components: academics, social and emotional support, and vocational training. Rather than treat students alike, the NET program tailors their high school experience to meet…

  15. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOEpatents

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  16. Bed material agglomeration during fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.C.; Dawson, M.R.; Noble, S.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this project is to determine the physical and chemical reactions which led to the undesired agglomeration of bed material during fluidized bed combustion and to relate these reactions to specific causes. Survey of industrial-scale fluidized bed combustors is being conducted to determine the occurrence of bed agglomeration and the circumstances under which agglomeration took place. This task should be finished by the end of February. Samples of bed material, agglomerate material, and boiler deposits are being requested from boiler operators as part of the survey. Once received, these sample will be analyzed to determine chemical and mineralogic composition. The bulk chemical determination will be performed using x-ray fluorescence and inductively coupled plasma-optical emission (ICP). Mineralogy will be detected by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Chemical and mineral reactions will be determined by scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy, and electron microprobe.

  17. Practice Hospital Bed Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed? Todd says that there is no standard definition for hospital beds, a fact that consumers shopping ... in retail stores that don’t meet the definition of medical devices under the law, but which ...

  18. Enuresis (Bed-Wetting)

    MedlinePlus

    ... their development. Bed-wetting is more common among boys than girls. What causes bed-wetting? A number of things ... valves in boys or in the ureter in girls or boys Abnormalities in the spinal cord A small bladder ...

  19. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1992-04-07

    This patent describes a method of incinerating a fuel containing difficult to remove tramp comprising wire. It comprises placing of a fluid bed within a downwardly and inwardly tapered centrally hollow air distributor disposed within a lower portion of a vessel; introducing fuel comprising combustible material and tramp comprising wire into the fluid bed; incinerating the combustible material in the fluid bed accommodating downward migration within the fluid bed of the wire without a central obstruction to such migration; in the course of performing the incinerating step, fluidizing the bed solely by introducing inwardly at several tiered locations directed air into the bed only around the tapered periphery along the lower portion of the vessel from a plurality of inwardly and downwardly parallel sites as causing the bed material and tramp to migrate downwardly and inwardly without central bed obstruction toward a discharge site.

  20. Crossing over during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis requires a conserved MutS-based pathway that is partially dispensable in budding yeast.

    PubMed Central

    Zalevsky, J; MacQueen, A J; Duffy, J B; Kemphues, K J; Villeneuve, A M

    1999-01-01

    Formation of crossovers between homologous chromosomes during Caenorhabditis elegans meiosis requires the him-14 gene. Loss of him-14 function severely reduces crossing over, resulting in lack of chiasmata between homologs and consequent missegregation. Cytological analysis showing that homologs are paired and aligned in him-14 pachytene nuclei, together with temperature-shift experiments showing that him-14 functions during the pachytene stage, indicate that him-14 is not needed to establish pairing or synapsis and likely has a more direct role in crossover formation. him-14 encodes a germline-specific member of the MutS family of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins. him-14 has no apparent role in MMR, but like its Saccharomyces cerevisiae ortholog MSH4, has a specialized role in promoting crossing over during meiosis. Despite this conservation, worms and yeast differ significantly in their reliance on this pathway: whereas worms use this pathway to generate most, if not all, crossovers, yeast still form 30-50% of their normal number of crossovers when this pathway is absent. This differential reliance may reflect differential stability of crossover-competent recombination intermediates, or alternatively, the presence of two different pathways for crossover formation in yeast, only one of which predominates during nematode meiosis. We discuss a model in which HIM-14 promotes crossing over by interfering with Holliday junction branch migration. PMID:10545458

  1. Impact of the bifurcation angle on major cardiac events after cross-over single stent strategy in unprotected left main bifurcation lesions: 3-dimensional quantitative coronary angiographic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Amemiya, Kisaki; Domei, Takenori; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji; Goya, Masahiko; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Nobuyoshi, Masakiyo

    2014-01-01

    The impact of the bifurcation angle (BA) between the left main (LM) and the main branch on clinical outcomes after single stenting has never been documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the BA on clinical outcomes after single cross-over LM to left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenting. A total of 170 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in unprotected LM bifurcation with successful single cross-over stenting from the LM into the LAD were enrolled. The main vessel angle between the LM and the LAD was computed in end-diastole before PCI with three-dimensional (3D) quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) software. The patients were classified into three groups according to tertiles of the main vessel angle. The cumulative incidence of major adverse cardiac event (MACE: cardiac death, myocardial infarction, any revascularization including target lesion revascularization) rates throughout a 12-month period were compared between the three groups. Baseline patient characteristics were not a significant difference between the three groups. Compared to the high angle group, the low angle group had a significantly higher incidence of MACE (p = 0.041). In conclusion, this study revealed that low BA between the LM and the LAD had an adverse clinical impact after single cross-over LM to LAD stenting. PMID:25628958

  2. Making a Bed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Anthony; Stein, Sherman

    2005-01-01

    The origins of this paper lay in making beds by putting pieces of plywood on a frame: If beds need to be 4 feet 6 inches by 6 feet 3 inches, and plywood comes in 4-foot by 8-foot sheets, how should one cut the plywood to minimize waste (and have stable beds)? The problem is of course generalized.

  3. Time for Bed Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Friend Who Cuts? Babysitting: Time for Bed Game KidsHealth > For Teens > Babysitting: Time for Bed Game Print A A A Text Size What Kids ... kids to bed can be tough sometimes! This game introduces children to the concept of getting enough ...

  4. Fluidized bed quenching technology

    SciTech Connect

    Reynoldson, R.

    1996-12-31

    The use of fluidized beds for quenching ferrous materials is outlined and compared with the more traditional techniques commonly used in the heat treatment industry. The use of fluidized bed quenching to control distortion of metal parts is also discussed. A case study is provided to illustrate a practical application of fluidized bed quenching.

  5. An estimate of Greenland surface elevation changes derived from Envisat radar altimetry using combined repeat-track and cross-over results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, R.; Sandberg, L.; Levinsen, J. F.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Forsberg, R.

    2013-12-01

    With the accelerating melt of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS), which is the world's second-largest ice sheet and contains enough ice to raise global sea level by 7m, an improvement in our understanding of such changes is required. Envisat radar altimetry data can be used to provide information on the surface elevation changes the GIS is experiencing. This study is the first of its kind to explore the use of repeat track radar altimetry data to derive Greenland surface height changes. Because of the large footprint of the Envisat RA-2 altimeter (on the order of 5km), it has previously been assumed that towards the edges of the ice sheet, where steep slopes exist, radar altimetry data cannot be used to resolve changes with sufficient accuracy. However, here we present that a newly developed combination of repeat-track and cross-over data provide realistic estimates of ice-sheet-wide surface height changes. The repeat-track method makes use of all available observations and hence increases the number of measurements compared to the cross-over method, which only estimates changes at the location where ascending and a descending paths cross. Each method has its advantages; whilst the repeat-track method provides estimates at a higher spatial resolution, the cross-over method benefits from comparatively low errors. After derivation of dH/dt rates for the entire ice sheet from both methods, data were combined based on an analysis of their respective errors. As a generalisation, it can be said that near the ice sheet margins repeat-track data were used, whereas in the interior, the cross-over method provided more reliable results. Initial results show that for the outlet glacier Jakobshavn Isbræ, both the repeat-track and the cross-over methods measure similar thinning patterns, thus increasing confidence in the ability of radar altimetry to measure changes on the margins of the GIS. We compare our resulting map of surface height changes to dH/dt patterns derived from the

  6. Getting Rid of Bed Bugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bed Bugs — Do-it-yourself Bed Bug Control — Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs Bed Bug Information Clearinghouse ... Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems ...

  7. Pull-Up Nets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meenan, Liz

    2008-01-01

    When the author began teaching, she always hit a problem when it came to 3D shapes. She wanted the pupils to get a feel for them, and she would get them to make the shapes from their nets. The pupils would first try to visualize how the 2D nets could become 3D shapes and then they would physically fold the nets into the shapes for themselves.…

  8. Net metering programs

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Y H

    1996-12-01

    There has been a recent surge of interest from the renewable energy industry and environmental groups in net metering. The reason for this interest is that net metering is a simple, low-cost, and easily administered method to encourage direct customer investment in renewable energy technologies. The renewable energy industry supports net metering because it removes an economic disincentive for potential customers by increasing the value of the electricity generated by renewable energy technologies. Environmental groups support net metering because it promotes clean energy production. The concept of net metering programs is to allow the electric meters of customers with generating facilities to turn backwards when their generators are producing more energy than the customers` demand. Net metering allows customers to use their generation to offset their consumption over the entire billing period, not just instantaneously. This offset would enable customers with generating facilities to receive retail prices for more of the electricity they generate. Without a net metering program, utilities usually install a second meter to measure any electricity that flows back to the utility grid and purchase it at a rate that is much lower than the retail prices. There are various net metering programs in the country. Most are available to customer-owned small generating facilities only, some further restrict the eligibility to renewable energy technologies. This Topical Issues Brief discusses how these net metering programs have been implemented by different utilities an states, what the rationales are behind may net metering programs, and what the potential impact of net metering may be on the deployment of renewable energy technologies.

  9. A proof-of-concept, randomized, placebo-controlled, multiple cross-overs (n-of-1) study of naftazone in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Rascol, Olivier; Ferreira, Joaquim; Nègre-Pages, Laurence; Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Lacomblez, Lucette; Galitzky, Monique; Lemarié, Jean-Christophe; Corvol, Jean-Christophe; Brotchie, Jonathan M; Bossi, Laura

    2012-08-01

    To explore for the first time the tolerability and efficacy of naftazone in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Proof-of-concept, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-cross-over n-of-1 study in patients with PD with wearing-off and dyskinesias. Naftazone was titrated up to 120 mg/day during an initial single-blind dose-finding phase. Seven patients entered the placebo-controlled phase (four consecutive 28-day cross-overs). Three outcome measures were used to collect preliminary indices of efficacy: (i) 48-h ON-OFF diaries; (ii) Unified PD Rating Scale (UPDRS) part III while ON; (iii) seven-point Likert scale to assess "patients' discomfort caused by dyskinesias" (Q1) and 'disability during OFF-periods' (Q2). A 'responder' analysis (proportion of patients with mean treatment effect [naftazone minus placebo] favoring naftazone over the 4 cross-over periods) was used. Treatment effects were derived from mixed-effects anova. On diaries, 5/7 patients responded to naftazone for 'ON-time with troublesome dyskinesia' (reduced time, treatment effect: -49 [95% CI: -93/-4] min, P = 0.03), 6/7 regarding 'ON-time without troublesome dyskinesia' (increased time, treatment effect: 35 [-19/88], P = 0.2). No trend was observed for 'OFF' time. There were 7/7 'responders' regarding UPDRSIII (reduced score, treatment effect: -2.1[-4.5/0.2], P = 0.08). The 7-point scales did not show clear trends in favor of naftazone (3/7 responders for Q1 and 4/7 for Q2). Four of the seven patients reported adverse events after randomization, mostly related to the CNS (mild: 2, severe: 2). These pilot findings are consistent with preclinical data in primates and support the hypothesis that naftazone may have antiparkinsonian and antidyskinetic effects in humans that deserve further clinical investigation. PMID:21585523

  10. A NET Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Thea; Kobayashi, Scott D.; Quinn, Mark T.; DeLeo, Frank R.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils constitute a critical part of innate immunity and are well known for their ability to phagocytose and kill invading microorganisms. The microbicidal processes employed by neutrophils are highly effective at killing most ingested bacteria and fungi. However, an alternative non-phagocytic antimicrobial mechanism of neutrophils has been proposed whereby microorganisms are eliminated by neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs are comprised of DNA, histones, and antimicrobial proteins extruded by neutrophils during NETosis, a cell death pathway reported to be distinct from apoptosis, phagocytosis-induced cell death, and necrosis. Although multiple laboratories have reported NETs using various stimuli in vitro, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process have yet to be definitively elucidated, and many questions regarding the formation and putative role or function of NETs in innate host defense remain unanswered. It is with these questions in mind that we provide some reflection and perspective on NETs and NETosis. PMID:23227026

  11. [Effects of 5023 SE on PaO2 at rest in elderly patients with cerebral impairment. A double-blind cross-over trial versus placebo].

    PubMed

    Memin, Y

    1983-03-24

    In a double-blind cross-over study, the effects of Duxil on blood gases at rest were compared to those of a placebo in 39 elderly patients (mean age: 74.8 years). The study lasted 6 months divided into two 3-month periods. A mean increase of 2.10 mmHg in PaO2 was observed in patients under Duxil, the difference with the results obtained under placebo being statistically significant (p less than 0.01). At that dosage level, Duxil may therefore be considered an active treatment of hypoxia associated with old age. PMID:6220335

  12. Fluidized bed combustor modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horio, M.; Rengarajan, P.; Krishnan, R.; Wen, C. Y.

    1977-01-01

    A general mathematical model for the prediction of performance of a fluidized bed coal combustor (FBC) is developed. The basic elements of the model consist of: (1) hydrodynamics of gas and solids in the combustor; (2) description of gas and solids contacting pattern; (3) kinetics of combustion; and (4) absorption of SO2 by limestone in the bed. The model is capable of calculating the combustion efficiency, axial bed temperature profile, carbon hold-up in the bed, oxygen and SO2 concentrations in the bubble and emulsion phases, sulfur retention efficiency and particulate carry over by elutriation. The effects of bed geometry, excess air, location of heat transfer coils in the bed, calcium to sulfur ratio in the feeds, etc. are examined. The calculated results are compared with experimental data. Agreement between the calculated results and the observed data are satisfactory in most cases. Recommendations to enhance the accuracy of prediction of the model are suggested.

  13. Fluidized bed combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Sowards, N.K.; Murphy, M.L.

    1991-10-29

    This patent describes a vessel. It comprises a fluid bed for continuously incinerating fuel comprising tire segments and the like which comprise metallic wire tramp and for concurrently removing tramp and bed materials at a bottom effluent exit means of the vessel, the vessel further comprising static air distributor means at the periphery of the bed comprising a substantially centrally unobstructed relatively large central region in which the fluid bed and fuel only are disposed and through which bed material and tramp migrate without obstruction to and through the effluent exit means, downwardly and inwardly stepped lower vessel wall means and a plurality of peripherally located centrally directed vertically and horizontally offset spaced air influent means surrounding the central region and associated with the stepped lower vessel wall means by which the bed is supported and fluidized.

  14. Phosphorus accummulation in reed bed treatment filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karczmarczyk, A.; Baryła, A.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Constructed wetlands are well known method for alternative wastewater treatment in rural areas in Poland. There are mainly used as a biological treatment step of domestic wastewater. The most popular are subsurface flow constructed wetlands (reed bed systems) with bed filled with site soil (mainly clayey sand or sandy clay). Over 30 such plants with daily flow above 5 m3 per day is operated in Poland. Object and goal of research Many researches have been made on estimation constructed wetlands treatment efficiency, however there are mostly concentrated on inlet outlet concentration compartments. In this study preliminary results of phosphorus accumulation in the bed of horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland are presented. Monitored plant treats wastewater from 150 inhabitants in the volume of 14 m3 d-1 at average and is under operation from December 1998. The goal of research was to asses the distribution of phosphorus in the wetland bed after 8 years of treatment of domestic wastewater. Obtained results are shown on the background of organic matter (TOC) distribution. The methods applied The bed of the constructed wetland (30 m width and 33 m length) was divided by net of 20 points. In every point two soil samples, one from the depth of 0-10 cm and one from the depth of 20-30 cm, were collected. The samples were analyzed for organic matter and total phosphorus content. Investigation findings The results showed variation of measured indexes on the length and depth of treatment bed. In generally, the highest accumulation occurred near the inlet zone of wetland. The relation is rather clear in case of organic matter, but in case of phosphorus high contents were also observed at the outlet zone of wetland. Higher organic matter concentrations were observed in deeper layer (20-30 cm) than in upper layer (0-10 cm) of the bed.

  15. Channel-bed elevation changes downstream from large reservoirs in Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Juracek, K.E.

    2001-01-01

    Channel-bed elevation changes were assessed downstream from 24 large Federal reservoirs in Kansas using information from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations. Changes in river/stream stage associated with mean annual discharge indicated that channel-bed lowering had occurred downstream from most of the reservoirs. The net decrease in channel-bed elevation ranged from less than 1 foot to slightly more than 9 feet. The magnitude of channel-bed lowering downstream from the reservoirs likely was related to the composition of the channel bed.

  16. Processes limiting mussel bed restoration in the Wadden-Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paoli, Hélène; van de Koppel, Johan; van der Zee, Els; Kangeri, Arno; van Belzen, Jim; Holthuijsen, Sander; van den Berg, Aniek; Herman, Peter; Olff, Han; van der Heide, Tjisse

    2015-09-01

    This paper reports on experimental restoration of mussel beds in the Wadden Sea and the processes that might limit successful restoration of this foundation species (i.e. substrate, predation, hydrodynamics). The importance of substrate, predation, hydrodynamic conditions and location on mussel restoration success was studied using artificially created mussel beds. Experimental beds established on a stable substrate (coir net) were compared with control beds established on sand, at three locations in the Wadden Sea. Their persistence was followed over time. The results revealed a near disappearance of all experimental beds in just over 7 months. Providing a stable substrate did not improve mussel survival. Predation could not explain the disappearance of the beds, as the maximal predation rate by birds was found to be insufficient to have a significant effect on mussel cover. Differences in wave conditions alone could also not explain the variation in decline of mussel cover between the locations. However, the gradual disappearance of mussels from the seaward side of the bed strongly suggested that hydrodynamic conditions (i.e. combined effects of waves and current) played an important role in the poor persistence of the artificial beds. Our results highlight the fact that restoration of mussel beds in dynamic areas cannot simply be implemented by mussel transplantation, particularly if additional measures to prevent wave losses are not taken, even when artificial substrate is provided to facilitate mussel adhesion.

  17. Enriched Air Nitrox Breathing Reduces Venous Gas Bubbles after Simulated SCUBA Diving: A Double-Blind Cross-Over Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Souday, Vincent; Koning, Nick J.; Perez, Bruno; Grelon, Fabien; Mercat, Alain; Boer, Christa; Seegers, Valérie; Radermacher, Peter; Asfar, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis whether enriched air nitrox (EAN) breathing during simulated diving reduces decompression stress when compared to compressed air breathing as assessed by intravascular bubble formation after decompression. Methods Human volunteers underwent a first simulated dive breathing compressed air to include subjects prone to post-decompression venous gas bubbling. Twelve subjects prone to bubbling underwent a double-blind, randomized, cross-over trial including one simulated dive breathing compressed air, and one dive breathing EAN (36% O2) in a hyperbaric chamber, with identical diving profiles (28 msw for 55 minutes). Intravascular bubble formation was assessed after decompression using pulmonary artery pulsed Doppler. Results Twelve subjects showing high bubble production were included for the cross-over trial, and all completed the experimental protocol. In the randomized protocol, EAN significantly reduced the bubble score at all time points (cumulative bubble scores: 1 [0–3.5] vs. 8 [4.5–10]; P < 0.001). Three decompression incidents, all presenting as cutaneous itching, occurred in the air versus zero in the EAN group (P = 0.217). Weak correlations were observed between bubble scores and age or body mass index, respectively. Conclusion EAN breathing markedly reduces venous gas bubble emboli after decompression in volunteers selected for susceptibility for intravascular bubble formation. When using similar diving profiles and avoiding oxygen toxicity limits, EAN increases safety of diving as compared to compressed air breathing. Trial Registration ISRCTN 31681480 PMID:27163253

  18. NetState

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information tomore » the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.« less

  19. SpawnNet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-12-23

    SpawnNet provides a networking interface similar to Linux sockets that runs natively on High-performance network interfaces. It is intended to be used to bootstrap parallel jobs and communication libraries like MPI.

  20. NetState

    SciTech Connect

    Durgin, Nancy; Mai, Yuqing; Hutchins, James

    2005-09-01

    NetState is a distributed network monitoring system. It uses passive sensors to develop status information on a target network. Two major features provided by NetState are version and port tracking. Version tracking maintains information about software and operating systems versions. Port tracking identifies information about active TOP and UDP ports. Multiple NetState sniffers can be deployed, one at each entry point of the target network. The sniffers monitor network traffic, then send the information to the NetState server. The information is stored in centralized database which can then be accessed via standard SQL database queries or this web-based GUI, for further analysis and display.

  1. Fluidized bed calciner apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Owen, Thomas J.; Klem, Jr., Michael J.; Cash, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for remotely calcining a slurry or solution feed stream of toxic or hazardous material, such as ammonium diurante slurry or uranyl nitrate solution, is disclosed. The calcining apparatus includes a vertical substantially cylindrical inner shell disposed in a vertical substantially cylindrical outer shell, in which inner shell is disposed a fluidized bed comprising the feed stream material to be calcined and spherical beads to aid in heat transfer. Extending through the outer and inner shells is a feed nozzle for delivering feed material or a cleaning chemical to the beads. Disposed in and extending across the lower portion of the inner shell and upstream of the fluidized bed is a support member for supporting the fluidized bed, the support member having uniform slots for directing uniform gas flow to the fluidized bed from a fluidizing gas orifice disposed upstream of the support member. Disposed in the lower portion of the inner shell are a plurality of internal electric resistance heaters for heating the fluidized bed. Disposed circumferentially about the outside length of the inner shell are a plurality of external heaters for heating the inner shell thereby heating the fluidized bed. Further, connected to the internal and external heaters is a means for maintaining the fluidized bed temperature to within plus or minus approximately 25.degree. C. of a predetermined bed temperature. Disposed about the external heaters is the outer shell for providing radiative heat reflection back to the inner shell.

  2. Volunteer Shelter Bed Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little (Arthur D.), Inc., Washington, DC.

    The volunteer shelter bed program development guidelines in this booklet are offered as a community-based alternative to the institutionalization of status offenders. The volunteer shelter bed program is described as a nonsecure residential alternative for status offenders, which can be implemented without the creation of new facilities or the…

  3. NASA's Software Bank (NETS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    NETS (A Neural Network Development Tool) is a software system for mimicking the human brain. It is used in a University of Arkansas project in pattern matching of chemical systems. If successful, chemists would be able to identify mixtures of compounds without long and costly separation procedures. Using NETS, the group has trained the computer to recognize pattern relationships in a known compound and associate the results to an unknown compound. The research appears to be promising.

  4. Crossing over into Language Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer, Gregory

    2009-01-01

    Although many linguists seek to demonstrate the validity and profundity of African American Vernacular English (AAVE), much of the pop culture world seems to use it as a way to sell products and to rebel against parents. Each time that the dialect is pulled into the sphere of pop culture--and each time that it is reduced to a stereotype--its…

  5. Fabrication of high-resolution 4,8(2) -type archimedean nanolattices composed of solution processable spin cross-over Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers.

    PubMed

    Venkataramudu, Uppari; Chandrasekhar, Naisa; Basak, Supratim; Prasad, Muvva D; Chandrasekar, Rajadurai

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the synthesis of two highly soluble Fe(II) metallosupramolecular polymers with two counter anions from a novel back-to-back coupled hybrid ligand. The spin cross-over (SCO) temperature of polymers with BF4 and ClO4 counter anions is T1/2 = 313 K and T1/2 = 326 K, respectively. By following the top-down approach, one of the polymers (with ClO4 counter anion) is successfully solution processed using a lithographically controlled wetting technique to create laser readable high-resolution Archimedean (4,8(2) ) nanolattices (consist of diamagnetic octagons and SCO squares). The thickness and top area of each SCO square are ≈75 nm and ≈2 × 2 μm(2) , respectively. PMID:25594848

  6. Impact of palm date consumption on microbiota growth and large intestinal health: a randomised, controlled, cross-over, human intervention study.

    PubMed

    Eid, Noura; Osmanova, Hristina; Natchez, Cecile; Walton, Gemma; Costabile, Adele; Gibson, Glenn; Rowland, Ian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2015-10-28

    The reported inverse association between the intake of plant-based foods and a reduction in the prevalence of colorectal cancer may be partly mediated by interactions between insoluble fibre and (poly)phenols and the intestinal microbiota. In the present study, we assessed the impact of palm date consumption, rich in both polyphenols and fibre, on the growth of colonic microbiota and markers of colon cancer risk in a randomised, controlled, cross-over human intervention study. A total of twenty-two healthy human volunteers were randomly assigned to either a control group (maltodextrin-dextrose, 37·1 g) or an intervention group (seven dates, approximately 50 g). Each arm was of 21 d duration and was separated by a 14-d washout period in a cross-over manner. Changes in the growth of microbiota were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation analysis, whereas SCFA levels were assessed using HPLC. Further, ammonia concentrations, faecal water genotoxicity and anti-proliferation ability were also assessed using different assays, which included cell work and the Comet assay. Accordingly, dietary intakes, anthropometric measurements and bowel movement assessment were also carried out. Although the consumption of dates did not induce significant changes in the growth of select bacterial groups or SCFA, there were significant increases in bowel movements and stool frequency (P<0·01; n 21) and significant reductions in stool ammonia concentration (P<0·05; n 21) after consumption of dates, relative to baseline. Furthermore, date fruit intake significantly reduced genotoxicity in human faecal water relative to control (P<0·01; n 21). Our data indicate that consumption of date fruit may reduce colon cancer risk without inducing changes in the microbiota. PMID:26428278

  7. Prevention of head louse infestation: a randomised, double-blind, cross-over study of a novel concept product, 1% 1,2-octanediol spray versus placebo

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ian F; Brunton, Elizabeth R; French, Rebecca; Burgess, Nazma A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether regular use of a spray containing 1,2-octanediol 1%, which has been shown to inhibit survival of head lice, is able to work as a preventive against establishment of new infestations. Setting Randomised, double-blind, cross-over, community study in Cambridgeshire, UK. Participants 63 male and female schoolchildren aged 4–16 years judged to have a high risk of recurrent infestation. Only the youngest member of a household attending school participated. Interventions Participants were treated to eliminate lice, randomised between 1% octanediol or placebo sprays for 6 weeks then crossed-over to the other spray for 6 weeks. Parents applied the sprays at least twice weekly or more frequently if the hair was washed. Investigators monitored weekly for infestation and replenished supplies of spray. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary endpoint was the time taken until the first infestation event occurred. The secondary measure was safety of the product in regular use. Results Intention-to-treat analysis found a total of 32 confirmed infestations in 20 participants, with 9 of them infested while using both products. In these nine participants the time to first infestation showed a significant advantage to 1% octanediol (p=0.0129). Per-protocol analysis showed only trends because the population included was not large enough to demonstrate significance. There were no serious adverse events and only two adverse events possibly related to treatment, one was a case of transient erythema and another of a rash that resolved after 5 days. Conclusions Routine use of 1% octanediol spray provided a significant level of protection from infestation. It was concluded that this product is effective if applied regularly and thoroughly. Trial registration number ISRCTN09524995. PMID:24879825

  8. Frequency, Predictors and Consequences of Crossing Over to Revascularization within 12 months of Randomization to Optimal Medical Therapy in the COURAGE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spertus, John A; Maron, David J; Cohen, David J; Kolm, Paul; Hartigan, Pam; Weintraub, William S.; Berman, Daniel S.; O'Rourke, Robert A.; Teo, Koon K; Shaw, Leslee J.; Sedlis, Steven; Knudtson, Merril; Aslan, Mihaela; Dada, Marcin; Boden, William E.; John Mancini, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    Background In COURAGE, some stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD) patients randomized to optimal medical therapy (OMT) crossed over to early revascularization. The predictors and outcomes of patients who crossed over from OMT to revascularization are unknown. Methods and Results We compared characteristics of OMT patients who did and did not undergo revascularization within 12 months and created a Cox regression model to identify predictors of early revascularization. Patients' health status was measured with the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ). To quantify the potential consequences of initiating OMT without percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), we compared the outcomes of crossover patients with a matched cohort randomized to immediate PCI. Among 1148 patients randomized to OMT, 185 (16.1%) underwent early revascularization. Patient characteristics independently associated with early revascularization were worse baseline SAQ scores and healthcare system. Among 156 OMT patients undergoing early revascularization matched to 156 patients randomized to PCI, rates of mortality (HR= 0.51 (0.13, 2.1) and nonfatal MI (HR=1.9 (0.75-4.6) were similar, as were 1-year SAQ scores. OMT patients, however, experienced worse health status over the initial year of treatment and more unstable angina admissions (HR=2.8 (1.1, 7.5)). Conclusion Among COURAGE patients assigned to OMT alone, patients' angina, dissatisfaction with their current treatment and, to a lesser extent, their health system were associated with early revascularization. Since early crossover was not associated with an increase in irreversible ischemic events, or impaired 12-month health status, these findings support an initial trial of OMT in SIHD with close follow-up of the most symptomatic patients. PMID:23838107

  9. Diet restriction in migraine, based on IgG against foods: A clinical double-blind, randomised, cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Alpay, Kadriye; Ertaş, Mustafa; Orhan, Elif Kocasoy; Üstay, Didem Kanca; Lieners, Camille; Baykan, Betül

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: It is well-known that specific foods trigger migraine attacks in some patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of diet restriction, based on IgG antibodies against food antigens on the course of migraine attacks in this randomised, double blind, cross-over, headache-diary based trial on 30 patients diagnosed with migraine without aura. Methods: Following a 6-week baseline, IgG antibodies against 266 food antigens were detected by ELISA. Then, the patients were randomised to a 6-week diet either excluding or including specific foods with raised IgG antibodies, individually. Following a 2-week diet-free interval after the first diet period, the same patients were given the opposite 6-week diet (provocation diet following elimination diet or vice versa). Patients and their physicians were blinded to IgG test results and the type of diet (provocation or elimination). Primary parameters were number of headache days and migraine attack count. Of 30 patients, 28 were female and 2 were male, aged 19–52 years (mean, 35 ± 10 years). Results: The average count of reactions with abnormally high titre was 24 ± 11 against 266 foods. Compared to baseline, there was a statistically significant reduction in the number of headache days (from 10.5 ± 4.4 to 7.5 ± 3.7; P < 0.001) and number of migraine attacks (from 9.0 ± 4.4 to 6.2 ± 3.8; P < 0.001) in the elimination diet period. Conclusion: This is the first randomised, cross-over study in migraineurs, showing that diet restriction based on IgG antibodies is an effective strategy in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks. PMID:20647174

  10. A double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over study of the vascular effects of midodrine in neuropathic compared with hyperadrenergic postural tachycardia syndrome

    PubMed Central

    ROSS, Amanda J.; OCON, Anthony J.; MEDOW, Marvin S.; STEWART, Julian M.

    2014-01-01

    POTS (postural tachycardia syndrome) is a chronic form of OI (orthostatic intolerance). Neuropathic POTS is characterized by decreased adrenergic vasoconstriction, whereas hyperadrenergic POTS exhibits increased adrenergic vasoconstriction. We hypothesized that midodrine, an α1-adrenergic receptor agonist, would increase CVR (calf vascular resistance), decrease Cv (calf venous capacitance) and decrease orthostatic tachycardia in neuropathic POTS, but not alter haemodynamics in hyperadrenergic POTS. A total of 20 POTS patients (12 neuropathic and 8 hyperadrenergic), ages 12–20 years, participated in this randomized placebo-controlled double-blind cross-over study. Of these subjects, 15 were female. POTS subjects received 2 weeks of treatment with midodrine or placebo, with increased dosing from 2.5 to 10 mg three times daily. Following a 7-day drug-washout period, subjects received the cross-over treatment. HR (heart rate), MAP (mean arterial pressure), Q̇calf (calf blood flow) and CVR were measured supine and during 35° HUT (head-up tilt). Cv was measured supine. In neuropathic POTS, midodrine decreased supine HR, Q̇calf, and Cv, while increasing MAP and CVR compared with placebo. During HUT, in neuropathic POTS, midodrine decreased HR, Q̇calf and Cv, while increasing MAP and CVR. In hyperadrenergic POTS, placebo and midodrine both decreased upright HR and increased supine CVR. Placebo also increased supine Cv, compared with midodrine in hyperadrenergic POTS. Therefore midodrine improved postural tachycardia in neuropathic POTS by increasing CVR and decreasing Q̇calf and Cv, whereas these effects were not seen in hyperadrenergic POTS patients who experienced a placebo effect. This suggests that midodrine is probably an effective treatment for neuropathic POTS, but not for hyperadrenergic POTS. PMID:23978222

  11. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial of oros-methylphenidate (CONCERTA®) and generic novo-methylphenidate ER-C (NOVO-generic)

    PubMed Central

    Fallu, Angelo; Dabouz, Farida; Furtado, Melissa; Anand, Leena; Katzman, Martin A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder with onset during childhood. Multiple aspects of a child’s development are hindered, in both home and school settings, with negative impacts on social, emotional, and cognitive functioning. If left untreated, ADHD is commonly associated with poor academic achievement and low occupational status, as well as increased risk of substance abuse and delinquency. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult ADHD subject reported outcomes when switched from a stable dose of CONCERTA® to the same dose of generic Novo-methylphenidate ER-C®. Methods: Randomized, double-blind, cross-over, phase IV trial consisted of two phases in which participants with a primary diagnosis of ADHD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to 3 weeks of treatment with CONCERTA or generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. Following 3 weeks of treatment, participants were crossed-over to receive the other treatment for an additional 3 weeks. Primary efficacy was assessed through the use of the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication, Version II (TSQM-II). Results: Participants with ADHD treated with CONCERTA were more satisfied in terms of efficacy and side effects compared to those receiving an equivalent dose of generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C. All participants chose to continue with CONCERTA treatment at the conclusion of the study. Conclusion: Although CONCERTA and generic Novo-Methylphenidate ER-C have been deemed bioequivalent, however the present findings demonstrate clinically and statistically significant differences between generic and branded CONCERTA. Further investigation of these differences is warranted. PMID:27536342

  12. Age-response effectiveness of gallopamil for the treatment of myocardial exertional ischemia. A medium-term randomized cross-over double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Acanfora, D; Odierna, L; De Caprio, L; Longobardi, G; Rengo, C; Guerra, N; Furgi, G; Bollella, O F; Picone, C; Rengo, F

    1995-04-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of gallopamil 150 mg daily in middle-aged and elderly patients with stable exertional ischemia, using a medium-term randomized double-blind cross-over placebo-controlled trial. Twenty middle-aged patients (52.8 +/- 6 years; range 38-61 years) and 14 elderly patients (67.4 +/- 2.8 years; range 65-73 years) with stable exertional ischemia underwent a bicycle exercise test. After a run-in period, both groups received treatment with either placebo or gallopamil 50 mg tid for 28 days. At the end of this time, each patient crossed over to the alternate regimen. Gallopamil significantly reduced heart rate, blood pressure and rate pressure product (from 15.37 +/- 2.7 to 13.65 +/- 4.16 U x 10(-3); p < 0.01) in elderly patients at submaximal exercise, but had no effect in middle-aged patients (from 14.52 +/- 4.45 to 13.49 +/- 3.77 U x 10(-3); p = NS). At peak exercise, none of the hemodynamic parameters was modified with gallopamil in either group. At peak exercise, both middle-aged and elderly patients achieved rate-pressure products similar to those reached during placebo at higher work loads. Exercise duration and maximal work load significantly increased in both groups. Electrocardiographic signs of ischemia were favorably influenced by gallopamil in both groups (from 1.39 +/- 0.5 mm to 0.76 +/- 0.73 mm; p < 0.001 in the middle-aged patients and from 1.5 +/- 0.34 mm to 1 +/- 0.76 mm; p < 0.01 in the elderly patients).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7548266

  13. Dialysis-Associated Hypertension Treated with Telmisartan – DiaTel: A Pilot, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martus, Peter; Kurzidim, Antje; Kreutz, Reinhold; Beige, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of hypertension in hemodialysis (HD) patients is characterised by lack of evidence for both the blood pressure (BP) target goal and the recommended drug class to use. Telmisartan, an Angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) that is metabolised in the liver and not excreted via HD extracorporeal circuit might be particularly suitable for HD patients. We designed and conducted a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind and cross-over trial for treatment of dialysis–associated hypertension with telmisartan 80 mg once daily or placebo on top of standard antihypertensive treatment excluding other Renin-Angiotensin-System (RAS) blockers. In 29 patients after randomization we analysed BP after a treatment period of 8 weeks, while 13 started with telmisartan and 16 with placebo; after 8 weeks 11 continued with telmisartan and 12 with placebo after cross-over, respectively. Patients exhibited a significant reduction of systolic pre-HD BP from 141.9±21.8 before to 131.3±17.3 mmHg after the first treatment period with telmisartan or placebo. However, no average significant influence of telmisartan was observed compared to placebo. The latter may be due to a large inter-individual variability of BP responses reaching from a 40 mmHg decrease under placebo to 40 mmHg increase under telmisartan. Antihypertensive co-medication was changed for clinical reasons in 7 out of 21 patients with no significant difference between telmisartan and placebo groups. Our starting hypothesis, that telmisartan on top of standard therapy lowers systolic office BP in HD patients could not be confirmed. In conclusion, this small trial indicates that testing antihypertensive drug efficacy in HD patients is challenging due to complicated standardization of concomitant medication and other confounding factors, e.g. volume status, salt load and neurohormonal activation, that influence BP control in HD patients. Trial Registration Clinicaltrialsregister.eu 2005-005021-60 PMID:24260194

  14. The Effect of Purslane Seeds on Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Patients: A Randomized Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Zakizadeh, Elahe; Faghihimani, Elham; Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was designed to examine the effects of purslane seeds on biomarkers of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This cross-over randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 40 patients with type 2 diabetes. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 10 g/day purslane seeds with 240 cc low-fat yogurt (intervention group) or only 240 cc low-fat yogurt (as a control group) for 5 weeks. After a 2-week washout period, subjects were moved to the alternate arm for an additional 5 weeks. At baseline and end of each study phase, fasting blood samples were collected to quantify biomarkers of oxidative stress. Results: We observed a slight decrease in plasma total antioxidant capacity in both groups, however, between-group changes were not significant (−2.67 vs. −2.95 μg/dL, P = 0.94). Plasma malondialdehyde in purslane group increased slightly, however, we observed no significant effect in the control group (1.62 vs. −0.47 μg/dL, P = 0.58). Although both groups had a slight reduction in plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), we failed to find any significant effect of purslane on plasma ox-LDL (−1.06 vs. −1.71 μg/dL, P = 0.85). Conclusions: This cross-over clinical trial revealed that consumption of purslane seeds for 5 weeks in type 2 diabetic patients did not result in improved oxidative stress. PMID:26605016

  15. The Effects of Consumption of Bread Fortified With Soy Bean Flour on Metabolic Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Women: A Cross-over Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Moghaddam, Asma Salari; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Iraj, Bijan; Askari, Gholam Reza; Maracy, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and has become a major threat for global health. Recent studies reported that the soy has beneficial effects in diabetic mellitus patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of soybean flour fortified bread consumption on metabolic profile in type 2 diabetic women. Methods: This randomized, cross-over, controlled clinical trial was carried out in 30 type 2 diabetic women. At first, a 2-week run-in period was applied. Then, participants were randomly assigned to either intervention or control groups. Participants in the intervention group were asked to replace 120 g of soybean flour fortified bread with the same amount of their usual bread intake or other cereal products for 6 weeks. After a 4 weeks washout period, participants were crossed over for another 6 weeks. Results: Mean (±standard deviation) age and body mass index of subjects was 45.7 ± 3.8 years and 29.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2, respectively. The results of our study showed no significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on metabolic profile. We found a reduction in serum triglycerides (change difference: −3.7, P = 0.82), serum low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (change difference: −11.2, P = 0.50), insulin (change difference: −3.6, P = 0.7), and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (change differences: −0.57, P = 0.45) after 6 weeks but these changes were not statistically significant. No significant effects of soybean flour fortified bread on serum concentrations of fasting blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin, high-density lipoproteins and total cholesterol levels were found. Conclusions: Six weeks consumption of soybean flour fortified bread among diabetic patients had no significant effects on metabolic profile. PMID:25709788

  16. WhaleNet/environet

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    WhaleNet has established a network where students, educators, and scientists can interact and share data for use in interdisciplinary curricular and student research activities in classrooms around the world by utilizing telecommunication. This program enables students to participate in marine/whale research programs in real-time with WhaleNet data and supplementary curriculum materials regardless of their geographic location. Systems have been established with research organizations and whale watch companies whereby research data is posted by scientists and students participating in whale watches on the WhaleNet bulletin board and shared with participating classrooms. WhaleNet presently has contacts with classrooms across the nation, and with research groups, whale watch organizations, science museums, and universities from Alaska to North Carolina, Hawaii to Maine, and Belize to Norway. WhaleNet has plans to make existing whale and fisheries research databases available for classroom use and to have research data from satellite tagging programs on various species of whales available for classroom access in real-time.

  17. Bed rest during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider before you start any activity: Squeezing stress balls Pressing your hands and feet against the bed ... limit yourself from doing any of these: Cooking Light chores Walking Bathing or showering Driving Having sex ...

  18. Tapered bed bioreactor

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Charles D.; Hancher, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A vertically oriented conically shaped column is used as a fluidized bed bioreactor wherein biologically catalyzed reactions are conducted in a continuous manner. The column utilizes a packing material a support having attached thereto a biologically active catalytic material.

  19. Particle fuel bed tests

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, F.L.; Powell, J.R.; Savino, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Gas-cooled reactors, using packed beds of small diameter coated fuel particles have been proposed for compact, high-power systems. The particulate fuel used in the tests was 800 microns in diameter, consisting of a thoria kernel coated with 200 microns of pyrocarbon. Typically, the bed of fuel particles was contained in a ceramic cylinder with porous metallic frits at each end. A dc voltage was applied to the metallic frits and the resulting electric current heated the bed. Heat was removed by passing coolant (helium or hydrogen) through the bed. Candidate frit materials, rhenium, nickel, zirconium carbide, and zirconium oxide were unaffected, while tungsten and tungsten-rhenium lost weight and strength. Zirconium-carbide particles were tested at 2000 K in H/sub 2/ for 12 hours with no visible reaction or weight loss.

  20. Test Bed For Telerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Zimmerman, Wayne F.; Dolinsky, Shlomo

    1990-01-01

    Assembly of electromechanical and electronic equipment (including computers) constitutes test bed for development of advanced robotic systems for remote manipulation. Combines features not found in commercial systems. Its architecture allows easy growth in complexity and level of automation. System national resource for validation of new telerobotic technology. Intended primarily for robots used in outer space, test bed adapted to development of advanced terrestrial telerobotic systems for handling radioactive materials, dangerous chemicals, and explosives.

  1. Bed rest and immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  2. Control of bed height in a fluidized bed gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Mehta, Gautam I.; Rogers, Lynn M.

    1983-12-20

    In a fluidized bed apparatus a method for controlling the height of the fdized bed, taking into account variations in the density of the bed. The method comprises taking simultaneous differential pressure measurements at different vertical elevations within the vessel, averaging the differential pressures, determining an average fluidized bed density, then periodically calculating a weighting factor. The weighting factor is used in the determination of the actual bed height which is used in controlling the fluidizing means.

  3. TrialNet

    MedlinePlus

    ... Canada, Finland, United Kingdom, Italy, Germany, Australia, and New Zealand. This network is dedicated to the study, prevention, and early treatment of type 1 diabetes. Learn More > Visit us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter TrialNet YouTube Channel Department ...

  4. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  5. Mobile robot sense net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konolige, Kurt G.; Gutmann, Steffen; Guzzoni, Didier; Ficklin, Robert W.; Nicewarner, Keith E.

    1999-08-01

    Mobile robot hardware and software is developing to the point where interesting applications for groups of such robots can be contemplated. We envision a set of mobots acting to map and perform surveillance or other task within an indoor environment (the Sense Net). A typical application of the Sense Net would be to detect survivors in buildings damaged by earthquake or other disaster, where human searchers would be put a risk. As a team, the Sense Net could reconnoiter a set of buildings faster, more reliably, and more comprehensibly than an individual mobot. The team, for example, could dynamically form subteams to perform task that cannot be done by individual robots, such as measuring the range to a distant object by forming a long baseline stereo sensor form a pari of mobots. In addition, the team could automatically reconfigure itself to handle contingencies such as disabled mobots. This paper is a report of our current progress in developing the Sense Net, after the first year of a two-year project. In our approach, each mobot has sufficient autonomy to perform several tasks, such as mapping unknown areas, navigating to specific positions, and detecting, tracking, characterizing, and classifying human and vehicular activity. We detail how some of these tasks are accomplished, and how the mobot group is tasked.

  6. Racial/ethnic differences in use of alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana: is there a cross-over from adolescence to adulthood?

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Vo, Thomas; Wall, Melanie M; Caetano, Raul; Suglia, Shakira F; Martins, Silvia S; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US are less likely to use alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco compared with non-Hispanic Whites, but little is known about the consistency of these racial/ethnic differences in substance use across the lifecourse. Understanding lifecourse patterning of substance use is critical to inform prevention and intervention efforts. Data were drawn from four waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health; Wave 1 (mean age = 16): N = 14,101; Wave 4 (mean age = 29): N = 11,365). Outcomes included alcohol (including at-risk drinking, defined as 5+/4+ drinks per drinking occasion or 14+/7+ drinks per week on average for men and women, respectively), cigarette, and marijuana use in 30-day/past-year. Random effects models stratified by gender tested differences-in-differences for wave by race interactions, controlling for age, parents' highest education/income, public assistance, and urbanicity. Results indicate that for alcohol, Whites were more likely to use alcohol and engage in at-risk alcohol use at all waves. By mean age 29.9, for example, White men were 2.1 times as likely to engage in at-risk alcohol use (95% C.I. 1.48-2.94). For cigarettes, Whites were more likely to use cigarettes and smoked more at Waves 1 through 3; there were no differences by Wave 4 for men and a diminished difference for women, and difference-in-difference models indicated evidence of convergence. For marijuana, there were no racial/ethnic differences in use for men at any wave. For women, by Wave 4 there was convergence in marijuana use and a cross-over in frequency of use among users, with Black women using more than White women. In summary, no convergence or cross-over for racial/ethnic differences through early adulthood in alcohol use; convergence for cigarette as well as marijuana use. Lifecourse patterns of health disparities secondary to heavy substance use by race and ethnicity may be, at least in part, due to age-related variation in

  7. AKL1, a botanical mixture for the treatment of asthma: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Michael; Sheran, Jane; Smith, Natalie; Fonseca, Sofia; Lee, Amanda J

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite effective treatments, asthma outcomes remain suboptimal. Interest exists in complementary therapies, particularly in herbal remedies for asthma treatment, currently with inconclusive evidence of efficacy. The encapsulated botanical mixture AKL1 has anecdotal evidence of effectiveness in asthma. Methods We performed a randomised controlled cross over study comparing the effectiveness of AKL1 with indistinguishable placebo as add-on therapy in patients uncontrolled on standard asthma treatment. Thirty two adult asthmatics completed a 36 week trial consisting of a 4 week single blind run in period, during which placebo was added to usual treatment, a 12 week double blind active phase in which subjects received AKL1 or placebo, a single blind 8 week washout period receiving placebo and a final 12 week double blind cross-over active treatment phase. Daily diaries were kept of peak expiratory flow and symptoms, and spirometry, validated symptom and health status questionnaire scores and adverse events were monitored at study visits. Paired T tests were used to compare the effects of placebo and AKL1 on outcomes. Changes in outcome measures over treatment phases are presented as means and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of means. Results No significant differences in lung function (active-placebo) were found (Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second: mean difference [95% CI] = 0.01 [-0.12 to 0.14] L, p = 0.9. Peak Expiratory Flow: -4.08 [-35.03 to 26.89]. L/min, p = 0.8). Trends to clinical improvements favouring active treatment were however consistently seen in the patient-centered outcomes: Asthma Control Questionnaire mean difference (active – placebo) [95% CI] = -0.35 [-0.78 to 0.07], p = 0.10, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire mean difference 0.42 [-0.08 to 0.93], p = 0.09, Leicester Cough Questionnaire mean difference 0.49, [-0.18 to 1.16], p = 0.15. Nine exacerbations occurred during placebo treatment and five whilst on AKL1. No significant

  8. Cyclosporine and Extracorporeal Photopheresis are Equipotent in Treating Severe Atopic Dermatitis: A Randomized Cross-Over Study Comparing Two Efficient Treatment Modalities

    PubMed Central

    Koppelhus, Uffe; Poulsen, Johan; Grunnet, Niels; Deleuran, Mette Søndergaard; Obitz, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Severe atopic dermatitis (AD) is a recurrent and debilitating disease often requiring systemic immunosuppressive treatment. The efficacy of cyclosporine A (CsA) is well proven but potential side effects are concerning. Several reports point at extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP) as an alternative treatment modality with few and mild side effects. However, no direct comparison between CsA and ECP in the treatment of AD has been performed so far. Objectives: To compare the efficacy of CsA (3 mg/kg/day) and ECP (administered two consecutive days twice a month) in a cohort of patients with severe AD. Methods: A randomized cross-over study involving twenty patients with severe AD (SCORAD index 41-89) refractory to other treatments. The patients were allocated to a 4-month course of either of the two treatment modalities. Individual relapse periods (2–8 weeks) were interspersed before cross-over to the other treatment modality. Treatment efficacy was evaluated by SCORAD, PRURITUS (VAS-index 0–10), “overall global assessment” and serological biomarkers; sIL-2Rα, sE-selectin, eosinophilocytes, basophilocytes, and sIgE. Results: 15 patients completed treatment. Both treatments lead to a marked and significant decrease in SCORAD and pruritus index. The average reduction of the SCORAD and pruritus index, respectively was a little higher for ECP treatment compared to CsA treatment; however, the differences did not reach statistical significance. The “overall global assessment” was significantly better in patients who underwent ECP therapy as compared to CsA treatment. None of the biomarkers showed significant changes after either treatment when compared to the initial values. Conclusion: ECP administered on two consecutive days twice a month to patients with severe AD has similar potency as CsA administered daily in a moderate dose. ECP is a treatment alternative in patients with severe AD that do not tolerate or are refractory to conventional

  9. A Randomised, Cross-Over Study to Estimate the Influence of Food on the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Serum Level after Vitamin D3 Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Cavalier, Etienne; Jandrain, Bernard; Coffiner, Monte; Da Silva, Stéphanie; De Niet, Sophie; Vanderbist, Francis; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D3 is known to be liposoluble and its release could be a factor limiting the rate of absorption. It was presumed that the presence of fat could favor absorption of vitamin D3. However, as bioavailability is related not only to the active molecules but also to the formulations and excipients used, the optimization of the pharmaceutical form of vitamin D3 is also important. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a food effect on absorption when a high dose of vitamin D3 is completely solubilized in an oily solution. In the present cross-over study, 88 subjects were randomized and received a single dose of 50,000 IU of vitamin D3 in fasting state or with a standardized high-fat breakfast. Assessment of serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) was performed three, five, seven, 14, 30 and 60 days after supplementation. In fed and fast conditions, the 25(OH)D3 serum concentrations were significantly higher than the baseline value three days after administration and remained significantly higher during the first month. No significant difference between fasting vs. fed conditions was observed. It is therefore concluded that the vitamin D3 absorption from an oily solution was not influenced by the presence or absence of a meal. PMID:27213447

  10. Is Zolpidem Associated with Increased Risk of Fractures in the Elderly with Sleep Disorders? A Nationwide Case Cross-Over Study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Fang-Ying; Chen, Hung-An; Yin, Yun-Ju; Lee, Hua-Chin; Chu, William Cheng-Chung; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Chiang, Wei-Shan; Yeh, Chia-Lun; Huang, Hui-Ling; Tzeng, Nian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a study using a case-crossover design to clarify the risk of acute effects of zolpidem and benzodiazepine on all-sites of fractures in the elderly. Design of study Case-crossover design. Methods and Materials Elderly enrollees (n = 6010) in Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database with zolpidem or benzodiazepine use were analyzed for the risk of developing fractures. Results After adjusting for medications such as antipsychotics, antidepressants, and diuretics, or comorbidities such as hypertension, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and depression, neither zolpidem nor benzodiazepine was found to be associated with increased risk in all-sites fractures. Subjects without depression were found to have an increased risk of fractures. Diazepam is the only benzodiazepine with increased risk of fractures after adjusting for medications and comorbidities. Hip and spine were particular sites for increased fracture risk, but following adjustment for comorbidities, the associations were found to be insignificant. Conclusion Neither zolpidem nor benzodiazepine was associated with increased risk of all-site fractures in this case cross-over study after adjusting for medications or comorbidities in elderly individuals with insomnia. Clinicians should balance the benefits and risks for prescribing zolpidem or benzodiazepine in the elderly accordingly. PMID:26716836

  11. Effects on fetal breathing movements of maternal challenges. Cross-over study on dynamic work, static work, passive movements, hyperventilation and hyperoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Marsál, K; Gennser, G; Löfgren, O

    1979-01-01

    Ten women in the last trimester of a normal pregnancy were subjected to five different loads in a cross-over study. Fetal breathing movements (FBM), fetal heart rate (FHR), maternal heart rate (MHR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP), maternal transcutaneously measured pO2 (Tc-pO2), and the energy supply to the Tc-pO2 electrode were recorded continuously before, during, and after the load. Maternal capillary pH and pCO2 were measured at three representative time points. The immediate responses of the incidence of FBM to the different challenges were: increase after dynamic work (bicycle test); no change after static work (isometric muscle contraction) and passive movements; decrease after hyperventilation and hyperoxygenation. FHR was unaffected by all challenges. The FBM incidence varied in parallel with pCO2 after dynamic work and hyperventilation and inversely with the Tc-pO2 rise caused by hyperoxygenation. Maternal pH was increased after passive movements (no change in FBM) and after hyperventilation (decreased incidence of FBM), FBM seem to be more sensitive to environmental changes than is the FHR. Mechanical stimuli to the uterus were not responsible for the augmentation of FMB seen after the bicycle test. The present observations reveal the multifactorial nature of the regulation of FBM, and support the role of CO2 as a major stimulator of breathing movements also in prenatal life. PMID:43068

  12. Cardiovascular Safety of Oral p-Synephrine (Bitter Orange) in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Cross-over Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shara, Mohd; Stohs, Sidney J; Mukattash, Tareq L

    2016-05-01

    Bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) extract and its primary protoalkaloid p-synephrine are widely consumed in combination with multiple herbal ingredients for weight management and sports performance. p-Synephrine is also present in juices and foods derived from a variety of Citrus species. Questions exist regarding the safety of p-synephrine because of structural similarities with other biogenic amines. This study assessed the cardiovascular (stimulatory) effects of bitter orange extract (49-mg p-synephrine) given to 18 healthy subjects (nine men and nine women) in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Heart rates, blood pressures, and electrocardiograms were determined at baseline, 30, 60, 90 min, 2, 4 , 6, and 8 h. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, 2 h and 8 h for serum chemistries, blood cell counts, and p-synephrine and caffeine levels. No significant changes occurred in electrocardiograms, heart rates, systolic blood pressure, blood chemistries, or blood cell counts at any time point in either control or p-synephrine treated group. A small (4.5 mmHg) decrease in diastolic blood pressure occurred in the p-synephrine treated group at 60 min. No adverse effects were reported. Caffeine ingestion varied markedly among the participants. p-Synephrine does not act as a stimulant at the dose used. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26948284

  13. A Randomised, Cross-Over Study to Estimate the Influence of Food on the 25-Hydroxyvitamin D₃ Serum Level after Vitamin D₃ Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Etienne; Jandrain, Bernard; Coffiner, Monte; Da Silva, Stéphanie; De Niet, Sophie; Vanderbist, Francis; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D₃ is known to be liposoluble and its release could be a factor limiting the rate of absorption. It was presumed that the presence of fat could favor absorption of vitamin D₃. However, as bioavailability is related not only to the active molecules but also to the formulations and excipients used, the optimization of the pharmaceutical form of vitamin D₃ is also important. The objective of this study was to evaluate if there is a food effect on absorption when a high dose of vitamin D₃ is completely solubilized in an oily solution. In the present cross-over study, 88 subjects were randomized and received a single dose of 50,000 IU of vitamin D₃ in fasting state or with a standardized high-fat breakfast. Assessment of serum concentrations of 25 hydroxyvitamin D₃ (25(OH)D₃) was performed three, five, seven, 14, 30 and 60 days after supplementation. In fed and fast conditions, the 25(OH)D₃ serum concentrations were significantly higher than the baseline value three days after administration and remained significantly higher during the first month. No significant difference between fasting vs. fed conditions was observed. It is therefore concluded that the vitamin D₃ absorption from an oily solution was not influenced by the presence or absence of a meal. PMID:27213447

  14. A Comparison of Regular Consumption of Fresh Lean Pork, Beef and Chicken on Body Composition: A Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Karen J.; Parker, Barbara; Dyer, Kathryn A.; Davis, Courtney R.; Coates, Alison M.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Howe, Peter R. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pork is the most widely eaten meat in the world and recent evidence shows that diets high in pork protein, with and without energy restriction, may have favourable effects on body composition. However, it is unclear whether these effects on body composition are specific to pork or whether consumption of other high protein meat diets may have the same benefit. Therefore we aimed to compare regular consumption of pork, beef and chicken on indices of adiposity. In a nine month randomised open-labelled cross-over intervention trial, 49 overweight or obese adults were randomly assigned to consume up to 1 kg/week of pork, chicken or beef, in an otherwise unrestricted diet for three months, followed by two further three month periods consuming each of the alternative meat options. BMI and waist/hip circumference were measured and body composition was determined using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Dietary intake was assessed using three day weighed food diaries. Energy expenditure was estimated from activity diaries. There was no difference in BMI or any other marker of adiposity between consumption of pork, beef and chicken diets. Similarly there were no differences in energy or nutrient intakes between diets. After three months, regular consumption of lean pork meat as compared to that of beef and chicken results in similar changes in markers of adiposity of overweight and obese Australian middle-aged men and women. PMID:24534884

  15. Effectiveness of low-dose doxycycline (LDD) on clinical symptoms of Sjögren's Syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study

    PubMed Central

    Seitsalo, Hubertus; Niemelä, Raija K; Marinescu-Gava, Magdalena; Vuotila, Tuija; Tjäderhane, Leo; Salo, Tuula

    2007-01-01

    Background Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that may contribute to tissue destruction in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Low-dose doxycycline (LDD) inhibits MMPs. We evaluated the efficacy of LDD for the subjective symptoms in primary SS patients. This was a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. 22 patients were randomly assigned to receive either 20 mg LDD or matching placebo twice a day for 10 weeks. The first medication period was followed by 10-week washout period, after which the patient received either LDD or placebo, depending on the first drug received, followed by the second washout period. Stimulated saliva flow rates and pH were measured before and after one and ten weeks of each medication and after washout periods. VAS scale was used to assess the effect of LDD and placebo on following six subjective symptoms: xerostomia; xerophtalmia; difficulty of swallowing; myalgia; arthralgia; and fatigue. The effect was evaluated for each medication and washout period separately. Results Overall, the effects of medications on subjective symptoms were minor. Wilcoxon test demonstrated increased fatigue with LDD during medication (p < 0.05). The differences may, however, reflect normal fluctuation of symptoms in SS patients. Conclusion LDD may not be useful in reducing the primary SS symptoms. PMID:18163919

  16. Fast Xe-129 relaxation in solid xenon near its melting point: Cross-over from Raman scattering of phonons to vacancy diffusion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, N. N.; Patton, B.; Raman, K.; Happer, W.

    2002-03-01

    NMR measurements of longitudinal relaxation times T1 in pure solid xenon were carried out using both natural-abundance and isotopically-enriched samples of hyperpolarized ^129Xe. At temperatures below 120 K and fields above 500 Gauss, the relaxation rate 1/T1 is field- and abundance-independent, consistent with the model of ^129Xe spin-flip Raman scattering of phonons(R. J. Fitzgerald et al.), Phys. Rev. B 59, 8795 (1999).. Above 120 K, vacancies invade the xenon lattice(P. R. Granfors et al.) Phys. Rev. B 24, 4753 (1981)., and a dramatic cross-over to the nuclear dipole-dipole relaxation due to the diffusion of vacancies is observed. As a result, the measured relaxation times of xenon near its melting point strongly depend on field and somewhat on ^129Xe abundance, and can be as short as several seconds, leading to potential difficulties in cryogenic applications of hyperpolarized ^129Xe. The data are analyzed using the theory of nuclear relaxation due to spin diffusion in cubic crystals(C. A. Sholl, J. Phys. C 21), 319 (1988)., and some estimates of the vacancy density and jump rates are discussed.

  17. A randomised cross-over comparison of the transverse and longitudinal techniques for ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane in morbidly obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, M S; Teoh, W H; Rudolph, S S; Hesselfeldt, R; Børglum, J; Tvede, M F

    2016-06-01

    We compared the transverse and longitudinal approaches to ultrasound-guided identification of the cricothyroid membrane, to determine which was faster and more successful. Forty-two anaesthetists received a one-hour structured training programme consisting of e-learning, a lecture and hands-on training, and then applied both techniques in a randomised, cross-over sequence to obese females with body mass index 39.0 - 43.9 kg.m(-2) . The mean (SD) time to identify the cricothyroid membrane was 24.0 (12.4) s using the transverse technique compared with 37.6 (17.9) s for the longitudinal technique (p = 0.0003). Successful identification of the cricothyroid membrane was achieved by 38 (90%) anaesthetists using either technique. All anaesthetists were successful in identifying the cricothyroid membrane with at least one of the techniques. We advocate the learning and application of these two techniques for identification of the cricothyroid membrane before starting anaesthesia in difficult patients, especially when anatomical landmarks are impalpable. Further use in emergency situations is feasible, if clinicians have experience and the ultrasound machine is readily available. PMID:27037981

  18. The Tulip GT® airway versus the facemask and Guedel airway: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers in anaesthetised patients.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, A; Robinson, P N; Hasan, M

    2016-03-01

    We performed a randomised, controlled, cross-over study of lung ventilation by Basic Life Support-trained providers using either the Tulip GT® airway or a facemask with a Guedel airway in 60 anaesthetised patients. Successful ventilation was achieved if the provider produced an end-tidal CO2 > 3.5 kPa and a tidal volume > 250 ml in two of the first three breaths, within 60 sec and within two attempts. Fifty-seven (95%) providers achieved successful ventilation using the Tulip GT compared with 35 (58%) using the facemask (p < 0.0001). Comparing the Tulip GT and facemask, the mean (SD) end-tidal CO2 was 5.0 (0.7) kPa vs 2.5 (1.5) kPa, tidal volume was 494 (175) ml vs 286 (186) ml and peak inspiratory pressure was 18.3 (3.4) cmH2 O vs 13.6 (7) cmH2 O respectively (all p < 0.0001). Forty-seven (78%) users favoured the Tulip GT airway. These results are similar to a previous manikin study using the same protocol, suggesting a close correlation between human and manikin studies for this airway device. We conclude that the Tulip GT should be considered as an adjunct to airway management both within and outside hospitals when ventilation is being undertaken by Basic Life Support-trained airway providers. PMID:26684684

  19. A single crossing-over event in voltage-sensitive Na+ channel genes may cause critical failure of dengue mosquito control by insecticides.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Koichi; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tomita, Takashi; Kasai, Shinji

    2014-08-01

    The voltage-sensitive sodium (Na+) channel (Vssc) is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Pest insects develop resistance to this class of insecticide by acquisition of one or multiple amino acid substitution(s) in this channel. In Southeast Asia, two major Vssc types confer pyrethroid resistance in the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, namely, S989P+V1016G and F1534C. We expressed several types of Vssc in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of amino acid substitutions in Vssc on pyrethroid susceptibilities. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 100- and 25-fold, respectively, while S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 1100-fold. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 10- and 1-fold (no reduction), respectively, but S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 90-fold. These results imply that pyrethroid insecticides are highly likely to lose their effectiveness against A. aegypti if such a Vssc haplotype emerges as the result of a single crossing-over event; thus, this may cause failure to control this key mosquito vector. Here, we strongly emphasize the importance of monitoring the occurrence of triple mutations in Vssc in the field population of A. aegypti. PMID:25166902

  20. Muscle Activation of Vastus Medialis Oblique and Vastus Lateralis in Sling-Based Exercises in Patients with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome: A Cross-Over Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Wen-Dien; Huang, Wei-Syuan; Lai, Ping-Tung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To examine what changes are caused in the activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO) and vastus lateralis (VL) at the time of sling-based exercises in patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) and compare the muscular activations in patients with PFPS among the sling-based exercises. Methods. This was a cross-over study. Sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises were designed for PFPS, and electromyography was applied to record maximal voluntary contraction during the exercises. The VMO and VL activations and VMO : VL ratios for the three exercises were analyzed and compared. Results. Thirty male (age = 21.19 ± 0.68 y) and 30 female (age = 21.12 ± 0.74 y) patients with PFPS were recruited. VMO activations during the sling-based open and closed kinetic knee extension exercises were significantly higher (P = 0.04 and P = 0.001) than those during hip adduction exercises and VMO : VL ratio for the sling-based closed kinetic knee extension and hip adduction exercises approximated to 1. Conclusions. The sling-based closed kinetic knee extension exercise produced the highest VMO activation. It also had an appropriate VMO : VL ratio similar to sling-based hip adduction exercise and had beneficial effects on PFPS. PMID:26504480

  1. A Single Crossing-Over Event in Voltage-Sensitive Na+ Channel Genes May Cause Critical Failure of Dengue Mosquito Control by Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Koichi; Komagata, Osamu; Itokawa, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Tomita, Takashi; Kasai, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    The voltage-sensitive sodium (Na+) channel (Vssc) is the target site of pyrethroid insecticides. Pest insects develop resistance to this class of insecticide by acquisition of one or multiple amino acid substitution(s) in this channel. In Southeast Asia, two major Vssc types confer pyrethroid resistance in the dengue mosquito vector Aedes aegypti, namely, S989P+V1016G and F1534C. We expressed several types of Vssc in Xenopus oocytes and examined the effect of amino acid substitutions in Vssc on pyrethroid susceptibilities. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 100- and 25-fold, respectively, while S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to permethrin by 1100-fold. S989P+V1016G and F1534C haplotypes reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 10- and 1-fold (no reduction), respectively, but S989P+V1016G+F1534C triple mutations reduced the channel sensitivity to deltamethrin by 90-fold. These results imply that pyrethroid insecticides are highly likely to lose their effectiveness against A. aegypti if such a Vssc haplotype emerges as the result of a single crossing-over event; thus, this may cause failure to control this key mosquito vector. Here, we strongly emphasize the importance of monitoring the occurrence of triple mutations in Vssc in the field population of A. aegypti. PMID:25166902

  2. Is Mosquito Larval Source Management Appropriate for Reducing Malaria in Areas of Extensive Flooding in The Gambia? A Cross-over Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Majambere, Silas; Pinder, Margaret; Fillinger, Ulrike; Ameh, David; Conway, David J.; Green, Clare; Jeffries, David; Jawara, Musa; Milligan, Paul J.; Hutchinson, Robert; Lindsay, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Larviciding to control malaria was assessed in rural areas with extensive seasonal flooding. Larval and adult mosquitoes and malaria incidence were surveyed routinely in four 100-km2 areas either side of the Gambia River. Baseline data were collected in 2005. Microbial larvicide was applied to all water bodies by hand application with water-dispersible granular formulations and corn granules weekly from May to November in two areas in 2006 and in the other two areas in 2007 in a cross-over design. The intervention was associated with a reduction in habitats with late stage anopheline larvae and an 88% reduction in larval densities (P < 0.001). The effect of the intervention on mosquito densities was not pronounced and was confounded by the distance of villages to the major breeding sites and year (P = 0.002). There was no reduction in clinical malaria or anemia. Ground applications of non-residual larvicides with simple equipment are not effective in riverine areas with extensive flooding, where many habitats are poorly demarcated, highly mobile, and inaccessible on foot. PMID:20133989

  3. Quercetin lowers plasma uric acid in pre-hyperuricaemic males: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yuanlu; Williamson, Gary

    2016-03-14

    Elevated plasma uric acid concentration is a risk factor for gout, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Quercetin, a flavonoid found in high levels in onions, tea and apples, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase in vitro, the final step in intracellular uric acid production, indicating that quercetin might be able to lower blood uric acid in humans. We determined the effects of 4 weeks of oral supplementation of quercetin on plasma uric acid, blood pressure and fasting glucose. This randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial recruited twenty-two healthy males (19-60 years) with baseline plasma uric acid concentration in the higher, but still considered healthy, range (339 (SD 51) µmol/l). The intervention included one tablet containing 500 mg quercetin daily for 4 weeks, compared with placebo, with a 4-week washout period between treatments. The primary outcome was change in concentrations of plasma uric acid after 2 and 4 weeks; secondary outcome measures were changes in fasting plasma glucose, 24-h urinary excretion of uric acid and resting blood pressure. After quercetin treatment, plasma uric acid concentrations were significantly lowered by -26·5 µmol/l (95% CI, -7·6, -45·5; P=0·008), without affecting fasting glucose, urinary excretion of uric acid or blood pressure. Daily supplementation of 500 mg quercetin, containing the bioavailable amount of quercetin as present in approximately 100 g red onions, for 4 weeks, significantly reduces elevated plasma uric acid concentrations in healthy males. PMID:26785820

  4. Biogenesis of Tim proteins of the mitochondrial carrier import pathway: differential targeting mechanisms and crossing over with the main import pathway.

    PubMed

    Kurz, M; Martin, H; Rassow, J; Pfanner, N; Ryan, M T

    1999-07-01

    Two major routes of preprotein targeting into mitochondria are known. Preproteins carrying amino-terminal signals mainly use Tom20, the general import pore (GIP) complex and the Tim23-Tim17 complex. Preproteins with internal signals such as inner membrane carriers use Tom70, the GIP complex, and the special Tim pathway, involving small Tims of the intermembrane space and Tim22-Tim54 of the inner membrane. Little is known about the biogenesis and assembly of the Tim proteins of this carrier pathway. We report that import of the preprotein of Tim22 requires Tom20, although it uses the carrier Tim route. In contrast, the preprotein of Tim54 mainly uses Tom70, yet it follows the Tim23-Tim17 pathway. The positively charged amino-terminal region of Tim54 is required for membrane translocation but not for targeting to Tom70. In addition, we identify two novel homologues of the small Tim proteins and show that targeting of the small Tims follows a third new route where surface receptors are dispensable, yet Tom5 of the GIP complex is crucial. We conclude that the biogenesis of Tim proteins of the carrier pathway cannot be described by either one of the two major import routes, but involves new types of import pathways composed of various features of the hitherto known routes, including crossing over at the level of the GIP. PMID:10397776

  5. Effect of lean red meat from lamb v. lean white meat from chicken on the serum lipid profile: a randomised, cross-over study in women.

    PubMed

    Mateo-Gallego, Rocio; Perez-Calahorra, Sofia; Cenarro, Ana; Bea, Ana M; Andres, Eva; Horno, Jaime; Ros, Emilio; Civeira, Fernando

    2012-05-01

    The main dietary guidelines recommend restricting total and saturated fat intake in the management of high blood cholesterol levels for cardiovascular risk. These recommendations are usually oversimplified by considering that all red meats should be limited and replaced by white meats. However, lean red meat can be as low in fat as white meat. We examined the effects of red meat (lean breed lamb) and lean white meat (chicken) intake on the lipid profile of a group of women with stable life conditions (nuns living in convents). An open-label, randomised, cross-over study was carried out in thirty-six nuns who consumed either lamb or chicken three times per week for 5-week periods with their usual diet. Clinical, dietary and biochemical variables were evaluated at baseline and the end of each diet period. A validated FFQ was used to assess nutrient intake and monitor compliance. The results showed neither between-diet differences in lipid responses nor differences from baseline in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol or TAG for any diet period. In conclusion, consumption of lean red meat (lamb) or lean white meat (chicken) as part of the usual diet is associated with a similar lipid response. These two foods can be exchanged in a healthy diet to increase palatability. PMID:21902857

  6. Efficacy of nifedipine therapy in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross over trial.

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, M S; Zargar, S A; Yattoo, G N

    1992-01-01

    1. Twenty-eight patients who fulfilled entry criteria for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction were randomly allocated to receive nifedipine and placebo in a cross over design with 12 week treatment periods separated by a 2 week wash-out. 2. All patients had episodic pain resembling biliary pain, had previously undergone cholecystectomy, had elevated alkaline phosphatase during episodes of pain and had elevated basal pressure on sphincter of Oddi manometry. 3. Compared with placebo, significant decreases in cumulative pain score, number of pain episodes, oral analgesic tablets consumed and emergency room visits were observed during nifedipine treatment. 4. Overall 21 patients improved during nifedipine therapy while seven patients did not. None of the following predicted response to nifedipine therapy: enzyme levels, morphine-Prostigmine test, fatty meal sonography, common duct diameter and pressure, sphincter of Oddi phasic pressure, frequency and duration of phasic waves and maximal fall in the basal pressure at sphincter of Oddi manometry after sublingual administration of nifedipine. However patients with predominant antegrade propagation of phasic contractions of sphincter of Oddi did significantly better on nifedipine than those with abnormal propagation of phasic contractions. 5. Nifedipine therapy orally in maximal tolerated doses relieves pain in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction who have elevated basal pressure and sphincter of Oddi phasic contractions of predominantly antegrade nature. PMID:1524959

  7. Treatment bed microbiological control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janauer, Gilbert E.; Fitzpatrick, Timothy W.; Kril, Michael B.; Wilber, Georgia A.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of microbial fouling on treatment bed (TB) performance are being studied. Fouling of activated carbon (AC) and ion exchange resins (IEX) by live and devitalized bacteria can cause decreased capacity for selected sorbates with AC and IEX TB. More data are needed on organic species removal in the trace region of solute sorption isotherms. TB colonization was prevented by nonclassical chemical disinfectant compositions (quaternary ammonium resins) applied in suitable configurations. Recently, the protection of carbon beds via direct disinfectant impregnation has shown promise. Effects (of impregnation) upon bed sorption/removal characteristics are to be studied with representative contaminants. The potential need to remove solutes added or produced during water disinfection and/or TB microbiological control must be investigated.

  8. Quantum Neural Nets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zak, Michail; Williams, Colin P.

    1997-01-01

    The capacity of classical neurocomputers is limited by the number of classical degrees of freedom which is roughly proportional to the size of the computer. By Contrast, a Hypothetical quantum neurocomputer can implement an exponentially large number of the degrees of freedom within the same size. In this paper an attempt is made to reconcile linear reversible structure of quantum evolution with nonlinear irreversible dynamics for neural nets.

  9. Rancho flotation bed.

    PubMed

    Reswick, J B; Nickel, V L; Simoes, N

    1977-04-01

    The Rancho Flotation Bed provides hydrostatic support with maximum pressures over bony prominences of 15 to 25 mm Hg (measured with a pneumatic pressure transducer). This is generally below the levels normally quoted as conducive to the development of ischaemia. Clinical experience has shown the bed to be a successful aid to nursing by eliminating the need to turn the patients for pressure reasons, allowing patients with pressure sores to remain in a position which is more comfortable and more suitable for other nursing care. It also makes it easier for nurses to handle patients in order to care for the pressure sores. PMID:615987

  10. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  11. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  12. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data

  13. Acoustic bed velocity and bed load dynamics in a large sand bed river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaeuman, D.; Jacobson, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Development of a practical technology for rapid quantification of bed load transport in large rivers would represent a revolutionary advance for sediment monitoring and the investigation of fluvial dynamics. Measurement of bed load motion with acoustic Doppler current profiles (ADCPs) has emerged as a promising approach for evaluating bed load transport. However, a better understanding of how ADCP data relate to conditions near the stream bed is necessary to make the method practical for quantitative applications. In this paper, we discuss the response of ADCP bed velocity measurements, defined as the near-bed sediment velocity detected by the instrument's bottom-tracking feature, to changing sediment-transporting conditions in the lower Missouri River. Bed velocity represents a weighted average of backscatter from moving bed load particles and spectral reflections from the immobile bed. The ratio of bed velocity to mean bed load particle velocity depends on the concentration of the particles moving in the bed load layer, the bed load layer thickness, and the backscatter strength from a unit area of moving particles relative to the echo strength from a unit area of unobstructed bed. A model based on existing bed load transport theory predicted measured bed velocities from hydraulic and grain size measurements with reasonable success. Bed velocities become more variable and increase more rapidly with shear stress when the transport stage, defined as the ratio of skin friction to the critical shear stress for particle entrainment, exceeds a threshold of about 17. This transition in bed velocity response appears to be associated with the appearance of longer, flatter bed forms at high transport stages.

  14. Fluid bed material transfer method

    DOEpatents

    Pinske, Jr., Edward E.

    1994-01-01

    A fluidized bed apparatus comprising a pair of separated fluid bed enclosures, each enclosing a fluid bed carried on an air distributor plate supplied with fluidizing air from below the plate. At least one equalizing duct extending through sidewalls of both fluid bed enclosures and flexibly engaged therewith to communicate the fluid beds with each other. The equalizing duct being surrounded by insulation which is in turn encased by an outer duct having expansion means and being fixed between the sidewalls of the fluid bed enclosures.

  15. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, A.G.; Patel, J.G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process are disclosed for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance. 2 figs.

  16. Apparatus for controlling fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Rehmat, Amirali G.; Patel, Jitendra G.

    1987-05-12

    An apparatus and process for control and maintenance of fluidized beds under non-steady state conditions. An ash removal conduit is provided for removing solid particulates from a fluidized bed separate from an ash discharge conduit in the lower portion of the grate supporting such a bed. The apparatus and process of this invention is particularly suitable for use in ash agglomerating fluidized beds and provides control of the fluidized bed before ash agglomeration is initiated and during upset conditions resulting in stable, sinter-free fluidized bed maintenance.

  17. Distributor for multistage fluidized beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wormser, A.

    1992-06-16

    This patent describes a multibed fluidized bed system. It comprises a fluidized bed vessel having a casing surrounding a first distributor and a second distributor downstream from the first distributor; a first bed material placed on the first distributor and a second bed material placed on the second distributor; each of the bed materials having an angle of repose; and wherein the angle formed by the substantially straight elongated tubular passages and the upper surface is less than the angle of repose of the second bed material.

  18. Net one, net two: the primary care network income statement.

    PubMed

    Halley, M D; Little, A W

    1999-10-01

    Although hospital-owned primary care practices have been unprofitable for most hospitals, some hospitals are achieving competitive advantage and sustainable practice operations. A key to the success of some has been a net income reporting tool that separates practice operating expenses from the costs of creating and operating a network of practices to help healthcare organization managers, physicians, and staff to identify opportunities to improve the network's financial performance. This "Net One, Net Two" reporting allows operations leadership to be held accountable for Net One expenses and strategic leadership to be held accountable for Net Two expenses. PMID:11066669

  19. Intermittency and local Reynolds number in Navier-Stokes turbulence: A cross-over scale in the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg integral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Mark; Ohkitani, Koji

    2012-11-01

    We study space-time integrals, which appear in the Caffarelli-Kohn-Nirenberg (CKN) theory for the Navier-Stokes equations analytically and numerically. The key quantity is written in standard notations δ (r)=1/(ν r)int _{Q_r}left|nabla {u}right|^2 d{{x}} dt, which can be regarded as a local Reynolds number over a parabolic cylinder Qr. First, by re-examining the CKN integral, we identify a cross-over scale r_* ∝ Lleft( overline{Vert nabla {u} Vert ^2_{L^2}} /Vert nabla {u Vert ^2_{L^infty }} right)^{1/3}, at which the CKN Reynolds number δ(r) changes its scaling behavior. This reproduces a result on the minimum scale rmin in turbulence: r_min^2 Vert nabla {u}Vert _infty ∝ ν , consistent with a result of Henshaw et al. ["On the smallest scale for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations," Theor. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 1, 65 (1989), 10.1007/BF00272138]. For the energy spectrum E(k) ∝ k-q (1 < q < 3), we show that r* ∝ νa with a=4/3(3-q)-1. Parametric representations are then obtained as Vert nabla {u}Vert _infty ∝ ν ^{-(1+3a)/2} and rmin ∝ ν3(a+1)/4. By the assumptions of the regularity and finite energy dissipation rate in the inviscid limit, we derive lim _{p rArr infty }ζ _p/p=1 - ζ _2 for any phenomenological models on intermittency, where ζp is the exponent of pth order (longitudinal) velocity structure function. It follows that ζp ⩽ (1 - ζ2)(p - 3) + 1 for any p ⩾ 3 without invoking fractal energy cascade. Second, we determine the scaling behavior of δ(r) in direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations. In isotropic turbulence around Rλ ≈ 100 starting from random initial conditions, we have found that δ(r) ∝ r4throughout the inertial range. This can be explained by the smallness of a ≈ 0.26,with a result that r* is in the energy-containing range. If the β-model is perfectly correct, the intermittency parameter a must be related to the dissipation correlation exponent μ as μ =4a/1+a ≈ 0.8, which is larger

  20. Effects of recommendations to follow the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet v. usual dietary advice on childhood metabolic syndrome: a randomised cross-over clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Saneei, Parvane; Hashemipour, Mahin; Kelishadi, Roya; Rajaei, Somayeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-12-01

    The effects of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan on childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance remain to be determined. The present study aimed to assess the effects of recommendations to follow the DASH diet v. usual dietary advice (UDA) on the MetS and its features in adolescents. In this randomised cross-over clinical trial, sixty post-pubescent adolescent girls with the MetS were randomly assigned to receive either the recommendations to follow the DASH diet or UDA for 6 weeks. After a 4-week washout period, the participants were crossed over to the alternate arm. The DASH group was recommended to consume a diet rich in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products and low in saturated fats, total fats and cholesterol. UDA consisted of general oral advice and written information about healthy food choices based on healthy MyPlate. Compliance was assessed through the quantification of plasma vitamin C levels. In both the groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline and at the end of each phase of the intervention. The mean age and weight of the participants were 14.2 (SD 1.7) years and 69 (SD 14.5) kg, respectively. Their mean BMI and waist circumference were 27.3 kg/m2 and 85.6 cm, respectively. Serum vitamin C levels tended to be higher in the DASH phase than in the UDA phase (860 (SE 104) v. 663 (SE 76) ng/l, respectively, P= 0.06). Changes in weight, waist circumference and BMI were not significantly different between the two intervention phases. Although changes in systolic blood pressure were not statistically significant between the two groups (P= 0.13), recommendations to follow the DASH diet prevented the increase in diastolic blood pressure compared with UDA (P= 0.01). We found a significant within-group decrease in serum insulin levels (101.4 (SE 6.2) v. 90.0 (SE 5.5) pmol/l, respectively, P= 0.04) and a non-significant reduction in the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance

  1. Horizontal ichthyoplankton tow-net system with unobstructed net opening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nester, Robert T.

    1987-01-01

    The larval fish sampler described here consists of a modified bridle, frame, and net system with an obstruction-free net opening and is small enough for use on boats 10 m or less in length. The tow net features a square net frame attached to a 0.5-m-diameter cylinder-on-cone plankton net with a bridle designed to eliminate all obstructions forward of the net opening, significantly reducing currents and vibrations in the water directly preceding the net. This system was effective in collecting larvae representing more than 25 species of fish at sampling depths ranging from surface to 10 m and could easily be used at greater depths.

  2. Teaching Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine (EBCAM); Changing behaviours in the face of reticence: A cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Edward; Hollyer, Taras; Saranchuk, Ron; Wilson, Kumanan

    2002-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of teaching critical appraisal to students of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) has not been studied. In this study we attempt to determine if a workshop for final year students at a naturopathic college improved their ability to utilize critical appraisal concepts. Methods We assigned 83 Naturopathic Interns to two groups: Group A (n = 47) or Group B (n = 36). We conducted a baseline assessment of all subjects' critical appraisal skills. Group A was assigned to receive a 3 ½ hour workshop on Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) and Group B received a workshop on bioethics (control intervention). The groups critical appraisal skills were re-evaluated at this time. We then crossed over the intervention so that Group B received the EBM workshop while Group A received the bioethics workshop. Assessment of critical appraisal skills of the two groups was again performed. Results The students mean scores were similar in Group A (14.8) and Group B (15.0) after Group A had received the intervention and Group B had received the control (p = 0.75). Group scores were not significantly improved at the end of the trial compared to at the beginning of the study (Group A: 15.1 to 16.1) (Group B 15.6 to 15.9). Student's confidence in reading research papers also did not improve throughout the course of the study. Conclusion The final year is a difficult but important time to teach critical appraisal and evidence skills. Single, short intervention programs will likely yield negligible results. A multi-factorial approach may be better suited to implementing EBCAM than single short interventions. PMID:11818036

  3. Sodium supplementation has no effect on endurance performance during a cycling time-trial in cool conditions: a randomised cross-over trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sodium ingestion during exercise may exert beneficial effects on endurance performance by either its ability to attenuate the decrease in plasma volume or reduce the risk of Exercise Associated Hyponatremia (EAH). This study aimed to investigate the effect of sodium supplements on endurance performance during a 72 km road cycling time-trial in cool conditions (13.8 ± 2.0°C). Methods Nine well-trained cyclists (5 male, 4 female) participated in this randomized, double-blinded cross-over study, receiving either a 700 mg.h-1 salt capsule, or a corn flour placebo during the time trial. Water was ingested ad-libitum throughout the time trial. Measurements were taken pre, post, and 40 min following time-trials, analysing blood, sweat, and urinary hydration and sodium concentration. Results Sodium supplements had no effect on time-trial performance (overall time = 171 min sodium vs. 172 min placebo; p = 0.46). There was also no effect on the change in plasma sodium concentration from pre to post time trial between trials (relative plasma [Na+] change (pre-post): sodium = 0.56%, placebo = 0.47%; p = 0.60). The greatest difference observed was a significantly change in plasma volume from pre to post exercise between the salt and the placebo trial (p = 0.02), which corresponded with an increased thirst with sodium supplementation. Conclusion Sodium supplements therefore do not improving performance during exercise of approximately 3 h duration in cool conditions. PMID:23731903

  4. Effects of hydrolysed casein, intact casein and intact whey protein on energy expenditure and appetite regulation: a randomised, controlled, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Gomes, Sisse; Liaset, Bjørn; Holst, Jens J; Ritz, Christian; Reitelseder, Søren; Sjödin, Anders; Astrup, Arne

    2014-10-28

    Casein and whey differ in amino acid composition and in the rate of absorption; however, the absorption rate of casein can be increased to mimic that of whey by exogenous hydrolysis. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of hydrolysed casein (HC), intact casein (IC) and intact whey (IW) on energy expenditure (EE) and appetite regulation, and thereby to investigate the influence of amino acid composition and the rate of absorption. In the present randomised cross-over study, twenty-four overweight and moderately obese young men and women consumed three isoenergetic dietary treatments that varied in protein source. The study was conducted in a respiration chamber, where EE, substrate oxidation and subjective appetite were measured over 24 h at three independent visits. Moreover, blood and urine samples were collected from the participants. The results showed no differences in 24 h and postprandial EE or appetite regulation. However, lipid oxidation, estimated from the respiratory quotient (RQ), was found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC during daytime (P= 0·014) as well as during the time after the breakfast meal (P= 0·008) when the food was provided. Likewise, NEFA concentrations were found to be higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC and IC (P< 0·01). However, there was no overall difference in the concentration of insulin or glucagon-like peptide 1. In conclusion, dietary treatments when served as high-protein mixed meals induced similar effects on EE and appetite regulation, except for lipid oxidation, where RQ values suggest that it is higher after consumption of IW than after consumption of HC. PMID:25191896

  5. Effects of a Flaxseed-Derived Lignan Supplement in Type 2 Diabetic Patients: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pan, An; Sun, Jianqin; Chen, Yanqiu; Ye, Xingwang; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Zhijie; Wang, Yanfang; Gu, Wenjia; Zhang, Xinyi; Chen, Xiafei; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Liu, Yong; Lin, Xu

    2007-01-01

    Background Flaxseed consumption has been shown to improve blood lipids in humans and flaxseed-derived lignan has been shown to enhance glycemic control in animals. The study aimed to investigate the effect of a flaxseed-derived lignan supplement on glycemic control, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetic patients. Methodology/Principal Findings This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial and it was conducted between April and December 2006 in Shanghai, China. Seventy-three type 2 diabetic patients with mild hypercholesterolemia were enrolled into the study. Patients were randomized to supplementation with flaxseed-derived lignan capsules (360 mg lignan per day) or placebo for 12 weeks, separated by an 8-week wash-out period. HbA1c, lipid profiles, insulin resistance index and inflammatory factors were measured. Sixty-eight completed the study and were included in the analyses. The lignan supplement significantly improved glycemic control as measured by HbA1c (-0.10±0.65 % vs. 0.09±0.52 %, P = 0.001) compared to placebo; however, no significant changes were observed in fasting glucose and insulin concentrations, insulin resistance and blood lipid profiles. Urinary excretion of lignan metabolites (enterodiol and enterolactone) was significantly higher after the lignan supplement intervention compared to baseline (14.2±18.1 vs. 1.2±2.4 µg/mL, P<0.001). Data also suggested minimal competition between lignan and isoflavones for bioavailability when measured by the excretion concentrations. Conclusions/Significance Daily lignan supplementation resulted in modest, yet statistically significant improvements in glycemic control in type 2 diabetic patients without apparently affecting fasting glucose, lipid profiles and insulin sensitivity. Further studies are needed to validate these findings and explore the efficacy of lignans on type 2 diabetes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00363233 PMID:17987126

  6. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate on High-Intensity Endurance Performance in Cyclists: A Double-Blind, Randomized Cross-Over Trial

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Florian; Meyer, Tim; Such, Ulf; Hecksteden, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Background While the ergogenic effect of sodium bicarbonate (BICA) on short-term, sprint-type performance has been repeatedly demonstrated, little is known about its effectiveness during prolonged high-intensity exercise in well-trained athletes. Therefore, this study aims to examine the influence of BICA on performance during exhaustive, high-intensity endurance cycling. Methods This was a single-center, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Twenty-one well-trained cyclists (mean ± SD: age 24±8 y, BMI 21.3±1.7, VO2peak 67.3±9.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) were randomly allocated to sequences of following interventions: oral ingestion of 0.3 g·kg−1 BICA or 4 g of sodium chloride (placebo), respectively. One h after ingestion subjects exercised for 30 min at 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) followed by 110% IAT until exhaustion. Prior to these constant load tests stepwise incremental exercise tests were conducted under both conditions to determine IAT and VO2peak. Analysis of blood gas parameters, blood lactate (BLa) and gas exchange measurements were conducted before, during and after the tests. The main outcome measure was the time to exhaustion in the constant load test. Results Cycling time to exhaustion was improved (p<0.05) under BICA (49.5±11.5 min) compared with placebo (45.0±9.5 min). No differences in maximal or sub-maximal measures of performance were observed during stepwise incremental tests. BICA ingestion resulted in an increased pH, bicarbonate concentration and BLa before, throughout and after both exercise testing modes. Conclusion The results suggest that ingestion of BICA may improve prolonged, high-intensity cycling performance. Trial Registration German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS) DRKS00006198. PMID:25494054

  7. Reduction of Escherichia coli adherence to uroepithelial bladder cells after consumption of cranberry juice: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, P; Agniel, R; David, K; Templer, C; Gaillard, J L; Denys, P; Botto, H

    2006-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of the consumption of cranberry juice versus placebo with regard to the presence of in vitro bacterial anti-adherence activity in the urine of healthy volunteers. Twenty healthy volunteers, 10 men and 10 women, were included. The study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, and cross-over study. In addition to normal diet, each volunteer received at dinner a single dose of 750 ml of a total drink composed of: (1) 250 ml of the placebo and 500 ml of mineral water, or (2) 750 ml of the placebo, or (3) 250 ml of the cranberry juice and 500 ml of mineral water, or (4) 750 ml of the cranberry juice. Each volunteer took the four regimens successively in a randomly order, with a washout period of at least 6 days between every change in regimen. The first urine of the morning following cranberry or placebo consumption was collected and used to support bacterial growth. Six uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains (all expressing type 1 pili; three positive for the gene marker for P-fimbriae papC and three negative for papC), previously isolated from patients with symptomatic urinary tract infections, were grown in urine samples and tested for their ability to adhere to the T24 bladder cell line in vitro. There were no significant differences in the pH or specific gravity between the urine samples collected after cranberry or placebo consumption. We observed a dose dependent significant decrease in bacterial adherence associated with cranberry consumption. Adherence inhibition was observed independently from the presence of genes encoding type P pili and antibiotic resistance phenotypes. Cranberry juice consumption provides significant anti-adherence activity against different E. coli uropathogenic strains in the urine compared with placebo. PMID:16397814

  8. Effects of ultrafine particles on the allergic inflammation in the lung of asthmatics: results of a double-blinded randomized cross-over clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) might aggravate the allergic inflammation of the lung in asthmatics. Methods We exposed 12 allergic asthmatics in two subgroups in a double-blinded randomized cross-over design, first to freshly generated ultrafine carbon particles (64 μg/m3; 6.1 ± 0.4 × 105 particles/cm3 for 2 h) and then to filtered air or vice versa with a 28-day recovery period in-between. Eighteen hours after each exposure, grass pollen was instilled into a lung lobe via bronchoscopy. Another 24 hours later, inflammatory cells were collected by means of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). (Trial registration: NCT00527462) Results For the entire study group, inhalation of UFP by itself had no significant effect on the allergen induced inflammatory response measured with total cell count as compared to exposure with filtered air (p = 0.188). However, the subgroup of subjects, which inhaled UFP during the first exposure, exhibited a significant increase in total BAL cells (p = 0.021), eosinophils (p = 0.031) and monocytes (p = 0.013) after filtered air exposure and subsequent allergen challenge 28 days later. Additionally, the potential of BAL cells to generate oxidant radicals was significantly elevated at that time point. The subgroup that was exposed first to filtered air and 28 days later to UFP did not reveal differences between sessions. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that pre-allergen exposure to UFP had no acute effect on the allergic inflammation. However, the subgroup analysis lead to the speculation that inhaled UFP particles might have a long-term effect on the inflammatory course in asthmatic patients. This should be reconfirmed in further studies with an appropriate study design and sufficient number of subjects. PMID:25204642

  9. Efficacy of an essential fatty acid-enriched diet in managing canine atopic dermatitis: a randomized, single-blinded, cross-over study.

    PubMed

    Bensignor, Emmanuel; Morgan, David M; Nuttall, Tim

    2008-06-01

    Evidence suggests that high-quality diets enriched with essential fatty acids (EFA) and other nutrients can ameliorate canine atopic dermatitis (AD). This study compared such a diet (Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP) with a home-cooked equivalent (fish and potato) in a randomised, single-blinded, cross-over trial. Twenty dogs with perennial AD were randomly assigned to receive either the test (group A) or the control diet (group B) for 1 month, followed by the contrasting diet for a further month. Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI version 2) and pruritus (visual analogue scale) scores were recorded at days 0, 30 and 60. Eight dogs in each group completed the study. CADESI scores significantly declined when dogs were fed the test diet (group A P < 0.01; group B P < 0.001), and increased (group A P < 0.05) or remained steady (group B) on the control diet. CADESI scores decreased in 15 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was less than 50% in all cases. Pruritus scores also declined when dogs were fed the test diet compared to the control diet, but this was only significant for group A (P = 0.027). Pruritus was reduced in 11 of 16 dogs fed the test diet, but this was 50% or more in only two dogs. This trial provides evidence for the efficacy of Eukanuba Veterinary Diets Dermatosis FP in canine AD, although it is likely that most cases will require adjunct therapy. The mechanism is unclear, but may involve increased and balanced EFA levels. PMID:18477332

  10. The Analgesic Effect of Oxytocin in Humans: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Cross-Over Study Using Laser-Evoked Potentials.

    PubMed

    Paloyelis, Y; Krahé, C; Maltezos, S; Williams, S C; Howard, M A; Fotopoulou, A

    2016-04-01

    Oxytocin is a neuropeptide regulating social-affiliative and reproductive behaviour in mammals. Despite robust preclinical evidence for the antinociceptive effects and mechanisms of action of exogenous oxytocin, human studies have produced mixed results regarding the analgesic role of oxytocin and are yet to show a specific modulation of neural processes involved in pain perception. In the present study, we investigated the analgesic effects of 40 IU of intranasal oxytocin in 13 healthy male volunteers using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design and brief radiant heat pulses generated by an infrared laser that selectively activate Aδ- and C-fibre nerve endings in the epidermis, at the same time as recording the ensuing laser-evoked potentials (LEPs). We predicted that oxytocin would reduce subjective pain ratings and attenuate the amplitude of the N1, N2 and P2 components. We observed that oxytocin attenuated perceived pain intensity and the local peak amplitude of the N1 and N2 (but not of P2) LEPs, and increased the latency of the N2 component. Importantly, for the first time, the present study reports an association between the analgesic effect of oxytocin (reduction in subjective pain ratings) and the oxytocin-induced modulation of cortical activity after noxious stimulation (attenuation of the N2 LEP). These effects indicate that oxytocin modulates neural processes contributing to pain perception. The present study reports preliminary evidence that is consistent with electrophysiological studies in rodents showing that oxytocin specifically modulates Aδ/C-fibre nociceptive afferent signalling at the spinal level and provides further specificity to evidence obtained in humans indicating that oxytocin may be modulating pain experience by modulating activity in the cortical areas involved in pain processing. PMID:26660859